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Sample records for metabolic nutrition system

  1. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: a systems approach to integrating genetics, nutrition, and metabolic efficiency in dairy cattle.

    McNamara, J P

    2012-06-01

    The role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients for humans. We must select and manage cows with the goal of reaching the greatest possible efficiency for any given environment. We have increased efficiency tremendously over the years, yet the variation in productive and reproductive efficiency among animals is still quite large. In part this is because of a lack of full integration of genetic, nutritional, and reproductive biology into management decisions. However, integration across these disciplines is increasing as biological research findings show more specific control points at which genetics, nutrition, and reproduction interact. An ordered systems biology approach that focuses on why and how cells regulate energy and N use and on how and why organs interact by endocrine and neurocrine mechanisms will speed improvements in efficiency. More sophisticated dairy managers will demand better information to improve the efficiency of their animals. Using genetic improvement and proper animal management to improve milk productive and reproductive efficiency requires a deeper understanding of metabolic processes during the transition period. Using existing metabolic models, we can design experiments specifically to integrate new data from transcriptional arrays into models that describe nutrient use in farm animals. A systems modeling approach can help focus our research to make faster and large advances in efficiency and show directly how this can be applied on the farms.

  2. Nutritional and metabolic diseases involving the nervous system.

    Kopcha, M

    1987-03-01

    This article will discuss eight diseases that alter normal nervous system function: hypovitaminosis A, water deprivation/salt toxicity, ammonia toxicosis, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, nervous ketosis, hepatoencephalopathy, and rumen metabolic acidosis.

  3. Nutrition and the science of disease prevention: a systems approach to support metabolic health

    Bennett, Brian J.; Hall, Kevin D.; Hu, Frank B.; McCartney, Anne L.; Roberto, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Progress in nutritional science, genetics, computer science, and behavioral economics can be leveraged to address the challenge of noncommunicable disease. This report highlights the connection between nutrition and the complex science of preventing disease and discusses the promotion of optimal metabolic health, building on input from several complementary disciplines. The discussion focuses on (1) the basic science of optimal metabolic health, including data from gene–diet interactions, microbiome, and epidemiological research in nutrition, with the goal of defining better targets and interventions, and (2) how nutrition, from pharma to lifestyle, can build on systems science to address complex issues. PMID:26415028

  4. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  5. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  6. [Quality control an assessment system. Its location within a program for food, nutrition and metabolic intervention].

    Santana Porbén, S

    2012-01-01

    A design proposal for a HQCAS Hospital Quality Control and Assessment System of the nutritional and feeding care processes conducted in a hospital environment is presented in this article. The design proposal is accompanied of the results of inspections conducted by the hospital NST Nutritional Support Group between 2005-2010. The system design includes quality policies that should rule the useful and safe conduction of such processes, the recording and documentary foundations of the System, and the quality control and assessment exercises for the continuous verification of such established policies. The current state of the conduction of these processes was documented from secondary records opened by the NST after satisfying consultation requests from the medical care teams of the institution. Inspections conducted by the NST revealed that less than half of clinical charts contained information minimally enough for elaborating nutritional judgments, almost one-fifth of the assisted patients were on Nils Per Oris, for whom no nutritional support schemes were prescribed, and a low prescription and usage of artificial nutrition schemes. Corrective measures adopted by the NST served to significantly increase the rates of successful completion of inspected processes. Quality assurance of feeding and nutritional care processes is a practical as well as an intellectual activity subjected to constant remodeling, in order to always warrant the fulfillment of quality policies advanced by the NST, and thus, that the patient benefits from the prescribed nutritional intervention strategy.

  7. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Metabolic Syndrome

    Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation...

  8. Ruminant Metabolic Systems Biology: Reconstruction and Integration of Transcriptome Dynamics Underlying Functional Responses of Tissues to Nutrition and Physiological Statea

    Bionaz, Massimo; Loor, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ‘omics’ data analysis via bioinformatics is one key component of the systems biology approach. The systems approach is particularly well-suited for the study of the interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue metabolism and functions during key life stages of organisms such as the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mammals, ie, the peripartal period. In modern dairy cows with an unprecedented genetic potential for milk synthesis, the nature of the physiologic and metabolic adaptations during the peripartal period is multifaceted and involves key tissues such as liver, adipose, and mammary. In order to understand such adaptation, we have reviewed several works performed in our and other labs. In addition, we have used a novel bioinformatics approach, Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), in combination with partly previously published data to help interpret longitudinal biological adaptations of bovine liver, adipose, and mammary tissue to lactation using transcriptomics datasets. Use of DIA with transcriptomic data from those tissues during normal physiological adaptations and in animals fed different levels of energy prepartum allowed visualization and integration of most-impacted metabolic pathways around the time of parturition. The DIA is a suitable tool for applying the integrative systems biology approach. The ultimate goal is to visualize the complexity of the systems at study and uncover key molecular players involved in the tissue’s adaptations to physiological state or nutrition. PMID:22807626

  9. Early postnatal low-protein nutrition, metabolic programming and the autonomic nervous system in adult life

    de Oliveira Júlio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein restriction during lactation has been used as a rat model of metabolic programming to study the impact of perinatal malnutrition on adult metabolism. In contrast to protein restriction during fetal life, protein restriction during lactation did not appear to cause either obesity or the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperinsulinemia, when individuals reached adulthood. However, protein restriction provokes body underweight and hypoinsulinemia. This review is focused on the regulation of insulin secretion and the influence of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in adult rats that were protein-malnourished during lactation. The data available on the topic suggest that the perinatal phase of lactation, when insulted by protein deficit, imprints the adult metabolism and thereby alters the glycemic control. Although hypoinsulinemia programs adult rats to maintain normoglycemia, pancreatic β-cells are less sensitive to secretion stimuli, such as glucose and cholinergic agents. These pancreatic dysfunctions may be attributed to an imbalance of ANS activity recorded in adult rats that experienced maternal protein restriction.

  10. Early postnatal low-protein nutrition, metabolic programming and the autonomic nervous system in adult life

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Gravena, Clarice; de Mathias, Paulo Cezar Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Protein restriction during lactation has been used as a rat model of metabolic programming to study the impact of perinatal malnutrition on adult metabolism. In contrast to protein restriction during fetal life, protein restriction during lactation did not appear to cause either obesity or the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperinsulinemia, when individuals reached adulthood. However, protein restriction provokes body underweight and hypoinsulinemia. This review is focused...

  11. Influence of nutrition on liver oxidative metabolism.

    Jorquera, F; Culebras, J M; González-Gallego, J

    1996-06-01

    The liver plays a major role in the disposition of the majority of drugs. This is due to the presence of several drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, including a group of membrane-bound mixed-function oxidative enzymes, mainly the cytochrome P450 system. Hepatic oxidative capacity can be assessed by changes in antipyrine metabolism. Different drugs and other factors may induce or inhibit the cytochrome P450-dependent system. This effect is important in terms of the efficacy or toxicity of drugs that are substrates for the system. Microsomal oxidation in animals fed with protein-deficient diets is depressed. The mixed-function oxidase activity recovers after a hyperproteic diet or the addition of lipids. Similar findings have been reported in patients with protein-calorie malnutrition, although results in the elderly are conflicting. Different studies have revealed that microsomal oxidation is impaired by total parenteral nutrition and that this effect is absent when changing the caloric source from carbohydrates to a conventional amino acid solution or after lipid addition, especially when administered as medium-chain/long-chain triglyceride mixtures. Peripheral parenteral nutrition appears to increase antipyrine clearance.

  12. Developmental Programming of Obesity and Liver Metabolism by Maternal Perinatal Nutrition Involves the Melanocortin System

    Paul Cordero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt, control knockout (C_KO, obese wild type (Ob_wt, and obese knockout (Ob_KO. At 21 days, offspring were genotyped, weaned onto a control diet, and sacrificed at 6 months old. Offspring phenotypic characteristics, plasma biochemical profile, liver histology, and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Mc4r_ko offspring showed higher body, liver and adipose tissue weights respect to the wild type animals. Histological examination showed mild hepatic steatosis in offspring group C_KO. The expression of hepatic genes involved in regulating inflammation, fibrosis, and immune cell infiltration were upregulated by the absence of the Mc4r gene. These results demonstrate that maternal obesogenic feeding during the perinatal period programs offspring obesity development with involvement of the Mc4r system.

  13. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Verma, Meghna; Hontecillas, Raquel; Abedi, Vida; Leber, Andrew; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Philipson, Casandra; Carbo, Adria; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response, and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition, and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to apply complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery, and development through “use cases” centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, which include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism. PMID:26909350

  14. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Meghna eVerma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  15. Monitoring Healthy Metabolic Trajectories with Nutritional Metabonomics

    Sebastiano Collino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabonomics is a well established analytical approach for the analysis of physiological regulatory processes via the metabolic profiling of biofluids and tissues in living organisms. Its potential is fully exploited in the field of “nutrimetabonomics” that aims at assessing the metabolic effects of active ingredients and foods in individuals. Yet, one of the greatest challenges in nutrition research is to decipher the critical interactions between mammalian organisms and environmental factors, including the gut microbiota. “Nutrimetabonomics” is today foreseen as a powerful approach for future nutritional programs tailored at health maintenance and disease prevention.

  16. Monitoring Healthy Metabolic Trajectories with Nutritional Metabonomics

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre J.; Kochhar, Sunil; Rezzi, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Metabonomics is a well established analytical approach for the analysis of physiological regulatory processes via the metabolic profiling of biofluids and tissues in living organisms. Its potential is fully exploited in the field of “nutrimetabonomics” that aims at assessing the metabolic effects of active ingredients and foods in individuals. Yet, one of the greatest challenges in nutrition research is to decipher the critical interactions between mammalian organisms and environmental factors, including the gut microbiota. “Nutrimetabonomics” is today foreseen as a powerful approach for future nutritional programs tailored at health maintenance and disease prevention. PMID:22253970

  17. The risk of metabolic syndrome and nutrition

    Aleksandr Konstantinovich Kuntsevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present literature review modern epidemiological studies the role of nutrition in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Were analyzed mainly work on the association of certain types of dietary intake of the population to the risk of metabolic syndrome in several Western and Asian countries. The purpose of these studies was to determine deemed "good" type and the "bad" type of food, risk assessment and exchange of metabolic disorders to determine the optimal dietary recommendations.  Application of factor and cluster analysis allowed in a number of studies to identify groups of products associated with a decrease in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to estimate the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome when compared with the "bad" diet.  A number of papers were obtained confirm the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of metabolic disorders. Commitment to the traditional Western diet is associated with deterioration in health, compared with the recommended "healthy" diet.  Data from epidemiological studies nutrition and metabolic disorders associated with a number of diseases, may be useful in determining how the recommendations on the best type of feeding the population, so to identify ways to further research.

  18. Recovery of nutritional metabolism after liver transplantation.

    Sugihara, Kohei; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Teramoto, Arisa; Urano, Eri; Katayama, Takafumi; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative nutritional assessment is critically important to reflect nutritional management because liver transplantation (LTx) often is undertaken in patients with poor nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status, including the non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ), resting energy expenditure (REE), nitrogen balance, and blood biochemical parameters in patients before and after LTx. Fourteen patients undergoing LTx and 10 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The npRQ and REE were measured using indirect calorimetry before LTx and at 2, 3, and 4 wk after the procedure. Blood biochemistry and nitrogen balance calculated by 24-h urine collection were performed concurrently with indirect calorimetric measurement; the results were compared between the two groups. Before LTx, npRQ was significantly lower and serum non-esterified fatty acid levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Furthermore, a negative nitrogen balance was observed in the patients. These, however, improved significantly at 4 wk after LTx. REE did not significantly increase compared with the preoperative values in recipients. Blood biochemistry showed gradually increasing levels of serum cholinesterase and albumin. These failed to reach to normal levels by 4 wk post-transplant. The findings revealed that improvement of nutritional metabolism after LTx may require 4 wk. Additional nutritional strategies, therefore, may be needed to minimize catabolic state during the early post-transplant period. Adequate, individualized nutritional guidance before and after LTx should be performed in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection

    Taylor M. Gilliland

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL. The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995–2016 addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC. We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1 patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2 patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3 enteral nutrition (EN should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN postoperatively; and, (4 a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of

  20. The role of low-grade inflammation and metabolic flexibility in aging and nutritional modulation thereof: A systems biology approach

    Calçada, D.; Vianello, D.; Giampieri, E.; Sala, C.; Castellani, G.; Graaf, A.A. de; Kremer, S.H.A.; Ommen, B. van; Feskens, E.; Santoro, A.; Franceschi, C.; Bouwman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by the progressive functional decline of many interrelated physiological systems. In particular, aging is associated with the development of a systemic state of low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), and with progressive deterioration of metabolic

  1. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection.

    Gilliland, Taylor M; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Shah, Kevin P; Shah, Rohan M; Tran Cao, Hop S; Massarweh, Nader N; Silberfein, Eric J; Choi, Eugene A; Hsu, Cary; McElhany, Amy L; Barakat, Omar; Fisher, William; Van Buren, George

    2017-03-07

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995-2016) addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1) patients with albumin 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2) patients with albumin endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of appropriate treatment to improve the patient's quality of life.

  2. Metabolic and nutritional aspects of cancer.

    Krawczyk, Joanna; Kraj, Leszek; Ziarkiewicz, Mateusz; Wiktor-Jędrzejczak, Wiesław

    2014-08-22

    Cancer, being in fact a generalized disease involving the whole organism, is most frequently associated with metabolic deregulation, a latent inflammatory state and anorexia of various degrees. The pathogenesis of this disorder is complex, with multiple dilemmas remaining unsolved. The clinical consequences of the above-mentioned disturbances include cancer-related cachexia and anorexia-cachexia syndrome. These complex clinical entities worsen the prognosis, and lead to deterioration of the quality of life and performance status, and thus require multimodal treatment. Optimal therapy should include nutritional support coupled with pharmacotherapy targeted at underlying pathomechanisms of cachexia. Nevertheless, many issues still need explanation, and efficacious and comprehensive therapy of cancer-related cachexia remains a future objective.

  3. Nutrigenetics, metabolic syndrome risk and personalized nutrition.

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.

  4. Nutritional conditioning : The effect of fasting on drug metabolism

    Lammers, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis focus on the effect of fasting, as nutritional modulator, on drug metabolism. Drug metabolism varies considerably between and within patients, which may result in treatment failure or, conversely, in untoward side effects. Many factors contribute to the

  5. L-Cysteine metabolism and its nutritional implications.

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Yang, Guan; Duan, Jielin; Huang, Xingguo; Fang, Rejun; Li, Chongyong; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Kim, Sung Woo; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    L-Cysteine is a nutritionally semiessential amino acid and is present mainly in the form of L-cystine in the extracellular space. With the help of a transport system, extracellular L-cystine crosses the plasma membrane and is reduced to L-cysteine within cells by thioredoxin and reduced glutathione (GSH). Intracellular L-cysteine plays an important role in cellular homeostasis as a precursor for protein synthesis, and for production of GSH, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and taurine. L-Cysteine-dependent synthesis of GSH has been investigated in many pathological conditions, while the pathway for L-cysteine metabolism to form H(2)S has received little attention with regard to prevention and treatment of disease in humans. The main objective of this review is to highlight the metabolic pathways of L-cysteine catabolism to GSH, H(2)S, and taurine, with special emphasis on therapeutic and nutritional use of L-cysteine to improve the health and well-being of animals and humans. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nutritional Systems Biology

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  7. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Modulation of metabolism through nutrition and management

    The primary role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients through lactation to the human diet. It is clear that these high-producing and long lactations are stressful on the cows, and minor changes in nutrition and management can have significant impacts on profi...

  8. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  9. Influence of nutritional variables and obesity on health and metabolism.

    Azevedo, Fernanda Reis de; Brito, Bruna Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a recurring theme in current scientific literature. This can easily be explained by its exponential increase in all layers of society. The popularity of this subject has also given rise to associated questions, which have achieved greater prominence in health-related publications. In order to assess what has been studied in the field of obesity and nutrition, an overview of all articles published on these subjects in some of the main Brazilian scientific journals over the past two years was performed. Among the subthemes selected for this study, those related to childhood obesity attracted attention due to their greater frequency. These were subdivided into: prevalence, intrauterine and breastfeeding influences that may lead to the development of this condition, impact on quality of life, cardiovascular system and metabolism, and possible prevention strategies. Furthermore, issues related to obesity in adults were explored, such as risk factors and new strategies for prevention, with special attention given to the many studies evaluating different aspects of bariatric surgery. Finally, the subject of malnutrition and the impact of the deficiency of specific micronutrients such as selenium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 were assessed. Based on the results, it was possible to assess the actual importance of obesity and nutrition in health maintenance, and also the several lines of research regarding these issues. Thus, it is essential to create new methods, which must be quick and efficient, to update health professionals involved in the treatment of obesity.

  10. Precision Nutrition for Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer

    Cristina Aguirre-Portolés

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and are considered among the most important risk factors in colorectal cancer (CRC. Red and processed meat, poultry consumption, fiber, and folate are the best-known diet components that interact with colorectal cancer susceptibility. In addition, the direct association of an unhealthy diet with obesity and dysbiosis opens new routes in the understanding of how daily diet nutrients could influence cancer prognosis. In the “omics” era, traditional nutrition has been naturally evolved to precision nutrition where technical developments have contributed to a more accurate discipline. In this sense, genomic and transcriptomic studies have been extensively used in precision nutrition approaches. However, the relation between CRC carcinogenesis and nutrition factors is more complex than originally expected. Together with classical diet-nutrition-related genes, nowadays, lipid-metabolism-related genes have acquired relevant interest in precision nutrition studies. Lipids regulate very diverse cellular processes from ATP synthesis and the activation of essential cell-signaling pathways to membrane organization and plasticity. Therefore, a wide range of tumorogenic steps can be influenced by lipid metabolism, both in primary tumours and distal metastasis. The extent to which genetic variants, together with the intake of specific dietary components, affect the risk of CRC is currently under investigation, and new therapeutic or preventive applications must be explored in CRC models. In this review, we will go in depth into the study of co-occurring events, which orchestrate CRC tumorogenesis and are essential for the evolution of precision

  11. Precision Nutrition: A Review of Personalized Nutritional Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Syndrome

    Juan de Toro-Martín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritional solutions for individuals or population sub-groups. Likewise, a concerted effort among basic, clinical scientists and health professionals will be needed to establish a comprehensive framework allowing the implementation of these new findings at the population level. In a world characterized by an overwhelming increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, tailored nutrition prescription represents a promising approach for both the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to discuss recent works in the field of precision nutrition analyzing most relevant aspects affecting an individual response to lifestyle/nutritional interventions. Latest advances in the analysis and monitoring of dietary habits, food behaviors, physical activity/exercise and deep phenotyping will be discussed, as well as the relevance of novel applications of nutrigenomics, metabolomics and microbiota profiling. Recent findings in the development of precision nutrition are highlighted. Finally, results from published studies providing examples of new avenues to successfully implement innovative precision nutrition approaches will be reviewed.

  12. The intensive care medicine research agenda in nutrition and metabolism

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Casaer, Michael P; Chapman, Marianne; Heyland, Daren K; Ichai, Carole; Marik, Paul E; Martindale, Robert G; McClave, Stephen A; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Reignier, Jean; Rice, Todd W; Van den Berghe, Greet; van Zanten, Arthur R H; Weijs, Peter J M

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this review are to summarize the current practices and major recent advances in critical care nutrition and metabolism, review common beliefs that have been contradicted by recent trials, highlight key remaining areas of uncertainty, and suggest recommendations for the top

  13. Metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects of critically ill children

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 provides the aims of the studies (chapter 1) and a general overview and discussion of the current literature of metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects in critically ill children (chapter 2). In Part 2 the clinical use of an indirect calorimeter is tested and validated for

  14. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism

    2014-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics. PMID:25379174

  15. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on nutrition and metabolism research priorities.

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Stein, T Peter; Habold, Caroline; Coxam, Veronique; O' Gorman, Donal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has multiple roles during space flight from providing sufficient nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the body and to maintain good health, to the beneficial psychosocial aspects related to the meals. Nutrition is central to the functioning of the body; poor nutrition compromises all the physiological systems. Nutrition is therefore likely to have a key role in counteracting the negative effects of space flight (e.g., radiation, immune deficits, oxidative stress, and bone and muscle loss). As missions increase in duration, any dietary/nutritional deficiencies will become progressively more detrimental. Moreover, it has been recognized that the human diet contains, in addition to essential macronutrients, a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive micronutrients that may confer significant long-term health benefits. It is therefore critical that astronauts be adequately nourished during missions. Problems of nutritional origin are often treatable by simply providing the appropriate nutrients and adequate recommendations. This review highlights six key issues that have been identified as space research priorities in nutrition field: in-flight energy balance; altered feeding behavior; development of metabolic stress; micronutrient deficiency; alteration of gut microflora; and altered fluid and electrolytes balance. For each of these topics, relevance for space exploration, knowledge gaps and proposed investigations are described. Finally, the nutritional questions related to bioastronautics research are very relevant to multiple ground-based-related health issues. The potential spin-offs are both interesting scientifically and potentially of great clinical importance.

  16. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  17. NUTRITION AND FITNESS: CULTURAL, GENETIC AND METABOLIC ASPECTS

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected Proceedings of the International Congress and Exhibition on Nutrition, Fitness and Health, Shanghai, November 30 to December 2, 2006 The book presents selected papers from the International Congress and Exhibition on Nutrition, Fitness and Health held in Shanghai, China from November 30 to December 2, 2006. PURPOSE This volume is designed to update interested parties on the nutrition and fitness issues from the cultural, genetic and metabolic point of views. FEATURES The book starts with a keynote presentation on nutrition, fitness and the concept of positive health from ancient times to the present. Subsequently papers focusing on the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in health and disease follow. Other topics addressed are non-conventional genetic risk factors for cardiovascular disease; the impact of the APO E genotype on health, nutrition and fitness; nutrition in the prevention of chronic disease; and, the connection between exercise and obesity. The formation is concluded by the papers on nutritional risk factors for gastrointestinal cancers, Mediterranean diets as a global resource in health and disease, and the role of politics and politicians on the relevant issues. AUDIENCE Obviously; dieticians, nutritionists, geneticists and exercise physiologists will be interested in these proceedings since the book covers broadly their field. Then again; health care providers, historians, general practitioners and scientists in industry and government might benefit as well. ASSESSMENT It is safe to say that this volume represent a helpful source for anybody who is involved with Nutrition, Fitness and Health in one way or another

  18. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Johnson, Gregory A.; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A.; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a pergram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for pr...

  19. A Nutritional Approach to the Metabolic Syndrome

    Robert H. Lerman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS; addressing both is crucial for its management. A diet featuring the Mediterranean dietary pattern or low glycemic load has been shown to prevent and ameliorate MetS. Plant compounds, including soy protein and phytosterols, have been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Recently, phytochemicals from hops and acacia were identified as lipogenic, antiinflammatory compounds that reduced serum insulin and glucose levels in animals. A 12-week, randomized lifestyle intervention study in overweight and obese women with LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL compared a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and soy/phytosterol-based medical food to an AHA low-fat diet. The modified Mediterranean diet with medical food was superior in reducing markers of MetS and CVD risk. A subsequent,randomized 12-week study in men and women with MetS and LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL showed that supplementation with soy/phytosterol-based medical food plus phytochemicalsenhanced the benefits of a Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet and aerobic exercise. At the completion of the study, 43% of participants receiving medical food and phytochemicalsexhibited net resolution of MetS compared with only 22% of those on diet and exercise alone. A subanalysis of participants at high risk (MetS + LDL ≥4.14 mmol/L [160 mg/dL] indicated minimal benefit from lifestyle change alone but marked benefits with the addition of medical food and phytochemicals. Case studies illustrate long-term benefits of this supplemented lifestyle change program. In conclusion, institution of a phytochemical-enhanced lifestyle intervention promises to be a clinically useful approach in MetS management.

  20. Pregnancy and Infants' Outcome: Nutritional and Metabolic Implications.

    Berti, C; Cetin, I; Agostoni, C; Desoye, G; Devlieger, R; Emmett, P M; Ensenauer, R; Hauner, H; Herrera, E; Hoesli, I; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Olsen, S F; Schaefer-Graf, U; Schiessl, B; Symonds, M E; Koletzko, B

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a complex period of human growth, development, and imprinting. Nutrition and metabolism play a crucial role for the health and well-being of both mother and fetus, as well as for the long-term health of the offspring. Nevertheless, several biological and physiological mechanisms related to nutritive requirements together with their transfer and utilization across the placenta are still poorly understood. In February 2009, the Child Health Foundation invited leading experts of this field to a workshop to critically review and discuss current knowledge, with the aim to highlight priorities for future research. This paper summarizes our main conclusions with regards to maternal preconceptional body mass index, gestational weight gain, placental and fetal requirements in relation to adverse pregnancy and long-term outcomes of the fetus (nutritional programming). We conclude that there is an urgent need to develop further human investigations aimed at better understanding of the basis of biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological events related to maternal-fetal nutrition and offspring health. An improved knowledge would help to optimize nutritional recommendations for pregnancy.

  1. Update on metabolism and nutrition therapy in critically ill burn patients.

    Moreira, E; Burghi, G; Manzanares, W

    Major burn injury triggers severe oxidative stress, a systemic inflammatory response, and a persistent hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic state with secondary sarcopenia, multiorgan dysfunction, sepsis and an increased mortality risk. Calorie deficit, negative protein balance and antioxidant micronutrient deficiency after thermal injury have been associated to poor clinical outcomes. In this context, personalized nutrition therapy with early enteral feeding from the start of resuscitation are indicated. Over the last four decades, different nutritional and pharmacological interventions aimed at modulating the immune and metabolic responses have been evaluated. These strategies have been shown to be able to minimize acute malnutrition, as well as modulate the immunoinflammatory response, and improve relevant clinical outcomes in this patient population. The purpose of this updating review is to summarize the most current evidence on metabolic response and nutrition therapy in critically ill burn patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  3. Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Anna Kawicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland – they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto’s disease. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones’ activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient’s body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1 and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium. Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the

  4. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2015-01-02

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic

  5. Nutritional mitigation of winter thermal stress in gilthead seabream associated metabolic pathways and potential indicators of nutritional state

    Richard, Nadege; Silva, Tomé S.; Wulff, Tune

    2016-01-01

    and phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolism, and induced higher aerobic metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Results support the notion that WF diet had a positive effect on fish nutritional state by partially counteracting the effect of thermal stress and underlined the sensitivity of proteome data for nutritional....... A total of 404 protein spots, out of 1637 detected, were differentially expressed between the two groups of fish. Mass spectrometry analysis of selected spots suggested that WF diet improved oxidative stress defense, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, enhanced metabolic flux through methionine cycle...... and metabolic profiling purposes. Intragroup variability and co-measured information were also used to pinpoint which proteins displayed a stronger relation with fish nutritional state....

  6. Kinetics of Phytosterol Metabolism in Neonates Receiving Parental Nutrition

    Nghiem-Rao, T. Hang; Tunc, Ilker; Mavis, Alisha M.; Cao, Yumei; Polzin, Elizabeth M.; Firary, Mary F.; Wang, Xujing; Simpson, Pippa M.; Patel, Shailendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. Results Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (pPhytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD. PMID:25897540

  7. Kinetics of phytosterol metabolism in neonates receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Nghiem-Rao, T Hang; Tunc, Ilker; Mavis, Alisha M; Cao, Yumei; Polzin, Elizabeth M; Firary, Mary F; Wang, Xujing; Simpson, Pippa M; Patel, Shailendra B

    2015-08-01

    Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs. 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (P Phytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD.

  8. A clinical nutritional information system with personalized nutrition assessment.

    Kuo, Su-E; Lai, Hui-San; Hsu, Jen-Ming; Yu, Yao-Chang; Zheng, Dong-Zhe; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2018-03-01

    Traditional nutrition evaluations not only require the use of numerous tables and lists to provide sufficient recommendations for patients' diets but are also very time-consuming due to cross-referencing and calculations. To personalize patient assessments, this study implemented a Clinical Nutritional Information System (CNIS) to help hospital dietitians perform their daily work more effectively in terms of time management and paper work. The CNIS mainly targets in-patients who require cancer-nutrition counselling. The development of the CNIS occurred in three phases. Phase 1 included system design and implementation based on the Nutrition Care Process and Model (NCPM) and the Patient Nutrition Care Process. Phase 2 involved a survey to characterize the efficiency, quality and accuracy of the CNIS. In Phase 3, a second survey was conducted to determine how well dietitians had adapted to the system and the extent of improvement in efficiency after the CNIS had been available online for three years. The work time requirements decreased by approximately 58% with the assistance of the CNIS. Of the dietitians who used the CNIS, 95% reported satisfaction, with 91.66% indicating that the CNIS was really helpful in their work. However, some shortcomings were also evident according to the results. Dietitians favoured the standardization of nutritional intervention and monitoring. The CNIS meets the needs of dietitians by increasing the quality of nutritional interventions by providing accurate calculations and cross-referencing for information regarding patients' conditions, with the benefit of decreasing the processing time, such as handwritten documentation. In addition, the CNIS also helps dietitians statistically analyse each patient's personal nutritional needs to achieve nutritional improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic and Psychological Restricts of Nutrition Correction in Overweight Children

    T.V. Chaychenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The publication provides an overview of materials concerning psychological and metabolic regulators of hunger/satiety and their impact at food behavior in overweight children. In the context of the obesity epidemic in the world, the recommended measures aimed at preventing its spread include increased physical activity and proper organization of child nutrition. At the same time, the effectiveness of these non-drug interventions is extremely low, and psychosocial dysfunction is considered to be its cause. Analysis of the mechanisms of excessive food intake occurrence shows that eating disorders in overweight children have metabolic neuroenteroendocrine basis with direct impact on hunger/satiety center. Constant stimulation of hedonic centers with the formation of physical dependence in children with reduced volitional qualities supported by parental attitude is the basis for an extremely low efficiency of nutrition correction in overweight. In order to improve the efficiency of weight control programs in children, in parallel with endocrinological/pediatric advice, the family-oriented educational programs and social and psychological interventions should be widely implemented.

  10. NUTRITION AND FITNESS (PART 1: OBESITY, THE METABOLIC SYNDROME, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, AND CANCER

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nutrition and Fitness held in Athens, Greece, on June 91-2, 2004 are presented in the book as the first volume of the series. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on nutrition and fitness by taking into consideration i genetic endowment, ii adaptation to the nutritional factors and the effect of various resources of energy on exercise and performance, iii the epidemiology of obesity, iv the relationship of nutrition and fitness to chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, syndrome X, obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer. The book also discusses the classification system of obesity in several countries and compares the diets used in several regions/countries. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of three parts with sub-sections in three of them. The topics of the parts are: i Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, ii Coronary Heart Disease and iii Cancer. In each specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in cardiovascular system, nutrition, metabolism, social and preventive medicine, clinical nutrition, diabetics, genetics, obesity, public health, sports medicine and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading international researchers in this field makes this book more welcome. ASSESSMENT This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in pediatric injuries and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading

  11. Resveratrol biosynthesis: plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of food.

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Santino, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.

  12. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study

    Mucerino, Donato R.; Waitzberg, Dan L.; Campos, Fabio G. de; Melo Auricchio, Maria T. de; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim J.; Lima-Goncalves, Ernesto L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study's conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author)

  13. Impact of Early Parenteral Nutrition on Metabolism and Kidney Injury

    Gunst, Jan; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Casaer, Michaël P.; Hermans, Greet; Wouters, Pieter J.; Dubois, Jasperina; Claes, Kathleen; Schetz, Miet; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2013-01-01

    A poor nutritional state and a caloric deficit associate with increased morbidity and mortality, but a recent multicenter, randomized controlled trial found that early parenteral nutrition to supplement insufficient enteral nutrition increases morbidity in the intensive care unit, including prolonging the duration of renal replacement therapy, compared with withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week. Whether early versus late parenteral nutrition impacts the incidence and recovery of AKI is ...

  14. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition

    Bazer, Fuller W.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Johnson, Gregory A.; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A.; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a pergram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish. Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2% glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise, dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28% hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and development of animals and humans. PMID:20697752

  15. Protein nutrition and metabolism during early development of the chick embryo

    Klein, N.W.

    1976-01-01

    Cultures of intact early chick embryos have been used as a model system in which to study the nutrition and metabolism of proteins during early embryonic development. Previous studies have shown that these embryos require nutrient proteins for growth and development. The protein requirement was found to be specific in that at least two proteins were essential; one a transferrin (either conalbumin or yolk transferrin) and the other either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. Variations in the quantity or type of protein provided in the medium altered the growth of embryo regions through regionally specific changes in protein breakdown. This was confirmed through protein synthetic studies with isolated polyribosomes. More recently such variations in protein nutrition have been shown also to affect the actual patterns of proteins synthesized by regions of the embryo. These observed responses to protein nutrition have been difficult to reconcile with our observation that proteins as such did not reach the embryo proper but were first degraded to amine acids within the yolk-sac membrane. Studies on the synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac membrane have provided a possible explanation in that the relative synthesis of individual serum proteins was dramatically influenced by the protein composition of the culture medium. We are currently attempting to demonstrate that serum proteins are indeed the mediators of the response of embryos to protein nutrition. (author)

  16. NUTRIBASE - Data base for Nutritional Evaluation and Dietetic Treatment in Populational Metabolic Diseases

    Silvia Ştefania IANCU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional evaluation and diet prescription are laborious and require much time. They need calculations of basic nutritional indices, to precisely diagnose and finally to indicate the proper nutritional recommendations based on demographic, anthropometric, biochemical data and medical history of the patient. Our purpose was to create a new strategic approach to increase the rapid elaboration of nutritional evaluation, calculation of carbohydrate controlled diets and a software implementation. We named the outcome application Nutribase. The application could be used in clinical settings and/or nutritional research environments for calculating the composition of diet in diabetes and other metabolic disturbances, for helping dieticians and nutrition professionals as well as an educational instrument for patients and students. Nutribase (an Access based software collects data on nutritional and biological parameters related to dietary assessment and treatment of the subjects with metabolic diseases but not only, calculates the body mass index, ideal body weight and metabolic requirements of patients, provides ready-made diet models and recommendations according to the calculated metabolic requirements, diagnosis, provides tables of composition of foods (calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, allows an assessment of diet composition per meal, provides a flexible educational instrument for creating or adjusting a diet according to the patients’ preferences, is very much time saving in clinical settings and it may be adapted for epidemiological nutritional studies.

  17. Metabolic and nutritional approach to older frail people

    Stefano Volpato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a common clinical syndrome in older adults that carries an increased risk for poor health outcomes including falls, incident disability, hospitalization, and mortality. It is characterized by multisystem dysregulations, leading to a loss of dynamic homeostasis, decreased physiologic reserve, and increased vulnerability to stressors. A large body of literature suggests several important multisystem pathophysiologic processes in the pathogenesis of the frailty syndrome, including chronic inflammation and immune activation, insulin resistance and those in musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Currently, no effective pharmaceutical interventions have been developed for the prevention and treatment of the frailty syndrome. Conversely, epidemiological and intervention studies suggest that adequate nutrition and physical exercise might prevent or postpone the onset of frailty and related clinical manifestations.

  18. Parenteral nutrition in patients with inborn errors of metabolism - a therapeutic problem.

    Kaluzny, L; Szczepanik, M; Siwinska-Mrozek, Z; Borkowska-Klos, M; Cichy, W; Walkowiak, J

    2014-06-01

    Parenteral nutrition is now a standard part of supportive treatment in pediatric departments. We describe four cases in which parenteral nutrition was extremely difficult due to coincidence with inborn errors of metabolism. The first two cases was fatty acid beta-oxidation disorders associated with necrotizing enterocolitis and congenital heart disease. Thus, limitations of intravenous lipid intake made it difficult to maintain a good nutritional status. The third case was phenylketonuria associated with a facial region tumour (rhabdomyosarcoma), in which parenteral nutrition was complicated because of a high phenylalanine content in the amino acid formulas for parenteral nutrition. The fourth patient was a child with late-diagnosed tyrosinemia type 1, complicated with encephalopathy - during intensive care treatment the patient needed nutritional support, including parenteral nutrition - we observed amino acid formula problems similar to those in the phenylketonuria patient. Parenteral nutrition in children with inborn errors of metabolism is a rare, but very important therapeutic problem. Total parenteral nutrition formulas are not prepared for this group of diseases.

  19. The relationship between metabolic acidosis and nutritional parameters in patients on hemodialysis

    A D Sajgure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The progressive loss of kidney function is accompanied by metabolic acidosis. The relationship between metabolic acidosis, nutritional status, and oral bicarbonate supplementation has not been assessed in the Indian chronic kidney disease (CKD population who are on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. This is a single-center prospective study conducted in the Western part of India. Thirty-five patients, who were receiving MHD were assessed for metabolic acidosis along with various nutritional parameters at the baseline and at the follow-up after 3 months, postcorrection of acidosis with oral sodium bicarbonate supplements. The relationship between the correction of metabolic acidosis with oral bicarbonate supplements and changes in dietary and various nutritional parameters were evaluated. Metabolic acidosis at the baseline evaluation was found in 62.86% cases of the cohort with a mean serum bicarbonate value of 20.18 ± 4.93 mmol/L. The correction of acidosis with increment in the mean dosage of oral sodium bicarbonate supplements from 0.69 ± 0.410 mmol/kg/day at baseline to 1.04 ± 0.612 mmol/kg/day, significantly reduced the prevalence of metabolic acidosis to 23.33% cases at the follow-up. Improvement in serum bicarbonate level showed significant dietary, anthropometric, and nutritional improvements in these patients. Hence, we conclude that correction of metabolic acidosis with optimal oral bicarbonate supplementation plays a pivotal role in the treatment of malnourished CKD patients on MHD.

  20. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: ruminant production and metabolic responses to heat stress.

    Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P

    2012-06-01

    Heat stress compromises efficient animal production by marginalizing nutrition, management, and genetic selection efforts to maximize performance endpoints. Modifying farm infrastructure has yielded modest success in mitigating heat stress-related losses, yet poor production during the summer remains arguably the costliest issue facing livestock producers. Reduced output (e.g., milk yield and muscle growth) during heat stress was traditionally thought to result from decreased nutrient intake (i.e., a classic biological response shared by all animals during environmental-induced hyperthermia). Our recent observations have begun to challenge this belief and indicate heat-stressed animals employ novel homeorhetic strategies to direct metabolic and fuel selection priorities independently of nutrient intake or energy balance. Alterations in systemic physiology support a shift in carbohydrate metabolism, evident by increased basal and stimulated circulating insulin concentrations. Perhaps most intriguing given the energetic shortfall of the heat-stressed animal is the apparent lack of basal adipose tissue mobilization coupled with a reduced responsiveness to lipolytic stimuli. Thus, the heat stress response markedly alters postabsorptive carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism independently of reduced feed intake through coordinated changes in fuel supply and utilization by multiple tissues. Interestingly, the systemic, cellular, and molecular changes appear conserved amongst different species and physiological states. Ultimately, these changes result in the reprioritization of fuel selection during heat stress, which appears to be primarily responsible for reduced ruminant animal productivity during the warm summer months.

  1. Metabolic learning and memory formation by the brain influence systemic metabolic homeostasis.

    Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng

    2015-04-07

    Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, but whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help in balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipid levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but also the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting that the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Metabolic learning and memory formation by the brain influence systemic metabolic homeostasis

    Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipids levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:25848677

  3. The "parallel pathway": a novel nutritional and metabolic approach to cancer patients.

    Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Molfino, Alessio; Gioia, Gianfranco; Laviano, Alessandro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2011-04-01

    Cancer-associated malnutrition results from a deadly combination of anorexia, which leads to reduced food intake, and derangements of host metabolism inducing body weight loss, and hindering its reversal with nutrient supplementation. Cancer patients often experience both anorexia and weight loss, contributing to the onset of the clinical feature named as anorexia-cachexia syndrome. This condition has a negative impact upon patients' nutritional status. The pathogenesis of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome is multifactorial, and is related to: tumour-derived factors, host-derived factors inducing metabolic derangements, and side effects of anticancer therapies. In addition, the lack of awareness of cancer patients' nutritional issues and status by many oncologists, frequently results in progressive weight loss going undiagnosed until it becomes severe. The critical involvement of host inflammatory response in the development of weight loss, and, in particular, lean body mass depletion, limits the response to the provision of standard nutrition support. A novel nutritional and metabolic approach, named "parallel pathway", has been devised that may help maintain or improve nutritional status, and prevent or delay the onset of cancer cachexia. Such an approach may improve tolerance to aggressive anticancer therapies, and ameliorate the functional capacity and quality of life even in advanced disease stages. The "parallel pathway" implies a multiprofessional and multimodal approach aimed at ensuring early, appropriate and continuous nutritional and metabolic support to cancer patients in any phase of their cancer journey.

  4. Metabolic disorders of the vestibular system.

    Rybak, L P

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of metabolic disorders on vestibular function. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose metabolism that can be associated with vestibular dysfunction. Vertigo can be alleviated by diet management in many cases. Elevated levels of blood lipids have been implicated in cochleovestibular disorders. Treatment with a lipid-lowering drug has resulted in improved auditory and vestibular function in a placebo-controlled trial. Hypothyroidism may affect different parts of the vestibular system depending on the severity and duration of thyroid deficiency. Severe congenital hypothyroidism can cause central vestibular disorders affecting the cerebellum, whereas mild hypothyroidism may result in peripheral vestibulopathy. Endogenous alterations in concentrations of estrogen and progesterone in the premenstrual syndrome or with the use of exogenous hormones such as oral contraceptives may trigger vertigo. Metabolic evaluations for unexplained vertigo should include a lipoprotein profile, with cholesterol and triglyceride levels, glucose tolerance test, and thyroid hormone measurements. Nutritional and drug therapy may be useful to reverse the vestibular dysfunction.

  5. Nutritional mitigation of winter thermal stress in gilthead seabream: Associated metabolic pathways and potential indicators of nutritional state.

    Richard, Nadège; Silva, Tomé S; Wulff, Tune; Schrama, Denise; Dias, Jorge P; Rodrigues, Pedro M L; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-06-16

    A trial was carried out with gilthead seabream juveniles, aiming to investigate the ability of an enhanced dietary formulation (diet Winter Feed, WF, containing a higher proportion of marine-derived protein sources and supplemented in phospholipids, vitamin C, vitamin E and taurine) to assist fish in coping with winter thermal stress, compared to a low-cost commercial diet (diet CTRL). In order to identify the metabolic pathways affected by WF diet, a comparative two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis of fish liver proteome (pH 4–7) was undertaken at the end of winter. A total of 404 protein spots, out of 1637 detected, were differentially expressed between the two groups of fish. Mass spectrometry analysis of selected spots suggested that WF diet improved oxidative stress defense, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, enhanced metabolic flux through methionine cycle and phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolism, and induced higher aerobic metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Results support the notion that WF diet had a positive effect on fish nutritional state by partially counteracting the effect of thermal stress and underlined the sensitivity of proteome data for nutritional and metabolic profiling purposes. Intragroup variability and co-measured information were also used to pinpoint which proteins displayed a stronger relation with fish nutritional state. Winter low water temperature is a critical factor for gilthead seabream farming in the Mediterranean region, leading to a reduction of feed intake, which often results in metabolic and immunological disorders and stagnation of growth performances. In a recent trial, we investigated the ability of an enhanced dietary formulation (diet WF) to assist gilthead seabream in coping with winter thermal stress, compared to a standard commercial diet (diet CTRL). Within this context, in the present work, we identified metabolic processes that are involved in the stress-mitigating effect observed

  6. Nutritional support in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; Puig, Celia; Soldevillla, Cristina; Barata, Anna; Cuquet, Jordi; Recasens, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease which involves the gastrointestinal tract in about 90% of cases. It may contribute to nutritional deterioration. To assess whether the application of a nutritional support protocol to these patients could improve their nutritional status and quality of life. Single center prospective study, performed on an outpatient basis, in a county hospital. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was used to screen risk for malnutrition. Health questionnaire SF-36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to assess quality of life and psychopathology respectively. Weight, height, energy and protein requirements, macronutrient intake and nutritional biochemical parameters were evaluated. Nutritional intervention was performed in patients at risk for malnutrition. Of the 72 patients, 12.5% were at risk for malnutrition. Iron deficiency anemia (18.35%) and vitamin D deficiency (54%) were the most frequently observed nutritional deficits. The questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life showed a high prevalence of anxiety and depression, and lower level poor quality of life in the physical and mental component. No significant improvements were observed in the weight, food intake, nutritional biochemical parameters, psychopathology and quality of life follow-up. Dietary intervention was able to maintain body weight and food intake. Iron deficiency anemia and vitamin D deficiency improved with iron and vitamine D supplements. No deterioration was observed in psychological assessment or quality of life. Studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to assess the efficacy of this intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Globalisation of agrifood systems and sustainable nutrition.

    Qaim, Matin

    2017-02-01

    The globalisation of agrifood systems is a mega-trend with potentially profound nutritional implications. This paper describes various facets of this globalisation process and reviews studies on nutritional effects with a particular focus on developing countries. Results show that global trade and technological change in agriculture have substantially improved food security in recent decades, although intensified production systems have also contributed to environmental problems in some regions. New agricultural technologies and policies need to place more emphasis on promoting dietary diversity and reducing environmental externalities. Globalising agrifood systems also involve changing supply-chain structures, with a rapid rise of modern retailing, new food safety and food quality standards, and higher levels of vertical integration. Studies show that emerging high-value supply chains can contribute to income growth in the small farm sector and improved access to food for rural and urban populations. However, there is also evidence that the retail revolution in developing countries, with its growing role of supermarkets and processed foods, can contribute to overweight and obesity among consumers. The multi-faceted linkages between changing agrifood systems and nutrition are a new field of interdisciplinary research, combining agricultural, nutritional, economics and social sciences perspectives. The number of studies on specific aspects is still limited, so the evidence is not yet conclusive. A review at this early stage can help to better understand important relationships and encourage follow-up work.

  8. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    You-Lin Tain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases.

  9. Nutrigenetics and Metabolic Disease: Current Status and Implications for Personalised Nutrition

    Phillips, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and sedentary behavior, promote the progression and pathogenesis of these polygenic diet-related diseases. Their current prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. Nutrition is probably the most important environmental factor that modulates expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and the variety of phenotypes associated with obesity, the MetS and T2DM. Furthermore, the health effects of nutrients may be modulated by genetic variants. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics require an understanding of nutrition, genetics, biochemistry and a range of “omic” technologies to investigate the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors relevant to metabolic health and disease. These rapidly developing fields of nutritional science hold much promise in improving nutrition for optimal personal and public health. This review presents the current state of the art in nutrigenetic research illustrating the significance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of metabolic disease. PMID:23306188

  10. Nutrigenetics and Metabolic Disease: Current Status and Implications for Personalised Nutrition

    Catherine M. Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and sedentary behavior, promote the progression and pathogenesis of these polygenic diet-related diseases. Their current prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. Nutrition is probably the most important environmental factor that modulates expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and the variety of phenotypes associated with obesity, the MetS and T2DM. Furthermore, the health effects of nutrients may be modulated by genetic variants. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics require an understanding of nutrition, genetics, biochemistry and a range of “omic” technologies to investigate the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors relevant to metabolic health and disease. These rapidly developing fields of nutritional science hold much promise in improving nutrition for optimal personal and public health. This review presents the current state of the art in nutrigenetic research illustrating the significance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of metabolic disease.

  11. Nutrigenetics and metabolic disease: current status and implications for personalised nutrition.

    Phillips, Catherine M

    2013-01-10

    Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and sedentary behavior, promote the progression and pathogenesis of these polygenic diet-related diseases. Their current prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. Nutrition is probably the most important environmental factor that modulates expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and the variety of phenotypes associated with obesity, the MetS and T2DM. Furthermore, the health effects of nutrients may be modulated by genetic variants. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics require an understanding of nutrition, genetics, biochemistry and a range of "omic" technologies to investigate the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors relevant to metabolic health and disease. These rapidly developing fields of nutritional science hold much promise in improving nutrition for optimal personal and public health. This review presents the current state of the art in nutrigenetic research illustrating the significance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of metabolic disease.

  12. Fructose use in clinical nutrition: metabolic effects and potential consequences.

    Moulin, Sandra; Seematter, Gérald; Seyssel, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The current article presents recent findings on the metabolic effects of fructose. Fructose has always been considered as a simple 'caloric' hexose only metabolized by splanchnic tissues. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that fructose acts as a second messenger and induces effects throughout the human body. Recent discoveries made possible with the evolution of technology have highlighted that fructose induces pleiotropic effects on different tissues. The fact that all these tissues express the specific fructose carrier GLUT5 let us reconsider that fructose is not only a caloric hexose, but could also be a potential actor of some behaviors and metabolic pathways. The physiological relevance of fructose as a metabolic driver is pertinent regarding recent scientific literature.

  13. Perspectives on the Nutritional Management of Metabolic Syndrome in Asia: People, Practice and Programmes

    Phing Chee Huei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Asian countries have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, also associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Healthcare expenditure varies among Asian countries, and is influenced by poverty factor and large populations. The effect of metabolic syndrome on nutritional management in Asia demonstrates the essential for clinicians to equalize the needs for higher standards of dietetics practice; as they execute optimal care processes with the aim of improving outcomes, alongside setting of workforce limitations, inadequate expertise in metabolic syndrome nutrition practice, as well as ethnic diversity among Asians. This paper presents some aspects of dietetics practice and the possibility that an alteration in practice is mandatory if dietitians are to play an active role in preventing or decelerating the evolution of the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Nutrition-based interventions to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo: a systematic review.

    Nava, Lorenzo T; Zambrano, Jenelle M; Arviso, Karen P; Brochetti, Denise; Becker, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to identify nutrition-based interventions that may be effective for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome in the Navajo. Metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affects almost half of the Navajo population. The diet of the Navajo, heavy in fat and refined carbohydrates, has been identified as an important contributing factor to the high rates of metabolic syndrome in this population. A search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify studies published before October, 2013, involving nutrition-based interventions in adult populations similar to the Navajo targeting at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Data on efficacy and participation were gathered and synthesised qualitatively. Out of 19 studies included in this systematic review, 11 interventions were identified to be effective at improving at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Level of exposure to the intervention, frequency of intervention activities, family and social support, cultural adaptation and case management were identified as factors that may improve the efficacy of an intervention. Multiple nutrition-based interventions have been found to be effective in populations similar to the Navajo. Development of a strategy to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo may involve aspects from multiple interventions to increase efficacy and maximise participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Beyond anorexia -cachexia. Nutrition and modulation of cancer patients' metabolism: supplementary, complementary or alternative anti-neoplastic therapy?

    Laviano, Alessandro; Seelaender, Marilia; Sanchez-Lara, Karla; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis; Molfino, Alessio; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2011-09-01

    Anorexia and muscle wasting are frequently observed in cancer patients and influence their clinical outcome. The better understanding of the mechanisms underlying behavioral changes and altered metabolism yielded to the development of specialized nutritional support, which enhances utilization of provided calories and proteins by counteracting some of the metabolic derangements occurring during tumor growth. Inflammation appears to be a key factor determining the cancer-associated biochemical abnormalities eventually leading to anorexia and cachexia. Interestingly, inflammation is also involved in carcinogenesis, cancer progression and metastasis by impairing immune surveillance, among other mechanisms. Therefore, nutritional interventions aiming at modulating inflammation to restore nutritional status may also result in improved response to pharmacological anti-cancer therapies. Recent clinical data show that supplementation with nutrients targeting inflammation and immune system increases response rate and survival in cancer patients. This suggests that nutrition therapy should be considered as an important adjuvant strategy in the multidimensional approach to cancer patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Research and Development on Food Nutrition Statistical Analysis Software System

    Du Li; Ke Yun

    2013-01-01

    Designing and developing a set of food nutrition component statistical analysis software can realize the automation of nutrition calculation, improve the nutrition processional professional’s working efficiency and achieve the informatization of the nutrition propaganda and education. In the software development process, the software engineering method and database technology are used to calculate the human daily nutritional intake and the intelligent system is used to evaluate the user’s hea...

  17. Effect of personalized dietary intervention on nutritional, metabolic and vascular indices in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Lai, S; Molfino, A; Coppola, B; De Leo, S; Tommasi, V; Galani, A; Migliaccio, S; Greco, E A; Gnerre Musto, T; Muscaritoli, M

    2015-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present a markedly increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality since the early stages of the disease and a high prevalence of malnutrition, inflammation, and accelerated atherosclerosis. Personalized nutritional intervention, with of a low-protein diet (LPD), since the early stages of CKD should be able to achieve significant metabolic improvements. In our study we have verified the effects of a personalized dietary intervention in patients in the CKD stages 3/4 KDOQI on nutritional, metabolic and vascular indices. We have evaluated renal function, lipid profile, mineral metabolism, inflammatory indices, and acid-base balance of 16 patients with CKD (stages 3/4 KDOQI). Assessment of nutritional status, body composition, bone mineral density and muscle mass, using body mass index (BMI), handgrip strength, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed. Vascular indices and endothelial dysfunction such as carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (baFMD) were also analyzed. After dietary interventions, we observed a significant increase in plasma bicarbonate (p = 0.004) and vitamin D levels (p = 0.03) and a concomitant significant reduction of phosphorus concentration (p = 0.001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.01). Nutritional intervention potentially plays a major role in reducing the progression of CKD and systemic complications of predialysis patients. A low-protein diet (LPD) ensuring vegetable protein intake and a reduced amount of specific micronutrients should be recommended to stage 3/4 CKD patients in order to ameliorate metabolic profile, renal outcome, and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. Concomitant parenteral nutrition and systemic cytotoxic therapy in a metastatic colorectal cancer patient

    A. A. Popov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathologic nutrients metabolism presents a severe problem in metastatic colorectal cancer patients, especially those with canceromatosis. A hypermetabolism-catabolism syndrome frequently develops in in patients with progressing canceromatosis. This leads to cachexia anorexia syndrome, which significantly impedes available treatment options. Artificial nutrition allows to improve available treatment in such patients. We present a successful case of concomitant parenteral nutrition and systemic cytotoxic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patient with peritoneal canceromatosis.

  19. A 100-Year Review: Metabolic modifiers in dairy cattle nutrition.

    McGuffey, R K

    2017-12-01

    The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  20. Prevention and treatment of protein energy wasting in chronic kidney disease patients: a consensus statement by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism.

    Ikizler, T Alp; Cano, Noel J; Franch, Harold; Fouque, Denis; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Stenvinkel, Peter; TerWee, Pieter; Teta, Daniel; Wang, Angela Yee-Moon; Wanner, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Protein energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, especially in individuals receiving maintenance dialysis therapy. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of CKD patients requiring a combination of therapeutic maneuvers to prevent or reverse protein and energy depletion. These include optimizing dietary nutrient intake, appropriate treatment of metabolic disturbances such as metabolic acidosis, systemic inflammation, and hormonal deficiencies, and prescribing optimized dialytic regimens. In patients where oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is shown to be effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. In clinical practice, the advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic strategies such as anabolic steroids, growth hormone, and exercise, in combination with nutritional supplementation or alone, have been shown to improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. Appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and newer anabolic agents are emerging as novel therapies. While numerous epidemiological data suggest that an improvement in biomarkers of nutritional status is associated with improved survival, there are no large randomized clinical trials that have tested the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on mortality and morbidity.

  1. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup...

  2. The interaction between nutrition and metabolism in West African dwarf goats, infected with trypanosomes

    Dam, van J.T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In a series of experiments the interaction between nutrition and energy- and nitrogen metabolism of West African Dwarf goats, infected with trypanosomes was studied. Animals were injected with trypanosomes, and feed intake, energy and nitrogen balance and blood metabolites and hormones were measured

  3. Integrative Metabolism: An Interactive Learning Tool for Nutrition, Biochemistry, and Physiology

    Carey, Gale

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism is a dynamic, simultaneous, and integrative science that cuts across nutrition, biochemistry, and physiology. Teaching this science can be a challenge. The use of a scenario-based, visually appealing, interactive, computer-animated CD may overcome the limitations of learning "one pathway at a time" and engage two- and…

  4. Cochlear Homocysteine Metabolism at the Crossroad of Nutrition and Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Isabel Varela-Nieto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss (HL is one of the most common causes of disability, affecting 360 million people according to the World Health Organization (WHO. HL is most frequently of sensorineural origin, being caused by the irreversible loss of hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons. The etiology of sensorineural HL (SNHL is multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors such as noise, ototoxic substances and aging playing a role. The nutritional status is central in aging disability, but the interplay between nutrition and SNHL has only recently gained attention. Dietary supplementation could therefore constitute the first step for the prevention and potential repair of hearing damage before it reaches irreversibility. In this context, different epidemiological studies have shown correlations among the nutritional condition, increased total plasma homocysteine (tHcy and SNHL. Several human genetic rare diseases are also associated with homocysteine (Hcy metabolism and SNHL confirming this potential link. Accordingly, rodent experimental models have provided the molecular basis to understand the observed effects. Thus, increased tHcy levels and vitamin deficiencies, such as folic acid (FA, have been linked with SNHL, whereas long-term dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids improved Hcy metabolism, cell survival and hearing acuity. Furthermore, pharmacological supplementations with the anti-oxidant fumaric acid that targets Hcy metabolism also improved SNHL. Overall these results strongly suggest that cochlear Hcy metabolism is a key player in the onset and progression of SNHL, opening the way for the design of prospective nutritional therapies.

  5. The influence of maternal protein nutrition on offspring development and metabolism: the role of glucocorticoids

    Almond, K.; Bikker, P.; Lomax, M.E.; Mostyn, A.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of sub-optimal nutrition through alterations in the macronutrient content of the maternal diet will not simply be reflected in altered neonatal body composition and increased mortality, but are likely to continue into adulthood and confer greater risk of metabolic disease. One

  6. Animal models to study the impact of nutrition on the immune system of the transition cow.

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana

    2018-02-01

    The immune system is particularly challenged in transition cows as marked physiological changes occur in this period which are driven by late gestation, partus and onset of lactation. As a consequence, the metabolic and nutritional state of the cow also changes significantly with possible implications for the plasticity and flexibility of the immune system. In order to understand how the balance between metabolism, nutritional status and the immune system is maintained under challenging conditions, such as an infection, various animal models can be used which specifically manipulate the nutritional status through various feeding and management strategies. Such models aim at exploring the immunological response to a challenge under largely varying nutritional and metabolic states. As energy balance (EB) is strongly associated both with the metabolic state and with the immunoreactivity of the cows the manipulation of the EB by either influencing energy intake or energy excretion with milk, or by both, offers model opportunities for studying EB effects on the immune system. For example, assigning cows with a higher body condition score (BCS) at least 6 weeks prior to calving to an energy-dense diet exceeding the energy requirement in combination with a decelerated increase in the concentrate feed proportion post partum was shown to be effective in inducing a ketotic metabolic state under ad libitum feeding conditions. Compared to an adequately managed control group this model allows studying immune responses in the transit period and in dependence on dietary interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [A 5-year interval report on study of burn metabolism and nutrition].

    Wang, S L

    1992-12-01

    This paper introduces the essential experiences concerning studies of burn metabolism and nutrition in our institute in the past five years. 1. Three new and practical animal models were developed for studying gastro-enteral nutrition in burns. 2. With indirect calorimetry, resting energy expenditure (REE) of 92 burn adult patients were measured and analyzed, and on the basis of which a new formula for calculating nutritional supplement in Chinese burn adults was proposed: kcal/day = 1,000 x M2 (body surface area) + 25 x % TBSA (total burn surface area). 3. Through experimental and clinical studies, it was found that antiouperoxide agents (such as SOD, CAT), tolbutamide, glutamine and Chinese herb decoction Sizunzituang all exhibited modulating effects on postburn metabolism and nutrition, e.g. decreasing catabolism, reducing negative nitrogen balance, stimulating secretion of insulin, enhancing tissue utilization of glucose, maintaining the mass of enteral mucosa and improving functions of viscerae. 4. A new less irritating, simple and easy-to-introduce nasal-enteral nutrition tube was devised, which could pass through the pylorus easily into the duodenum usually within 6hrs without using a stylet. It would be useful in the early postburn enteral nutrition supplementation.

  8. Impact of Complete Parenteral Nutrition on Metabolic Processes in Cancer Patients in the Early Postoperative Period

    O. A. Obukhova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate blood glucose levels during complete parenteral nutrition (CPN, by using the three-in-one system with a high glucose level. Subjects and methods. Thirty adult patients without diabetes mellitus (including 18 men were examined. Twelve and 18 patients were operated on for colonic and gastric cancers, respectively. CPN (Oliclinomel No. 7 — 1000, 1500 ml; glucose, 240 g in 1500 ml, Baxter, Belgium was carried out at the Surgery Department in the early postoperative period (3-5 postoperative days with stable hemodynamics and no organ dysfunction (acute respiratory, renal, hepatic failure. The preparation was administered at a rate of about 83 ml/h over 18 hours. Insulin was not used. Serum glucose concentrations were measured before the study and then for 24 hours at an interval of 6 hours. Results. Glucose concentrations were not found to exceed the allowable values in the majority of patients during CPN at the given rate. In 5 (16.7% patients, short-term glucose increases up to 13.3 mmol/l were corrected, by decreasing the infusion rate. There was no hypoglycemia or other complications during CPN. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that three-in-one parenteral feeding is safe and causes no metabolic disturbances if simple principles are followed, the basic ones of which are to observe the intake of an adequate total dose and the rate of administration of nutrients. Key words: parenteral feeding, hyperglycemia, metabolic disturbances.

  9. Focus on metabolic and nutritional correlates of polycystic ovary syndrome and update on nutritional management of these critical phenomena.

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Repaci, Erica; Allieri, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with numerous metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance (IR), central obesity) and various nutritional abnormalities (vitamin D deficit, mineral milieu alterations, omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio unbalance). We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding: (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of PCOS; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 127 eligible studies. In addition to the well-recognized link between PCOS and IR, the recent literature underlines that in PCOS there is an unbalance in adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, visfatin) production and in omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of overweight on these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of PCOS patients. The optimum diet therapy for the PCOS treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, such as IR improvement, adipokines secretion and reproductive function. These goals must be reached through: accession of the patient to hypocaloric dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight; limiting the consumption of sugar and refined carbohydrates, preferring those with lower glycemic index; dividing the food intake in small and frequent meals, with high caloric intake at breakfast; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega3 PUFA supplements; taking Vitamin D and chromium supplementation, if there are low serum levels. Lifestyle intervention remains the optimal treatment strategy for PCOS women. A relatively small weight loss (5 %) can improve IR, hyperandrogenism, menstrual function, fertility.

  10. Energy metabolism and nutritional status in hospitalized patients with lung cancer.

    Takemura, Yumi; Sasaki, Masaya; Goto, Kenichi; Takaoka, Azusa; Ohi, Akiko; Kurihara, Mika; Nakanishi, Naoko; Nakano, Yasutaka; Hanaoka, Jun

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the energy metabolism of patients with lung cancer and the relationship between energy metabolism and proinflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The nutritional status upon admission was analyzed using nutritional screening tools and laboratory tests. The resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry, and the predicted resting energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation. Energy expenditure was increased in patients with advanced stage disease, and there were positive correlations between measured resting energy expenditure/body weight and interleukin-6 levels and between measured resting energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure and interleukin-6 levels. There were significant relationships between body mass index and plasma leptin or acylated ghrelin levels. However, the level of appetite controlling hormones did not affect dietary intake. There was a negative correlation between plasma interleukin-6 levels and dietary intake, suggesting that interleukin-6 plays a role in reducing dietary intake. These results indicate that energy expenditure changes significantly with lung cancer stage and that plasma interleukin-6 levels affect energy metabolism and dietary intake. Thus, nutritional management that considers the changes in energy metabolism is important in patients with lung cancer.

  11. Early optimal parenteral nutrition and metabolic acidosis in very preterm infants.

    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available It is currently recognized that an optimized nutritional approach, consisting of an early and substantial supply of protein and energy by parenteral route, may be beneficial for very low birth weight infants and recent guidelines endorse this strategy. However, the impact of the enhanced parenteral nutrition (PN on acid-basic balance has never been investigated. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of nutrient intake on acid-base homeostasis in a large population of preterm infants on PN.This observational study described the acid-base profile of very preterm infants (≤29 week's gestation receiving PN during the first week of life. For this purpose three different cohorts of infants who received increasing (group 1 to group 3 nutritional intakes were considered. Nutrition data were recorded daily and correlated to acid-base data (pH, base excess, and lactate. The outcome measure to assess metabolic acidosis was the base excess (BE.161 infants were included. 1127 daily nutritional records and 795 blood gas data were analyzed. The three groups were different with regard to nutritional intravenous intakes. Group 3 in particular had a higher mean intake of both amino acids (3.3 ± 0.8 g/kg/d and lipids (2.8 ± 1.4 g/kg/d during the first week of life. Metabolic acidosis was more severe in the group with the highest parenteral intake of amino acids and lipids: mean BE = -8.7 ± 3.4 (group 3; -6.4 ± 3.4 (group 2; -5.1 ± 3.0 (group 1]. At the multivariate analysis the significant risk factors for metabolic acidosis were: gestational age, initial base excess, amino acid and lipid intravenous intakes.Acid-base homeostasis was influenced by the nutritional intake. Earlier and higher intravenous amino acid and lipid intakes particularly increased the risk of metabolic acidosis. The nutritional tolerance was different depending on gestational age, and the smaller infants (24-26 week's gestation displayed greater acidotic disequilibrium

  12. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans.

    Palego, Lionella; Betti, Laura; Rossi, Alessandra; Giannaccini, Gino

    2016-01-01

    L-Tryptophan is the unique protein amino acid (AA) bearing an indole ring: its biotransformation in living organisms contributes either to keeping this chemical group in cells and tissues or to breaking it, by generating in both cases a variety of bioactive molecules. Investigations on the biology of Trp highlight the pleiotropic effects of its small derivatives on homeostasis processes. In addition to protein turn-over, in humans the pathways of Trp indole derivatives cover the synthesis of the neurotransmitter/hormone serotonin (5-HT), the pineal gland melatonin (MLT), and the trace amine tryptamine. The breakdown of the Trp indole ring defines instead the "kynurenine shunt" which produces cell-response adapters as L-kynurenine, kynurenic and quinolinic acids, or the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This review aims therefore at tracing a "map" of the main molecular effectors in human tryptophan (Trp) research, starting from the chemistry of this AA, dealing then with its biosphere distribution and nutritional value for humans, also focusing on some proteins responsible for its tissue-dependent uptake and biotransformation. We will thus underscore the role of Trp biochemistry in the pathogenesis of human complex diseases/syndromes primarily involving the gut, neuroimmunoendocrine/stress responses, and the CNS, supporting the use of -Omics approaches in this field.

  13. [Consensus document: nutritional and metabolic importance of cow's milk].

    Fernández Fernández, Elena; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo; Martínez Suárez, Venancio; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Collado Yurrita, Luis Rodolfo; Hernández Cabria, Marta; Morán Rey, Francisco Javier

    2014-10-25

    Cow's milk is a staple food for human consumption at all stages of life. Industrial processing has allowed widespread access to its consumption by the population, which has helped to significantly improve their health. From its composition point of view, milk is a complete and balanced food that provides high nutrient content in relation to its calorie content, so its consumption should be considered necessary from childhood to elderly. The benefits of cow's milk are not limited to its nutritional value, but extend beyond and are a factor of prevention in certain non communicable pathologies as cardiovascular disease, some cancers, high blood pressure or bone or dental pathology. It can also help in the fight against childhood overweight and obesity. In recent years we have seen a worrying decline in milk consumption among the Spanish population, at least in part influenced by misconceptions about its consumption and of other dairy products. This consensus document aims to review the current state of the topic regarding the effects of milk consumption on health, while making a call to the institutions and scientific societies to develop programs and information campaigns about the benefits of milk and dairy products consumption. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    Liaset, Bjørn; Hao, Qin; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh

    2011-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are powerful regulators of metabolism, and mice treated orally with cholic acid are protected from diet-induced obesity, hepatic lipid accumulation, and increased plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and glucose levels. Here, we show that plasma BA concentration in rats was elevated by e...... metabolism can be modulated by diet and that such modulation may prevent/ameliorate the characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome.......Bile acids (BAs) are powerful regulators of metabolism, and mice treated orally with cholic acid are protected from diet-induced obesity, hepatic lipid accumulation, and increased plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and glucose levels. Here, we show that plasma BA concentration in rats was elevated...... with induction of genes involved in energy metabolism and uncoupling, Dio2, Pgc-1a, and Ucp1, in interscapular brown adipose tissue. Interestingly, the same transcriptional pattern was found in white adipose tissue depots of both abdominal and subcutaneous origin. Accordingly, rats fed SPH-based diet exhibited...

  15. Trust your gut: galvanizing nutritional interest in intestinal cholesterol metabolism for protection against cardiovascular diseases.

    Wegner, Casey J; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-01-16

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the intestine is a key target organ for overall health and longevity. Complementing these studies is the discovery of the trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux pathway and the emerging role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport. The surfacing dynamics of the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the intestine provides an attractive platform for intestine-specific nutritional intervention strategies to lower blood cholesterol levels for protection against cardiovascular diseases. Notably, there is mounting evidence that stimulation of pathways associated with calorie restriction may have a large effect on the regulation of cholesterol removal by the intestine. However, intestinal energy metabolism, specifically the idiosyncrasies surrounding intestinal responses to energy deprivation, is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to review recent insights into cholesterol regulation by the intestine and to discuss the potential for positive regulation of intestine-driven cholesterol removal through the nutritional induction of pathways associated with calorie restriction.

  16. Trust Your Gut: Galvanizing Nutritional Interest in Intestinal Cholesterol Metabolism for Protection Against Cardiovascular Diseases

    Jiyoung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that the intestine is a key target organ for overall health and longevity. Complementing these studies is the discovery of the trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux pathway and the emerging role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport. The surfacing dynamics of the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the intestine provides an attractive platform for intestine-specific nutritional intervention strategies to lower blood cholesterol levels for protection against cardiovascular diseases. Notably, there is mounting evidence that stimulation of pathways associated with calorie restriction may have a large effect on the regulation of cholesterol removal by the intestine. However, intestinal energy metabolism, specifically the idiosyncrasies surrounding intestinal responses to energy deprivation, is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to review recent insights into cholesterol regulation by the intestine and to discuss the potential for positive regulation of intestine-driven cholesterol removal through the nutritional induction of pathways associated with calorie restriction.

  17. A nutritional and metabolic assessment of a cardiopulmonary bypass technique without donor blood

    東,良平

    1993-01-01

    A nutritional and metabolic assessment of a cardiopulmonary bypass technique without donor blood was made in 23 patients undergoing open heart surgery (non-donor blood group). For comparison, 14 patients receiving cardiopulmonary bypass with donor blood prime (donor blood group) were also evaluated. 1)Serum transferrin level showed significantly more rapid recovery in the non-donor blood group compared to the donor blood group on the 7th post operative day. 2)Total protein, serum albumin, arm...

  18. Nutritional and metabolic programming during the first thousand days of life

    Massimo Agosti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest scientific acquisitions are demonstrating what has already been hypothesized for more than twenty years about the development of the state of health/illness of individuals. Indeed, certain stimuli, if applied to a sensible phase of development, are able to modify, through epigenetic mechanisms, gene expression of DNA, resulting in adaptive modifications of phenotype to the environment, which may reflect negatively on the health of every individual. This concept, applied to nutrition, has opened up important prospects for research in this area. The nutritional history of an individual, linked to the development of a healthy state, would begin very early. In fact, since the pregnancy and for the next two years (for a total of about 1000 days, the maternal eating habits, the type of breastfeeding and then the main stages of nutrition in the evolutionary phase represent those sensitive moments, essential for the development of important endocrine, metabolic, immunological alterations, better known as metabolic syndrome. This condition would represent the physiopathogenetic basis for explaining a series of disorders, known as non communicable diseases (NCDs such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascolar disease and all those conditions that today affect the health of most industrialized countries and through the years are emerging especially in developing countries (South America, Asia, where new environmental conditions and increased food availability are changing food habits, with far-reaching public health impacts. This paper analyzes these new nutritional perspectives and the main implications of what has been termed the 1000-day theory.

  19. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  20. Pre- and post-natal nutritional factors in the metabolic regulation of obesity

    E. Villanueva-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a very significant increase in obesity in most developing countries. In addition to environmental, genetic and hormonal factors, nutritional and maternal environment factors influencing critical periods of foetal development have acquired increasing significance since the thrifty phenotype theory was described by Harles and Barker and epidemiological studies demonstrated that perinatal conditions may modify individuals’ future metabolic responses via genomic reprogramming. Perinatal programming corresponds to a critical and accelerated period of developmental plasticity from preconception through early postnatal life. This characteristic may also have a long-term influence on metabolic health and obesity. Epigenetic modifications favour the survival of the individual in critical periods when nutritional restriction is established, but exerts long-term risks, as metabolic programming tracks into infancy and adulthood and induces fat mass accumulation, particularly if energy consumption is exceeded. Although the mechanisms are not yet fully understood, it is evident that hormonal factors such as insulin and leptin may influence the programming of hypothalamic circuits for energy balance regulation. Nutritional interventions in animal models at critical stages of development have demonstrated that microenvironmental modifications might induce a permanent modulation of the progeny genome expression via epigenetic mechanisms. A transgenerational transmission of obesity has been proposed.

  1. The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction: A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility

    Fontana, Roberta; Della Torre, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally poor environments, but nowadays is affecting women’s health. The unlimited availability of nutrients, in association with reduced energy expenditure, leads to alterations in many metabolic p...

  2. Advanced nutritional and stem cells approaches to prevent equine metabolic syndrome.

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Michalak, Izabela; Kornicka, Katarzyna

    2018-01-31

    Horses metabolic disorders have become an important problem of modern veterinary medicine. Pathological obesity, insulin resistance and predisposition toward laminitis are associated with Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS). Based on pathogenesis of EMS, dietary and cell therapy management may significantly reduce development of this disorder. Special attention has been paid to the diet supplementation with highly bioavailable minerals and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which increase insulin sensitivity. In nutrition, there is a great interests in natural algae enriched via biosorption process with micro- and macroelements. In the case of cellular therapy, metabolic condition of engrafted cells may be crucial for the effectiveness of the therapy. Although, recent studies indicated on MSC deterioration in EMS individuals. Here, we described the combined nutritional and stem cells therapy for the EMS treatment. Moreover, we specified in details how EMS affects the adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) population. Presented here, combined kind of therapy- an innovative and cutting edge approach of metabolic disorders treatment may become a new gold standard in personalized veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolism

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  4. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Nutrition as a mediator of oxidative stress in metabolic and reproductive disorders in women.

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papalou, Olga; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kassi, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    Nutrition can generate oxidative stress and trigger a cascade of molecular events that can disrupt oxidative and hormonal balance. Nutrient ingestion promotes a major inflammatory and oxidative response at the cellular level in the postprandial state, altering the metabolic state of tissues. A domino of unfavorable metabolic changes is orchestrated in the main metabolic organs, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and pancreas, where subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, mitochondrial deregulation and impaired insulin response and secretion take place. Simultaneously, in reproductive tissues, nutrition-induced oxidative stress can potentially violate delicate oxidative balance that is mandatory to secure normal reproductive function. Taken all the above into account, nutrition and its accompanying postprandial oxidative stress, in the unique context of female hormonal background, can potentially compromise normal metabolic and reproductive functions in women and may act as an active mediator of various metabolic and reproductive disorders. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Nutrition of the transition cow

    BEŇASOVÁ, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...

  6. Vitamina K: metabolismo e nutrição Vitamin K: metabolism and nutrition

    Sílvia Maria Custódio das DÔRES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir aspectos que envolvem a compreensão do metabolismo da vitamina K e os recentes avanços quanto ao papel da vitamina na nutrição humana. São abordadas questões sobre as fontes da vitamina, sua absorção, distribuição e metabolismo, recomendações dietéticas, avaliação do estado nutricional relacionado à vitamina K e ainda fatores que afetam sua concentração plasmática. Diante das novas evidências sobre a participação da vitamina K no metabolismo ósseo, pesquisas adicionais são necessárias a fim de identificar as possíveis conseqüências à saúde, a longo prazo, de deficiência subclínica desta vitamina. Pesquisadores e comitês futuros encontram um desafio no que se refere a investigar novos requerimentos nutricionais da vitamina.The aim of this study was to discuss the aspects that involve the understanding of vitamin K metabolism and recent advances of its role in human nutrition. The paper presents dietary sources, absorption, distribution in the body and metabolism of vitamin K, nutritional recommendations, evaluation of nutritional status related to the vitamin and factors influencing its plasmatic concentration. In the light of evidences about vitamin K role in bone metabolism, further studies are needed to identify the possible long-term consequences to health of subclinical vitamin K deficiency. A great challenge for researchers and further scientific committees will be certainly concerned with investigation of new nutritional requirements of the vitamin.

  7. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  8. Effect of intensive vs conventional insulin therapy on perioperative nutritional substrates metabolism in patients undergoing gastrectomy

    Han-Cheng Liu; Yan-Bing Zhou; Dong Chen; Zhao-Jian Niu; Yang Yu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of intensive vs conventional insulin therapy on perioperative nutritional substrates metabolism in patients undergoing radical distal gastrectomy.METHODS:Within 24 h of intensive care unit management,patients with gastric cancer were enrolled after written informed consent and randomized to the intensive insulin therapy (IIT) group to keep glucose levels from 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L or the conventional insulin therapy (CIT) group to keep levels less than 10 mmol/L.Resting energy expenditure (REE),respiratory quotient (RQ),resting energy expenditure per kilogram (REE/kg),and the lipid oxidation rate were monitored by the indirect calorimeter of calcium citrate malate nutrition metabolism investigation system.The changes in body composition were analyzed by multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis.Blood fasting glucose and insulin concentration were measured for assessment of Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.RESULTS:Sixty patients were enrolled.Compared with preoperative baseline,postoperative REE increased by over 22.15% and 11.07%; REE/kg rose up to 27.22 ± 1.33 kcal/kg and 24.72 ± 1.43 kcal/kg; RQ decreased to 0.759 ± 0.034 and 0.791 ± 0.037; the lipid oxidation ratio was up to 78.25% ± 17.74% and 67.13% ± 12.76% supported by parenteral nutrition solutions from 37.56% ± 11.64% at the baseline; the level of Ln-HOMA-IR went up dramatically (P < 0.05,respectively) on postoperative days 1 and 3 in the IIT group.Meanwhile the concentration of total protein,albumin and triglyceride declined significantly on postoperative days 1 and 3 compared with pre-operative levels (P < 0.05,respectively).Compared with the CIT group,IIT reduced the REE/kg level (27.22 ± 1.33 kcal/kg vs 29.97 ± 1.47 kcal/kg,P =0.008; 24.72 ± 1.43 kcal/kg vs 25.66 ± 1.63 kcal/kg,P =0.013); and decreased the Ln-HOMA-IR score (P =0.019,0.028) on postoperative days 1 and 3; IIT decreased the level of CRP on postoperative days 1 and 3 (P

  9. Nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in amateur soccer players

    Luciano Meireles de Pontes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in amateur soccer players. Thirty-two men (39.0 ± 6.4 years regularly playing soccer were studied. Nutritional status was evaluated according to body mass index (BMI and the World Health Organization classification. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criterion of the International Diabetes Federation which, in addition to central obesity (waist circumference > 90 cm, considers two or more of the following conditions in males: triglyceridemia ≥ 150 mg/dl; HDL < 40 mg/dl; systolic pressure ≥ 130 mmHg or diastolic pressure ≥ 85 mm/Hg, and fasting glycemia ≥ 100 mg/dl. Statistical analysis processed descriptive data of percentage, mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation. Correlations between pairs of variables were determined by Pearson’s r coefficient. The results showed that 43.8% of the soccer players were eutrophic, 43.8% presented overweight and 12.5% were obese. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and the most prevalent components were abdominal obesity in 59.4%, hypertension in 40.6%, hypertriglyceridemia in 34.4%, HDL-c in 28.1%, and fasting glycemia in 15.6%. BMI presented a more robust correlation with waist circumference (r = 0.918. In conclusion, the nutritional status of the soccer players studied was characterized by the presence of overweight and obesity. Although the frequency of metabolic syndrome was lower than in other epidemiological studies, these sportsmen should engage in other health-promoting behaviors such as good eating habits and control of stress in addition to physical activity.

  10. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. The Role of the Immune System in Metabolic Health and Disease.

    Zmora, Niv; Bashiardes, Stavros; Levy, Maayan; Elinav, Eran

    2017-03-07

    In addition to the immune system's traditional roles of conferring anti-infectious and anti-neoplastic protection, it has been recently implicated in the regulation of systemic metabolic homeostasis. This cross-talk between the immune and the metabolic systems is pivotal in promoting "metabolic health" throughout the life of an organism and plays fundamental roles in its adaptation to ever-changing environmental makeups and nutritional availability. Perturbations in this intricate immune-metabolic cross-talk contribute to the tendency to develop altered metabolic states that may culminate in metabolic disorders such as malnutrition, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and other features of the metabolic syndrome. Regulators of immune-metabolic interactions include host genetics, nutritional status, and the intestinal microbiome. In this Perspective, we highlight current understanding of immune-metabolism interactions, illustrate differences among individuals and between populations in this respect, and point toward future avenues of research possibly enabling immune harnessing as means of personalized treatment for common metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  13. Nutrition targeting by food timing: time-related dietary approaches to combat obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Sofer, Sigal; Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2015-03-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for reducing abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome are urgently needed. Over the years, many different dietary regimens have been studied as possible treatment alternatives. The efficacy of low-calorie diets, diets with different proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, traditional healthy eating patterns, and evidence-based dietary approaches were evaluated. Reviewing literature published in the last 5 y reveals that these diets may improve risk factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, each diet has limitations ranging from high dropout rates to maintenance difficulties. In addition, most of these dietary regimens have the ability to attenuate some, but not all, of the components involved in this complicated multifactorial condition. Recently, interest has arisen in the time of day foods are consumed (food timing). Studies have examined the implications of eating at the right or wrong time, restricting eating hours, time allocation for meals, and timing of macronutrient consumption during the day. In this paper we review new insights into well-known dietary therapies as well as innovative time-associated dietary approaches for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We discuss results from systematic meta-analyses, clinical interventions, and animal models. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. /sup 15/N analysis in nutritional and metabolic research of infancy

    Heine, W; Richter, I; Plath, C; Wutzke, K; Drescher, U [Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin

    1982-01-01

    Investigation of protein metabolism in nutritional pediatric research by means of /sup 15/N tracer techniques has been relatively seldom used up to now. /sup 15/N-labelled compounds for these purposes are not injurious to health. The technique is based on oral or intravenous application of the tracer substances and on /sup 15/N analysis of the urine fractions. The subsequent calculation of protein synthesis and breakdown rate, turnover, and the reutilisation of amino acids from protein breakdown as well as the size of the metabolic pool offers detailed information of protein metabolism. Determination of these parameters were performed in infants on breast milk, formula feeding and on chemically defined diet. As an example of utilisation of D-amino acids for protein synthesis the /sup 15/N-D-phenylalanine retention of parenteral nutrition was found to be 33% of the applied doses at an average. An oral /sup 15/N-glycine loading test proved to be of value for the prediction of the therapeutic effect of human growth hormone. /sup 15/N tracer technique was also tested in utilizing /sup 15/N-urea for bacterial protein synthesis of the intestinal flora and by incorporation of /sup 15/N from /sup 15/N-glycine and /sup 15/N-lysine into the jejunal mucosa for measuring the enterocyte regeneration.

  15. [Algorithms based on medico-administrative data in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, especially diabetes].

    Fosse-Edorh, S; Rigou, A; Morin, S; Fezeu, L; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Fagot-Campagna, A

    2017-10-01

    Medico-administrative databases represent a very interesting source of information in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The objective of this article is to describe the early works of the Redsiam working group in this field. Algorithms developed in France in the field of diabetes, the treatment of dyslipidemia, precocious puberty, and bariatric surgery based on the National Inter-schema Information System on Health Insurance (SNIIRAM) data were identified and described. Three algorithms for identifying people with diabetes are available in France. These algorithms are based either on full insurance coverage for diabetes or on claims of diabetes treatments, or on the combination of these two methods associated with hospitalizations related to diabetes. Each of these algorithms has a different purpose, and the choice should depend on the goal of the study. Algorithms for identifying people treated for dyslipidemia or precocious puberty or who underwent bariatric surgery are also available. Early work from the Redsiam working group in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases produced an inventory of existing algorithms in France, linked with their goals, together with a presentation of their limitations and advantages, providing useful information for the scientific community. This work will continue with discussions about algorithms on the incidence of diabetes in children, thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and amyloidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Familial concordance of metabolic syndrome in Korean population--Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005.

    Lee, Myung Ha; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Thomas, G Neil; Ahn, Song Vogue; Hur, Nam Wook; Choi, Dong Phil; Suh, Il

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the familial concordance of metabolic syndrome and its components in a nationally representative survey in Korean. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationwide survey examining the general health and nutritional status of the Korean people. We enrolled 1641 married couples and 1527 parents-1342 offspring. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 17.1% for husbands, 11.7% for wives, 14.3% for parents, and 7.2% for offspring. After adjustment for age, there were strong positive correlations between family members for the metabolic variables. Compared with husbands whose wives did not have metabolic syndrome, adjusted odds ratio in husbands whose wives had metabolic syndrome was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10-1.87) for the risk of having metabolic syndrome. Similarly, wives whose husbands had metabolic syndrome had 1.41 (95% CI: 1.08-1.84) times higher risk of having metabolic syndrome. Compared with children whose parents did not have metabolic syndrome, adjusted odds ratio in children with at least one parent with the metabolic syndrome was 2.56 (95% CI: 1.09-5.98) for the metabolic syndrome. Our study revealed that there is significant familial concordance for metabolic syndrome and its components in Korean families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children

    Patrick Lyn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body.

  18. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  19. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate (1 relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2 interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP, and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO, and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  20. Neighborhood Racial Diversity and Metabolic Syndrome: 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Li, Kelin; Wen, Ming; Fan, Jessie X

    2018-03-30

    This study investigated the independent association between neighborhood racial/ethnic diversity and metabolic syndrome among US adults, and focused on how this association differed across individual and neighborhood characteristics (i.e., race/ethnicity, sex, age, urbanity, neighborhood poverty). Objectively-measured biomarker data from 2003 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were linked to census-tract profiles from 2000 decennial census (N = 10,122). Multilevel random intercept logistic regression models were estimated to examine the contextual effects of tract-level racial/ethnic diversity on individual risks of metabolic syndrome. Overall, more than 20% of the study population were identified as having metabolic syndrome, although the prevalence also varied across demographic subgroups and specific biomarkers. Multilevel analyses showed that increased racial/ethnic diversity within a census tract was associated with decreased likelihood of having metabolic syndrome (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96), particularly among female (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43-0.96), young adults (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39-0.93), and residents living in urban (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.48-0.93) or poverty neighborhoods (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.95). The findings point to the potential benefits of neighborhood racial/ethnic diversity on individual health risks.

  1. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body

    J. H. Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm (Bombyx mori is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01, 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism.

  2. Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children

    Elvira Verduci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI, blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50, triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25 mmol/L and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21, and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11 mmol/L. Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2011-01-15

    Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Fatty Acids in Membranes as Homeostatic, Metabolic and Nutritional Biomarkers: Recent Advancements in Analytics and Diagnostics

    Carla Ferreri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids, as structural components of membranes and inflammation/anti-inflammatory mediators, have well-known protective and regulatory effects. They are studied as biomarkers of pathological conditions, as well as saturated and unsaturated hydrophobic moieties in membrane phospholipids that contribute to homeostasis and physiological functions. Lifestyle, nutrition, metabolism and stress—with an excess of radical and oxidative processes—cause fatty acid changes that are examined in the human body using blood lipids. Fatty acid-based membrane lipidomics represents a powerful diagnostic tool for assessing the quantity and quality of fatty acid constituents and also for the follow-up of the membrane fatty acid remodeling that is associated with different physiological and pathological conditions. This review focuses on fatty acid biomarkers with two examples of recent lipidomic research and health applications: (i monounsaturated fatty acids and the analytical challenge offered by hexadecenoic fatty acids (C16:1; and (ii the cohort of 10 fatty acids in phospholipids of red blood cell membranes and its connections to metabolic and nutritional status in healthy and diseased subjects.

  5. Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility.

  6. Nutritional Status Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-School Children in the City of Montes Claros - Mg, Brazil

    Cruz Igor Raineh Durães; Mourão Daniella Mota; Freitas Daniel Antunes; Souza Andrey George Silva; Pereira Alessandra Ribeiro; Aidar Felipe José; Carneiro André Luiz Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10?16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9...

  7. Nutritional anti-inflammatories in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome.

    Merone, Lea; McDermott, Robyn

    2017-05-01

    Obesity-fuelled metabolic syndrome and diabetes is now a global epidemic. There is increasing evidence that these and other chronic conditions have common inflammatory antecedents. There is an interest in nutritionally based anti-inflammatory treatments for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence from a 5-year period; 2011-2016, for nutritionally based anti-inflammatory treatments for the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. A literature search produced a total number of 1377 records, of which 26 papers were evaluated. Literature was analysed and tabulated according to date, outcome measures and results. The evidence is strong for use of polyphenolic compounds, fish oils and vitamins in reducing inflammation biomarkers, however the impact on metabolic control is less evident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of nutrition and metabolic status on the development of follicles, oocytes and embryos in ruminants.

    Dupont, J; Scaramuzzi, R J; Reverchon, M

    2014-07-01

    The impact of nutrition and energy reserves on the fertility of ruminants has been extensively described. However, the metabolic factors and the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between nutrition and ovarian function are still poorly understood. These factors could be hormonal (either reproductive and/or metabolic) and/or dietary and metabolic (glucose, amino acids and fatty acids). In this review, we briefly summarize the impact of those nutrients (fatty acids, glucose and amino acids) and metabolic hormones (insulin/IGF-I, growth hormone, T3/4, ghrelin, apelin and the adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin)) implicated in the development of ovarian follicles, oocytes and embryos in ruminants. We then discuss the current hypotheses on the mechanisms of action of these factors on ovarian function. We particularly describe the role of some energy sensors including adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the ovarian cells.

  9. Nutrition

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  10. [Update of recommendations for evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine and nutritional conditions. Working Group on Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology].

    Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Martín, Antonia; Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; Cortés-Berdonces, María; Luque-Fernández, Inés; Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Guadalix Iglesias, Sonsoles; Fernández García, Diego; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    To update previous recommendations developed by the Working Group on Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition for the evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to different endocrine and nutritional diseases. Members of the Working Group on Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the following terms associated to the name of each condition: AND "osteoporosis", "fractures", "bone mineral density", and "treatment". Papers in English with publication date between 18 October 2011 and 30 October 2014 were included. The recommendations were discussed and approved by all members of the Working Group. This update summarizes the new data regarding evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine and nutritional conditions. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of chronic complications, metabolic control and nutritional intake in type 1 diabetes

    Toeller, M; Buyken, A E; Heitkamp, G

    1999-01-01

    and proliferative retinopathy were more common. Persons from the eastern European and the German centres consumed undesirably high amounts of cholesterol, total and saturated fat. Overall, improvements in the prevention, detection and management of diabetes complications in persons with type 1 diabetes......) and chronic diabetes complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease) were all considerably more frequent in the eastern European centres. HbA1c was lower in the German centres than in the total EURODIAB cohort or in the north-western European centres, but severe hypoglycaemia......This study compares the prevalence of chronic complications, the quality of metabolic control and the nutritional intake in people with type 1 diabetes in different European regions. The EURODIAB Complications Study included a sample of 3250 European patients with type 1 diabetes stratified...

  12. Preferential use of central metabolism in vivo reveals a nutritional basis for polymicrobial infection.

    Christopher J Alteri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human genitourinary tract is a common anatomical niche for polymicrobial infection and a leading site for the development of bacteremia and sepsis. Most uncomplicated, community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI are caused by Escherichia coli, while another bacterium, Proteus mirabilis, is more often associated with complicated UTI. Here, we report that uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis have divergent requirements for specific central pathways in vivo despite colonizing and occupying the same host environment. Using mutants of specific central metabolism enzymes, we determined glycolysis mutants lacking pgi, tpiA, pfkA, or pykA all have fitness defects in vivo for P. mirabilis but do not affect colonization of E. coli during UTI. Similarly, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is required only for P. mirabilis in vivo. In contrast, gluconeogenesis is required only for E. coli fitness in vivo. The remarkable difference in central pathway utilization between E. coli and P. mirabilis during experimental UTI was also observed for TCA cycle mutants in sdhB, fumC, and frdA. The distinct in vivo requirements between these pathogens suggest E. coli and P. mirabilis are not direct competitors within host urinary tract nutritional niche. In support of this, we found that co-infection with E. coli and P. mirabilis wild-type strains enhanced bacterial colonization and persistence of both pathogens during UTI. Our results reveal that complementary utilization of central carbon metabolism facilitates polymicrobial disease and suggests microbial activity in vivo alters the host urinary tract nutritional niche.

  13. Preferential Use of Central Metabolism In Vivo Reveals a Nutritional Basis for Polymicrobial Infection

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2015-01-01

    The human genitourinary tract is a common anatomical niche for polymicrobial infection and a leading site for the development of bacteremia and sepsis. Most uncomplicated, community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by Escherichia coli, while another bacterium, Proteus mirabilis, is more often associated with complicated UTI. Here, we report that uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis have divergent requirements for specific central pathways in vivo despite colonizing and occupying the same host environment. Using mutants of specific central metabolism enzymes, we determined glycolysis mutants lacking pgi, tpiA, pfkA, or pykA all have fitness defects in vivo for P. mirabilis but do not affect colonization of E. coli during UTI. Similarly, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is required only for P. mirabilis in vivo. In contrast, gluconeogenesis is required only for E. coli fitness in vivo. The remarkable difference in central pathway utilization between E. coli and P. mirabilis during experimental UTI was also observed for TCA cycle mutants in sdhB, fumC, and frdA. The distinct in vivo requirements between these pathogens suggest E. coli and P. mirabilis are not direct competitors within host urinary tract nutritional niche. In support of this, we found that co-infection with E. coli and P. mirabilis wild-type strains enhanced bacterial colonization and persistence of both pathogens during UTI. Our results reveal that complementary utilization of central carbon metabolism facilitates polymicrobial disease and suggests microbial activity in vivo alters the host urinary tract nutritional niche. PMID:25568946

  14. Metabolic syndrome's risk factors and its association with nutritional status in schoolchildren

    Fabiana Costa Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic risk factors (RF to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS have been evidenced at early ages, including children. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of RF to the diagnosis of MetS and its association with nutritional status of schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 505 students of municipal schools in Macae, Brazil, conducted from 2013 to 2014. The RF evaluated were: blood pressure (mm Hg, triglycerides (mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L fasting glucose (mmol/L and waist circumference (cm. At least one RF was present in 61% (n = 308 of the sample. By nutritional status, there was higher prevalence of RF in overweight/obese schoolchildren compared to those with normal weight, except in the concentration of HDL-c. The prevalence of one, two and three RF (MetS were 34.7% (n = 175, 21.0% (n = 106 and 5.3% (n = 27, respectively. Two RF were more present in overweight (28.2% 95%CI 19.0; 39.0 and obese (41.5% 95%CI 31.4; 52.1 compared to normal weight children (13.5% 95%CI 9.9; 17.8. Three or more RF were more frequent among obese (25.5% 95%CI 17.0; 35.5 in relation to overweight (2.4% 95%CI 0.2; 8.2 and normal weight children (0.3% 95%CI 0; 1.7. The data indicate high prevalence of RF and its relationship with the magnitude of body weight excess. Therefore, the identification and early treatment of these RF might minimize the risk of MetS and related diseases.

  15. Current thoughts on maternal nutrition and fetal programming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Brenseke, Bonnie; Prater, M Renee; Bahamonde, Javiera; Gutierrez, J Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although the metabolic syndrome has been defined in various ways, the ultimate importance of recognizing this combination of disorders is that it helps identify individuals at high risk for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence from observational and experimental studies links adverse exposures in early life, particularly relating to nutrition, to chronic disease susceptibility in adulthood. Such studies provide the foundation and framework for the relatively new field of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). Although great strides have been made in identifying the putative concepts and mechanisms relating specific exposures in early life to the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood, a complete picture remains obscure. To date, the main focus of the field has been on perinatal undernutrition and specific nutrient deficiencies; however, the current global health crisis of overweight and obesity demands that perinatal overnutrition and specific nutrient excesses be examined. This paper assembles current thoughts on the concepts and mechanisms behind the DOHaD as they relate to maternal nutrition, and highlights specific contributions made by macro- and micronutrients.

  16. Current Thoughts on Maternal Nutrition and Fetal Programming of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Bonnie Brenseke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although the metabolic syndrome has been defined in various ways, the ultimate importance of recognizing this combination of disorders is that it helps identify individuals at high risk for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence from observational and experimental studies links adverse exposures in early life, particularly relating to nutrition, to chronic disease susceptibility in adulthood. Such studies provide the foundation and framework for the relatively new field of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD. Although great strides have been made in identifying the putative concepts and mechanisms relating specific exposures in early life to the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood, a complete picture remains obscure. To date, the main focus of the field has been on perinatal undernutrition and specific nutrient deficiencies; however, the current global health crisis of overweight and obesity demands that perinatal overnutrition and specific nutrient excesses be examined. This paper assembles current thoughts on the concepts and mechanisms behind the DOHaD as they relate to maternal nutrition, and highlights specific contributions made by macro- and micronutrients.

  17. Computerized system for measuring cerebral metabolism

    McGlone, J.S.; Hibbard, L.S.; Hawkins, R.A.; Kasturi, R.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized stereotactic measurement system for evaluating rat brain metabolism was developed to utilize the large amount of data generated by quantitative autoradiography. Conventional methods of measurement only analyze a small percent of these data because these methods are limited by instrument design and the subjectiveness of the investigator. However, a computerized system allows digital images to be analyzed by placing data at their appropriate three-dimensional stereotactic coordinates. The system automatically registers experimental data to a standard three-dimensional image using alignment, scaling, and matching operations. Metabolic activity in different neuronal structures is then measured by generating digital masks and superimposing them on to experimental data. Several experimental data sets were evaluated and it was noticed that the structures measured by the computerized system, had in general, lower metabolic activity than manual measurements had indicated. This was expected because the computerized system measured the structure over its volume while the manual readings were taken from the most active metabolic area of a particular structure

  18. Establishment and issues of new educational system by nutrition teachers.

    Maruya, Nobuko; Kaneda, Masayo; Namikawa, Shintaro; Nakajima, Tomoko; Tamon, Takako; Murai, Yoko

    2005-08-01

    The Japanese school lunch system, which has over 100 y of history, has gained world attention for its well-developed and steady system, healthy Japanese-style menus including rice, and educational programs utilizing the school lunch system. Meanwhile, risk factors of health among students have been continuously worsening for the past dozen years or so. Therefore, Japan had hastened to develop better educational programs utilizing the school lunch and nutritional teachers. Under such circumstances, the Japanese Diet passed a bill to amend the School Education Law (hereinafter called the Amendment) which includes the establishment of an educational system by nutrition teachers in May, 2004. This system will be enforced in April, 2005. This system by nutrition teachers in Japan is well organized in both the legal and administrative senses and is attracting domestic and international attention as an example of an educational measure to improve the dietary life of students. The reason for this article in English is the additional intention of enlightening other countries by showing the political promotion problems of educational administration agencies, educational contents of nutrition teachers and some issues of the new educational system by nutrition teachers.

  19. Systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting.

    Sagt, Cees M J

    2013-03-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is based on systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering and is now also applied in industry. Industrial use of systems metabolic engineering focuses on strain and process optimization. Since ambitious yields, titers, productivities, and low costs are key in an industrial setting, the use of effective and robust methods in systems metabolic engineering is becoming very important. Major improvements in the field of proteomics and metabolomics have been crucial in the development of genome-wide approaches in strain and process development. This is accompanied by a rapid increase in DNA sequencing and synthesis capacity. These developments enable the use of systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting. Industrial systems metabolic engineering can be defined as the combined use of genome-wide genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to modify strains or processes. This approach has become very common since the technology for generating large data sets of all levels of the cellular processes has developed quite fast into robust, reliable, and affordable methods. The main challenge and scope of this mini review is how to translate these large data sets in relevant biological leads which can be tested for strain or process improvements. Experimental setup, heterogeneity of the culture, and sample pretreatment are important issues which are easily underrated. In addition, the process of structuring, filtering, and visualization of data is important, but also, the availability of a genetic toolbox and equipment for medium/high-throughput fermentation is a key success factor. For an efficient bioprocess, all the different components in this process have to work together. Therefore, mutual tuning of these components is an important strategy.

  20. LA sprouts randomized controlled nutrition and gardening program reduces obesity and metabolic risk in Latino youth.

    Gatto, Nicole M; Martinez, Lauren C; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention ("LA Sprouts") on dietary intake, obesity parameters, and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. The randomized controlled trial involved four elementary schools [two schools randomized to intervention (172 third-through fifth-grade students); two schools randomized to control (147 third-through fifth-grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and postintervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1-vs. 0.04-point decrease, respectively; P = 0.01) and WC (-1.2 cm vs. no change; P < 0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. -15.5%; P = 0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (-3.6% vs. -26.4%; P = 0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LA Sprouts and control subjects. LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Developmental programming of somatic growth, behavior and endocannabinoid metabolism by variation of early postnatal nutrition in a cross-fostering mouse model.

    Schreiner, Felix; Ackermann, Merle; Michalik, Michael; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Racz, Ildiko; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Dötsch, Jörg; Zimmer, Andreas; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient deprivation during early development has been associated with the predisposition to metabolic disorders in adulthood. Considering its interaction with metabolism, appetite and behavior, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system represents a promising target of developmental programming. By cross-fostering and variation of litter size, early postnatal nutrition of CB6F1-hybrid mice was controlled during the lactation period (3, 6, or 10 pups/mother). After weaning and redistribution at P21, all pups received standard chow ad libitum. Gene expression analyses (liver, visceral fat, hypothalamus) were performed at P50, eCB concentrations were determined in liver and visceral fat. Locomotor activity and social behavior were analyzed by means of computer-assisted videotracking. Body growth was permanently altered, with differences for length, weight, body mass index and fat mass persisting beyond P100 (all 3>6>10,p6>10 (DAGLα p6>10 (FAAH pOpen-field social behavior testing revealed significant group differences, with formerly underfed mice turning out to be the most sociable animals (p<0.01). Locomotor activity did not differ. Our data indicate a developmental plasticity of somatic growth, behavior and parameters of the eCB system, with long-lasting impact of early postnatal nutrition. Developmental programming of the eCB system in metabolically active tissues, as shown here for liver and fat, may play a role in the formation of the adult cardiometabolic risk profile following perinatal malnutrition in humans.

  2. Herman Award Lecture, 1996: relation of metabolic studies to clinical nutrition--the example of burn injury.

    Wolfe, R R

    1996-11-01

    The optimal nutritional support of critically ill patients should be based on the metabolic response. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments in patients using stable isotopic tracers designed to elucidate the responses of glucose, fatty acids, and protein metabolism in severely burned patients. Glucose production was elevated above normal as a result of an increase in glucagon concentration. The peripheral hypoglycemic action of insulin was diminished, as was its effectiveness in suppressing endogenous glucose production, but the intracellular capacity to oxidize glucose was not impaired. Lipolysis was stimulated by beta 2-adrenergic stimulation to a much greater extent than was fatty acid oxidation, with the result being an increase in the recycling of fatty acids secreted in very-low-density lipoproteins. Muscle protein catabolism was accelerated in severely burned patients, leading to a progressive loss of lean body mass that was not prevented by nutritional support alone. The ineffectiveness of nutritional support for muscle was due to alterations in amino acid transmembrane transport kinetics that favored efflux. Treatment with exogenous insulin stimulated inward amino acid transport and muscle protein synthesis. Extrapolation from our current knowledge of metabolism to clinical treatment indicates that nonprotein energy should be provided largely in the form of carbohydrate. If hyperglycemia ensues, exogenous insulin will further increase the anabolic response in muscle. Protein requirements can be met with 1.5 g protein.kg-1.d-1. Treatment with anabolic hormones may ultimately be the most effective way in which to optimize the response to nutritional support.

  3. Associations of Prenatal Growth with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Nutritional Status in Chilean Children

    Francisco Mardones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS, and insulin resistance (IR was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40 at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999. The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67 at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm. A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes.

  4. The New European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism Definition of Malnutrition: Application for Nutrition Assessment and Prediction of Morbimortality in an Emergency Service.

    Fink, Jaqueline da Silva; Marcadenti, Aline; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Silva, Flávia Moraes

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) provided novel consensus criteria for malnutrition diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of this instrument in combination with different nutrition screening tools (1) to identify malnutrition and (2) to predict morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Observational prospective study in 750 adults admitted to the emergency service of a tertiary public hospital. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA-reference method) and the new ESPEN criteria were used to assess nutrition status of patients, who were initially screened for nutrition risk using 4 different tools. Outcome measures included length of hospital stay, occurrence of infection, and incidence of death during hospitalization, analyzed by logistic regression. There was a lack of agreement between the SGA and ESPEN definition of malnutrition, regardless of the nutrition screening tool applied previously (κ = -0.050 to 0.09). However, when Malnutrition Screening Tool and Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) were used as the screening tool, malnourished patients according to ESPEN criteria showed higher probability of infection (relative risk [RR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.31 and RR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.37-3.10, respectively), and when the NRS-2002 was used, the risk for death was 2.7 times higher (hazard ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.07-6.81) in malnourished patients than in well-nourished patients. Although the new ESPEN criteria had a poor diagnostic value, it seems to be a prognostic tool among hospitalized patients, especially when used in combination with the NRS-2002.

  5. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA...

  6. NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC ASSESSMENT IN OVERWEIGHT PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT HYPERPROLACTINEMIA CAUSED BY PROLACTINOMA.

    Breyer Freitas, Bruna; Rothen, Renata Elisabeth; Zeni, Débora; Garcia Soares Leães, Carolina; Costa Oliveira, Miriam; Michielin Busnello, Fernanda; Fernanda Semmelmann Pereira-Lima, Júlia

    2015-11-01

    prolactinomas are pituitary adenomas that express and secrete prolactin. These patients are overweight and the mechanisms are being studied. assess nutritional and metabolic status of overweight patients with and without hyperprolactinemia caused by prolactinoma and compare them. cross-sectional study, patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 with and without prolactinoma: 1) 20 normoprolactinemic (NPrl) with prolactinoma; 2) 23 hyperprolactinemic (HPrl) with prolactinoma; 3) 28 controls without prolactinoma or alterations in prolactin levels. Evaluated through anthropometric, dietetics, and biochemical assessment. of the 71 patients evaluated, most were obese women with macroprolactinomas. All three groups had diets with low caloric and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake, the NPrl group had low carbohydrate (CHO) intake and high lipid (LIP) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, and the NPrl and HPrl groups had appropriate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The HPrl group had elevated total cholesterol. HDL cholesterol was below the recommended threshold for most patients. No statistically significant differences were found in anthropometric and biochemical variables among the groups. most patients with prolactinomas and controls are obese and metabolically similar regardless of prolactin levels. All groups presented low caloric and MUFA intake. Protein, LIP, SFA, and cholesterol were significantly different among the groups, the NPrl group ingested less amount of protein and greater of fat. Snacking between meals and changes of food consumption on weekends was reported by most patients. This is the first study comparing patients with prolactinomas and controls, both with overweight, regarding food consumption and feeding behavior. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer perceptions of the Nutrition Facts table and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems.

    Emrich, Teri E; Qi, Ying; Mendoza, Julio E; Lou, Wendy; Cohen, Joanna E; L'abbé, Mary R

    2014-04-01

    Preferences for, and consumer friendliness of, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition rating systems have not been studied in a Canadian population, and studies comparing systems that are accompanied by mandatory labelling, such as Canada's Nutrition Facts table (NFt), are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 4 FOP systems relative to the NFt with respect to consumer friendliness and their influence on perceptions of the healthiness and nutrient content of food. Canadian consumers (n = 3029) participating in an online survey were randomized to score the consumer friendliness of 1 of 5 FOP conditions with or without an NFt and to score the healthiness and nutrient content of 2 foods using the provided label(s). The mean differences in scores were evaluated with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for age, gender, and education, with Tukey-Kramer adjustments for multiple comparisons. The NFt received the highest scores of consumer friendliness with respect to liking, helpfulness, credibility, and influence on purchase decisions (p consumers still supported the implementation of a single, standardized FOP system, with the nutrient-specific systems (a "Traffic Light" and a Nutrition Facts FOP system) being preferred and scored as more consumer friendly than the summary indicator systems. Without the NFt, consumer ratings of the healthiness and calorie and nutrient content differed by FOP system. With the NFt present, consumers rated the healthiness and calorie and nutrient content similarly, except for those who saw the Traffic Light; their ratings were influenced by the Traffic Light's colours. The introduction of a single, standard, nutrient-specific FOP system to supplement the mandatory NFt should be considered by Canadian policy makers.

  8. Nutritional Status Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-School Children in the City of Montes Claros - Mg, Brazil

    Cruz Igor Raineh Durães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10-16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI. Metabolic syndrome (MS was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9.7% of students with MS were overweight and 72.4% were obese. Therefore, it can be inferred that carrying excess weight considerably increases the chances for a child to develop MS, and concomitantly increases the child’s risk for developing cardiovascular disease.

  9. Preoperative overnight parenteral nutrition (TPN) improves skeletal muscle protein metabolism indicated by microarray algorithm analyses in a randomized trial.

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Engström, Cecilia; Lundholm, Kent

    2016-06-01

    Loss of muscle mass is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Uncertainties of treatment efficiency by short-term artificial nutrition remain, specifically improvement of protein balance in skeletal muscles. In this study, algorithmic microarray analysis was applied to map cellular changes related to muscle protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle tissue during provision of overnight preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Twenty-two patients (11/group) scheduled for upper GI surgery due to malignant or benign disease received a continuous peripheral all-in-one TPN infusion (30 kcal/kg/day, 0.16 gN/kg/day) or saline infusion for 12 h prior operation. Biopsies from the rectus abdominis muscle were taken at the start of operation for isolation of muscle RNA RNA expression microarray analyses were performed with Agilent Sureprint G3, 8 × 60K arrays using one-color labeling. 447 mRNAs were differently expressed between study and control patients (P nutrition; particularly anabolic signaling S6K1 (P parenteral nutrition is effective to promote muscle protein metabolism. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Designing and determining validity and reliability of a questionnaire to identify factors affecting nutritional behavior among patients with metabolic syndrome

    Naseh Esmaeili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : A number of studies have shown a clear relationship between diet and component of metabolic syndrome. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA, attitude and subjective norm are factors affecting behavioral intention and subsequently behavior. The aim of the present study is to design a valid questionnaire identifying factors affecting nutritional behavior among patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Via literature review, six focus group discussion and interview with nutrition specialists were performed to develop an instrument based on the theory of reasoned action. To determine validity of the instrument, content and face validity analyses with 15 expert panels conducted and also to determine reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient performed. Results: A draft of 100 items questionnaire was developed and after evaluation of validity and reliability, final questionnaire included 46 items: 17 items for attitude, 13 items for subjective norms and 16 items for behavioral intention. For the final questionnaire average of content validity index was 0/92 and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was 0/85. Conclusion: Based on the results of the current study the developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument and it can be used to identify factors affecting nutritional behavior among people with metabolic syndrome based on the theory of reasoned action.

  11. Nutritional support for the infant's immune system

    Niers, L.; Stasse-Wolthuis, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Rijkers, G.T.

    2007-01-01

    Newborn babies possess a functional but immature immune system as a defense against a world teeming with microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological, active compounds that support the infant's immune system. These include secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which confers specific

  12. Automated metabolic gas analysis systems: a review.

    Macfarlane, D J

    2001-01-01

    The use of automated metabolic gas analysis systems or metabolic measurement carts (MMC) in exercise studies is common throughout the industrialised world. They have become essential tools for diagnosing many hospital patients, especially those with cardiorespiratory disease. Moreover, the measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is routine for many athletes in fitness laboratories and has become a defacto standard in spite of its limitations. The development of metabolic carts has also facilitated the noninvasive determination of the lactate threshold and cardiac output, respiratory gas exchange kinetics, as well as studies of outdoor activities via small portable systems that often use telemetry. Although the fundamental principles behind the measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) have not changed, the techniques used have, and indeed, some have almost turned through a full circle. Early scientists often employed a manual Douglas bag method together with separate chemical analyses, but the need for faster and more efficient techniques fuelled the development of semi- and full-automated systems by private and commercial institutions. Yet, recently some scientists are returning back to the traditional Douglas bag or Tissot-spirometer methods, or are using less complex automated systems to not only save capital costs, but also to have greater control over the measurement process. Over the last 40 years, a considerable number of automated systems have been developed, with over a dozen commercial manufacturers producing in excess of 20 different automated systems. The validity and reliability of all these different systems is not well known, with relatively few independent studies having been published in this area. For comparative studies to be possible and to facilitate greater consistency of measurements in test-retest or longitudinal studies of individuals, further knowledge about the performance characteristics of these

  13. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Diabetic Retinopathy: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Tai Kyong Kim

    Full Text Available To explore gender differences and associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, and diabetic retinopathy (DR in Korean adults aged 40 years and older with diabetes.We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2012. In total, 2,576 type 2 diabetic participants, aged 40 and older, were evaluated. Seven standard retinal fundus photographs were obtained after pupil dilation in both eyes. DR was graded using the modified Airlie House classification system. Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR included proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement, proposed in 2009, by the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between MetS and its individual components with DR and VTDR.After controlling for confounders, MetS was not associated with DR in men or women. Moreover, the risk for DR or VTDR did not increase with increasing MetS components. However, high waist circumference was significantly inversely associated with VTDR (adjusted odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.93 only in men.MetS was not associated with DR or VTDR in a Korean diabetic population. However, among MetS components, it seems that abdominal obesity was inversely associated with VTDR in Korean diabetic men.

  14. Feeding Our Immune System: Impact on Metabolism

    Isabelle Wolowczuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous intestinal microflora and environmental factors, such as diet, play a central role in immune homeostasis and reactivity. In addition, microflora and diet both influence body weight and insulin-resistance, notably through an action on adipose cells. Moreover, it is known since a long time that any disturbance in metabolism, like obesity, is associated with immune alteration, for example, inflammation. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on how nutrients-derived factors (mostly focusing on fatty acids and glucose impact the innate and acquired immune systems, including the gut immune system and its associated bacterial flora. We will try to show the reader how the highly energy-demanding immune cells use glucose as a main source of fuel in a way similar to that of insulin-responsive adipose tissue and how Toll-like receptors (TLRs of the innate immune system, which are found on immune cells, intestinal cells, and adipocytes, are presently viewed as essential actors in the complex balance ensuring bodily immune and metabolic health. Understanding more about these links will surely help to study and understand in a more fundamental way the common observation that eating healthy will keep you and your immune system healthy.

  15. Towards systems metabolic engineering in Pichia pastoris.

    Schwarzhans, Jan-Philipp; Luttermann, Tobias; Geier, Martina; Kalinowski, Jörn; Friehs, Karl

    2017-11-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is firmly established as a host for the production of recombinant proteins, frequently outperforming other heterologous hosts. Already, a sizeable amount of systems biology knowledge has been acquired for this non-conventional yeast. By applying various omics-technologies, productivity features have been thoroughly analyzed and optimized via genetic engineering. However, challenging clonal variability, limited vector repertoire and insufficient genome annotation have hampered further developments. Yet, in the last few years a reinvigorated effort to establish P. pastoris as a host for both protein and metabolite production is visible. A variety of compounds from terpenoids to polyketides have been synthesized, often exceeding the productivity of other microbial systems. The clonal variability was systematically investigated and strategies formulated to circumvent untargeted events, thereby streamlining the screening procedure. Promoters with novel regulatory properties were discovered or engineered from existing ones. The genetic tractability was increased via the transfer of popular manipulation and assembly techniques, as well as the creation of new ones. A second generation of sequencing projects culminated in the creation of the second best functionally annotated yeast genome. In combination with landmark physiological insights and increased output of omics-data, a good basis for the creation of refined genome-scale metabolic models was created. The first application of model-based metabolic engineering in P. pastoris showcased the potential of this approach. Recent efforts to establish yeast peroxisomes for compartmentalized metabolite synthesis appear to fit ideally with the well-studied high capacity peroxisomal machinery of P. pastoris. Here, these recent developments are collected and reviewed with the aim of supporting the establishment of systems metabolic engineering in P. pastoris. Copyright © 2017. Published

  16. The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction: A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility.

    Fontana, Roberta; Della Torre, Sara

    2016-02-11

    In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally poor environments, but nowadays is affecting women's health. The unlimited availability of nutrients, in association with reduced energy expenditure, leads to alterations in many metabolic pathways and to impairments in the finely tuned inter-relation between energy metabolism and reproduction, thereby affecting female fertility. Many energetic states could influence female reproductive health being under- and over-weight, obesity and strenuous physical activity are all conditions that alter the profiles of specific hormones, such as insulin and adipokines, thus impairing women fertility. Furthermore, specific classes of nutrients might affect female fertility by acting on particular signaling pathways. Dietary fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and food-associated components (such as endocrine disruptors) have per se physiological activities and their unbalanced intake, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, might impair metabolic homeostasis and fertility in premenopausal women. Even though we are far from identifying a "fertility diet", lifestyle and dietary interventions might represent a promising and invaluable strategy to manage infertility in premenopausal women.

  17. The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction: A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility

    Roberta Fontana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally poor environments, but nowadays is affecting women’s health. The unlimited availability of nutrients, in association with reduced energy expenditure, leads to alterations in many metabolic pathways and to impairments in the finely tuned inter-relation between energy metabolism and reproduction, thereby affecting female fertility. Many energetic states could influence female reproductive health being under- and over-weight, obesity and strenuous physical activity are all conditions that alter the profiles of specific hormones, such as insulin and adipokines, thus impairing women fertility. Furthermore, specific classes of nutrients might affect female fertility by acting on particular signaling pathways. Dietary fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and food-associated components (such as endocrine disruptors have per se physiological activities and their unbalanced intake, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, might impair metabolic homeostasis and fertility in premenopausal women. Even though we are far from identifying a “fertility diet”, lifestyle and dietary interventions might represent a promising and invaluable strategy to manage infertility in premenopausal women.

  18. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all Piodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  19. Altering pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status modulates mitochondrial, lipid, and energy metabolism in rats.

    Kathryn Bauerly

    Full Text Available We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion injury are described herein. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet with PQQ added at either 0 (PQQ- or 2 mg PQQ/Kg diet (PQQ+. Measurements included: 1 serum glucose and insulin, 2 total energy expenditure per metabolic body size (Wt(3/4, 3 respiratory quotients (in the fed and fasted states, 4 changes in plasma lipids, 5 the relative mitochondrial amount in liver and heart, and 6 indices related to cardiac ischemia. For the latter, rats (PQQ- or PQQ+ were subjected to left anterior descending occlusions followed by 2 h of reperfusion to determine PQQ's influence on infarct size and myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs. PQQ+ rats and energy expenditure (fed state was correlated with the hepatic mitochondrial content. Elevations in plasma di- and triacylglyceride and β-hydroxybutryic acid concentrations were also observed in PQQ- rats vs. PQQ+ rats. Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Cardiac injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion was more pronounced in PQQ- rats than in PQQ+ rats. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.

  20. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010*

    FORD, Earl S.; CUNNINGHAM, Timothy J.; MERCADO, Carla I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Considerable uncertainty remains about obstructive lung function (OLF) in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to examine pulmonary function status in adults with and without MetS. Methods We used data from 3109 participants aged ≥20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Subjects’ MetS status was established on the basis of the 2009 harmonizing definition. Participants received spirometry. Results After age adjustment, 79.3% (SE 1.1) of participants with MetS had normal lung function, 8.7% (0.9) had restrictive lung function (RLF), 7.1% (0.8) had mild OLF, and 4.8% (0.6) had moderate OLF or worse. Among participants without MetS, these estimates were 78.7% (1.2), 3.9% (0.6), 10.9% (1.1), and 6.4% (0.8), respectively. After multiple adjustment, participants with MetS were more likely to have RLF (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.90) and less likely to have any OLF (aPR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86) than those without MetS. Furthermore, participants with MetS had lower mean levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FVC % predicted, but a higher FEV1/FVC ratio than participants without MetS. Mean levels of FEV1, FEV1 % predicted, FVC, and FVC % predicted declined significantly, but not the FEV1/FVC ratio, as the number of components increased. Conclusions Compared with adults without MetS, spirometry is more likely to show a restrictive pattern and less likely to show an obstructive pattern among adults with MetS. PMID:26677470

  1. Design of Nutrition Catering System for Athletes Based on Access Database

    Hongjiang Wu,; Haiyan Zhao; Xugang Liu; Mingshun Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to monitor and adjust athletes' dietary nutrition scientifically, Active X Data Object (ADO) and Structure Query Language (SQL) were used to produce program under the development environment of Visual Basic 6.0 and Access database. The consulting system on food nutrition and dietary had been developed with the two languages combination and organization of the latest nutrition information. Nutrition balance of physiological characteristics, assessment for nutrition intake, inquiring n...

  2. Protein design in systems metabolic engineering for industrial strain development.

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Accelerating the process of industrial bacterial host strain development, aimed at increasing productivity, generating new bio-products or utilizing alternative feedstocks, requires the integration of complementary approaches to manipulate cellular metabolism and regulatory networks. Systems metabolic engineering extends the concept of classical metabolic engineering to the systems level by incorporating the techniques used in systems biology and synthetic biology, and offers a framework for the development of the next generation of industrial strains. As one of the most useful tools of systems metabolic engineering, protein design allows us to design and optimize cellular metabolism at a molecular level. Here, we review the current strategies of protein design for engineering cellular synthetic pathways, metabolic control systems and signaling pathways, and highlight the challenges of this subfield within the context of systems metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The development of android - based children's nutritional status monitoring system

    Suryanto, Agus; Paramita, Octavianti; Pribadi, Feddy Setio

    2017-03-01

    The calculation of BMI (Body Mass Index) is one of the methods to calculate the nutritional status of a person. The BMI calculation has not yet widely understood and known by the public. In addition, people should know the importance of progress in the development of child nutrition each month. Therefore, an application to determine the nutritional status of children based on Android was developed in this study. This study restricted the calculation for children with the age of 0-60 months. The application can run on a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system due to the rapid development of a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system and many people own and use it. The aim of this study was to produce a android app to calculate of nutritional status of children. This study was Research and Development (R & D), with a design approach using experimental studies. The steps in this study included analyzing the formula of the Body Mass Index (BMI) and developing the initial application with the help of a computer that includes the design and manufacture of display using Eclipse software. This study resulted in android application that can be used to calculate the nutritional status of children with the age 0-60 months. The results of MES or the error calculation analysis using body mass index formula was 0. In addition, the results of MAPE percentage was 0%. It shows that there is no error in the calculation of the application based on the BMI formula. The smaller value of MSE and MAPE leads to higher level of accuracy.

  4. Precision metabolic engineering: The design of responsive, selective, and controllable metabolic systems.

    McNerney, Monica P; Watstein, Daniel M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic engineering is generally focused on static optimization of cells to maximize production of a desired product, though recently dynamic metabolic engineering has explored how metabolic programs can be varied over time to improve titer. However, these are not the only types of applications where metabolic engineering could make a significant impact. Here, we discuss a new conceptual framework, termed "precision metabolic engineering," involving the design and engineering of systems that make different products in response to different signals. Rather than focusing on maximizing titer, these types of applications typically have three hallmarks: sensing signals that determine the desired metabolic target, completely directing metabolic flux in response to those signals, and producing sharp responses at specific signal thresholds. In this review, we will first discuss and provide examples of precision metabolic engineering. We will then discuss each of these hallmarks and identify which existing metabolic engineering methods can be applied to accomplish those tasks, as well as some of their shortcomings. Ultimately, precise control of metabolic systems has the potential to enable a host of new metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications for any problem where flexibility of response to an external signal could be useful. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of nutritional education on weight change and metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia in Japan: A randomized controlled trial.

    Sugawara, Norio; Sagae, Toyoaki; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Sugai, Takuro; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yutaro; Ozeki, Yuji; Okamoto, Kurefu; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2018-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than the general population. Minimizing weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in a population with an already high prevalence of obesity is of clinical and social importance. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of monthly nutritional education on weight change and metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. From July 2014 to December 2014, we recruited 265 obese patients who had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants were randomly assigned to a standard care (A), doctor's weight loss advice (B), or an individual nutritional education group (C) for 12 months. The prevalence of MetS and body weight were measured at baseline and 12 months. After the 12-month treatment, 189 patients were evaluated, and the prevalence of MetS based on the ATP III-A definition in groups A, B, and C was 68.9%, 67.2%, and 47.5%, respectively. Group C showed increased weight loss (3.2 ± 4.5 kg) over the 12-month study period, and the change in weight differed significantly from that of group A; additionally, 26.2% of the participants in group C lost 7% or more of their initial weight, compared with 8.2% of those in group A. Individual nutrition education provided by a dietitian was highly successful in reducing obesity in patients with schizophrenia and could be the first choice to address both weight gain and metabolic abnormalities induced by antipsychotic medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reward Systems in the Brain and Nutrition.

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2016-07-17

    The taste cortex in the anterior insula provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are combined by associative learning with olfactory and visual inputs for some neurons, and these neurons encode food reward value in that they respond to food only when hunger is present and in that activations correlate linearly with subjective pleasantness. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions and selective attention to affective value, modulate the representation of the reward value of taste, olfactory, and flavor stimuli in the orbitofrontal cortex and a region to which it projects, the anterior cingulate cortex. These food reward representations are important in the control of appetite and food intake. Individual differences in reward representations may contribute to obesity, and there are age-related differences in these reward representations. Implications of how reward systems in the brain operate for understanding, preventing, and treating obesity are described.

  7. Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: Importance for metabolic health

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background While additional research is needed, a number of large epidemiological studies show an association between circadian disruption and metabolic disorders. Specifically, obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and other signs of metabolic syndrome all have been linked to circadian disruption in humans. Studies in other species support this association and generally reveal that feeding that is not in phase with the external light/dark cycle, as often occurs with night or rotating shift workers, is disadvantageous in terms of energy balance. As food is a strong driver of circadian rhythms in the periphery, understanding how nutrient metabolism drives clocks across the body is important for dissecting out why circadian misalignment may produce such metabolic effects. A number of circadian clock proteins as well as their accessory proteins (such as nuclear receptors) are highly sensitive to nutrient metabolism. Macronutrients and micronutrients can function as zeitgebers for the clock in a tissue-specific way and can thus impair synchrony between clocks across the body, or potentially restore synchrony in the case of circadian misalignment. Circadian nuclear receptors are particularly sensitive to nutrient metabolism and can alter tissue-specific rhythms in response to changes in the diet. Finally, SNPs in human clock genes appear to be correlated with diet-specific responses and along with chronotype eventually may provide valuable information from a clinical perspective on how to use diet and nutrition to treat metabolic disorders. Scope of review This article presents a background of the circadian clock components and their interrelated metabolic and transcriptional feedback loops, followed by a review of some recent studies in humans and rodents that address the effects of nutrient metabolism on the circadian clock and vice versa. We focus on studies in which results suggest that nutrients provide an opportunity to restore or, alternatively

  8. Systems Nutrigenomics Reveals Brain Gene Networks Linking Metabolic and Brain Disorders.

    Meng, Qingying; Ying, Zhe; Noble, Emily; Zhao, Yuqi; Agrawal, Rahul; Mikhail, Andrew; Zhuang, Yumei; Tyagi, Ethika; Zhang, Qing; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Morselli, Marco; Orozco, Luz; Guo, Weilong; Kilts, Tina M; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Pellegrini, Matteo; Xiao, Xinshu; Young, Marian F; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Yang, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Nutrition plays a significant role in the increasing prevalence of metabolic and brain disorders. Here we employ systems nutrigenomics to scrutinize the genomic bases of nutrient-host interaction underlying disease predisposition or therapeutic potential. We conducted transcriptome and epigenome sequencing of hypothalamus (metabolic control) and hippocampus (cognitive processing) from a rodent model of fructose consumption, and identified significant reprogramming of DNA methylation, transcript abundance, alternative splicing, and gene networks governing cell metabolism, cell communication, inflammation, and neuronal signaling. These signals converged with genetic causal risks of metabolic, neurological, and psychiatric disorders revealed in humans. Gene network modeling uncovered the extracellular matrix genes Bgn and Fmod as main orchestrators of the effects of fructose, as validated using two knockout mouse models. We further demonstrate that an omega-3 fatty acid, DHA, reverses the genomic and network perturbations elicited by fructose, providing molecular support for nutritional interventions to counteract diet-induced metabolic and brain disorders. Our integrative approach complementing rodent and human studies supports the applicability of nutrigenomics principles to predict disease susceptibility and to guide personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated Metabolic P System Placement in FPGA

    Kulakovskis Darius

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An original Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL code generation tool that can be used to automate Metabolic P (MP system implementation in hardware such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA is described. Unlike P systems, MP systems use a single membrane in their computations. Nevertheless, there are many biological processes that have been successfully modeled by MP systems in software. This is the first attempt to analyze MP system hardware implementations. Two different MP systems are investigated with the purpose of verifying the developed software: the model of glucose–insulin interactions in the Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT, and the Non-Photochemical Quenching process. The implemented systems’ calculation accuracy and hardware resource usage are examined. It is found that code generation tool works adequately; however, a final decision has to be done by the developer because sometimes several implementation architecture alternatives have to be considered. As an archetypical example serves the IVGTT MP systems’ 21–23 bits FPGA implementation manifesting this in the Digital Signal Processor (DSP, slice, and 4-input LUT usage.

  10. Bioenergetics-based modeling of Plasmodium falciparum metabolism reveals its essential genes, nutritional requirements, and thermodynamic bottlenecks

    Chiappino-Pepe, Anush; Ataman, Meriç

    2017-01-01

    Novel antimalarial therapies are urgently needed for the fight against drug-resistant parasites. The metabolism of malaria parasites in infected cells is an attractive source of drug targets but is rather complex. Computational methods can handle this complexity and allow integrative analyses of cell metabolism. In this study, we present a genome-scale metabolic model (iPfa) of the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and its thermodynamics-based flux analysis (TFA). Using previous absolute concentration data of the intraerythrocytic parasite, we applied TFA to iPfa and predicted up to 63 essential genes and 26 essential pairs of genes. Of the 63 genes, 35 have been experimentally validated and reported in the literature, and 28 have not been experimentally tested and include previously hypothesized or novel predictions of essential metabolic capabilities. Without metabolomics data, four of the genes would have been incorrectly predicted to be non-essential. TFA also indicated that substrate channeling should exist in two metabolic pathways to ensure the thermodynamic feasibility of the flux. Finally, analysis of the metabolic capabilities of P. falciparum led to the identification of both the minimal nutritional requirements and the genes that can become indispensable upon substrate inaccessibility. This model provides novel insight into the metabolic needs and capabilities of the malaria parasite and highlights metabolites and pathways that should be measured and characterized to identify potential thermodynamic bottlenecks and substrate channeling. The hypotheses presented seek to guide experimental studies to facilitate a better understanding of the parasite metabolism and the identification of targets for more efficient intervention. PMID:28333921

  11. Bioenergetics-based modeling of Plasmodium falciparum metabolism reveals its essential genes, nutritional requirements, and thermodynamic bottlenecks.

    Anush Chiappino-Pepe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel antimalarial therapies are urgently needed for the fight against drug-resistant parasites. The metabolism of malaria parasites in infected cells is an attractive source of drug targets but is rather complex. Computational methods can handle this complexity and allow integrative analyses of cell metabolism. In this study, we present a genome-scale metabolic model (iPfa of the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and its thermodynamics-based flux analysis (TFA. Using previous absolute concentration data of the intraerythrocytic parasite, we applied TFA to iPfa and predicted up to 63 essential genes and 26 essential pairs of genes. Of the 63 genes, 35 have been experimentally validated and reported in the literature, and 28 have not been experimentally tested and include previously hypothesized or novel predictions of essential metabolic capabilities. Without metabolomics data, four of the genes would have been incorrectly predicted to be non-essential. TFA also indicated that substrate channeling should exist in two metabolic pathways to ensure the thermodynamic feasibility of the flux. Finally, analysis of the metabolic capabilities of P. falciparum led to the identification of both the minimal nutritional requirements and the genes that can become indispensable upon substrate inaccessibility. This model provides novel insight into the metabolic needs and capabilities of the malaria parasite and highlights metabolites and pathways that should be measured and characterized to identify potential thermodynamic bottlenecks and substrate channeling. The hypotheses presented seek to guide experimental studies to facilitate a better understanding of the parasite metabolism and the identification of targets for more efficient intervention.

  12. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: bridging metabolic syndrome with molecular nutrition.

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2006-12-01

    Over recent years, obesity rates and the onset of obesity-induced chronic diseases have risen dramatically. The more we learn about the physiological and morphological changes that occur during obesity, the more it is becoming clear that obesity-related disorders can be traced back to adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation at white adipose tissue (WAT). To combat this problem, the body has developed a regulatory system specifically designed at mediating the systemic response to obesity, utilizing free fatty acids (FFAs) and their metabolites as nutrient messengers to signal adaptations from peripheral tissues. These messages are predominantly interceded through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), a family of ligand-induced transcription factors that serve as a net of lipid sensors throughout the body. Understanding how and why nutrients, nutrient derivatives and metabolites exert their physiological effects are the key goals in the study of molecular nutrition. By learning about the mechanisms and tissue-specific effects of endogenous PPAR ligands and expanding our knowledge of the body's integrated homeostatic system, we will significantly increase our odds of designing safe and effective preventive and therapeutic interventions that keep us one step ahead of obesity-related diseases.

  14. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Systemic Metabolic Disorder

    Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis is characteristically a manifestation of a systemic metabolic disorder. It has a prevalence of about 10% among all stone formers, the third most common type of kidney stone in the industrialized world. Uric acid stones form primarily due to an unduly acid urine; less deciding factors are hyperuricosuria and a low urine volume. The vast majority of uric acid stone formers have the metabolic syndrome, and not infrequently, clinical gout is present as well. A universal finding is a low baseline urine pH plus insufficient production of urinary ammonium buffer. Persons with gastrointestinal disorders, in particular chronic diarrhea or ostomies, and patients with malignancies with a large tumor mass and high cell turnover comprise a less common but nevertheless important subset. Pure uric acid stones are radiolucent but well visualized on renal ultrasound. A 24 h urine collection for stone risk analysis provides essential insight into the pathophysiology of stone formation and may guide therapy. Management includes a liberal fluid intake and dietary modification. Potassium citrate to alkalinize the urine to a goal pH between 6 and 6.5 is essential, as undissociated uric acid deprotonates into its much more soluble urate form. PMID:25045326

  15. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  16. Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies

    Ommen, van B.; Bouwman, J.H.; Dragsted, L.O.; Drevon, C.A.; Elliott, R.; Groot, de P.J.; Kaput, J.; Mathers, J.C.; Müller, M.R.; Pepping, F.; Saito, J.; Scalbert, A.; Radonjic, M.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Travis, A.; Wopereis, S.; Evelo, C.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition

  17. Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: The nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies

    Ommen, B. van; Bouwman, J.; Dragsted, L.O.; Drevon, C.A.; Elliott, R.; Groot, P. de; Kaput, J.; Mathers, J.C.; Müller, M.; Pepping, F.; Saito, J.; Scalbert, A.; Radonjic, M.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Travis, A.; Wopereis, S.; Evelo, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition

  18. Classification of metabolic syndrome according to lipid alterations: analysis from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Pedroza-Tobias, Andrea; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Sanchez-Romero, Luz M; Barquera, Simon

    2014-10-09

    There are 16 possible Metabolic Syndrome (MS) combinations out of 5 conditions (glucose intolerance, low levels of high-density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, high blood pressure and abdominal obesity), when selecting those with at least three. Studies suggest that some combinations have different cardiovascular risk. However evaluation of all 16 combinations is complex and difficult to interpret. The purpose of this study is to describe and explore a classification of MS groups according to their lipid alterations. This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Subjects (n = 5,306) were evaluated for the presence of MS; four mutually-exclusive MS groups were considered: mixed dyslipidemia (altered triglycerides and HDL-C), hypoalphalipoproteinemia: (normal triglycerides but low HDL-C), hypertriglyceridemia (elevated triglycerides and normal HDL-C) and without dyslipidemia (normal triglycerides and HDL-C). A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted in order to identify characteristics that were associated with the groups. The most frequent MS group was hypoalphalipoproteinemia in females (51.3%) and mixed dyslipidemia in males (43.5%). The most prevalent combination of MS for both genders was low HDL-C + hypertension + abdominal obesity (20.4% females, 19.4% males). The hypoalphalipoproteinemia group was characteristic of women and less developed areas of the country. The group without dyslipidemia was more frequent in the highest socioeconomic level and less prevalent in the south of the country. The mixed dyslipidemia group was characteristic of men, and the Mexico City region. A simple system to classify MS based on lipid alterations was useful to evaluate prevalences by diverse biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. This system may allow prevention and early detection strategies with emphasis on population-specific components and may serve as a guide for

  19. Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ji Sung; Ahn, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin-Sun; Noh, Min Young; Lee, Ji Jeung; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Young Ran; Yoon, So Yoon; Kim, Chong Hwa; Cho, Dong-Hyeok; Choi, Young Sik; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-01-01

    Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P  meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

  20. Metabolic risk in schoolchildren is associated with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, obesity, and parents' nutritional profile.

    Todendi, Pâmela Ferreira; Valim, Andréia Rosane de Moura; Reuter, Cézane Priscila; Mello, Elza Daniel de; Gaya, Anelise Reis; Burgos, Miria Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Verify the association between metabolic risk profile in students with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index, as well as the nutritional status of their parents. A cross-sectional study comprising 1.254 schoolchildren aged between seven and 17 years. The metabolic risk profile was calculated by summing the standardized values of high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and systolic blood pressure. The parents' nutritional status was evaluated by self-reported weight and height data, for body mass index calculating. The body mass index of schoolchildren was classified as underweight/normal weight and overweight/obesity. The cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by 9-minute running/walk test, being categorized as fit (good levels) and unfit (low levels). Data were analyzed using prevalence ratio values (PR). The data indicates a higher occurrence of developing metabolic risk in schoolchildren whose mother is obese (PR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.23), and even higher for those whose father and mother are obese (PR: 2, 79, 95% CI: 1.41; 5.51). Students who have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight/obesity have higher occurrence of presenting metabolic risk profile (PR: 5.25; 95% CI: 3.31; 8.16). the occurrence of developing metabolic risk in schoolchildren increase when they have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight/obesity, and the presence of parental obesity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish.

    Gingerich, Andrew James; Philipp, David P; Suski, Cory D

    2010-03-01

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  2. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  3. The determination of nutritional requirements for Safe Haven Food Supply System (emergency/survival foods)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Safe Haven Food System must sustain 8 crew members under emergency conditions for 45 days. Emergency Survival Foods are defined as a nutritionally balanced collection of high density food and beverages selected to provide for the survival of Space Station flight crews in contingency situations. Since storage volume is limited, the foods should be highly concentrated. A careful study of different research findings regarding starvation and calorie restricted diets indicates that a minimum nutritional need close to RDA is an important factor for sustaining an individual's life in a stressful environment. Fat, protein, and carbohydrates are 3 energy producing nutrients which play a vital role in the growth and maintenance process of human life. A lower intake of protein can minimize the water intake, but it causes a negative nitrogen balance and a lower performance level. Other macro and micro nutrients are also required for nutritional interrelationships to metabolize the other 3 nutrients to their optimum level. The various options for longer duration than 45 days are under investigation.

  4. FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR MELON BASED ON NUTRITIONAL BALANCE

    José Aridiano Lima de Deus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of the most demanding cucurbits regarding fertilization, requiring knowledge of soils, crop nutritional requirements, time of application, and nutrient use efficiency for proper fertilization. Developing support systems for decision-making for fertilization that considers these variables in nutrient requirement and supply is necessary. The objective of this study was parameterization of a fertilizer recommendation system for melon (Ferticalc-melon based on nutritional balance. To estimate fertilizer recommendation, the system considers the requirement subsystem (REQ, which includes the demand for nutrients by the plant, and the supply subsystem (SUP, which corresponds to the supply of nutrients through the soil and irrigation water. After determining the REQtotal and SUPtotal, the system calculates the nutrient balances for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, recommending fertilizer application if the balance is negative (SUP < REQ, but not if the balance is positive or zero (SUP ≥ REQ. Simulations were made for different melon types (Yellow, Cantaloupe, Galia and Piel-de-sapo, with expected yield of 45 t ha-1. The system estimated that Galia type was the least demanding in P, while Piel-de-sapo was the most demanding. Cantaloupe was the least demanding for N and Ca, while the Yellow type required less K, Mg, and S. As compared to other fertilizer recommendation methods adopted in Brazil, the Ferticalc system was more dynamic and flexible. Although the system has shown satisfactory results, it needs to be evaluated under field conditions to improve its recommendations.

  5. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Rojas, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rauda, Juan; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Villalpando, Salvador; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated risk factors in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older, using data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). The ENSANUT 2006 was conducted between October 2005 and May 2006. Questionnaires were administered to 45 446 adult subjects aged 20 years or older who were residents from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained from all subjects and fasting blood specimens were provided by 30% of participants. We randomly selected a sub-sample of 6 613 from which laboratory measurements were carried out for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. For this analysis, we included only results from eight or more hours of fasting samples (n=6 021). We used individual weighted factors in the statistical analysis and considered the survey's complex sampling design to obtain variances and confidence intervals. All analyses were done using SPSS 15.0. In accordance with definitions by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the prevalence of MS in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older was 36.8, 41.6 and 49.8%, respectively. Women were more affected than men due to the higher prevalence of central obesity among females. Prevalence of MS increased with age and was higher among populations living in metropolitan areas, in the west-central region, and those with lower education. Regardless of the MS definition, a large proportion of Mexican adults has the condition, so preventive measures are needed to decrease the prevalence of the MS components in this population. MS can predict type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, two of the main causes of death in the adult population in Mexico. The intentional search of MS components allows

  6. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010.

    Ford, Earl S; Cunningham, Timothy J; Mercado, Carla I

    2014-11-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains about obstructive lung function( OLF) in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to examine pulmonary function status in adults with and without MetS. We used data from 3109 participants aged ≥20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. Subjects'MetS status was established on the basis of the 2009 harmonizing definition. Participants received spirometry. After age adjustment, 79.3% (SE 1.1) of participants with MetS had normal lung function, 8.7% (0.9) had restrictive lung function (RLF), 7.1% (0.8) had mild OLF, and 4.8% (0.6) had moderate OLF or worse. Among participants without MetS, these estimates were 78.7% (1.2), 3.9% (0.6), 10.9%(1.1), and 6.4% (0.8), respectively. After multiple adjustment, participants with MetS were more likely to have RLF (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.90) and less likely to have any OLF (aPR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86) than those without MetS. Furthermore, participants with MetS had lower mean levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FVC % predicted, but a higher FEV1/FVC ratio than participants without MetS. Mean levels of FEV1, FEV1 % predicted, FVC, and FVC % predicted declined significantly, but not the FEV1/FVC ratio, as the number of components increased. Compared with adults without MetS, spirometry is more likely to show a restrictive pattern and less likely to show an obstructive pattern among adults with MetS. 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The Role of Nutrition in the Changes in Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    On Earth, the primary purpose of the skeleton is provide structural support for the body. In space, the support function of the skeleton is reduced since, without gravity, structures have only mass and no weight. The adaptation to space flight is manifested by shifts in mineral distribution, altered bone turnover, and regional mineral deficits in weight-bearing bones. The shifts in mineral distribution appear to be related to the cephalic fluid shift. The redistribution of mineral from one bone to another or to and from areas in the same bone in response to alterations in gravitational loads is more likely to affect skeletal function than quantitative whole body losses and gains. The changes in bone turnover appear dependent upon changes in body weight with weight loss tending to increase bone resorption as well as decrease bone formation. During bedrest, the bone response to unloading varies depending upon the routine activity level of the subjects with more active subjects showing a greater suppression of bone formation in the iliac crest with inactivity. Changes in body composition during space flight are predicted by bedrest studies on Earth which show loss of lean body mass and increase tn body fat in adult males after one month. In ambulatory studies on Earth, exercising adult males of the same age, height, g weight, body mass index, and shoe size show significantly higher whole body mineral and lean body mass. than non-exercising subjects. Nutritional preference appears to change with activity level. Diet histories in exercisers and nonexercisers who maintain identical body weights show no differences in nutrients except for slightly higher carbohydrate intake in the exercisers. The absence of differences in dietary calcium in men with higher total body calcium is noteworthy. In this situation, the increased bone mineral content was facilitated by the calcium endocrine system. This regulatory system can be by-passed by raising dietary calcium. Increased

  8. Current Views on Therapeutic and Preventive Nutrition and the Most Effectivenes European Diet in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components

    D.K. Miloslavskyi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This review contains literature information about pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic syndrome development, its main components, national recommendations on nutrition for the citizens of some countries, the results of multicenter studies on the role of alimentary factors, molecular targets of favorable effects of certain nutrients in this pathology. The basic dietary recommendations, the most important and special European diets with proven efficacy (Mediterranean Diet, DASH diet, TLC, D. Ornish, the Polymeal diet, Omni Heart, the Mayo clinic, Weight Watchers, the characteristics of their prescription in hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, purine metabolism disorders, obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as a short recommendation on lifestyle modification and physical activity increasing in these patients were present.

  9. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Clinical and protein metabolic efficacy of glutamine granules-supplemented enteral nutrition in severely burned patients.

    Peng, Xi; Yan, Hong; You, Zhongyi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shiliang

    2005-05-01

    As an abundant amino acid in the human body, glutamine has many important metabolic roles that may protect or promote tissue integrity and enhance the immune system. A relative deficiency of glutamine in such patients could compromise recovery and result in prolonged illness and an increase in late mortality. The purpose of this clinical study is to observe the effects of enteral supplement with glutamine granules on protein metabolism in severely burned patients. Forty-eight severe burn patients (total burn surface area 30-75%, full thickness burn area 20-58%) who met the requirements of the protocol joined this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: burn control group (B group, 23 patients) and glutamine treated group (Gln group, 25 patients). There was isonitrogenous and isocaloric intake in both groups, glutamine and B group patents were supplemented with glutamine granules or placebo (glycine) at 0.5 g/kg per day for 14 days with oral feeding or tube feeding, respectively. The level of plasma glutamine, plasma protein content, urine nitrogen and urine 3-methylhistidine (3-MTH) excretion were determined, wound healing rate of the burned area and hospital stay were recorded. The results showed that there were significant reductions in plasma glutamine level and abnormal protein metabolism. After supplement with glutamine granules for 14 days, the plasma glutamine concentration was significantly higher than that in B group (607.86+/-147.25 micromol/L versus 447.63+/-132.38 micromol/L, P0.05). On the other hand, the amount of urine nitrogen and 3-MTH excreted in Gln group were significantly lower than that in B group. In addition, wound healing was faster and hospital stay days were shorter in Gln group than B group (46.59+/-12.98 days versus 55.68+/-17.36 days, P<0.05). These indicated that supplement glutamine granules with oral feeding or tube feeding could abate the degree of glutamine depletion

  11. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    Paniagua, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS. PMID

  12. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    Juan; Antonio; Paniagua[1,2

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat.Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia,hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose.Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS.

  13. Metabolic trajectories based on 1H NMR spectra of urines from sheep exposed to nutritional challenges during prenatal and early postnatal life

    Nyberg, Nils; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2010-01-01

    1H NMR metabolic profiles of urine from sheep exposed to prenatal nutritional restriction (n = 19) and a control group with normal prenatal nutritional requirements (n = 19), followed by either conventional (n = 10 + 10) or high carbohydrate high fat postnatal diet (n = 9 + 9), were studied. Urine...... undernutrition followed by normal postnatal diet showed metabolic patters that are ahead in time on the metabolic trajectory relative to the prenatal control group. No long-term effects of fetal undernutrition, alone or in combination with postnatal hypernutrition were observed....... amount of glucose, indicative of monogastric-like metabolism, and exhibiting concomitant increase of metabolites related to rumen microflora (mainly glycine conjugates of benzoic and phenylacetic acid) as the ruminal metabolism developed. Urines from young (2-month-old) animals exposed to prenatal...

  14. Muscle as a “Mediator“ of Systemic Metabolism

    Baskin, Kedryn K.; Winders, Benjamin R.; Olson, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal and cardiac muscles play key roles in the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis and display remarkable plasticity in their metabolic responses to caloric availability and physical activity. In this Perspective we discuss recent studies highlighting transcriptional mechanisms that govern systemic metabolism by striated muscles. We focus on the participation of the Mediator complex in this process, and suggest that tissue-specific regulation of Mediator subunits impacts metabolic homeostasis. PMID:25651178

  15. Systems biology of adipose tissue metabolism: regulation of growth, signaling and inflammation.

    Manteiga, Sara; Choi, Kyungoh; Jayaraman, Arul; Lee, Kyongbum

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) depots actively regulate whole body energy homeostasis by orchestrating complex communications with other physiological systems as well as within the tissue. Adipocytes readily respond to hormonal and nutritional inputs to store excess nutrients as intracellular lipids or mobilize the stored fat for utilization. Co-ordinated regulation of metabolic pathways balancing uptake, esterification, and hydrolysis of lipids is accomplished through positive and negative feedback interactions of regulatory hubs comprising several pleiotropic protein kinases and nuclear receptors. Metabolic regulation in adipocytes encompasses biogenesis and remodeling of uniquely large lipid droplets (LDs). The regulatory hubs also function as energy and nutrient sensors, and integrate metabolic regulation with intercellular signaling. Over-nutrition causes hypertrophic expansion of adipocytes, which, through incompletely understood mechanisms, initiates a cascade of metabolic and signaling events leading to tissue remodeling and immune cell recruitment. Macrophage activation and polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype drives a self-reinforcing cycle of pro-inflammatory signals in the AT, establishing an inflammatory state. Sustained inflammation accelerates lipolysis and elevates free fatty acids in circulation, which robustly correlates with development of obesity-related diseases. The adipose regulatory network coupling metabolism, growth, and signaling of multiple cell types is exceedingly complex. While components of the regulatory network have been individually studied in exquisite detail, systems approaches have rarely been utilized to comprehensively assess the relative engagements of the components. Thus, need and opportunity exist to develop quantitative models of metabolic and signaling networks to achieve a more complete understanding of AT biology in both health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Central nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism

    Geerling, Johanna Janetta (Janine)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the role of the brain in the regulation of peripheral triglyceride metabolism, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Based on various pharmacological studies we described the role of two hormones, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, in the production and clearance of

  17. PERSON-Personalized Expert Recommendation System for Optimized Nutrition.

    Chen, Chih-Han; Karvela, Maria; Sohbati, Mohammadreza; Shinawatra, Thaksin; Toumazou, Christofer

    2018-02-01

    The rise of personalized diets is due to the emergence of nutrigenetics and genetic tests services. However, the recommendation system is far from mature to provide personalized food suggestion to consumers for daily usage. The main barrier of connecting genetic information to personalized diets is the complexity of data and the scalability of the applied systems. Aiming to cross such barriers and provide direct applications, a personalized expert recommendation system for optimized nutrition is introduced in this paper, which performs direct to consumer personalized grocery product filtering and recommendation. Deep learning neural network model is applied to achieve automatic product categorization. The ability of scaling with unknown new data is achieved through the generalized representation of word embedding. Furthermore, the categorized products are filtered with a model based on individual genetic data with associated phenotypic information and a case study with databases from three different sources is carried out to confirm the system.

  18. LA sprouts randomized controlled nutrition, cooking and gardening programme reduces obesity and metabolic risk in Hispanic/Latino youth.

    Gatto, N M; Martinez, L C; Spruijt-Metz, D; Davis, J N

    2017-02-01

    Many programmes for children that involve gardening and nutrition components exist; however, none include experimental designs allowing more rigorous evaluation of their impact on obesity. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a novel 12-week gardening, nutrition and cooking intervention {'LA Sprouts'} on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles.. This study used a randomized control trial involving four elementary schools [two randomized to intervention {172, 3rd-5th grade students}; two randomized to control {147, 3rd-5th grade students}]. Classes were taught in 90-min sessions once per week for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre-intervention and post-intervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measures {body mass index, waist circumference}, body fat, and fasting blood samples. LA Sprouts participants compared with controls had significantly greater reductions in body mass index z-scores {-0.1 vs. -0.04, respectively; p = 0.01} and waist circumference {-1.2 vs. 0.1 cm; p obesity and metabolic risk; however, additional larger and longer-term studies are warranted. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Dental, periodontal and salivary conditions in diabetic children associated with metabolic control variables and nutritional plan adherence.

    Díaz Rosas, C Y; Cárdenas Vargas, E; Castañeda-Delgado, J E; Aguilera-Galaviz, L A; Aceves Medina, M C

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that has manifestations other than alterations in endocrine regulation or in metabolic pathways. Several diseases of the oral cavity have been associated with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in young people according to their evolution. Scarce information exists regarding the role of diabetes and its association with the oral health status in paediatric diabetic patients. The aims of the study were to assess the quality of saliva, saliva acidogenicity, dental caries experience, fluorosis and periodontal status in diabetic patients and to evaluate their relationship with metabolic control variables and nutritional plan adherence. The study population consisted of 60 paediatric patients with both types of diabetes mellitus. Saliva testing included stimulated flow, pH (using pH indicator strips), buffer capacity and Snyder's Test. DMFT/dmft and dental caries experience were determined on the basis of ICDAS II codes. The periodontal status was assessed by PI and GI and fluorosis by FI. Nutritional plan adherence was established from the subscale "Dietary Control" of the Diabetes Self-Management Profile questionnaire. Medical Data was retrieved from the clinical registers in the Diabetic Clinic. We describe the main characteristics of the oral cavity related variables of our population that might guide the clinical practice in similar settings; we found a dmft/DMFT of 1.71 ± 1.74 and 0.64 ± 1.03, PI of 1.91 ± 0.75, GI of 0.50 ± 0.56 and a fluorosis prevalence of 61%. We identified several correlated variables, which indicate strong associations between the nutritional habits of the patients and co-occurrence of oral cavity physiopathological alterations. Several correlations were found between acidogenic activity of the saliva (Snyder Test) and the percentage of adherence to the nutritional plan and to the dmft index. Furthermore, a significant correlation between the buffering capacity of the saliva and the glycemic control of

  20. Metabolism and catabolism in hip fracture patients: nutritional and anabolic intervention--a review.

    Hedström, Margareta; Ljungqvist, Olle; Cederholm, Tommy

    2006-10-01

    Patients suffering from hip fracture are known to be at risk of catabolism and protein-energy malnutrition. In this review we discuss the pathogenesis of hip fracture-related catabolism per- and postoperatively. We also describe the consequences of malnutrition after a hip fracture and summarize studies that have evaluated the effect of nutritional or anabolic treatment of these patients. There has been relatively little published on the effects of nutritional and anabolic pharmacological interventions for improvement of nutritional status and on the role of nutritional status in clinical outcomes. Even so, there have been 19 randomized studies in this field. 12 studies evaluated nutritional supplementation or protein supplementation. 6 found improved clinical outcome with fewer complications, faster recovery and shorter length of hospital stay, whereas the others reported no difference in clinical outcome. For pharmacological interventions, the outcomes have been even less clear. Supplementation studies in general appear to be underpowered or suffer logistic problems. Studies of higher scientific quality are needed, and enteral feeding, anabolic treatment and multimodal approaches need to be evaluated in greater depth.

  1. Nutritional and Acquired Deficiencies in Inositol Bioavailability. Correlations with Metabolic Disorders

    Simona Dinicola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communities eating a western-like diet, rich in fat, sugar and significantly deprived of fibers, share a relevant increased risk of both metabolic and cancerous diseases. Even more remarkable is that a low-fiber diet lacks some key components—as phytates and inositols—for which a mechanistic link has been clearly established in the pathogenesis of both cancer and metabolic illness. Reduced bioavailability of inositol in living organisms could arise from reduced food supply or from metabolism deregulation. Inositol deregulation has been found in a number of conditions mechanistically and epidemiologically associated to high-glucose diets or altered glucose metabolism. Indeed, high glucose levels hinder inositol availability by increasing its degradation and by inhibiting both myo-Ins biosynthesis and absorption. These underappreciated mechanisms may likely account for acquired, metabolic deficiency in inositol bioavailability.

  2. Computational systems analysis of dopamine metabolism.

    Zhen Qi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A prominent feature of Parkinson's disease (PD is the loss of dopamine in the striatum, and many therapeutic interventions for the disease are aimed at restoring dopamine signaling. Dopamine signaling includes the synthesis, storage, release, and recycling of dopamine in the presynaptic terminal and activation of pre- and post-synaptic receptors and various downstream signaling cascades. As an aid that might facilitate our understanding of dopamine dynamics in the pathogenesis and treatment in PD, we have begun to merge currently available information and expert knowledge regarding presynaptic dopamine homeostasis into a computational model, following the guidelines of biochemical systems theory. After subjecting our model to mathematical diagnosis and analysis, we made direct comparisons between model predictions and experimental observations and found that the model exhibited a high degree of predictive capacity with respect to genetic and pharmacological changes in gene expression or function. Our results suggest potential approaches to restoring the dopamine imbalance and the associated generation of oxidative stress. While the proposed model of dopamine metabolism is preliminary, future extensions and refinements may eventually serve as an in silico platform for prescreening potential therapeutics, identifying immediate side effects, screening for biomarkers, and assessing the impact of risk factors of the disease.

  3. Nutrigenomics : exploiting systems biology in the nutrition and health arena

    Ommen, B. van; Stierum, R.

    2002-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are discovering the application of the so-called 'omics' sciences. Propelled by the recent unravelling of the human genome and the coinciding technological developments, genotyping, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are now available to nutritional research. In the

  4. Nutritional status and metabolism of the coral Stylophora subseriata along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia)

    Sawall, Y.; Teichberg, M. C.; Seemann, J.; Litaay, M.; Jompa, J.; Richter, C.

    2011-09-01

    Coral responses to degrading water quality are highly variable between species and depend on their trophic plasticity, acclimatization potential, and stress resistance. To assess the nutritional status and metabolism of the common scleractinian coral, Stylophora subseriata, in situ experiments were carried along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Coral fragments were incubated in light and dark chambers to measure photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification in a number of shallow reefs along the gradient. Chlorophyll a (chl a), protein content, maximum quantum yield ( F v/ F m), and effective quantum yield (Φ PS II) were measured on the zooxanthellae, in addition to host tissue protein content and biomass. Photosynthetic rates were 2.5-fold higher near-shore than mid-shelf due to higher areal zooxanthellae and chl a concentrations and a higher photochemical efficiency (Φ PS II). A 2- and 3-fold increase in areal host tissue protein and biomass was found, indicating a higher nutritional supply in coastal waters. Dark respiration, however, showed no corresponding changes. There was a weak correlation between calcification and photosynthesis (Pearson r = 0.386) and a lack of metabolic stress, as indicated by constant respiration and F v/ F m and the "clean" and healthy appearance of the colonies in spite of high turbidity in near-shore waters. The latter suggests that part of the energetic gains through increased auto- and heterotrophy were spent on metabolic expenditures, e.g., mucus production. While coastal pollution is always deleterious to the reef ecosystem as a whole, our results show that the effect on corals may not always be negative. Thus, S. subseriata may be one of the few examples of corals actually profiting from land-based sources of pollution.

  5. A review of metabolic potential of human gut microbiome in human nutrition.

    Yadav, Monika; Verma, Manoj Kumar; Chauhan, Nar Singh

    2018-03-01

    The human gut contains a plethora of microbes, providing a platform for metabolic interaction between the host and microbiota. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota act as a link between gut microbiota and its host. These metabolites act as messengers having the capacity to alter the gut microbiota. Recent advances in the characterization of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic relationship with the host have provided a platform to decode metabolic interactions. The human gut microbiota, a crucial component for dietary metabolism, is shaped by the genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors. The metabolic potential of gut microbiota explains its significance in host health and diseases. The knowledge of interactions between microbiota and host metabolism, as well as modification of microbial ecology, is really beneficial to have effective therapeutic treatments for many diet-related diseases in near future. This review cumulates the information to map the role of human gut microbiota in dietary component metabolism, the role of gut microbes derived metabolites in human health and host-microbe metabolic interactions in health and diseases.

  6. Nutritional epigenetics with a focus on amino acids: implications for the development and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Sun, Kaiji; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from human and animal studies indicate that maternal undernutrition or overnutrition affects covalent modifications of the fetal genome and its associated histones that can be carried forward to subsequent generations. An adverse outcome of maternal malnutrition is the development of metabolic syndrome, which is defined as a cluster of disorders including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and insulin resistance. The transgenerational impacts of maternal nutrition are known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The underlying mechanisms include chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation (occurring at the 5'-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides), histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation) and expression and activity of small noncoding RNAs. The enzymes catalyzing these reactions include S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA and protein methyltransferases, DNA demethylases, histone acetylase (lysine acetyltransferase), general control nonderepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (a superfamily of acetyltransferase) and histone deacetylase. Amino acids (e.g., glycine, histidine, methionine and serine) and vitamins (B6, B12 and folate) play key roles in provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients and related metabolic pathways are of interest in dietary treatment of metabolic syndrome. Intervention strategies include targeting epigenetically disturbed metabolic pathways through dietary supplementation with nutrients (particularly functional amino acids and vitamins) to regulate one-carbon-unit metabolism, antioxidative reactions and gene expression, as well as protein methylation and acetylation. These mechanism-based approaches may

  7. Continuous parenteral and enteral nutrition induces metabolic dysfunction in neonatal pigs

    Stoll, Barbara; Puiman, Patrycja Jolanta; Cui, Liwei

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that parenteral nutrition (PN) compared with formula feeding results in hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in neonatal pigs. The current aim was to test whether the route of feeding (intravenous [IV] vs enteral) rather than other feeding modalities (diet, pattern) had...

  8. Nutrition Targeting by Food Timing: Time-Related Dietary Approaches to Combat Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome1234

    Sofer, Sigal; Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2015-01-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for reducing abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome are urgently needed. Over the years, many different dietary regimens have been studied as possible treatment alternatives. The efficacy of low-calorie diets, diets with different proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, traditional healthy eating patterns, and evidence-based dietary approaches were evaluated. Reviewing literature published in the last 5 y reveals that these diets may improve risk factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, each diet has limitations ranging from high dropout rates to maintenance difficulties. In addition, most of these dietary regimens have the ability to attenuate some, but not all, of the components involved in this complicated multifactorial condition. Recently, interest has arisen in the time of day foods are consumed (food timing). Studies have examined the implications of eating at the right or wrong time, restricting eating hours, time allocation for meals, and timing of macronutrient consumption during the day. In this paper we review new insights into well-known dietary therapies as well as innovative time-associated dietary approaches for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We discuss results from systematic meta-analyses, clinical interventions, and animal models. PMID:25770260

  9. LA Sprouts Randomized Controlled Nutrition, Cooking and Gardening Program Reduces Obesity and Metabolic Risk in Latino Youth

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention (“LA Sprouts”) on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. Methods Randomized control trial involving four elementary schools [2 schools randomized to intervention (172, 3rd–5th grade students); 2 schools randomized to control (147, 3rd–5th grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and post-intervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. Results LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1 versus 0.04 point decrease, respectively; p=0.01) and WC (−1.2 cm vs. no change; p<0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. −15.5%; p=0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (−3.6% vs. −26.4%; p=0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LAS and control subjects. Conclusions LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. PMID:25960146

  10. CREBH Regulates Systemic Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Yoshimi Nakagawa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH, encoded by CREB3L3 is a membrane-bound transcriptional factor that primarily localizes in the liver and small intestine. CREBH governs triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which mediates the changes in gene expression governing fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and apolipoproteins related to lipoprotein lipase (LPL activation. CREBH in the small intestine reduces cholesterol transporter gene Npc1l1 and suppresses cholesterol absorption from diet. A deficiency of CREBH in mice leads to severe hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and atherosclerosis. CREBH, in synergy with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, has a crucial role in upregulating Fgf21 expression, which is implicated in metabolic homeostasis including glucose and lipid metabolism. CREBH binds to and functions as a co-activator for both PPARα and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα in regulating gene expression of lipid metabolism. Therefore, CREBH has a crucial role in glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and small intestine.

  11. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis-The "Restaurant" Hypothesis Revisited.

    Nash, Michael J; Frank, Daniel N; Friedman, Jacob E

    2017-01-01

    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the "Restaurant" hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate's gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research.

  12. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    Michael J. Nash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research.

  13. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    Nash, Michael J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2017-01-01

    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research. PMID:29326657

  14. Nutritional Ketosis Affects Metabolism and Behavior in Sprague-Dawley Rats in Both Control and Chronic Stress Environments

    Milene L. Brownlow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ketosis may enhance cerebral energy metabolism and has received increased interest as a way to improve or preserve performance and resilience. Most studies to date have focused on metabolic or neurological disorders while anecdotal evidence suggests that ketosis may enhance performance in the absence of underlying dysfunction. Moreover, decreased availability of glucose in the brain following stressful events is associated with impaired cognition, suggesting the need for more efficient energy sources. We tested the hypotheses that ketosis induced by endogenous or exogenous ketones could: (a augment cognitive outcomes in healthy subjects; and (b prevent stress-induced detriments in cognitive parameters. Adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were used to investigate metabolic and behavioral outcomes in 3 dietary conditions: ketogenic (KD, ketone supplemented (KS, or NIH-31 control diet in both control or chronic stress conditions. Acute administration of exogenous ketones resulted in reduction in blood glucose and sustained ketosis. Chronic experiments showed that in control conditions, only KD resulted in pronounced metabolic alterations and improved performance in the novel object recognition test. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response revealed that KD-fed rats maintained peripheral ketosis despite increases in glucose whereas no diet effects were observed in ACTH or CORT levels. Both KD and KS-fed rats decreased escape latencies on the third day of water maze, whereas only KD prevented stress-induced deficits on the last testing day and improved probe test performance. Stress-induced decrease in hippocampal levels of β-hydroxybutyrate was attenuated in KD group while both KD and KS prevented stress effects on BDNF levels. Mitochondrial enzymes associated with ketogenesis were increased in both KD and KS hippocampal samples and both endothelial and neuronal glucose transporters were affected by stress but only in the

  15. The Central Nervous System and Bone Metabolism: An Evolving Story.

    Dimitri, Paul; Rosen, Cliff

    2017-05-01

    Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function. The sympathetic nervous system was originally identified as the predominant efferent pathway mediating central signalling to control skeleton metabolism, in part regulated through circadian genes. More recent evidence points to a role of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of skeletal metabolism either through muscarinic influence of sympathetic nerves in the brain or directly via nicotinic receptors on osteoclasts, thus providing evidence for broader autonomic skeletal regulation. Sensory innervation of bone has also received focus again widening our understanding of the complex neuronal regulation of bone mass. Whilst scientific advance in this field of bone metabolism has been rapid, progress is still required to understand how these model systems work in relation to the multiple confounders influencing skeletal metabolism, and the relative balance in these neuronal systems required for skeletal growth and development in childhood and maintaining skeletal integrity in adulthood.

  16. Systemic Metabolic Impairment and Lung Injury Following Acrolein Inhalation

    A single ozone exposure causes pulmonary injury and systemic metabolic alterations through neuronal and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis activation. Metabolically impaired Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats with non-obese type-2 diabetes are more sensitive to ozone induced changes than h...

  17. [Clinical practice guidelines for evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine and nutritional conditions. Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology].

    Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; García Martín, Antonia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Luque Fernández, Inés; Varsavsky, Mariela; Guadalix Iglesias, Sonsoles; Cano Rodriguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María Dolores; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Cortés Berdonces, María; Fernández García, Diego; Calleja Canelas, Amparo; Palma Moya, Mercedes; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Jimenez Moleón, José J; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    To provide practical recommendations for evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine diseases and nutritional conditions. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology, a methodologist, and a documentalist. Recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed), using the following terms associated to the name of each condition: AND "osteoporosis", "fractures", "bone mineral density", and "treatment". Papers in English with publication date before 18 October 2011 were included. Current evidence for each disease was reviewed by two group members, and doubts related to the review process or development of recommendations were resolved by the methodologist. Finally, recommendations were discussed in a meeting of the Working Group. The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations for evaluation and management of endocrine and nutritional diseases associated to low bone mass or an increased risk of fracture. For each disease, the associated risk of low bone mass and fragility fractures is given, recommendations for bone mass assessment are provided, and treatment options that have shown to be effective for increasing bone mass and/or to decreasing fragility fractures are listed. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Nielsen, Jens; Jewett, Michael Christopher

    2008-01-01

    in the industrial application of this yeast. Developments in genomics and high-throughput systems biology tools are enhancing one's ability to rapidly characterize cellular behaviour, which is valuable in the field of metabolic engineering where strain characterization is often the bottleneck in strain development...... programmes. Here, the impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering is reviewed and perspectives on the role of systems biology in the design of cell factories are given....

  19. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  20. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering.

  1. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i) system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii) system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii) system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv) systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24709875

  2. The nutrition/excretion system of urban areas: socioecological regimes and transitions.

    Esculier , Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows.The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we...

  3. The endocannabinoid system and its relevance for nutrition

    Maccarrone, Mauro; Gasperi, Valeria; Catani, Maria Valeria

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids bind to cannabinoid, vanilloid, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The biological actions of these polyunsaturated lipids are controlled by key agents responsible for their synthesis, transport and degradation, which together form an endocannabinoid system (ECS......). In the past few years, evidence has been accumulated for a role of the ECS in regulating food intake and energy balance, both centrally and peripherally. In addition, up-regulation of the ECS in the gastrointestinal tract has a potential impact on inflammatory bowel diseases. In this review, the main features...... of the ECS are summarized in order to put in better focus our current knowledge of the nutritional relevance of endocannabinoid signaling and of its role in obesity, cardiovascular pathologies, and gastrointestinal diseases. The central and peripheral pathways that underlie these effects are discussed...

  4. Nutritional status and food consumption in 10-11 year old Dutch boys (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)

    Poppel, G.van.; Schneijder, P.; Löwik, M.R.H.; Schrijver, J.; Kok, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System, cardiovascular risk factors and food consumption (24 h recall) as well as haematological, Fe and vitamin status (A, B6, C) were assessed in 126 Dutch boys aged 10-11 years (response 71%). Body mass index (BMI) and the sum of four skinfolds were

  5. Metabolomics in nutrition research: assessment of metabolic status, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality in malnourished children

    Freemark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children. To identify and target those at highest risk there is a critical need to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe acute childhood malnutrition and to characterize biomarkers that predict complications prior to and during treatment. METHODS: We applied targeted and non-targeted metabolomic analysis to characterize the hormonal and metabolic status of malnourished Ugandan infants and young children prior to and during nutritional therapy. Children ages 6mo-5yr were studied at presentation to Mulago Hospital and during inpatient therapy with milk-based formulas and outpatient supplementation with ready-to-use-food. We assessed the relationship between baseline hormone and metabolite levels and subsequent mortality. RESULTS: 77 patients were enrolled in the study; a subset was followed from inpatient treatment to outpatient clinic. Inpatient and outpatient therapies were associated with significant increases in weight/height z scores, but 12.2% of the children died during hospitalization. The levels of more than 100 metabolites were measured in samples of 1 ml of plasma. Treatment was accompanied by striking changes in the levels of fatty acids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammatory cytokines, and various hormones including leptin, insulin, growth hormone, ghrelin, cortisol, IGF-1, GLP-1, and peptide YY. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for HIV and malarial infection identified a number of biochemical factors that were associated with, and may predict, mortality during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolomic analysis provides a comprehensive hormonal and metabolic profile of severely malnourished children prior to and during nutritional rehabilitation. Metabolomics can be used to identify biomarkers associated with mortality and may thereby facilitate the targeting and treatment of those at greatest risk. (author)

  6. Can We Rely on Predicted Basal Metabolic Rate in Patients With Intestinal Failure on Home Parenteral Nutrition?

    Skallerup, Anders; Nygaard, Louis; Olesen, Søren Schou; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Køhler, Marianne; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is a serious and common complication of short bowel syndrome with patients depending on parenteral nutrition (PN) support. Effective nutrition management requires an accurate estimation of the patient's basal metabolic rate (BMR) to avoid underfeeding or overfeeding. However, indirect calorimetry, considered the gold standard for BMR assessment, is a time- and resource-consuming procedure. Consequently, several equations for prediction of BMR have been developed in different settings, but their accuracy in patients with IF are yet to be investigated. We evaluated the accuracy of predicted BMR in clinically stable patients with IF dependent on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). In total, 103 patients with IF were included. We used indirect calorimetry for assessment of BMR and calculated predicted BMR using different equations based on anthropometric and/or bioelectrical impedance parameters. The accuracy of predicted BMR was evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis with measured BMR as the gold standard. The average measured BMR was 1272 ± 245 kcal/d. The most accurate estimations of BMR were obtained using the Harris-Benedict equation (mean bias, 14 kcal/d [ P = .28]; limits of agreement [LoA], -238 to 266 kcal/d) and the Johnstone equation (mean bias, -16 kcal/d [ P = .24]; LoA, -285 to 253 kcal/d). For both equations, 67% of patients had a predicted BMR from 90%-110% All other equations demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant difference between measured and predicted BMR. The Harris-Benedict and Johnstone equations reliably predict BMR in two-thirds of clinically stable patients with IF on HPN.

  7. Metabolic routes along digestive system of licorice: multicomponent sequential metabolism method in rat.

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Haiyu; Liu, Yang; Dong, Honghuan; Lv, Beiran; Fang, Min; Zhao, Huihui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to establish the multicomponent sequential metabolism (MSM) method based on comparative analysis along the digestive system following oral administration of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., leguminosae), a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for harmonizing other ingredients in a formulae. The licorice water extract (LWE) dissolved in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution (1 g/mL) was used to carry out the experiments and the comparative analysis was performed using HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to measure the LWE metabolic profile along the digestive system. The incubation experiment showed that the LWE was basically stable in digestive juice. A comparative analysis presented the metabolic profile of each prototype and its corresponding metabolites then. Liver was the major metabolic organ for LWE, and the metabolism by the intestinal flora and gut wall was also an important part of the process. The MSM method was practical and could be a potential method to describe the metabolic routes of multiple components before absorption into the systemic blood stream. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period and Mannheimia haemolytica dose influence metabolic responses in post-weaned Holstein calves challenged with bovine herpesvirus-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica

    To determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) and M. haemolytica (MH) dose influences metabolic responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge, Holstein calves (1 day of age; n=30) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial with preweaned PON and dose of M...

  9. Brain, nutrition and metabolism : Studies in lean, obese and insulin resistant humans

    Versteeg, R.I.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes studies on the effects of obesity, weight loss and meal timing on the human brain and glucose metabolism. We investigated effects of meal timing during a hypocaloric diet and weight loss on brain serotonin transporters (SERT) and dopamine transporters (DAT), neuronal activity

  10. Recent advances in systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies.

    Chae, Tong Un; Choi, So Young; Kim, Je Woong; Ko, Yoo-Sung; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic engineering has been playing increasingly important roles in developing microbial cell factories for the production of various chemicals and materials to achieve sustainable chemical industry. Nowadays, many tools and strategies are available for performing systems metabolic engineering that allows systems-level metabolic engineering in more sophisticated and diverse ways by adopting rapidly advancing methodologies and tools of systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. As an outcome, development of more efficient microbial cell factories has become possible. Here, we review recent advances in systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies together with accompanying application examples. In addition, we describe how these tools and strategies work together in simultaneous and synergistic ways to develop novel microbial cell factories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review......Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable...... the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further....

  13. Program adherence and effectiveness of a commercial nutrition program: the metabolic balance study.

    Meffert, Cornelia; Gerdes, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a commercial nutrition program in improving weight, blood lipids, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods. Prospective observational study with followup after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with data from questionnaires and blood samples. Subjects. After 12 months, we had data from 524 subjects (= 60.6% of the initial samples). 84.1% of the subjects were women. The average BMI at baseline was 30.3 (SD = 5.7). Results. After 12 months, the average weight loss was 6.8 kg (SD = 7.1 kg). Program adherence declined over time but was still high after 12 months and showed a positive linear correlation with weight loss. Relevant blood parameters as well as HRQOL improved significantly. Conclusion. After 12 months, nearly two thirds of the samples had achieved >5% reduction of their initial weights. The high degree of program adherence is probably due to personal counseling and individually designed nutrition plans provided by the program.

  14. Nutritional habits, lifestyle, and genetic predisposition in cardiovascular and metabolic traits in Turkish population.

    Karaca, Sefayet; Erge, Sema; Cesuroglu, Tomris; Polimanti, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic traits (CMT) are influenced by complex interactive processes including diet, lifestyle, and genetic predisposition. The present study investigated the interactions of these risk factors in relation to CMTs in the Turkish population. We applied bootstrap agglomerative hierarchical clustering and Bayesian network learning algorithms to identify the causative relationships among genes involved in different biological mechanisms (i.e., lipid metabolism, hormone metabolism, cellular detoxification, aging, and energy metabolism), lifestyle (i.e., physical activity, smoking behavior, and metropolitan residency), anthropometric traits (i.e., body mass index, body fat ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio), and dietary habits (i.e., daily intakes of macro- and micronutrients) in relation to CMTs (i.e., health conditions and blood parameters). We identified significant correlations between dietary habits (soybean and vitamin B12 intakes) and different cardiometabolic diseases that were confirmed by the Bayesian network-learning algorithm. Genetic factors contributed to these disease risks also through the pleiotropy of some genetic variants (i.e., F5 rs6025 and MTR rs180508). However, we also observed that certain genetic associations are indirect since they are due to the causative relationships among the CMTs (e.g., APOC3 rs5128 is associated with low-density lipoproteins cholesterol and, by extension, total cholesterol). Our study applied a novel approach to integrate various sources of information and dissect the complex interactive processes related to CMTs. Our data indicated that complex causative networks are present: causative relationships exist among CMTs and are affected by genetic factors (with pleiotropic and non-pleiotropic effects) and dietary habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The nutritional status of Methanosarcina acetivorans regulates glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis and glycolysis fluxes.

    Santiago-Martínez, Michel Geovanni; Encalada, Rusely; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Reyes-García, Marco Antonio; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    Gluconeogenesis is an essential pathway in methanogens because they are unable to use exogenous hexoses as carbon source for cell growth. With the aim of understanding the regulatory mechanisms of central carbon metabolism in Methanosarcina acetivorans, the present study investigated gene expression, the activities and metabolic regulation of key enzymes, metabolite contents and fluxes of gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and glycogen synthesis/degradation pathways. Cells were grown with methanol as a carbon source. Key enzymes were kinetically characterized at physiological pH/temperature. Active consumption of methanol during exponential cell growth correlated with significant methanogenesis, gluconeogenic flux and steady glycogen synthesis. After methanol exhaustion, cells reached the stationary growth phase, which correlated with the rise in glycogen consumption and glycolytic flux, decreased methanogenesis, negligible acetate production and an absence of gluconeogenesis. Elevated activities of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthetase complex and pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase suggested the generation of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate for glycogen synthesis. In the early stationary growth phase, the transcript contents and activities of pyruvate phosphate dikinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glycogen synthase decreased, whereas those of glycogen phosphorylase, ADP-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase increased. Therefore, glycogen and gluconeogenic metabolites were synthesized when an external carbon source was provided. Once such a carbon source became depleted, glycolysis and methanogenesis fed by glycogen degradation provided the ATP supply. Weak inhibition of key enzymes by metabolites suggested that the pathways evaluated were mainly transcriptionally regulated. Because glycogen metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis are not present in all methanogens, the overall data suggest that glycogen storage might represent an environmental

  16. Biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with the zinc nutritional status in obese women.

    Ennes Dourado Ferro, F; de Sousa Lima, V B; Mello Soares, N R; Franciscato Cozzolino, S Ma; do Nascimento Marreiro, D

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that induces risk factors for metabolic syndrome and, is associated with disturbances in the metabolism of the zinc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the existence of relationship between the biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and the zinc nutricional status in obese women. Seventy-three premenopausal women, aged between 20 and 50 years, were divided into two groups: case group, composed of obese (n = 37) and control group, composed of no obese (n = 36). The assessment of the body mass index and waist circumference were carried out using anthropometric measurements. The plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc were analyzed by method atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ = 213.9 nm). In the study, body mass index and waist circumference were higher in obese women than control group (p 0.05). The mean erythrocytary zinc was 36.4 ± 15.0 μg/gHb and 45.4 ± 14.3 μg/gHb in the obese and controls, respectively (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that the body mass index (t =-2.85) and waist circumference (t = -2.37) have a negative relationship only with the erythrocytary zinc (R² = 0.32, p < 0.05). The study shows that there are alterations in biochemical parameters of zinc in obese women, with low zinc concentrations in erythrocytes. Regression analysis demonstrates that the erythrocytary zinc is influenced by biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome, presenting an inverse relationship with the waist circumference and body mass index.

  17. Enduring effects of severe developmental adversity, including nutritional deprivation, on cortisol metabolism in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2009-06-01

    In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.

  18. The Relationship between Metabolically Obese Non-Obese Weight and Stroke: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Young-Gyun Seo

    Full Text Available Both metabolic syndrome (MetS and obesity increase the risk of stroke. However, few studies have compared the risks of stroke associated with metabolically obese non-obese weight (MONW and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of stroke in MONW and MHO individuals.A total of 25,744 subjects aged ≥40 years were selected from the 2007-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MetS was defined using 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III and 2005 American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. Non-obese weight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2, respectively. MONW was defined as meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI <25 kg/m2 and MHO was defined as not meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2.Women with MONW had a higher prevalence of stroke than those with MHO (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-3.57. The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of MetS components increased. The ORs for MONW with 3, 4, and 5 MetS components were 1.95 (95% CI: 1.19-3.21, 2.49 (95% CI: 1.46-4.24 and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.39-5.40, respectively.Our study findings may better emphasize the risk of stroke among more lean but unhealthy individuals, who appear healthy but may be suffering from MetS. These findings also highlight the need for stroke risk factor assessment in non-obese weight individuals.

  19. Corynebacterium glutamicum for Sustainable Bioproduction: From Metabolic Physiology to Systems Metabolic Engineering.

    Becker, Judith; Gießelmann, Gideon; Hoffmann, Sarah Lisa; Wittmann, Christoph

    Since its discovery 60 years ago, Corynebacterium glutamicum has evolved into a workhorse for industrial biotechnology. Traditionally well known for its remarkable capacity to produce amino acids, this Gram-positive soil bacterium, has become a flexible, efficient production platform for various bulk and fine chemicals, materials, and biofuels. The central turnstile of all these achievements is our excellent understanding of its metabolism and physiology. This knowledge base, together with innovative systems metabolic engineering concepts, which integrate systems and synthetic biology into strain engineering, has upgraded C. glutamicum into one of the most successful industrial microorganisms in the world.

  20. Moleculer nutritional immunology and cancer

    Rüksan Çehreli

    2018-01-01

    The immune system composed of cells that are sensitive to a series of surrounding factors and forming an integrated network. During the last decade a significant increase in the number of studies demonstrated that diet components released from adipocytes and metabolic pathways, affected the immune system and highly contributed to the human health.T-cells are significantly affected by nutrition. Decrease in glucose uptake and metabolism, cytokine synthesis, T-cell proliferation and survival in...

  1. Consumers’ intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    Wendel, S.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Ronteltap, A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We examine

  2. Consumers' intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    S. Wendel (Sonja); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A. Ronteltap (Amber); H.C.M. van Trijp (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We

  3. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  4. Nutrition, One-Carbon Metabolism and Neural Tube Defects: A Review

    Kelei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are a group of severe congenital malformations, induced by the combined effects of genes and the environment. The most valuable finding so far has been the protective effect of folic acid supplementation against NTDs. However, many women do not take folic acid supplements until they are pregnant, which is too late to prevent NTDs effectively. Long-term intake of folic acid–fortified food is a good choice to solve this problem, and mandatory folic acid fortification should be further promoted, especially in Europe, Asia and Africa. Vitamin B2, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, choline, betaine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can also reduce the NTD risk by interacting with the one-carbon metabolism pathway. This suggest that multivitamin B combined with choline, betaine and n-3 PUFAs supplementation may have a better protective effect against NTDs than folic acid alone. Genetic polymorphisms involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with NTD risk, and gene screening for women of childbearing age prior to pregnancy may help prevent NTDs induced by the risk allele. In addition, the consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee, and low intakes of fruit and vegetable are also associated with the increased risk of NTDs, and should be avoided by women of childbearing age.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome: Systems Thinking in Heart Disease.

    Dommermuth, Ron; Ewing, Kristine

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors. MetS is associated with approximately 4-fold increase in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a 2-fold increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease complications. MetS is a progressive, proinflammatory, prothrombotic condition that manifests itself along a broad spectrum of disease. It is associated with hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, fatty liver disease, gout, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Intervening in and reversing the pathologic process become more difficult as the disease progresses, highlighting the needs for increased individual and community surveillance and primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying molecular effects of diet through systems biology: influence of herring diet on sterol metabolism and protein turnover in mice.

    Intawat Nookaew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyle have resulted in an epidemic development of obesity-related diseases that challenge the healthcare systems worldwide. To develop strategies to tackle this problem the focus is on diet to prevent the development of obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. This will require methods for linking nutrient intake with specific metabolic processes in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr -/- mice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet to mimic a westernized diet, being a major reason for development of obesity and atherosclerosis. The diets were supplemented with either beef or herring, and matched in macronutrient contents. Body composition, plasma lipids and aortic lesion areas were measured. Transcriptomes of metabolically important tissues, e.g. liver, muscle and adipose tissue were analyzed by an integrated approach with metabolic networks to directly map the metabolic effects of diet in these different tissues. Our analysis revealed a reduction in sterol metabolism and protein turnover at the transcriptional level in herring-fed mice. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an integrated analysis of transcriptome data using metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. This could not have been achieved using standard clustering methods. In particular, this systems biology analysis could enrich the information content of biomedical or nutritional data where subtle changes in several tissues together affects body metabolism or disease progression. This could be applied to improve diets for subjects exposed to health risks associated with obesity.

  7. Resveratrol Intake During Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Early Metabolic Effects of Maternal Nutrition Differently in Male and Female Offspring.

    Ros, Purificación; Díaz, Francisca; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Barrios, Vicente; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2018-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts antioxidant and antiobesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD; 10.2% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 61.6% kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight (BW) of dams was measured at treatment onset and weaning [postnatal day (PND) 21] and of pups at birth and PND21, at which time dams and pups were euthanized. Although HFD dams consumed more energy, their BW at the end of lactation was unaffected. Mean litter size was not modified by maternal diet or resveratrol. At birth, male offspring from HFD and resveratrol (HFD + R) dams weighed less than those from LFD and resveratrol (LFD + R) dams. On PND21, pups of both sexes from HFD dams weighed more, had more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and had higher serum leptin levels than those from LFD dams. Resveratrol reduced BW, leptin, VAT, and SCAT, with females being more affected, but increased glycemia. Neuropeptide levels were unaffected by resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation decreased BW and adipose tissue content in offspring of dams on an HFD but did not affect offspring from LFD-fed dams, suggesting that the potential protective effects of resveratrol during gestation/lactation are diet dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  8. Performance, nutritional behavior, and metabolic responses of calves supplemented with forage depend on starch fermentability.

    Mojahedi, S; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M; Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F

    2018-05-16

    This study evaluated the interactive effects of forage provision on performance, nutritional behavior, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of dairy calves when corn grains with different fermentability were used. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments were (1) steam-flaked (SF) corn without alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation (SF-NO), (2) SF corn with AH supplementation (SF-AH), (3) cracked (CR) corn without AH supplementation (CR-NO), and (4) CR corn with AH supplementation (CR-AH). All calves received the same amount of pasteurized whole milk and weaned on d 56 of the experiment; the study was terminated on d 70. Steam-flaked corn contained higher amounts of gelatinized starch in comparison with cracked corn (44.1 vs. 12.5% of total starch, respectively). Starter intake was not affected by corn processing methods or AH provision during the pre- or postweaning periods. However, we noted an interaction between corn processing methods and forage supplementation for starter intake during d 31 to 50 of the experiment, where calves fed on SF-AH starter had greater starter intake than those fed SF-NO starter, but the starter intake was not different between CR-NO and CR-AH fed calves. Furthermore, AH increased average daily gain (ADG) of calves fed an SF-based diet but not in calves fed a CR-based diet during the preweaning and overall periods. Interaction between forage provision and time was significant for ADG and feed efficiency, as calves supplemented with forage had higher ADG (0.982 vs. 0.592, respectively) and feed efficiency compared with forage unsupplemented calves at the weaning week. Forage supplementation resulted in more stable ruminal condition compared with nonforage-fed calves, as evidenced by higher ruminal pH (5.71 vs. 5.29, respectively) at postweaning and lower non-nutritive oral behavior around weaning time (55 vs. 70.5 min

  9. Nutritional Support

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  10. Metabolizable protein systems in ruminant nutrition: A review

    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein available to ruminants is supplied by both microbial and dietary sources. Metabolizable protein (MP is the true protein which is absorbed by the intestine and supplied by both microbial protein and protein which escapes degradation in the rumen; the protein which is available to the animal for maintenance, growth, fetal growth during gestation, and milk production. Thus, the concept of balancing ruminant rations basing on only dietary crude protein (CP content seems erroneous. In India, ruminant rations are still balanced for digestible CP and total digestible nutrients for protein and energy requirements, respectively. Traditional feed analysis methods such as proximate analysis and detergent analysis consider feed protein as a single unit and do not take into account of the degradation processes that occur in rumen and passage rates of feed fractions from rumen to intestine. Therefore, the protein requirement of ruminants should include not only the dietary protein source, but also the microbial CP from rumen. The MP systems consider both the factors, thus predict the protein availability more accurately and precisely. This system is aptly designed to represent the extent of protein degradation in the rumen and the synthesis of microbial protein as variable functions. Feed protein fractions, i.e., rumen degradable protein and rumen undegradable protein play vital roles in meeting protein requirements of rumen microbes and host animal, respectively. With the advent of sophisticated nutrition models such as Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system, National Research Council, Agricultural Research Council, Cornell Penn Miner Dairy and Amino Cow; ration formulation has moved from balancing diets from CP to MP, a concept that describes the protein requirements of ruminantsat intestinal level, and which is available to animals for useful purposes.

  11. Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation

    M. M. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders.

  12. [Nutrition and Metabolism Group of the Spanish Neonatology Society: recommendations and evidence for dietary supplementation with probiotics in very low birth weight infants].

    Narbona López, E; Uberos Fernández, J; Armadá Maresca, M I; Couce Pico, M L; Rodríguez Martínez, G; Saenz de Pipaon, M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for improving healthcare. In recent years there has been accumulating evidence on the impact of nutritional supplementation with probiotics in the very low birth weight infants. With no uniformity in microorganisms and strains used. The Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo), through its Nutrition and Metabolism Group has undertaken to develop recommendations that will be useful as a guide for the neonatologist in this field. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  14. High-throughput Methods Redefine the Rumen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Nutrition and Metabolism

    McCann, Joshua C.; Wickersham, Tryon A.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in the forestomach microbiome is one of the key features of ruminant animals. The diverse microbial community adapts to a wide array of dietary feedstuffs and management strategies. Understanding rumen microbiome composition, adaptation, and function has global implications ranging from climatology to applied animal production. Classical knowledge of rumen microbiology was based on anaerobic, culture-dependent methods. Next-generation sequencing and other molecular techniques have uncovered novel features of the rumen microbiome. For instance, pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene has revealed the taxonomic identity of bacteria and archaea to the genus level, and when complemented with barcoding adds multiple samples to a single run. Whole genome shotgun sequencing generates true metagenomic sequences to predict the functional capability of a microbiome, and can also be used to construct genomes of isolated organisms. Integration of high-throughput data describing the rumen microbiome with classic fermentation and animal performance parameters has produced meaningful advances and opened additional areas for study. In this review, we highlight recent studies of the rumen microbiome in the context of cattle production focusing on nutrition, rumen development, animal efficiency, and microbial function. PMID:24940050

  15. Systems Biology of Metabolism: Annual Review of Biochemistry

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are descr...

  16. Structural Systems Biology Evaluation of Metabolic Thermotolerance in Escherichia coli

    Chang, Roger L.; Andrews, Kathleen; Kim, Donghyuk

    2013-01-01

    Improve the System A "systems biology" approach may clarify, for example, how particular proteins determine sensitivity of bacteria to extremes of temperature. Chang et al. (p. 1220) integrated information on protein structure with a model of metabolism, thus associating the protein structure of ...

  17. Normal range albuminuria and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Si-Young Park

    Full Text Available It is well-known that there is a close relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS and microalbuminuria. However, some recent studies have found that even normal range albuminuria was associated with MetS and cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between MetS and normal range albuminuria and to calculate the cutoff value for albuminuria that correlates with MetS in the representative fraction of Korean population.Data were obtained from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 9,650 subjects aged ≥ 19 years. We measured metabolic parameters: fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, and lipids, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR. The optimal ACR cutoff points for MetS were examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the prevalence of MetS and its components according to the ACR levels.The first cutoff value of ACR were 4.8 mg/g for subjects with ≥ 3 components of MetS. There was a graded association between ACR and prevalence of MetS and its components. If ACR was <4 mg/g, there was no significant increase in the prevalence of MetS or its components. From the ACR level of 4-5 mg/g, the prevalence of MetS significantly increased after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and medications for diabetes mellitus and hypertension (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals = 1.416; 1.041-1.926.Albuminuria within the normal range (around 5 mg/g was associated with prevalence of MetS in the Korean population.

  18. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism

    Agnieszka Polak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  19. Evaluation of Lipid Metabolism and Nutritional Status in Male Goalball Players

    Gawlik Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid disorders, obesity and overweight are considered one of the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Population surveys carried out in Poland have demonstrated a tendency for lipid disorders to occur in 70% and overweight and obesity in more than half of Poles. No such studies have been conducted in groups of people with vision impairment so far. Yet, regular involvement of visually impaired people in sports is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the authors attempted to evaluate the lipid profile and nutritional status of male goalball players. Thirty two blind or visually impaired male goalball players aged 20 to 45 years participated in the study during which somatic variables (BH, BM, WC, VFR, BMI and the lipid profile (TC, LDL, HDL, TG were evaluated. Overweight was found in 40.6% of athletes, with obesity being at the level of 9.3%. A high correlation was found between visceral fat and the BMI (r=0.7; p<0.001, as well as between visceral fat and WC (r=0.8; p<0.001. Abnormal total cholesterol levels were recorded for LDL (22% of study participants, HDL (17% and triglycerides (13%. Lower levels of individual components of lipid profiles (and higher levels for HDL were found in athletes with a normal BMI. A correlation was found between the BMI and TG (r=0.4, p<0.01, WC and TG (r=0.4, p<0.01, VFR and LDL (r=0.4, p<0.05 and TG (r=0.5, p<0.001. The percentage of overweight and obese subjects with vision impairment was lower compared to the general population of men in Poland, with a more beneficial lipid profile. Regular physical activity of the study participants is likely to have a positive effect on their health.

  20. Leptin expression in ruminants: nutritional and physiological regulations in relation with energy metabolism.

    Chilliard, Y; Delavaud, C; Bonnet, M

    2005-07-01

    Leptin, mainly produced in adipose tissue (AT), is a protein involved in the central and/or peripheral regulation of body homeostasis, energy intake, storage and expenditure, fertility and immune functions. Its role is well documented in rodent and human species, but less in ruminants. This review is focused on some intrinsic and extrinsic factors which regulate adipose tissue leptin gene expression and leptinemia in cattle, sheep, goat and camel: age, physiological status (particularly pregnancy and lactation) in interaction with long-term (adiposity) and short-term effects of feeding level, energy intake and balance, diet composition, specific nutrients and hormones (insulin, glucose and fatty acids), and seasonal non-dietary factors such as photoperiod. Body fatness strongly regulates leptin and its responses to other factors. For example, leptinemia is higher after underfeeding or during lactation in fat than in lean animals. Physiological status per se also modulates leptin expression, with lactation down-regulating leptinemia, even when energy balance (EB) is positive. These results suggest that leptin could be a link between nutritional history and physiological regulations, which integrates the animal's requirements (e.g., for a pregnancy-lactation cycle), predictable food availability (e.g., due to seasonal variations) and potential for survival (e.g., body fatness level). Reaching permissive leptin thresholds should be necessary for pubertal or postpartum reproductive activity. In addition to the understanding of leptin yield regulation, these data are helpful to understand the physiological significance of changes in leptin secretion and leptin effects, and how husbandry strategies could integrate the adaptative capacities of ruminant species to their environment.

  1. Nutritional modulation of age-related changes in the immune system and risk of infection.

    Pae, Munkyong; Wu, Dayong

    2017-05-01

    The immune system undergoes some adverse alterations during aging, many of which have been implicated in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with infection in the elderly. In addition to intrinsic changes to the immune system with aging, the elderly are more likely to have poor nutritional status, which further impacts the already impaired immune function. Although the elderly often have low zinc serum levels, several manifestations commonly observed during zinc deficiency are similar to the changes in immune function with aging. In the case of vitamin E, although its deficiency is rare, the intake above recommended levels is shown to enhance immune functions in the elderly and to reduce the risk of acquiring upper respiratory infections in nursing home residents. Vitamin D is a critical vitamin in bone metabolism, and its deficiency is far more common, which has been linked to increased risk of infection as demonstrated in a number of observational studies including those in the elderly. In this review, we focus on zinc, vitamin E, and vitamin D, the 3 nutrients which are relatively well documented for their roles in impacting immune function and infection in the elderly, to discuss the findings in this context reported in both the observational studies and interventional clinical trials. A perspective will be provided based on the analysis of information under review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Gut Entomotype of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae and Their Effect on Host Nutrition Metabolism

    Abrar Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles. Here, we confirmed RPW harbors a complex gut microbiota mainly constituted by bacteria in the families Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Entomoplasmataceae, and Streptococcaceae. RPW gut microbiota exhibited a highly stable microbial community with low variance in abundance across different life stages and host plants. Furthermore, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was markedly increased but that of Acetobacteraceae was reduced significantly after administration of antibiotics. Although no significant effects were found on the body weight gain of RPW larvae, these alterations dramatically decreased the concentration of hemolymph protein and glucose while that of hemolymph triglyceride increased. In the gut of wild-caught RPW larvae, seven bacterial species in the genera Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter were shown to have an ability to degrade cellulose. Together, RPW accommodate a stable gut microbiota which can degrade plant polysaccharides and confer their host optimal adaptation to its environment by modulating its metabolism.

  3. Gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity in the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Han, Ling-ling; Wang, Yu-xia; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Bian, Che; Wang, He; Du, Shufa; Suo, Lin-na

    2014-11-01

    This study examines gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in Chinese. Based on a nationwide, population-based China Health and Nutrition survey this study included 8564 men and women aged 18 years or older. Anthropometric and fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, and transferrin data were collected. Ferritin concentrations were higher in men than women (201.55 ± 3.6 versus 80.46 ± 1.64 ng/mL, p obesity, and overweight were 8.05, 8.97, 4.67, 25.88% among men and 14.23, 6.58, 5.81, 26.82% among women, respectively. Elevated ferritin concentrations were associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, lipids, insulin, glucose (all p obesity (p = 0.010), overweight (p gender difference in associations between ferritin and MetS, obesity, and diabetes in Chinese adults. Further evaluations of the variation in gender on these associations are warranted to understand the mechanisms behind gender differences. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Metabolic syndrome in healthy ponies facilitates nutritional countermeasures against pasture laminitis.

    Kronfeld, David S; Treiber, Kibby H; Hess, Tanja M; Splan, Rebecca K; Byrd, Bridgett M; Staniar, W Burton; White, Nathanial W

    2006-07-01

    Treatment of clinical laminitis usually fails to prevent some degree of persistent disability; thus, intervention should aim at avoiding risk factors and preventing the disease. Efficiency of intervention would be improved by identifying predisposed horses and ponies. A herd of 160 healthy ponies included 54 previously laminitic (PL) and 106 never laminitic (NL). Pedigree analysis was consistent with dominant inheritance partially suppressed in males. Blood analysis revealed higher plasma concentrations of insulin and triglycerides but not cortisol, glucose, or free fatty acids in the PL group. Proxies for insulin sensitivity and beta-cell responsiveness, which were calculated from plasma insulin and glucose, indicated compensated insulin resistance in the PL group. A prelaminitic metabolic syndrome (PLMS) was derived statistically to have cut-off points for the 2 proxies, hypertriglyceridemia, and body condition score. It had a total predictive power of 78%. It identified 62 ponies with PLMS, and 98 as PLMS-free. Two months later, pasture starch concentration doubled, and 13 clinical cases of laminitis developed, 11 in the PLMS group and 2 in the PLMS-free group, giving an odds ratio of 10.4 (P = 0.0006). The PLMS can be used to identify predisposed ponies in need of special care; the efficiency of intervention would increase nearly 3-fold in the present case. It enables the design of new interventions suitable for testing. The PLMS also might influence market values.

  5. Metabolic Risk Factors, Leisure Time Physical Activity, and Nutrition in German Children and Adolescents

    Haas, Gerda-Maria; Liepold, Evelyn; Schwandt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We assessed the five components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 6040 (3158 males) youths aged 6–16 years who participated in the Präventions-Erziehungs-Programm (PEP Family Heart Study) in Nuernberg between 2000 and 2007. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine associations with lifestyle habits. Results and Discussion. The prevalence of MetS was low in children (1.6%) and adolescents (2.3%). High waist circumference (WC) and low HDL-C were slightly higher in females (9.5% and 7.5%, resp.) than in males (8.8% and 5.7%, resp.). Low leisure time physical activity (LTPA) was significantly associated with low HDL-C (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% CI 1.2–5.0) and inversely associated with hypertension (r = −0.146), hypertriglyceridemia (r = −0.141), and central adiposity (r = −0.258). The risk for low HDL-C (≤1.3 mmol/L) was 1.7-fold (CI 1.0–2.6) higher in youth with high (≥33%) saturated fat consumption. A low polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio (P/S ratio) was significantly associated with fasting hyperglycemia (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0–1.2). PMID:22778928

  6. Association between the Eating Family Meal and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012).

    Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Woo-Chul; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that family meals promote a well-balanced and healthier diet and weight status. Metabolic syndrome is related to eating behavior. This study investigated the association between eating family meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study included 4,529 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2012). A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess dietary status. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines of the modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We compared the overall quality of dietary intake in family meal. Nutritional adequacy ratios for energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B 1 , vitamin B 2 , vitamin C, niacin, and potassium, and the mean adequacy ratio were significantly higher in the family meal group (Pmetabolic syndrome was lower in the family meal group (Pfamily meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This study demonstrated that eating family meals appeared to be associated with nutrient adequacy. However, we observed no significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the 2 groups.

  7. Association between the Eating Family Meal and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2012)

    Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Woo-Chul; Kwon, Yu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that family meals promote a well-balanced and healthier diet and weight status. Metabolic syndrome is related to eating behavior. This study investigated the association between eating family meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4,529 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007–2012). A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess dietary status. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines of the modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We compared the overall quality of dietary intake in family meal. Results Nutritional adequacy ratios for energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, niacin, and potassium, and the mean adequacy ratio were significantly higher in the family meal group (Pmetabolic syndrome was lower in the family meal group (Pfamily meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion This study demonstrated that eating family meals appeared to be associated with nutrient adequacy. However, we observed no significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the 2 groups. PMID:28572888

  8. Reading nutrition labels is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: the 2007-2008 Korean NHANES.

    Kang, H-T; Shim, J-Y; Lee, Y-J; Linton, J A; Park, B-J; Lee, H-R

    2013-09-01

    Several studies demonstrated that reading nutrition labels was associated with healthier food choices, despite some controversy. This study investigated the association between the use of nutrition labels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 7756 individuals who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A self-reported questionnaire was used to determine participant's awareness of nutrition labels. Modified Asian criteria based on a harmonizing definition of MetS were adopted. Individuals in the group that read nutrition labels (the Reading Group) were youngest and leanest, but their daily caloric intake fell between that of the group that did not read nutrition labels (the Non-Reading Group) and the group that did not know about them (the Not-Knowing Group). The prevalence of MetS was 16.8% in the Reading Group, 27.2% in the Non-Reading Group, and 47.3% in the Not-Knowing Group. In comparison to participants in the Reading Group, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for MetS in the participants in the Non-Reading Group and Not-Knowing Group were 1.85 (1.60-2.14) and 4.44 (3.79-5.20), respectively, when not adjusted. The relationship between the use of nutrition labels and MetS remained statistically significant even after adjusting for covariates such as age, sex and socioeconomic status including household income and education level [1.27 (1.05-1.53) in the Non-Reading Group and 1.34 (1.05-1.70) in the Not-Knowing Group]. Reading nutrition labels appeared to be associated with a lower prevalence of MetS in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional demands and metabolic characteristics of the DSIR-HA-1179 insect cell line during growth and infection with the Oryctes nudivirus.

    Pushparajan, Charlotte; Claus, Juan Daniel; Marshall, Sean D G; Visnovsky, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    The DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran cell line has been identified as a susceptible and permissive host for the in vitro replication of the Oryctes nudivirus, which can be used as a biopesticide against the coconut rhinoceros beetle, pest of palms. The major challenge to in vitro large-scale Oryctes nudivirus production is ensuring process economy. This rests, among other requisites, on the use of low-cost culture media tailored to the nutritional and metabolic needs of the cell line, both in uninfected and infected cultures. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nutritional demands and the metabolic characteristics of the DSIR-HA-1179 cell line during growth and subsequent infection with Oryctes nudivirus in the TC-100 culture medium. Serum-supplementation of the culture medium was found to be critical for cell growth, and addition of 10% fetal bovine serum v/v led to a maximum viable cell density (16.8 × 10 5 cells ml -1 ) with a population doubling time of 4.2 d. Nutritional and metabolic characterization of the cell line revealed a trend of glucose and glutamine consumption but minimal uptake of other amino acids, negligible production of lactate and ammonia, and the accumulation of alanine, both before and after infection. The monitoring of virus production kinetics showed that the TC-100 culture medium was nutritionally sufficient to give a peak yield of 7.38 × 10 7 TCID 50 ml -1 of OrNV at the 6th day post-infection in attached cultures of DSIR-HA-1179 cells in 25 cm 2 T-flasks. Knowledge of the cell line's nutritional demands and virus production kinetics will aid in the formulation of a low-cost culture medium and better process design for large-scale OrNV production in future.

  10. Central nervous system regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Farr, Sarah; Taher, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-02-01

    In response to nutrient availability, the small intestine and brain closely communicate to modulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. The gut-brain axis involves complex nutrient sensing mechanisms and an integration of neuronal and hormonal signaling. This review summarizes recent evidence implicating the gut-brain axis in regulating lipoprotein metabolism, with potential implications for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistant states. The intestine and brain possess distinct mechanisms for sensing lipid availability, which triggers subsequent regulation of feeding, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue metabolism. More recently, central receptors, neuropeptides, and gut hormones that communicate with the brain have been shown to modulate hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism via parasympathetic and sympathetic signaling. Gut-derived glucagon-like peptides appear to be particularly important in modulating the intestinal secretion of chylomicron particles via a novel brain-gut axis. Dysregulation of these pathways may contribute to postprandial diabetic dyslipidemia. Emerging evidence implicates the central and enteric nervous systems in controlling many aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain involving neuronal pathways and gut peptides is critical for regulating feeding and metabolism, and forms a neuroendocrine circuit to modulate dietary fat absorption and intestinal production of atherogenic chylomicron particles.

  11. Correlations Between Nutrition Habits, Anxiety and Metabolic Parameters in Greek Healthy Adults.

    Lambrinakou, Stavroula; Katsa, Maria Efthymia; Zyga, Sofia; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Sachlas, Athanasios; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Pistikou, Anna Maria; Magana, Maria; Kougioumtzi Dimoligianni, Dafni Eleni; Kolovos, Petros; Rojas Gil, Andrea Paola

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety combined with nervousness and apprehension consist a focal response to different life conditions. Lifestyle habits, anxiety and biochemical markers are in a constant interaction. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety in healthy adults and its possible association with biochemical factors-lipid profile, liver markers, thyroid hormones-and lifestyle habits. Quantitative descriptive correlation study. A total of 100 healthy adults participated in the research. A specially designed questionnaire and Hamilton's scale were used. Anthropometric and biochemical analyses were performed. Overall, 61% of the participants presented moderate to very serious anxiety. The average score on the Hamilton scale was 13.82 (±9.000), with men exhibiting less stress than women. For p ≤ 0.05: Stress was positively correlated with impaired thyroid and hepatic function. Hepatic function was affected by both sugar products and water melon, which were positively correlated with total bilirubin and AST/SGOT respectively. Tomato, peppers and legumes were negatively correlated with AST/SGOT. Deep fried food was positively correlated with GGT and triglycerides. Legumes and fish were negatively correlated with CPK. Regarding the lipid metabolism, it was found that food cooked with oil was positively associated with uric acid, but non-cooked olive oil was negatively correlated with the risk for CAD. Thyroid function was negatively correlated with non-homemade food and pasta consumption and positively correlated with consumption of whole grains and green tea. Participants with subclinical hypothyroidism seemed to consume less vitamin B12, folic acid and vegetables. No direct correlation between lifestyle habits and anxiety was found. Nevertheless, eating habits influenced biochemical markers-especially the thyroid hormones-which may be indirectly responsible for anxiety and related moods.

  12. Effect of reducing milk production using a prolactin-release inhibitor or a glucocorticoid on metabolism and immune functions in cows subjected to acute nutritional stress.

    Ollier, S; Beaudoin, F; Vanacker, N; Lacasse, P

    2016-12-01

    When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows. A total of 23 cows in early/mid-lactation were fed for 5 d at 55.9% of their previous dry matter intake to subject them to acute nutritional stress. After 1 d of feed restriction and for 4 d afterward (d 2 to 5), cows received twice-daily i.m. injections of water (control group; n=8), 2mg of quinagolide (QN group; n=7), or water after a first injection of 20mg of dexamethasone (DEX group; n=8). Feed restriction decreased milk production, but the decrease was greater in the QN and DEX cows than in the control cows on d 2 and 3. As expected, feed restriction reduced the energy balance, but the reduction was lower in the QN cows than in the control cows. Feed restriction decreased plasma glucose concentration and increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations. The QN cows had higher glucose concentration and lower BHB concentration than the control cows. The NEFA concentration was also lower in the QN cows than in the control cows on d 2. Dexamethasone injection induced transient hyperglycemia concomitant with a reduction in milk lactose concentration; it also decreased BHB concentration and decreased NEFA initially but increased it later. Feed restriction and quinagolide injections did not affect the blood concentration or activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), whereas dexamethasone injection increased PMN blood concentration but decreased the proportion of PMN capable of inducing oxidative

  13. Values expressed through intergenerational family food and nutrition management systems among African American women.

    Ahye, Brenda A; Devine, Carol M; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2006-01-01

    This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.

  14. Investigating cholesterol metabolism and ageing using a systems biology approach.

    Morgan, A E; Mooney, K M; Wilkinson, S J; Pickles, N A; Mc Auley, M T

    2017-08-01

    CVD accounted for 27 % of all deaths in the UK in 2014, and was responsible for 1·7 million hospital admissions in 2013/2014. This condition becomes increasingly prevalent with age, affecting 34·1 and 29·8 % of males and females over 75 years of age respectively in 2011. The dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism with age, often observed as a rise in LDL-cholesterol, has been associated with the pathogenesis of CVD. To compound this problem, it is estimated by 2050, 22 % of the world's population will be over 60 years of age, in culmination with a growing resistance and intolerance to pre-existing cholesterol regulating drugs such as statins. Therefore, it is apparent research into additional therapies for hypercholesterolaemia and CVD prevention is a growing necessity. However, it is also imperative to recognise this complex biological system cannot be studied using a reductionist approach; rather its biological uniqueness necessitates a more integrated methodology, such as that offered by systems biology. In this review, we firstly discuss cholesterol metabolism and how it is affected by diet and the ageing process. Next, we describe therapeutic strategies for hypercholesterolaemia, and finally how the systems biology paradigm can be utilised to investigate how ageing interacts with complex systems such as cholesterol metabolism. We conclude by emphasising the need for nutritionists to work in parallel with the systems biology community, to develop novel approaches to studying cholesterol metabolism and its interaction with ageing.

  15. Why Food System Transformation Is Essential and How Nutrition Scientists Can Contribute.

    Lartey, Anna; Meerman, Janice; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani

    2018-01-01

    The International Union of Nutritional Sciences held its 21st International Congress of Nutrition in October 2017 in Buenos Aires, Argentina under the theme - From Sciences to Nutrition Security. In addition to multiple sessions on food systems and their links to diet, nutrition and health, the Congress closing lecture focused on the need to transform food systems so as to increase their capacity to provide healthy diets, making a call for greater involvement of nutrition scientists. This article presents the main messages of that lecture, providing (i) an overview of global nutrition trends and their links to diets, food environments and food systems, (ii) a synopsis of the current global momentum for food system transformation and (iii) the need for nutrition scientists to leverage this momentum in terms of increased evidence generation and policy advocacy. Key Messages: Poor quality diets are increasingly leading to the compromising of human health as never before; the prevalence of undernutrition persists and remains acute in vulnerable regions, and hunger is increasing concomitantly with an unprecedented rise in overweight, obesity and nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. Increasing access to healthy diets through faster, stronger implementation of supply and demand-side strategies that address the underlying drivers of today's faulty food systems is imperative to solve these problems, as well as to address related environmental and economic costs. The global momentum for such action is increasing, but the evidence base needed to galvanize governments and hold stakeholders accountable remains yet a fledgling. To date, inputs from nutrition scientists to this reform agenda have been weak, especially given the unique contributions the field can make in terms of rigorous analysis and technical advice. Strengthened participation will require innovations in metrics and methodologies, combined with new thinking on what constitutes viable evidence and a

  16. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY AND METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF ARTHROSPIRA CELL FACTORIES

    Amornpan Klanchui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira are attractive candidates to serve as cell factories for production of many valuable compounds useful for food, feed, fuel and pharmaceutical industries. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocessing, it is a challenge to design and develop efficient Arthrospira cell factories which can certify effective conversion from the raw materials (i.e. CO2 and sun light into desired products. With the current availability of the genome sequences and metabolic models of Arthrospira, the development of Arthrospira factories can now be accelerated by means of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach. Here, we review recent research involving the use of Arthrospira cell factories for industrial applications, as well as the exploitation of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach for studying Arthrospira. The current status of genomics and proteomics through the development of the genome-scale metabolic model of Arthrospira, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies are discussed. At the end, the perspective and future direction on Arthrospira cell factories for industrial biotechnology are presented.

  17. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  18. Nutrition and food technology for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Mabel, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Food technology requirements and a nutritional strategy for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) to provide adequate food in an acceptable form in future space missions are discussed. The establishment of nutritional requirements, dietary goals, and a food service system to deliver acceptable foods in a safe and healthy form and the development of research goals and priorities were the main objectives of the study.

  19. Integrated systems research in nutrition-sensitive landscapes

    Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Kennedy, Gina; Remans, Roseline; Estrada-Carmona, Natalia; Raneri, Jessica; DeClerck, Fabrice; Alvarez, Stéphanie; Mashingaidze, Nester; Timler, Carl; Stadler, Minke; Río Mena, del Trinidad; Horlings, Lummina; Brouwer, Inge; Cole, Steven M.; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are two regions of the world with the highest concentration of nutritionally vulnerable populations that depend to a large extent on agriculture as an important source of livelihood (Gillespie et al., 2015). The vast majority of farmers in these regions have small

  20. Hypothalamic control of energy metabolism via the autonomic nervous system

    Kalsbeek, A.; Bruinstroop, E.; Yi, C. X.; Klieverik, L. P.; La Fleur, S. E.; Fliers, E.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic control of hepatic glucose production is an evident aspect of energy homeostasis. In addition to the control of glucose metabolism by the circadian timing system, the hypothalamus also serves as a key relay center for (humoral) feedback information from the periphery, with the

  1. An evaluation of nutritional practice in a paediatric burns unit

    S. Vijfhuize; M. Verburg (Melissa); L. Marino; M. van Dijk (Monique); H. Rode (Heinz)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Burn injuries evoke a systemic metabolic response with profound effects on organ function, susceptibility to infection, wound healing, growth and development, and mortality. Children are especially vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies owing to their limited energy

  2. Metabolism

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  3. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  4. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  5. Bone scintigraphy in systemic and metabolic diseases

    Engels, H.J.; Schmidt, H.A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a very sensitive method to identify pathological processes affecting the bone. Its specificity is, however, considerably lower than its sensitivity, particularly in systemic diseases. We therefore investigated the possibilities of differential diagnosis based on typical sites or patterns of distribution. The Paget syndrome with characteristic manifestation in the pelvic region, including crutch-shaped accumulation in the proximal femur, may be diagnosed by scintigraphy alone. If these typical sites are absent, however, differential diagnosis is difficult. Differential diagnosis for multiple myeloma, fibrous dysplasia, enchondromatosis, hyperparathyroidism, osteopathies, osteomalacia, inflammatory rheumatic diseases is also required and should be based on further examinations, taking into consideration the history, clinical signs and course. In this connexion scintigraphy is relevant both for early assessment and documentation of the spread of pathological processes and for the follow-up. (orig.) [de

  6. S-Adenosylmethionine metabolism and its relation to polyamine synthesis in rat liver. Effect of nutritional state, adrenal function, some drugs and partial hepatectomy

    Eloranta, Terho O.; Raina, Aarne M.

    1977-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine metabolism and its relation to the synthesis and accumulation of polyamines was studied in rat liver under various nutritional conditions, in adrenalectomized or partially hepatectomized animals and after treatment with cortisol, thioacetamide or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) {1,1′-[(methylethanediylidine)dinitrilo]diguanidine}. Starvation for 2 days only slightly affected S-adenosylmethionine metabolism. The ratio of spermidine/spermine decreased markedly, but the concentration of total polyamines did not change significantly. The activity of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase initially decreased and then increased during prolonged starvation. This increase was dependent on intact adrenals. Re-feeding of starved animals caused a rapid but transient stimulation of polyamine synthesis and also increased the concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine. Similarly, cortisol treatment enhanced the synthesis of polyamines, S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine. Feeding with a methionine-deficient diet for 7–14 days profoundly increased the concentration of spermidine, whereas the concentrations of total polyamines and of S-adenosylmethionine showed no significant changes. The results show that nutritional state and adrenal function play a significant role in the regulation of hepatic metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine and polyamines. They further indicate that under a variety of physiological and experimental conditions the concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine and of total polyamines remain fairly constant and that changes in polyamine metabolism are not primarily connected with changes in the accumulation of S-adenosylmethionine or S-adenosylhomocysteine. PMID:597268

  7. Dietary Pattern during 1991–2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Ming Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES. “Traditional” pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and “Modern” pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. “Traditional” pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from −0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.18, −0.12 for hypertension to −0.67 (95% CI: −0.73, −0.60 for impaired glucose control. “Modern” pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17 for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49 for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults.

  8. [System for assessing the nutritional status of the surgical patient at admission. Nutritional assessment in surgery].

    López Caballero, M; Pérez Suárez, I; Martínez García, C; Román García, I; Martínez Gallego, R M; Ruiz Coracho, P

    1991-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitals is high. Our aim in this study is to ensure the systematic use of a preoperative nutritional evaluation (PNE) that ensures simplicity and usefulness in hospital nursing assistance. A total of 96 patients were studied, of whom 31 were diagnosed as having neoplasia and 65 non-neoplasia. For the purpose of this evaluation, the Chang method was used, completed with the application of retarded immunity skin tests. Malnutrition was observed in 71% por patients with neoplasia, mainly corresponding to slight Marasmo grade. In non-neoplasic patients malnutrition was 46%, also corresponding to slight Marasmo grade. In patients with neoplasia, anergy was evident in 54.9% of cases, and accounted for 23.1% in non-neoplasic patients. The development of anergy in both types of patients was significantly greater (p less than 0.05) in patients over 65 years of age. The inclusion of a PNE should form part of the nursing protocols, being used systematically in the study and control of surgical patients.

  9. Category of Metabolic-Replication Systems in Biology and Medicine

    I. C. Baianu

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic-repair models, or (M,R)-systems were introduced in Relational Biology by Robert Rosen. Subsequently, Rosen represented such (M,R)-systems (or simply MRs)in terms of categories of sets, deliberately selected without any structure other than the discrete topology of sets. Theoreticians of life's origins postulated that Life on Earth has begun with the simplest possible organism, called the primordial. Mathematicians interested in biology attempted to answer this important questio...

  10. Drivers of forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition

    Kleinschmit, Daniela; Sijapati Basnett, Bimbika; Martin, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the context of this chapter, drivers are considered to be natural or anthropogenic developments affecting forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. They can improve and contribute to food security and nutrition, but they can also lead to food insecurity and malnutrition......, commercialisation of agriculture, industrialisation of forest resources, gender imbalances, conflicts, formalisation of tenure rights, rising food prices and increasing per capita income) were identified within these four categories. They affect food security and nutrition through land use and management; through...

  11. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC.

    Neil Murphy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1 metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, (2 metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, (3 metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, and (4 metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men] were used (instead of BMI to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was

  12. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in older adults in Korea: analysis of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV.

    Choi, Mona; Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is consistently increasing among Korean adults and is reported to be particularly high among older adults in Korea. This paper reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and identifies the association between metabolic syndrome and physical activity in Korean older adults. Subjects of this study were 3653 older adults who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 2007-2009. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46.84%. The prevalences of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure were 39.51, 45.53, 39.55, 48.24, and 69.14%, respectively, in the study population. Compared to subjects who reported low levels of physical activity, the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for those who were moderately active and highly active were 0.93 and 0.63, respectively. Nurses should develop metabolic syndrome management programs that are tailored to the needs of the targeted group and that include individually adapted physical activity programs to promote health. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. ASPEN-AND-ESPEN: A postacute-care comparison of the basic definition of malnutrition from the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics with the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism definition.

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Dolores; Marco, Ester; Ronquillo-Moreno, Natalia; Maciel-Bravo, Liev; Gonzales-Carhuancho, Abel; Duran, Xavier; Guillén-Solà, Anna; Vázquez-Ibar, Olga; Escalada, Ferran; Muniesa, Josep M

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition by applying the ASPEN/AND definition and the ESPEN consensus definition in a postacute-care population, and secondly, to determine the metrological properties of the set of six clinical characteristics that constitute the ASPEN/AND basic diagnosis, compared to the ESPEN consensus, based mostly on objective anthropometric measurements. Prospective study of 84 consecutive deconditioned older inpatients (85.4 ± 6.2; 59.5% women) admitted for rehabilitation in postacute care. ASPEN/AND diagnosis of malnutrition was considered in presence of at least two of the following: low energy intake, fluid accumulation, diminished handgrip strength, and loss of weight, muscle mass, or subcutaneous fat. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, likelihood ratios, and kappa statistics were calculated for ASPEN/AND criteria and compared with ESPEN consensus. The prevalence of malnutrition by ASPEN/AND criteria was 63.1% and by ESPEN consensus, 20.2%; both diagnoses were associated with significantly longer length of stay, but the ESPEN definition was significantly associated with poorer functional outcomes after the rehabilitation program. Compared to ESPEN consensus, ASPEN/AND diagnosis showed fair validity (sensitivity = 94.1%; specificity = 44.8%); kappa statistic was 2.217. Applying the ASPEN/AND definition obtained a higher prevalence of malnutrition in a postacute-care population than was identified by the ESPEN definition. ASPEN/AND criteria had fair validity and agreement compared with the ESPEN definition. A simple, evidence-based, unified malnutrition definition might improve geriatric care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Supply of N compounds to the rumen and their subsequent metabolism and nutritional value

    Smith, R.H.; Grantley-Smith, M.P.; Merry, R.J.; McAllan, A.B.; Oldham, J.D.; Salter, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Three projects studying different aspects of the utilization of N compounds by young steer are described. (1) Compartmental analysis of 15 N movements between rumen, blood and urine showed that the level of feeding had no effect on the proportion of N intake recycled to the alimentary tract as urea, but a substantial effect on the site of re-entry; at a high level of feeding most went to the rumen, while at a low level it went to the rest of the tract. Some effects of manipulating growth rate with an anabolic agent on N transfers are also described. (2) Digestibilities of fibre and the efficiencies of microbial protein synthesis in the rumens of animals receiving diets containing alkali treated straw were investigated. The former, but not the latter, were significantly improved when dietary rumen degradable nitrogen was supplied as certain true protein sources rather than mainly as urea. This indication of a requirement for exogenous amino acids and/or peptides was supported by in vitro studies using a solid fed continuous culture system. (3) The entry of 3 H and 15 N labels into the portal vein reached a peak within one hour of infusing labelled leucine, glycine, lysine and glutamine into the duodenum. For leucine, glycine and lysine substantial amounts of the labels were newly entered and were still in the free amino acid at this time, but by two hours only recycled label was present, mostly in plasma protein. Similar peaks of label appearance occurred after glutamine infusion, but these were mainly in glutamic acid and arginine and entry from the gut continued for several hours. The patterns of appearance and disappearance of 35 S following duodenal infusion of labelled methionine were similar to those for 3 H following leucine infusion. (author)

  15. A fuzzy logic decision support system for assessing clinical nutritional risk

    Ali Mohammad Hadianfard

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have indicated a global high prevalence of hospital malnutrition on admission and during hospitalization. Clinical Nutritional Risk Screen (CNRS is a way to identify malnutrition and manage nutritional interventions. Several traditional and non-computer based tools have been suggested for screening nutritional risk levels. The present study was an attempt to employ a computer based fuzzy model decision support system as a nutrition-screening tool for inpatients. Method: This is an applied modeling study. The system architecture was designed based on the fuzzy logic model including input data, inference engine, and output. A clinical nutritionist entered nineteen input variables using a windows-based graphical user interface. The inference engine was involved with knowledge obtained from literature and the construction of ‘IF-THEN’ rules. The output of the system was stratification of patients into four risk levels from ‘No’ to ‘High’ where a number was also allocated to them as a nutritional risk grade. All patients (121 people admitted during implementing the system participated in testing the model. The classification tests were used to measure the CNRS fuzzy model performance. IBM SPSS version 21 was utilized as a tool for data analysis with α = 0.05 as a significance level. Results: Results showed that sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision of the fuzzy model performance were 91.67% (±4.92, 76% (±7.6, 88.43% (±5.7, and 93.62% (±4.32, respectively. Instant performance on admission and very low probability of mistake in predicting malnutrition risk level may justify using the model in hospitals. Conclusion: To conclude, the fuzzy model-screening tool is based on multiple nutritional risk factors, having the capability of classifying inpatients into several nutritional risk levels and identifying the level of required nutritional intervention.

  16. Essential Nutrition and Food Systems Components for School Curricula: Views from Experts in Iran.

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate food experts' views on important nutrition and food systems knowledge issues for education purposes at schools in Iran. In 2012, semi-structured, face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted with twenty-eight acknowledged Iranian experts in food and nutrition fields. Participants were selected from four major provinces in Iran (Tehran, Isfahan, Fars and Gilan). Open-ended interview questions were used to identify nutrition and food systems knowledge issues, which experts considered as important to be included in school education programs. Qualitative interviews were analyzed thematically using NVivo. A framework of knowledge that would assist Iranian students and school-leavers to make informed decisions in food-related areas was developed, comprising five major clusters and several sub-clusters. Major knowledge clusters included nutrition basics; food production; every day food-related practices; prevalent nutritional health problems in Iran and improvement of students' ethical attitudes in the food domain. These findings provide a guide to curriculum developers and policy makers to assess current education curricula in order to optimize students' knowledge of nutrition and food systems.

  17. Metabolic Myopathies.

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness. The glycogen-storage diseases present during brief bouts of high-intensity exercise, whereas fatty acid oxidation defects and mitochondrial myopathies present during a long-duration/low-intensity endurance-type activity or during fasting or another metabolically stressful event (eg, surgery, fever). The clinical examination is often normal between acute events, and evaluation involves exercise testing, blood testing (creatine kinase, acylcarnitine profile, lactate, amino acids), urine organic acids (ketones, dicarboxylic acids, 3-methylglutaconic acid), muscle biopsy (histology, ultrastructure, enzyme testing), MRI/spectroscopy, and targeted or untargeted genetic testing. Accurate and early identification of metabolic myopathies can lead to therapeutic interventions with lifestyle and nutritional modification, cofactor treatment, and rapid treatment of rhabdomyolysis.

  18. Leptin and the central nervous system control of glucose metabolism.

    Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    The regulation of body fat stores and blood glucose levels is critical for survival. This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes. Investigation into underlying mechanisms has begun to clarify the physiological role of leptin in the control of glucose metabolism and raises interesting new possibilities for the treatment of diabetes and related disorders.

  19. The association between long working hours and the metabolic syndrome: evidences from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2010 and 2012.

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Jeon, Man Joong; Sakong, Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between the working hours of Korean employees and the metabolic syndrome and the effects of long working hours on metabolic syndrome based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). Based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), 4,456 Korean employees without shift work, aged over 15, who work 30 hours or more per week were targeted in this study. The association between the general characteristics, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, and the metabolic syndrome criteria defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and weekly working hours were analyzed. In addition, the association between weekly working hours and the metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender was analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses and generalized linear mixed model after adjusting the general characteristics. In the results of stratified analysis by gender, in male subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In female subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In addition, no trend associations were observed among weekly working hour groups in both stratified genders. No significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender were found according to weekly increasing working hours. However, due to some limitations of this study, further prospective studies may be necessary for verification.

  20. Fighting against a misconception about the Energy Yielding Metabolism: a proposal for starting the teaching of human nutrition in schools

    F. Souza Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that undergraduate and high school students share two contradictory concep- tions  regarding  the  energy  yielding  metabolism  (EYM:  the  incorrect  notion  that only glucose can be used for ATP  production together  with  more appropriated conception  according  to which other molecules,  mainly  lipids can also be used for ATP  production.  We have  deepened  the  study  about the origin of such conceptual  profile. Using questionnaires, we have determined that 7th grade school students do not  present  the  erroneous  conception,  but those  from the 8th  grade  (and  later  grades do.  This  finding has led us to  propose  the  hypothesis  that the wrong conception  may  emerge as a result of formal learning during 8th grade.  Indeed, the analysis of 8th grade textbooks  showed that the carbohydrates were associated  mainly  with  energy production by the  cells, while proteins  and  lipids were regarded  only as structural and storage  molecules, respectively.  In addition, only the glycolytic pathway was taught in high school, reinforcing  the  misconception.   We have also demonstrated that the conceptual  profile was widely distributed among students from different schools of different regions of the Rio de Janeiro  state,  reinforcing the importance of reformulation of the teaching of EYM-related topics  both  in grade  and  high schools.  Here we describe  the  development and  the  evaluation of an investigation-based approach  to human  nutrition to be used with  8th grade  students.  This  method- ology is based  in the  use of the  nutritional tables  found  in Brazilian  food packages  and  allows the students to identify not only which of the main nutrients do contain  calories (and thus can be used for,, energy production,, but the amount of calories found in 1g of each of them.  The methodology wastested

  1. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  2. Increased risk of metabolic disorders in healthy young adults with family history of diabetes: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Moon, Joon Ho; Roh, Eun; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a family history of diabetes on type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and behavioral traits in young Korean adults. Subjects aged 25-44 years were included, and the presence of a family history of diabetes was obtained by a self-reported questionnaire (the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010). We compared the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and other metabolic parameters, including blood pressure and lipid profile. Of 2059 participants, those with a family history of diabetes involving first-degree relatives (n = 489, 23.7%) had a significantly higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (14.3 vs. 11.7%) and type 2 diabetes (6.7 vs. 1.8%), compared to those without a family history ( P  metabolic syndrome (21.3 vs. 12.1%, P  family history of diabetes. Among subjects exhibiting normal glucose tolerance (n = 1704), those with a family history of diabetes had higher fasting glucose (89.0 vs. 87.8 mg/dL, P  family history of diabetes. Young adults with a family history of diabetes had an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, even though they currently exhibited a normal glycemic profile. Proactive lifestyle consultation is requested especially among healthy young population with a family history of diabetes.

  3. Etiology of the protein-energy wasting syndrome in chronic kidney disease: a consensus statement from the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM).

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Stenvinkel, Peter; Cuppari, Lilian; Ikizler, T Alp; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kaysen, George; Mitch, William E; Price, S Russ; Wanner, Christoph; Wang, Angela Y M; ter Wee, Pieter; Franch, Harold A

    2013-03-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW), a term proposed by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM), refers to the multiple nutritional and catabolic alterations that occur in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associate with morbidity and mortality. To increase awareness, identify research needs, and provide the basis for future work to understand therapies and consequences of PEW, ISRNM provides this consensus statement of current knowledge on the etiology of PEW syndrome in CKD. Although insufficient food intake (true undernutrition) due to poor appetite and dietary restrictions contribute, other highly prevalent factors are required for the full syndrome to develop. These include uremia-induced alterations such as increased energy expenditure, persistent inflammation, acidosis, and multiple endocrine disorders that render a state of hypermetabolism leading to excess catabolism of muscle and fat. In addition, comorbid conditions associated with CKD, poor physical activity, frailty, and the dialysis procedure per se further contribute to PEW. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Role of ultraviolet irradiation and oxidative stress in cataract formation-medical prevention by nutritional antioxidants and metabolic agonists.

    Varma, Shambhu D; Kovtun, Svitlana; Hegde, Kavita R

    2011-07-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability with relatively high incidence. It has been proposed that such high incidence is related to oxidative stress induced by continued intraocular penetration of light and consequent photochemical generation of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and singlet oxygen and their derivatization to other oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. The latter two can also interact to generate singlet oxygen by Haber-Weiss reaction. It has been proposed that in addition to the endogenous enzymatic antioxidant enzymes, the process can be inhibited by many nutritional and metabolic oxyradical scavengers, such as ascorbate, vitamin E, pyruvate, and xanthine alkaloids, such as caffeine. Initial verification of the hypothesis has been done primarily by rat and mouse lens organ culture studies under ambient as well as ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and determining the effect of such irradiation on its physiology in terms of its efficiency of active membrane transport activity and the levels of certain metabolites such as glutathione and adenosine triphosphate as well as in terms of apoptotic cell death. In vivo studies on the possible prevention of oxidative stress and cataract formation have been conducted by administering pyruvate and caffeine orally in drinking water and by their topical application using diabetic and galactosemic animal models. Photosensitized damage to lens caused by exposure to visible light and UVA has been found to be significantly prevented by ascorbate and pyruvate. Caffeine has been found be effective against UVA and UVB. Oral or topical application of pyruvate has been found to inhibit the formation of cataracts induced by diabetes and galactosemia. Caffeine has also been found to inhibit cataract induced by sodium selenite and high levels of galactose. Studies with diabetes are in progress. Various in vitro and in vivo studies summarized in this review strongly support the

  5. Developing a ubiquitous health management system with healthy diet control for metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan.

    Kan, Yao-Chiang; Chen, Kai-Hong; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Self-management in healthcare can allow patients managing their health data anytime and everywhere for prevention of chronic diseases. This study established a prototype of ubiquitous health management system (UHMS) with healthy diet control (HDC) for people who need services of metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan. System infrastructure comprises of three portals and a database tier with mutually supportive components to achieve functionality of diet diaries, nutrition guides, and health risk assessments for self-health management. With the diet, nutrition, and personal health database, the design enables the analytical diagrams on the interactive interface to support a mobile application for diet diary, a Web-based platform for health management, and the modules of research and development for medical care. For database integrity, dietary data can be stored at offline mode prior to transformation between mobile device and server site at online mode. The UHMS-HDC was developed by open source technology for ubiquitous health management with personalized dietary criteria. The system integrates mobile, internet, and electronic healthcare services with the diet diary functions to manage healthy diet behaviors of users. The virtual patients were involved to simulate the self-health management procedure. The assessment functions were approved by capturing the screen snapshots in the procedure. The proposed system development was capable for practical intervention. This approach details the expandable framework with collaborative components regarding the self-developed UHMS-HDC. The multi-disciplinary applications for self-health management can support the healthcare professionals to reduce medical resources and improve healthcare effects for the patient who requires monitoring personal health condition with diet control. The proposed system can be practiced for intervention in the hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizability of metabolic pathway systems from time series data.

    Voit, Eberhard O

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, the biomathematical community has devoted substantial effort to the complicated challenge of estimating parameter values for biological systems models. An even more difficult issue is the characterization of functional forms for the processes that govern these systems. Most parameter estimation approaches tacitly assume that these forms are known or can be assumed with some validity. However, this assumption is not always true. The recently proposed method of Dynamic Flux Estimation (DFE) addresses this problem in a genuinely novel fashion for metabolic pathway systems. Specifically, DFE allows the characterization of fluxes within such systems through an analysis of metabolic time series data. Its main drawback is the fact that DFE can only directly be applied if the pathway system contains as many metabolites as unknown fluxes. This situation is unfortunately rare. To overcome this roadblock, earlier work in this field had proposed strategies for augmenting the set of unknown fluxes with independent kinetic information, which however is not always available. Employing Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse methods of linear algebra, the present article discusses an approach for characterizing fluxes from metabolic time series data that is applicable even if the pathway system is underdetermined and contains more fluxes than metabolites. Intriguingly, this approach is independent of a specific modeling framework and unaffected by noise in the experimental time series data. The results reveal whether any fluxes may be characterized and, if so, which subset is characterizable. They also help with the identification of fluxes that, if they could be determined independently, would allow the application of DFE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional criteria for closed-loop space food systems

    Rambaut, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    The nutritional requirements for Skylab crews are summarized as a data base for long duration spaceflight nutrient requirements. Statistically significant increases in energy consumption were detected after three months, along with CO2/O2 exhalation during exercise and thyroxine level increases. Linoleic acid amounting to 3-4 g/day was found to fulfill all fat requirements, and carbohydrate and protein (amino acid) necessities are discussed, noting that vigorous exercise programs avoid deconditioning which enhances nitrogen loss. Urinary calcium losses continued at a rate 100% above a baseline figure, a condition which ingestion of vitamin D2 did not correct. Projections are given that spaceflights lasting more than eight years will necessitate recycling of human waste for nutrient growth, which can be processed into highly efficient space food with a variety of tastes.

  8. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  9. Use of Point-of-Service Systems in School Nutrition Programs: Types, Challenges, and Employee Training

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Park, Eunhye; Wang, Yujia; Rushing, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the use of electronic and paper-based point-of-service (POS) systems in school nutrition programs (SNPs), including associated challenges and the desired skills and existing training practices for personnel handling such systems. Methods: A questionnaire was developed based on interviews with 25 SNP…

  10. Nutritional Intervention Preconception and During Pregnancy to Maintain Healthy Glucose Metabolism and Offspring Health ("NiPPeR"): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Godfrey, Keith M; Cutfield, Wayne; Chan, Shiao-Yng; Baker, Philip N; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2017-03-20

    Improved maternal nutrition and glycaemic control before and during pregnancy are thought to benefit the health of the mother, with consequent benefits for infant body composition and later obesity risk. Maternal insulin resistance and glycaemia around conception and in early pregnancy may be key determinants of maternal physiology and placental function, affecting fetal nutrient supply and maternal-feto-placental communications throughout gestation, with implications for later postnatal health. This double-blind randomised controlled trial will recruit up to 1800 women, aged 18-38 years, who are planning a pregnancy in the United Kingdom (UK), Singapore and New Zealand, with a view to studying 600 pregnancies. The primary outcome is maternal glucose tolerance at 28 weeks' gestation following an oral glucose tolerance test. Secondary outcomes include metabolic, molecular and health-related outcomes in the mother and offspring, notably infant body composition. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive a twice-daily control nutritional drink, enriched with standard micronutrients, or a twice-daily intervention nutritional drink enriched with additional micronutrients, myo-inositol and probiotics, both demonstrated previously to assist in maintaining healthy glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Myo-inositol is a nutrient that enhances cellular glucose uptake. The additional micronutrients seek to address deficiencies of some B-group vitamins and vitamin D that are both common during pregnancy and that have been associated with maternal dysglycaemia, epigenetic changes and greater offspring adiposity. Women who conceive within a year of starting the nutritional drinks will be followed through pregnancy and studied with their infants at six time points during the first year of life. Blood, urine/stool, hair and cheek swabs will be collected from the mothers for genetic, epigenetic, hormone, nutrient and metabolite measurements, and assessments of the mother

  11. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: neurocritical patient.

    Acosta Escribano, J; Herrero Meseguer, I; Conejero García-Quijada, R

    2011-11-01

    Neurocritical patients require specialized nutritional support due to their intense catabolism and prolonged fasting. The preferred route of nutrient administration is the gastrointestinal route, especially the gastric route. Alternatives are the transpyloric route or mixed enteral-parenteral nutrition if an effective nutritional volume of more than 60% cannot be obtained. Total calorie intake ranges from 20-30 kcal/kg/day, depending on the period of the clinical course, with protein intake higher than 20% of total calories (hyperproteic diet). Nutritional support should be initiated early. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications is generally higher to other critically-ill patients, the most frequent complication being an increase in gastric residual volume. As in other critically-ill patients, glycemia should be closely monitored and maintained below 150 mg/dL.

  12. The relationship between nutrition and frailty: Effects of protein intake, nutritional supplementation, vitamin D and exercise on muscle metabolism in the elderly. A systematic review.

    Artaza-Artabe, Iñaki; Sáez-López, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Natalia; Fernández-Gutierrez, Naiara; Malafarina, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that predicts the onset of disability, morbidity and mortality in elderly people; it is a state of pre-disability and is reversible. The aim of this review is to assess how nutrition influences both the risk of developing frailty and its treatment. We searched two databases, PubMed and Web of Science. We included epidemiologic studies and clinical trials carried out on people aged over 65 years. We included 32 studies with a total of over 50,000 participants. The prevalence of frailty is ranges from 15% among elderly people living in the community to 54% among those hospitalized. Furthermore, the prevalence of frailty is disproportionately high among elderly people who are malnourished. Malnutrition, which is very prevalent in geriatric populations, is one of the main risk factors for the onset of frailty. A good nutritional status and, wherever necessary, supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients reduce the risk of developing frailty. Physical exercise has been shown to improve functional status, helps to prevent frailty and is an effective treatment to reverse it. Despite the relatively large number of studies included, this review has some limitations. Firstly, variability in the design of the studies and their different aims reduce their comparability. Secondly, several of the studies did not adequately define frailty. Poor nutritional status is associated with the onset of frailty. Screening and early diagnosis of malnutrition and frailty in elderly people will help to prevent the onset of disability. Effective treatment is based on correction of the macro- and micronutrient deficit and physical exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Time Course of Metabolic Capacities in Paralarvae of the Common Octopus, Octopus vulgaris, in the First Stages of Life. Searching Biomarkers of Nutritional Imbalance

    Amalia E. Morales

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris is promising since the species has a relatively short lifecycle, rapid growth, and high food conversion ratios. However, recent attempts at successful paralarvae culture have failed due to slow growth and high mortality rates. Establishing an optimal nutritional regime for the paralarvae seems to be the impeding step in successful culture methods. Gaining a thorough knowledge of food regulation and assimilation is essential for paralarvae survival and longevity under culture conditions. The aim of this study, then, was to elucidate the characteristic metabolic organization of octopus paralarvae throughout an ontogenic period of 12 days post-hatching, as well as assess the effect of diet enrichment with live prey containing abundant marine phospholipids. Our results showed that throughout the ontogenic period studied, an increase in anaerobic metabolism took place largely due to an increased dependence of paralarvae on exogenous food. Our studies showed that this activity was supported by octopine dehydrogenase activity, with a less significant contribution of lactate dehydrogenase activity. Regarding aerobic metabolism, the use of amino acids was maintained for the duration of the experiment. Our studies also showed a significant increase in the rate of oxidation of fatty acids from 6 days after-hatching. A low, although sustained, capacity for de novo synthesis of glucose from amino acids and glycerol was also observed. Regardless of the composition of the food, glycerol kinase activity significantly increased a few days prior to a massive mortality event. This could be related to a metabolic imbalance in the redox state responsible for the high mortality. Thus, glycerol kinase might be used as an effective nutritional and welfare biomarker. The studies in this report also revealed the important finding that feeding larvae with phospholipid-enriched Artemia improved animal viability and

  14. Identification of metabolic system parameters using global optimization methods

    Gatzke Edward P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of estimating the parameters of dynamic models of complex biological systems from time series data is becoming increasingly important. Methods and results Particular consideration is given to metabolic systems that are formulated as Generalized Mass Action (GMA models. The estimation problem is posed as a global optimization task, for which novel techniques can be applied to determine the best set of parameter values given the measured responses of the biological system. The challenge is that this task is nonconvex. Nonetheless, deterministic optimization techniques can be used to find a global solution that best reconciles the model parameters and measurements. Specifically, the paper employs branch-and-bound principles to identify the best set of model parameters from observed time course data and illustrates this method with an existing model of the fermentation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is a relatively simple yet representative system with five dependent states and a total of 19 unknown parameters of which the values are to be determined. Conclusion The efficacy of the branch-and-reduce algorithm is illustrated by the S. cerevisiae example. The method described in this paper is likely to be widely applicable in the dynamic modeling of metabolic networks.

  15. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drivers of forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition

    Kleinschmit, Daniela; Sijapati Basnett, Bimbika; Martin, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the context of this chapter, drivers are considered to be natural or anthropogenic developments affecting forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. They can improve and contribute to food security and nutrition, but they can also lead to food insecurity and malnutrition. ...... consumption, income and livelihood; or through both. These drivers are interrelated and can have different consequences depending on the social structure; for example, they can support food security for elite groups but can increase the vulnerability of other groups.......In the context of this chapter, drivers are considered to be natural or anthropogenic developments affecting forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. They can improve and contribute to food security and nutrition, but they can also lead to food insecurity and malnutrition......, commercialisation of agriculture, industrialisation of forest resources, gender imbalances, conflicts, formalisation of tenure rights, rising food prices and increasing per capita income) were identified within these four categories. They affect food security and nutrition through land use and management; through...

  17. Quality of nutrition services in primary health care facilities: Implications for integrating nutrition into the health system in Bangladesh.

    Sk Masum Billah

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Bangladesh Government introduced the National Nutrition Services (NNS by leveraging the existing health infrastructure to deliver nutrition services to pregnant woman and children. This study examined the quality of nutrition services provided during antenatal care (ANC and management of sick children younger than five years.Service delivery quality was assessed across three dimensions; structural readiness, process and outcome. Structural readiness was assessed by observing the presence of equipment, guidelines and register/reporting forms in ANC rooms and consulting areas for sick children at 37 primary healthcare facilities in 12 sub-districts. In addition, the training and knowledge relevant to nutrition service delivery of 95 healthcare providers was determined. The process of nutrition service delivery was assessed by observing 381 ANC visits and 826 sick children consultations. Satisfaction with the service was the outcome and was determined by interviewing 541 mothers/caregivers of sick children.Structural readiness to provide nutrition services was higher for ANC compared to management of sick children; 73% of ANC rooms had >5 of the 13 essential items while only 13% of the designated areas for management of sick children had >5 of the 13 essential items. One in five (19% healthcare providers had received nutrition training through the NNS. Delivery of the nutrition services was poor: <30% of women received all four key antenatal nutrition services, 25% of sick children had their weight checked against a growth-chart and <1% had their height measured. Nevertheless, most mothers/caregivers rated their satisfaction of the service above average.Strengthening the provision of equipment and increasing the coverage of training are imperative to improve nutrition services. Inherent barriers to implementing nutrition services in primary health care, especially high caseloads during the management of sick under-five children, should

  18. Using data from a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system to assess trends and influence nutrition programs and policy

    Nasima Akhter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* of Helen Keller International (HKI, Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone areas of Bangladesh. Since 1998, it evolved into a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system in rural Bangladesh and also continued assessing trends of malnutrition in urban poor areas. Over the 16 year period, the NSP produced plethora of information that was packaged and shared as bulletins, in peer reviewed journal articles, as presentations at conferences, seminars, workshops. The NSP had a flexible framework that allowed it to assess trends and underlying factors of malnutrition, monitor and evaluate selected programs and conduct special studies related to current and emerging issues. NSP findings were available to contribute to program development and supported policy discussions in-country and internationally. The NSP continuously highlighted the importance of monitoring, which is not only an indispensible element for a successful program, but also helps prioritization and decision making to maximize utilization of limited resources for developing countries burdened with numerous problems to address. The NSP provides an example of a technically sound surveillance system with rapid turnover of data and findings, which is imperative to successful program planning, policy formulation and tracking progress toward developmental goals.Le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* de l’association Helen Keller International (HKI, mis en œuvre au Bangladesh en partenariat avec l’Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN,

  19. Nutritional Immunity Triggers the Modulation of Iron Metabolism Genes in the Sub-Antarctic Notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus in Response to Piscirickettsia salmonis

    Danixa Martínez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deprivation is a nutritional immunity mechanism through which fish can limit the amount of iron available to invading bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of iron metabolism genes in the liver and brain of sub-Antarctic notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus challenged with Piscirickettsia salmonis. The specimens were inoculated with two P. salmonis strains: LF-89 (ATCC® VR-1361™ and Austral-005 (antibiotic resistant. Hepatic and brain samples were collected at intervals over a period of 35 days. Gene expression (by RT-qPCR of proteins involved in iron storage, transport, and binding were statistically modulated in infected fish when compared with control counterparts. Specifically, the expression profiles of the transferrin and hemopexin genes in the liver, as well as the expression profiles of ferritin-M, ferritin-L, and transferrin in the brain, were similar for both experimental groups. Nevertheless, the remaining genes such as ferritin-H, ceruloplasmin, hepcidin, and haptoglobin presented tissue-specific expression profiles that varied in relation to the injected bacterial strain and sampling time-point. These results suggest that nutritional immunity could be an important immune defense mechanism for E. maclovinus against P. salmonis injection. This study provides relevant information for understanding iron metabolism of a sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish.

  20. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Lamb, Joseph J; Holick, Michael F; Lerman, Robert H; Konda, Veera R; Minich, Deanna M; Desai, Anuradha; Chen, Tai C; Austin, Melissa; Kornberg, Jacob; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Hsi, Alex; Bland, Jeffrey S; Tripp, Matthew L

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome poses additional risk for postmenopausal women who are already at risk for osteoporosis. We hypothesized that a nutritional supplement containing anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and essential bone nutrients would produce a favorable bone biomarker profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. In this 14-week, randomized trial, 51 women were instructed to consume a modified Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and to engage in aerobic exercise. Those in the intervention arm (n = 25) additionally received 200 mg hop rho iso-alpha acids, 100 mg berberine sulfate trihydrate, 500 IU vitamin D₃, and 500 μg vitamin K₁ twice daily. Forty-five women completed the study. Baseline nutrient intake did not differ between arms. Compared with baseline, the intervention arm exhibited an approximate 25% mean decrease (P vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile indicative of healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From 20th century metabolic wall charts to 21st century systems biology: database of mammalian metabolic enzymes.

    Corcoran, Callan C; Grady, Cameron R; Pisitkun, Trairak; Parulekar, Jaya; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The organization of the mammalian genome into gene subsets corresponding to specific functional classes has provided key tools for systems biology research. Here, we have created a web-accessible resource called the Mammalian Metabolic Enzyme Database ( https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/MetabolicEnzymeDatabase.html) keyed to the biochemical reactions represented on iconic metabolic pathway wall charts created in the previous century. Overall, we have mapped 1,647 genes to these pathways, representing ~7 percent of the protein-coding genome. To illustrate the use of the database, we apply it to the area of kidney physiology. In so doing, we have created an additional database ( Database of Metabolic Enzymes in Kidney Tubule Segments: https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/), mapping mRNA abundance measurements (mined from RNA-Seq studies) for all metabolic enzymes to each of 14 renal tubule segments. We carry out bioinformatics analysis of the enzyme expression pattern among renal tubule segments and mine various data sources to identify vasopressin-regulated metabolic enzymes in the renal collecting duct. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. A Statistical Analysis of a Traffic-Light Food Rating System to Promote Healthy Nutrition and Body Weight.

    Larrivee, Sandra; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D

    2015-06-30

    Restaurant eating while optimizing nutrition and maintaining a healthy weight is challenging. Even when nutritional information is available, consumers often consider only calories. A quick and easy method to rate both caloric density and nutrition is an unmet need. A food rating system created to address that need is assessed in this study. The food rating system categorizes food items into 3 color-coded categories: most healthy (green), medium healthy (yellow), or least healthy (red) based on calorie density and general nutritional quality from national guidelines. Nutritional information was downloaded from 20 popular fast-food chains. Nutritional assessments and the 3 color coded categories were compared using the Wilcoxon and Median tests to demonstrate the significance of nutrition differences. Green foods were significantly lower than yellow foods, which in turn were significantly lower than red foods, for calories and calories from fat, in addition to content of total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates per 100 g serving weight (all P < .02). The green foods had significantly lower cholesterol than the yellow (P = .0006) and red (P < .0001) foods. Yellow foods had less sugar than red foods (P < .0001). Yellow foods were significantly higher in dietary fiber than red foods (P = .001). The food rating color-coded system identifies food items with superior nutrition, and lower caloric density. The smartphone app, incorporating the system, has the potential to improve nutrition; reduce the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke; and improve public health. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Hypothesis: solid tumours behave as systemic metabolic dictators.

    Lee, Yang-Ming; Chang, Wei-Chun; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge regarding mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human beings centres around the accumulation of genetic instability, amplified cellular signalling, disturbed cellular energy metabolism and microenvironmental regulation governed by complicated cell-cell interactions. In this article, we provide an alternative view of cancer biology. We propose that cancer behaves as a systemic dictator that interacts with tissues throughout the body to control their metabolism and eventually homeostasis. The mechanism of development of this endocrine organ-like tumour (EOLT) tissue might be the driving force for cancer progression. Here, we review the literature that led to the development of this hypothesis. The EOLT phenotype can be defined as a tumour that alters systemic homeostasis. The literature indicates that the EOLT phenotype is present throughout cancer progression. The feedback mechanism that governs the interaction between tumours and various organs is unknown. We believe that investigating the mechanism of EOLT development may advance the current knowledge of regulation within the tumour macroenvironment and consequently lead to new diagnostic methods and therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Cancer metabolism meets systems biology: Pyruvate kinase isoform PKM2 is a metabolic master regulator

    Fabian V Filipp

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase activity is controlled by a tightly woven regulatory network. The oncofetal isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) is a master regulator of cancer metabolism. PKM2 engages in parallel, feed-forward, positive and negative feedback control contributing to cancer progression. Besides its metabolic role, non-metabolic functions of PKM2 as protein kinase and transcriptional coactivator for c-MYC and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha are essential for epidermal growth factor receptor acti...

  5. The Association between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Seo, Jeong Eun; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Byun, A Ri; Kim, Jung Hwa; An, Hee Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Background The sodium intake of Koreans was higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization. Urinary sodium, which is correlated with sodium intake, can be easily calculated by the Tanaka's equation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods A total of 5,870 participants from the 2010–2011 KNHANES were included in this study. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium was calculated by the Tanaka's equation using spot urine. Participants were divided into tertiles based on urinary sodium levels. The association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of urinary sodium levels was 1.51 (1.16–1.97) and 1.56 (1.23–1.97) compared to the lowest tertile of urinary sodium in men. The ORs and 95% CIs of metabolic syndrome in women were 1.20 (0.95–1.51) for the 2nd tertile and 2.16 (1.68–2.78) for the 3rd tertile. These associations remained statistically significant, even after adjusting for multiple covariates such as age, education, regular exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion These findings indicate that urinary sodium is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. PMID:28775809

  6. Does the Australasian "Health Star Rating" Front of Pack Nutritional Label System Work?

    Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian "Health Star Rating" front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging.

  7. Does the Australasian “Health Star Rating” Front of Pack Nutritional Label System Work?

    Robert Hamlin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian “Health Star Rating” front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent. The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging.

  8. Does the Australasian “Health Star Rating” Front of Pack Nutritional Label System Work?

    Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian “Health Star Rating” front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging. PMID:27258305

  9. Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea in childhood : Factors determining recovery and the relationship of systemic infections with intestinal function

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea in childhood: factors determining recovery and the relationship of systemic infections with intestinal function Zulfiqar A. Bhutta Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea (PD), a major killer of children in the third world, poses an enormous challenge. We validated the efficacy of a traditional local weaning diet based on rice-lentils (Khitchri) and yogurt (K-Y diet) for nutritional rehabilitation of PD. ...

  10. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  11. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  12. Drug metabolizing enzyme systems and their relationship to toxic mechanisms

    Boyd, M.R.; Ravindranath, V.; Burka, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism and toxicity of 3-methylfuran (3-MF) are described. The major product of metabolic activation of 3-MF appears to be disemicarbazones. Cursory description of toxic effects of 3-MF on lung and kidneys are provided. 18 refs

  13. Metabolic Control, Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Non-Insulin-dependent Diabetic Patients from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, South-West of Iran

    Janmohamad Malekzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is among the most common causes of mortality in the world and an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease, foot amputation, ischemic heart disease and blindness among older adults. Diabetic patients mostly develop hyperlipidemia, which can result in cardiovascular diseases. Patient’s knowledge, attitude and practices toward diet are the core center for diabetes control and affect their metabolic control and complications. In the present study, we measured nutritional knowledge, attitude and practices and their relations to serum lipids, HbA1C, and fasting blood glucose in diabetic patients of Boirahmad County, southwest of Iran, where many people encounter increasing prevalence of diabetes. Materials and Methods: 198 IDDM patients from the rural and urban areas of Boirahmad County were invited to the health centers to be checked for their fasting blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, serum HDL cholesterol, serum triglyceride and also serum glycosylated hemoglobin. Their knowledge, attitude, and practices toward the diabetic diet were assessed using a validated questionnaire. The obtained scores were classified into three categories (Poor, average, and Good to show their knowledge, attitude and practice levels, and the serum parameters were compared between the levels to show the relevancies. Results: Our data showed that the patients’ knowledge and attitude on diabetic nutrition are mostly at the average level (79.3% and 47.1%, respectively but their practice scores are mostly at the poor level (43.8%, and just a minor proportion of the patients are at the appropriate levels (15.3, 33, and 23.1% of knowledge, attitude and practices, respectively. In addition, we found a significant reverse relationship between the patients’ nutritional knowledge and  serum HbA1C (p=0.003, and also between their attitude and serum triglyceride (p<0.05. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the knowledge

  14. Potential Use of Classroom Response Systems (CRS, Clickers) in Foods, Nutrition, and Dietetics Higher Education.

    Gould, Susan Martin

    2016-10-01

    Although hundreds of articles have been published about the use of classroom response systems (CRS, clickers) in higher education, few address the use in foods, nutrition, and dietetics courses, especially upper-division, major courses. This technology has the potential to increase student engagement, motivation, assessment, and, possibly, learning. Thoughtfully designed questions may stimulate discussions, especially about challenging nutrition topics. This article presents the viability and potential benefits for the use of CRS in foods, nutrition, and dietetics classes through a brief literature summary, overview of the author's experiences, and guidance for implementing this technology. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional Metabolomics

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  16. The impact of a supermarket nutrition rating system on purchases of nutritious and less nutritious foods.

    Cawley, John; Sweeney, Matthew J; Sobal, Jeffery; Just, David R; Kaiser, Harry M; Schulze, William D; Wethington, Elaine; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of a nutrition rating system on consumers' food purchases in supermarkets. Aggregate sales data for 102 categories of food (over 60 000 brands) on a weekly basis for 2005-2007 from a supermarket chain of over 150 stores are analysed. Change in weekly sales of nutritious and less nutritious foods, after the introduction of a nutrition rating system on store shelves, is calculated, controlling for seasonality and time trends in sales. One hundred and sixty-eight supermarket stores in the north-east USA, from January 2005 to December 2007. Consumers purchasing goods at the supermarket chain during the study period. After the introduction of the nutrition ratings, overall weekly food sales declined by an average of 3637 units per category (95 % CI -5961, -1313; P<0·01). Sales of less nutritious foods fell by 8·31 % (95 % CI -13·50, -2·80 %; P=0·004), while sales of nutritious foods did not change significantly (P=0·21); as a result, the percentage of food purchases rated as nutritious rose by 1·39 % (95 % CI 0·58, 2·20 %; P<0·01). The decrease in sales of less nutritious foods was greatest in the categories of canned meat and fish, soda pop, bakery and canned vegetables. The introduction of the nutrition ratings led shoppers to buy a more nutritious mix of products. Interestingly, it did so by reducing purchases of less nutritious foods rather than by increasing purchases of nutritious foods. In evaluating nutrition information systems, researchers should focus on the entire market basket, not just sales of nutritious foods.

  17. Applications of CRISPR/Cas System to Bacterial Metabolic Engineering

    Suhyung Cho

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system has been extensively used for gene editing, including gene deletion, insertion, and replacement in bacterial and eukaryotic cells owing to its simple, rapid, and efficient activities in unprecedented resolution. Furthermore, the CRISPR interference (CRISPRi system including deactivated Cas9 (dCas9 with inactivated endonuclease activity has been further investigated for regulation of the target gene transiently or constitutively, avoiding cell death by disruption of genome. This review discusses the applications of CRISPR/Cas for genome editing in various bacterial systems and their applications. In particular, CRISPR technology has been used for the production of metabolites of high industrial significance, including biochemical, biofuel, and pharmaceutical products/precursors in bacteria. Here, we focus on methods to increase the productivity and yield/titer scan by controlling metabolic flux through individual or combinatorial use of CRISPR/Cas and CRISPRi systems with introduction of synthetic pathway in industrially common bacteria including Escherichia coli. Further, we discuss additional useful applications of the CRISPR/Cas system, including its use in functional genomics.

  18. Estimates of nutritional requirements and use of Small Ruminant Nutrition System model for hair sheep in semiarid conditions

    Alessandra Pinto de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy for maintenance (km and weight gain (kf, the dietary requirements of total digestible nutrients (TDN and metabolizable protein (MP, as well as, evaluate the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS model to predict the dry matter intake (DMI and the average daily gain (ADG of Santa Ines lambs, fed diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (ME. Thirty five lambs, non-castrated, with initial body weight (BW of 14.77 ± 1.26 kg at approximate two months old, were used. At the beginning of the experiment, five animals were slaughtered to serve as reference for the estimative of empty body weight (EBW and initial body composition of the 30 remaining animals, which were distributed in randomized block design with five treatments (1.13; 1.40; 1.73; 2.22 and 2.60 Mcal/kg DM, and six repetitions. The requirement of metabolizable energy for maintenance was 78.53 kcal/kg EBW0,75/day, with a utilization efficiency of 66%. The average value of efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for weight gain was 48%. The dietary requirements of TDN and MP increased with the increase in BW and ADG of the animals. The SRNS model underestimated the DMI and ADG of the animals in 6.2% and 24.6%, respectively. Concludes that the values of km and kf are consistent with those observed in several studies with lambs created in the tropics. The dietary requirements of TDN and MP of Santa Ines lambs for different BW and ADG are, approximately, 42% and 24%, respectively, lower than those suggested by the american system of evaluation of food and nutrient requirements of small ruminants. The SRNS model was sensitive to predict the DMI in Santa Ines lambs, however, for variable ADG, more studies are needed, since the model underestimated the response of the animals of this study.

  19. Inflammation and metabolic disorders.

    Navab, Mohamad; Gharavi, Nima; Watson, Andrew D

    2008-07-01

    Poor nutrition, overweight and obesity have increasingly become a public health concern as they affect many metabolic disorders, including heart disease, diabetes, digestive system disorders, and renal failure. Study of the effects of life style including healthy nutrition will help further elucidate the mechanisms involved in the adverse effects of poor nutrition. Unhealthy life style including poor nutrition can result in imbalance in our oxidation/redox systems. Lipids can undergo oxidative modification by lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, myeloperoxidase, and other enzymes. Oxidized phospholipids can induce inflammatory molecules in the liver and other organs. This can contribute to inflammation, leading to coronary heart disease, stroke, renal failure, inflammatory bowl disease, metabolic syndrome, bone and joint disorders, and even certain types of cancer. Our antioxidant and antiinflammatory defense mechanisms contribute to a balance between the stimulators and the inhibitors of inflammation. Beyond a point, however, these systems might be overwhelmed and eventually fail. High-density lipoprotein is a potent inhibitor of the formation of toxic oxidized lipids. High-density lipoprotein is also an effective system for stimulating the genes whose products are active in the removal, inactivation, and elimination of toxic lipids. Supporting the high-density lipoprotein function should help maintain the balance in these systems. It is hoped that the present report would elucidate some of the ongoing work toward this goal.

  20. Environmental and nutritional factors that affect growth and metabolism of the pneumococcal serotype 2 strain D39 and its nonencapsulated derivative strain R6.

    Sandra M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Links between carbohydrate metabolism and virulence in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been recurrently established. To investigate these links further we developed a chemically defined medium (CDM and standardized growth conditions that allowed for high growth yields of the related pneumococcal strains D39 and R6. The utilization of the defined medium enabled the evaluation of different environmental and nutritional factors on growth and fermentation patterns under controlled conditions of pH, temperature and gas atmosphere. The same growth conditions impacted differently on the nonencapsulated R6, and its encapsulated progenitor D39. A semi-aerobic atmosphere and a raised concentration of uracil, a fundamental component of the D39 capsule, improved considerably D39 growth rate and biomass. In contrast, in strain R6, the growth rate was enhanced by strictly anaerobic conditions and uracil had no effect on biomass. In the presence of oxygen, the difference in the growth rates was mainly attributed to a lower activity of pyruvate oxidase in strain D39. Our data indicate an intricate connection between capsule production in strain D39 and uracil availability. In this study, we have also successfully applied the in vivo NMR technique to study sugar metabolism in S. pneumoniae R6. Glucose consumption, end-products formation and evolution of intracellular metabolite pools were monitored online by (13C-NMR. Additionally, the pools of NTP and inorganic phosphate were followed by (31P-NMR after a pulse of glucose. These results represent the first metabolic profiling data obtained non-invasively for S. pneumoniae, and pave the way to a better understanding of regulation of central metabolism.

  1. Longer sleep is associated with lower BMI and favorable metabolic profiles in UK adults: Findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Gregory D M Potter

    Full Text Available Ever more evidence associates short sleep with increased risk of metabolic diseases such as obesity, which may be related to a predisposition to non-homeostatic eating. Few studies have concurrently determined associations between sleep duration and objective measures of metabolic health as well as sleep duration and diet, however. We therefore analyzed associations between sleep duration, diet and metabolic health markers in UK adults, assessing associations between sleep duration and 1 adiposity, 2 selected metabolic health markers and 3 diet, using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data. Adults (n = 1,615, age 19-65 years, 57.1% female completed questions about sleep duration and 3 to 4 days of food diaries. Blood pressure and waist circumference were recorded. Fasting blood lipids, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, thyroid hormones, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP were measured in a subset of participants. We used regression analyses to explore associations between sleep duration and outcomes. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status, sleep duration was negatively associated with body mass index (-0.46 kg/m2 per hour, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.24 kg/m2, p < 0.001 and waist circumference (-0.9 cm per hour, 95% CI -1.5 to -0.3cm, p = 0.004, and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L per hour, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.05, p = 0.03. Sleep duration tended to be positively associated with free thyroxine levels and negatively associated with HbA1c and CRP (p = 0.09 to 0.10. Contrary to our hypothesis, sleep duration was not associated with any dietary measures (p ≥ 0.14. Together, our findings show that short-sleeping UK adults are more likely to have obesity, a disease with many comorbidities.

  2. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

  3. [IMPLEMENTATION OF A QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN A NUTRITION UNIT ACCORDING TO ISO 9001:2008].

    Velasco Gimeno, Cristina; Cuerda Compés, Cristina; Alonso Puerta, Alba; Frías Soriano, Laura; Camblor Álvarez, Miguel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Plá Mestre, Rosa; Izquierdo Membrilla, Isabel; García-Peris, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    the implementation of quality management systems (QMS) in the health sector has made great progress in recent years, remains a key tool for the management and improvement of services provides to patients. to describe the process of implementing a quality management system (QMS) according to the standard ISO 9001:2008 in a Nutrition Unit. the implementation began in October 2012. Nutrition Unit was supported by Hospital Preventive Medicine and Quality Management Service (PMQM). Initially training sessions on QMS and ISO standards for staff were held. Quality Committee (QC) was established with representation of the medical and nursing staff. Every week, meeting took place among members of the QC and PMQM to define processes, procedures and quality indicators. We carry on a 2 months follow-up of these documents after their validation. a total of 4 processes were identified and documented (Nutritional status assessment, Nutritional treatment, Monitoring of nutritional treatment and Planning and control of oral feeding) and 13 operating procedures in which all the activity of the Unit were described. The interactions among them were defined in the processes map. Each process has associated specific quality indicators for measuring the state of the QMS, and identifying opportunities for improvement. All the documents associated with requirements of ISO 9001:2008 were developed: quality policy, quality objectives, quality manual, documents and records control, internal audit, nonconformities and corrective and preventive actions. The unit was certified by AENOR in April 2013. the implementation of a QMS causes a reorganization of the activities of the Unit in order to meet customer's expectations. Documenting these activities ensures a better understanding of the organization, defines the responsibilities of all staff and brings a better management of time and resources. QMS also improves the internal communication and is a motivational element. Explore the satisfaction

  4. Nutritional support in children under metabolic stress Soporte nutricional en el niño con estrés metabólico

    María Elsy Sepúlveda Hincapié

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A review is presented on metabolic changes that occur in children under stress, and on the organs that are affected by the response to it; also considered are the different resources that are presently available in order to maintain nutrition in these children and to improve their probabilities of recovery. Se hace una revisión acerca de los cambios metabólicos que ocurren en el niño durante el estrés y los órganos que se afectan en su respuesta; se tienen en cuenta además, los diferentes recursos que actualmente se pueden utilizar con el fin de mantener la nutrición del niño durante este tipo de situación, mejorando sus posibilidades de recuperación.

  5. Nutrition and the commoditization of food systems in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Dewey, K G

    1989-01-01

    Commoditization of food systems, defined as the use of agricultural goods for sale rather than for home consumption, affects nutrition of rural families via economic, social and ecological mechanisms in addition to direct dietary effects. Broad-scale mechanisms include alterations in land tenure, increased stratification of wealth, widespread labor migration, urban bias, food price changes, disruption of traditional reciprocal social relations, and ecological changes accompanying commercial agriculture that may limit long-term food production. At the family level, the replacement of food with cash is often problematic as regards nutrition, due to low prices to producers, increased cash needs, the 'lumpiness' of earnings during the year, reduced decision-making power of women, and often decreased dietary diversity. Three case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean, from Peru, Jamaica, and Mexico, illustrate that commoditization tends to have a negative impact on nutrition in poor rural households. Although commoditization is theoretically advantageous on a national level by allowing the use of 'comparative advantage', in actuality its potential benefits are eroded by inequitable uses of foreign exchange. Commoditization is in essence a more efficient means by which to extract surplus value from small agricultural producers. While commoditization is a necessary component of economic growth, policies to safeguard health and nutrition and improve the status of women in development programs must be implemented within an overall strategy to meet basic needs of the population.

  6. Metabolic Regulation of a Bacterial Cell System with Emphasis on Escherichia coli Metabolism

    Shimizu, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is quite important to understand the overall metabolic regulation mechanism of bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli from both science (such as biochemistry) and engineering (such as metabolic engineering) points of view. Here, an attempt was made to clarify the overall metabolic regulation mechanism by focusing on the roles of global regulators which detect the culture or growth condition and manipulate a set of metabolic pathways by modulating the related gene expressions. For this, it was considered how the cell responds to a variety of culture environments such as carbon (catabolite regulation), nitrogen, and phosphate limitations, as well as the effects of oxygen level, pH (acid shock), temperature (heat shock), and nutrient starvation. PMID:25937963

  7. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The "Nutritional Light Signal" of the Renal Acid Load.

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca

    2017-01-17

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T -test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP ( p protein intake ( p intake ( p intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks-the "acid load dietary traffic light".

  8. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study

    Svandis Erna Jonsdottir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR. Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. Objective: To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. Design: A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE. Participants (n=175 were 30–65 years of age, with BMI 27–38 kg/m2 and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants’ 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Results: Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Conclusion: Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  9. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study).

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Kally Magnusdottir, Ola; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Risérus, Ulf; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Helgegren, Hannah; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Hukkanen, Janne; Poutanen, Kaisa; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-12-16

    The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE). Participants (n=175) were 30-65 years of age, with BMI 27-38 kg/m(2) and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants' 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI) of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  10. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  11. Ecological relationship analysis of the urban metabolic system of Beijing, China

    Li Shengsheng; Zhang Yan; Yang Zhifeng; Liu Hong; Zhang Jinyun

    2012-01-01

    Cities can be modelled as giant organisms, with their own metabolic processes, and can therefore be studied using the same tools used for biological metabolic systems. The complicated distribution of compartments within these systems and the functional relationships among them define the system's network structure. Taking Beijing as an example, we divided the city's internal system into metabolic compartments, then used ecological network analysis to calculate a comprehensive utility matrix for the flows between compartments within Beijing's metabolic system from 1998 to 2007 and to identify the corresponding functional relationships among the system's compartments. Our results show how ecological network analysis, utility analysis, and relationship analysis can be used to discover the implied ecological relationships within a metabolic system, thereby providing insights into the system's internal metabolic processes. Such analyses provide scientific support for urban ecological management. - Highlights: ► Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by treating cities as superorganisms. ► We developed an ecological network model for an urban system. ► We studied the system's network relationships using ecological network analysis. ► We developed indices for judging the system's synergism and degree of stability. - Using Beijing as an example of an urban superorganism, we used ecological network analysis to describe the ecological relationships among the urban metabolic system's compartments.

  12. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Background Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirabil...

  13. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    Oriana del Rocío Cruz-Guzmán; Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz; Rosa Elena Escobar Cedillo

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cy...

  14. Acute effects of Surya Namaskar on the cardiovascular & metabolic system.

    Mody, Bhavesh Surendra

    2011-07-01

    With the recent rise in obesity awareness and the increased understanding of the importance of physical activity in promoting overall health, greater emphasis has been placed on improving physical fitness to enhance quality of life. Surya Namaskar, a component of Hatha Yoga, has been practiced by Asian Indians for hundreds of years and is often used in place of a typical fitness program. It consists of a series of postures (asanas) that are repeated 12 times per round. Only one published study has looked specifically at Surya Namaskar, measuring the energy cost of individual asanas (Sinha et al., 2004). However, practitioners typically perform several rounds of the asanas during a session. To assess the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of four rounds of Surya Namaskar, a typical amount performed by practitioners, to determine its potential as a training and weight loss tool. Six healthy Asian Indian men and women (18-22 years) who had trained in Surya Namaskar for over two years participated in the study. Testing was completed in a single session lasting about 30 min. To measure heart rate and oxygen consumption while performing the four rounds, participants were connected to a heart rate monitor and the Oxycon Mobile Metabolic System. Participants exercised at 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) during Round 2, 84% during Round 3, and 90% during Round 4. Average intensity during the four rounds was 80% HRmax, sufficient to elicit a cardiorespiratory training effect. Oxygen consumption averaged 26 ml/kg/min during each round, resulting in an energy expenditure of 230 kcals during a 30 min session for a 60 kg individual. Regular practice of Surya Namaskar may maintain or improve cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as promote weight management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The metabolic impact of methamphetamine on the systemic metabolism of rats and potential markers of methamphetamine abuse.

    Zheng, Tian; Liu, Linsheng; Shi, Jian; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Sun, Runbing; Zhou, Yahong; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2014-07-01

    Although the stimulating and psychotropic effects of methamphetamine (METH) on the nervous system are well documented, the impact of METH abuse on biological metabolism and the turnover of peripheral transmitters are poorly understood. Metabolomics has the potential to reveal the effect of METH abuse on systemic metabolism and potential markers suggesting the underlying mechanism of toxicity. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH at escalating doses of mg kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days and then were withdrawn for 2 days. The metabolites in the serum and urine were profiled and the systemic effects of METH on metabolic pathways were evaluated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that METH caused distinct deviations, whereas the withdrawal of METH restored the metabolic patterns towards baseline. METH administration elevated energy metabolism, which was manifested by the distinct depletion of branched-chain amino acids, accelerated tricarboxylic-acid cycle and lipid metabolism, reduced serum glycerol-3-phosphate, and elevated serum and urinary 3-hydroxybutyrate and urinary glycerol. In addition to the increased serum levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate (the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain), a marked decline in serum alanine and glycine after METH treatment suggested the activation and decreased inhibition of the nervous system and hence elevated nervous activity. Withdrawal of METH for 2 days efficiently restored all but a few metabolites to baseline, including serum creatinine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, and urinary lactate. Therefore, these metabolites are potential markers of METH use, and they may be used to facilitate the diagnosis of METH abuse.

  16. The coffee agroforestry system. Its importance for the agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador

    Luciano Abelardo Ponce Vaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of coffee growing, Ecuador is characterized by planting two main commercial species of Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee, and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner (Robusta coffee, where small production units and agroforestry systems predominate. To overcome the low national production, which constitutes the central problem of coffee growing in the country, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Ecuador, promoted the project «Reactivation of the Ecuadorian coffee industry», which contributes to food security and nutrition with integral approach. In these circumstances, the objective of this paper is to analyze the importance of coffee agroforestry systems for agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador. The proposal is born from the agro-economic diagnosis «case study», from the situation of the Coffee Production Units, from the Association of Peasants «Juntos Lucharemos» from the La Unión parish of the Jipijapa county, province of Manabí, in which they settled Main contributions to the agro-alimentary and nutritional security coming from the coffee agroforestry systems, this allowed to analyze characteristics related to the object of study. Based on the research results, gaps in national consumption needs were detected. This proposal contributed to articulate and promote the reactivation of coffee growing on agroecological bases, in harmony with the dimensions of sustainability in order to protect and conserve biodiversity and the coffee forest.

  17. Irvingia gabonensis fat: nutritional properties and effect of increasing amounts on the growth and lipid metabolism of young rats wistar sp

    Michel Linder

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs are generally considered to increase plasma cholesterol. It has also been claimed that they increase cardio-vascular disease, although the claim that some of SFAs can increase HDL-cholesterol is poorly documented. Irvingia gabonensis kernels after being dried and crushed they are generally used to prepare a sticky and aromatic soup very much consumed in Cameroun and West Africa countries. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of dika nut fat on the growing and lipids metabolism of young rats. Method For The nutritional evaluation related to the performances of growth and the analysis of increasing amounts of dika nut fat (0; 5.1; 7.34 and 13.48% in young rats of wistar sp. The animals were taken individually out of metabolic cage for each ration 5 repetitions per sex (males and females were carried out. Results The results obtained during the 3 weeks of treatment shows that the performances of consumption were positive. A highly significant increase (P Conclusion This study shows that the increasing amount of dika nut fat alter significantly cholesterol and triglyceride at high dose diet, but also increase HDL-cholesterol.

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Metabolically Healthy Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Yoon, Da Young; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2017-11-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) are differentiated by the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) and insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MHO in Korean children and adolescents and to investigate the anthropometric, laboratory, and lifestyle predictors of MHO. This study included data from 530 obese subjects, aged 10-19 years, obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were classified into MHO and MUO groups according to the presence of CMRF (MHO(CMRF)/MUO(CMRF)) and degree of IR (MHO(IR)/MUO(IR)). Demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic, and lifestyle factors were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to identify factors that predicted MHO. The prevalence of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) in obese Korean youth was 36.8% (n = 197) and 68.8% (n = 356), respectively. CMRF profiles were significantly less favorable in MUO children. Longer and more vigorous physical activity and less protein intake were associated with MHO(CMRF) phenotype. The best predictors of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) were waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.88; P obesity in youth, the approach to individuals with MHO and MUO should be personalized due to variation in clinical characteristics. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate long-term consequences of MHO. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Estimating the association between metabolic risk factors and marijuana use in U.S. adults using data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Thompson, Christin Ann; Hay, Joel W

    2015-07-01

    More research is needed on the health effects of marijuana use. Results of previous studies indicate that marijuana could alleviate certain factors of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity. Data on 6281 persons from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2012 were used to estimate the effect of marijuana use on cardiometabolic risk factors. The reliability of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models was tested by replacing marijuana use as the risk factor of interest with alcohol and carbohydrate consumption. Instrumental variable methods were used to account for the potential endogeneity of marijuana use. OLS models show lower fasting insulin, insulin resistance, body mass index, and waist circumference in users compared with nonusers. However, when alcohol and carbohydrate intake substitute for marijuana use in OLS models, similar metabolic benefits are estimated. The Durbin-Wu-Hausman tests provide evidence of endogeneity of marijuana use in OLS models, but instrumental variables models do not yield significant estimates for marijuana use. These findings challenge the robustness of OLS estimates of a positive relationship between marijuana use and fasting insulin, insulin resistance, body mass index, and waist circumference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low muscle mass is associated with metabolic syndrome only in nonobese young adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Sae-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Merchant, Anwar T; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationship between body composition and metabolic risk factors in young adults. We hypothesized that low muscle mass (LMM) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in young adults and that the associations vary by obesity. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. In total, 5300 young adults aged 19 to 39 years were evaluated. Low muscle mass was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight less than 1 SD below the mean for each participant's corresponding sex and age group. Obesity was defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of LMM was higher in obese than nonobese participants (37.6% vs. 9.6%). In the nonobese participants, the prevalence of MetS, high waist circumference, high triglycerides, and high blood pressure was significantly greater in the LMM group than in the high muscle mass group. In the nonobese group, compared with high muscle mass participants, those with LMM had odds ratios for MetS of 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-8.76; P young adults with LMM may have a high risk of MetS, especially when they are nonobese. Interventions aimed at increasing muscle mass at younger ages may have the potential to reduce MetS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015

    Sophie Vinoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS, which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1 the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS; 2 clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3 interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D.

  2. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015).

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D.

  3. Modulation of multiple memory systems: from neurotransmitters to metabolic substrates.

    Gold, Paul E; Newman, Lori A; Scavuzzo, Claire J; Korol, Donna L

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews evidence showing that neurochemical modulators can regulate the relative participation of the hippocampus and striatum in learning and memory tasks. For example, relative release of acetylcholine increases in the hippocampus and striatum reflects the relative engagement of these brain systems during learning of place and response tasks. Acetylcholine release is regulated in part by available brain glucose levels, which themselves are dynamically modified during learning. Recent findings suggest that glucose acts through astrocytes to deliver lactate to neurons. Brain glycogen is contained in astrocytes and provides a capacity to deliver energy substrates to neurons when needed, a need that can be generated by training on tasks that target hippocampal and striatal processing mechanisms. These results integrate an increase in blood glucose after epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla with provision of brain energy substrates, including lactate released from astrocytes. Together, the availability of peripheral and central energy substrates regulate the processing of learning and memory within and across multiple neural systems. Dysfunctions of the physiological steps that modulate memory--from hormones to neurotransmitters to metabolic substrates--may contribute importantly to some of the cognitive impairments seen during normal aging and during neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Metabolism, health and fillet nutritional quality in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing n-3-rich microalgae.

    Kousoulaki, Katerina; Østbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter; Krasnov, Aleksei; Torgersen, Jacob Seilø; Mørkøre, Turid; Sweetman, John

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights. Fish performance was optimal in all experimental treatments (thermal growth coefficient about 4·0 and feed conversion ratio 0·8-0·9), protein digestibility was equal in all diets, whereas dietary lipid digestibility inversely correlated with the dietary levels of the SFA 16 : 0. Fillet quality was good and similar to the control in all treatments in terms of n-3 long-chain PUFA content, gaping, texture and liquid losses during thawing. Histological fluorescence staining and immunofluorescence analysis of salmon intestines (midgut: base of intestine and villi) revealed significant effects on slime, goblet cell production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity with increasing levels of dietary Schizochytrium sp. supplementation. Microarray analysis did not reveal any signs of toxicity, stress, inflammation or any other negative effects from Schizochytrium sp. supplementation in diets for Atlantic salmon.

  5. System wide cofactor turnovers can propagate metabolic stability between pathways

    Yang, Y.; Guan, Y.H.; Villadsen, John

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, we elaborated the criteria to tell if a multi-enzyme over-all reaction path is of in vivo nature or not at the metabolic level. As new findings, we discovered that there are interactions between the enzyme feedback inhibition and the CI turnover, and such interactions may well lead to metabolic...

  6. Alterations in Hepatic FGF21, Co-Regulated Genes, and Upstream Metabolic Genes in Response to Nutrition, Ketosis and Inflammation in Peripartal Holstein Cows.

    Haji Akbar

    Full Text Available In rodents, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 has emerged as a key metabolic regulator produced by liver. To gather preliminary data on the potential importance of FGF1, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression in response to nutrition and inflammation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, induction of ketosis through feed restriction on d 5 postpartum upregulated FGF21, its co-receptor KLB, and PPARA but only elicited a numerical increase in serum FGF21 concentration. In experiment 2, cows in control (CON or receiving 50 g/d of L-carnitine (C50 from -14 through 21 d had increased FGF21, PPARA, and NFIL3 on d 10 compared with d 2 postpartum. In contrast, compared with CON and C50, 100 g/d L-carnitine (C100 resulted in lower FGF21, KLB, ANGPTL4, and ARNTL expression on d 10. In experiment 3, cows were fed during the dry period either a higher-energy (OVE; 1.62 Mcal/kg DM or lower-energy (CON; 1.34 Mcal/kg DM diet and received 0 (OVE:N, CON:N or 200 μg of LPS (OVE:Y, CON:Y into the mammary gland at d 7 postpartum. For FGF21 mRNA expression in CON, the LPS challenge (CON:Y prevented a decrease in expression between d 7 and 14 postpartum such that cows in CON:N had a 4-fold lower expression on d 14 compared with d 7. The inflammatory stimulus induced by LPS in CON:Y resulted in upregulation of PPARA on d 14 to a similar level as cows in OVE:N. In OVE:Y, expression of PPARA was lower than CON:N on d 7 and remained unchanged on d 14. On d 7, LPS led to a 4-fold greater serum FGF21 only in OVE but not in CON cows. In fact, OVE:Y reached the same serum FGF21 concentration as CON:N, suggesting a carryover effect of dietary energy level on signaling mechanisms within liver. Overall, results indicate that nutrition, ketosis, and inflammation during the peripartal period can alter hepatic FGF21, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes to various extents. The functional outcome of these changes merits

  7. Alterations in Hepatic FGF21, Co-Regulated Genes, and Upstream Metabolic Genes in Response to Nutrition, Ketosis and Inflammation in Peripartal Holstein Cows.

    Akbar, Haji; Batistel, Fernanda; Drackley, James K; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as a key metabolic regulator produced by liver. To gather preliminary data on the potential importance of FGF1, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression in response to nutrition and inflammation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, induction of ketosis through feed restriction on d 5 postpartum upregulated FGF21, its co-receptor KLB, and PPARA but only elicited a numerical increase in serum FGF21 concentration. In experiment 2, cows in control (CON) or receiving 50 g/d of L-carnitine (C50) from -14 through 21 d had increased FGF21, PPARA, and NFIL3 on d 10 compared with d 2 postpartum. In contrast, compared with CON and C50, 100 g/d L-carnitine (C100) resulted in lower FGF21, KLB, ANGPTL4, and ARNTL expression on d 10. In experiment 3, cows were fed during the dry period either a higher-energy (OVE; 1.62 Mcal/kg DM) or lower-energy (CON; 1.34 Mcal/kg DM) diet and received 0 (OVE:N, CON:N) or 200 μg of LPS (OVE:Y, CON:Y) into the mammary gland at d 7 postpartum. For FGF21 mRNA expression in CON, the LPS challenge (CON:Y) prevented a decrease in expression between d 7 and 14 postpartum such that cows in CON:N had a 4-fold lower expression on d 14 compared with d 7. The inflammatory stimulus induced by LPS in CON:Y resulted in upregulation of PPARA on d 14 to a similar level as cows in OVE:N. In OVE:Y, expression of PPARA was lower than CON:N on d 7 and remained unchanged on d 14. On d 7, LPS led to a 4-fold greater serum FGF21 only in OVE but not in CON cows. In fact, OVE:Y reached the same serum FGF21 concentration as CON:N, suggesting a carryover effect of dietary energy level on signaling mechanisms within liver. Overall, results indicate that nutrition, ketosis, and inflammation during the peripartal period can alter hepatic FGF21, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes to various extents. The functional outcome of these changes merits further study

  8. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis fueled by systems biology: Recent advances and future directions.

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    By combining advanced omics technology and computational modeling, systems biologists have identified and inferred thousands of regulatory events and system-wide interactions of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is commonly used both in the laboratory and in industry. This dissection of the multiple layers of regulatory networks and their interactions has provided invaluable information for unraveling regulatory mechanisms and guiding metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the systems biology and metabolic engineering of B. subtilis and highlight current gaps in our understanding of global metabolism and global pathway engineering in this organism. We also propose future perspectives in the systems biology of B. subtilis and suggest ways that this approach can be used to guide metabolic engineering. Specifically, although hundreds of regulatory events have been identified or inferred via systems biology approaches, systematic investigation of the functionality of these events in vivo has lagged, thereby preventing the elucidation of regulatory mechanisms and further rational pathway engineering. In metabolic engineering, ignoring the engineering of multilayer regulation hinders metabolic flux redistribution. Post-translational engineering, allosteric engineering, and dynamic pathway analyses and control will also contribute to the modulation and control of the metabolism of engineered B. subtilis, ultimately producing the desired cellular traits. We hope this review will aid metabolic engineers in making full use of available systems biology datasets and approaches for the design and perfection of microbial cell factories through global metabolism optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The criteria for metabolic syndrome and the national health screening and education system in Japan

    Kazumasa Yamagishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two major definitions of metabolic syndrome have been proposed. One focuses on the accumulation of risk factors, a measure used by the American Heart Association (AHA and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI; the other focuses on abdominal obesity, a measure used by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and the Japanese government. The latter definition takes waist circumference (WC into consideration as an obligatory component, whereas the former does not. In 2009, the IDF, NHLBI, AHA, and other organizations attempted to unify these criteria; as a result, WC is no longer an obligatory component of those systems, while it remains obligatory in the Japanese criteria. In 2008, a new Japanese cardiovascular screening and education system focused on metabolic syndrome was launched. People undergoing screening are classified into three groups according to the presence of abdominal obesity and the number of metabolic risk factors, and receive health educational support from insurers. This system has yielded several beneficial outcomes: the visibility of metabolic syndrome at the population level has drastically improved; preventive measures have been directed toward metabolic syndrome, which is expected to become more prevalent in future generations; and a post-screening education system has been established. However, several problems with the current system have been identified and are under debate. In this review, we discuss topics related to metabolic syndrome, including (1 the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome; (2 metabolic syndrome and the universal health screening and education system; and (3 recent debates about Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  10. Major components of metabolic syndrome and nutritional intakes in different genotype of UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphisms in patients with NAFLD.

    Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Farajnia, Safar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad-Asghari

    2016-06-14

    It has been suggested that dietary modifications in combination with genetic predisposition play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In the current study we aimed to investigate the major components of metabolic syndrome in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nutritional intakes according to different genotype of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) -866G/A gene polymorphism in these patients. In this study 151 participants including 75 patients with NAFLD and 76 healthy individuals were enrolled. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Physical activity was obtained by metabolic equivalent questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments were conducted by a trained researcher and body mass index and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose, liver enzymes and lipid profiles were measured. Polymorphisms of -866G/A UCP2 gene was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Serum triglyceride concentrations in 53.3 % of NAFLD patients compared with 35.5 % of control group was more than 150 mg/dl (P = 0.034). A significantly higher prevalence of low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations was also observed in female NAFLD patients (P  0.05). However, according to genotypes patients with AG genotype had significantly higher protein consumption compared with control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher consumption of dietary iron and copper in NAFLD patients with AG genotype was only observed among patients with NAFLD. However, the comparison of macro and micronutrient intakes in control group sound for stronger differences for AA genotype although these differences did not achieve significant threshold. A high prevalence of metabolic abnormalities was reported among NAFLD patients. Additionally, among NAFLD group

  11. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study; Alteracoes nutricionais e do metabolismo energetico na irradiacao abdominal: estudo experimental

    Mucerino, Donato R; Waitzberg, Dan L; Campos, Fabio G. de; Melo Auricchio, Maria T. de; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim J; Lima-Goncalves, Ernesto L [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Div. de Clinica Cirurgica II

    1995-01-01

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study`s conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author). 60 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. DIAGNOSTIC OF SYSTEM OF FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL SURVEILLANCE IN A BASIC HEALTH UNIT - CUIABÁ/MT.

    Amélia Dreyer Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The System of Food and Nutritional Surveillance (SFNS is a vigilance system that stores information about population feeding and nutrition and also data about the nutritional conditions that can affect their health. The aim of this study, therefore, was to diagnose the reality of SFNS in the Basic Health Unit (BHU Despraiado I / Cuiabá-MT. Based on previously prepared forms that were created for the Family Health Team (FHT and the program technical manager, and in information available in the BHU registration cadastres, data collection happened in August 2010. The SFNS at the studied BHU began in 2007, being detected incomplete and inconsistent data in 43 forms, with a coverage of 0% of the related group. Feeling unable to implement the SFNS relevant actions, the FHT questions the lack of feedback to the community concerning to improvements in their dietary pattern. In turn, the SFNS technical manager attaches to BHU the existing flaws concerning to low coverage and inconsistent data. It was observed, therefore, the great importance of capacitating the FHT in order to increase the coverage and quality of data in forms filling out.

  13. UK consumer perceptions of a novel till-receipt 'traffic-light' nutrition system.

    Cole, Matthew; Peek, Hayden; Cowen, Daniel

    2018-03-26

    Front-of-pack (FoP) traffic light nutrition labelling has been widely proposed as a tool to improve public health nutrition. Current evidence suggests that whilst consumers generally find them to be useful and an important source of information about a particular food or ingredient, this may have limited value in isolation when considering a person's overall nutritional intake. This study sought to examine UK consumers' use of existing FoP traffic light food labelling and ascertain public perception of a novel 'till-receipt' summary providing nutritional information about consumers entire shopping purchases. In total, 237 respondents completed an online questionnaire between May and June 2016. Almost two-thirds were female (n = 152, 64.1%) and the largest proportion of responses were received from those aged 25-32 years (n = 53, 22.4%) and 41-50 years (n = 53, 22.4%). About 83.5% of respondents suggested that they currently use traffic light information to inform their food purchases and 'health' was reported as the most important factor influencing food choice (42.2%; n = 100). Notably, 54.4% of respondents indicated that the novel till-receipt system could provide a solution to the potential limitations of existing FoP labelling and could help inform healthier food purchases. Our findings strengthen the existing evidence base to suggest that traffic light information is a useful tool to aid consumer food purchases. Moreover, our outcomes propose that consumers may benefit from a new receipt-based traffic light system which provides a more holistic summary of their entire food purchases.

  14. THE HEMOSTASIS SYSTEM STATUS IN CHILDREN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    N. A. Tsaregorodtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the characteristic properties of hemostasia system of children suffer-ing from metabolic syndrome (MS and exogenous obesity.Material and methods, A total of 58 children and adolescents aged from 9 to 16 with different stages of obesity. The examined were divided into two groups – the main group including children with MS (n = 33 and the control group including patients with exogenous obesity but without any indications of (n = 25. The presence of obesity was stated according to the criteria described by L.V. Kozlova and her co-authors (2008. All the examined patients had a biochemical blood analysis that included component determination of hemostasia system. The component determination was to reflect all the links of blood coagulation, so the following indices were analysed – activated partial thromboplastin time (A-PPT, prothrombin time (PTT, prothrombin ratio, level of fibrinogen, thrombin time, international normalized ratio (INR and thrombocyte aggregation with ristomycin.Results. The children suffering from MS compared with the children without this syndrome had signifi-cantly higher level of prothrombin time, thrombocyte aggregation with ristomycin as well as INR. The index of thrombocyte aggregation with ristomycin in the main group was not only higher than in the con-trol group but also exceeded the reference value. The boys with MS had a notably higher index of throm-bocyte aggregation with ristomycin than the boys suffering fron obesity. The girls with MS had a higher INR factor than the group of girls with obesity.Conclusions. The research showed that with children suffering from MS their hemostatic system gets involved in the pathological process. The discovered peculiarities show inclination to hyper-coagulation 

  15. Essential amino acid enriched high-protein enteral nutrition modulates insulin-like growth factor-1 system function in a rat model of trauma-hemorrhagic shock.

    Xianfeng Xia

    Full Text Available Nutrition support for critically ill patients supplemented with additional modular protein may promote skeletal muscle protein anabolism in addition to counteracting acute nitrogen loss. The present study was designed to investigate whether the essential amino acid (EAA enriched high-protein enteral nutrition (EN modulates the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 system and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR anabolic signaling pathway in a trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T-HS rat model.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 90, 278.18 ± 0.94 g were randomly assigned to 5 groups: (1 normal control, (2 pair-fed, (3 T-HS, (4 T-HS and standard EN, and (5 T-HS and EAA enriched high-protein EN. Six animals from each group were harvested on days 2, 4, and 6 for serum, gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus sample collection. T-HS significantly reduced muscle mass. Nutrition support maintained muscle mass, especially the EAA enriched high-protein EN. Meanwhile, a pronounced derangement in IGF-1-IGFBPs axis as well as impaired mTOR transduction was observed in the T-HS group. Compared with animals receiving standard EN, those receiving EAA enriched high-protein EN presented 18% higher serum free IGF-1 levels following 3 days of nutrition support and 22% higher after 5 days. These changes were consistent with the concomitant elevation in serum insulin and reduction in corticosterone levels. In addition, phosphorylations of downstream anabolic signaling effectors - including protein kinase B, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 - increased significantly in rats receiving EAA enriched high-protein EN.Our findings firstly demonstrate the beneficial effect of EAA enriched high-protein EN on the metabolic modulation of skeletal muscle protein anabolism by regulating the IGF-1 system and downstream anabolic signaling transduction.

  16. [Evaluation of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN) in food and nutritional management services in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Rolim, Mara Diana; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the SISVAN as a tool for planning, management and evaluation of food and nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the Unified Health System (SUS). It involved a cross-sectional study composed of a stratified random sample of the municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. The subjects of the research were municipal officials of SISVAN who filled out a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis of the data was performed with the construction of simple and bivariate tables. It was observed that those responsible for SISVAN, collect (50%) and input (55%) weight, height, and food consumption data; whereas 53%, 59% and 71% do not analyze and do not recommend or perform nutrition actions, respectively. This being the case, most of those responsible do not use the information for planning, management and evaluation of food and nutrition traits. The findings show that the SISVAN is not used to its full potential; the data generated have not been used for planning, management and evaluation of nutrition services in primary healthcare in the SUS.

  17. [Does the nutritional care plan and report upon discharge under the health care system substitute the nutrition support team summary at patient discharge?].

    Hidaka, Kumi; Matsuoka, Mio; Kajiwara, Kanako; Hinokiyama, Hiromi; Mito, Saori; Doi, Seiko; Konishi, Eriko; Ibata, Takeshi; Komuro, Ryutaro; lijima, Shohei

    2013-12-01

    Our nutrition support team (NST) designed the NST summary for cooperation among personnel providing medical care for nutritional management of high-need patients in our area. After the introduction of the NST fee under the health care system, the number of summary publications decreased. The requested NST fee is necessary for publication of a nutritional care plan and report upon patient discharge. We hypothesized that the nutritional care plan and discharge report were being substituted for the NST summary at the time of patient discharge. We retrospectively investigated 192 cases with NST fee. There were only 13 cases of overlapping publication, and the NST summary was necessary for 107 of 179 cases in which no NST summary had been prepared. Since the space on the report form is limited, it can provide only limited information. However, the NST summary can convey detailed supplementary information. Therefore, there is a high need for the NST summary, and publication of NST summaries for the appropriate cases must continue.

  18. Performance of a five category front-of-pack labelling system - the 5-colour nutrition label - to differentiate nutritional quality of breakfast cereals in France.

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge

    2015-02-25

    Breakfast cereals exhibit a wide variability in nutritional quality, and differences are not easily grasped by consumers. A simplified nutritional information system might contribute to help consumers make healthier food choices. A five-category colour label based on the Food Standards Agency Nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been proposed in France to be implemented on the front-of-pack of foods (the five-colour nutrition label - 5-CNL). Objectives were to evaluate the ability of the 5-CNL to discriminate nutritional quality between types of breakfast cereals, within a category and in equivalent products, as well as its ability to change through product reformulation. Nutritional information was collected through an Internet and supermarket research for N = 433 breakfast cereals (N = 380 complete data included in the analyses). Breakfast cereals were categorized according to common attributes in terms of processing and/or ingredients used. The FSA score and 5-CNL category allocation were computed for each cereal. Nutrient content and FSA score were compared across types of cereals. Distribution within the 5-CNL categories was assessed across types of cereals and for equivalent products. Impact of reformulation (reduction of 5 and 10% in simple sugar, saturated fat and sodium) on the 5-CNL category allocation was compared to original allocation with Bapkhar's tests of homogeneity of marginal distribution. Variability in nutritional quality of breakfast cereals was high, as reflected by the FSA score (range -7- 22 for a theoretical range of -15-40) and the 5-CNL (all five categories represented). The 5-CNL allowed for discrimination across types of cereals, within categories of breakfast cereals and for equivalent products (at least 3 categories of the 5-CNL represented). Reformulation scenarios allowed for significant change in 5-CNL allocation: 5% reduction in sugar lead to a modification of the label for 4.21% of products while a reduction of 10

  19. Nutritional components regulate the gut immune system and its association with intestinal immune disease development.

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The gut is equipped with a unique immune system for maintaining immunological homeostasis, and its functional immune disruption can result in the development of immune diseases such as food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that nutritional components play an important role in the regulation of gut immune responses and also in the development of intestinal immune diseases. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of lipids, vitamins, and nucleotides in the regulation of the intestinal immune system and as potential targets for the control of intestinal immune diseases. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. The role of food and nutrition system approaches in tackling hidden hunger.

    Burchi, Francesco; Fanzo, Jessica; Frison, Emile

    2011-02-01

    One of the World's greatest challenges is to secure sufficient and healthy food for all, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. This review explores the interrelationships of food, health, and environment, and their role in addressing chronic micronutrient deficiencies, also known as "hidden hunger", affecting over two billion people worldwide. While the complexity and underlying determinants of undernutrition have been well-understood for decades, the scaling of food and nutrition system approaches that combine sustainable agriculture aimed at improved diet diversity and livelihoods have been limited in their development and implementation. However, an integrated system approach to reduce hidden hunger could potentially serve as a sustainable opportunity.

  1. Towards implementation of optimum nutrition and better clinical nutrition support

    Jonkers, C. F.; Prins, F.; van Kempen, A.; Tepaske, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical Nutrition Support--defined as nutrition for hospitalized patients suffering from metabolic stress--plays a limited role in the therapeutic routine of the physician. This is not surprising as most research in the field of clinical nutrition is disappointing with regard to the objective

  2. Best Strategies to Improve School-leavers’ Knowledge of Nutrition and Food Systems: Views from Experts in Iran

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background: The research to date does not present an articulated approach to ensure nutrition and food systems education is systematically implemented within schools. This paper aimed to investigate food experts’ views of the best strategies to improve school-leavers’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems. Methods: In this qualitative study, 28 Iranian food and nutrition experts from four major provinces (Tehran, Fars, Isfahan, and Gilan) were selected and agreed to be interviewed. Required data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face, or telephone interviews and were analyzed thematically using NVivo. Results: The experts’ suggested strategies to improve Iranian school-leavers’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems fell into three key themes: Policy, education processes, and supportive environments. Together they formed an overarching theme of a multileveled system approach for transferring knowledge. Conclusions: Development of a scaffolded education program could assist curriculum developers and policy makers to assess and update current nutrition and food systems education programs in schools. Insights gained about education initiatives in one country such as Iran can provide an important impetus to support nutrition and food system education more widely. PMID:27857832

  3. Best Strategies to Improve School-leavers' Knowledge of Nutrition and Food Systems: Views from Experts in Iran.

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The research to date does not present an articulated approach to ensure nutrition and food systems education is systematically implemented within schools. This paper aimed to investigate food experts' views of the best strategies to improve school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems. In this qualitative study, 28 Iranian food and nutrition experts from four major provinces (Tehran, Fars, Isfahan, and Gilan) were selected and agreed to be interviewed. Required data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face, or telephone interviews and were analyzed thematically using NVivo. The experts' suggested strategies to improve Iranian school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems fell into three key themes: Policy, education processes, and supportive environments. Together they formed an overarching theme of a multileveled system approach for transferring knowledge. Development of a scaffolded education program could assist curriculum developers and policy makers to assess and update current nutrition and food systems education programs in schools. Insights gained about education initiatives in one country such as Iran can provide an important impetus to support nutrition and food system education more widely.

  4. Changes in Antioxidant Defense System Using Different Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition in Children after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    María Auxiliadora Baena-Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, lipids used in parenteral nutrition (PN are based on ω-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, with potential adverse effects involving oxidative stress. Methods: We evaluated the antioxidant defense system in children, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, who were randomized to use a lipid emulsion with fish oil or soybean oil. Blood samples at baseline, at 10 days, and at the end of the PN were taken to analyze plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels, and catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPOX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in lysed erythrocytes. Results: An increase in plasma α-tocopherol levels in the group of patients receiving the fish oil-containing emulsion (FO compared with the group receiving the soybean emulsion was observed at day 10 of PN. Concurrently, plasma α-tocopherol increased in the FO group and β-carotene decreased in both groups at day 10 compared with baseline levels, being more significant in the group receiving the FO emulsion. Conclusion: FO-containing emulsions in PN could improve the antioxidant profile by increasing levels of α-tocopherol in children after HSCT who are at higher risk of suffering oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

  5. Does skeletal muscle have an 'epi'-memory? The role of epigenetics in nutritional programming, metabolic disease, aging and exercise.

    Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire E; Seaborne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass, quality and adaptability are fundamental in promoting muscle performance, maintaining metabolic function and supporting longevity and healthspan. Skeletal muscle is programmable and can 'remember' early-life metabolic stimuli affecting its function in adult life. In this review, the authors pose the question as to whether skeletal muscle has an 'epi'-memory? Following an initial encounter with an environmental stimulus, we discuss the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms enabling skeletal muscle to adapt, should it re-encounter the stimulus in later life. We also define skeletal muscle memory and outline the scientific literature contributing to this field. Furthermore, we review the evidence for early-life nutrient stress and low birth weight in animals and human cohort studies, respectively, and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms culminating in skeletal muscle dysfunction, metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass across the lifespan. We also summarize and discuss studies that isolate muscle stem cells from different environmental niches in vivo (physically active, diabetic, cachectic, aged) and how they reportedly remember this environment once isolated in vitro. Finally, we will outline the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle memory and review the epigenetic regulation of exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptation, highlighting exercise interventions as suitable models to investigate skeletal muscle memory in humans. We believe that understanding the 'epi'-memory of skeletal muscle will enable the next generation of targeted therapies to promote muscle growth and reduce muscle loss to enable healthy aging. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Trends in the nutritional status of the Spanish population: results from the Catalan nutrition monitoring system (1992-2003)].

    Serra Majem, Luis; Ribas Barba, Lourdes; Salvador Castell, Gemma; Roman Viñas, Blanca; Castell Abat, Conxa; Cabezas Peña, Carmen; Pastor Ferrer, Mari Cruz; Raidó Quintana, Blanca; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy; García Alvarez, Alicia; Serra Farró, Jaume; Salleras Sanmartí, Luis; Taradach Antoni, Plasencia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the nutricional habits and nutricional status of the Catalan population over 10 years interval of the two Catalan Nutricional Surveys conducted in 1992-93 and 2002-03. 2641 individuals in 1992-93 and 2060 individuals in 2002-03 aged 10 to 75 years participated in the surveys. Two 24 hour recall, a food frequency questionnaire, and a general questionnaire with information on physical activity, knowledge and opinions on nutrition and supplements use were administered. Weight (Kg), height (cm) and waist circumference (WC) (cm) were measured. A subsample of the population underwent a biochemical evaluation. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, tryglicerides and beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and retinol were measured. A decrease in the consumption of fruit, vegetables, potatoes, meat and fish and an increase in the consumption of dairy products and fast food (in young individuals) were reported. An increase in the mean value of Body Mass Index (BMI) was observed among males, and an increase in WC mean value was observed in males and females. BMI value decreased in females (except among the younger ones). The prevalence of obesity increased among males (from 9.9% to 16.6%), but not in females. Both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol decreased. A decrease was observed in the percentage of population with sedentary habits during leisure time. There is a need for an effective nutrition policy promoting healthy nutrition in accordance with the ongoing dietary guidelines.

  7. Growth, yield, plant quality and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. under soilless agricultural systems

    Subhrajit Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agricultural systems are challenged by globally declining resources resulting from climate change and growing population. Alternative agricultural practices such as aquaponics (includes crop plant and aquatic species and hydroponics (includes crop plant only have the potential to generate high yield per unit area using limited land, water, and no soil. A soilless agricultural study was conducted at the Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA from August to November, 2015. The growth, yield, quality, and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cultivar Aroma 2, were compared between aquaponic and hydroponic systems using crayfish (Procambarus spp. as the aquatic species. Non-circulating floating raft systems were designed using 95 L polyethylene tanks. Equal amounts of start-up fertilizer dose were applied to both systems. The objective was to understand how the additional nutritional dynamics associated with crayfish influence the basil crop. Both fresh and dry basil plant weights were collected after harvest, followed by leaf nutrient analysis. Leaf chlorophyll content, water pH, nitrogen and temperature were measured periodically. Aquaponic basil (AqB showed 14%, 56%, and 65% more height, fresh weight, and dry weight, respectively, compared to hydroponic basil (HyB. It is logical to assume that crayfish waste (excreta and unconsumed feed has supplied the additional nutrients to AqB, resulting in greater growth and yield. The chlorophyll content (plant quality or leaf nutrients, however, did not differ between AqB and HyB. Further research is needed to investigate aquaponic crayfish yield, overall nutritional dynamics, cost-benefit ratio, and other plant characteristics under soilless systems.

  8. Nutrition in Patients with Head Trauma

    Burcu Totur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of energy increases by 40% in patients with a head trauma, when compared to people who are living a normal life. This ratio reaches to 200% in some cases. It is important to give a nutrition support which can satisfy the energy need resulted from the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic states and that is enough to help to fix the immunologic state and achieve a better result in healing the injury. When oral nutrition is not possible in the patient with a head trauma, their energy need is satisfied through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Though parenteral nutrition had held an important role in feeding patients with head trauma, enteral nutrition is applied much more widely today. Enteral and parenteral nutrition both has their own advantages and disadvantages. In the clinical and laboratory studies that had been held, it was found that enteral nutrition improved the systemic immunity, decreased the incidence of the major infectious complications, decreased the metabolic response to trauma, protected the intestinal mucosa, and protected the ecologic balance of the microflora. In this article, it is investigated through the importance of the feeding in patients with a head trauma and reasons to chose enteral nutrition

  9. [Chrono-nutrition and chrono-exercise].

    Shibata, Shigenobu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    The circadian rhythm controls many physiological functions, such as feeding, motor activity, endocrine secretion and autonomic nerve. Regular feeding pattern can entrain the peripheral circadian clock, whereas peripheral clock systems can control the absorption distribution, metabolism and excretion of nutrients, suggesting mutual interactions between circadian clocks and nutrition/food. The interactions were so-called by "chrono-nutrition", and bigger meals for breakfast were good for entrainment of peripheral clock and protection of obesity. Similar to chrono-nutrition the timing of exercise ("chrono-exercise") is important for both entrainment signals and energy expenditure. Evening exercise and/or feeding then exercise was good timing exercise for protection of obesity. Taken all, it is suggested that timing of feeding and exercise is now one of key factors for metabolic syndrome.

  10. Nutrition and metabolism of parasitized and non-parasitized ruminants. Some approaches for studying the mode of action of parasites

    Leng, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of helminth infections on ruminant digestive function and metabolism are discussed against the background of current information on the mechanisms controlling feed intake and utilization in normal animals. Although parasites reduce productivity by impairing appetite and utilization of nutrients, few studies have been conducted on the function of the digestive tract and the metabolism of parasitized animals. Those areas which warrant further investigation are described, and the techniques which could be usefully applied are outlined. It is concluded that more emphasis should be given to the diet available to parasitized animals, and that by using diets of different digestibility and protein content, valuable information could be obtained as to the relative importance of reduced appetite and reduced efficiency of feed utilization. Central to all studies is a proper delineation of the fate of proteins in the small intestine of parasitized animals, and characterization of the types of bacteria in the gut and their effects on endogenous protein losses. The application of 15 N is mentioned. The potential usefulness of 14 C (eg. to measure the flow of digesta, to the lower digestive tract; clearance of 14 C-propionate from blood; etc.) is described

  11. The effect of chemotherapy on nutritional status and weakness in geriatric gastrointestinal system cancer patients.

    Bicakli, Derya Hopanci; Ozveren, Ahmet; Uslu, Ruchan; Dalak, Reci Meseri; Cehreli, Ruksan; Uyar, Mehmet; Karabulut, Bulent; Akcicek, Fehmi

    2018-03-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with geriatric gastrointestinal system (GIS) cancer. This study aimed to evaluate patients with geriatric GIS cancer in terms of nutritional status and weakness and determine the changes caused by chemotherapy (CT). Patients with geriatric GIS cancer who received CT were included in the study. Their nutritional status was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment, and weakness was assessed with the handgrip strength/body mass index ratio. After CT (minimum 4 wk and maximum 6 wk later), patients were assessed for the same parameters. A total of 153 patients aged ≥65 y (mean age, 70.5 ± 5.6 y; 44 female and 109 male) were evaluated. The population consisted of patients who were diagnosed with colorectal (51.6%), gastric (26.8%), pancreatic (11.8%), hepatic (7.2%), biliary tract (2%), and esophageal (0.7%) cancer. Of these patients, 37.9% were malnourished, 34.6% were at risk of malnutrition, and 27.5% were well nourished. After one course of CT, the frequency of malnutrition increased to 46.4% (P = 0.001). The patient groups with the highest rates of weakness were those who were diagnosed with biliary tract, hepatic, and colorectal cancer (33.3%, 27.3%, and 20%, respectively). Weakness was significantly increased after one course of CT in patients who received CT before (P = 0.039). Malnutrition and weakness were common in patients with geriatric GIS cancer, and even one course of CT worsened the nutritional status of the patients. Patients who have received CT previously should be carefully monitored for weakness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  13. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Meenal Vyas

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB. The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt, classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/. Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas

  14. A System for Extracting Study Design Parameters from Nutritional Genomics Abstracts

    Kelly Cassidy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of study design parameters from biomedical journal articles is an important problem in natural language processing (NLP. Such parameters define the characteristics of a study, such as the duration, the number of subjects, and their profile. Here we present a system for extracting study design parameters from sentences in article abstracts. This system will be used as a component of a larger system for creating nutrigenomics networks from articles in the nutritional genomics domain. The algorithms presented consist of manually designed rules expressed either as regular expressions or in terms of sentence parse structure. A number of filters and NLP tools are also utilized within a pipelined algorithmic framework. Using this novel approach, our system performs extraction at a finer level of granularity than comparable systems, while generating results that surpass the current state of the art.

  15. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The “Nutritional Light Signal” of the Renal Acid Load

    Biagio Raffaele Di Iorio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2. We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP, inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p < 0.0001, DBP (p < 0.001, plasma urea (p < 0.0001 protein intake (p < 0.0001, calcemia (p < 0.0001, phosphatemia (p < 0.0001, phosphate intake (p < 0.0001, urinary sodium (p < 0.0001, urinary potassium (p < 0.002, and urinary phosphate (p < 0.0001. NEAP and PRAL were significantly reduced in VLPD during follow-up. Conclusion: VLPD reduces intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and

  16. Sonchus oleraceus Residue Improves Nutritive and Health-Promoting Value of Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.): A Metabolic Study.

    Hassan, Mahmoud O; Saleh, Ahmed M; AbdElgawad, Hamada

    2018-03-07

    This study was conducted to evaluate the use of the phenolic-rich Sonchus oleraceus residue as an environmentally safe approach to induce the nutritive and health-promoting values of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bronco). S. oleraceus shoot residue, at rates of 150 and 300 g m -2 , has improved soil fertility via accumulation of soil macronutrients, organic matter, organic carbon, and total phenolics. The growth and yield of bean were significantly increased. Moreover, chemical composition of the treated seeds was significantly altered, whereas higher levels of total antioxidant capacity, proteins, carbohydrates, and most of the individual phenolic acids, flavonoids, vitamins, essential amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids were recorded. Interestingly, a concentration dependent effect was also observed, for instance, a lower saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratio was only observed in the case of the lower residue rate. These findings recommend the use of S. oleraceus in organic farming of bean to enhance the health benefits of the produced seeds.

  17. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  18. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  19. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2 presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20 cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6 follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    T Y Popkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize metabolic syndrome (M S in pts wit h systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and determine contribution of immune inflammation to the development of MS. Material and methods. 156 females with SLE (mean age 35 years, mean disease duration 99 months were included. Control group consisted of 69 people of comparable age without rheumatic diseases. MS was diagnosed according to ATP III criteria, \\fascular atherosclerotic damage was assessed by carotid sonographic evaluation. Serum cholesterol (CS, triglycerides (TG and high-density lipoprotein (HDLP CS concentration was assessed with colorimetric and photometric methods, hs CRP level — with nephelometric immunoassay. Results. MS was revealed in 29 from 154 (19% pts with SLE and in 5 from 69 (7% controls (p=0,02. MS components (hypertension, TG elevation and a lipoprotein decrease in SLE were significantly more frequent than in control group. TG, HDLP CS and CRP levels in SLE were higher than in control. Thickness of carotid intima-media complex did not differ in SLE and control. Frequency of atherosclerotic plaques (15% and coronary heart disease (14% in SLE was higher than in control (4% and 2% respectively, p=0,01. Pts with SLE and MS were older, had higher disease activity and maximal glucocorticoid dose during disease period (p<0,05. CRP concentration in SLE with MS was significantly higher. Subclinical signs of atherosclerosis in SLE with MS were more frequent than in SLE without MS (p<0,05. Frequency of clinical signs of atherosclerosis did not differ in these groups. Conclusion. Autoimmune inflammation in SLE plays an important role in the development of MS.

  1. Space Nutrition

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  2. Metabolic activation of 2-methylfuran by rat microsomal systems

    Ravindranath, V.; Boyd, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    2-Methylfuran (2-MF), a constituent of cigarette smoke and coffee, causes necrosis of liver, lungs, and kidneys in rodents. 2-MF is metabolically activated by mixed-function oxidases to acetylacrolein, a reactive metabolite that binds covalently to microsomal protein. The hepatic microsomal metabolism of 2-MF to reactive metabolite required the presence of NADPH and oxygen and was dependent on incubation time and substrate concentration. The microsomal metabolism of 2-MF was inducible by pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital and was inhibited by piperonyl butoxide and N-octyl imidazole, which indicates that the metabolism of 2-MF may be mediated by cytochrome P-450. Acetylacrolein was a potent inhibitor of mixed-function oxidase and completely inhibited the microsomal metabolism of 2-MF, indicating that 2-MF is a suicide substrate for the enzyme. The sulfhydryl nucleophile cysteine was a better trapping agent of the reactive metabolite of 2-MF than N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. Lysine decreased the covalent binding of 2-MF metabolites, presumably by reacting with the aldehyde group of acetylacrolein. In addition, in the presence of NADPH, 2-MF was bioactivated by both pulmonary and renal cortical microsomes to reactive metabolites that were covalently bound to microsomal proteins

  3. Strategies for early metabolic disturbances in patients with an end jejunostomy or end ileostomy. Experience from a specialized Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN center

    Michał Ławiński

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : An end stoma syndrome is usually the result of an intentional surgical intervention in the course of staged treatment or a complication of surgery. These patients most frequently suffer from water and electrolyte disturbances, malnutrition syndromes caused by malabsorption of trace elements and/or vitamins, and undernutrition. Aim : To present early metabolic disturbances observed in patients with an end jejunostomy or end ileostomy syndrome on the first day of their hospitalization in a specialist Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN center. Material and methods : The study included 142 patients with an end stoma syndrome (76 women and 66 men, hospitalized between 2004 and 2014. Patients were divided into two main groups. Group A consisted of 90 patients with an end jejunostomy and group B consisted of 52 patients with an end ileostomy. Results : After comparing the patients with an end jejunostomy vs. those with an end ileostomy, significant differences were found as regards pH (7.34 vs. 7.39, p = 0.043 and BE (3.24 vs. –0.86, p = 0.005. Depending on the lack or possibility of oral food intake, patients in the end jejunostomy group had different levels of the markers phosphate, Mg, Ca, urea, and creatinine, with all of these parameters within normal laboratory limits. When the end ileostomy group was divided into subgroups depending on the lack or possibility of oral food intake, differences in C-reactive protein activity were found (55.6 vs. 25.7, p = 0.041. Conclusions : Patients with an end jejunostomy syndrome are more prone to metabolic acidosis with significant alkali deficiencies.

  4. An association of health behaviors with depression and metabolic risks: Data from 2007 to 2014 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Liu, Ying; Ozodiegwu, Ifeoma D; Yu, Yang; Hess, Rick; Bie, Ronghai

    2017-08-01

    Both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) confer an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence suggests healthy behaviors are crucial to maintain, improve and manage chronical disease and mental health; and unhealthy diet and sedentary behavior were found two major risk factors of MetS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, diet and recreational physical activity) are associated with depression and metabolic syndrome simultaneously. This study included 1300 participants aged 20 years and over who had answered mental health-depression screener questions (PHQ-9) and finished examinations and laboratory tests related to five risk factors of MetS during the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014. A set of series of weighted logistic regression models were used to investigate the aforementioned relationship. The prevalence of depression among U.S. adults is 15.08%. The two most often reported depression symptoms were "Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much" and "Feeling tired or having little energy", with rates of14.68% and 13.09%, respectively. Participants who engaged in only light physical activity were more likely to have been identified as experiencing depression and MetS than those who engaged in vigorous physical activity with odd ratios 3.18 (95% CI: 1.59, 6.37) and 3.50 (95%CI: 2.17, 5.63), respectively. Individuals in the study having poor diets were more likely to suffer from depression than those eating good diets (OR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.22). Physical activity is strongly and inversely associated with depression and MetS. Diet is significantly associated with depression rather than MetS in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The carbon storage regulator (Csr) system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917.

    Revelles, Olga; Millard, Pierre; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Oswald, Eric; Létisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The role of the post-transcriptional carbon storage regulator (Csr) system in nutrient utilization and in the control of the central metabolism in E. coli reference commensal strain Nissle 1917 was investigated. Analysis of the growth capabilities of mutants altered for various components of the Csr system (csrA51, csrB, csrC and csrD mutations) showed that only the protein CsrA - the key component of the system - exerts a marked role in carbon nutrition. Attenuation of CsrA activity in the csrA51 mutant affects the growth efficiency on a broad range of physiologically relevant carbon sources, including compounds utilized by the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. Detailed investigations of the metabolomes and fluxomes of mutants and wild-type cells grown on carbon sources representative of glycolysis and of the ED pathway (glucose and gluconate, respectively), revealed significant re-adjusting of central carbon metabolism for both compounds in the csrA51 mutant. However, the metabolic re-adjusting observed on gluconate was strikingly different from that observed on glucose, indicating a nutrient-specific control of metabolism by the Csr system.

  6. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  7. Nutritional and metabolic mechanisms in the ovary and their role in mediating the effects of diet on folliculogenesis: a perspective.

    Scaramuzzi, R J; Brown, H M; Dupont, J

    2010-09-01

    Folliculogenesis in ruminants is a nutritionally sensitive process, and short-term increases in nutrient flux can stimulate folliculogenesis in sheep and cattle. These short-term effects are probably mediated directly at the follicular level to modify gonadotrophin-induced follicle growth and development. The follicle appears to have a number of 'nutrient sensing' mechanism that may form the link between nutrient status and folliculogenesis. This review examines the evidence for the presence of pathways that may sense nutrient flux from within the follicle including the insulin signalling pathway, adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK), the hexosamine pathway, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and leptin. The review then assesses the available evidence concerning their mechanisms in the follicle and speculates on how these 'nutrient sensing' pathways are integrated into the FSH signalling pathways to adjust gonadotrophin-stimulated follicular function. We conclude that there is good evidence to suggest that the follicle does contain more than one functional 'nutrient sensing' pathway that have intra-follicular effects on some FSH-mediated functions such as the synthesis of oestradiol, in granulosa cells. These pathways include insulin, AMPK, and leptin. There is also a good case for the integration of PPARs in the intra-follicular sensing of nutrient flux. However, there is little evidence at present to suggest the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway has functional significance in the follicle as a sensor of nutrient flux. Further study will be required to fully understand 'nutrient sensing' pathways in the follicle and their cross-talk with FSH signalling pathways. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Mathematical Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of Metabolic Reaction Systems Using Metabolome Time Series Data

    Kansuporn eSriyudthsak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The high-throughput acquisition of metabolome data is greatly anticipated for the complete understanding of cellular metabolism in living organisms. A variety of analytical technologies have been developed to acquire large-scale metabolic profiles under different biological or environmental conditions. Time series data are useful for predicting the most likely metabolic pathways because they provide important information regarding the accumulation of metabolites, which implies causal relationships in the metabolic reaction network. Considerable effort has been undertaken to utilize these data for constructing a mathematical model merging system properties and quantitatively characterizing a whole metabolic system in toto. However, there are technical difficulties between benchmarking the provision and utilization of data. Although hundreds of metabolites can be measured, which provide information on the metabolic reaction system, simultaneous measurement of thousands of metabolites is still challenging. In addition, it is nontrivial to logically predict the dynamic behaviors of unmeasurable metabolite concentrations without sufficient information on the metabolic reaction network. Yet, consolidating the advantages of advancements in both metabolomics and mathematical modeling remain to be accomplished. This review outlines the conceptual basis of and recent advances in technologies in both the research fields. It also highlights the potential for constructing a large-scale mathematical model by estimating model parameters from time series metabolome data in order to comprehensively understand metabolism at the systems level.

  9. Mathematical Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of Metabolic Reaction Systems Using Metabolome Time Series Data.

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Shiraishi, Fumihide; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    The high-throughput acquisition of metabolome data is greatly anticipated for the complete understanding of cellular metabolism in living organisms. A variety of analytical technologies have been developed to acquire large-scale metabolic profiles under different biological or environmental conditions. Time series data are useful for predicting the most likely metabolic pathways because they provide important information regarding the accumulation of metabolites, which implies causal relationships in the metabolic reaction network. Considerable effort has been undertaken to utilize these data for constructing a mathematical model merging system properties and quantitatively characterizing a whole metabolic system in toto. However, there are technical difficulties between benchmarking the provision and utilization of data. Although, hundreds of metabolites can be measured, which provide information on the metabolic reaction system, simultaneous measurement of thousands of metabolites is still challenging. In addition, it is nontrivial to logically predict the dynamic behaviors of unmeasurable metabolite concentrations without sufficient information on the metabolic reaction network. Yet, consolidating the advantages of advancements in both metabolomics and mathematical modeling remain to be accomplished. This review outlines the conceptual basis of and recent advances in technologies in both the research fields. It also highlights the potential for constructing a large-scale mathematical model by estimating model parameters from time series metabolome data in order to comprehensively understand metabolism at the systems level.

  10. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods. This paper describes recent changes in Asian food systems driven by TFBCs in the retail, manufacturing and food service sectors and considers the implications for population nutrition. Market data for each sector was sourced from Euromonitor International for four lower-middle income, three upper-middle income and five high-income Asian countries. Descriptive statistics were used to describe trends in ultra-processed food consumption (2000-2013), packaged food retail distribution channels (1999-2013), 'market transnationalization' defined as the market share held by TFBCs relative to domestic firms (2004-2013), and 'market concentration' defined as the market share and thus market power held by the four leading firms (2004-2013) in each market. Ultra-processed food sales has increased rapidly in most middle-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks was the leading product category, in which Coca-Cola and PepsiCo had a regional oligopoly. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores were becoming increasingly dominant as distribution channels for packaged foods throughout the region. Market concentration was increasing in the grocery retail sector in all countries. Food service sales are increasing in all countries led by McDonalds and Yum! Brands. However, in all three sectors TFBCs face strong competition from Asian firms. Overall, the findings suggest that market forces are likely to be significant but variable drivers of Asia

  11. Nutritional surveillance.

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  12. Obesity explains gender differences in the association between education level and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Ko, Ki Dong; Cho, BeLong; Lee, Won Chul; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Hyun Ki; Oh, Bum Jo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of educational level with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors by gender in South Korea. A total of 6178 participants aged 20 years or older from The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. A generalized linear model and adjusted proportion were used to identify educational disparities in MS, its components, and its risk factors (smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption, obesity, and stress). In women, a clearly inverse association between education level and MS were observed with significant trend, and the decreasing trends of all risk factors across education quartiles were in line with the inverse association. However, the association between education level and MS was not observed with a significant trend among men. An opposite trend of risk factors across education levels was shown in men, with an increasing trend for obesity and decreasing trends for smoking and high-risk alcohol consumption. These findings demonstrate that obesity can explain gender differences in the association between education level and MS in South Korea. © 2013 APJPH.

  13. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  14. Investigating multiple candidate genes and nutrients in the folate metabolism pathway to detect genetic and nutritional risk factors for lung cancer.

    Michael D Swartz

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Folate metabolism, with its importance to DNA repair, provides a promising region for genetic investigation of lung cancer risk. This project investigates genes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, CBS, SHMT1, TYMS, folate metabolism related nutrients (B vitamins, methionine, choline, and betaine and their gene-nutrient interactions. METHODS: We analyzed 115 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 15 nutrients from 1239 and 1692 non-Hispanic white, histologically-confirmed lung cancer cases and controls, respectively, using stochastic search variable selection (a Bayesian model averaging approach. Analyses were stratified by current, former, and never smoking status. RESULTS: Rs6893114 in MTRR (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10; 95% credible interval [CI]: 1.20-3.48 and alcohol (drinkers vs. non-drinkers, OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.26-0.84 were associated with lung cancer risk in current smokers. Rs13170530 in MTRR (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.10-2.87 and two SNP*nutrient interactions [betaine*rs2658161 (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.88 and betaine*rs16948305 (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.91] were associated with lung cancer risk in former smokers. SNPs in MTRR (rs13162612; OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; rs10512948; OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41-0.90; rs2924471; OR = 3.31; 95% CI: 1.66-6.59, and MTHFR (rs9651118; OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.95 and three SNP*nutrient interactions (choline*rs10475407; OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42; choline*rs11134290; OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.27-0.92; and riboflavin*rs8767412; OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.15-0.95 were associated with lung cancer risk in never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified possible nutrient and genetic factors related to folate metabolism associated with lung cancer risk, which could potentially lead to nutritional interventions tailored by smoking status to reduce lung cancer risk.

  15. Impact of fish consumption by subjects with prediabetes on the metabolic risk factors: using data in the 2015 (6th) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Kim, Kyoung-Yun; Park, Jeong Seop

    2018-06-01

    The effects of fish consumption by subjects with prediabetes on the metabolic risk factors were examined based on the data from the 6 th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 2015. A total of 1,520 subjects who agreed to participate in a blood test and dietary intake survey were divided into a prediabetes group and normal blood glucose group, and the level of the subjects' fish consumption was divided into ≤ 17.0 g/day, 18.0-93.0 g/day, and ≥ 94 g/day. The correlation between the level of fish intake and the metabolic risk factors was evaluated by multinomial logistic regression analysis. A significant difference in the gender distribution was observed in the prediabetes group, which is a group with a high risk of non-communicable diseases, according to the fish intake, and there were significant differences in the total energy intake, protein intake, n-3 fatty acids intake, and the intakes of sodium and micro-nutrients according to the intake group ( P < 0.05). In addition, the blood total cholesterol (TC) decreased 0.422 fold in model 1 (unadjusted) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211-0.845] and 0.422 fold in model 2 (adjusted for sex) (95% CI: 0.210-0.846) in those with a fish intake of 18.0-93.0 g/day ( P < 0.05) compared to those with a fish intake of ≤ 17.0 g/day. The blood TC decreased 0.555 fold (95% CI: 0.311-0.989) in model 1 and 0.549 fold (95% CI: 0.302-0.997) in model 2 in those with a fish intake of ≥ 94 g/day compared to those with a fish intake of ≤ 17.0 g/day ( P < 0.05). Subjects with prediabetes or the metabolic risk factors can maintain their blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood TC concentrations at the optimal level by consuming fish (18.0-93.0 g/day).

  16. Computational Modeling of Human Metabolism and Its Application to Systems Biomedicine.

    Aurich, Maike K; Thiele, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Modern high-throughput techniques offer immense opportunities to investigate whole-systems behavior, such as those underlying human diseases. However, the complexity of the data presents challenges in interpretation, and new avenues are needed to address the complexity of both diseases and data. Constraint-based modeling is one formalism applied in systems biology. It relies on a genome-scale reconstruction that captures extensive biochemical knowledge regarding an organism. The human genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is increasingly used to understand normal cellular and disease states because metabolism is an important factor in many human diseases. The application of human genome-scale reconstruction ranges from mere querying of the model as a knowledge base to studies that take advantage of the model's topology and, most notably, to functional predictions based on cell- and condition-specific metabolic models built based on omics data.An increasing number and diversity of biomedical questions are being addressed using constraint-based modeling and metabolic models. One of the most successful biomedical applications to date is cancer metabolism, but constraint-based modeling also holds great potential for inborn errors of metabolism or obesity. In addition, it offers great prospects for individualized approaches to diagnostics and the design of disease prevention and intervention strategies. Metabolic models support this endeavor by providing easy access to complex high-throughput datasets. Personalized metabolic models have been introduced. Finally, constraint-based modeling can be used to model whole-body metabolism, which will enable the elucidation of metabolic interactions between organs and disturbances of these interactions as either causes or consequence of metabolic diseases. This chapter introduces constraint-based modeling and describes some of its contributions to systems biomedicine.

  17. Prognostic nutritional index as a prognostic biomarker for survival in digestive system carcinomas.

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Peng; Kang, Huafeng; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Yang, Pengtao; Dai, Cong; Liu, Xinghan; Liu, Kang; Zheng, Yi; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-12-27

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to correlate with the prognosis in patients with various malignancies. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the predictive potential of PNI in digestive system cancers. Twenty-three studies with a total of 7,384 patients suffering from digestive system carcinomas were involved in this meta-analysis. A lower PNI was significantly associated with the shorter overall survival (OS) [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.62-2.07], the poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.19-2.89), and the higher rate of post-operative complications (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.63-3.28). In conclusion, PNI was allowed to function as an efficient indicator for the prognosis of patients with digestive system carcinomas.

  18. Insulin Action in Brain Regulates Systemic Metabolism and Brain Function

    Kleinridders, Andr?; Ferris, Heather A.; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in t...

  19. INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR REGISTRY OF PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC DISEASES

    N. H. Horovenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the problems encountered in the management of medical records of patients with metabolic diseases, and also provides a general solution to these problems through the introduction of a software product. Objective was to reduce the burden on the healthcare registrars and medical genetics center, improving the speed and quality of patient care. In the software implementation the main features of the complex design problems are described: the programming language Java, IDE NetBeans, MySQL database server and web application to work with database server phpMyAdmin and put forward requirements. Also, medical receptionist is able to keep track of patients to form an extract, view statistics. During development were numerous consultations with experienced doctors, medical registrars. With the convenient architecture in the future will be easy to add custom modules in the program. Development of the program management of electronic medical records of patients the center of metabolic diseases is essential, because today in Ukraine all the software that can keep track of patients who did not drawn enough attention to patients with metabolic diseases. Currently the software is installed in the center of metabolic diseases NCSH “OKHMATDYT.”

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of Altered Systemic Metabolism and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    2016-10-01

    information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing...individuals provide extensive data on metabolic phenotypes, such as obesity and diabetes, and banked plasma samples for interrogation . The potential...banked plasma samples for interrogation . The potential impact of understanding the mechanisms underlying early pancreatic cancer growth is

  1. Metabolism related toxicity of diclofenac in yeast as model system

    van Leeuwen, J.S.; Vredenburg, G.; Dragovic, S.; Tjong, T.F.; Vos, J.C.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Diclofenac is a widely used drug that can cause serious hepatotoxicity, which has been linked to metabolism by cytochrome P450s (P450). To investigate the role of oxidative metabolites in diclofenac toxicity, a model for P450-related toxicity was set up in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We expressed a

  2. Fatty acids in energy metabolism of the central nervous system.

    Panov, Alexander; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vavilin, Valentin; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the current hypotheses regarding energy metabolism in the neurons and astroglia. Recently, it was shown that up to 20% of the total brain's energy is provided by mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. However, the existing hypotheses consider glucose, or its derivative lactate, as the only main energy substrate for the brain. Astroglia metabolically supports the neurons by providing lactate as a substrate for neuronal mitochondria. In addition, a significant amount of neuromediators, glutamate and GABA, is transported into neurons and also serves as substrates for mitochondria. Thus, neuronal mitochondria may simultaneously oxidize several substrates. Astrocytes have to replenish the pool of neuromediators by synthesis de novo, which requires large amounts of energy. In this review, we made an attempt to reconcile β-oxidation of fatty acids by astrocytic mitochondria with the existing hypothesis on regulation of aerobic glycolysis. We suggest that, under condition of neuronal excitation, both metabolic pathways may exist simultaneously. We provide experimental evidence that isolated neuronal mitochondria may oxidize palmitoyl carnitine in the presence of other mitochondrial substrates. We also suggest that variations in the brain mitochondrial metabolic phenotype may be associated with different mtDNA haplogroups.

  3. The nervous system and metabolic dysregulation: emerging evidence converges on ketogenic diet therapy

    David N. Ruskin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, ketogenic diet therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. More recently, cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders - although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a ketogenic diet and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a ketogenic diet on cognition and recent data on the effects of a ketogenic diet on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system.

  4. The Nervous System and Metabolic Dysregulation: Emerging Evidence Converges on Ketogenic Diet Therapy

    Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, KD therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. Cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders – although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a KD and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a KD on cognition and recent data on the effects of a KD on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system. PMID:22470316

  5. Smart Medical Systems with Application to Nutrition and Fitness in Space

    Soller, Babs R.; Cabrera, Marco; Smith, Scott M.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2002-01-01

    Smart medical systems are being developed to allow medical treatments to address alterations in chemical and physiological status in real time. In a smart medical system sensor arrays assess subject status, which are interpreted by computer processors which analyze multiple inputs and recommend treatment interventions. The response of the subject to the treatment is again assessed by the sensor arrays, closing the loop. An early form of "smart medicine" has been practiced in space to assess nutrition. Nutrient levels are assessed with food frequency questionnaires, which are interpreted by flight surgeons to recommend in-flight alterations in diet. In the future, sensor arrays will directly probe body chemistry. Near infrared spectroscopy can be used to noninvasively measure several blood and tissue parameters which are important in the assessment of nutrition and fitness. In particular, this technology can be used to measure blood hematocrit and interstitial fluid pH. The noninvasive measurement of interstitial pH is discussed as a surrogate for blood lactate measurement for the development and real-time assessment of exercise protocols in space. Earth-based application of these sensors are also described.

  6. Dieta e aspectos nutricionais no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Diet and nutritional aspects in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Karin Klack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revisaram a influência dos fatores nutricionais sobre o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES e abordaram uma alternativa complementar em seu tratamento. A autoimunidade e o processo inflamatório do LES estão relacionados à presença de dislipidemias, obesidade, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e síndrome metabólica, que devem ser adequadamente consideradas para diminuir o risco cardiovascular. Uma alimentação com moderado teor energético e proteico, mas rica em vitaminas, minerais (principalmente os antioxidantes e ácidos graxos mono/poli-insaturados, pode promover ação benéfica protetora contra danos tissulares e supressão da atividade inflamatória, além de auxiliar no tratamento dessas comorbidades. A dietoterapia é uma abordagem promissora, e algumas recomendações podem oferecer melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes com LES.The authors reviewed the influence of nutritional factors on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and discussed an alternative treatment option. The autoimmunity and inflammatory process of SLE are related to the presence of dyslipidemia, obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which should be properly considered to decrease cardiovascular risk. A diet with moderate protein and energy content, but rich in vitamins, minerals (especially antioxidants, and mono/polyunsaturated fatty acids can promote a beneficial protective effect against tissue damage and suppression of inflammatory activity, in addition to helping the treatment of those comorbidities. Diet therapy is a promising approach and some recommendations may offer a better quality of life to patients with SLE.

  7. Pre- and early-postnatal nutrition modify gene and protein expressions of muscle energy metabolism markers and phospholipid fatty acid composition in a muscle type specific manner in sheep

    Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Alice; Ghoreishi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key musc......, nutrition had long-term consequences for a number of determinants of insulin action and metabolism in LD. Tissues other than muscle may account for reduced whole body insulin sensitivity in adult LOW sheep....

  8. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting, Boggs (intermediate in wilting; and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF, nitrogen assimilation (NA, and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (-2.00 MPa than in the SLW genotypes (-1.68 MPa. Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance.

  9. CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR THE PERIOPERATIVE NUTRITIONAL, METABOLIC, AND NONSURGICAL SUPPORT OF THE BARIATRIC SURGERY PATIENT—2013 UPDATE: COSPONSORED BY AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, THE OBESITY SOCIETY, AND AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR METABOLIC & BARIATRIC SURGERY★

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I.; Youdim, Adrienne; Jones, Daniel B.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Hurley, Daniel L.; McMahon, M. Molly; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Kushner, Robert; Adams, Ted D.; Shikora, Scott; Dixon, John B.; Brethauer, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The development of these updated guidelines was commissioned by the AACE, TOS, and ASMBS Board of Directors and adheres to the AACE 2010 protocol for standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Each recommendation was re-evaluated and updated based on the evidence and subjective factors per protocol. Examples of expanded topics in this update include: the roles of sleeve gastrectomy, bariatric surgery in patients with type-2 diabetes, bariatric surgery for patients with mild obesity, copper deficiency, informed consent, and behavioral issues. There are 74 recommendations (of which 56 are revised and 2 are new) in this 2013 update, compared with 164 original recommendations in 2008. There are 403 citations, of which 33 (8.2%) are EL 1, 131 (32.5%) are EL 2, 170 (42.2%) are EL 3, and 69 (17.1%) are EL 4. There is a relatively high proportion (40.4%) of strong (EL 1 and 2) studies, compared with only 16.5% in the 2008 AACE- TOS-ASMBS CPG. These updated guidelines reflect recent additions to the evidence base. Bariatric surgery remains a safe and effective intervention for select patients with obesity. A team approach to perioperative care is mandatory with special attention to nutritional and metabolic issues. PMID:23529351

  10. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic, and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient—2013 Update: Cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery*

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I.; Youdim, Adrienne; Jones, Daniel B.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Hurley, Daniel L.; McMahon, Molly; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Kushner, Robert; Adams, Ted D.; Shikora, Scott; Dixon, John B.; Brethauer, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The development of these updated guidelines was commissioned by the AACE, TOS, and ASMBS Board of Directors and adheres to the AACE 2010 protocol for standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Each recommendation was re-evaluated and updated based on the evidence and subjective factors per protocol. Examples of expanded topics in this update include: the roles of sleeve gastrectomy, bariatric surgery in patients with type-2 diabetes, bariatric surgery for patients with mild obesity, copper deficiency, informed consent, and behavioral issues. There are 74 recommendations (of which 56 are revised and 2 are new) in this 2013 update, compared with 164 original recommendations in 2008. There are 403 citations, of which 33 (8.2%) are EL 1, 131 (32.5%) are EL 2, 170 (42.2%) are EL 3, and 69 (17.1%) are EL 4. There is a relatively high proportion (40.4%) of strong (EL 1 and 2) studies, compared with only 16.5% in the 2008 AACE-TOS-ASMBS CPG. These updated guidelines reflect recent additions to the evidence base. Bariatric surgery remains a safe and effective intervention for select patients with obesity. A team approach to perioperative care is mandatory with special attention to nutritional and metabolic issues. PMID:23529939

  11. Synthetic biology and regulatory networks: where metabolic systems biology meets control engineering

    He, F.; Murabito, E.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathways can be engineered to maximize the synthesis of various products of interest. With the advent of computational systems biology, this endeavour is usually carried out throughin silicotheoretical studies with the aim to guide and complement furtherin vitroandin vivoexperimental

  12. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2016-08-01

    Major conclusions: Implications for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and mood disorders are discussed in the context of brain insulin action. Intranasal insulin may have potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related metabolic disorders.

  13. Air pollution and neuroendocrine stress-mediated systemic metabolic and inflammatory response

    New experimental evidence involving the role of neuroendocrine activation challenges an accepted mechanistic paradigm of how irritant air pollutants induce systemic metabolic impairment and lung injury/inflammation. We focus on recent air pollution studies highlighting how the re...

  14. Tissue Renin-Angiotensin Systems: A Unifying Hypothesis of Metabolic Disease

    Jeppe eSkov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The actions of angiotensin peptides are diverse and locally acting tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS are present in almost all tissues of the body. An activated RAS strongly correlates to metabolic disease (e.g. diabetes and its complications and blockers of RAS have been demonstrated to prevent diabetes in humans.Hyperglycemia, obesity, hypertension, and cortisol are well-known risk factors of metabolic disease and all stimulate tissue RAS whereas glucagon-like peptide-1, vitamin D, and aerobic exercise are inhibitors of tissue RAS and to some extent can prevent metabolic disease. Furthermore, an activated tissue RAS deteriorates the same risk factors creating a system with several positive feedback pathways. The primary effector hormone of the RAS, angiotensin II, stimulates reactive oxygen species, induces tissue damage, and can be associated to most diabetic complications. Based on these observations we hypothesize that an activated tissue RAS is the principle cause of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and additionally is mediating the majority of the metabolic complications. The involvement of positive feedback pathways may create a self-reinforcing state and explain why metabolic disease initiate and progress. The hypothesis plausibly unify the major predictors of metabolic disease and places tissue RAS regulation in the center of metabolic control.

  15. Insulin action in brain regulates systemic metabolism and brain function.

    Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-07-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Potential Application of Electronic Olfaction Systems in Feedstuffs Analysis and Animal Nutrition

    Vittorio Dell'Orto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Olfaction Systems (EOSs based on a variety of gas-sensing technologies have been developed to simulate in a simplified manner animal olfactory sensing systems. EOSs have been successfully applied to many applications and fields, including food technology and agriculture. Less information is available for EOS applications in the feed technology and animal nutrition sectors. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, which are derived from both forages and concentrate ingredients of farm animal rations, are considered and described in this review as olfactory markers for feedstock quality and safety evaluation. EOS applications to detect VOCs from feedstuffs (as analytical matrices are described, and some future scenarios are hypothesised. Furthermore, some EOS applications in animal feeding behaviour and organoleptic feed assessment are also described.

  17. The Role of Food and Nutrition System Approaches in Tackling Hidden Hunger

    Emile Frison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the World’s greatest challenges is to secure sufficient and healthy food for all, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. This review explores the interrelationships of food, health, and environment, and their role in addressing chronic micronutrient deficiencies, also known as “hidden hunger”, affecting over two billion people worldwide. While the complexity and underlying determinants of undernutrition have been well-understood for decades, the scaling of food and nutrition system approaches that combine sustainable agriculture aimed at improved diet diversity and livelihoods have been limited in their development and implementation. However, an integrated system approach to reduce hidden hunger could potentially serve as a sustainable opportunity.

  18. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    trends in systems biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species, highlighting the relevance of these developments for systems metabolic engineering of these organisms for the production of hydrolytic enzymes, biofuels and chemicals from biomass. Metabolic engineering is moving from traditional methods...... for the production of hydrolytic enzymes, biofuels and chemicals from biomass. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  19. MINERAL NUTRITION OF CRISPHEAD LETTUCE GROWN IN A HYDROPONIC SYSTEM WITH BRACKISH WATER

    HAMMADY RAMALHO E SOARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water availability in the Brazilian semiarid is restricted and often the only water source available has high salt concentrations. Hydroponics allows using these waters for production of various crops, including vegetables, however, the water salinity can cause nutritional disorders. Thus, two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, to evaluate the effects of salinity on the mineral nutrition of crisphead lettuce, cultivar Taina, in a hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique, using brackish water in the nutrient solution, which was prepared by adding NaCl to the local water (0.2 dS m-1. A randomized blocks experimental design was used in both experiments. The treatments consisted of water of different salinity levels (0.2, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 dS m-1 with four replications, totaling 24 plots for each experiment. The water added to compensate for the water-depth loss due to evapotranspiration (WCET was the brackish water of each treatment in Experiment I and the local water without modifications in Experiment II. The increase in the salinity of the water used for the nutrient solution preparation reduced the foliar phosphorus and potassium contents and increased the chloride and sodium contents, regardless of the WCET. Foliar nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and sulfur contents were not affected by increasing the water salinity used for the nutrient solution preparation.

  20. The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...

  1. Attenuated age-impact on systemic inflammatory markers in the presence of a metabolic burden.

    Anuurad Erdembileg

    Full Text Available The overall burden of chronic disease, inflammation and cardiovascular risk increases with age. Whether the relationship between age and inflammation is impacted by presence of an adverse metabolic burden is not known.We determined inflammatory markers in humans (336 Caucasians and 224 African Americans and in mice, representing a spectrum of age, weight and metabolic burden.In humans, levels of inflammatory markers increased significantly with age in subjects without the metabolic syndrome, (P=0.009 and P=0.037 for C-reactive protein, P<0.001 and P=0.001 for fibrinogen, P<0.001 and P=0.005 for serum amyloid-A, for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively. In contrast, trend patterns of inflammatory markers did not change significantly with age in subjects with metabolic syndrome in either ethnic group, except for fibrinogen in Caucasians. A composite z-score for systemic inflammation increased significantly with age in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P=0.004 and P<0.006 for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively but not in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.009 for difference in age trend between metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome. In contrast, no similar age trend was found in vascular inflammation. The findings in humans were paralleled by results in mice as serum amyloid-A levels increased across age (range 2-15 months, P<0.01 and were higher in ob/ob mice compared to control mice (P<0.001.Presence of a metabolic challenge in mice and humans influences levels of inflammatory markers over a wide age range. Our results underscore that already at a young age, presence of a metabolic burden enhances inflammation to a level that appears to be similar to that of decades older people without metabolic syndrome.

  2. The Genome-Based Metabolic Systems Engineering to Boost Levan Production in a Halophilic Bacterial Model.

    Aydin, Busra; Ozer, Tugba; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic systems engineering is being used to redirect microbial metabolism for the overproduction of chemicals of interest with the aim of transforming microbial hosts into cellular factories. In this study, a genome-based metabolic systems engineering approach was designed and performed to improve biopolymer biosynthesis capability of a moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6 T producing levan, which is a fructose homopolymer with many potential uses in various industries and medicine. For this purpose, the genome-scale metabolic model for AAD6 T was used to characterize the metabolic resource allocation, specifically to design metabolic engineering strategies for engineered bacteria with enhanced levan production capability. Simulations were performed in silico to determine optimal gene knockout strategies to develop new strains with enhanced levan production capability. The majority of the gene knockout strategies emphasized the vital role of the fructose uptake mechanism, and pointed out the fructose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS fru ) as the most promising target for further metabolic engineering studies. Therefore, the PTS fru of AAD6 T was restructured with insertional mutagenesis and triparental mating techniques to construct a novel, engineered H. smyrnensis strain, BMA14. Fermentation experiments were carried out to demonstrate the high efficiency of the mutant strain BMA14 in terms of final levan concentration, sucrose consumption rate, and sucrose conversion efficiency, when compared to the AAD6 T . The genome-based metabolic systems engineering approach presented in this study might be considered an efficient framework to redirect microbial metabolism for the overproduction of chemicals of interest, and the novel strain BMA14 might be considered a potential microbial cell factory for further studies aimed to design levan production processes with lower production costs.

  3. A LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator, RovM, Senses Nutritional Cues Suggesting that It Is Involved in Metabolic Adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the Flea Gut.

    Viveka Vadyvaloo

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis has evolved as a clonal variant of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to cause flea-borne biofilm-mediated transmission of the bubonic plague. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator, RovM, is highly induced only during Y. pestis infection of the flea host. RovM homologs in other pathogens regulate biofilm formation, nutrient sensing, and virulence; including in Y. pseudotuberculosis, where RovM represses the major virulence factor, RovA. Here the role that RovM plays during flea infection was investigated using a Y. pestis KIM6+ strain deleted of rovM, ΔrovM. The ΔrovM mutant strain was not affected in characteristic biofilm gut blockage, growth, or survival during single infection of fleas. Nonetheless, during a co-infection of fleas, the ΔrovM mutant exhibited a significant competitive fitness defect relative to the wild type strain. This competitive fitness defect was restored as a fitness advantage relative to the wild type in a ΔrovM mutant complemented in trans to over-express rovM. Consistent with this, Y. pestis strains, producing elevated transcriptional levels of rovM, displayed higher growth rates, and differential ability to form biofilm in response to specific nutrients in comparison to the wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that rovA was not repressed by RovM in fleas, but that elevated transcriptional levels of rovM in vitro correlated with repression of rovA under specific nutritional conditions. Collectively, these findings suggest that RovM likely senses specific nutrient cues in the flea gut environment, and accordingly directs metabolic adaptation to enhance flea gut colonization by Y. pestis.

  4. Food security and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults and adolescents: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    Parker, Emily D; Widome, Rachel; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Pereira, Mark A

    2010-05-01

    We sought to examine the association of food security and metabolic syndrome in a representative sample of U.S. adults and adolescents. We hypothesized that compared with those in food-secure households, adolescents and adults living in food-insecure households would have increased odds of (MetS). Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999 to 2006 were combined and analyzed cross-sectionally. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in the association of household food security (fully food secure, marginal, low, and very low food security) and MetS. Compared with those who were food secure, adults in households with marginal food security had 1.80-fold increased odds of MetS (95% CI, 1.30-2.49), and those with very low food security had a 1.65-fold increased odds of MetS (95% CI 1.12-2.42). There was no association with low food security. The association of marginal household food security and MetS was not significant in adolescents. In adults and adolescents, very low was food security not associated with increased odds of MetS compared with those who were food secure. Members of households with marginal and very low food security are at increased risk of MetS. A mechanism may be that foods that are inexpensive and easily accessible tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, nutrition metabolism and intestinal microflora of 1 to 42 d broiler chickens

    Zhenhua Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of different levels of Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, nutrition metabolism and intestinal microflora of 1 to 42 d Arbor Acres (AA broilers, a total of 800 one-day-old healthy broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 40 broilers per replicate. Broilers were fed a basic diet (group 1 which acted as the control group, and 4 other groups (2 to 5 were fed the basal diet with B. subtilis added at concentrations of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg, respectively for 42 days. The results showed as follow: the average daily gain (ADG of group 4 was significantly higher than (P  0.05. The feed to gain ratio (F/G of all the experimental groups was lower than that of the control and the difference was significant in group 4 (P  0.05, crude fat (P > 0.05, dry matter (P > 0.05 and organic matter (P < 0.05. B. subtilis decreased the Escherichia coli and Salmonella populations in the cecum. This shows that adding B. subtilis to the broiler diet can improve the growth performance, increase feed efficiency, regulate serum index and reduce harmful bacteria in the intestinal tract. Based on our study, it could be recommended that addition of B. subtilis at 200 mg/kg could improve the growth performance of broilers.

  6. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  7. Gut-central nervous system axis is a target for nutritional therapies

    Pimentel Gustavo D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake. Likewise, the advances of physiological and molecular mechanisms for patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, bariatric surgery and anorexia-associated diseases has been greatly appreciated by nutritionists. Therefore, this review highlights the relationship between the gut-central nervous system axis and targets for nutritional therapies.

  8. Systems biology of human metabolism - Defining the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the activity of human gluconokinase

    Rohatgi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Studying human metabolism is crucial for the understanding of diseases and improvement of therapy as metabolic alterations are central to a number of human diseases. A variety of experimental disciplines, such as biochemistry, biophysics and systems biology are involved in the elucidation of metabolic pathways. The work presented in this thesis is divided into three main studies, which expand the knowledge of human metabolism using systems biology and biochemical techniques....

  9. Wearable physiological systems and technologies for metabolic monitoring.

    Gao, Wei; Brooks, George A; Klonoff, David C

    2018-03-01

    Wearable sensors allow continuous monitoring of metabolites for diabetes, sports medicine, exercise science, and physiology research. These sensors can continuously detect target analytes in skin interstitial fluid (ISF), tears, saliva, and sweat. In this review, we will summarize developments on wearable devices and their potential applications in research, clinical practice, and recreational and sporting activities. Sampling skin ISF can require insertion of a needle into the skin, whereas sweat, tears, and saliva can be sampled by devices worn outside the body. The most widely sampled metabolite from a wearable device is glucose in skin ISF for monitoring diabetes patients. Continuous ISF glucose monitoring allows estimation of the glucose concentration in blood without the pain, inconvenience, and blood waste of fingerstick capillary blood glucose testing. This tool is currently used by diabetes patients to provide information for dosing insulin and determining a diet and exercise plan. Similar technologies for measuring concentrations of other analytes in skin ISF could be used to monitor athletes, emergency responders, warfighters, and others in states of extreme physiological stress. Sweat is a potentially useful substrate for sampling analytes for metabolic monitoring during exercise. Lactate, sodium, potassium, and hydrogen ions can be measured in sweat. Tools for converting the concentrations of these analytes sampled from sweat, tears, and saliva into blood concentrations are being developed. As an understanding of the relationships between the concentrations of analytes in blood and easily sampled body fluid increases, then the benefits of new wearable devices for metabolic monitoring will also increase.

  10. Morphophysiology and nutritive value of signalgrass in silvipastoral system with different tree arrangements

    Joysiene Sanguinete Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the effect of different special arrangements in forage yield, nutritive value and structure of the understory of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens in silvipastoral system with different regrowth times. The design was in complete randomized block with tree replicates in a factorial scheme with split-plots 2 × 2 × 5 consisting two spatial arrangements [Double lines 9 × (2 × 2m and simple lines (9 × 2m] in two sampling places (in the middle of the intercropping and under the three canopy in the plot and five regrowth times (35, 42, 49, 56 e 63 days in the split-plot. It was used a silvipastoral system established since June, 2008 in degraded pasture with signalgrass predominance. The pasture was homogenized by grazing at 15 cm from the soil level. Were evaluated the dry matter yield leaf:stem ratio, light interception and leaf area index. In addition were evaluated the nutritive value characteristics dry matter content, neutral and acid detergent fiber, crude protein and lignin. The photosynthetic active radiation was monitored. The use of simple or double lines did not influence the leaf area index, light interception and dry mass yield. The leaf:stem ratio was influenced by the sampling place only in the double line arrangement. The neutral detergent fiber was substantially high in the double line arrangement. Therefore, the use of double lines reduces the photosynthetic active radiation amount incident in the understory, but does not reduce the forage yield in relation to simple line arrangements. These results indicate the use of double lines arrangement may allow the harvest of more threes without reduce the pasture production.

  11. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  12. Nutritional correlates and dynamics of diabetes in the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus: a novel model for diet-induced type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

    Maslova Ekaterina

    2010-04-01

    , whereas blood glucose and the perirenal fat pad, as well as liver and kidney weight, were positively related to early-onset diabetes. Rats weaned early (4-5 wks and challenged with a high-fat Western-type diet developed diabetes faster, and body fat accumulation was more apparent, whereas food restriction curtailed it. Conclusion The Nile rat fed typical rodent diets develops hyperinsulinemia that precedes hyperglycemia (insulin resistance leading to diet-induced type 2 diabetes associated with hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Dietary modulation affected growth rate (weight gain and central adiposity to impact disease progression. This rodent model represents a novel system of gene-diet interactions affecting energy utilization that can provide insight into the prevention and treatment of the type 2 diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.

  13. Control of mitochondrial metabolism and systemic energy homeostasis by microRNAs 378 and 378*.

    Carrer, Michele; Liu, Ning; Grueter, Chad E; Williams, Andrew H; Frisard, Madlyn I; Hulver, Matthew W; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2012-09-18

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and deranged regulation of metabolic genes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1β (PGC-1β) is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through stimulation of nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors. We report that the PGC-1β gene encodes two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-378 and miR-378*, which counterbalance the metabolic actions of PGC-1β. Mice genetically lacking miR-378 and miR-378* are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity and exhibit enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism and elevated oxidative capacity of insulin-target tissues. Among the many targets of these miRNAs, carnitine O-acetyltransferase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism, and MED13, a component of the Mediator complex that controls nuclear hormone receptor activity, are repressed by miR-378 and miR-378*, respectively, and are elevated in the livers of miR-378/378* KO mice. Consistent with these targets as contributors to the metabolic actions of miR-378 and miR-378*, previous studies have implicated carnitine O-acetyltransferase and MED13 in metabolic syndrome and obesity. Our findings identify miR-378 and miR-378* as integral components of a regulatory circuit that functions under conditions of metabolic stress to control systemic energy homeostasis and the overall oxidative capacity of insulin target tissues. Thus, these miRNAs provide potential targets for pharmacologic intervention in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  14. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients qualified to systemic treatment

    Ziętarska, Monika; Krawczyk-Lipiec, Joanna; Kraj, Leszek; Zaucha, Renata; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study Cancer is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to the deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. The aim of this study was the assessment of the nutritional status of patients with CRC qualified to chemotherapy. Material and methods Seventy-five persons aged 40–86 years with colorectal cancer were examined. To evaluate the nutritional status NRS 2002, SGA, SCRINIO Working Group classificatio...

  15. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients qualified to systemic treatment

    Monika Ziętarska; Joanna Krawczyk-Lipiec; Leszek Kraj; Renata Zaucha; Sylwia Małgorzewicz

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study . Cancer is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to the deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. The aim of this study was the assessment of the nutritional status of patients with CRC qualified to chemotherapy. Material and methods : Seventy-five persons aged 40–86 years with colorectal cancer were examined. To evaluate the nutritional status NRS 2002, SGA, SCRINIO Working Group...

  16. Consumers’ intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    2013-01-01

    Background Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We examine consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system as a function of options related to the underlying system (e.g. the type of company that generates the advice) as well as intermediaries (e.g. general practitioner) that might assist in using the system. We further explore if the effect of both the system and intermediaries on intention to use a health recommendation system are mediated by consumers' perceived effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. Methods 204 respondents from a consumer panel in the Netherlands participated. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Each respondent evaluated three hypothetical health recommendation systems on validated multi-scale measures of effort, privacy risk, usefulness, enjoyment and intention to use the system. To test the hypothesized relationships we used regression analyses. Results We find evidence that the options related to the underlying system as well as the intermediaries involved influence consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system and that these effects are mediated by perceptions of effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. Also, we find that consumers value usefulness of a system more and enjoyment less when a general practitioner advices them to use a health recommendation system than if they use it out of their own curiosity. Conclusions We developed and tested a model of consumers' intention to use a health recommendation system. We found that intermediaries play an important role in how consumers evaluate such a system over and above options of the underlying system that is used to generate the recommendation. Also, health-related information services seem to

  17. Consumers' intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice.

    Wendel, Sonja; Dellaert, Benedict G C; Ronteltap, Amber; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-04-04

    Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We examine consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system as a function of options related to the underlying system (e.g. the type of company that generates the advice) as well as intermediaries (e.g. general practitioner) that might assist in using the system. We further explore if the effect of both the system and intermediaries on intention to use a health recommendation system are mediated by consumers' perceived effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. 204 respondents from a consumer panel in the Netherlands participated. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Each respondent evaluated three hypothetical health recommendation systems on validated multi-scale measures of effort, privacy risk, usefulness, enjoyment and intention to use the system. To test the hypothesized relationships we used regression analyses. We find evidence that the options related to the underlying system as well as the intermediaries involved influence consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system and that these effects are mediated by perceptions of effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. Also, we find that consumers value usefulness of a system more and enjoyment less when a general practitioner advices them to use a health recommendation system than if they use it out of their own curiosity. We developed and tested a model of consumers' intention to use a health recommendation system. We found that intermediaries play an important role in how consumers evaluate such a system over and above options of the underlying system that is used to generate the recommendation. Also, health-related information services seem to rely on endorsement by the medical sector

  18. System-level perturbations of cell metabolism using CRISPR/Cas9

    Jakociunas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Keasling, Jay

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats and the associated protein Cas9) techniques have made genome engineering and transcriptional reprogramming studies more advanced and cost-effective. For metabolic engineering purposes, the CRISPR-based tools have been applied...... previously possible. In this mini-review we highlight recent studies adopting CRISPR/Cas9 for systems-level perturbations and model-guided metabolic engineering....

  19. [Characteristics of lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system in glycogenosis types I and III].

    Polenova, N V; Strokova, T V; Starodubova, A V

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by early childhood lipid metabolic disturbances with potentially proatherogenic effects. The review outlines the characteristics of impaired lipid composition and other changes in the cardiovascular system in GSD types I and III. It analyzes the factors enabling and inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with GSD. The review describes the paradox of vascular resistance to the development of early atherosclerosis despite the proatherogenic composition of lipids in the patients of this group.

  20. Inhibited Carnitine Synthesis Causes Systemic Alteration of Nutrient Metabolism in Zebrafish.

    Li, Jia-Min; Li, Ling-Yu; Qin, Xuan; Degrace, Pascal; Demizieux, Laurent; Limbu, Samwel M; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Li, Dong-Liang; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation has been correlated with many metabolic syndromes, and the metabolic characteristics of the mammalian models of mitochondrial dysfunction have also been intensively studied. However, the effects of the impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation on systemic metabolism in teleost have never been investigated. In the present study, we established a low-carnitine zebrafish model by feeding fish with mildronate as a specific carnitine synthesis inhibitor [0.05% body weight (BW)/d] for 7 weeks, and the systemically changed nutrient metabolism, including carnitine and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation capability, and other molecular and biochemical assays of lipid, glucose, and protein metabolism, were measured. The results indicated that mildronate markedly decreased hepatic carnitine concentrations while it had no effect in muscle. Liver TG concentrations increased by more than 50% in mildronate-treated fish. Mildronate decreased the efficiency of liver mitochondrial β-oxidation, increased the hepatic mRNA expression of genes related to FA β-oxidation and lipolysis, and decreased the expression of lipogenesis genes. Mildronate decreased whole body glycogen content, increased glucose metabolism rate, and upregulated the expression of glucose uptake and glycolysis genes. Mildronate also increased whole body protein content and hepatic mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin ( mtor ), and decreased the expression of a protein catabolism-related gene. Liver, rather than muscle, was the primary organ targeted by mildronate. In short, mildronate-induced hepatic inhibited carnitine synthesis in zebrafish caused decreased mitochondrial FA β-oxidation efficiency, greater lipid accumulation, and altered glucose and protein metabolism. This reveals the key roles of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation in nutrient metabolism in fish, and this low-carnitine zebrafish model could also be

  1. Inhibited Carnitine Synthesis Causes Systemic Alteration of Nutrient Metabolism in Zebrafish

    Jia-Min Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation has been correlated with many metabolic syndromes, and the metabolic characteristics of the mammalian models of mitochondrial dysfunction have also been intensively studied. However, the effects of the impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation on systemic metabolism in teleost have never been investigated. In the present study, we established a low-carnitine zebrafish model by feeding fish with mildronate as a specific carnitine synthesis inhibitor [0.05% body weight (BW/d] for 7 weeks, and the systemically changed nutrient metabolism, including carnitine and triglyceride (TG concentrations, fatty acid (FA β-oxidation capability, and other molecular and biochemical assays of lipid, glucose, and protein metabolism, were measured. The results indicated that mildronate markedly decreased hepatic carnitine concentrations while it had no effect in muscle. Liver TG concentrations increased by more than 50% in mildronate-treated fish. Mildronate decreased the efficiency of liver mitochondrial β-oxidation, increased the hepatic mRNA expression of genes related to FA β-oxidation and lipolysis, and decreased the expression of lipogenesis genes. Mildronate decreased whole body glycogen content, increased glucose metabolism rate, and upregulated the expression of glucose uptake and glycolysis genes. Mildronate also increased whole body protein content and hepatic mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mtor, and decreased the expression of a protein catabolism-related gene. Liver, rather than muscle, was the primary organ targeted by mildronate. In short, mildronate-induced hepatic inhibited carnitine synthesis in zebrafish caused decreased mitochondrial FA β-oxidation efficiency, greater lipid accumulation, and altered glucose and protein metabolism. This reveals the key roles of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation in nutrient metabolism in fish, and this low-carnitine zebrafish model

  2. Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Celik, Venhar; Liu, Huaiwei; Kong, Wentao; Wang, Yi; Blaschek, Hans; Jin, Yong-Su; Lu, Ting

    2015-07-07

    Microbial metabolism involves complex, system-level processes implemented via the orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. The complexity and systems nature of the process have been largely underappreciated, rendering challenges in understanding and optimizing solvent production. Here, we present a system-level computational framework for ABE fermentation that combines metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. We developed the framework by decomposing the entire system into three modules, building each module separately, and then assembling them back into an integrated system. During the model construction, a bottom-up approach was used to link molecular events at the single-cell level into the events at the population level. The integrated model was able to successfully reproduce ABE fermentations of the WT C. acetobutylicum (ATCC 824), as well as its mutants, using data obtained from our own experiments and from literature. Furthermore, the model confers successful predictions of the fermentations with various network perturbations across metabolic, genetic, and environmental aspects. From foundation to applications, the framework advances our understanding of complex clostridial metabolism and physiology and also facilitates the development of systems engineering strategies for the production of advanced biofuels.

  3. Metabonomics and its role in amino acid nutrition research.

    He, Qinghua; Yin, Yulong; Zhao, Feng; Kong, Xiangfeng; Wu, Guoyao; Ren, Pingping

    2011-06-01

    Metabonomics combines metabolic profiling and multivariate data analysis to facilitate the high-throughput analysis of metabolites in biological samples. This technique has been developed as a powerful analytical tool and hence has found successful widespread applications in many areas of bioscience. Metabonomics has also become an important part of systems biology. As a sensitive and powerful method, metabonomics can quantitatively measure subtle dynamic perturbations of metabolic pathways in organisms due to changes in pathophysiological, nutritional, and epigenetic states. Therefore, metabonomics holds great promise to enhance our understanding of the complex relationship between amino acids and metabolism to define the roles for dietary amino acids in maintaining health and the development of disease. Such a technique also aids in the studies of functions, metabolic regulation, safety, and individualized requirements of amino acids. Here, we highlight the common workflow of metabonomics and some of the applications to amino acid nutrition research to illustrate the great potential of this exciting new frontier in bioscience.

  4. FEATURES OF MINERAL NUTRITION FOR TOMATO PLANTS WITH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN OPEN FIELD CONDITION

    P. M. Akhmetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dagestan is the largest region with irrigation system of agriculture in Russia. Irrigated lands provide 70% of total plant production. The field cultivation is carried on arable land in plain region of the republic. The drip irrigation as an ecologically safe technology for watering is regarded as major means for vegetable production farming. This approach maintains the propitious level of water and air in the soil without surface and deep drainage of irrigating water. These irrigated lands are expected to be used first of all for valuable and profitable crops such as tomato that is a leading crop in Dagestan. The experimental work was carried out at OOO ‘Dagagrocomplex’, Aleksandro-Nevskoye, in Tarumovskiy region. The aim of the study was to determinate the optimal dose of mineral fertilizers and the way of their application to improve the productivity without quality loss. The complex analysis of the technology for tomato production under drip irrigation through nontransplanting culture showed its high efficiency, because volume and quality of yield directly depended on soil moisture and precise supporting of mineral nutrition rates. The maximal yield of tomato fruits, 88.7-94.5 t/ha was observed with once mineral fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60 with soil humidity 70-80% (field moisture capacity, and also at the dose of N180P135K60 with basic application of N100 in nutrition rate. The result of the study showed that the optimization of two factors, namely soil water rate and mineral nutrition, enabled to produce additionally 39.2 t/ha. It was shown the tight connection between yielding and its quality; when yielding 95 t/ha, the increased contents of dry matter to 7.01%, sugar to 3.8% vitamin C to 18.46% were noticed. The high quality of produced output was supported by pre-watering threshold of moisture at 75-80% (field moisture capacity, when once fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60. 

  5. Nutrition and HIV

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    , which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  6. Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition

    Renaud, E.N.C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Myers, J.R.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Zhu, N.; Juvik, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of

  7. Metabolic engineering with systems biology tools to optimize production of prokaryotic secondary metabolites

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering using systems biology tools is increasingly applied to overproduce secondary metabolites for their potential industrial production. In this Highlight, recent relevant metabolic engineering studies are analyzed with emphasis on host selection and engineering approaches...... for the optimal production of various prokaryotic secondary metabolites: native versus heterologous hosts (e.g., Escherichia coli) and rational versus random approaches. This comparative analysis is followed by discussions on systems biology tools deployed in optimizing the production of secondary metabolites....... The potential contributions of additional systems biology tools are also discussed in the context of current challenges encountered during optimization of secondary metabolite production....

  8. [Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient. Update. Consensus of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units-Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SEMICYUC-SENPE): neurocritical patient].

    Acosta Escribano, J; Herrero Meseguer, I; Conejero García-Quijada, R

    2011-11-01

    Neurocritical patients require specialized nutritional support due to their intense catabolism and prolonged fasting. The preferred route of nutrient administration is the gastrointestinal route, especially the gastric route. Alternatives are the transpyloric route or mixed enteral-parenteral nutrition if an effective nutritional volume of more than 60% cannot be obtained. Total calore intake ranges from 20-30 kcal/kg/day, depending on the period of the clinical course, with protein intake higher than 20% of total calories (hyperproteic diet). Nutritional support should be initiated early. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications is generally higher to other critically-ill patients, the most frequent complication being an increase in gastric residual volume. As in other critically-ill patients, glycemia should be closely monitored and maintained below 150 mg/dL. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Critica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC) and Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Systems metabolic engineering design: fatty acid production as an emerging case study.

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-05-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Immune System: An Emerging Player in Mediating Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Metabolic Health.

    Bansal, Amita; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Simmons, Rebecca A

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity continues to increase. In addition to the well-known contributors to these disorders, such as food intake and sedentary lifestyle, recent research in the exposure science discipline provides evidence that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals like bisphenol A and phthalates via multiple routes (e.g., food, drink, skin contact) also contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disorders. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt any aspect of hormone action. It is becoming increasingly clear that EDCs not only affect endocrine function but also adversely affect immune system function. In this review, we focus on human, animal, and in vitro studies that demonstrate EDC exposure induces dysfunction of the immune system, which, in turn, has detrimental effects on metabolic health. These findings highlight how the immune system is emerging as a novel player by which EDCs may mediate their effects on metabolic health. We also discuss studies highlighting mechanisms by which EDCs affect the immune system. Finally, we consider that a better understanding of the immunomodulatory roles of EDCs will provide clues to enhance metabolic function and contribute toward the long-term goal of reducing the burden of environmentally induced diabetes and obesity. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  11. Experts' views regarding Australian school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems.

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    To explore Australian experts' views regarding strengths and gaps in school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems ( N&FS) and factors that influence that knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 highly experienced food-related experts in Australia. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework. Two global themes and several organising themes were identified. The first global theme, 'structural curriculum-based problems', emerged from three organising themes of: inconsistencies in provided food education programs at schools in Australia; insufficient coverage of food-related skills and food systems topics in school curricula; and the lack of trained school teachers. The second global theme, 'insufficient levels of school-leavers knowledge of N&FS ', was generated from four organising themes, which together described Australian school-leavers' poor knowledge of N&FS more broadly and knowledge translation problem for everyday practices. Study findings identified key problems relating to current school-based N&FS education programs in Australia and reported knowledge gaps in relation to N&FS among Australian school-leavers. These findings provide important guidance for N&FS curriculum development, to clearly articulate broadly-based N&FS knowledge acquisition in curriculum policy and education documents for Australian schools. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. systemic objective test in medical biochemistry part 1- metabolism

    IICBA01

    and help to develop the imagination and the research. ... introduce STFQs, SMCQs, SSQs, SSQs, ASQs, and SCQs as examples of the systemic ... Asking questions lies on the basic foundation of communication, especially the lecturer- .... Systemic True/False Questions are well suited for testing students' comprehension,.

  13. Diet & Nutrition

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  14. AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION IN THE LINE OF HUMAN EVOLUTION IS THE ONSET OF NUTRITIONAL METABOLIC DISEASES, EPIDEMIC OF CANCER AND THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Soroush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    This study goes deeply through the nutrition of the first primate and analyses the nutrition in the line of human evolution. Simply dividing the shifts in the nutrition through the human evolution, it is obvious that some elements in the diet are more important than the others. Since the beginning of the Neolithic, the ratio of plant-to-animal foods in the diet has sharply increased from an average of probably 65% to 35% during Paleolithic times to as high as 90% to 10% since the advent of ag...

  15. AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION IN THE LINE OF HUMAN EVOLUTION IS THE ONSET OF NUTRITIONAL METABOLIC DISEASES, EPIDEMIC OF CANCER AND THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES - Somayeh Zaminpira - Sorush Niknamian

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    This study goes deeply through the nutrition of the first primate and analyses the nutrition in the line of human evolution. Simply dividing the shifts in the nutrition through the human evolution, it is obvious that some elements in the diet are more important than the others. Since the beginning of the Neolithic, the ratio of plant-to-animal foods in the diet has sharply increased from an average of probably 65% to 35% during Paleolithic times to as high as 90% to 10% since the advent of ag...

  16. Atmospheric reaction systems as null-models to identify structural traces of evolution in metabolism.

    Petter Holme

    Full Text Available The metabolism is the motor behind the biological complexity of an organism. One problem of characterizing its large-scale structure is that it is hard to know what to compare it to. All chemical reaction systems are shaped by the same physics that gives molecules their stability and affinity to react. These fundamental factors cannot be captured by standard null-models based on randomization. The unique property of organismal metabolism is that it is controlled, to some extent, by an enzymatic machinery that is subject to evolution. In this paper, we explore the possibility that reaction systems of planetary atmospheres can serve as a null-model against which we can define metabolic structure and trace the influence of evolution. We find that the two types of data can be distinguished by their respective degree distributions. This is especially clear when looking at the degree distribution of the reaction network (of reaction connected to each other if they involve the same molecular species. For the Earth's atmospheric network and the human metabolic network, we look into more detail for an underlying explanation of this deviation. However, we cannot pinpoint a single cause of the difference, rather there are several concurrent factors. By examining quantities relating to the modular-functional organization of the metabolism, we confirm that metabolic networks have a more complex modular organization than the atmospheric networks, but not much more. We interpret the more variegated modular arrangement of metabolism as a trace of evolved functionality. On the other hand, it is quite remarkable how similar the structures of these two types of networks are, which emphasizes that the constraints from the chemical properties of the molecules has a larger influence in shaping the reaction system than does natural selection.

  17. Importância nutricional e metabólica da fibra na dieta de equinos Nutritional and metabolic importance of fiber in the horse diet

    Roberta Ariboni Brandi

    2009-07-01

    . Objetivou-se revisão da ação fisiológica e metabólica das diferentes frações fibrosas, em cada compartimento do trato digestório, bem como destacar os ingredientes volumosos com suas diversas frações, os quais possibilitam sugerir manejo alimentar adequado para os equinos.The equine is a non herbivore ruminant that is able to fully provide its nutritional need by the grass intake. Equines show the cecum and colon region plenty developed as their principal fermentation site. Such process either happens in the non glandular stomach region, but the volatile fatty acids production is inferior then the production in the - hindgut. To meet the optimum use of the mix of ingredients, and to avoid excess there are harmful to the equine metabolism, it is important to know the ingredients digestion site. The recent carbohydrate fragmentation's study, even if it's not totally adapted to the equine metabolism and physiology, can provide information regarding the different carbohydrate fraction, that lead to infer data about the energy produced by each fraction. Feeding equines in pasture, or with hays or forage fed is essential to keep the digestive tract in activity and healthy, and to guarantee such condition, it necessary to provide at least 12% of NDF. Nowadays, ingredients such as citric pulp, beet pulp, soybean hulls, are used in the formulations to increase the energy's availability. The above mentioned ingredients, that present fast and easy fermentation, are a safe alternative to increase the energetic concentration in the equine diet, due to the decrease of the starch supply in such procedure. It's known that, with the increase in fibrous fed quality, higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates with fast fermentation are available along all equine digestive tract generating some metabolic disturbs such as laminits and insulin sensibility. With the correct equine pasture handling and the knowledge of the plant cycle it's possible to reduce such problems. The aim of this

  18. Indigenous Peoples' food systems, nutrition, and gender: Conceptual and methodological considerations.

    Lemke, Stefanie; Delormier, Treena

    2017-11-01

    Indigenous Peoples, especially women and children, are affected disproportionately by malnutrition and diet-related health problems. Addressing this requires an investigation of the structural conditions that underlie unequal access to resources and loss of traditional lifestyles and necessitates inclusive approaches that shed light onto these issues and provide strategies to leverage change. Indigenous Peoples' food systems are inextricably connected to land, which in turn is interwoven with issues of self-determination, livelihoods, health, cultural and spiritual heritage, and gender. Ongoing loss of land and the dominant agri-food model further threaten Indigenous Peoples' food systems. Continuing gender-based discrimination undermines the self-determination and rights of women and negatively impacts their health, nutritional status, and overall well-being, as well as the well-being of households and communities. We suggest that feminist political ecology and modern matriarchal studies provide holistic interlinking frameworks for investigating underlying issues of power and inequality. We further argue that a focus on the principles of respect, responsibility, and relationships, and an openness to different worldviews, can facilitate a bridging of Indigenous and Western approaches in research and community action conducted in partnership with Indigenous Peoples. This can contribute to creating new ways of knowing regarding Indigenous Peoples' food systems, equally valuing both knowledge systems. Indigenous Peoples' rights, right to food, and food sovereignty are frames that, despite some tensions, have the common goal of self-determination. Through their ability to inform, empower, and mobilize, they provide tools for social movements and communities to challenge existing structural inequalities and leverage social change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Systemic Inflammation and Lung Function Impairment in Morbidly Obese Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Astrid van Huisstede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and asthma are associated. There is a relationship between lung function impairment and the metabolic syndrome. Whether this relationship also exists in the morbidly obese patients is still unknown. Hypothesis. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with the metabolic syndrome causes inflammation in the lungs and, hence, lung function impairment. Methods. This is cross-sectional study of morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative screening for bariatric surgery. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results. A total of 452 patients were included. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (n=293 had significantly higher blood monocyte (mean 5.3 versus 4.9, P=0.044 and eosinophil percentages (median 1.0 versus 0.8, P=0.002, while the total leukocyte count did not differ between the groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly lower in patients with the metabolic syn