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  1. Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology

    Satoh, Tetsuo, Ph. D; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-01-01

    .... The early portion of the book deals with metabolism, mechanisms and biomonitoring of anticholinesterase pesticides, while the later part deals with epidemiological studies, regulatory issues, and therapeutic intervention"--Provided by publisher.

  2. Calcium and Bone Metabolism Indices.

    Song, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH) 2 D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic

  3. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Daniël B van Schalkwijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (ΔAUC and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI. Two VLDL lipoprotein metabolism indicators (VLDLE and VLDLH improved cardiovascular risk prediction. We added these indicators to a multivariate model with the best performing conventional risk markers. Our method significantly improved both CVD prediction and risk reclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Two calculated VLDL metabolism indicators significantly improved cardiovascular risk prediction. These indicators may help to reduce prescription of unnecessary cholesterol-lowering medication, reducing costs and possible side-effects. For clinical application, further validation is required.

  4. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Parnell, L.D.; Werff-van der Vat, B.J.C. van der; Ommen, B. van; Greef, J. van der; Ordovás, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to

  5. Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology

    Satoh, Tetsuo, Ph. D; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-01-01

    ...; and epidemiology of poisonings and fatalities in people from short- and long- term exposures to these pesticides in different occupational settings on a individual country basis as well as on a global basis...

  6. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India.

    Chakraborty, Sasthi Narayan; Roy, Sunetra Kaviraj; Rahaman, Md Abdur

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43), upper social class (14.89), sedentary lifestyle (17.00), and positive family history. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India

    Sasthi Narayan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Results: Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43, upper social class (14.89, sedentary lifestyle (17.00, and positive family history. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight individuals. Aim: To determine variations in prevalence of MS according to different weight and weight indices. Materials and Methods: 342 apparently ...

  9. The floating knee: epidemiology, prognostic indicators & outcome following surgical management.

    Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam S; Nair, Rajagopalan

    2007-11-26

    Floating Knee injuries are complex injuries. The type of fractures, soft tissue and associated injuries make this a challenging problem to manage. We present the outcome of these injuries after surgical management. 29 patients with floating knee injuries were managed over a 3 year period. This was a prospective study were both fractures of the floating knee injury were surgically fixed using different modalities. The associated injuries were managed appropriately. Assessment of the end result was done by the Karlstrom criteria after bony union. The mechanism of injury was road traffic accident in 27/29 patients. There were 38 associated injuries. 20/29 patients had intramedullary nailing for both fractures. The complications were knee stiffness, foot drop, delayed union of tibia and superficial infection. The bony union time ranged from 15 - 22.5 weeks for femur fractures and 17 - 28 weeks for the tibia. According to the Karlstrom criteria the end results were Excellent - 15, Good - 11, Acceptable - 1 and Poor - 3. The associated injuries and the type of fracture (open, intra-articular, comminution) are prognostic indicators in the Floating knee. Appropriate management of the associated injuries, intramedullary nailing of both the fractures and post operative rehabilitation are necessary for good final outcome.

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescent population.

    Mahbuba, Sharmin; Mohsin, Fauzia; Rahat, Farhana; Nahar, Jebun; Begum, Tahmina; Nahar, Nazmun

    2018-05-01

    The study was done to assess the magnitude of problems of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents. It was a cross-sectional study done from January 2013 to June 2014 in paediatric endocrine outpatient department in BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 172 adolescents having exogenous obesity aged 10-18 years were included. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were defined as per WHO criteria.The adolescents having Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥95th centile were classified as obese.Waist circumference was measured at the level midway between the lower rib margin & the iliac crest, at the level of umbilicus with the person breathing out gently in centimeter. Hip circumference was measured at the maximum width over the buttocks at the level of the greater trochanters in centimeter. Among 172 obese adolescents, metabolic syndrome was found in 66 patients (38.4%). The commonest metabolic abnormality among those having metabolic syndrome was low HDL level (77.3%) followed by high triglyceride level(71.2%). Glucose intolerance (IFG and/or IGT) was found in 16.7%, Type 2 DM in 10.6%, systolic hypertension in 10.7% and diastolic hypertension in 12.1%. Triglyceride (p = 0.042) and Cholesterol level (p = 0.016) were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.000) was significantly lower among obese adolescents having metabolic syndrome. Less physical activity (p = 0.04) was significantly related to the development of metabolic syndrome. On logistic regression analysis male sex, family history of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol correlated to metabolic syndrome. The High rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents is alarming. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Smokers

    Leila Jamshidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide non communicable diseases are increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity.The disorder is defined in various ways. This study determine the 6Tcomparison of indicators of metabolic syndrome in Iranian smokers population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,024 Iranian subjects aged 30 to 70 participated in this cross sectional study. Standard questionnaire was completing regarding smoking habits, medications, past medical history, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting blood suger, total cholestrol HDL and triglycerides. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the IDF criteria. Results: As defined by the modified IDF criteria, (45.9% had the MS at baseline assessment. The risk of incidence of the metabolic syndrome among smokers was9T 6T9Tsignificantly6T9T 6T9T(p<0.008 greater6T than nonsmokers. Among men without the MS at entry, body weight gain, compared with never smokers, was significantly6T (p<0.007 6Thigher in smokers who had quit smoking. It is important for the prevention of the MS not only to quit smoking but also to prevent weight gain after smoking cessation. Conclusion: Although many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs can be treated or prevented many people die from CVDs. Reducing the rate of cigarette smoking, body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose all have a benefit impact on major biological cardiovascular risk factors. Behaviors such as stopping smoking, taking regular physical activity and eating a healthy diet promote health and have no known harmful effects.

  12. Epidemiology, trends, and morbidities of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Bray, George A; Bellanger, Tracy

    2006-02-01

    Obesity has been described as an epidemic because of the rapid increase in the number of overweight and obese individuals over the past 20 yr. This increasing prevalence of obesity is a worldwide phenomenon affecting both children and adults. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of central adiposity, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia (high triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol). When three of these five criteria are present, the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes is increased 1.5- to 2-fold. As body weight, expressed as the BMI, rises, there are a number of other diseases that are associated with it. First, life span is shortened and the risk of sudden death increases. Second, the risk of diabetes, gall bladder disease, hypertension, heart disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and certain forms of cancer also increase.

  13. Associations between basic indicators of inflammation and metabolic disturbances

    Sylwia Płaczkowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is involved in initiation and progression of diabetic complications related to cell damage of tissues, especially endothelial cells, and deepening of metabolic disturbances. This study was conducted in order to assess potential associations between basic laboratory parameters of inflammation and common metabolic factors such as glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Materials and methods: The studied group consisted of 95 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and 77 subjects without signs of disturbances in glucose metabolism, aged between 40 and 74 years. Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, complete blood count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration in blood were determined. Also blood pressure as well as weight and height measurements were taken to calculate BMI. Results: Fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations, total leukocyte count and granulocytes were significantly higher in diabetics. Significant correlations between both glycated hemoglobin and BMI and C-reactive protein concentration were noted. However, after adjusting for age and gender, leucocyte count was independently related to BMI and glycated hemoglobin, while C-reactive protein concentration was dependent on gender and BMI. Conclusion: Glycated hemoglobin as a marker of long-term glycemic control and BMI as an indicator of adipose tissue accumulation are significantly related to white blood cell count and C-reactive protein concentration, even when values of these parameters are in the normal range. This is consistent with the hypothesis that chronic activation of the immune system plays a role in the pathogenesis and progression of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Epidemiological-molecular evidence of metabolic reprogramming on proliferation, autophagy and cell signaling in pancreas cancer.

    Søreide, Kjetil; Sund, Malin

    2015-01-28

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest human cancers with little progress made in survival over the past decades, and 5-year survival usually below 5%. Despite this dismal scenario, progresses have been made in understanding of the underlying tumor biology through among other definition of precursor lesions, delineation of molecular pathways, and advances in genome-wide technology. Further, exploring the relationship between epidemiological risk factors involving metabolic features to that of an altered cancer metabolism may provide the foundation for new therapies. Here we explore how nutrients and caloric intake may influence the KRAS-driven ductal carcinogenesis through mediators of metabolic stress, including autophagy in presence of TP53, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptors (RAGE) and ligands (HMGB1), as well as glutamine pathways, among others. Effective understanding the cancer metabolism mechanisms in pancreatic cancer may propose new ways of prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of epidemiological indicators: Bovine brucellosis on the Atlantic coast and Antioquia - Colombia, 2005-2013

    Misael Oviedo-Pastrana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the situation of the bovine brucellosis in the Atlantic Coast and Antioquia (CAA by analysis of epidemiological indicators during 2005-2013. Materials and methods. The data was obtained from epidemiological reports of the Colombian Agricultural Institute and the National Agricultural Census 2014. The annual departmental average of the variables studied was compared and it was performed a temporal analysis through graphical representation. Results. 44% of the positive farms were focused on the CAA; the positivity rate of farms in the CAA (27.9% was higher and statistically significant when related to the average rate in the country (24.8% being promoted by the least producing departments. Regarding to the cattle population, the CAA concentrated 47.0% of positive cattle in the country; however, the bovine positivity rate (5.8% was statistically equal to the national average (5.3%; yet, the departments with lower cattle population had the highest rates. The best surveillance for bovine brucellosis was observed between 2005 and 2009, in contrast, during 2010, 2011 and 2013 there was a considerable reduction in the number of diagnoses, in both farms and cattle. In the least producing departments the temporary distribution of epidemiological indicators favored more the presence of the disease. Conclusions. The National Prevention Control and Eradication Program of Bovine Brucellosis in the CAA presented promising results, however, the lack of continuity in the diagnostic surveillance during some years and mainly in the least producing departments affected negatively their development.

  16. Analysis of epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the adult population of Moscow

    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a disease that presents a global medical problem. It is necessary to implement an in-depth analysis of the epidemiological situation of type 2 diabetes mellitus for planning and organizing specialized medical help to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.AimTo rate the basic epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in actual clinical practice using the informational database of national registry of diabetic patients.Materials and methodsEpidemiological analyses were performed in two administrative districts of Moscow. From 1999 to 2011 48978 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were aged 18 years and older were registered. We used methods of clinical, analytical and statistical epidemiology with elements of descriptive research.ResultsThe prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 1590 per hundred thousand, most patients were in the 60–64 and 70–74 age groups, and approximately 80% of patients were older than 55 years. The morbidity rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 138,72 per hundred thousand and was found to be higher in women at 1,89. The mortality rate of adult patients with diabetes mellitus was 0,83, mostly in men of all ages. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most of the registered cases of deaths (34,4%. The average life expectancy appeared to be 75,24±0,45 years, although women lived 6 years longer than men. The average duration of the disease was 10,04±0,34 years. A total of 0,4% of patients underwent hospital treatment and the average length of treatment was 17–18 days. The total number of days of disablement was an average of 307,33±30,13 days (80% of patients were older than 55 years. In the study group, a mean grade of НbА1c <7% was observed in 56,6% of patients. The prevalence rate of detected chronic complications was considerably lower compared to other epidemiological studies.ConclusionsOur epidemiological analyses revealed a number of features and consistent

  17. Analysis of epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the adult population of Moscow

    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a disease that presents a global medical problem. It is necessary to implement an in-depth analysis of the epidemiological situation of type 2 diabetes mellitus for planning and organizing specialized medical help to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aim. To rate the basic epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in actual clinical practice using the informational database of national registry of diabetic patients. Materials and methods. Epidemiological analyses were performed in two administrative districts of Moscow. From 1999 to 2011 48978 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were aged 18 years and older were registered. We used methods of clinical, analytical and statistical epidemiology with elements of descriptive research. Results. The prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 1590 per hundred thousand, most patients were in the 60?64 and 70?74 age groups, and approximately 80% of patients were older than 55 years. The morbidity rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 138,72 per hundred thousand and was found to be higher in women at 1,89. The mortality rate of adult patients with diabetes mellitus was 0,83, mostly in men of all ages. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most of the registered cases of deaths (34,4%. The average life expectancy appeared to be 75,24?0,45 years, although women lived 6 years longer than men. The average duration of the disease was 10,04?0,34 years. A total of 0,4% of patients underwent hospital treatment and the average length of treatment was 17?18 days. The total number of days of disablement was an average of 307,33?30,13 days (80% of patients were older than 55 years. In the study group, a mean grade of НbА1c

  18. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  19. Bone mineral density and metabolic indices in hyperthyroidism.

    Al-Nuaim, A; El-Desouki, M; Sulimani, R; Mohammadiah, M

    1991-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism can alter bone metabolism by increasing both bone resorption and formation. The increase in bone resorption predominates, leading to a decrease in bone mass. To assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on bone and mineral metabolism, we measured bone density using single photon absorptiometry in 30 untreated hyperthyroid patients. Patients were categorized into three groups based on sex and alkaline phosphatase levels: 44 sex- and age-matched subjects were used as controls. Bone densities were significanlty lower in all patient groups compared with controls. Alkaline phosphatase was found to be a useful marker for assessing severity of bone disease in hyperthyroid patients as there is significant bone density among patients with higher alkaline phosphatase value. Hyperthyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained alkaline phophatase activity.

  20. Behavioral and Metabolic Phenotype Indicate Personality in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Yuan, Mingzhe; Chen, Yan; Huang, Yingying; Lu, Weiqun

    2018-01-01

    Consistency of individual differences of animal behavior and personality in reactions to various environmental stresses among their life stages could reflect basic divergences in coping style which may affect survival, social rank, and reproductive success in the wild. However, the physiological mechanisms determining personality remain poorly understood. In order to study whether behavior, metabolism and physiological stress responses relate to the personality, we employed post-stress recovery assays to separate zebrafish into two behavioral types (proactive and reactive). The results demonstrated consistent difference among personality, behavior and metabolism in which proactive individuals were more aggressive, had higher standard metabolic rates and showed lower shuttled frequencies between dark and light compartments than the reactive ones. The behavioral variations were also linked to divergent acute salinity stress responses: proactive individuals adopted a swift locomotion behavior in response to acute salinity challenge while reactive individuals remain unchanged. Our results provide useful insight into how personality acts on correlated traits and the importance of a holistic approach to understanding the mechanisms driving persistent inter-individual differences. PMID:29899710

  1. Anthropometric Indicators Predict Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Vogt, Barbara Perez; Ponce, Daniela; Caramori, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira

    2016-06-01

    Obesity has been considered the key in metabolic syndrome (MetS) development, and fat accumulation may be responsible for the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities in hemodialysis patients. The use of gold-standard methods to evaluate obesity is limited, and anthropometric measures may be the simplest methods. However, no study has investigated the association between anthropometric indexes and MetS in these patients. Therefore, the aim was to determine which anthropometric indexes had the best association and prediction for MetS in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cross-sectional study that included patients older than 18 years, undergoing hemodialysis for at least 3 months. Patients with liver disease and cancer or those receiving corticosteroids or antiretroviral therapy were excluded. Diagnostic criteria from Harmonizing Metabolic Syndrome were used for the diagnosis of MetS. Anthropometric indexes evaluated were body mass index (BMI); percent standard of triceps skinfold thickness and of middle arm muscle circumference; waist circumference (WC); sagittal abdominal diameter; neck circumference; waist-to-hip, waist-to-thigh, and waist-to-height ratios; sagittal index; conicity index; and body fat percentage. Ninety-eight patients were included, 54.1% male, and mean age was 57.8 ± 12.9 years. The prevalence of MetS was 74.5%. Individuals with MetS had increased accumulation of abdominal fat and general obesity. Waist-to-height ratio was the variable independently associated with MetS diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.34; P < .01) and that better predicts MetS, followed by WC and BMI (area under the curve of 0.840, 0.836, and 0.798, respectively, P < .01). Waist-to-height ratio was the best anthropometric predictor of MetS in maintenance hemodialysis patients. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  2. ANALYSIS OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH-ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN CASE OF CHILDREN OCULAR TRAUMA

    Laurentiu STUPARIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of epidemiological and health-economic indicators on ocular trauma involving children is important for developing targeted managerial, medical and educational strategies of health care providers and patients in order to reduce incidence and severity of pediatric ocular trauma. We analysed data collected from 29 children with ocular trauma from Emergency Hospital of Sibiu, between 2008-2016. For this children with closed globe injury it took an average of 7 days of hospitalization (IQR: (5; 9.5, with a cost per day of hospitalization on average of 127 RON (IQR: (103; 136, respectively a total hospitalization cost on average 856 RON (IQR: (529; 998, with no significant gender or area differences. It took a slightly larger number of hospitalization days in the following situations: (1 in the case of mixed trauma compared to lamellar lacerations or contusions; (2 if the affected area was zone III compared to the other two areas (zone I and zone II; (3 where the visual acuity at admission was less than 1/6(0.16 compared to cases with visual acuity greater than 1/6(0.16; (4 in patients with hypertension at admission compared to those with normal tension or hypotension.

  3. Metabolic footprint of diabetes: a multiplatform metabolomics study in an epidemiological setting.

    Karsten Suhre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be obtained in the field of diabetes research when combining metabolomics data collected on a complementary set of analytical platforms in the framework of an epidemiological study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 40 individuals with self-reported diabetes and 60 controls (male, over 54 years were randomly selected from the participants of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg study, representing an extensively phenotyped sample of the general German population. Concentrations of over 420 unique small molecules were determined in overnight-fasting blood using three different techniques, covering nuclear magnetic resonance and tandem mass spectrometry. Known biomarkers of diabetes could be replicated by this multiple metabolomic platform approach, including sugar metabolites (1,5-anhydroglucoitol, ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate, and branched chain amino acids. In some cases, diabetes-related medication can be detected (pioglitazone, salicylic acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study depicts the promising potential of metabolomics in diabetes research by identification of a series of known and also novel, deregulated metabolites that associate with diabetes. Key observations include perturbations of metabolic pathways linked to kidney dysfunction (3-indoxyl sulfate, lipid metabolism (glycerophospholipids, free fatty acids, and interaction with the gut microflora (bile acids. Our study suggests that metabolic markers hold the potential to detect diabetes-related complications already under sub-clinical conditions in the general population.

  4. Anthropometric indices are not satisfactory predictors of metabolic comorbidities in obese children and adolescents.

    Morandi, Anita; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Martino, Francesco; Martino, Eliana; Bozzola, Mauro; Maffeis, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    To assess the accuracy of body mass index (BMI), Z score of the BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio in selecting obese children with fasting metabolic impairments or impaired glucose tolerance. In a cohort of 883 obese children and adolescents (age 8-18 years), we assessed the associations of anthropometric indices with traditional metabolic complications of obesity (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol). The accuracy of anthropometric indices as markers of metabolic impairment was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis and the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROCs) of anthropometric indices were compared with each other by the DeLong test. BMI, Z score of the BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with metabolic impairments but showed low to moderate accuracy in discriminating both single and clustered metabolic impairments. The AUROCs ranged from 0.55-0.70. The 4 anthropometric indices did not show significantly different AUROCs as predictors of clustered metabolic risk factors (all P values of DeLong tests: >.05). Commonly used anthropometric indices are not satisfactory markers of metabolic comorbidity among obese children and adolescents and should not be adopted as screening tools for the metabolic assessment of this category of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Value of first trimester epidemiologic and sonographic markers as chromosome-diseases risk indicators

    Llanusa Ruiz, Celia; Nodarse Rodriguez, Alfredo; Vazquez, Yovany Enrique; Carrillo Bermudez, Lourdes; Sanchez Lombana, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal screening of chromosomal anomalies using epidemiological and sonographic markers during the first trimester, allow identifying pregnant with high risk of chromosome disease; we offer the cytogenetics prenatal diagnosis as option

  6. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and metabolic syndrome: An epidemiologic study among Iranian women.

    Shirani, Fatemeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies linking carbohydrate consumption and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) are limited. The association between low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate low-carbohydrate-diet score in relation to MetS among a group of Iranian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 442 Iranian female teachers >20 y of age. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated, dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/International Diabetes Federation definition guidelines. The prevalence of MetS in the lowest and highest quintile of low-carbohydrate-diet score was 17.5% and 18.8%, respectively (P = 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between extreme quartiles low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.28). After controlling for age, energy intake, and other potential confounders, low-carbohydrate-diet score was not significantly associated with MetS. A significant association was observed between this score and abnormal fasting plasma glucose. We failed to find a significant relationship between this score and other components of MetS. Diets with lower amounts of carbohydrate and higher contents of fat and protein were not significantly associated with the risk for MetS in a cross-sectional study with a group of Iranian women. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  8. Total body fat as a possible indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults

    Edgar Navarro Lechuga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a set of factors related to insulin resistance, which increases the likelihood of coronary events. It is important timely onset identifying to reduce its prevalence. Objective: To explore the percentage of total body fat as indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults from Soledad, Colombia. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. n=99 adults (non-pregnant, nor subjects with psychomotor disturbances. Blood samples were taken: total cholesterol, HDL; triglycerides and glucose. Waist circumference, Body Mass Index and body fat by bioimpedance and skinfold thickness were measured. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to NHLBI/AHA, ATP III and IDF criteria. Subjects with and without metabolic syndrome according to total body fat averages were compared. Results: The average percentage of body fat was higher (p0.05 in the classification according to ATP III in women, where the average fat percentage was 39.31 % in those with metabolic syndrome and 37.7% in those not suffering. Conclusions: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher mean total body fat, significantly, compared with those who did not, so it could be considered the values of total body fat obtained by bioimpedance as future indicators of metabolic syndrome, both as screening and control.

  9. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Background Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. Animals A prospective study h...

  10. Comparing the Ability of Anthropometric Indicators in Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in HIV Patients.

    Rebeca Antunes Beraldo

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART.It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied. It measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HP, thigh circumference (TC and calculated body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist to hip ratio (WHR and waist to thigh ratio (WTR. There was also a performance of biochemical tests of lipid profile and fasting glucose. Systemic blood pressure was measured. The criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program III (NCEP-ATP III to metabolic syndrome classification was used. Individuals were divided in groups with or without metabolic alterations and their anthropometric indicators were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were designed for each anthropometric indicator using the metabolic syndrome classification to identify sensitivity and specificity.WC was a good tool to identify each metabolic disorder separately: total cholesterol (only females, p<0.05, triglycerides (only males, p<0.001, HDL cholesterol (p<0.05, LDL cholesterol (p<005 and fasting glycemic (p<005. WC also showed the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome in both genders (areas under the curve (AUCs: 0.79 and 0.76 for male and female, respectively, while BAI proved to be an inadequate indicator (AUCs: 0.63 and 0.67 for males and females, respectively, in this population.The central adiposity measure (WC had the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome, and it is a convenient, cheap and reliable tool that can be used in clinical practice routinely to prevent

  11. Epidemiological and financial indicators of hypertension in older adults in Mexico: challenges for health planning and management in Latin America.

    Arredondo, Armando; Duarte, Maria Beatriz; Cuadra, Silvia Magali

    2017-04-01

    This study estimated the epidemiological and financial indicators of hypertension in order to identify challenges in strategic planning and management for health systems in Latin America. This is a longitudinal study with a population base of 187 326 reported cases of older adults with hypertension, diagnosed at public health institutions in Mexico. The cost-evaluation method that was used was based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2015-2017, time series analyses and probabilistic models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique. Regarding epidemiological changes for 2015 versus 2017, an increase of 8-12% is expected (p financial requirements. The total amount estimated for hypertension in 2015 (in US dollars) was $1 575 671 330. It included $747 527 259 as direct costs and $829 144 071 as indirect costs. If the risk factors and the different healthcare services for older adults remain as they are currently, the financial consequences of epidemiological changes in older adults will have a major impact on the users' pockets, following in order of importance, on social security providers and on public assistance providers. The challenges and implications of our findings in the context of universal coverage reforms in Latin America reinforce the urgent need to develop more and better strategic planning for the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Factor Structure of Indices of the Second Derivative of the Finger Photoplethysmogram with Metabolic Components and Other Cardiovascular Risk Indicators

    Tomoyuki Kawada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The present study was conducted to clarify the factor structure of indices of the SDPTG in combination with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, to elucidate the significance of the SDPTG among various cardiovascular risk factors.MethodsThe SDPTG was determined in the second forefinger of the left hand in 1,055 male workers (mean age, 44.2±6.4 years. Among 4 waves of SDPTG components, the ratios of the height of the "a" wave to that of the "b" and "d" waves were expressed as b/a and d/a, and used as SDPTG indices for the analysis.ResultsPrincipal axis factoring analysis was conducted using age, SDPTG indices, components of MetS, and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and uric acid. Three factors were extracted, and the SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age as the third factor. Metabolic components and the SDPTG indices were independently categorized. These three factors explained 44.4% of the total variation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age, d/a, serum uric acid, serum CRP, and regular exercise as independent determinants of the risk of MetS. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11, 0.10 (0.01 to 0.73, 1.24 (1.06 to 1.44, 3.59 (2.37 to 5.42, and 0.48 (0.28 to 0.82, respectively.ConclusionThe SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age, and they differed in characteristics from components of MetS or inflammatory markers. In addition, this cross-sectional study also revealed decrease of the d/a as a risk factor for the development of MetS.

  13. Epidemiologic behavior of obesity in the Maracaibo City metabolic syndrome prevalence study.

    Valmore Bermúdez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Since the epidemiological behaviour of this disease is not well established in our country, the purpose of this study was to determinate its prevalence in the Maracaibo City, Zulia State- Venezuela. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using the data set from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study. The sample consists of 2108 individuals from both genders and randomly selected: 1119 (53.09% women and 989 (46.91% men. The participants were interrogated for a complete clinical history and anthropometric measurements. To classify obesity, the WHO criteria for Body Mass Index (BMI, and Waist Circumference (WC from the IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO-2009 (IDF-2009 and ATPIII statements were applied. RESULTS: For BMI, obesity had an overall prevalence of 33.3% (n = 701, and according to gender women had 32.4% (n = 363 and men had 34.2% (n = 338. Overweight had a prevalence of 34.8% (n = 733, Normal weight had 29.8% (n = 629, and Underweight had 2.1% (n = 45. Adding Obesity and Overweight results, the prevalence of elevated BMI (>25 Kg/m(2 was 68.1%. Using the IDF-2009 WC's cut-off, Obesity had 74.2% prevalence, compared to 51.7% using the ATPIII parameters. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a high prevalence of abdominal obesity in our locality defined by the WHO, IDF-2009 and ATPIII criteria, which were not designed for Latin-American populations. We suggest further investigation to estimate the proper values according to ethnicity, genetic background and sociocultural aspects.

  14. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome.

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the influence of diabetic retinopathy progression factors on indices of lipid metabolism in metabolic syndrome

    L.Yu. Pуlуpenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The search and study of new risk factors for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DRP and their modifying influence on the components of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM remain relevant. The purpose was to conduct a comparative evaluation of the impact of certain DRP development factors on indices of lipid metabolism in metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. The research was carried out in 64 patients (95 eyes with T2DM, metabolic syndrome and DRP (males and females, average age 61.55 ± 2.37 years, average duration of diabetes 11.23 ± 2.11 years, average level of HbA1c 9.89 ± 0.78 %, average body mass index 34.55 ± 3.75 kg/m2, who were divided into 3 groups depending on the stage of DRP. Results. Results had showed that the following factors have modifying influence on the level of total cholesterol in the blood of patients with T2DM and DRP: age of patients (under 60 years, duration of diabetes (less than 10 years, decompensation of carbohydrates metabolism — for the 3rd stage of DRP, features of therapy for T2DM (oral hypoglycemic drugs — for the 2nd stage of DRP; on the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: younger age of patients, decompensation of diabetes — for the 3rd stage of DRP, features of hypoglycemic therapy (insulin therapy, shorter duration of diabetes — for the 2nd stage of DRP; on the level of triglycerides: age of patients (under 60 years, duration of diabetes (less than 10 years and insulin therapy — for the 1st and 3rd stages of DRP. Conclusions. It is concluded that features of hypoglycemic therapy can be a new modifying factor for the risk of DRP progression.

  16. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  17. Epidemiology of metabolic health : Lifestyle determinants and health-related quality of life

    Slagter, Sandra Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity often leads to the development of a disturbed glucose metabolism, increased blood pressure and a disturbed fat profile (too low values of the "good" HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides values). The combination of these metabolic complications, is called the metabolic

  18. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Ageing Indices in Relation to Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Suvarna H I, Shruthi; Moodithaya, Shailaja; Sharma, Raghava

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is a natural phenomenon that has tremendous amount of control over normal physiological functions. Diabetes mellitus and ageing share common symptoms like stiffness and loss of functioning of tissues due to cross-liked proteins and free radicals. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) is often used as a stable cumulative index of glycemic control and has shown that even in non-diabetic adults, there is a steady increase in HbA1c levels with age. Aim of the study is to evaluate the strength of association of HbA1c with metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices in subjects between the age group of 40 to 60 yrs. A total of 220 subjects, with (n=110) and without (n=110) diabetes were assessed for the metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices. BMI, waist hip ratio, fat percentage, Fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were assessed as metabolic ageing indices. The cardiovascular ageing indices measured were resting heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability. Ageing indices were compared between subjects with and without diabetes using independent' t' test and showed that the T2DM group exhibit significant accelerated ageing as compared to that of the controls. Pearson's and partial correlation coefficient was used to assess the association of HbA1c with the ageing indices without and with controlling for chronological age, indicated that, strength of association of levels of HBA1c with cardiovascular and other metabolic indices of ageing is statistically significant. The study concludes that the tightness of glycemic control has a significant impact on the biological ageing process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  20. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    Hugues Guyot

    Full Text Available Downer cow syndrome (DCS is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma.The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows.A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows.Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium, thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS was assessed.Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation.Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  1. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G; Satola, Sarah W; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-09-01

    Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We identified 45

  2. Dental health behaviors and periodontal disease indicators in Danish youths. A 10-year epidemiological follow-up

    Lissau, I; Holst, D; Friis-Hasché, E

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the epidemiologic relationship between dental health behaviors and periodontal disease. Indicators of periodontal disease in terms of bleeding and calculus were measured dichotomously (absence/presence). Periodontal pockets were as follows: normal......, the calculus index and the pocket index. The participation rate in 1984-85 was 86%, and the study population involved 368 males and 388 females. Information concerning dental health behavior was obtained both in childhood (1974) when the individuals were 9-10 years of age, and in adulthood (1984-85) when...... pockets (0-3 mm), shallow pockets (4-5 mm), and deep pockets (6+ mm). The indicators were measured on 4 surfaces on 6 index teeth (16, 11, 26, 36, 31, 46) in 1984-85. The highest value for each tooth of bleeding (0/1), calculus (0/1) and pockets (0/1/2) was used for calculation of the bleeding index...

  3. [Changes of iron metabolism indices in children with various genotypes of thalassema].

    Huang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Shao-Guo; Ou, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Li

    2010-02-01

    To study the value of iron metabolism indices, serum iron (SI), total iron blinding capacity (TIBC) and transferring (Tf), in thalassema. The serum samples from 9 children with silent alpha thalassema, 56 with standard alpha thalassema, 26 with HbH disease, 40 with beta+ thalassema, 56 with beta0 thalassema, 45 with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 70 healthy children were detected for SI, TIBC and Tf levels. The SI level increased (pcellule anaemia.

  4. Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows' Ability to Adapt is Overstressed.

    Sundrum, Albert

    2015-10-09

    Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. They mainly derive from difficulties the animals have in adapting to changes and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organisms and due to varying gaps between nutrient supply and demand. Adaptation is a functional and target-oriented process involving the whole organism and thus cannot be narrowed down to single factors. Most problems which challenge the organisms can be solved in a number of different ways. To understand the mechanisms of adaptation, the interconnectedness of variables and the nutrient flow within a metabolic network need to be considered. Metabolic disorders indicate an overstressed ability to balance input, partitioning and output variables. Dairy cows will more easily succeed in adapting and in avoiding dysfunctional processes in the transition period when the gap between nutrient and energy demands and their supply is restricted. Dairy farms vary widely in relation to the living conditions of the animals. The complexity of nutritional and metabolic processes Animals 2015, 5 979 and their large variations on various scales contradict any attempts to predict the outcome of animals' adaptation in a farm specific situation. Any attempts to reduce the prevalence of metabolic disorders and associated production diseases should rely on continuous and comprehensive monitoring with appropriate indicators on the farm level. Furthermore, low levels of disorders and diseases should be seen as a further significant goal which carries weight in addition to productivity goals. In the long run, low disease levels can only be expected when farmers realize that they can gain a competitive advantage over competitors with higher levels of disease.

  5. Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows’ Ability to Adapt is Overstressed

    Albert Sundrum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. They mainly derive from difficulties the animals have in adapting to changes and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organisms and due to varying gaps between nutrient supply and demand. Adaptation is a functional and target-oriented process involving the whole organism and thus cannot be narrowed down to single factors. Most problems which challenge the organisms can be solved in a number of different ways. To understand the mechanisms of adaptation, the interconnectedness of variables and the nutrient flow within a metabolic network need to be considered. Metabolic disorders indicate an overstressed ability to balance input, partitioning and output variables. Dairy cows will more easily succeed in adapting and in avoiding dysfunctional processes in the transition period when the gap between nutrient and energy demands and their supply is restricted. Dairy farms vary widely in relation to the living conditions of the animals. The complexity of nutritional and metabolic processes Animals 2015, 5 979 and their large variations on various scales contradict any attempts to predict the outcome of animals’ adaptation in a farm specific situation. Any attempts to reduce the prevalence of metabolic disorders and associated production diseases should rely on continuous and comprehensive monitoring with appropriate indicators on the farm level. Furthermore, low levels of disorders and diseases should be seen as a further significant goal which carries weight in addition to productivity goals. In the long run, low disease levels can only be expected when farmers realize that they can gain a competitive advantage over competitors with higher levels of disease.

  6. Cluster Detection Tests in Spatial Epidemiology: A Global Indicator for Performance Assessment.

    Aline Guttmann

    Full Text Available In cluster detection of disease, the use of local cluster detection tests (CDTs is current. These methods aim both at locating likely clusters and testing for their statistical significance. New or improved CDTs are regularly proposed to epidemiologists and must be subjected to performance assessment. Because location accuracy has to be considered, performance assessment goes beyond the raw estimation of type I or II errors. As no consensus exists for performance evaluations, heterogeneous methods are used, and therefore studies are rarely comparable. A global indicator of performance, which assesses both spatial accuracy and usual power, would facilitate the exploration of CDTs behaviour and help between-studies comparisons. The Tanimoto coefficient (TC is a well-known measure of similarity that can assess location accuracy but only for one detected cluster. In a simulation study, performance is measured for many tests. From the TC, we here propose two statistics, the averaged TC and the cumulated TC, as indicators able to provide a global overview of CDTs performance for both usual power and location accuracy. We evidence the properties of these two indicators and the superiority of the cumulated TC to assess performance. We tested these indicators to conduct a systematic spatial assessment displayed through performance maps.

  7. Cluster Detection Tests in Spatial Epidemiology: A Global Indicator for Performance Assessment

    Guttmann, Aline; Li, Xinran; Feschet, Fabien; Gaudart, Jean; Demongeot, Jacques; Boire, Jean-Yves; Ouchchane, Lemlih

    2015-01-01

    In cluster detection of disease, the use of local cluster detection tests (CDTs) is current. These methods aim both at locating likely clusters and testing for their statistical significance. New or improved CDTs are regularly proposed to epidemiologists and must be subjected to performance assessment. Because location accuracy has to be considered, performance assessment goes beyond the raw estimation of type I or II errors. As no consensus exists for performance evaluations, heterogeneous methods are used, and therefore studies are rarely comparable. A global indicator of performance, which assesses both spatial accuracy and usual power, would facilitate the exploration of CDTs behaviour and help between-studies comparisons. The Tanimoto coefficient (TC) is a well-known measure of similarity that can assess location accuracy but only for one detected cluster. In a simulation study, performance is measured for many tests. From the TC, we here propose two statistics, the averaged TC and the cumulated TC, as indicators able to provide a global overview of CDTs performance for both usual power and location accuracy. We evidence the properties of these two indicators and the superiority of the cumulated TC to assess performance. We tested these indicators to conduct a systematic spatial assessment displayed through performance maps. PMID:26086911

  8. Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows’ Ability to Adapt is Overstressed

    Sundrum, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. Problems derive from difficulties animals have to adapt to large variations and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organism. A lack of success in solving these issues may be due to predominant approaches in farm management and agricultural science, dealing with such disorders as merely negative side effects. Instead, a successful adaptation of animals to their living conditions should be seen as an important end in itself. Both farm management and agricultural sciences should support animals in their ability to cope with nutritional and metabolic challenges by employing a functional and result-driven approach. Abstract Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. They mainly derive from difficulties the animals have in adapting to changes and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organisms and due to varying gaps between nutrient supply and demand. Adaptation is a functional and target-oriented process involving the whole organism and thus cannot be narrowed down to single factors. Most problems which challenge the organisms can be solved in a number of different ways. To understand the mechanisms of adaptation, the interconnectedness of variables and the nutrient flow within a metabolic network need to be considered. Metabolic disorders indicate an overstressed ability to balance input, partitioning and output variables. Dairy cows will more easily succeed in adapting and in avoiding dysfunctional processes in the transition period when the gap between nutrient and energy demands and their supply is restricted. Dairy farms vary widely in relation to the living conditions of the animals. The complexity of nutritional and metabolic processes and their large variations on various scales

  9. Environmental indicators for epidemiological studies on populations at risk after the Chernobyl accident

    Gheorghe, R.; Tulbure, R.; Barbu, R.; Dumitrescu, A.; Toro, L.; Gheorghe, D.; Ciupagea, F.; Galeriu, D.

    2006-01-01

    The dose is the basic information asked by the physician in the context of a dose effect analysis. Several studies ( in countries of former Soviet Union) on population health revealed an increase in the incidence of some diseases specific to radioactivity ( childhood thyroid cancer), which could be explained by the actual dose estimates. The present paper will focus on the assessment of the effect of 131 iodine contamination in Romania. In conclusion, deposition densities could be proportionally associated with the dose in dry deposition may be considered an adequate environmental indicator. The deposition-dose relationship in an area with a variable rainfall can only be inferred through a radioecological transfer model; such model should be able to translate the particularities of the deposition-dose relationship, and to take into account the dependence of foliar interception and retention on rainfall intensities. Even with these issues of deposition-dose relationship, the assessment of preliminary dose values from deposition patterns is financially quite effortless. Moreover, preliminary doses assessed from regional deposition patterns are very useful for detecting the possible health effects. Thus, the density of deposition should be a good environmental indicator. At the same time, we believe that in the monitoring programmes of the environmental factors much more attention should be given to the wet fraction of the deposition. (N.C.)

  10. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

    Qing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  11. Work-family spillover and metabolic syndrome indicators: Findings from a national sample.

    Versey, H Shellae; Tan, Mingxuan

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the link between negative work-family spillover and metabolic risk factors over a 9-year period. Data from two waves of the Midlife in the United States Survey were used to explore relationships between negative work-family spillover and four indicators of metabolic syndrome-blood pressure, triglycerides, body mass index, and glucose levels. In a sample of full-time working men and women ( N = 630), increased negative spillover at baseline significantly predicted higher body mass index nearly a decade later, with a marginally significant effect for triglyceride levels. Increases in spillover also body mass index and glucose levels at follow-up. This study extends research tying work-life spillover to health and suggests that further investigation is needed to fully understand the long-term effects of work stress.

  12. Anthropometric and metabolic indices in assessment of type and severity of dyslipidemia.

    Zaid, Muhammad; Ameer, Fatima; Munir, Rimsha; Rashid, Rida; Farooq, Nimrah; Hasnain, Shahida; Zaidi, Nousheen

    2017-02-28

    It has been shown that obesity is associated with increased rates of dyslipidemia. The present work revisits the association between plasma lipid levels and classical indicators of obesity including body mass index (BMI). The significance of various anthropometric/metabolic variables in clinical assessment of type and severity of dyslipidemia was also determined. Recently described body indices, a body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI), were also assessed in this context. For the present cross-sectional analytical study, the participants (n = 275) were recruited from the patients visiting different health camps. Participants were anthropometrically measured and interviewed, and their fasting intravenous blood was collected. Plasma lipid levels were accordingly determined. The values for different anthropometric parameters are significantly different between dyslipidemic and non-dyslipidemic participants. Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses revealed that all the tested variables gave the highest area under the curve (AUC) values for predicting hypertriglyceridemia in comparison to other plasma lipid abnormalities. BRI gave slightly higher AUC values in predicting different forms of dyslipidemia in comparison to BMI, whereas ABSI gave very low values. Several anthropometric/metabolic indices display increased predictive capabilities for detecting hypertriglyceridemia in comparison to any other form of plasma lipid disorders. The capacity of BRI to predict dyslipidemia was comparable but not superior to the classical indicators of obesity, whereas ABSI could not detect dyslipidemia.

  13. [The epidemiological relationship of periodontitis, intestinal dysbiosis, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome].

    Petrukhina, N B; Zorina, O A; Rabinovich, I M; Shilov, A M

    2015-01-01

    The study of risk factors for cardio-vascular continuum (CVC), the influence of the digestive tract endobiosis on lipid-carbohydrate metabolism and clinical status, a retrospective analysis of 1000 medical records of patients, suffering from various diseases of internal organs (Gastrointestinal tract, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity) in combination with periodontitis of varying severity, aged 20 to 55 years. A statistically significant relationship is directly proportional to the severity of inflammation of periodontal tissues with body mass index (BMI), especially pronounced in patients with a BMI ≥225 kg/m2 which is the "calling card" of the metabolic syndrome - clinical model polymorbidity.

  14. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs.

    Seymour, Roger S; Smith, Sarah L; White, Craig R; Henderson, Donald M; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2012-02-07

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat.

  15. Three novel obese indicators perform better in monitoring management of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes.

    Ma, Chun-Ming; Lu, Na; Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Li; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Fu-Zai

    2017-08-29

    The present study evaluated the performance of three novel obese indicators, visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP) and waist circumference-triglyceride index (WTI), for identifying metabolic syndrome(MetS) in type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 711 type 2 diabetes in Qinhuangdao. The MetS was defined as the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to assess the accuracy of three obese indicators as diagnostic tests for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 71.3%. In men, among all three obese indicators, the LAP had the highest area under curve (AUC) value (AUC = 0.894), followed by VAI (AUC = 0.860) and WTI (AUC = 0.855). In women, among all three obese indicators, the LAP had the highest AUC value (AUC = 0.906), followed by WTI (AUC = 0.887) and VAI (AUC = 0.881). However. there was no significant difference between the three obese indicators(P > 0.05). Three obese indicators were effective indicators for the screening of MetS, LAP and WTI are more simple.

  16. Association between the abdominal obesity anthropometric indicators and metabolic disorders in a Chinese population.

    Dong, J; Ni, Y-Q; Chu, X; Liu, Y-Q; Liu, G-X; Zhao, J; Yang, Y-B; Yan, Y-X

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has become a major health problem in contemporary society and it is closely related to many chronic diseases, so it is an important issue for measuring adiposity accurately and predicting its future. Prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity has become one of the key prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. In this study, we compared the ability of the four anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist circumstance, waist-height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio) to identify metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses and to provide evidence for clinical practice. In this large scale cross-sectional study, 13,275 Han adults (including 7595 males and 5680 females) received physical examination between January, 2009 and January, 2010 in Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University were investigated by the means of questionnaire, Meanwhile, the physical examination and serological results were recorded. A package known as Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) was employed to analyse the responses while t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), ROC analysis and chi-square statistical methods were used to test the hypotheses. WC, WHtR, WHR and BMI were all significantly (P risk factors regardless of gender. And the area under the curve (AUC) of WHtR was significantly greater than that of WC, BMI or WHR in the prediction of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia. Our data show that WHtR was the best predictor of various metabolic disorders. The diagnostic value in descending order was WHtR > WHR > WC > BMI. Therefore we recommend WHtR in assessment of obese patients, in order to better assess the risks of their metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Waist-to-height ratio is an indicator of metabolic risk in children].

    Valle-Leal, Jaime; Abundis-Castro, Leticia; Hernández-Escareño, Juan; Flores-Rubio, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal fat, particularly visceral, is associated with a high risk of metabolic complications. The waist-height ratio (WHtR) is used to assess abdominal fat in individuals of all ages. To determine the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to detect metabolic risk in mexican schoolchildren. A study was conducted on children between 6 and 12 years. Obesity was diagnosed as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, and an ICE ≥0.5 was considered abdominal obesity. Blood levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative value, area under curve, the positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the WHtR and BMI were calculated in order to identify metabolic alterations. WHtR and BMI were compared to determine which had the best diagnostic efficiency. Of the 223 children included in the study, 51 had hypertriglyceridaemia, 27 with hypercholesterolaemia, and 9 with hyperglycaemia. On comparing the diagnostic efficiency of WHtR with that of BMI, there was a sensitivity of 100% vs. 56% for hyperglycaemia, 93 vs. 70% for cholesterol, and 76 vs. 59% for hypertriglyceridaemia. The specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and area under curve were also higher for WHtR. The WHtR is a more efficient indicator than BMI in identifying metabolic risk in mexican school-age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Utility of obesity indices in screening Chinese postmenopausal women for metabolic syndrome.

    Liu, Pengju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Huiping; Zhu, Yanning

    2014-05-01

    Although a variety of indices have been used to assess obesity, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the best indicator of the effects of fat accumulation on Chinese postmenopausal women is still uncertain. Thus, the objectives of this study were to analyze the potential of different obesity indices and to explore which index is best for predicting MetS in Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of 1,234 Chinese postmenopausal women (aged 42-79 y) who participated in the annual health checkup was performed. The obesity indices of all participants, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), percent body fat (PBF), and fat mass index (FMI), were measured or calculated. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to assess MetS risk factors. Spearman and partial correlations were used to assess correlations between obesity indices and MetS components. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff values of all indicators of MetS development. The values of BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, PBF, and FMI that resulted in the maximization of the Youden index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) were defined as optimal. Among the participants, 38.8% (n = 479) were identified as having two or more nonadipose MetS risk components (excluding a positive WC component). These women had higher obesity indices than women with fewer metabolic risk factors. All indices were significantly associated with all MetS components even after controlling for age and C-reactive protein. A BMI of 24.0 kg/m, a WHR of 0.85, a WC of 79.9 cm, a WHtR of 0.49, a PBF of 29.9%, and an FMI of 7.2 kg/m were the optimal cutoff values for predicting at least two other MetS components according to ROC curve analysis. However, among the indicators of

  19. Correlative link ages between indices of bone metabolism and thyroid hormones in rats with periodontitis

    Vitaliy Shcherba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been established that changes in the bone tissue of the jaw are present in all cases where there are at least small pathological inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. This suggests a significantly greater pathogenetic relationship between inflammatory changes in the mucosa and changes in the bone part of the periodontal disease. Despite a large number of studies, the molecular mechanisms of the influence of thyroid hormones on the bone metabolism have not been completely studied.  The aim of study: to clarify mechanisms of the periodontitis development in rats with thyroid dysfunction based on a comparative analysis of the correlations between the bone metabolism indices and the concentration of  thyroid stimulating hormone,  free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine. Material and methods: Experimental studies were conducted on male, nonliner, white rats of around 4 months of age.  The experimental animals were divided into the following groups: І – control animals;  ІІ – animals with periodontitis; ІІІ – animals with periodontitis combined with hyperthyroidism; IV – animals with periodontitis combined with hypothyroidism. Total calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin concentration and  activity of phosphatases were measured. Correlation analysis was performed between all the studied indices. Coefficient of linear correlation (r and its fidelity (p was calculated that was accordingly denoted in the tables (correlation matrices. The correlation coefficient was significant at p<0.05. Results: The conducted correlative analysis shows that there are different interconnections between the indices of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and bone resorption with free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone, in case of the experimental periodontitis combined with thyroid dysfunction. In animals with modelled periodontitis combined with

  20. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Review and Recommendations for Zero-inflated Count Regression Modeling of Dental Caries Indices in Epidemiological Studies

    Stamm, John W.; Long, D. Leann; Kincade, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five to ten years, zero-inflated count regression models have been increasingly applied to the analysis of dental caries indices (e.g., DMFT, dfms, etc). The main reason for that is linked to the broad decline in children’s caries experience, such that dmf and DMF indices more frequently generate low or even zero counts. This article specifically reviews the application of zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to dental caries, with emphasis on the description of the models and the interpretation of fitted model results given the study goals. The review finds that interpretations provided in the published caries research are often imprecise or inadvertently misleading, particularly with respect to failing to discriminate between inference for the class of susceptible persons defined by such models and inference for the sampled population in terms of overall exposure effects. Recommendations are provided to enhance the use as well as the interpretation and reporting of results of count regression models when applied to epidemiological studies of dental caries. PMID:22710271

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors: Is the metabolic syndrome related to aging? Epidemiology in a Portuguese population.

    Ribeiro, Armindo Sousa; Seixas, Rui; Gálvez, Juan Manuel; Climent, Vicente

    2018-05-16

    The primary objective of our study is to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the population. The secondary objective is to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric alterations and the prevalence of target organ damage and their relationship with aging. The sample for the study was obtained by means of a consecutive population-based demonstration in 803 adults over 18 years of age belonging to the labor force of the company Grupo Delta SA. The study was carried out according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. The individuals included in the study voluntarily participated, once informed of the purpose of the study, giving their prior verbal consent, to the company's human resources department, in the case of Delta Group workers. 23.8% of the population has metabolic syndrome more prevalent in males, no smoking, no significant alcohol consumption, sedentary, with a high Body mass index (BMI). Its prevalence increases with age. We found that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with age and is present in people of working age, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, work-related absences, and socio-economic costs. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coping and metabolic syndrome indicators in urban black South African men: the SABPA study.

    du Plessis, A; Malan, L; Malan, N T

    2010-01-01

    Urbanisation is associated with obesity, hypertension and development of the metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to assess the use of different coping styles and their influence on increases in MS indicators and target end-organ damage (TOD) in urban black African men. A sample of 53 men was classified as clear high active (AC, n = 30) or passive coping (PC, n = 23) responders, using the Amirkhan African validated coping style indicator. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded with an aneroid sphygmomanometer and waist circumference (WC) was determined. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and microalbuminuria were analysed to determine TOD. Fasting serum and eight-hour urine samples revealed elevated MS indicators in AC men. Strong associations existed between MS indicators and TOD in AC but not PC men. To conclude, only BP and seeking social support were positively associated with TOD in urban PC African men, while in urban AC African men, most MS indicators were positively associated with TOD, i.e. sub-clinical atherosclerosis and renal impairment.

  4. Relationship between indices of iron status and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian population

    Niloofar Tavakoli-Hoseini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron overload may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MS. A growing body of evidence indicates that the oxidative stress that results from excess tissue iron can leads to insulin resistance, tissue damage, and other complications observed in MS. The objective of this study was to investigate indices of iron status including serum ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels, and full blood cell count, together with demographic and anthropometric characteristics, lipid profile components, and other biochemical parameters in subjects with and with-out MS. Methods: A total of, 385 individuals (176 with and 209 subjects without MS according to the International Diabetes Federation’s (IDF criteria were recruited. Indices of iron status and other clinical and biochemical parameters were determined in MS patients and healthy controls using standard methods. Results: Higher serum iron and ferritin values were observed in subjects with MS in compared to healthy controls (P 0.050. Among the other indices, only red blood cell (RBC was associated considerably with the presence of MS (P < 0.050. Conclusion: Our data indicate that even in a country with a comparatively high prevalence of iron deficiency, serum iron and ferritin values in MS patients are higher than healthy controls. The reason why ferritin and iron are higher in MS patient may be related to dietary factors.

  5. Shell carbon isotope indicators of metabolic activity in the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus childressi

    Riekenberg, P. M.; Carney, R. S.; Fry, B.

    2018-04-01

    The incorporation of metabolic carbon (Cm) into shells of mollusks has been used as an indicator of animal condition and availability of food resources in estuarine and freshwater settings. This study examines Cm in Bathymodiolus childressi, a marine cold seep mussel dependent on methanotrophic symbionts. As seeps develop, mature, and go quiescent, methane supply will vary and affect the amount of metabolic carbon deposited into the growing shell. B. childressi (n = 136) were live-collected from two seep sites over a 17 year period in the Northern Gulf of Mexico to investigate whether changes in Cm were detectable between sites and across years. Significant differences in Cm were observed between mussel populations at Brine Pool (15.4 ± 0.4%) and Bush Hill (10.3 ± 0.3%). Cm also changed significantly within each site across year (Bush Hill 1991: 12.2 ± 0.5%, 1992: 17.3 ± 0.8%) and decadal time scales (Brine Pool 1989: 15.5 ± 0.7%, 2006: 19.5 ± 0.7%). These findings agree with previous studies that found mussel condition was higher at Brine Pool and correlate well with a trophic mixing model that indicated significantly higher methane source utilization at the Brine Pool (65 ± 1.1%) than at Bush Hill (49 ± 1.6%). Further development of this method should allow for assessment of Cm in shell assemblages as an indicator of historical resource availability at both active and former cold seep sites.

  6. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Met...

  7. Effects of aerobic and strength-based training on metabolic health indicators in older adults

    Cumming Sean P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weakening of the cardiovascular system associated with aging could be countered by increasing levels of physical activity and functional fitness. However, inconsistent findings have been found, and the variety of characteristics of exercise used in previous studies may partly explain that inconsistent results. Objective To investigate the training effect of sixteen weeks of moderate intensity, progressive aerobic and strength-based training on metabolic health of older women and men. Methods Sixty three sedentary individuals (mean (SD age 76 (8 years were randomly assigned to control (n = 31 or exercising (n = 32 groups. The training group was separated to aerobic (n = 18 or strength-based (n = 14. Training took place three times a week. Subjects agreed not to change their diet or lifestyle over the experimental period. Results Exercising group attained after treatment significant differences on body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol relationship, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and 6-minute walk distance. The control group only had significant differences on waist circumference. Conclusion The training programs produced significant benefits on metabolic health indicators of sedentary older women and men.

  8. Relation of muscle indices with metabolic parameters and C-peptide in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Tuzun, S.; Oner, C.; Dabak, M.R.; Kasikci, H.O.; Sargin, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between bioimpedance measurements and metabolic parameters and C-peptide in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Kartal Dr Lutfi Kirdar Training and Research Hospital, Pendik Kaynarca Diabetes Center, Exercise and Metabolism Unit, between January and March 2015. Methodology: Patients with DM, aged less than 65 years, were assessed for bioimpedance analysis, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide levels, triglyceride levels, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Skeletal muscle index, total muscle index, skeletal muscle percentage, and total muscle percentage were used for muscle-related analyses. Mann-Whitney U-test or independent t-test were used to compare differences between two independent groups. Pearson correlation test or Spearman correlation test were used to find out correlation between variables. Results: A total of 359 DM patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 51.6+-8.0 years, and 278 (77.7%) of the participants were females. After adjusting age and gender variables, there was no relation between muscle-related measurements and FPG, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol (p>0.05). However, there was muscle-related indexes (MRI) positively correlation with C-peptide and inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). Conclusion: Muscle-related indices positively correlated with C-peptide, which showed endogenous insulin reserve. (author)

  9. Influence of creatine supplementation on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats

    Michel Barbosa de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation in the diet on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats. Forty Wistar adult rats were distributed into four groups for eight weeks: 1 Control: sedentary rats that received balanced diet; 2 Creatine control: sedentary rats that received supplementation of 2% creatine in the balanced diet; 3 Trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received balanced diet; and 4 Supplemented-trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received creatine supplementation (2% in the balanced diet. The hydric intake increased and the body weight gain decreased in the supplemented-trained group. In the soleus muscle, the glucose oxidation increased in both supplemented groups. The production of lactate and glycemia during glucose tolerance test decreased in the supplemented-trained group. Creatine supplementation in conjunction with exercise training improved muscular glycidic metabolism of rats.

  10. Influence of metabolic indicators, smoking, alcohol and socioeconomic position on mortality after breast cancer

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Kroman, Niels; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors differently distributed among social groups like obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol intake predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis and therefore might mediate part of the observed social inequality in survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted...... a cohort study among 1250 postmenopausal breast cancer patients identified among 29 875 women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Participants completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were made at enrollment. Information on survival, socioeconomic position, and comorbidity...... circumference and diabetes, and smoking and alcohol affected but did not explain the social gradient. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that these factors explain some but not all the social inequality in survival after breast cancer and that improvement of lifestyle to some extent would improve survival among...

  11. Test accuracy of metabolic indicators in predicting decreased fertility in dairy cows

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-01-01

    Negative energy balance is a known risk factor for decreased fertility in dairy cows. This study evaluated the accuracy of plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)—factors related to negative energy balance...... was low when metabolic indicators measured as single values in early lactation were used to predict fertility in dairy cows, but accuracy was influenced by cow-level factors such as parity. The prevalence of the target condition (in this case, decreased fertility) also influences test usefulness......—in predicting decreased fertility. One plasma sample per cow was collected from 480 cows in 12 herds during the period from d 4 to 21 in milk and analyzed for NEFA, BHBA, and IGF-1. For each cow, data on breed, parity, calving date, gynecological examinations, and insemination dates were obtained. Milk samples...

  12. [Indicators of protein metabolism in infants with intrauterine dystrophy red various dietary mixtures].

    Krukowa, A; Symonowicz, H; Wachnik, Z; Koziej, M

    1979-01-01

    In the previous work published in No 7 of "Development Period Medicine" ( Problemy Medycyny Wieku Rozwojowego ) the results of nitrogen balance studies in S-f-D infants fed different milk formulas were described. The present study concerns other protein metabolism indices in the same infants. The infants were divided into four groups according to the formula they were fed. The composition of formulas is shown in table I. In the infants besides the balance study, serum urea nitrogen, protein and albumin level, were estimated once a month. Also urea, creatine and creatinine, and hydroxyproline in 24-hours urine collections were examined. Excretion of creatine, creatinine and hydroxyproline was summarized in 5 boys from the group of 38 investigated infants in the first five months of life when meat-free diet was fed. The above mentioned indices permit for better assessment of the effect of the diet on protein metabolism and the requirement of protein for S-f-D infants. The results of protein metabolism indices were compared with the indices obtained in F.S. infants similarly fed. Group S of S-f-D infants was compared with group A of F.S. infants and the other groups of S-f-D infants were compared with each other. In S-f-D infants fed formula S, a lower level of serum urea nitrogen was observed in comparison with F.S. infants of group A in spite of greater protein intake in S-f-D infants. This should prove a greater protein requirement in S-f-D infants. Decreased protein content and cow's milk fat modification also had profitable influence on protein utilization because serum urea nitrogen and nitrogen in urine were low in S-f-D infants fed this formula. Urine urea nitrogen as a part of total urine nitrogen is bigger in group S and C infants, and the lowest in group G infants (formula with lower fat and total protein content). Serum protein and albumin level was generally higher in S-f-D infants than in FS ones. Particularly high level of these parameters was observed

  13. [Influence of ademol on NO metabolism indices in rats with modeling myocardial infarction].

    Khodakivs'kyĭ, O A; Pavlov, S V; Bukhtiiarova, N V

    2013-01-01

    It was established in experiments on the rats in the acute period of modeling pituitrin-isadrin myocardial infarction the formation of nitrogen monoxide decreases along with its accelerated transformation into peroxynitrite. It was evidenced by more than double inhibition of NO synthase activity in the myocardium and by decreasing the amount of nitrates on the background of the increasing level of peroxynitrites' marker--nitrotyrosine by 246.6% at an average. Experimental therapy of rats by ademol which is a derivate of adamantan (1-adamantiloxy-3-morpholino-2 propanol hydrochloride) better than by corvitin normalizes the processes of synthesis of nitric oxide. At the same time ademol probably exceeded the reference drug in ability to increase NO synthase activity and amount of nitrate, and promoted a decrease of the level of nitrotyrosine in the myocardium on the average by 36.3; 50.6 and 12.7%, respectively. Corrective influence of ademol on indicators of metabolism in NO system under the conditions of acute cardiac ischemia indicates to promicing development of domestic cardioprotector on its base.

  14. Evaluation of empowerment model on indicators of metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, a randomized clinical trial study.

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amanpour, Farzaneh; Vahedi, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education is a major subject in achieving optimal glycemic control. Effective empowerment approach can be beneficial for improving patients' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of empowerment model on indicators of metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. a randomized controlled trial of 103 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either the intervention (empowerment approach training) or the control group (conventional training) 2014. Empowerment approach training were performed for the experimental group for eight weeks. Data collection tool included demographic information form and indicators of metabolic control checklist. Analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance, chi-square test, paired t-test, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. Before the intervention, two groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic variables, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and other indicators of metabolic control. After the intervention, average HbA1C and other metabolic indicators except for LDL showed significant differences in the experimental group compared to the control group. study results indicated the positive effects of applying the empowerment model on the metabolic control indicators. Therefore, applying this model is recommended to nurses and the relevant authorities in order to improve clinical outcomes in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship Between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Using Ultrasonography and Diagnostic Indices of Metabolic Syndrome

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Heo, Kyung Hwa; Won, Yong Lim; Kim, Ki Woong [Center for Occupational Disease Reserach, Occupational Safety and Health Research Insurance, KOSHA, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the association between diagnostic indices of metabolic syndrome(MetS) with carotid intima-media thickness using ultrasonography. The participants in the study were 315 male employees without carotid atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular disease. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical characteristics were done using each specific equipment and the NCEP-ATP III criteria were used to define MetS. They were examined by B-mode ultrasound to measure the carotid intima-media thickness(carotid IMT) at the near and far walls of common carotid and bifurcation(bulb). The mean carotid IMT was 0.739{+-}0.137 mm and it's thickness significantly increased with the increase in age. Also, amounts of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting glucose were significantly increased with the increase in age. Carotid IMT were significantly correlated with BMI(r=0.170, p=0.004), systolic(r=0.148, p=0.011) and diastolic blood pressure(r=0.123, p=0.036) and HDL-cholesterol(r=-0.164, p=0.005). On multiple logistic regression analysis for the diagnostic indices of MetS, carotid IMT were significantly associated with blood pressure(OR=4.220, p<0.01) and MetS(OR=1.301, p<0.05). The results indicate that blood pressure and MetS are important risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis.

  16. Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model

    Scholze Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the epidemiological and economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension in three European countries in 2008 and 2020. Methods An age, sex and risk group structured prevalence based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define metabolic syndrome. Data sources included published information and public use databases on disease prevalence, incidence of cardiovascular events, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, treatment patterns and cost of management in Germany, Spain and Italy. Results The prevalence of hypertension with metabolic syndrome in the general population of Germany, Spain and Italy was 36%, 11% and 10% respectively. In subjects with hypertension 61%, 22% and 21% also had metabolic syndrome. Incident cardiovascular events and attributable mortality were around two fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was around six-fold higher. The economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension was been estimated at €24,427, €1,900 and €4,877 million in Germany, Spain and Italy and forecast to rise by 59%, 179% and 157% respectively by 2020. The largest components of costs included the management of prevalent type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular events. Mean annual costs per hypertensive patient were around three-fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to those without and rose incrementally with the additional number of metabolic syndrome components present. Conclusion The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden and costs are likely to

  17. The Relation between Diverse Phenotypes of PCOS with Clinical Manifestations, Anthropometric Indices and Metabolic Characteristics.

    Shahrami, Seyedeh Hajar; Abbasi Ranjbar, Zahra; Milani, Forozan; Kezem-Nejad, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Dalil Heirat, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Critical issue regarding to variation of findings based on different phenotypes led investigators to define whether they are distinct features or overlapping ones. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between diverse phenotypes of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome) with clinical manifestations, anthropometric indices, and metabolic characteristics. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 15-39 years old women with PCOS referred to infertility clinics in the north part of Iran, Rasht during 2010-2011. Data were gathered through an interview by a form consisted of demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, ovarian volume and anthropometric indices. A total of 214 patients consisted of 161 PCOS (cases) and 53 normal women (controls) participated in this study. The most prevalent phenotype in PCOS population was IM/PCO/HA (54%), followed by IM/HA (28%) and IM/PCO (13%). PCO/HA was present only in 6 PCOS patients (5%). PCOS patients were significantly younger than controls (P=0.07). Results showed that increased ovarian volume were higher in PCOS group in comparison with controls and IM/PCO/HA, and IM/PCO had respectively the largest ovarian volumes. Also, a significant relation was observed based on Cholesterol, 17OHP, LH, TG, 2hpp, and LH/FSH between patients with PCOS and control groups. There were significant differences in demographic, anthropometric, hormonal and ultrasound findings between PCOS and controls. Therefore, it seems that classification of the characteristics of each phenotype could offer an appropriate guide for screening risks of PCOS and may facilitate performing most favorable treatment for these complications.

  18. The association between bone health indicated by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound and metabolic syndrome in Malaysian men.

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Aminuddin, Amilia; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between bone health and metabolic syndrome (MS) have revealed heterogeneous results. There are limited studies employing bone quantitative ultrasonometry in evaluating this relationship. This study aimed to determine the relationship between MS and bone health in a group of Malaysian middle-aged and elderly men using bone quantitative ultrasonometry. This cross-sectional study recruited 309 free living Chinese and Malay men aged 40 years and above residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their demographic and anthropometric data were collected. Their calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) was measured using a CM-200 bone ultrasonometer. Their blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile, total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The joint interim MS definition was used for the classification of subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between SOS and indicators of MS and the presence of MS, with suitable adjustment for confounders. There was no significant difference in SOS value between MS and non-MS subjects (p > 0.05). The SOS values among subjects with different MS scores did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). There were no significant associations between SOS values and indicators of MS or the presence of MS (p > 0.05). The relationship between bone health and MS is not significant in Malaysian middle-aged and elderly men. A longitudinal study should be conducted to evaluate the association between bone loss and MS to confirm this finding.

  19. Changes of bone mineral density, bone metabolism indices and cell factors in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Dan Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the changes of bone mineral density, bone metabolism indices and cell factor in patients with hyperthyroidism Methods: A total of 116 cases of hyperthyroidism patients from June 2015 to June 2016 in our hospital were selected. as the object of observation group. Then, 120 cases of healthy people were selected as the object of control group. Thyroid function indexes (TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH, bone mineral density (BMD, bone metabolism indexes (PTH, BGP, PINP and cell factors (IL-2, IL-6 in both groups were detected and compared. Results: TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH in control group were (1.40±0.81 nmol/ L, (94.36±32.10 nmol/L, (5.04±1.18 pmol/L, (15.37±4.60 pmol/L, (2.55±1.21 mU/L. TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH in observation group were (5.48±2.36 nmol/L, (405.55±71.48 nmol/L, (16.27±5.14 pmol/L, (46.83±12.66 pmol/L, (0.04±0.01 mU/L. TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 in the observation group were higher than that in control group obviously. TSH in the observation group was lower than that in observation group obviously. The difference between two groups was considered statistically significant. BMD, PTH in observation group were (0.62±0.08 g/m2, (26.25±9.16 pg/mL, which were obviously lower than BMD (1.23±0.11 g/m2, PTH (37.13±8.05 pg/mL in control group. The difference between two groups was considered statistically significant. BGP, PINP in observation group were (14.51±6.25 ng/ mL, (223.63±10.38 μg/L, which were obviously higher than BGP (5.97±1.98 ng/mL, PINP (33.18±6.15 μg/L in control group. The difference between two groups was considered statistically significant. IL-2 in observation group was (1.60±0.51 ng/L, which was obviously lower than IL-2 (4.72±1.29 ng/L, in control group. IL-6 in observation group was (1.98±0.34 pg/L, which was obviously higher than IL-6, (1.50±0.23 pg/L, in control group. The difference between two groups was considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Bone mineral density in patients

  20. Epidemiological study of metabolic syndrome and risk of diabetes mellitus in a rural family medicine practice in Bacau County.

    Diaa, Alamir; Popa, Elena; Bacusca, Agnes; Traian, Maria Gabriela; Petrovanu, Rodica; Coman, Adorata Elena

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive epidemiological study included 615 subjects investigated by their family doctor in the interval October 2011- August 2012. Patients were selected according to 2012 IDF diagnostic criteria resulting 304 patients. There was a Gaussian distribution of waist circumference (WC) with a maximum in age-group 70-80 years (46.3%), followed by age- groups 50-60 years (37.8%) and 60-70 years (41.6%). Waist circumference measurement showed an average of 100.76 +/- 11.59 cm, ranges 72 cm - 134 cm, without statistical significance. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.25 +/- 4.72 kg/m2 vs. 27.79 +/- 4.48 kg/m2. The difference is statistically significant (p = 0.05). Considering categorical the patients with hypertension (AHT) according to the definition, we found that only 7 cases did not have AHT (4.4%) as compared to a prevalence of AHT of 13.7% in the MS (metabolic syndrome) group. Mean serum triglyceride level was 123.11 +/- 68.55 mg/dl versus 113.75 +/- 65.62 mg/dl in the MS group, significantly higher (p < 0.003). Mean HDL cholesterol was 57.58 +/- 17.11 mg/dl versus 58.54 +/- 15.02 mg/dl, statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). The prevalence of glucoregulation disorders is higher in the MS group. Proportional relationships were found between BMI, WC, and SBP and high blood glucose. Comparison of blood glucose levels at baseline and at 1 year follow up showed significant differences.

  1. Metabolic differentiation in biofilms as indicated by carbon dioxide production rates.

    Bester, Elanna; Kroukamp, Otini; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Boonzaaier, Leandro; Liss, Steven N

    2010-02-01

    The measurement of carbon dioxide production rates as an indication of metabolic activity was applied to study biofilm development and response of Pseudomonas sp. biofilms to an environmental disturbance in the form of a moving air-liquid interface (i.e., shear). A differential response in biofilm cohesiveness was observed after bubble perturbation, and the biofilm layers were operationally defined as either shear-susceptible or non-shear-susceptible. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis showed a significant reduction in biofilm thickness and biomass after the removal of the shear-susceptible biofilm layer, as well as notable changes in the roughness coefficient and surface-to-biovolume ratio. These changes were accompanied by a 72% reduction of whole-biofilm CO2 production; however, the non-shear-susceptible region of the biofilm responded rapidly after the removal of the overlying cells and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) along with the associated changes in nutrient and O2 flux, with CO2 production rates returning to preperturbation levels within 24 h. The adaptable nature and the ability of bacteria to respond to environmental conditions were further demonstrated by the outer shear-susceptible region of the biofilm; the average CO2 production rate of cells from this region increased within 0.25 h from 9.45 +/- 5.40 fmol of CO2 x cell(-1) x h(-1) to 22.6 +/- 7.58 fmol of CO2 x cell(-1) x h(-1) when cells were removed from the biofilm and maintained in suspension without an additional nutrient supply. These results also demonstrate the need for sufficient monitoring of biofilm recovery at the solid substratum if mechanical methods are used for biofouling control.

  2. Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Metabolic Syndrome: Long Term Follow-up in Italian Patients.

    Mombelli, Giuliana; Pavanello, Chiara; Castelnuovo, Samuela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Simonelli, Sara; Pazzucconi, Franco; Sirtori, Cesare Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk (CV) factors associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may vary in different populations. In some, hypertension may be the major determinant, in others are low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, or another component. Subjects included in this analysis were identified in 2006, among those attending the Lipid Clinic of the Niguarda Hospital, and followed up through to 2013. Patient characteristics (including the occurrence of CV events) were obtained from electronic medical records. MetS was diagnosed according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) guidelines. The carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was also followed in these patients over the years. After 7 years a total of 858 subjects had a complete follow-up; 271 of those had MetS. Patients developing a CV event showed elevated baseline cIMT (e.g. cIMTmax ≥ 2.4 mm in males and ≥ 2.2 mm in females); moreover the cIMT in MetS patients was higher at baseline and the rise over 7 years was larger compared with patients without MetS. By examining each body variable for MetS we found that a waist to height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5 was present in nearly all subjects with a CV event. The follow-up data of a series of Italian patients with and without MetS, clearly indicates that the former have a raised cIMT and their arterial IMT progression is greater and the presence of a larger WHtR is apparently linked to a higher incidence of CV events. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Successive myocardial fatty acid metabolic imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Usefulness as a prognostic indicator

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Sindoh, Takashi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Honda, Minoru

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of fatty acid metabolic imaging in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), we performed myocardial imaging with 123 I-BMIPP (BMIPP). We studied 23 patients with DCM who were admitted because of congestive heart failure (CHF) and after discharge the stable condition persisted for more than one year. BMIPP imaging was obtained when CHF recovered (first study) and the second study was performed one year after the first study. From BMIPP imaging we calculated % Uptake (percentage of cardiac uptake of isotope to total injected dose) and Defect Score (degree and extent of regional abnormality in BMIPP uptake, DS). In the first study, we performed myocardial imaging with 201 Tl to calculate Uptake Ratio of BMIPP (% Uptake of BMIPP divided by % Uptake of 201 Tl, UR). During the follow up period of 18.2±9.5 months (4.5-39.6 months) after the second study, cardiac event developed in 8 patients (cardiac death; 4, deterioration of CHF; 4). On univariate analysis, the following indices differed significantly between the event and event-free groups; left ventricular end-systolic dimension, graded DS, UR and % Uptake of 201 Tl at the first study, % Uptake of BMIPP and DS at the second study, difference of % Uptake of BMIPP and DS between the first and second study, and newly designed index from graded DS of the first study and its change in the second study (Defect Index, DI). Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that DI (p=0.0026) and age (p=0.0262) were independent predictors of cardiac event. In patients with DI≥3, the relative risk of cardiac event was 25.0 times greater than that in patients with DI≤2. These data suggested that the extent and degree of regional abnormality of BMIPP uptake (DS) and its changes with time were useful for evaluating the prognosis in patients with DCM even though a clinically stable condition is persisting. (author)

  4. Milk composition as an indicator of the metabolism of dairy cows

    ŠTĚRBA, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Milk presents good marker metabolic levels in dairy cows. Subscribe milk in moreover to cow does not stressful. Each month has a breeder in the yield control available basic data on milk composition (fat, protein, lactose). This basic data can be expanded to include other parameters (milk urea, ketones and citric acid). Based on these milk parameters can then correct interpretation preventively diagnose metabolic diseases in the herd. In this work, based on yield controlling diagnosed with hi...

  5. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  6. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  7. [Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: associated factors and comparison with other cardiovascular and metabolic risk indicators in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas de

    2018-03-29

    This study's objectives were to estimate the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype in participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), identify associated risk factors, and compare with other cardiovascular and metabolic risk indicators. This was a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a cohort of public employees. HTW is defined as the simultaneous presence of increased waist circumference (WC) (≥ 80cm for women, ≥ 90cm for men according to the International Diabetes Federation - IDF; and ≥ 88cm for women, ≥ 102cm for men according to the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program - NCEP) and hypertriglyceridemia. Associations between independent variables and HTW were tested with multivariate logistic regression models. HTW was also compared to other cardiovascular and metabolic risk indicators by means of correlation tests, kappa index, sensitivity, and specificity. After exclusions, 12,811 participants were analyzed. Prevalence of HTW ranged from 24.7% (IDF) to 13.3% (NCEP). HTW was associated with age, excessive alcohol consumption, former smoking, low HDL, non-high HDL, and increased C-reactive protein, independently of gender or the criterion used to define HTW. HTW was associated with cardiovascular risk indicators, especially metabolic syndrome. The high prevalence of HTW and its association with cardiovascular risk indicators, especially metabolic syndrome, supports its use as a cardiometabolic risk screening tool in clinical practice.

  8. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi indicated by metagenomics

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi. PMID:24463735

  9. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. indicated by metagenomics.

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-27

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected] . at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected].

  10. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. indicated by metagenomics

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Lamellomorpha sp.. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp..

  11. ANALYSIS OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TYPE 1 DIABETES ACCORDING TO THE REGISTER OF TOMSK AND TOMSK REGION

    Yu. G. Samoilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is a serious medical and social problem in the whole world. Despite the presence of a large amount of accumulated knowledge to control the disease, there are methodological limitations and uncertainties of the register. In order to obtain complete information on the prevalence and incidence of T1DM among children and adolescents in order to monitor the disease, providing diagnostic and rehabilitation measures, there was a need for analysis of epidemiological climate T1DM in children and adolescents of the Tomsk region. The evaluation found that T1DM on the rise, especially among young children, which raises the need for а personalized approach in addressing this issue.

  12. Fatty acid composition indicates two types of metabolic syndrome independent of clinical and laboratory parameters.

    Žák, A; Burda, M; Vecka, M; Zeman, M; Tvrzická, E; Staňková, B

    2014-01-01

    Dietary composition and metabolism of fatty acids (FA) influence insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia and other components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that patients with MS exhibit a heterogeneous phenotype; however, the relationships of individual FA to MS components have not yet been consistently studied. We examined the plasma phosphatidylcholine FA composition of 166 individuals (68F/98M) with MS and of 188 (87F/101M) controls. Cluster analysis of FA divided the groups into two clusters. In cluster 1, there were 65.7 % of MS patients and 37.8 % of controls, cluster 2 contained 34.3 % of patients and 62.2 % of controls (Pinsulin resistance).

  13. Correlations between Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Metabolic Indices in Adult Nonhuman Primates

    Tarique D. Perera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased neurogenesis in feeding centers of the murine hypothalamus is associated with weight loss in diet-induced obese rodents (Kokoeva et al., 2005 and Matrisciano et al., 2010, but this relationship has not been examined in other species. Postmortem hippocampal neurogenesis rates and premortem metabolic parameters were statistically analyzed in 8 chow-fed colony-reared adult bonnet macaques. Dentate gyrus neurogenesis, reflected by the immature neuronal marker, doublecortin (DCX, and expression of the antiapoptotic gene factor, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2, but not the precursor proliferation mitotic marker, Ki67, was inversely correlated with body weight and crown-rump length. DCX and BCL-2 each correlated positively with blood glucose level and lipid ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein. This study demonstrates that markers of dentate gyrus neuroplasticity correlate with metabolic parameters in primates.

  14. SLC2A9 and ZNF518B polymorphisms correlate with gout-related metabolic indices in Chinese Tibetan populations.

    Zhang, X Y; Geng, T T; Liu, L J; Yuan, D Y; Feng, T; Kang, L L; Jin, T B; Chen, C

    2015-08-19

    Current evidence suggests that heredity and metabolic syndrome contribute to gout progression. SLC2A9 and ZNF518B may play a role in gout progression in different populations, but no studies have focused on the Tibetan Chinese population. In this study, we determined whether variations in these 2 genes were correlated with gout-related indices in Chinese-Tibetan gout patients. We detected 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in SLC2A9 and ZNF518B in 319 Chinese Tibetan gout patients. One-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the polymorphisms' effects on gout based on mean serum levels of metabolism indicators. Polymorphisms in SLC2A9 and ZNF518B affected multiple risk factors related to gout development. Significant differences in serum triglyceride levels and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level were detected between different genotypic groups with SLC2A9 polymorphisms rs13129697 (P = 0.022), rs4447863 (P = 0.018), and rs1014290 (P = 0.045). Similarly in ZNF518B, rs3217 (P = 0.016) and rs10016022 (P = 0.046) were associated with high creatinine and glucose levels, respectively. This study is the first to investigate and identify positive correlations between SLC2A9 and ZNF518B gene polymorphisms and metabolic indices in Tibetan gout patients. We found significant evidence indicating that genetic polymorphisms affect gout-related factors in Chinese Tibetan populations.

  15. Metabolism

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  16. A review of Ramadan fasting and regular physical activity on metabolic syndrome indices

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome constitutes a cluster of risk factors such as obesity, hyperglycemia,  hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. In this review article, we aimed to discuss the possible effects of fasting and regular physical activity on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.  Methods: Online databases including Google Scholar, SID, PubMed, and MagIran were searched, using the following keywords:  “training”, “exercise”, “physical activity”, “fasting”, “Ramadan”, “metabolic syndrome”, “fat percentage”, “blood pressure”, “blood sugar”, “cholesterol”, “triglyceride”, and “lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol”. All articles including research studies, review articles, descriptive and analytical studies, and ross-sectional research, published during 2006-2015, were reviewed. In case of any errors in the methodologyof articles, they were removed from our analysis. Results:Based on our literature review, inconsistent findings have been reported on risk factors formetabolic syndrome. However, the majority of conducted studies have suggested the positive effects offasting on reducing the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Although fasting in different seasons of the year has no significant impacts on mental health or physical fitness, it can reduce the risk of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Also, based on the conducted studies, if individuals adhere to a proper diet, avoid excessive eating, drink sufficient amounts of fluids, and keep a healthy level of physical activity, fasting can improve their physical health.

  17. Genome-scale reconstruction of the Streptococcus pyogenes M49 metabolic network reveals growth requirements and indicates potential drug targets

    Levering, J.; Fiedler, T.; Sieg, A.; van Grinsven, K.W.A.; Hering, S.; Veith, N.; Olivier, B.G.; Klett, L.; Hugenholtz, J.; Teusink, B.; Kreikemeyer, B.; Kummer, U.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models comprise stoichiometric relations between metabolites, as well as associations between genes and metabolic reactions and facilitate the analysis of metabolism. We computationally reconstructed the metabolic network of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes

  18. Some indices of rna metabolism in rat truncus cerebri after irradiation with superlethal doses

    Ushenkova, L.N.; Mazurik, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the content of HnRNA, nuclear poly(A)RNA biosynthesis of r. 1. nRNA in truncus cerebri of rats divided into 3 groups by the forced swimming test 6-8 min and 60 min after a short-term exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation of 100 Gy. The observed changes in the nuclear RNA metabolism can subsequently lead to the impairment of the synthesis of proteins required for normal functioning of CNS, and to the development of CNS syndrome

  19. Androgenetic alopecia as an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.

    Ertas, Ragip; Orscelik, Ozcan; Kartal, Demet; Dogan, Ali; Ertas, Sule Ketenci; Aydogdu, Ebru Guler; Ascioglu, Ozcan; Borlu, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated a probable association between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by researching limited and dispersed parameters. We aimed to evaluate both traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in male patients with early-onset AGA. This case-control study included 68 participants: 51 male patients with early-onset AGA and 17 healthy male controls. Patients with AGA were classified into three groups according to the Hamilton-Norwood scale and the presence of vertex hair loss. Traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors were examined in all study subjects. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 25 patients with AGA and in two control subjects (p baldness and controls (p < 0.05). The pulse-wave velocity values were also found to be significantly higher in patients (p < 0.001). A limitation of this study was the small study population. In conclusion, vertex pattern AGA appears to be a marker for early atherosclerosis. This finding supports the hypothesis that early-onset AGA alone could be an independent risk factor for CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  20. The relationship between epicardial fat and indices of obesity and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-02-01

    Epicardial fat (epicardial adipose tissue, EAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between EAT and generalized obesity, central or visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and the components of the metabolic syndrome--systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG)--that are linked to CAD. A systematic review of the literature, following meta-analysis guidelines, was conducted until May, 2013, using the search strategy "Obesity" OR "abdominal obesity" OR "metabolic syndrome" OR "metabolic syndrome X" AND "epicardial fat". Thirty-eight studies fulfilled the criteria. There was a highly significant (Pcorrelation between EAT and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or VAT. The correlation between EAT and VAT was significantly (Pcorrelation between EAT and WC, which in turn was significantly greater than the correlation between EAT and BMI. Overall, EAT was 7.5 ± 0.1 mm in thickness in the metabolic syndrome (n=427) compared to 4.0 ± 0.1 mm in controls (n=301). EAT correlated significantly (PHDL, and FBG, but the strength of the association was less than one-half of the relationship of EAT to indices of obesity. The results of multivariate analysis were less consistent but show a relationship between EAT and metabolic syndrome independent of BMI. In summary, the very strong correlation between EAT and VAT suggests a relationship between these two adipose tissue depots. Measurement of EAT can be useful to indicate VAT. Whereas EAT correlates significantly with each of the components of the metabolic syndrome- SBP, TGs, HDL, or FBG-the magnitude of the relationship is considerably and significantly less than the relationship of EAT to BMI. These data show the strong relationship between EAT and BMI but especially with WC and VAT. They also demonstrate the smaller magnitude of the

  1. Temporal variations in metabolic and autotrophic indices for Acropora digitifera and Acropora spicifera--implications for monitoring projects.

    Saskia Hinrichs

    Full Text Available Coral health indices are important components of the management assessments of coral reefs, providing insight into local variation in reef condition, as well as tools for comparisons between reefs and across various time scales. Understanding how such health indices vary in space and time is critical to their successful implementation as management tools. Here we compare autotrophic and heterotrophic coral health indices, examining specifically the temporal variation driven by the local environmental variation, at three scales (diel, daily and seasonal. We compared metabolic indices (RNA/DNA ratio, protein concentration and autotrophic indices (Chlorophyll a (Chl a, zooxanthellae density, effective quantum yield (yield and relative electron transport rate (rETR for two dominant Acropora species, A. digitifera and A. spicifera at Ningaloo Reef (north-western Australia in August 2010 (austral winter and February 2011 (austral summer. Clear seasonal patterns were documented for metabolic indices, zooxanthellae density and rETR, while cyclic diel patterns only occurred for yield and rETR, and RNA/DNA ratio. Significant daily variation was observed for RNA/DNA ratio, Chl a concentration, yield and rETR. Results suggest that zooxanthellae density and protein concentrations are good long-term indicators of coral health whose variance is largely seasonal, while RNA/DNA ratio and rETR can be used for both long-term (seasonal and short-term (diel coral monitoring. Chl a can be used to describe changes between days and yield for both diel and daily variations. Correlations between health indices and light history showed that short-term changes in irradiance had the strongest impact on all health indices except zooxanthellae density for A. digitifera; for A. spicifera no correlation was observed at all. However, cumulative irradiance over the several days before sampling showed significant correlations with most health indices suggesting that a time

  2. Temporal variations in metabolic and autotrophic indices for Acropora digitifera and Acropora spicifera--implications for monitoring projects.

    Hinrichs, Saskia; Patten, Nicole L; Waite, Anya M

    2013-01-01

    Coral health indices are important components of the management assessments of coral reefs, providing insight into local variation in reef condition, as well as tools for comparisons between reefs and across various time scales. Understanding how such health indices vary in space and time is critical to their successful implementation as management tools. Here we compare autotrophic and heterotrophic coral health indices, examining specifically the temporal variation driven by the local environmental variation, at three scales (diel, daily and seasonal). We compared metabolic indices (RNA/DNA ratio, protein concentration) and autotrophic indices (Chlorophyll a (Chl a), zooxanthellae density, effective quantum yield (yield) and relative electron transport rate (rETR)) for two dominant Acropora species, A. digitifera and A. spicifera at Ningaloo Reef (north-western Australia) in August 2010 (austral winter) and February 2011 (austral summer). Clear seasonal patterns were documented for metabolic indices, zooxanthellae density and rETR, while cyclic diel patterns only occurred for yield and rETR, and RNA/DNA ratio. Significant daily variation was observed for RNA/DNA ratio, Chl a concentration, yield and rETR. Results suggest that zooxanthellae density and protein concentrations are good long-term indicators of coral health whose variance is largely seasonal, while RNA/DNA ratio and rETR can be used for both long-term (seasonal) and short-term (diel) coral monitoring. Chl a can be used to describe changes between days and yield for both diel and daily variations. Correlations between health indices and light history showed that short-term changes in irradiance had the strongest impact on all health indices except zooxanthellae density for A. digitifera; for A. spicifera no correlation was observed at all. However, cumulative irradiance over the several days before sampling showed significant correlations with most health indices suggesting that a time-lag effect has

  3. Temporal Variations in Metabolic and Autotrophic Indices for Acropora digitifera and Acropora spicifera – Implications for Monitoring Projects

    Hinrichs, Saskia; Patten, Nicole L.; Waite, Anya M.

    2013-01-01

    Coral health indices are important components of the management assessments of coral reefs, providing insight into local variation in reef condition, as well as tools for comparisons between reefs and across various time scales. Understanding how such health indices vary in space and time is critical to their successful implementation as management tools. Here we compare autotrophic and heterotrophic coral health indices, examining specifically the temporal variation driven by the local environmental variation, at three scales (diel, daily and seasonal). We compared metabolic indices (RNA/DNA ratio, protein concentration) and autotrophic indices (Chlorophyll a (Chl a), zooxanthellae density, effective quantum yield (yield) and relative electron transport rate (rETR)) for two dominant Acropora species, A. digitifera and A. spicifera at Ningaloo Reef (north-western Australia) in August 2010 (austral winter) and February 2011 (austral summer). Clear seasonal patterns were documented for metabolic indices, zooxanthellae density and rETR, while cyclic diel patterns only occurred for yield and rETR, and RNA/DNA ratio. Significant daily variation was observed for RNA/DNA ratio, Chl a concentration, yield and rETR. Results suggest that zooxanthellae density and protein concentrations are good long-term indicators of coral health whose variance is largely seasonal, while RNA/DNA ratio and rETR can be used for both long-term (seasonal) and short-term (diel) coral monitoring. Chl a can be used to describe changes between days and yield for both diel and daily variations. Correlations between health indices and light history showed that short-term changes in irradiance had the strongest impact on all health indices except zooxanthellae density for A. digitifera; for A. spicifera no correlation was observed at all. However, cumulative irradiance over the several days before sampling showed significant correlations with most health indices suggesting that a time-lag effect has

  4. Effect of personalized dietary intervention on nutritional, metabolic and vascular indices in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Lai, S; Molfino, A; Coppola, B; De Leo, S; Tommasi, V; Galani, A; Migliaccio, S; Greco, E A; Gnerre Musto, T; Muscaritoli, M

    2015-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present a markedly increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality since the early stages of the disease and a high prevalence of malnutrition, inflammation, and accelerated atherosclerosis. Personalized nutritional intervention, with of a low-protein diet (LPD), since the early stages of CKD should be able to achieve significant metabolic improvements. In our study we have verified the effects of a personalized dietary intervention in patients in the CKD stages 3/4 KDOQI on nutritional, metabolic and vascular indices. We have evaluated renal function, lipid profile, mineral metabolism, inflammatory indices, and acid-base balance of 16 patients with CKD (stages 3/4 KDOQI). Assessment of nutritional status, body composition, bone mineral density and muscle mass, using body mass index (BMI), handgrip strength, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed. Vascular indices and endothelial dysfunction such as carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (baFMD) were also analyzed. After dietary interventions, we observed a significant increase in plasma bicarbonate (p = 0.004) and vitamin D levels (p = 0.03) and a concomitant significant reduction of phosphorus concentration (p = 0.001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.01). Nutritional intervention potentially plays a major role in reducing the progression of CKD and systemic complications of predialysis patients. A low-protein diet (LPD) ensuring vegetable protein intake and a reduced amount of specific micronutrients should be recommended to stage 3/4 CKD patients in order to ameliorate metabolic profile, renal outcome, and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  6. Identification of early indicators of altered metabolism in normal development using a rodent model system

    Ashok Daniel Prabakaran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the existence of a close relationship between the early maternal developmental environment, fetal size at birth and the risk of developing disease in adulthood has been suggested, most studies, however, employed experimentally induced intrauterine growth restriction as a model to link this with later adult disease. Because embryonic size variation also occurs under normal growth and differentiation, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their relevance to later adult disease risk becomes important. The birth weight of rat pups vary according to the uterine horn positions. Using birth weight as a marker, we compared two groups of rat pups – lower birth weight (LBW, 5th to 25th percentile and average birth weight (ABW, 50th to 75th percentile – using morphological, biochemical and molecular biology, and genetic techniques. Our results show that insulin metabolism, Pi3k/Akt and Pparγ signaling and the genes regulating growth and metabolism are significantly different in these groups. Methylation at the promoter of the InsII (Ins2 gene and DNA methyltransferase 1 in LBW pups are both increased. Additionally, the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which includes Hdac1, Rb (Rb1 and E2f1, was also upregulated in LBW pups. We conclude that the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which regulates the restriction point of the cell cycle, retards the rate at which cells traverse the G1 or G0 phase of the cell cycle in LBW pups, thereby slowing down growth. This regulatory mechanism mediated by Dnmt1 might contribute to the production of small-size pups and altered physiology and pathology in adult life.

  7. Impact of Voglibose on of Metabolic Control Indicators in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    V.I. Pankiv

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available New therapeutic options to control diabetes mellitus (DM emerged with the discovery of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors which slow the absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine. The objective of the study — to investigate the effect of voglibose administration on parameters of glycemic control, lipid metabolism and tolerability in patients with DM type 1. Materials and Methods. Criteria for inclusion in the study: DM type 1, age from 26 to 48 years, the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c from 8 to 9 %. 19 patients were examined (7 men and 12 women, mean age 37.2 ± ± 3.9 years, DM duration 8.5 ± 1.4 years. Results. During the follow-up period (12 weeks, the level of HbA1c significantly decreased from 9.4 ± 0.6 % to 7.8 ± 0.4 % (p < 0.05. On the background of additional administration of voglibose, we observed a significant reduction in fasting glucose level from 10.37 ± 0.36 mmol/l to 7.39 ± 0.28 mmol/l (p < 0.01 and postprandial — from 12.29 ± 1.42 mmol/l to 8.46 ± 0.64 mmol/l (p < 0.01. At that, we have noted a significant reduction of total cholesterol (from 5.83 ± 0.11 mmol/l to 5.38 ± 0.08 mmol/l, p < 0.05, triglycerides (from 1.82 ± 0.03 mmol/l to 1.46 ± 0.03 mmol/l, p < 0.05 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 3.41 ± 0.05 mmol/l to 3.37 ± ± 0.04 mmol/l, p < 0.05. There were no significant changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol parameters. In two surveyed persons, we have detected adverse effects (bloating, which did not require discontinuation of therapy. Conclusion. Additional administration of voglibose at a dose of 0.9 mg/day on a background of insulin therapy helps to improve glycemic control and lipid metabolism, to reduce the daily dose of exogenous insulin and hypoglycemic reactions incidence in patients with DM type 1.

  8. Metabolism

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  9. Relationship of serum magnesium levels and other metabolic indices in renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine

    Ahmadi F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cyclosporine is one of the main immunosuppressors used for renal transplant recipients, and is given to prevent transplant rejection. Although the drug increases the survival of patients and grafted organs, it has some side effects independent of its effect on the immune system that are usually ignored. In this study, we evaluate the effect of cyclosporine on serum Mg levels and metabolic side effects in renal graft patients."n"n Methods: In this study, we followed 157 renal transplant recipients (62 females and 95 males who were being treated with cyclosporine at a private clinic to prevent transplant rejection. The patients were first physically examined and then blood samples were obtained in order to measure levels of cyclosporine, Mg, creatinine, fasting blood sugar, lipids, calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid levels. We then analyzed the data for correlations between serum Mg levels, cyclosporine and other metabolic complications."n"n Results: The mean levels of Mg and cyclosporine were 196±0.31mg/dl and 371±192 μg/dl, respectively. Hypomagnesemia was detected in 16 patients (10.2%.There was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05 between levels of Mg and cyclosporine levels (r=-0.53, serum

  10. WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS INDICATOR COMPONENTS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN THE SIBERIAN POPULATION

    G. I. Simonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object of research: to determine the cut-off point of waist circumference (WC identify the components of metabolic syndrome (MS in a large industrial center of Western Siberia.In the period from 2003 to 2005 in the screening population surveyed 9362 people, including 4268 men (45.6% and 5094 women (54.4%.The response rate was 61%. The study protocol included a sociodemographic data, measurement of blood pressure (BP, anthropometry (height, weight, WC, the definition of biochemical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using the package SPSS. To determine the cut-off points of the used ROC model.In the group with ≥2 components of MS cut-off point WC from the men was 93.3 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 83%, women – 90.2 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 62%.The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm (sensitivity 66.8%, specificity 58.1%, for women – 86.5 cm (sensitivity 71.0%, specificity 55.7%. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm (sensitivity 61%, specificity 70.2%, for women – cm (sensitivity 64.1%, specificity 65.9%.Conclusions: Cut-off point from the persons with the presence of ≥2 MS components in Siberian population 45–69 years, in accordance with the ROC analysis are 93.3 cm for men and 90.2 cm for women. The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm, for women – 86.5 cm. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm, for women – 95 cm.

  11. Low predictability of anthropometric indicators of obesity in metabolic syndrome (MS) risks among elderly women.

    Chu, Fu-Ling; Hsu, Chung-Huei; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    While diagnostic criteria for MS may vary depending on ethnicity, obesity remains a key risk factor in its development. In Taiwan, the incidence of obesity and MS among women has been increasing; however cut-off values for defining obesity for the diagnosis of MS among different groups of women have not been clearly established. The goal of this research was to examine the suitability of various anthropometric indicators of obesity in predicting the presence of MS criteria and to determine appropriate cut-off values of these indicators for women of different age and menstrual status. The sample was derived from the 2002 "Taiwan Three High Prevalence Survey" database. Women were divided into three groups based on age and menstrual status. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was applied to the anthropometric indicators of obesity including, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), to ascertain its value in predicting MS. 2848 cases were included. It was found that most MS component values were worse with age and following menopause. Obesity indicators showed poor predictability for MS risks in post-menopausal women over 65 years, but good predictability in women under 65 years; our study revealed the following as ideal cut-off values for non-menopausal female: WHtRrisks in women over the age of 65, and cut-off values for obesity indicators need to be further reduced in non-menopausal women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation through fortified dairy products counterbalances seasonal variations of bone metabolism indices: the Postmenopausal Health Study.

    Tenta, Roxane; Moschonis, George; Koutsilieris, Michael; Manios, Yannis

    2011-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a dietary intervention combined with fortified dairy products on bone metabolism and bone mass indices in postmenopausal women. Forty postmenopausal women (55-65 years old) were equally randomized into a dietary group (DG), receiving daily and for 30 months, 1,200 mg of calcium and 7.5 μg of vitamin D(3) for the first 12 months that increased to 22.5 μg for the remaining 18 months of intervention through fortified dairy products; and a control group (CG). Differences in the changes of bone metabolism and bone mass indices were examined with repeated measures ANOVA. A significant increase was observed for PTH levels only in the CG during the first six winter months of intervention (p = 0.049). After 30 months of intervention, during winter, serum 25(OH)D significantly decreased in the CG while remained in the same high levels as in the summer period in the DG. Serum RANKL levels decreased significantly in the DG compared with the increase in the CG during the 30-month intervention period (p = 0.005). Serum CTx decreased significantly in the DG after six (-0.08; -0.12 to -0.03) and 12 (-0.03; -0.08 to -0.02) months of intervention. Finally, the DG had more favorable changes in total body BMD than the CG (p effective in producing favorable changes in several bone metabolism and bone mass indices and in counterbalancing seasonal variations in hormonal and biochemical molecules.

  13. Association of anthropometric indices with continuous metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-V study.

    Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Angoorani, Pooneh; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Ziaodini, Hasan; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Ahadi, Zeinab; Beshtar, Shaghayegh; Aminaee, Tahereh; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to examine the association of anthropometric indices with continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) among Iranian children and adolescents. This multicentric study was conducted on 14138 students aged 7-18 years, who participated in a national surveillance program. Fasting blood sample was obtained from a subsample of 3843 randomly selected students. Physical examination including the measurement of anthropometric indices and blood pressure was conducted; fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured; and cMetS score was computed. Standardized residuals (z-scores) were calculated for MetS components. A higher cMetS score indicates a less favorable metabolic profile. Linear regression models were applied to determine the association between cMetS and anthropometric indices. The study participants consisted of 3843 children and adolescents (52.3% boys) with mean (SD) age of 12.45 ± 3.04 years. All anthropometric indices had positive correlation with standardized scores of mean arterial pressure, waist circumference and cMetS (P obesity, as well as high circumferences of neck, wrist, and hip circumferences increased the standardized cMetS risk score to 1.8, 1.9, 1.6, 1.5 and 1.5, respectively (P < 0.05 for all variables). The results demonstrated that higher anthropometric indices are associated with higher cMetS risk score in children and adolescents. This information could be valuable for screening and prevention of MetS at population level. V, cross-sectional descriptive study (National surveillance study).

  14. Violation of specific indicators pigment and lipid metabolism in experimental pneumonia in an immobilization stress and correction of corvitin

    Ferenc, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ferenc N. M. Violation of specific indicators pigment and lipid metabolism in experimental pneumonia in an immobilization stress and correction of corvitin. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(9):709-713. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.32430 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%289%29%3A709-713 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/658656 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. Archives 2011–2014 http://journ...

  15. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve.RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders.CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services.

  16. Comparison of PET metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated by polychemotherapy

    Maisonobe, Jacques-Antoine; Necib, Hatem; Buvat, Irene [IMNC UMR 8165 CNRS - Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, Orsay Cedex (France); Garcia, Camilo A.; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Flamen, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Hendlisz, Alain [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Gastroenterology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    To compare the performance of eight metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. Forty patients with advanced mCRC underwent two FDG PET/CT scans, at baseline and on day 14 after chemotherapy initiation. For each lesion, eight metabolic indices were calculated: four standardized uptake values (SUV) without correction for the partial volume effect (PVE), two SUV with correction for PVE, a metabolic volume (MV) and a total lesion glycolysis (TLG). The relative change in each index between the two scans was calculated for each lesion. Lesions were also classified as responding and nonresponding lesions using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST) 1.0 measured by contrast-enhanced CT at baseline and 6-8 weeks after starting therapy. Bland-Altman analyses were performed to compare the various indices. Based on the RECIST classification, ROC analyses were used to determine how accurately the indices predicted lesion response to therapy later seen with RECIST. RECIST showed 27 responding and 74 nonresponding lesions. Bland-Altman analyses showed that the four SUV indices uncorrected for PVE could not be used interchangeably, nor could the two SUV corrected for PVE. The areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were not significantly different between the SUV indices not corrected for PVE. The mean SUV change in a lesion better predicted lesion response without than with PVE correction. The AUC was significantly higher for SUV uncorrected for PVE than for the MV, but change in MV provided some information regarding the lesion response to therapy (AUC >0.5). In these mCRC patients, all SUV uncorrected for PVE accurately predicted the tumour response on day 14 after starting therapy as assessed 4 to 6 weeks later (i.e. 6 to 8 weeks after therapy initiation) using the RECIST criteria. Neither correcting SUV for PVE nor measuring TLG improved the assessment of tumour

  17. Effects of exercise on metabolic and hormonal indicators of people with different somatotype

    Khrystovaya T.E.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the effect of exercise on biochemical and hormonal rates in young men of different body types. The study involved 40 students of 17-23 years old, who were divided into 4 groups. Each group included 10 people with different somatotype (chest, muscular and the level of physical fitness (don't go in for sports, sportsmen. It was specified that there are some different changes (depending on somatotype in the blood of students who aren't involved in sports. The changes are caused by increasing the amount of total protein, soluble triglycerides, β-globulin, hormone of growth against minor changes in the content of the aqueous phase and the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, α-and γ-globulin, insulin. Slight exercise stress in sportsmen with breast somatotype insignificantly changed biochemical indicators of blood, muscular - there was almost no effect in biochemical indicators of blood; but it led to changes in hormonal status of sportsmen.

  18. Predictive capacity of indicators of adiposity in the metabolic syndrome in elderly individuals

    Keila Bacelar Duarte de MORAIS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the predictive ability of adiposity indicators as MetS predictors in elderly individuals. Methods Cross-sectional study enrolled in the Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio, Waist-Height Ratio, Conicity Index and Body Adiposity Index were calculated. Blood was collected and resting blood pressure was measured. MetS was classified according to the harmonizing criteria. The predictive ability of anthropometric variables was evaluated using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. Results Regarding male individuals, our research indicates that the BMI, Waist-Height Ratio and Waist Hip Ratio are better predictors and they are equivalent to each other. As for female individuals, results show that the Body Mass Index and Waist-Height Ratio are better predictors and equivalent to each other. Conclusion Waist-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index are good MetS predictors for elderly individuals, especially among men. More research in this area is important. Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. (Viçosa University Ethics Committee in Research with Human Beings (nº 039/2011.

  19. Nutritional mitigation of winter thermal stress in gilthead seabream: Associated metabolic pathways and potential indicators of nutritional state.

    Richard, Nadège; Silva, Tomé S; Wulff, Tune; Schrama, Denise; Dias, Jorge P; Rodrigues, Pedro M L; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-06-16

    with diet WF, by undertaking a comparative analysis of fish liver proteome at the end of winter. This study brings information relative to biological processes that are involved in gilthead seabream winter thermal stress and shows that these can be mitigated through a nutritional strategy, assisting gilthead seabream to deal better with winter thermal conditions. Furthermore, the results show that proteomic information not only clearly distinguishes the two dietary groups from each other, but also captures heterogeneities that reflect intra-group differences in nutritional state. This was exploited in this work to refine the variable selection strategy so that protein spots displaying a stronger correlation with “nutritional state” could be identified as possible indicators of gilthead seabream metabolic and nutritional state. Finally, this study shows that gel-based proteomics seems to provide more reliable information than transmissive FT-IR spectroscopy, for the purposes of nutritional and metabolic profiling.

  20. Use of tritiated water as indicator of the water metabolism on normal and operate patients

    Fallot, P.; Aeberhardt, A.

    1955-01-01

    Water disruptions are very frequent during the medical and surgical affections. In order to study the kinetics of the water exchanges as well as the determination of the total water of the body, we have chosen tritiated water as indicator. This work presents a rapid process, faithful and sensitive of dosage of the Tritium in the biologic liquids. This method has been applied to the survey of the intestinal absorption of water among normal subjects and during some medical and surgical affections. The exam of the experimental curves permitted to get information concerning the kinetics of water ingested as well as of data on the volume of total water of the human body and on the biologic period of the Tritium in the organism. (M.B.) [fr

  1. Blood indicators of seasonal metabolic patterns in captive adult gray wolves

    Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Blood samples and physical data were collected weekly from a colony of gray wolves (Canis lupus) maintained under natural weather arid light conditions. Sampling over 33 continuous months indicated that hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and thyroxine exhibited consistent circannual patterns of variation in both males and females. Hemoglobin levels peaked at 15-16 g/dl in January in females and at 16-17 g/dl in February in males, and were lowest in August at 10.5-11.5 g/dl (P patterns of hematocrit, red blood cells, and MCHC were similarly timed. Females also had a cyclic pattern of white blood cell counts and body weight; their weight peaked in early February and was lowest in August (P pattern.

  2. Metabolic syndrome indicators and target organ damage in urban active coping African and Caucasian men: the SABPA study.

    de Kock, A; Malan, L; Potgieter, J C; Steenekamp, W; van der Merwe, M T

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial stress relating to an urban environment or acculturation increases the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objectives of this study were firstly to indicate and compare differences regarding appraisal of stress or active coping responses in urban African (n=88) and Caucasian (n=101) male teachers of South Africa, in accord with the prevalence of MetS indicators. And secondly to investigate the extent to which utilisation of active coping responses, together with MetS indicators, predict target organ damage, in these men. The Coping Strategy Indicator determined high and low active coping responses in male teachers from the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study. SABPA inclusion and exclusion criteria were used. Additionally, diabetic medication users (n=8), and participants with renal impairment (n=2) or HIV positive (n=13), were excluded. MetS indicators included glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist circumference, independent of confounders (age, physical activity, gamma glutamyl transferase). Microalbuminuria and carotid intima-media thickness indicated target organ damage. More MetS indicators exceeded the IDF cut-off points in high active coping African men (14.71%) than in their Caucasian counterparts (3.33%), as determined from χ² analyses. Furthermore, stepwise regressions indicated that more MetS indicators predicted endothelial dysfunction, especially in the high active coping African men. High active coping African men showed more manifestation of MetS, compared to their Caucasian counterparts, and revealed progress towards endothelial dysfunction. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Criteria for the Evaluation and Selection of Radiation-Induced Metabolic Changes as Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Damage

    Altman, K. I. [Departments of Experimental Radiology, Radiation Biology, Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1971-03-15

    There are several reasons which prompt a search for suitable biochemical indicators of radiation damage in man. Perhaps the most compelling of these reasons is the urgent need for estimates of exposure doses in cases of accidental exposures of human subjects to ionizing radiations under conditions which preclude a reliable assessment of the exposure dose by the usual physical means. At worst, a biochemical estimate of the dose would provide an independent means of obtaining information otherwise based solely on physical considerations and assumptions. In addition, a biochemical estimate of radiation injury may also, under ideal circumstances, serve as a guide to the attending physician in chosing the type of therapy most efficacious and least likely to lead to complications in the near as well as more distant future. The availability of biochemical indicators capable of revealing with some degree of accuracy the impairment of function of a particular organ would be a helpful adjunct in making decisions concerning the therapeutic approach to be adopted. The latter aspect would be of considerable interest in acute, accidental radiation exposures since under these circumstances radiation exposures are frequently of the partial-body type. An estimate of radiation injury by means of biochemical indicators should also prove useful in cases of protracted or chronic exposures to radiation, the source of which may be either external or internal. The use of biochemical indicators under these conditions of radiation exposure may, in general, aid 'case-finding' efforts and, in a more specific way, may help in pin-pointing discrete organ dysfunctions. In evaluating the suitability of radiation-induced metabolic changes for application as biochemical indicators of radiation damage, the following general criteria may be set forth: (1) the biochemical response to irradiation must be dose-dependent within a certain, sufficiently wide range in order to be useful; (2) the sensitivity

  4. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Metabolic Syndrome

    Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation...

  5. Longitudinal Associations of Exposure to Perfluoroalkylated Substances in Childhood and Adolescence and Indicators of Adiposity and Glucose Metabolism 6 and 12 Years Later

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Grøntved, Anders; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term association of exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), during childhood (9 years) and adolescence (15 years) on indicators of adiposity and glucose metabolism in adolescence...

  6. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  7. Indicators for metabolic disturbances in anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosed according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria

    Goverde, A. J.; van Koert, A. J. B.; Eijkemans, M. J.; Knauff, E. A. H.; Westerveld, H. E.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Broekmans, F. J.

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic abnormalities. It is debated whether all women with PCOS should be screened for metabolic abnormalities as these may vary with PCOS phenotype, age and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of metabolic

  8. Novel drug metabolism indices for pharmacogenetic functional status based on combinatory genotyping of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes

    Villagra, David; Goethe, John; Schwartz, Harold I; Szarek, Bonnie; Kocherla, Mohan; Gorowski, Krystyna; Windemuth, Andreas; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2011-01-01

    Aims We aim to demonstrate clinical relevance and utility of four novel drug-metabolism indices derived from a combinatory (multigene) approach to CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 allele scoring. Each index considers all three genes as complementary components of a liver enzyme drug metabolism system and uniquely benchmarks innate hepatic drug metabolism reserve or alteration through CYP450 combinatory genotype scores. Methods A total of 1199 psychiatric referrals were genotyped for polymorphisms in the CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 gene loci and were scored on each of the four indices. The data were used to create distributions and rankings of innate drug metabolism capacity to which individuals can be compared. Drug-specific indices are a combination of the drug metabolism indices with substrate-specific coefficients. Results The combinatory drug metabolism indices proved useful in positioning individuals relative to a population with regard to innate drug metabolism capacity prior to pharmacotherapy. Drug-specific indices generate pharmacogenetic guidance of immediate clinical relevance, and can be further modified to incorporate covariates in particular clinical cases. Conclusions We believe that this combinatory approach represents an improvement over the current gene-by-gene reporting by providing greater scope while still allowing for the resolution of a single-gene index when needed. This method will result in novel clinical and research applications, facilitating the translation from pharmacogenomics to personalized medicine, particularly in psychiatry where many drugs are metabolized or activated by multiple CYP450 isoenzymes. PMID:21861665

  9. Effects of rumen undegradable protein supplementation on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism in Holstein fresh cows.

    Amanlou, H; Farahani, T Amirabadi; Farsuni, N Eslamian

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding increased dietary crude protein (CP) on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism during 21 d postpartum. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were balanced by previous lactation milk yield, body condition score (BCS) at calving, and parity and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from calving until 21 d postpartum. Dietary treatments were 16.0% CP with 5.0% rumen undegradable protein (RUP) based on dry matter (DM) (16CP), 18.7% CP with 7.0% RUP based on DM (19CP), and 21.4% CP with 9.0% RUP based on DM (21CP). Diets were similar in net energy for lactation (approximately 1.7 Mcal/kg of DM) and CP levels were increased with corn gluten meal and fish meal. Dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by increasing dietary CP levels from 16.0 to 19.0% of DM, but dietary CP beyond 19.0% had no effect on DMI. Milk yields were 4.7 and 6.5 kg/d greater in cows fed the 19CP and 21CP diets versus those fed the 16CP diet, whereas 4% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed the 21CP than the 16CP diet (36.0 vs. 31.4 kg/d). Milk protein content and yield, lactose yield, and milk urea nitrogen were elevated by increased dietary CP. Milk lactose content and fat yield were not different among dietary treatments, but milk fat content tended to decline with increasing content of CP in diets. High CP levels increased milk N secretion but decreased milk N efficiency. Apparent digestibility of DM, CP, and neutral detergent fiber was greater on the 19CP and 21CP diets compared with the 16CP diet. Cows fed the 19CP and 21CP diets lost less body condition relative to those fed the 16CP diet over 21 d postpartum. Feeding higher CP levels increased the concentrations of serum albumin, albumin to globulin ratio, and urea nitrogen and decreased aspartate aminotransferase, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate, but had no effect on globulin, glucose, cholesterol, or

  10. Randomised controlled trial: Effects of aerobic exercise training programme on indices of adiposity and metabolic markers in hypertension

    Lamina, S.; Okoye, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of interval training programme on blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption, indices of adiposity and metabolic markers in black African men with essential hypertension. Methods: The study was conducted at Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, from October 24, 2007 to February 24, 2009. It comprised 245 male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure 140-179 and diastolic blood pressure 90-109 mmHg) essential hypertension who were age-matched and grouped into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was involved in an 8-week training programme of between 45 and 60 minutes, while the controls remained sedentary during the period. Cardiovascular parameters, maximal oxygen consumption, per cent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and artherogenic index were assessed. Analysis of co-variance and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis which was done using SPSS 16. Results: The study had 140 (57.1%) cases with a mean age of 58.90+-7.35 years, and 105 (42.9%) controls with a mean age of 58.27+-6.24 years. It revealed significant increased effect of interval training programme on maximal oxygen consumption and high-density lipoprotein. There was significant reduction in on all the other controls. Changes in maximal oxygen consumption as a result of interval training significantly and negatively correlated with the other variables except high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions: The therapeutic role of interval exercise training on blood pressure reduction may be mediated through elevation of high-density lipoprotein, reduction of other markers of metabolism, and reduction in bodyweight and fatness. (author)

  11. LIPID METABOLISM INDICES AND FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN THE BLOOD SERUM OF BROILER CHICKENS FED A DIET WITH LIGNOCELLULOSE

    M Bogusławska-Tryk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the research was to determine lipid metabolism indices and fatty acid profile in the blood serum of Ross 308 chickens (n = 48, fed a finisher mixture supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% of lignocellulose. The feeding trial lasted from 21 to 42 d of the birds' age. Blood samples were collected from each chicken at 42d of age from the pterygoid canal vein. In the blood serum the content of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TCHOL and high density lipoprotein (HDL fraction was determined by the spectrophotometric method. The fatty acids concentration was estimated with the use of the gas chromatography method. Lignocellulose in doses of 0.5 and 1.0% significantly reduced the concentration of triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL fraction. Saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content was not affected by dietary treatments whereas lignocellulose significantly influenced the profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n-3 and n-6 families. Insoluble fiber decreased (p< 0.05 serum concentration of a-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 and increased share of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, dihomogammalinolenic acid (C20:3n-6 and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 in total PUFA, compared to the control birds. The results of the present study have shown that the incorporation of limited amounts of lignocellulose into the broiler diet can influence the lipid metabolism in the chickens.

  12. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination

    Elisa Petri de Odriozola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. OBJECTIVES We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. METHODS Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. RESULTS We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year; this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants. Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13% and 45-64 (38.83% year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB predominated (70.35% and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2 (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337 DG2/MB cases, with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0. The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  13. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.

    Odriozola, Elisa Petri de; Quintana, Ana María; González, Victor; Pasetto, Roque Antonio; Utgés, María Eugenia; Bruzzone, Octavio Augusto; Arnaiz, María Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year); this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants). Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13%) and 45-64 (38.83%) year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB) predominated (70.35%) and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2) (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337) DG2/MB cases), with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0). The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases). Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  14. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2017-02-21

    Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air pollution and traffic noise are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air pollution and noise. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. C-Peptide Is a Sensitive Indicator for the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects from Central Mexico.

    Gonzalez-Mejia, M Elba; Porchia, Leonardo M; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with elevated risk for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A key component of MetS is the development of insulin resistance (IR). The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) model can determine IR by using insulin or C-peptide concentrations; however, the efficiency of insulin and C-peptide to determine MetS has not been compared. The aim of the study was to compare the efficiency of C-peptide and insulin to determine MetS in Mexicans. Anthropometrics, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins were determined in 156 nonpregnant females and 114 males. Subjects were separated into normal or positive for MetS. IR was determined by the HOMA2 calculator using insulin or C-peptide. Correlations were calculated using the Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ). Differences between correlations were determined by calculating Steiger's Z. The sensitivity was determined by the area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) analysis. Independent of the MetS definition [Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), or World Health Organization (WHO)], C-peptide and insulin were significantly higher in MetS subjects (P indicator of MetS. Since C-peptide has recently emerged as a biomolecule with significant importance for inflammatory diseases, monitoring C-peptide levels will aid clinicians in preventing MetS.

  16. Effect of Restriction of Foods with High Fructose Corn Syrup Content on Metabolic Indices and Fatty Liver in Obese Children.

    Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena Del Rocio; López-Lemus, Hilda Lissette; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of restriction of foods with high fructose content in obese school children. In a clinical study, we selected 54 obese children 6 to 11 years old with high fructose consumption (>70 g/day) in order indicate dietary fructose restriction (glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, IGFBP1, and RBP4 serum levels were collected. The group of children had 80% adherence and reported decreased fructose consumption (110 ± 38.6 to 11.4 ± 12.0 g/day) and also a significant decrease in caloric (2,384 ± 568 to 1,757 ± 387 kcal/day) and carbohydrate consumption (302 ± 80.4 to 203 ± 56.0 g/day). The severity of steatosis improved significantly after fructose restriction (p fructose foods with a decrease of caloric and carbohydrate intake at 6 weeks did not induce weight loss; however, triglyceride levels and hepatic steatosis decreased. Differences with other studies in regard to weight loss may be explained by adaptive changes on metabolic expenditure. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Elevated serum advanced glycation endproducts in obese indicate risk for the metabolic syndrome: a link between healthy and unhealthy obesity?

    Uribarri, Jaime; Cai, Weijing; Woodward, Mark; Tripp, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Laurie; Pyzik, Renata; Yee, Kalle; Tansman, Laurie; Chen, Xue; Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A; Vlassara, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Although obesity can predispose to the metabolic syndrome (MS), diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, not all obese subjects develop MS, hence the need for new indicators of risk for this syndrome. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlate with factors involved in the MS, including inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Because AGEs can be derived from food and are modifiable, it is important to determine whether they are a risk factor for MS. The objective of this study was to assess the association of endogenous and exogenous AGEs with MS criteria. The following data were collected in a cross-sectional study of subjects with and without the MS: serum AGEs (sAGEs) and mononuclear cell AGEs, metabolites, pro- and antiinflammatory markers, body fat mass measures, including abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, and caloric and dietary AGE (dAGE) consumption. The study was conducted in the general community. Participants included 130 MS and 139 non-MS subjects of both sexes, older than 50 years. sAGEs ((ϵ)N-carboxymethyllysine, methylglyoxal) were markedly elevated in obese persons with more than one other MS criteria but not in obese without MS criteria. sAGEs directly correlated with markers of IR (HOMA) and inflammation (leptin, TNFα, RAGE) and inversely with innate defenses (SIRT1, AGE receptor 1 [AGER1], glyoxalase-I, adiponectin). sAGEs correlated with dAGEs but not with calories, nutrient consumption, or fat mass measures. Consumption of dAGE, but not of calories, was markedly higher in MS than in non-MS. High sAGEs, a modifiable risk factor for IR, may indicate risk for the MS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. High dietary AGE consumption and serum AGE levels may link healthy obesity to at-risk obesity.

  18. Macroalgae δ15N values in well-mixed estuaries: Indicator of anthropogenic nitrogen input or macroalgae metabolism?

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Guillou, Gaël; Mornet, Françoise; Richard, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Although nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) in macroalgae is widely used as a bioindicator of anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to the coastal zone, recent studies suggest the possible role of macroalgae metabolism in δ15N variability. Simultaneous determinations of δ15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) along the land-sea continuum, inter-species variability of δ15N and its sensitivity to environmental factors are necessary to confirm the efficiency of macroalgae δ15N in monitoring nitrogen origin in mixed-use watersheds. In this study, δ15N of annual and perennial macroalgae (Ulva sp., Enteromorpha sp., Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) are compared to δ15N-DIN along the Charente Estuary, after characterizing δ15N of the three main DIN sources (i.e. cultivated area, pasture, sewage treatment plant outlet). During late winter and spring, when human activities produce high DIN inputs, DIN sources exhibit distinct δ15N signals in nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH): cultivated area (+6.5 ± 0.6‰ and +9.0 ± 11.0‰), pasture (+9.2 ± 1.8‰ and +12.4‰) and sewage treatment plant discharge (+16.9 ± 8.7‰ and +25.4 ± 5.9‰). While sources show distinct δN- in this multiple source catchment, the overall mixture of NO sources - generally >95% DIN - leads to low variations of δN-NO at the mouth of the estuary (+7.7 to +8.4‰). Even if estuarine δN-NO values are not significantly different from pristine continental and oceanic site (+7.3‰ and +7.4‰), macroalgae δ15N values are generally higher at the mouth of the estuary. This highlights high anthropogenic DIN inputs in the estuary, and enhanced contribution of 15N-depleted NH in oceanic waters. Although seasonal variations in δN-NO are low, the same temporal trends in macroalgae δ15N values at estuarine and oceanic sites, and inter-species differences in δ15N values, suggest that macroalgae δ15N values might be modified by the metabolic response of macroalgae to environmental parameters (e

  19. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  20. Nutritional mitigation of winter thermal stress in gilthead seabream associated metabolic pathways and potential indicators of nutritional state

    Richard, Nadege; Silva, Tomé S.; Wulff, Tune

    2016-01-01

    and phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolism, and induced higher aerobic metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Results support the notion that WF diet had a positive effect on fish nutritional state by partially counteracting the effect of thermal stress and underlined the sensitivity of proteome data for nutritional....... A total of 404 protein spots, out of 1637 detected, were differentially expressed between the two groups of fish. Mass spectrometry analysis of selected spots suggested that WF diet improved oxidative stress defense, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, enhanced metabolic flux through methionine cycle...... and metabolic profiling purposes. Intragroup variability and co-measured information were also used to pinpoint which proteins displayed a stronger relation with fish nutritional state....

  1. The Changing Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Lyall, Kristen; Croen, Lisa; Daniels, Julie; Fallin, M Daniele; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Lee, Brian K; Park, Bo Y; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Schendel, Diana; Volk, Heather; Windham, Gayle C; Newschaffer, Craig

    2017-03-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction. Epidemiologic investigations focused on nongenetic factors have established advanced parental age and preterm birth as ASD risk factors, indicated that prenatal exposure to air pollution and short interpregnancy interval are potential risk factors, and suggested the need for further exploration of certain prenatal nutrients, metabolic conditions, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss future challenges and goals for ASD epidemiology as well as public health implications.

  2. Administration of Clinoptilolite to Broiler Chickens During Growth and Its Effect on the Growth Rate and Bone Metabolism Indicators

    E. Straková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate and bone metabolism indicators were monitored in broiler chickens receiving the feed supplemented with clinoptilolite. One-day-old broiler chickens ROSS 308 were divided into control (C and experimental (E groups with 100 males and 100 females per group. The chickens received the complete feed mixture BR1 from 1 to 10 days of age, followed by the feed mixture BR2 until the age of 30 days, and the feed mixture BR3 until the end of the experiment (40 days. The feed mixtures of the experimental group were supplemented with clinoptilolite (commercial additive ZeoFeed at a level of 0.5% (BR1, 1.5% (BR2 and 2.5% (BR3, replacing the corresponding portion of wheat. Feed mixtures and drinking water were provided ad libitum. The live weight of broiler chickens in both the control and experimental group increased steadily during the experiment. At the end of the experiment, live weights of experimental females (2,416 g and males (2,829 g were higher than those of control females (2,345 g and males (2,694 g by 3% and 5%, respectively. Significant differences in the live weight between groups were found from the age of 30 days (P ⪬ 0.05 and P ⪬ 0.01. At the age of 40 days, the chickens were slaughtered and the femur and tibiotarsus of the right leg were analysed for the content of dry matter, ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The ash content in dry matter ranged from 53.0 to 54.1% in group C and from 51.7 to 53.2% in group E. The Ca and P contents in dry matter in group E were lower than those in group C, except for Ca and P in the male tibiotarsus. In both groups, regardless of sex, the ash content was higher in the tibiotarsus than in the femur. Since fat levels in bones of the experimental group were increased (females by 19.5% in the femur and 21.3% in the tibiotarsus; males by 22.0% in the femur and 26.3% in the tibiotarsus, which could affect the values obtained, ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were determined in the

  3. Association of cancer metabolism-related proteins with oral carcinogenesis – indications for chemoprevention and metabolic sensitizing of oral squamous cell carcinoma?

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor metabolism is a crucial factor for the carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods Expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins (GLUT-1, HK 2, PFK-1, LDHA, TKTL1), mitochondrial enzymes (SDHA, SDHB, ATP synthase) were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in OSCC cell lines. Metabolism-related proteins were correlated with proliferation activity (Ki-67) and apoptotic properties (TUNEL assay) in OSCC. Specificity of antibodies was confirmed by western blotting in cancer cell lines. Results Expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins (GLUT-1, HK 2, LDHA, TKTL1), and mitochondrial enzymes (SDHA, SDHB, ATP synthase) were significantly increased in the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Metabolic active regions of OSCC were strongly correlated with proliferating cancer (Ki-67+) cells without detection of apoptosis (TUNEL assay). Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of the expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins GLUT-1, HK 2, PFK-1, LDHA, and TKTL1, as well as mitochondrial enzymes SDHA, SDHB, and ATP synthase in the multi-step carcinogenesis of OSCC. Both, hypoxia-related glucose metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation characteristics are associated with the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Acidosis and OXPHOS may drive a metabolic shift towards the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Therefore, inhibition of the PPP, glycolysis, and targeted anti-mitochondrial therapies (ROS generation) by natural compounds or synthetic vitamin derivatives may act as sensitizer for apoptosis in cancer cells mediated by adjuvant therapies in OSCC. PMID:25048361

  4. The CoLaus study: a population-based study to investigate the epidemiology and genetic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome

    Stirnadel Heide A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases and their associated risk factors remain the main cause of mortality in western societies. In order to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in the Caucasian population of Lausanne, Switzerland, we conducted a population-based study (Colaus Study. A secondary aim of the CoLaus study will be to determine new genetic determinants associated with CVRFs. Methods Single-center, cross-sectional study including a random sample of 6,188 extensively phenotyped Caucasian subjects (3,251 women and 2,937 men aged 35 to 75 years living in Lausanne, and genotyped using the 500 K Affymetrix chip technology. Results Obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, smoking, hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or treatment, dyslipidemia (high LDL-cholesterol and/or low HDL-cholesterol and/or high triglyceride levels and diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l and/or treatment were present in 947 (15.7%, 1673 (27.0%, 2268 (36.7%, 2113 (34.2% and 407 (6.6% of the participants, respectively, and the prevalence was higher in men than in women. In both genders, the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes increased with age. Conclusion The prevalence of major CVRFs is high in the Lausanne population in particular in men. We anticipate that given its size, the depth of the phenotypic analysis and the availability of dense genome-wide genetic data, the CoLaus Study will be a unique resource to investigate not only the epidemiology of isolated, or aggregated CVRFs like the metabolic syndrome, but can also serve as a discovery set, as well as replication set, to identify novel genes associated with these conditions.

  5. Changes in individual indicators of protein metabolism in experimental pnevmonia in a imobilizatsiynoho stress and correction corvitin

    Nataliya M. Ferents

    2015-02-01

    Lviv National Medical University Daniel Galician               Реферат             Изучение сдвигов отдельных показателей белкового обмена, в частности белка, альбуминов, глобулиновых фракций при экспериментальной пневмонии в условиях иммобилизацийного стресса, и их коррекция с помощью корвитина, даёт основание утверждать, что этот антиоксидант оказывает положительное влияние, которое особенно хорошо видно по повышением содержания в плазме крови альбуминов и снижение уровня глобулинов в условиях его применения. Ключевые слова: белковый обмен, пневмония, иммобилизационный стресс, Корвитин.                 Abstract             Study of changes of selected indicators of protein metabolism, including protein, albumin, globulin fractions in experimental pneumonia in aimobilizatsiynoho stress, and their correction using Corvitin gives reason to believe that this antioxidant reveals positive effect, which is particularly well illustrated by the increasing of plasma blood albumin and globulin by reducing conditions of use. Keywords: protein metabolism, pneumonia, immobilization stress, Corvitin.

  6. Genome-scale reconstruction of the Streptococcus pyogenes M49 metabolic network reveals growth requirements and indicates potential drug targets.

    Levering, Jennifer; Fiedler, Tomas; Sieg, Antje; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Hering, Silvio; Veith, Nadine; Olivier, Brett G; Klett, Lara; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Teusink, Bas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Kummer, Ursula

    2016-08-20

    Genome-scale metabolic models comprise stoichiometric relations between metabolites, as well as associations between genes and metabolic reactions and facilitate the analysis of metabolism. We computationally reconstructed the metabolic network of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes M49. Initially, we based the reconstruction on genome annotations and already existing and curated metabolic networks of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis. This initial draft was manually curated with the final reconstruction accounting for 480 genes associated with 576 reactions and 558 metabolites. In order to constrain the model further, we performed growth experiments of wild type and arcA deletion strains of S. pyogenes M49 in a chemically defined medium and calculated nutrient uptake and production fluxes. We additionally performed amino acid auxotrophy experiments to test the consistency of the model. The established genome-scale model can be used to understand the growth requirements of the human pathogen S. pyogenes and define optimal and suboptimal conditions, but also to describe differences and similarities between S. pyogenes and related lactic acid bacteria such as L. lactis in order to find strategies to reduce the growth of the pathogen and propose drug targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Arterial Blood Gases, Electrolytes and Metabolic Indices Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: Inter-and Intrainbred Rat Strain Variation

    2013-03-07

    resulting in metabolic acidosis and reduced pH (69). Oxygen delivery (DO2) to tissues is deter- mined as the product of cardiac output and oxygen content...67–69). This decrease in PaCO2 is probably due to hyperventilation that occurs as a respiratory compensatory mechanism to neutralize metabolic... acidosis . The longest-lived strain, DA, with the least change in BE, also had the least change in PaCO2 and the highest final PaCO2 concentrations. Although

  8. Characterization of homeostasis and erythron and their correlation with both immune and metabolic indices at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    Flyunt, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with urolithiasis and calculus pyelonephritis who are liquidators of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant have disturbances of homeostasis as disseminated intravascular coagulation and of erythron as hyperchrome macrocytic hypo regenerative anemia that are correlated with certain immune and metabolic changes

  9. Investigation Of Arterial Blood Pressure Level And Metabolic Indices In Patients With Arterial Hypertension At Pharmacotherapy With Antihypertensive Medicines Of Various Chemical Structure

    G.Kh. Glybochko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to carry on the comparative analysis of medicines of various chemical structure, Telmisar-tan and Bisoprolol, and to reveal their effect on the arterial blood pressure level and the indices of various metabolic processes in patients with arterial hypertension. 60 out-patients with arterial hypertension (stage II risk III both males and females aged 33-55 have been under study taking Telmisartan and Bisoprolol for 3 months. While treating the patients the arterial blood pressure level control and biochemical investigations for determination the indices of metabolic processes have been carried out. The investigated medications have provided the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure parameters, the increase of concentration of total and ionized calcium, chlorine ions, urea and total bilirubin in blood plasma. Therapy with Telmisartan has shown more significant increase of potassium level in erythro-cytes, decrease of levels of natrium, glucose, glycolized hemoglobin and triglycerides and increased contents of alani-naminotransferase and aspartataminotransferase. The course of therapy with Bisoprolol has restored the normal level of magnesium in blood plasma, has not have any influence on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, increased the level of alaninaminotransferase and significantly increased the contents of total and ionized calcium, urea and creatinine. 3-months therapy with Telmisartan and Bisoprolol has proved the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. The medications under study have had active and variable effects on metabolic indices

  10. Association between textural and morphological tumor indices on baseline PET-CT and early metabolic response on interim PET-CT in bulky malignant lymphomas.

    Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Tabaa, Yassine Al; Kafrouni, Marilyne; Cartron, Guillaume; Vauchot, Fabien; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether metabolic, textural, and morphological tumoral indices evaluated on baseline PET-CT were predictive of early metabolic response on interim PET-CT in a cohort of patients with bulky Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas. This retrospective study included 57 patients referred for initial PET-CT examination. In-house dedicated software was used to delineate tumor contours using a fixed 30% threshold of SUV max and then to compute tumoral metabolic parameters (SUV max, mean, peak, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis, metabolic tumoral volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis, and area under the curve of the cumulative histogram), textural parameters (Moran's and Geary's indices, energy, entropy, contrast, correlation derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix, area under the curve of the power spectral density, auto-correlation distance, and granularity), and shape parameters (surface, asphericity, convexity, surfacic extension, and 2D and 3D fractal dimensions). Early metabolic response was assessed on interim PET-CT using the Deauville 5-point scale and patients were ranked according to the Lugano classification as complete or not complete metabolic responders. The impact of the segmentation method (alternate threshold at 41%) and image resolution (Gaussian postsmoothing of 3, 5, and 7 mm) was investigated. The association of the proposed parameters with early response was assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Their added predictive value was explored using supervised classification by support vector machines (SVM). We evaluated in leave-one-out cross-validation three SVMs admitting as input features (a) MTV, (b) MTV + histological type, and (c) MTV + histology + relevant texture/shape indices. Features associated with complete metabolic response were low MTV (P = 0.01), low TLG (P = 0.003), high power spectral density AUC (P = 0.007), high surfacic extension (P = 0.006), low 2D fractal dimension (P

  11. Induced hypoglycemia for 48 hours indicates differential glucose and insulin effects on liver metabolism in dairy cows.

    Kreipe, L; Vernay, M C M B; Oppliger, A; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M; van Dorland, H A

    2011-11-01

    Hypoglycemia is a characteristic condition of early lactation dairy cows and is subsequently dependent on, and may affect, metabolism in the liver. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of induced hypoglycemia, maintained for 48 h, on metabolic parameters in plasma and liver of mid-lactation dairy cows. The experiment involved 3 treatments, including a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp (HypoG, n=6) to obtain a glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (EuG, n=6) in which the effect of insulin was studied, and a control treatment with a 0.9% saline solution (NaCl, n=6). Blood samples for measurements of insulin, metabolites, and enzymes were taken at least once per hour. Milk yield was recorded and milk samples were collected before and after treatment. Liver biopsies were obtained before and after treatment to measure mRNA abundance by real-time, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of 12 candidate genes involved in the main metabolic pathways. Milk yield decreased in HypoG and NaCl cows, whereas it remained unaffected in EuG cows. Energy-corrected milk yield (kg/d) was only decreased in HypoG cows. In plasma, concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate decreased in response to treatment in EuG cows and was lower (0.41±0.04 mmol/L) on d 2 of the treatment compared with that in HypoG and NaCl cows (on average 0.61±0.03 mmol/L, respectively). Nonesterified fatty acids remained unaffected in all treatments. In the liver, differences between treatments for their effects were only observed in case of mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCKm) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC). In HypoG, mRNA abundance of PEPCKm was upregulated, whereas in EuG and NaCl cows, it was downregulated. The EuG treatment downregulated mRNA expression of G6PC, a marked effect compared with the unchanged transcript expression in NaCl. The mRNA abundance of the insulin receptor remained unaffected in all treatments, and no

  12. Serum vaspin level as a predictive indicator in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Zong-Fan; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Jia, Ben-Li; Yu, Gang; Yin, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2017-07-01

    This study is all about predicting the value of serum vaspin level in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty (LVBG). A total of 164 patients (from January 2012 to May 2015) with severe obesity were chosen and performed LVBG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the serum vaspin level. The patients were given a biochemical automatic analyzer to measure the biochemical indicators. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) helps in the calculation of fasting insulin level (FINS) and insulin resistance (IR). The changes in fatty liver were examined by computed tomography (CT). Receiver operating characteristic curve is used to increase the predictive value of serum vaspin level in the amelioration of liver function and disturbances in the metabolism. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, serum vaspin level, and triglyceride (TG) decreased, but CT value of liver increased at 4th, 7th, and 12th month after surgery. After the 7th and 12th month period of surgery, the alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, FINS, and HOMA-IR reduced in the patients (P fatty liver and metabolic disturbance. This study proves that the serum vaspin level serves as a predictive indicator in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after LVBG.

  13. Interrelations between glucose-induced insulin response, metabolic indicators, and time of first ovulation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Bossaert, P; Leroy, J L M R; De Vliegher, S; Opsomer, G

    2008-09-01

    High-yielding dairy cows are more susceptible to metabolic and reproductive disorders than low-yielding cows. Insulin plays a pivotal role in the development of both problems. In the present study, we aimed to assess the glucose-induced insulin responses of dairy cows at different time points relative to calving and to relate this to the metabolic status and the time of first ovulation. Twenty-three healthy, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with a high genetic merit for milk yield were studied from 14 d prepartum to 42 d postpartum. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed on -14, 14, and 42 d relative to calving to evaluate the plasma insulin and glucose responses to a glucose load, as estimated by the peak concentration, the area under the curve (AUC), and the clearance rates of insulin and glucose. Blood samples were obtained at 3-d intervals and analyzed for glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The time of first ovulation was defined by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma progesterone analysis. Glucose-induced insulin AUC and peak concentration decreased and glucose clearance increased during lactation compared with the dry period. Plasma NEFA concentrations were negatively related to insulin AUC and peak concentrations. Fourteen cows ovulated within 42 d postpartum, and the remaining 9 cows suffered from delayed resumption of ovarian function. Survival analysis demonstrated that cows with lower NEFA concentrations during the dry period tended to have earlier resumption of ovarian activity. In conclusion, our data suggest a decreased plasma insulin response to glucose postpartum in high-yielding dairy cows, possibly contributing to metabolic stress during the early postpartum period. It is hypothesized that NEFA impair glucose-induced insulin secretion in dairy cows. Additionally, our results suggest the importance of lipolysis during the transition period as a risk factor for delayed ovulation.

  14. Proteomic analysis indicates that mitochondrial energy metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue is negatively correlated with feed efficiency in pigs

    Fu, Liangliang; Xu, Yueyuan; Hou, Ye; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhou, Lian; Liu, Huiying; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Miao, Yuanxin; Zhao, Shuhong; Liu, Huazhen; Li, Xinyun

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a highly important economic trait in pig production. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of FE is essential for trait improvement. In this study, the skeletal muscle proteome of high-FE and low-FE pigs were investigated by the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1780 proteins were identified, among which 124 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-FE pigs, with 74 up-regulated and 50 down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Ten randomly selected differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were validated by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the 25 DEPs located in mitochondria were down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Furthermore, the glucose-pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism signaling pathway was found to differ between high- and low-FE pigs. The key enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate were up-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Thus, our results suggested mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle tissue was negatively correlated with FE in pigs, and glucose utilization to generate ATP was more efficient in the skeletal muscle tissue of high-FE pigs. This study offered new targets and pathways for improvement of FE in pigs.

  15. Classical metaphyseal lesions thought to be pathognomonic of child abuse are often artifacts or indicative of metabolic bone disease.

    Miller, Marvin; Mirkin, L David

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to review the histopathology in the original articles by authors Kleinman and Marks that described the specificity of the classical metaphyseal lesion for child abuse and to determine if there were any oversights in the authors' analysis. We reviewed the histopathology of the original studies that equated the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse. We compared this with the histopathology of metaphyseal fractures caused by known accidental, severe trauma in children and reviewed the histopathology of artifacts that can sometimes be produced in bone histology preparations. Acute classical metaphyseal lesions showed no hemorrhage, and the chronic classical metaphyseal showed islands of cartilage proliferation at the metaphyses and growth plate, findings consistent with rickets and other metabolic bone disorders. Some of the acute metaphyseal lesions were consistent with artifacts. We believe the original studies that equate the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse are flawed. The most compelling observation that challenges the histopathology of the classical metaphyseal lesion as being a fracture is the absence of hemorrhage in the acute classical metaphyseal lesion. We hypothesize that some of the classical metaphyseal lesions were artifacts or represent metabolic bone disorders that were not considered and that these two non-traumatic explanations may have been the basis of the abnormal bone findings. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Preoperative overnight parenteral nutrition (TPN) improves skeletal muscle protein metabolism indicated by microarray algorithm analyses in a randomized trial.

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Engström, Cecilia; Lundholm, Kent

    2016-06-01

    Loss of muscle mass is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Uncertainties of treatment efficiency by short-term artificial nutrition remain, specifically improvement of protein balance in skeletal muscles. In this study, algorithmic microarray analysis was applied to map cellular changes related to muscle protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle tissue during provision of overnight preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Twenty-two patients (11/group) scheduled for upper GI surgery due to malignant or benign disease received a continuous peripheral all-in-one TPN infusion (30 kcal/kg/day, 0.16 gN/kg/day) or saline infusion for 12 h prior operation. Biopsies from the rectus abdominis muscle were taken at the start of operation for isolation of muscle RNA RNA expression microarray analyses were performed with Agilent Sureprint G3, 8 × 60K arrays using one-color labeling. 447 mRNAs were differently expressed between study and control patients (P nutrition; particularly anabolic signaling S6K1 (P parenteral nutrition is effective to promote muscle protein metabolism. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Metabolic syndrome components and diabetes incidence according to the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose: The Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Kurotani, Kayo; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Nagahama, Satsue; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Sasaki, Naoko; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kuroda, Reiko; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2017-09-01

    We prospectively examined the association of diabetes risk with the number of metabolic abnormalities, as well as their combinations, according to the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a large-scale Japanese working population. Participants included 55,271 workers at 11 companies who received periodic health check-ups between 2008 and 2013. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) components were defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L. Diabetes newly diagnosed after the baseline examination was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. We calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes incidence using the Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up period (median 4.95 years), 3183 subjects developed diabetes. In individuals with normal fasting glucose levels, the risk of diabetes increased steadily with the increasing number of MetS components; the multivariable-adjusted HRs for incident diabetes for the number of MetS components were 2.0, 4.3, 7.0, and 10.0 for one, two, three, or four MetS components, respectively, compared with the absence of components. A similar association was observed among individuals with IFG; the corresponding HRs were 17.6, 23.8, 33.9, and 40.7. The combinations that included central obesity appeared to be more strongly associated with diabetes risk than other combinations with the same number of MetS components within the same glucose status. Our findings indicate that risk stratification of individuals by the presence or absence of IFG and the number of MetS components can detect individuals with a high risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Erin Golden

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile.To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin.Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  19. Associations between ultrasound measures of abdominal fat distribution and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the ADDITION-PRO study.

    Annelotte Philipsen

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed.Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt's index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll's index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p≤0.0004 and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr

  20. Longitudinal Associations of Exposure to Perfluoroalkylated Substances in Childhood and Adolescence and Indicators of Adiposity and Glucose Metabolism 6 and 12 Years Later: The European Youth Heart Study.

    Domazet, Sidsel L; Grøntved, Anders; Timmermann, Amalie G; Nielsen, Flemming; Jensen, Tina K

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the long-term association of exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), during childhood (9 years) and adolescence (15 years) on indicators of adiposity and glucose metabolism in adolescence (15 years) and young adulthood (21 years). Secondarily, we aim to clarify the degree of tracking of exposure from childhood into young adulthood. Data derived from a large multicenter prospective cohort study, in which the same participants have been observed from childhood (N = 590), during adolescence (N = 444), and into young adulthood (N = 369). Stored plasma samples were analyzed for PFOS and PFOA. Indicators of adiposity comprising body height, body weight, sum of four skinfolds, and waist circumference, as well as indicators of glucose metabolism, comprising fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, and insulin levels, β-cell function, and insulin resistance, have been collected at all study waves. Multiple linear regression was applied in order to model earlier exposure on later outcome while controlling for baseline outcome levels, sex, age, and socioeconomic factors. Childhood exposure to PFOS was associated with indicators of adiposity at 15 years of age that are displayed in elevated BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, as well as increased skinfold thickness and waist circumference at 21 years of age. PFOA exposure in childhood was associated with decreased β-cell function at 15 years of age. We did not observe associations between exposure during adolescence and indicators of adiposity and glucose metabolism in young adulthood. This study found evidence for childhood exposure to PFOS and PFOA predicting adiposity at 15 and 21 years of age and impaired β-cell function at 15 years of age, respectively. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Association between circulating levels of adiponectin and indices of bone mass and bone metabolism in middle-aged post-menopausal women.

    Tenta, R; Kontogianni, M D; Yiannakouris, N

    2012-03-01

    Adiponectin, a fat derived cytokine, is a potential independent contributor to bone mineral density (BMD); however, its action on bone metabolism in humans is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with bone mass indices and bone metabolic markers in middle-aged post-menopausal women without diabetes. A random sample consisted of 81 post-menopausal women (age range 45-61 yr, osteopenic/osteoporotic no.=43) was studied. Lumbar-spine BMD (BMD(L2-L4)) and total-body bone mineral content (TBBMC) were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and IGF-I were determined. No association was observed between total or HMW adiponectin and BMD(L2-L4) or TBBMC. On the contrary, adiponectin levels were positively associated with OPG levels (partial r=0.276, p=0.015) and negatively with IGF-I (partial r=-0.438, pfailed to show statistically significant association between circulating adiponectin levels and indices of bone mass in women during the postmenopausal period, we showed significant associations with OPG and IGF-I levels, suggesting an anabolic role of adiponectin, which may contribute in the understanding of the interplay between adipose tissue-derived hormones and bone metabolism. © 2012, Editrice Kurtis.

  2. The cutoff values of indirect indices for measuring insulin resistance for metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents

    Jun Woo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS and percentile distribution of insulin resistance (IR among Korean children and adolescents were investigated. The cutoff values of IR were calculated to identify high-risk MetS groups.MethodsData from 3,313 Korean subjects (1,756 boys and 1,557 girls, aged 10–18 years were included from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted during 2007–2010. Three different sets of criteria for MetS were used. Indirect measures of IR were homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and triglyceride and glucose (TyG index. The cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were obtained from the receiver operation characteristic curves.ResultsAccording to the MetS criteria of de Ferranti el al., Cook et al., and the International Diabetes Federation, the prevalence rates in males and females were 13.9% and 12.3%, 4.6% and 3.6%, and 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. Uses these 3 criteria, the cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were 2.94 and 8.41, 3.29 and 8.38, and 3.54 and 8.66, respectively. The cutoff values using each of the 3 criteria approximately corresponds to the 50th–75th, 75th, and 75th–90th percentiles of normal HOMA-IR and TyG index levels.ConclusionThis study describes the prevalence rates of MetS in Korean children and adolescents, an index of IR, and the cutoff values for MetS with the aim of detecting high-risk groups. The usefulness of these criteria needs to be verified by further evaluation.

  3. Anthropometric parameters as indicators of metabolic derangements in schizophrenia patients stabilized on olanzapine in an Indian rural population

    Jayanta Kumar Rout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: For any given body mass, Asian Indians have higher central obesity than Europeans. A periodic measurement of body mass index (BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR is practically more feasible than other parameters of metabolic syndrome by repeated blood collection. However, few studies are available on the relative importance of BMI and WHR as markers of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in schizophrenia patients stabilized on second generation antipsychotics in Indian population. Aim: We conducted the present study on such patients to examine whether BMI or WHR can better predict dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in these patients in a rural area. Settings and Design: The study was a hospital based case control study under rural settings on 38 schizophrenia patients stabilized on olanzapine and 30 matched controls. Materials and Methods: Fasting concentrations of blood glucose, lipid parameters and serum insulin were assessed. Data for Homeostatic model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, BMI, and WHR were obtained to assess the insulin resistance, overall body fat distribution and abdominal fat dispensation respectively. Statistical analysis used: ′t′ test was performed to assay any difference in corresponding mean values between cases and controls. Dependence of HOMA-IR on key parameters was assessed by analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA study. Results: Cases exhibited significantly higher values for HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc with a significantly lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc level. ANCOVA study reflected that irrespective of age and sex, HOMA-IR was dependent on serum triglyceride level and WHR (F=8.3 and 5.7 respectively, P<0.05, but not on BMI (F<0.001, P=0.997. Conclusions: Central obesity could be more closely associated with the pathogenesis of prediabetic state in our case group. So, WHR is a better anthropometric parameter than BMI for an early

  4. Usefulness of a new anthropometric indicator - VAI (Visceral Adiposity Index) in the evaluation of metabolic and hormonal disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Jagielski, Paweł; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Nowak, Justyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a new anthropometric indicator that makes it possible to define the risk of obesity-related cardiometabolic complications even before the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Evaluating the usefulness of VAI in order to differentiate metabolically unhealthy women (MU-PCOS) and defining the usefulness of this index in everyday practice. A prospective study was conducted among 43 women who met the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosing polycystic ovarian syndrome. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA v. 10 and relevant statistical tests. The adopted significance level was p = 0.05. Based on the study results, a significant positive correlation was found between the value of VAI and the concentration of insulin (r = 0.33; p index (r = 0.46; p correlation between VAI and the concentration of SHBG (r = -0.53; p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.88; p adiposity index makes it possible to introduce early prevention of metabolic disorders (including cardiometabolic disorders), as well as to evaluate the increase of hyperandrogenemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The use of the cut-off point of VAI = 1.675 is a simple way to evaluate women with MU-PCOS.

  5. Singing can improve speech function in aphasics associated with intact right basal ganglia and preserve right temporal glucose metabolism: Implications for singing therapy indication.

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, we know that some aphasic patients can sing well despite their speech disturbances. Herein, we report 10 patients with non-fluent aphasia, of which half of the patients improved their speech function after singing training. We studied ten patients with non-fluent aphasia complaining of difficulty finding words. All had lesions in the left basal ganglia or temporal lobe. They selected the melodies they knew well, but which they could not sing. We made a new lyric with a familiar melody using words they could not name. The singing training using these new lyrics was performed for 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training, their speech functions were assessed by language tests. At baseline, 6 of them received positron emission tomography to evaluate glucose metabolism. Five patients exhibited improvements after intervention; all but one exhibited intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, but all exhibited left basal ganglia lesions. Among them, three subjects exhibited preserved glucose metabolism in the right temporal lobe. We considered that patients who exhibit intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, together with preserved right hemispheric glucose metabolism, might be an indication of the effectiveness of singing therapy.

  6. Effects of a 6-wk intraduodenal supplementation with quercetin on energy metabolism and indicators of liver damage in periparturient dairy cows.

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Nürnberg, Gerd; Weitzel, Joachim M; Otten, Winfried; Starke, Alexander; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2015-07-01

    Periparturient dairy cows experience metabolic challenges that result in a negative energy balance (EB) and a range of postpartum health problems. To compensate for the negative EB, cows mobilize fatty acids from adipose tissues, which can lead to fatty liver disease, a periparturient metabolic disorder. Flavonoids, such as quercetin (Q), are polyphenolic substances found in all higher plants and have hepatoprotective potential and the ability to prevent or reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. In ruminants, few studies on the metabolic effects of Q are available, and thus this study was conducted to determine whether Q has beneficial effects on EB, lipid metabolism, and hepatoprotective effects in periparturient dairy cows. Quercetin was supplemented intraduodenally to circumvent Q degradation in the rumen. Cows (n=10) with duodenal fistulas were monitored for 7wk. Beginning 3wk before expected calving, 5 cows were treated with 100mg of quercetin dihydrate per kilogram of body weight daily in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution for a total period of 6wk, whereas the control cows received only the sodium chloride solution. The plasma flavonoid levels were higher in the Q-treated cows than in the control cows. A tendency for higher postpartum (pp) than antepartum (ap) plasma flavonoid levels was observed in the Q-treated cows than in the controls, which was potentially caused by a reduced capacity to metabolize Q. However, the metabolic status of the Q-treated cows did not differ from that of the control cows. The pp increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were less in the Q-treated cows than in the control cows. The Q had no effect on energy expenditures, but from ap to pp the cows had a slight decline in respiratory quotients. Irrespective of the treatment group, the oxidation of fat peaked after calving, suggesting that the increase occurred because of an increased supply of fatty acids from lipomobilization. In

  7. Associations between Ultrasound Measures of Abdominal Fat Distribution and Indices of Glucose Metabolism in a Population at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The ADDITION-PRO Study

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Jørgensen, Marit E; Vistisen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices...... standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt...

  8. Individually and Combined Water-Based Exercise With Ginger Supplement, on Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Indices, Among the Obese Women With Breast Neoplasms.

    Karimi, Niloofar; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Fathi Bayatiyani, Zohreh

    2015-12-01

    Breast neoplasms has known as the most common cancer among the women worldwide, and relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and cancer has been recognized since many years ago. The aim of this study was to determine the individual and concomitant effect of 6-weeks water-based exercise and oral ginger supplement on markers that have related to metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation in obese women with breast neoplasms. Forty women whose have diagnosed with breast neoplasms have volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects have randomly assigned into four groups; placebo, exercise training, ginger supplement and exercise training+ ginger supplement groups. Subjects in the ginger supplement group and the exercise training+ ginger supplement group have orally received 4 capsules, 7 days a week and for 6 weeks. The water-based exercise training program have collected at a progressive intensity and time, have ranged from 50% to 75% of heart rate reserve, in a pool, 4 times a week for 6 weeks. Fasting blood sampling has collected at the pretest and post-test. The ginger supplementation and the water-base exercise have resulted in a reduction of hs-CRP, IL-10, insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, LDL-C, TG; but an increase in HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C. The water-base exercise and ginger supplement group have significantly shown larger positive effect in all outcomes, in comparison with the water-base exercise or ginger supplement alone groups. Findings have suggested that obese breast neoplasms survivors have commonly shown metabolic syndrome and elevated inflammation, which placed them at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, data has indicated a protective effect of the nondrug strategies, such as water-base exercise and ginger supplementation have played an important role in pathogenesis of inflammatory and metabolic responses, among diagnosed breast neoplasms.

  9. Methodology for the analysis of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk indicators in the ENSANUT 2006.

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Carrión-Rábago, Citlali; Villalpando, Salvador; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Rojas, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To describe: a) the methods used to quantify biochemical indicators of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), and other cardiovascular risk indicators in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) and b) compare the sub-sample with the non-selected participants in diverse socio-demographic, anthropometric and health characteristics. A sub-sample of 6 021 fasting adult participants was randomly selected from the total fasting participants (n=39 425). We compared diverse socio-demographic, anthropometric and health parameters between this sub-sample and the rest of the participants. No differences were found in sociodemographics characteristics, except age, between the sub-sample and from the rest of the fasting adults. In addition no difference were found between prevalences of overweight and obesity, central obesity, and previously diagnosed high blood pressure, T2D or hypertrigliceridemia. The randomly selected sub-sample was not essentially different from the rest of the fasting subjects. Thus, no bias is expected in the interpretation of cardiovascular risk indicators derived from these data.

  10. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Salinero, Kennan Kellaris; Keller, Keith; Feil, William S.; Feil, Helene; Trong, Stephan; Di Bartolo, Genevieve; Lapidus, Alla

    2008-11-17

    Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized 'central' enzymes involved in anaerobic aromatic degradation proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzyl succinyl synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for formate addition to toluene) and the central benzoylCoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex with the somewhat rare exosortase (epsH), is also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and nitrogen fixation (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial

  11. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Feil Helene

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. Results The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized "central" enzymes to support anaerobic aromatic degradation of benzene proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzylsuccinate synthase (bssABC genes (responsible for fumarate addition to toluene and the central benzoyl-CoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex and exosortase (epsH are also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively. Conclusion Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be

  12. Orange juice consumption and its effect on blood lipid profile and indices of the metabolic syndrome; a randomised, controlled trial in an at-risk population.

    Simpson, E J; Mendis, B; Macdonald, I A

    2016-04-01

    Data from epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest that orange juice (OJ) may have a positive impact on lipid metabolism. However, there have been reports in the media claiming detrimental consequences of 100% juice consumption, including weight-gain and adverse effects on insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profile. The effect of daily OJ consumption was assessed using a randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, parallel group design. Thirty-six overweight, but otherwise healthy men (40-60 years; 27-35 kg m(-2)) with elevated fasting serum cholesterol (5-7 mmol l(-1)), were recruited from the general UK population. None were using nutritional strategies or medication to lower their cholesterol, nor were regular consumers of citrus products. Assessment of BMI, HOMA-IR, and circulating lipid (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, non-esterified fatty acids, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein-A1 and apolipoprotein-B) concentrations, was made when fasted before (V1) and after a 12-week intervention (V2), during which participants consumed 250 ml per d of OJ or an energy and sugars-matched orange-flavoured drink (control). The two groups were matched at V1 with respect to all parameters described above. Although triacylglycerol concentration was similar between the groups at both visits, a trend for the change in this variable to differ between groups was observed (P = 0.060), with those in control exhibiting a significant increase in triacylglycerol at V2, compared with V1. In OJ, those with the highest initial triacylglycerol concentration showed the greatest reduction at V2 (R(2) = 0.579; P consumption of 250 ml per d of OJ did not adversely affect insulin sensitivity, circulating lipids or body weight.

  13. Discovering metabolic indices for early detection of squash (Cucurbita maxima) storage quality using GC-MS-based metabolite profiling.

    Okazaki, K; Kimura, Y; Sugiyama, K; Kami, D; Nakamura, T; Oka, N

    2016-04-01

    Squash (Cucubita maxima) cultivars with good storage qualities are needed for breeding to improve poor crop supply during winter in Japan. We measured changes in squash constituents during different storage periods to identify compounds that were suitable to be used as indices of storage quality. Principal components analysis of compounds at 1-5 months after harvest showed that PC1 scores were lower for cultivars with a higher rather than lower SQ (storage quality) ranks. Partial least-squares regression analysis was performed using the peak areas of all compounds identified from the 15 cultivars at 1 month after harvest as explanation variables and SQ as the target variable. Variable influence on projection scores and rank correlation coefficients were higher for arabinose and xylose, which showed less temporal change during the storage period; hence, they were considered to be suitable indicators for storage evaluation. These data will be useful for future studies aiming to improve storage quality of squash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Manipulating the Circadian and Sleep Cycles to Protect Against Metabolic Disease

    Nohara, Kazunari; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Chen, Zheng (Jake)

    2015-01-01

    Modernization of human society parallels an epidemic of metabolic disorders including obesity. Apart from excess caloric intake, a 24/7 lifestyle poses another important challenge to our metabolic health. Recent research under both laboratory and epidemiological settings has indicated that abnormal temporal organization of sleep and wakeful activities including food intake is a significant risk factor for metabolic disease. The circadian clock system is our intrinsic biological timer that reg...

  15. The impact of electronic education on metabolic control indicators in patients with diabetes who need insulin: a randomised clinical control trial.

    Moattari, Marzieh; Hashemi, Maryam; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad H

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of electronic education on metabolic control indicators in patients with diabetes who were insulin dependent. Education can play an important role in controlling diabetes. Electronic (web-based, telehealth) education may be an efficient way to improve the patients' ability to control this disease. Randomised clinical control study. The participants in this clinical study were 48 insulin-dependent patients referred to diabetes centres in Shiraz, Iran. Serum concentrations of haemoglobin A(1C) , fasting blood sugar, triglycerides and high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. Then the participants were divided randomly into control and experimental groups (n = 24). Participants in the experimental group received a specially designed electronic education programme for twelve weeks. The main components of the programme were a consultation service, quick answers to patients' questions, contact with the healthcare team and educational materials. At the end of the intervention period, all serum values were measured again in both groups. The data were compared using spss v 13·5 software. Serum concentrations of haemoglobin A(1C) (p education programme was useful in lowering two metabolic indicators of diabetes. Electronic education can be associated with increased health and patient satisfaction, and can eliminate the need to train personnel. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Violation of specific indicators pigment and lipid metabolism in experimental pneumonia in an immobilization stress and correction of corvitin

    N. M. Ferenc

    2015-09-01

      Abstract   The aim of study was to investigate the features change cholesterol and bilirubin in the blood serum of guinea pigs (males with experimental pneumonia (EP under conditions of immobilization stress (IS and prove the feasibility of Corvitin. The study was conducted on 48 guinea pigs (males were divided into 6 groups. The research results make it possible to detect liver damage in terms of IS EP and in violation of its functional state. Application domestic preparation Corvitin led to a significant reduction in the changed parameters bilirubin and cholesterol under conditions of formation of EP and IP, which indicates its positive corrective effect.   Keywords: experimental pneumonia, stress, liver, cholesterol, bilirubin.

  17. Indices of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory capacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows.

    Erdmann, S; Mohr, E; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Schäff, C; Börner, S; Kautzsch, U; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Röntgen, M

    2017-10-25

    High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (-16%), standing time (-38%) and heart rate (-15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (L MAX, R 2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having L MAX values above TS (>L MAX: 348±17), those with L MAX values below TS (fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance

  18. Effect of cortisol infusion patterns and castration on metabolic and immunological indices of stress response in cattle.

    Ting, S T L; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2004-05-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that: (1) either acute stress induced by Burdizzo castration, or cortisol infusion would modulate plasma glucose, insulin and growth hormone (GH) concentrations; and (2) immune modulation induced by cortisol would be dependent on the pattern, intensity and duration of circulating cortisol concentrations. Fifty 9.2-month-old Holstein x Friesian bulls (232 +/- 2.0 kg) were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n = 10 per treatment): (1) sham handled control; (2) Burdizzo castration; (3) hydrocortisone infusion to mimic the castration-induced secretion pattern of cortisol; (4) hourly pulse infusion of hydrocortisone; and (5) sustained infusion of hydrocortisone for 8h. Blood samples were collected intensively on day 0, and weekly from days 1 to 35. Castration acutely increased plasma cortisol, GH and haptoglobin concentrations, suppressed lymphocyte in vitro interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, but had no effect on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Cortisol infusion to simulate the castration-induced secretion pattern of cortisol, and pulse infusion of cortisol did not suppress the IFN-gamma production. A sustained infusion of cortisol resulted in the transient suppression of IFN-gamma production. Moreover, the sustained cortisol infusion resulted in increased plasma glucose, insulin and GH concentrations. The overall 14-day feed intakes and 35-day growth rates were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, cortisol infusion to induce immune suppression in vivo occurred only at pharmacological doses. Within physiological ranges, cortisol was not associated with the suppression of immune function, indicating that during castration cortisol per se is not responsible for the suppression of in vitro IFN-gamma production.

  19. Elevated serum triglycerides is the strongest single indicator for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Dimou Eleni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetes already fulfill one diagnostic criterion for MS according to the existing classifications. Our aim was to identify one single clinical parameter, which could effectively predict the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied all patients with type 2 diabetes who attended our Diabetes Outpatient Clinic during a three-month period. Waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipids were measured. Establishment of MS diagnosis was based a on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria and b on International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied in order to identify the clinical parameter with the highest predictive capability for MS. Among the 500 participating patients (231 males, 269 females, MS was diagnosed in 364 patients (72.8% according to the NCEP ATP III criteria and in 408 patients (81.6% according to the IDF criteria. Results For the NCEP ATP III classification, serum triglycerides (in the overall population, waist and HDL (in female population demonstrated the highest predictive capability for MS (AUCs:0.786, 0.805 and 0.801, respectively. For the IDF classification, no single parameter reached an AUC > 0.800 in the overall population. In females, HDL displayed a satisfactory predictive capability for MS with an AUC which was significantly higher than the one in males (0.785 vs. 0.676, respectively, p Conclusion Elevated serum triglycerides strongly indicate the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. In female patients with type 2 diabetes, central obesity was the second stronger predictor of MS besides hypertriglyceridemia.

  20. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling

    Zeis, T.

    2015-04-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms we analyzed the molecular alterations in histopathological normal appearing cortical gray matter (NAGM) in MS. By performing a differential gene expression analysis of NAGM of control and MS cases we identified reduced transcription of astrocyte specific genes involved in the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) and the glutamate–glutamine cycle (GGC). Additional quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating a CX43 loss in MS NAGM confirmed a crucial involvement of astrocytes and emphasizes their importance in MS pathogenesis. Concurrently, a Toll-like/IL-1β signaling expression signature was detected in MS NAGM, indicating that immune-related signaling might be responsible for the downregulation of ANLS and GGC gene expression in MS NAGM. Indeed, challenging astrocytes with immune stimuli such as IL-1β and LPS reduced their ANLS and GGC gene expression in vitro. The detected upregulation of IL1B in MS NAGM suggests inflammasome priming. For this reason, astrocyte cultures were treated with ATP and ATP/LPS as for inflammasome activation. This treatment led to a reduction of ANLS and GGC gene expression in a comparable manner. To investigate potential sources for ANLS and GGC downregulation in MS NAGM, we first performed an adjuvant-driven stimulation of the peripheral immune system in C57Bl/6 mice in vivo. This led to similar gene expression changes in spinal cord demonstrating that peripheral immune signals might be one source for astrocytic gene expression changes in the brain. IL1B upregulation in MS NAGM itself points to a possible endogenous signaling process leading to ANLS and GGC downregulation. This is supported by our findings that, among others

  1. The effect of balneotherapy on antioxidant, inflammatory, and metabolic indices in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and obesity)--a randomised, controlled, follow-up study.

    Oláh, Mihály; Koncz, Ágnes; Fehér, Judit; Kálmánczhey, Judit; Oláh, Csaba; Nagy, György; Bender, Tamás

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of our study was to explore the changes of antioxidant, inflammatory, and metabolic parameters in obese and hypertension people patients during balneotherapy and to evaluate the safety of balneotherapy in these participants. Following randomisation, 22 obese and 20 hypertensive patients underwent balneotherapy with thermal water of 38°C temperature, in 15 sessions of 30 minutes. An additional 22 obese and 20 hypertensive patients served as controls. Antioxidant, inflammatory, and metabolic parameters were determined at baseline, as well as post-treatment and at the end of follow-up (at 15 weeks). As regards changes observed in hypertensive patients subjected to balneotherapy, differences could be detected between baseline and post-treatment albumin and haemoglobin A(1c) levels only; however, these were no longer significant after 3 months. Although the difference between transferrin levels determined at the end of balneotherapy and 3 months later was significant, it remained within the physiological range, as well as it was accompanied by normal serum iron level and therefore, it was considered irrelevant. C-reactive protein levels of balneotherapy patients decreased significantly after treatment. In obese patients, haemoglobin A(1c) level decreased after balneotherapy, but this difference was not observed either after 3 months. Similarly, both transferrin and C-reactive protein levels changed from baseline, but not between groups. This study contributes important information regarding the safety of balneotherapy in hypertensive and obese diabetics by showing no alterations of antioxidant, inflammatory, or metabolic indices. The findings of this study confirm that balneotherapy is not contraindicated for hypertensive or obese patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003-2007 estimates.

    Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R

    2008-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003-7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003-7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of "sex with a man in last 12 months" between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. A considerable number of new studies with estimates of

  3. Symptomatic Patients without Epidemiological Indicators of HIV Have a High Risk of Missed Diagnosis: A Multi-Centre Cross Sectional Study.

    Brännström, Johanna; Svedhem, Veronica; Marrone, Gaetano; Andersson, Örjan; Azimi, Farshad; Blaxhult, Anders; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2016-01-01

    One quarter of HIV-1 positive individuals in Sweden present for care with HIV or AIDS associated conditions without an HIV test (missed presentations) and 16% report neglect of such symptoms. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for these missed opportunities of HIV-1 diagnosis. A national study, recruiting 409 newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected adults over a 2.5-year period, was performed. Logistic regression models tested the relationship between missed presentation and patient's neglect versus socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors. Additionally the initiator of the HIV test was assessed. The odds for a missed presentation was lower for migrants (from East Europe, Asia, and Pacific (East): OR 0.4 (0.2-0.8); Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): 0.3 (0.2-0.6); other: 0.5 (0.2-1.0)), compared to patients born in Sweden, just as symptoms neglected by the patient (East (0.3 (0.1-1.0); SSA (0.4 (0.2-0.8)). The latter was also lower for men who have sex with men (0.5 (0.2-1.0)), compared to patients infected heterosexually. Patients infected in the East, with present/previous substance use or a previous negative HIV test were more likely to take the initiative to test on their own, whereas those >50 years and with a previously missed presentation had significantly reduced odds, pepidemiological indicators of HIV are more likely to have a history of missed presentations, to neglect symptoms and are less prone to take an initiative to test for HIV themselves. It is important to further implement testing to include all patients with symptoms and conditions indicative of HIV.

  4. Epidemiology of Gout

    Choi, Hyon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the last few decades. Whilst incidence data are scarce, data from the US suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C appear to have a protective effect. Further prospective studies are required to examine other proposed risk factors for hyperuricaemia and gout such as the use of β-blockers and angiotension-II receptor antagonists (other than losartan), obstructive sleep apnoea, and osteoarthritis, and putative protective factors such as calcium-channel blockers and losartan. PMID:24703341

  5. Epidemiological causality.

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  6. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  7. Adiposity indicators lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as alternate criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic obesity in adult

    Mariya Tabassum; Md. Matiur Rahman; Miliva Mozaffor

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic obesity refers to the state of having metabolic syndrome irrespective of one’s BMI. This study was aimed to elucidate the lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as simple and alternate criteria for the detecting metabolic obesity in adult. The study was conducted in 200 adult (age range: 19-45 years). According to lipid accumulation product and Triglyceride-glucose index, the prevalence of metabolic obesity was 54.0% and 53.5% respectively. With a cutoff value of ...

  8. Early-menarche as Determinant Factor for Metabolic-risks: An Epidemiology Perspectives among Adolescent Girls aged 13-15 years old in Jakarta-Indonesia

    Ririn Hariani

    2018-01-01

    A total of 194 adolescent girls were participated in this study. Early menarche was found in 22.68% of all subjects. There was no association between menarche status and daily macronutrients intake pattern and physical activity level score. Early menarche subjects had significantly higher BMI (p<0.001, CDC-percentile (p<0.001, WHO Z-score (p<0.001, and waist circumference values (p=0.02. Furthermore, early menarche subjects also had higher systolic blood pressure (p=0.035, total cholesterol level (p=0.028, LDL-cholesterol level (p=0.013, and triglyceride level (p=0.026. There was no association between menarche status and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, HDL-C level, lipid profile ratio. In conclusion, early menarche is an important determinant factor of metabolic risks, and balance between dietary intake and physical activity level should be prioritized among them.

  9. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  10. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus "Ferrovum".

    Sophie R Ullrich

    Full Text Available Members of the genus "Ferrovum" are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain "Ferrovum myxofaciens" P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus "Ferrovum" is extremely scarce.In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus "Ferrovum" we sequenced the genome of a "Ferrovum"-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel "Ferrovum" strain JA12.The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct "Ferrovum" species. "Ferrovum" strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that "Ferrovum" strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively.The potential utilisation of urea by "Ferrovum" strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs "Ferrovum" strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin and Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans (iron oxidase indicates the existence of a modified pathway in "Ferrovum" strain JA12

  11. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Zespół Metaboliczny cz. II: Epidemiologia zespołu metabolicznego w Polsce i na świecie = Metabolic Syndrome part II: Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in Poland and in the World

    Paweł Kalinowski

    2016-05-01

    2. Oddział Kardiologii – Pododdział Intensywnego Nadzoru Kardiologicznego, Wojewódzki Szpital Specjalistyczny im. Stefana Kardynała Wyszyńskiego, Al. Kraśnicka 100, 20-718 Lublin   Słowa kluczowe: zespół metaboliczny, insulinooporność, choroby sercowo-naczyniowe, choroba niedokrwienna serca Key words: metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, cardio-vascular diseases, coronary heart disease   Streszczenie Zespół metaboliczny jako czynnik ryzyka rozwoju chorób sercowo-naczyniowych i cukrzycy typu 2, jak pokazują liczne badania, jest znacznie rozpowszechniony zarówno w Polsce jak i w Europie oraz na innych kontynentach. Od lat prowadzone są badania, która definicja zespołu metabolicznego ma najlepszą wartość prognostyczną i diagnostyczną. W zależności od kryteriów stosowanych w różnych definicjach, a także od charakterystyki badanej populacji, częstość występowania zespołu metabolicznego jest różna. Niezależnie od kryteriów jest ona wysoka i wciąż rośnie. Celem pracy było przedstawienie rozpowszechnienia zespołu metabolicznego w Polsce i innych krajach, jako czynnika ryzyka chorób układu sercowo-naczyniowego na podstawie danych dostępnych z piśmiennictwa. Według badań przeprowadzonych w Polsce zespół metaboliczny dotyczy około 20% dorosłej populacji, czyli około 5,8 miliona mieszkańców Polski, częściej występuje u kobiet niż u mężczyzn. Na świecie problem ten może dotyczyć nawet 33% populacji Stanów Zjednoczonych, 27% populacji Chin, w Europie zawiera się pomiędzy ok. 15% (Francja do około 34 % populacji (Włochy, Finlandia. Zespół metaboliczny wiąże się ze zwiększoną częstością występowania cukrzycy, zdarzeń sercowo-naczyniowych i śmiertelności, według wielu badań 2,5-krotnie zwiększa ryzyko wystąpienia zawału mięśnia serca, powoduje 1,5-krotny wzrost śmiertelności całkowitej i 2-krotny wzrost incydentów sercowo-naczyniowych.   Summary As numerous studies have shown

  13. Systematic Review of the Epidemiology and Natural History of the Metabolic Vascular Syndrome and its Coincidence with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases in Different European Countries.

    Kwasny, Caroline; Manuwald, Ulf; Kugler, Joachim; Rothe, Ulrike

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were to estimate the incidence, prevalence and natural history of the metabolic (vascular) syndrome (MVS) among adults in different European countries. Furthermore, we assessed its co-incidence with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). PubMed, MedLine, and EMBASE (via Ovid) were searched for relevant studies. After reading 116 full-text articles to find eligible ones, 66 publications met our inclusion criteria. Data for the incidence are based on a study from Portugal, in which the incidence rate for the MVS was 47.2/1000 person-years. Prevalence varied strongly depending on country and definition. The lowest was found in the United Kingdom (3%), the highest in Finland (71.7%). No article that deals with the natural history of the MVS was found. Considering the co-existence of MVS and T2DM, it ranged between 2% (United Kingdom) and 74.4% (Spain). The co-occurrence of MVS and CVD ranged from 2.8% (Italy) up to 52% (Netherlands). Coronary heart disease (CHD) varied between 1.2% and 44.2%. With regard to peripheral artery disease (PAD), values between 3.3% and 59.8% were found. Due to the many different definitions of the MVS, a comparison is very difficult. Overall prevalence ranged between 3% and 71.7% depending on definition, age, and country. An association between MVS and T2DM as well as several CVD can be assumed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Metabolic Availability of the Limiting Amino Acids Lysine and Tryptophan in Cooked White African Cornmeal Assessed in Healthy Young Men Using the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique.

    Rafii, Mahroukh; Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2018-06-01

    Maize is a staple food in many regions of the world, particularly in Africa and Latin America. However, maize protein is limiting in the indispensable amino acids lysine and tryptophan, making its protein of poor quality. The main objective of this study was to determine the protein quality of white African cornmeal by determining the metabolic availability (MA) of lysine and tryptophan. To determine the MA of lysine, 4 amounts of l-lysine (10, 13, 16, and 18 mg · kg-1 · d-1 totaling 28.6%, 37.1%, 45.7%, and 51.4% of the mean lysine requirement of 35 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively) were studied in 6 healthy young men in a repeated-measures design. To determine the MA of tryptophan, 4 amounts of l-tryptophan (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mg · kg-1 · d-1 totaling 12.5%, 25.0%, 37.5%, and 50.0% of the mean tryptophan requirement of 4 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively) were studied in 7 healthy young men in a repeated-measures design. The MAs of lysine and tryptophan were estimated by comparing the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) response with varying intakes of lysine and tryptophan in cooked white cornmeal compared with the IAAO response to l-lysine and l-tryptophan intakes in the reference protein (crystalline amino acid mixture patterned after egg protein) with the use of the slope ratio method. The MAs of lysine and tryptophan from African cooked white cornmeal were 71% and 80%, respectively. Our study provides a robust estimate of the availability of lysine and tryptophan in African white maize to healthy young men. This estimate provides a basis for postproduction fortification or supplementation of maize-based diets. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402179.

  15. Change of the level of adiponectin and metabolic indices in modification of life style of the patients suffering from abdominal obesity

    A. V. Beresina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied nutritional habits, physical loads, anthropometric and metabolic perfromances, and revealed the changes required to increase the level of adiponectine under drug-free modalities of treatment of patients suffering from abdominal obesity. A 3-year randomized lifestyle intervention trial was performed in 153 patients with AO, age 30-53 yrs, 74 patients (group 1 performed individual hypocaloric diet balanced in fat intake, 79 patients (group 2 performed diet and individual aerobic exercise All patients received individual recommendations on changing their life style. Dynamics of anthropometric, metabolic parameters, physical capacity and adiponectin level were measured. Relation between low level of adiponectin and some metabolic disorders, and sedentary life were revealed. The rate of improving anthropometric parameters, physical capacity, and nutritionassociated with increasing adiponectin was established.

  16. [Metabolic functions and sport].

    Riviere, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Current epidemiological studies emphasize the increased of metabolic diseases of the adults, such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndromes. Even more worrying is the rising prevalence of obesity in children. It is due more to sedentariness, caused more by inactivity (television, video, games, etc.) than by overeating. Many studies have shown that regular physical activities benefit various bodily functions including metabolism. After dealing with the major benefits of physical exercise on some adult metabolic disorders, we focus on the prime role played by physical activity in combating the public health problem of childhood obesity.

  17. Mathematical epidemiology

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  18. EPRI epidemiology

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A fight is brewing within the electric power community over the fate of a proposed $5 to $8 million epidemiological study of the effects of radiation on US nuclear plant workers. Several industry experts, claiming the project would merely lead to confusion by producing no clear results, are trying to prevent the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) from funding what would be the largest ever occupational study of this kind, covering perhaps as many as 500,000 workers. Ralph Lapp, a well-known radiation physicist, says that EPRI is facing unprecedented technical dissent from within. He claims there is already plenty of evidence that nuclear utilities are among the safest places to work, at least in terms of cancer risk, and that the proposed EPRI study would raise new concerns without yielding any answers

  19. Validity of triglyceride-glucose index as an indicator for metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-V study.

    Angoorani, Pooneh; Heshmat, Ramin; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ziaodini, Hasan; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Aminaee, Tahereh; Goodarzi, Azam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya

    2018-02-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index as one of the indirect indices for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a pediatric population. This national study was conducted in 2015 on 14400 students, aged 7-18 years. They were selected by random cluster sampling from 30 provinces of our country during the fifth survey of a national school-based surveillance program. MetS was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for the pediatric age group. The cut-off values of TyG index for MetS were obtained using the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve analysis by gender and age groups. Totally, 3843 students (52.3% boys) with mean (SD) age of 12.45 (3.04) years were assessed. The area under the ROC curve of TyG index for MetS was 0.83 in total participants. According to the ATP III criteria the cut-off values of the TyG index were 8.33 (8.21-8.45) in total students, 8.47 (8.36-8.58) in boys, and 8.33 (8.18-8.48) in girls. In the 7-12 and 13-18 years' age groups, these values were 8.47 (8.32-8.63) and 8.34 (8.22-8.45) in total, 8.39 (8.26-8.52) and 8.47 (8.33-8.61) in boys, 8.33 (8.11-8.55) and 8.35 (8.22-8.47) in girls, respectively. The findings of this study can be clinically helpful for screening MetS in children and adolescents but the effectiveness of these criteria needs to be evaluated by further longitudinal surveys. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study (National surveillance study).

  20. D-Serine exposure resulted in gene expression changes indicative of activation of fibrogenic pathways and down-regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress response

    Soto, Armando; DelRaso, Nicholas J.; Schlager, John J.; Chan, Victor T.

    2008-01-01

    , metabolism and transport, inflammatory response, proteasome-mediated degradation of oxidatively damaged cytosolic proteins, Ras protein signal transduction, TGF-beta signaling pathway and mRNA transcription, processing, splicing and transport. On the other hand, major metabolic pathways, which include carbohydrate metabolism, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis coupled electron transport, amino acid metabolism and transport, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and vitamin metabolism, and oxidative stress response including induction of antioxidant genes and glutathione metabolism are down-regulated. As tubular epithelia have strong energy demand for normal functions, down-regulation of energy metabolism after D-serine treatment may be related to the mechanism of its nephrotoxicity. In addition, hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, is produced as a byproduct of the metabolism of D-serine by D-amino acid oxidase in the peroxisomes of the tubular epithelia. Down-regulation of pathways for antioxidant genes induction and glutathione metabolism will likely exacerbate the cytotoxicity of this reactive oxygen species. The observation that the genes involved in apoptosis, DNA repair, proteasome pathway for the degradation of oxidatively damaged cytosolic proteins were up-regulated lends some supports to this premise. Up-regulation of pathways of cell proliferation cycle, DNA replication and gene expression process, including mRNA transcription, processing, splicing, transport, translation initiation, and protein transport along with protein complex assembly, suggests ongoing tissue repair and regeneration. Consistent with the fibrogenic function of the TGF-beta signaling pathway in various experimental renal diseases, genes encoding major extracellular matrix components such as collagens, laminins, fibronectin 1 and tenascins are also strongly up-regulated. Taken together, the results of this study provide important insights into the molecular mechanism

  1. [Changes in the energy indices of Escherichia coli during exhaustion and renewal of glucose and ammonia supply as a factor responsible for the coupling of energy and constructive types of metabolism].

    Tkachenko, A G

    1990-01-01

    The shift down of glucose in the growth medium lowered the energetic status of cells whereas that of ammonium elevated it, which was indicative of their specific effect on metabolism. The shift up of glucose within the first four seconds promptly increased the intracellular ATP pool, the energy charge and the ATP/ADP ratio up to values characteristic of growth, while the addition of ammonium after its exhaustion resulted in the opposite effect. The described changes are typical of an incomplete coupling between energetic and constructive metabolic types in E. coli.

  2. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

  3. Long-term consequences of small doses ionizing radiation effect on carbohydrate metabolism indices and their interrelation with incretory function on pancreas

    Akhmetov, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Upon inspection of 100 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences it was established that main pathogenic factors of the damaging effect of small dose ionizing radiation is its indirect action realized through the infringement of hormonal mechanisms of metabolism regulation. Carbohydrates metabolism disorders are considered from viewpoint of the hormonal status fluctuations in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences observed in the form of basal immunoreactive insulin level reduction and simultaneous increase of counter-insular hormones concentration in blood. Potential disorders in the glucose tolerance test have been observed in 32 % of the patients, decrease of immunoreactive insulin in 89 % and also increase of counter-insular hormones concentration in 52,8 %. Interrelation of revealed hormonal and metabolic changes with radiation factor in its long-term period was established. Marked changes are caused in the organism and stress effects of the radiation factor. By means of multifractal dispersion analysis it has been found that the contribution of the radiation factor in the propagation of the described changes constitutes 86,5 %. Sulphate-ion is shown to be able to taking incorporated long-living radionuclides from the organism along with the mitigation of their toxic effect. Application of the method of glucose tolerance test estimation by the generalized criterion allows to specify risk groups of the carbohydrates metabolism disorders propagation among the liquidators followed by the endocrinological observation, hormonal status control and application of preventive measures. (author)

  4. Sex Effect on Obesity Indices and Metabolic Outcomes in Patients with Obese Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes After Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery: a Preliminary Study.

    Xu, Huajun; Zhang, Pin; Han, Xiaodong; Yu, Haoyong; Di, Jianzhong; Zou, Jianyin; Wang, Yuyu; Qian, Yingjun; Tu, Yinfang; Bao, Yuqian; Yi, Hongliang; Guan, Jian; Yin, Shankai; Jia, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, little attention has been paid to the treatment goals systematically stratified by sex. The objective of this study was to assess how sex differences affect obesity indices and metabolic outcomes after RYGB surgery. A sleep questionnaire was conducted and medical histories were taken. Full-night polysomnography (PSG), anthropometric variables, and blood samples were collected. Thirty-five consecutive patients with OSA who underwent laparoscopic RYGB surgery were prospectively examined for at least 6 months were included in the study. Significant improvements (p obesity indices, and metabolic outcomes [except low-density lipoprotein in men and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in women] were obtained in men and women with OSA. Men had higher baseline triglyceride (TG) (p women. However, only TG in men improved more than in women (p = 0.02). Sleep parameters, obesity indices, and metabolic outcomes after RYGB surgery were of similar magnitude in women and men with OSA. Alleviating sleep and obesity problems was correlated with metabolic outcomes in men and women.

  5. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  6. Transplacental exposure to inorganic arsenic at a hepatocarcinogenic dose induces fetal gene expression changes in mice indicative of aberrant estrogen signaling and disrupted steroid metabolism

    Liu Jie; Xie Yaxiong; Cooper, Ryan; Ducharme, Danica M.K.; Tennant, Raymond; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic in utero in C3H mice produces hepatocellular carcinoma in male offspring when they reach adulthood. To help define the molecular events associated with the fetal onset of arsenic hepatocarcinogenesis, pregnant C3H mice were given drinking water containing 0 (control) or 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation. At the end of the arsenic exposure period, male fetal livers were removed and RNA isolated for microarray analysis using 22K oligo chips. Arsenic exposure in utero produced significant (p < 0.001) alterations in expression of 187 genes, with approximately 25% of aberrantly expressed genes related to either estrogen signaling or steroid metabolism. Real-time RT-PCR on selected genes confirmed these changes. Various genes controlled by estrogen, including X-inactive-specific transcript, anterior gradient-2, trefoil factor-1, CRP-ductin, ghrelin, and small proline-rich protein-2A, were dramatically over-expressed. Estrogen-regulated genes including cytokeratin 1-19 and Cyp2a4 were over-expressed, although Cyp3a25 was suppressed. Several genes involved with steroid metabolism also showed remarkable expression changes, including increased expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-7 (HSD17β7; involved in estradiol production) and decreased expression of HSD17β5 (involved in testosterone production). The expression of key genes important in methionine metabolism, such as methionine adenosyltransferase-1a, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and thioether S-methyltransferase, were suppressed. Thus, exposure of mouse fetus to inorganic arsenic during a critical period in development significantly alters the expression of various genes encoding estrogen signaling and steroid or methionine metabolism. These alterations could disrupt genetic programming at the very early life stage, which could impact tumor formation much later in adulthood

  7. Caffeine raises the serum melatonin level in healthy subjects: an indication of melatonin metabolism by cytochrome P450(CYP)1A2.

    Ursing, C; Wikner, J; Brismar, K; Röjdmark, S

    2003-05-01

    Caffeine is metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450(CYP)1A2. Recent findings imply that this enzyme may also be of importance for the metabolism of human melatonin (MT). If caffeine and MT are metabolized by the same enzyme, one may expect to find different serum MT levels after ingestion of coffee compared with placebo. Although coffee is consumed by people all over the world, few studies have focused on whether caffeine actually affects serum MT levels in normal subjects. We decided to study that particular topic. For that purpose 12 healthy individuals were tested on two occasions, one week apart. On one of these occasions they were given a capsule containing 200 mg caffeine in the evening. On the other, they received placebo. The experimental order was randomized. Serum MT levels were determined every second hour between 22:00 h and 08:00 h, and the melatonin areas under the curve (MT-AUCs) were calculated. After caffeine the serum MT level rose from 0.09 +/- 0.03 nmol/l at 22:00 h to 0.48 +/- 0.07 nmol/l at 04:00 h. The corresponding rise after placebo was less prominent (from 0.06 +/- 0.01 to 0.35 +/- 0.06 nmol/l). This was reflected by the MT-AUC which was 32% larger after ingestion of caffeine compared with placebo (MT-AUC(caffeine) 3.16 +/- 0.44 nmol/l x h vs MT-AUC(placebo) 2.39 +/- 0.40 nmol/l x h; p coffee, augments the nocturnal serum MT level, which in turn supports the notion that cytochrome P450(CYP)1A2 is involved in the hepatic metabolism of human MT.

  8. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging–measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects2

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. Objective We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. Results In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r ≤ 0.07). Multivariate adjustment found no significant difference for optimally fitting models between the use of anthropometric and MRI measures, and the magnitudes of differences were small (adjusted R2 ≤ 0.06). For HOMA and HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Conclusion Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects. PMID:18541572

  9. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism indices dynamic in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and obesity in 6 months and 1 year after myocardial revascularization

    P. P. Kravchun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays conservative therapy and reperfusion techniques, which include thrombolytic therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention considered as the main strategies for the acute coronary syndrome treatment. Aim. To assess carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and obesity in 6 months and 1 year after myocardial revascularization. Methods and results. 58 patients who underwent thrombolytic therapy and 32 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were examined. Glucose level was determined by glucose oxidation method, insulin – by ELISA and lipid profile – according to the standard biochemical methods. It was established that in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and obesity positive effect was defined in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by reducing of serum glucose level, insulin, total cholesterol, low and very low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and increasing of high density lipoproteins, cholesterol in 6 months and 1 year after reperfusion therapy. Significant differences in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the examined patients, depending on the type of reperfusion therapy, have not been detected in 6 months and 1 year after revascularization. Conclusion. Comparative analysis of different methods of myocardial revascularization did not show any advantages of them.

  10. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  11. Clinical epidemiology.

    Martin, S W; Bonnett, B

    1987-06-01

    Rational clinical practice requires deductive particularization of diagnostic findings, prognoses, and therapeutic responses from groups of animals (herds) to the individual animal (herd) under consideration This process utilizes concepts, skills, and methods of epidemiology, as they relate to the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations, and casts them in a clinical perspective.We briefly outline diagnostic strategies and introduce a measure of agreement, called kappa, between clinical diagnoses. This statistic is useful not only as a measure of diagnostic accuracy, but also as a means of quantifying and understanding disagreement between diagnosticians. It is disconcerting to many, clinicians included, that given a general deficit of data on sensitivity and specificity, the level of agreement between many clinical diagnoses is only moderate at best with kappa values of 0.3 to 0.6.Sensitivity, specificity, pretest odds, and posttest probability of disease are defined and related to the interpretation of clinical findings and ancillary diagnostic test results. An understanding of these features and how they relate to ruling-in or ruling-out a diagnosis, or minimizzing diagnostic errors will greatly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the practitioner, and reduce the frequency of clinical disagreement. The approach of running multiple tests on every patient is not only wasteful and expensive, it is unlikely to improve the ability of the clinician to establish the correct diagnosis.We conclude with a discussion of how to decide on the best therapy, a discussion which centers on, and outlines the key features of, the well designed clinical trial. Like a diagnosis, the results from a clinical trial may not always be definitive, nonetheless it is the best available method of gleaning information about treatment efficacy.

  12. Prognostic value of metabolic indices and bone marrow uptake pattern on preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma

    Li, Chao; Chen, Suyun; Huang, Shuo; Wu, Shuqi; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Fengxian; Wang, Hui [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Jian [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Universal Medical Imaging Diagnostic Center, Shanghai (China)

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic parameters and bone marrow uptake (BMU) patterns on pretherapeutic 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma (NB). Forty-seven pediatric patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathological factors and metabolic parameters including maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and bone marrow uptake patterns on PET/CT were compared to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) by univariate and multivariate analysis. During the follow-up period, 27 (57.4%) patients experienced recurrence. MTV (P = 0.001), TLG (P = 0.004) and BMU patterns (P = 0.025) remained significant predictive factors for tumor recurrence, along with tumor size, histology, stage, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and other distant metastasis (except bone metastasis). Univariate analysis showed that histology, stage, tumor size (>37.25 cm), other distant metastasis, MTV (>88.10cm{sup 3}) and TLG (>1045.2 g) and BMU patterns correlated with both RFS and OS (P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, TLG remained the only independent prognostic factor for RFS (P = 0.016) and OS (P = 0.012), and BMU patterns and MTV were statistically significant for OS (P = 0.024 and P = 0.038, respectively). Pretherapeutic 18F-FDG PET/CT can provide reliable prognostic information for neuroblastoma pediatric patients, and patients with high MTV, TLG and focal bone marrow (unifocal and multifocal) uptake on PET/CT may have inferior outcomes during subsequent treatment. (orig.)

  13. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    Huanhuan Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS for DM in Japanese. Methods Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20–69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980, were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. Results During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3–4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7–9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Conclusion Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  14. Metabonomics Indicates Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis, β-Oxidation, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Triclocarban-Induced Cardiac Metabolic Alterations in Male Mice.

    Xie, Wenping; Zhang, Wenpeng; Ren, Juan; Li, Wentao; Zhou, Lili; Cui, Yuan; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhenqing; Shen, Guolin; Li, Haishan

    2018-02-14

    Triclocarban (TCC) has been identified as a new environmental pollutant that is potentially hazardous to human health; however, the effects of short-term TCC exposure on cardiac function are not known. The aim of this study was to use metabonomics and molecular biology techniques to systematically elucidate the molecular mechanisms of TCC-induced effects on cardiac function in mice. Our results show that TCC inhibited the uptake, synthesis, and oxidation of fatty acids, suppressed the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and increased aerobic glycolysis levels in heart tissue after short-term TCC exposure. TCC also inhibited the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), confirming its inhibitory effects on fatty acid uptake and oxidation. Histopathology and other analyses further confirm that TCC altered mouse cardiac physiology and pathology, ultimately affecting normal cardiac metabolic function. We elucidate the molecular mechanisms of TCC-induced harmful effects on mouse cardiac metabolism and function from a new perspective, using metabonomics and bioinformatics analysis data.

  15. 1H NMR metabonomics indicates continued metabolic changes and sexual dimorphism post-parasite clearance in self-limiting murine malaria model.

    Arjun Sengupta

    Full Text Available Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. is considered to be a global threat, specifically for the developing countries. In human subjects considerable information exists regarding post-malarial physiology. However, most murine malarial models are lethal, and most studies deal with acute phases occurring as disease progresses. Much less is known regarding physiological status post-parasite clearance. We have assessed the physiological changes at the organ levels using (1H NMR based metabonomics in a non lethal self-clearing murine malarial model of P. chabaudi parasites and Balb/C, far beyond the parasite clearance point. The results showed distinct metabolic states between uninfected and infected mice at the peak parasitemia, as well as three weeks post-parasite clearance. Our data also suggests that the response at the peak infection as well as recovery exhibited distinct sexual dimorphism. Specifically, we observed accumulation of acetylcholine in the brain metabolic profile of both the sexes. This might have important implication in understanding the pathophysiology of the post malarial neurological syndromes. In addition, the female liver showed high levels of glucose, dimethylglycine, methylacetoacetate and histidine after three weeks post-parasite clearance, while the males showed accumulation of branched chain amino acids, lysine, glutamine and bile acids.

  16. Some peculiarities of radioactive elements metabolism in body according to the indices of activity of blood and urine in malignant neoplasms of different localization

    Gelashvili, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    Background beta-radioactivity of blood and day urine in 115 patients (36 healthy ones and 79 suffering from malignant tumor of different localization) taking into account age was determined. It is shown that changes in background radioactivity of blood and urine both in healthy and oncologic patients are mostly presented in old age. Increase of background radioactivity of blood and urine takes place mainly not due to 40 K, but other beta-active elements - in healthy persons. Activity of blood and day urine in patients with malignant tumors decreases due to other beta-emittor, but not 40 K. Some changes in metabolic processes of beta-active elements of an organism both with the growth increase and when developing malignant tumors are established. 1 tab

  17. The relationship of hormone-metabolic disorders and indicators of anxiety and depression in young men with obesity on different types of therapy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess hormonal and metabolic parameters and psychological status of young men with obesity. Methods: The study included 60 men with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2 divided in two groups. Patients in the first group (n=30 received orlistat for 12 weeks (120 mg 3 times daily with meal. Patients in second group (n=30 followed hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise. All patients were examined before treatment and after 12 weeks. Evaluation included hormonal and biochemical analyses, 48 patients were examined by psychological questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Results: Patients that received orlistat treatment showed significant decrease of body mass: 50% of patients had decrease more than 5%, 30% of patients - more than 10% (p

  18. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Mehrdad Sami

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows.Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow.There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and protein percentages

  19. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows. Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow. There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum) on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and protein percentages. The results suggested

  20. The relationship of hormone-metabolic disorders and indicators of anxiety and depression in young men with obesity on different types of therapy

    M E Tel'nova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess hormonal and metabolic parameters and psychological status of young men with obesity. Methods: The study included 60 men with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2 divided in two groups. Patients in the first group (n=30 received orlistat for 12 weeks (120 mg 3 times daily with meal. Patients in second group (n=30 followed hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise. All patients were examined before treatment and after 12 weeks. Evaluation included hormonal and biochemical analyses, 48 patients were examined by psychological questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Results: Patients that received orlistat treatment showed significant decrease of body mass: 50% of patients had decrease more than 5%, 30% of patients - more than 10% (p<0,05. In first group after 12 weeks of treatment level of cortisol decreased and level of testosterone increased. The results of treatment in second group were less significant. There was a significant decrease in anxiety and depression scales in patients taking orlistat (p<0,05. High levels of social anxiety did not decrease in both groups after treatment. As a result of orlistat treatment there was a decrease in external eating behavior and increase in expression of restraint eating behavior by DEBQ (p<0,05. Conclusions: treatment with orlistat reduces body weight, which is correlated by improvement of hormonal and biochemical parameters. Weight loss is accompanied by changes in rates of anxiety and depression.

  1. Development of Metabolic Indicators of Burn Injury: Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL and Acetoacetate Are Highly Correlated to Severity of Burn Injury in Rats

    Maria-Louisa Izamis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypermetabolism is a significant sequela to severe trauma such as burns, as well as critical illnesses such as cancer. It persists in parallel to, or beyond, the original pathology for many months as an often-fatal comorbidity. Currently, diagnosis is based solely on clinical observations of increased energy expenditure, severe muscle wasting and progressive organ dysfunction. In order to identify the minimum number of necessary variables, and to develop a rat model of burn injury-induced hypermetabolism, we utilized data mining approaches to identify the metabolic variables that strongly correlate to the severity of injury. A clustering-based algorithm was introduced into a regression model of the extent of burn injury. As a result, a neural network model which employs VLDL and acetoacetate levels was demonstrated to predict the extent of burn injury with 88% accuracy in the rat model. The physiological importance of the identified variables in the context of hypermetabolism, and necessary steps in extension of this preliminary model to a clinically utilizable index of severity of burn injury are outlined.

  2. Epidemiology of IBD

    ... IBD? Projects and Partners Data and Statistics Resources Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  3. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  4. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  5. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for transgenerational metabolic programming in Drosophila

    Jessica L. Buescher

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide epidemiologic studies have repeatedly demonstrated an association between prenatal nutritional environment, birth weight and susceptibility to adult diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in mammalian model systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear, but might involve programming mechanisms such as epigenetics. Here we describe a new system for evaluating metabolic programming mechanisms using a simple, genetically tractable Drosophila model. We examined the effect of maternal caloric excess on offspring and found that a high-sugar maternal diet alters body composition of larval offspring for at least two generations, augments an obese-like phenotype under suboptimal (high-calorie feeding conditions in adult offspring, and modifies expression of metabolic genes. Our data indicate that nutritional programming mechanisms could be highly conserved and support the use of Drosophila as a model for evaluating the underlying genetic and epigenetic contributions to this phenomenon.

  7. INDICADORES DE RIESGO ATEROGÉNICO COMO PREDICTORES DE SÍNDROME METABÓLICO EN UNA POBLACIÓN DEL MUNICIPIO SIFONTES DEL ESTADO BOLÍVAR, VENEZUELA | ATHEROGENIC RISK INDICATORS AS PREDICTORS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A POPULATION IN THE SIFONTES MUNICIPALITY OF BOLÍVAR STATE, VENEZUELA

    Ronny González Rocca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases currently represent the highest rates of morbidity worldwide, becoming one of the primary causes of disability and premature death. Currently, one of the main conditions that predispose to cardiovascular disease is metabolic syndrome, due to its characteristic atherogenic dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3 atherogenic risk indicators as predictors of metabolic syndrome. For this, 52 volunteer subjects with metabolic syndrome and 52 subjects without metabolic syndrome were studied. Anthropometric, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were determined, including the 3 atherogenic risk indicators: atherogenic index, triglycerides / HDL index and non-HDL cholesterol. The biochemical characteristics (except HDL, anthropometric and hemodynamic showed significant differences between the two groups (p 0.05. In addition, the atherogenic index and non-HDL cholesterol showed discriminative cut points close to their reference values. In conclusion, the 3 atherogenic risk indicators studied can be used as predictors for metabolic syndrome.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular metabolic deficiency in Alzheimer's disease.

    Gu, Xue-Mei; Huang, Han-Chang; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2012-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. The pathology of AD includes amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, as well as neuronal loss in specific brain regions. Increasing epidemiological and functional neuroimaging evidence indicates that global and regional disruptions in brain metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Aβ precursor protein is cleaved to produce both extracellular and intracellular Aβ, accumulation of which might interfere with the homeostasis of cellular metabolism. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that not only supply the main energy to the cell but also regulate apoptosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction might contribute to Aβ neurotoxicity. In this review, we summarize the pathways of Aβ generation and its potential neurotoxic effects on cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  9. Primary productivity, heterotrophy, metabolic indicators of stress and interactions in algal-bacterial mat communities affected by a fluctuating thermal regime

    Tison, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal habitats in effluent cooling waters from production nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant are unlike natural thermal habitats in that reactor operations are periodically halted, exposing the organisms growing in these thermal habitats to ambient temperatures for unpredictable lengths of time. Rates of primary production, glucose heterotrophy, and the composition of algal-bacterial mat communities growing along a thermal gradient from about 50 to 35 0 C during periods of reactor operation were studied. Cyanobacteria were the only photoautotrophs in mat communities above 40 0 C while cyanobacteria and eucaryotic algae comprised the photoautotrophic component of mat communities below 40 0 C. The heterotrophic component of these communities above 40 0 C was made up of stenothermic and eurythermic thermophilic bacteria while both eurythermic thermophiles and mesophilic bacteria were found in communities below 40 0 C. Net CO 2 -fixation rates during thermal conditions dropped after initial exposure to ambient temperatures. After prolonged exposure of the thermal communities to ambient temperatures, adaptation and colonization by mesophilic algae occurred. Rates of glucose utilization under varying degrees of thermal influence suggested that the heterotrophic component may not have been optimally adapted to thermal conditions. During periods of changing thermal conditions, an increase in the percentage extracellular release of photosynthetically fixed 14 CO 2 by cyanobacteria and algae and an increase in the percentage of glucose mineralized (respired) by the heterotrophic component of the mat communities was observed. Results of temperature shift experiments indicated that the short-term response of the photoautotrophic component of these communities to thermal stress was an increase in the percentage of photosynthate released extracellularly

  10. Low dose epidemiology

    Tirmarche, M.; Hubert, P.

    1992-01-01

    Actually, epidemiological studies have to establish if the assessment of cancer risk can be verified at low chronic radiation doses. The population surveillance must be very long, the side effects and cancers of such radiation appearing much later. In France, this epidemiological study on nuclear workers have been decided recently. Before describing the experiment and french projects in epidemiology of nuclear workers, the authors present the main english and american studies

  11. Enhancing flora balance in the gastrointestinal tract of mice by lactic acid bacteria from Chinese sourdough and enzyme activities indicative of metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate by the flora.

    Yang, Dong; Yu, Xiaomin; Wu, Yaoping; Chen, Xingxing; Wei, Hua; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro. The results showed that administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201 and Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 lowered the uricacid index of serum. Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201, L. fermentum LFE0302, as well as Lactobacillus curvatus LCU0401 administration resulted in a reduction in the opportunistic pathogens (i.e., Enterococcus and Enterobacter), meanwhile, administration of L. fermentum LFE0302 and Lactobacillus sp. ULA0104 resulted in an increase in the counts of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 administration increased starch digestion of intestinal flora after 4wk of feeding and also resulted in increased α-glucosidase activity in the intestinal flora after 3wk of feeding. We found a similar trend in esterase activity after administration of L. acidophilus LAC0201 for 3wk. Hence, our study suggested that LAB from Chinese sourdough might be used as potential probiotics to strengthen the flora balance in gastrointestinal tract and positively change the metabolism of nutrients through bacterial enzyme activities. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiological Study of Heart Failure in China

    Yang Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. HF is one of the most important and severe end stages of many cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies of HF have focused mainly on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, fatality, and distribution and temporal trends of these indicators among different populations. This review highlights important epidemiological studies of HF in China.

  13. The contribution of epidemiology

    Brandt, P. van den; Voorrips, L.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Shuker, D.; Boeing, H.; Speijers, G.; Guittard, C.; Kleiner, J.; Knowles, M.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, A.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies directly contribute data on risk (or benefit) in humans as the investigated species, and in the full food intake range normally encountered by humans. This paper starts with introducing the epidemiologic approach, followed by a discussion of perceived differences between

  14. On the use of a continuous metabolic syndrome score in pediatric research

    Eisenmann Joey C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The constellation of elevated levels of abdominal adiposity, blood pressure, glucose, and triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol has been termed the metabolic syndrome. Given the current pediatric obesity epidemic, it is perhaps not surprising that recent reports suggest the emergence of the metabolic syndrome during childhood and adolescence. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the derivation and utility of the continuous metabolic syndrome score in pediatric epidemiologic research. Methods/Design Data were generated from published papers related to the topic. Conclusion Although there is no universal definition in children or adolescence, recent estimates indicate that approximately 2–10% of youth possess the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Since there is no clear definition and the prevalence rate is relatively low, several authors have derived a continuous score representing a composite risk factor index (i.e., the metabolic syndrome score. This paper provides an overview of the derivation and utility of the continuous metabolic syndrome score in pediatric epidemiological research.

  15. Metabolic Surgery

    Pareek, Manan; Schauer, Philip R; Kaplan, Lee M

    2018-01-01

    The alarming rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity is paralleled by an increasing burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic surgery is the most effective means of obtaining substantial and durable weight loss in individuals with obesity. Randomized trials have recently shown...... the superiority of surgery over medical treatment alone in achieving improved glycemic control, as well as a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanisms seem to extend beyond the magnitude of weight loss alone and include improvements in incretin profiles, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity....... Moreover, observational data suggest that the reduction in cardiovascular risk factors translates to better patient outcomes. This review describes commonly used metabolic surgical procedures and their current indications and summarizes the evidence related to weight loss and glycemic outcomes. It further...

  16. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated....... Increasingly poor renal function, aberrations in calcium-phosphate metabolism and erythropoietin treatment seem to increase the risk of the disease and its severity. Up to 25-30% of patients with renal failure exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents may develop nephrogenic systemic disease. The figure...... that gadolinium-containing contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging have an essential causative role in most, if not all, cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. One particular agent, gadodiamide, caused the majority of cases, but gadopentetate dimeglumine has also been implicated in several cases...

  17. Epidemiology of subtypes of depression

    Kessing, L V

    2007-01-01

    depression, dysthymia, and subsyndromal states; the association between stressful life events and depression appears to diminish with the number of depressive episodes. Finally, recent genetic findings are congruent with a model indicating that the majority of depressions develop in the interplay between...... genes and stressful experiences, whereas 'reactive' depressions and 'endogenous' depressions apparently exist at a lower prevalence. CONCLUSION: Further longitudinal, analytical, and genetic epidemiologic studies are needed to reveal which conditions are mild and transient, and which may be precursors......OBJECTIVE: There is a general clinical impression that depression differs qualitatively from non-depressive conditions, and that it can be identified as a categorical entity. In contrast, epidemiological studies support the view that depression is dynamic in nature and develops on a continuous...

  18. Lipogenic metabolism: a viable target for prostate cancer treatment?

    Mengmeng Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells often depend on altered metabolism compared with their normal counterparts. [1],[2],[3],[4] As observed in 1924 by Otto Warburg, cancer cells show preferential glucose consumption by way of aerobic glycolysis while normal cells generally assume mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. [4] Another metabolic hallmark of carcinogenesis is altered lipid metabolism, whereby cancer cells may adopt enhanced de novo lipid production (lipogenesis. [1],[2],[3] Enhanced lipid metabolism is also observed in individuals with metabolic syndromes potentially a consequence of increasing popularity of the Standard American Diet, composed of high levels of saturated fats and carbohydrates. [5] A growing body of epidemiological data indicates a positive correlation between the occurrence of metabolic syndromes, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, type-2 diabetes and associated hyperinsulemia, with the aggressiveness of cancer. [6],[7],[8],[9] Remarkably, it is estimated that for every 1% reduction in saturated fats, replaced by polyunsaturated, there would be a 2%-3% reduction in cardiovascular disease. [10] Thus, it is conceivable that an equally remarkable attenuation in cancer progression might be achieved with such a reduction in lipid accumulation.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Heart Failure

    J. Gustav Smith, MD, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is the end-stage of all heart disease and arguably constitutes the greatest unmet therapeutic need in cardiovascular medicine today. Classic epidemiological studies have established clinical risk factors for HF, but the cause remains poorly understood in many cases. Biochemical analyses of small case-control series and animal models have described a plethora of molecular characteristics of HF, but a single unifying pathogenic theory is lacking. Heart failure appears to result not only from cardiac overload or injury but also from a complex interplay among genetic, neurohormonal, metabolic, inflammatory, and other biochemical factors acting on the heart. Recent development of robust, high-throughput tools in molecular biology provides opportunity for deep molecular characterization of population-representative cohorts and HF cases (molecular epidemiology, including genome sequencing, profiling of myocardial gene expression and chromatin modifications, plasma composition of proteins and metabolites, and microbiomes. The integration of such detailed information holds promise for improving understanding of HF pathophysiology in humans, identification of therapeutic targets, and definition of disease subgroups beyond the current classification based on ejection fraction which may benefit from improved individual tailoring of therapy. Challenges include: 1 the need for large cohorts with deep, uniform phenotyping; 2 access to the relevant tissues, ideally with repeated sampling to capture dynamic processes; and 3 analytical issues related to integration and analysis of complex datasets. International research consortia have formed to address these challenges and combine datasets, and cohorts with up to 1 million participants are being collected. This paper describes the molecular epidemiology of HF and provides an overview of methods and tissue types and examples of published and ongoing efforts to systematically evaluate molecular

  20. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    Souchkevitch, G.

    1996-01-01

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  2. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    Souchkevitch, G [World Health Organization, Geneva (Swaziland)

    1996-07-01

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  3. Basic concepts of epidemiology

    Savitz, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiology can be defined simply as the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. As a descriptive tool, epidemiology can aid health care service providers, for example, in allocation of resources. In its analytic capacity, the epidemiologic approach can help identify determinants of disease through the study of human populations. Epidemiology is primarily an observational rather than experimental methodology, with corresponding strengths and limitations. Relative to other approaches for assessing disease etiology and impacts of potential health hazards, epidemiology has a rather unique role that is complementary to, but independent of, both basic biologic sciences and clinical medicine. Experimental biologic sciences such as toxicology and physiology provide critical information on biologic mechanisms of disease required for causal inference. Clinical medicine often serves as the warning system that provides etiologic clues to be pursued through systematic investigation. The advantage of the epidemiologic approach is its reliance on human field experience, that is, the real world. While laboratory experimentation is uniquely well suited to defining potential hazards, it can neither determine whether human populations have actually been affected nor quantify that effect. Building all the complexities of human behavior and external factors into a laboratory study or mathematical model is impossible. By studying the world as it exists, epidemiology examines the integrated, summarized product of the myriad factors influencing health

  4. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  6. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  7. Dental fluorosis, nutritional status, kidney damage, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in school-going children living in fluoride-affected hilly areas of Doda district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Khandare, Arjun L; Gourineni, Shankar Rao; Validandi, Vakdevi

    2017-10-23

    A case-control study was undertaken among the school children aged 8-15 years to know the presence and severity of dental fluorosis, nutrition and kidney status, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in Doda district situated at high altitude where drinking water was contaminated and heat stress. This study included 824 participants with an age of 8-15 years. The results of the study reviled that dental fluorosis was significantly higher in affected than control area children. Urinary fluoride was significantly higher (p school children. Nutritional status of affected children was lower than control area children. The chronic kidney damage (CKD) was higher in affected than control school children. Thyroid function was affected more in affected than control area schools. Serum creatinine, total alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 1, 25(OH) 2 vitamin D, and osteocalcin were significantly higher in affected school children (p school children, whereas there was no significant difference in triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and 25-OH vitamin D among the two groups. There was a significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the affected area school children compared to control. In conclusion, fluorotic area school children were more affected with dental fluorosis, kidney damage, along and some bone indicators as compared to control school children.

  8. Epidemiology and Radiation Protection

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology aims at providing direct evidence of the long term health effects in humans due to potentially dangerous exposures to various nuisance agents, including ionising radiation. Inappropriate interpretation and use of the results of epidemiological studies may result in inaccurate assessments of the risks associated with radiation exposure. This report presents the proceedings of a Workshop organised by the NEA to create an opportunity for epidemiologists and radiation protection specialists to exchange their experiences and views on the problems of methodology in epidemiological research and on the application of its results to the assessment of radiation risks

  9. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  10. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  11. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  12. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.

    Rothman, K J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic re...

  13. Reduced CD300LG mRNA tissue expression, increased intramyocellular lipid content and impaired glucose metabolism in healthy male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    Støy, Julie; Kampmann, Ulla; Mengel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD300LG rs72836561 (c.313C>T, p.Arg82Cys) has in genetic-epidemiological studies been associated with the lipoprotein abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. CD300LG belongs to the CD300-family of membrane-bound molecules which have the ability to recognize and interact with extracel......BACKGROUND: CD300LG rs72836561 (c.313C>T, p.Arg82Cys) has in genetic-epidemiological studies been associated with the lipoprotein abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. CD300LG belongs to the CD300-family of membrane-bound molecules which have the ability to recognize and interact...... with extracellular lipids. We tested whether this specific polymorphism results in abnormal lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver and other indices of metabolic dysfunction. METHODS: 40 healthy men with a mean age of 55 years were characterized metabolically including assessment of insulin sensitivity...

  14. Indicadores epidemiológicos aplicáveis a estudos sobre a associação entre saneamento e saúde de base municipal Epidemiological indicators applied to studies about association between water supply and sanitation and health based on data at municipal level

    Silvano Silvério da Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available É relativamente recente no país a prática da vigilância ambiental em saúde, sendo que a vigilância da qualidade da água para consumo humano, parte integrante da vigilância ambiental em saúde, ressente-se de estudos e pesquisas que forneçam suporte científico à formulação de instrumentos para a prática de tal vigilância. Nesse campo, a formulação e seleção de indicadores epidemiológicos constituem atividade essencial para representar os efeitos da insuficiência das ações de saneamento sobre a saúde humana e, portanto, como ferramenta para a vigilância e orientação de programas e planos de alocação de recursos em saneamento. O presente artigo é parte de um trabalho mais abrangente, elaborado para selecionar indicadores sanitários como sentinelas na prevenção e controle de doenças e agravos relacionados ao saneamento. Neste artigo são enfocados os indicadores epidemiológicos utilizados naquele estudo, apresentando a revisão bibliográfica, resultados da estatística descritiva desses indicadores, a discussão e conclusões sobre os indicadores epidemiológicos mais apropriados para serem utilizados emestudos dessa natureza. Destacam-se, como indicadores convenientes, a mortalidade infantil, a mortalidade até cinco anos por doenças diarréicas e a morbidade até cinco anos por doenças diarréicas com base na MDDA - monitorização de doenças diarréicas agudas.Environmental health surveillance has been recently implemented in Brazil. Drinking water quality surveillance, a fundamental aspect of the environmental health surveillance, lacks specific studies and research to provide scientific background for its practice. In this field, the identification and selection of epidemiological indicators are essential to provide means to evaluate the impact of deficiencies of water supply and sanitation on human health. So, these indicators are powerful tools for the establishment of drinking water surveillance

  15. ApoE epsilon4 genotype is accompanied by lower metabolic activity in nucleus basalis of Meynert neurons in Alzheimer patients and controls as indicated by the size of the Golgi apparatus

    Dubelaar, E. J. G.; Verwer, R. W. H.; Hofman, M. A.; van Heerikhuize, J. J.; Ravid, R.; Swaab, D. F.

    2004-01-01

    We previously found apolipoprotein (apoE) epsilon4-dependent lower metabolic activity in nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) neurons in Alzheimer disease (AD). In the present study we examined the metabolic activity in the NBM of 39 mentally intact control subjects with different APOE genotype. The

  16. Genesis of Preeclampsia: An Epidemiological Approach

    Salvador-Moysén, Jaime; Martínez-López, Yolanda; Ramírez-Aranda, José M.; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Terrones-González, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    There are analyzed some of the main aspects related to the causality of preeclampsia, privileging two types of models: the clinic model and the epidemiologic model, first one represented by the hypothesis of the reduced placental perfusion and the second one considering the epidemiologic findings related to the high levels of psychosocial stress and its association with preeclampsia. It is reasoned out the relevance of raising the causality of the disease from an interdisciplinary perspective, integrating the valuable information generated from both types, clinical and epidemiologic, and finally a tentative explanatory model of preeclampsia is proposed, the subclinical and sociocultural aspects that predispose and trigger the disease are emphasized making aspects to stand out: the importance of reduced placental perfusion as an indicator of individual risk, and the high levels of physiological stress, as a result of the unfavorable conditions of the psychosocial surroundings (indicator of population risk) of the pregnant women. PMID:22462008

  17. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  19. Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

    Taylor, Peter N; Albrecht, Diana; Scholz, Anna; Gutierrez-Buey, Gala; Lazarus, John H; Dayan, Colin M; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common conditions with potentially devastating health consequences that affect all populations worldwide. Iodine nutrition is a key determinant of thyroid disease risk; however, other factors, such as ageing, smoking status, genetic susceptibility, ethnicity, endocrine disruptors and the advent of novel therapeutics, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, also influence thyroid disease epidemiology. In the developed world, the prevalence of undiagnosed thyroid disease is likely falling owing to widespread thyroid function testing and relatively low thresholds for treatment initiation. However, continued vigilance against iodine deficiency remains essential in developed countries, particularly in Europe. In this report, we review the global incidence and prevalence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, highlighting geographical differences and the effect of environmental factors, such as iodine supplementation, on these data. We also highlight the pressing need for detailed epidemiological surveys of thyroid dysfunction and iodine status in developing countries.

  20. Clinical update on metabolic syndrome

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a global issue since it affects a lot of people. Numerous factors are involved in metabolic syndrome development. It has been described that metabolic syndrome has negative consequences on health. Consequently, a lot of treatments have been proposed to palliate it such as drugs, surgery or life style changes where nutritional habits have shown to be an important point in its management. The current study reviews the literature existing about the actual epidemiology of metabolic syndrome, the components involucrate in its appearance and progression, the clinical consequences of metabolic syndrome and the nutritional strategies reported in its remission. A bibliographic search in PubMed and Medline was performed to identify eligible studies. Authors obtained that metabolic syndrome is present in population from developed and undeveloped areas in a huge scale. Environmental and genetic elements are involucrate in metabolic syndrome development. Metabolic syndrome exponentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, some types of cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep disturbances, etc. Nutritional treatments play a crucial role in metabolic syndrome prevention, treatment and recovery.

  1. Against Popperized epidemiology.

    Jacobsen, M

    1976-03-01

    The recommendation of Popper's philosophy of science should be adopted by epidemiologists is disputed. Reference is made to other authors who have shown that the most constructive elements in Popper's ideas have been advocated by earlier philosophers and have been used in epidemiology without abandoning inductive reasoning. It is argued that Popper's denigration of inductive methods is particularly harmful to epidemiology. Inductive reasoning and statistical inference play a key role in the science; it is suggested that unfamiliarity with these ideas contributes to widespread misunderstanding of the function of epidemiology. Attention is drawn to a common fallacy involving correlations between three random variables. The prevalence of the fallacy may be related to confusion between deductive and inductive logic.

  2. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro......The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170......,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact...

  3. The floating knee: epidemiology, prognostic indicators & outcome following surgical management

    Yesupalan Rajam S; Rethnam Ulfin; Nair Rajagopalan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Floating Knee injuries are complex injuries. The type of fractures, soft tissue and associated injuries make this a challenging problem to manage. We present the outcome of these injuries after surgical management. Methods 29 patients with floating knee injuries were managed over a 3 year period. This was a prospective study were both fractures of the floating knee injury were surgically fixed using different modalities. The associated injuries were managed appropriately. ...

  4. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    1987-01-01

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  5. Advances in radiation epidemiology

    Boice, J.

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 UNSCEAR report provides an informative review of radiation epidemiology. During the past 2 years there have been several major advances in our understanding of radiation effects based on new studies of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, of patients given diagnostic and therapeutic radiation (including iodine-131), of workers occupationally exposed, and of general populations exposed to residential radon. Laboratory approaches are also being incorporated into epidemiological investigations to learn more about the biological mechanism by which radiation causes cancer in man. (author)

  6. Waste indicators

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  7. Waste indicators

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  8. Quality indicators

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  9. Effects of green coffee extract supplementation on anthropometric indices, glycaemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance and appetite in patients with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised clinical trial.

    Roshan, Hanieh; Nikpayam, Omid; Sedaghat, Meghdad; Sohrab, Golbon

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (GCE) on anthropometric indices, glycaemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance and appetite in patients with the metabolic syndrome (Mets). Subjects were randomly allocated to consume 400 mg GCE or placebo capsules twice per d for 8 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow an energy balanced diet. After GCE supplementation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly reduced compared with the placebo group (-13·76 (sd 8·48) v. -6·56 (sd 9·58) mmHg, P=0·01). Also, GCE treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBS) (-5·15 (sd 60·22) v. 29·42 (sd 40·01) mg/dl (-0·28 (SD 3·34) v. 1·63 (SD 2·22) mmol/l); P=0·03) and homoeostatic model of assessment of insulin resistance in comparison to placebo (-1·41 (sd 3·33) v. 1·23 (sd 3·84), P=0·02). In addition, waist circumference (-2·40 (sd 2·54) v. -0·66 (sd 1·17) cm, P=0·009) and appetite score (-1·44 (sd 1·72) v. -0·2 (sd 1·32), P=0·01) of the individuals supplemented with GCE indicated a significant decline. Besides, weight and BMI reduction in the intervention group was almost twice as much as the placebo group; however, this discrepancy was marginally significant (weight: -2·08 (sd 2·11) v. -0·92 (sd 1·30) kg, P=0·05). No difference was observed in terms of glycated Hb (HbA1c) percentage and lipid profile parameters between the two groups. To sum up, GCE administration had an ameliorating effect on some of the Mets components such as high SBP, high FBS and Mets main aetiological factors including insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. Furthermore, GCE supplementation could reduce appetite level.

  10. Combined oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome - indications and cautions.

    Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2013-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been used in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) for the treatment of menstrual disorders, acne and hirsutism. Despite years of their use and broad clinical experience, there are still ongoing doubts concerning their implications for the cardiovascular system and carbohydrate metabolism both in the general population and women with PCOS. In the general population, the risk of venous thromboembolism is reported to be increased. However, arterial thrombotic events seem to require concomitant risk factors to appear during administration of OCPs. In terms of carbohydrate metabolism, available data do not consistently suggest an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus, in spite of some subtle fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels. In subgroup analyses of epidemiological studies in the general population, there is no finding indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related mortality in premenopausal women with PCOS. There is no significant alteration in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism after use of OCP in PCOS either. The absence of further cardiometabolic risk with OCP use in PCOS might suggest some unproven preventive alterations in this patient population. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Epidemiology of burns

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  12. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  13. The Epidemiology of Pheochromocytoma

    Ladefoged Ebbehøj, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma and catecholamine secreting paraganglioma (PPGL) are exceedingly rare endocrine tumours, but remain a frequent diagnostic dilemma due to their potential life-threatening nature. Reliable data on the epidemiology of PPGL is lacking and no time trends in incidence rates (IR) have...

  14. Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  15. General indicators

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  16. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  17. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  18. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  19. Solar Indices

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  20. The Relationships between Metabolic Disorders (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance) and Computed Tomography-Based Indices of Hepatic Steatosis or Visceral Fat Accumulation in Middle-Aged Japanese Men.

    Fujibayashi, Kazutoshi; Gunji, Toshiaki; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Naito, Toshio; Sasabe, Noriko; Okumura, Mitsue; Iijima, Kimiko; Shibuya, Katsuhiko; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the relationships between metabolic disorders (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance) and hepatic steatosis (HS) or visceral fat accumulation (VFA) have been cross-sectional, and thus, these relationships remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationships between components of metabolic disorders and HS/VFA. The participants were 615 middle-aged men who were free from serious liver disorders, diabetes, and HS/VFA and underwent multiple general health check-ups at our institution between 2009 and 2013. The data from the initial and final check-ups were used. HS and VFA were assessed by computed tomography. HS was defined as a liver to spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1.0. VFA was defined as a visceral fat cross-sectional area of ≥100 cm2 at the level of the navel. Metabolic disorders were defined using Japan's metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria. The participants were divided into four groups based on the presence (+) or absence (-) of HS/VFA. The onset rates of each metabolic disorder were compared among the four groups. Among the participants, 521, 55, 24, and 15 were classified as HS(-)/VFA(-), HS(-)/VFA(+), HS(+)/VFA(-), and HS(+)/VFA(+), respectively, at the end of the study. Impaired glucose tolerance was more common among the participants that exhibited HS or VFA (p = 0.05). On the other hand, dyslipidemia was more common among the participants that displayed VFA (p = 0.01). It is likely that VFA is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, while HS might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Unfortunately, our study failed to detect associations between HS/VFA and metabolic disorders due to the low number of subjects that exhibited fat accumulation. Although our observational study had major limitations, we consider that it obtained some interesting results. HS and VFA might affect different metabolic disorders. Further large-scale longitudinal studies are

  1. The Relationships between Metabolic Disorders (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Computed Tomography-Based Indices of Hepatic Steatosis or Visceral Fat Accumulation in Middle-Aged Japanese Men.

    Kazutoshi Fujibayashi

    Full Text Available Most studies on the relationships between metabolic disorders (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis (HS or visceral fat accumulation (VFA have been cross-sectional, and thus, these relationships remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationships between components of metabolic disorders and HS/VFA.The participants were 615 middle-aged men who were free from serious liver disorders, diabetes, and HS/VFA and underwent multiple general health check-ups at our institution between 2009 and 2013. The data from the initial and final check-ups were used. HS and VFA were assessed by computed tomography. HS was defined as a liver to spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1.0. VFA was defined as a visceral fat cross-sectional area of ≥100 cm2 at the level of the navel. Metabolic disorders were defined using Japan's metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria. The participants were divided into four groups based on the presence (+ or absence (- of HS/VFA. The onset rates of each metabolic disorder were compared among the four groups.Among the participants, 521, 55, 24, and 15 were classified as HS(-/VFA(-, HS(-/VFA(+, HS(+/VFA(-, and HS(+/VFA(+, respectively, at the end of the study. Impaired glucose tolerance was more common among the participants that exhibited HS or VFA (p = 0.05. On the other hand, dyslipidemia was more common among the participants that displayed VFA (p = 0.01.It is likely that VFA is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, while HS might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Unfortunately, our study failed to detect associations between HS/VFA and metabolic disorders due to the low number of subjects that exhibited fat accumulation. Although our observational study had major limitations, we consider that it obtained some interesting results. HS and VFA might affect different metabolic disorders. Further large-scale longitudinal studies

  2. Epidemiology applied to health physics

    1983-01-01

    The technical program of the mid-year meeting of the Health Physics Society, entitled Epidemiology Applied to Health physics, was developed to meet three objectives: (1) give health physicists a deeper understanding of the basics of epidemiological methods and their use in developing standards, regulations, and criteria and in risk assessment; (2) present current reports on recently completed or on-going epidemiology studies; and (3) encourage greater interaction between the health physics and epidemiology disciplines. Included are studies relating methods in epidemiology to radiation protection standards, risk assessment from exposure to bone-seekers, from occupational exposures in mines, mills and nuclear facilities, and from radioactivity in building materials

  3. Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA): piloting ...

    Background: Modem methods in molecular biology and advanced computational tools show promise in elucidating complex interactions that occur between genes and environmental factors in diseases such as asthma; however appropriately designed studies are critical for these methods to reach their full potential. Objective: We used a case-control study to investigate whether genomic data (blood gene expression), viewed together with a spectrum of exposure effects and susceptibility markers (blood, urine and nail), can provide a mechanistic explanation for the increased susceptibility of asthmatics to ambient air pollutants. Methods: We studied 205 non-asthmatic and asthmatic children, (9-12 years of age) who participated in a clinical study in Detroit, Michigan. The study combines a traditional epidemiological design with an integrative approach to investigate the environmental exposure of children to indoor-outdoor air. The study includes measurements of internal dose (metals, allergen specific IgE, PAH and VOC metabolites) and clinical measures of health outcome (immunological, cardiovascular and respiratory). Results: Expected immunological indications of asthma have been obtained. In addition, initial results from our analyses point to the complex nature of childhood health and risk factors linked to metabolic syndrome (obesity, blood pressure and dyslipidemia). For example, 31% and 34% of the asthmatic MICA subjects were either overweight (BMI > 25) o

  4. Epidemiology and ionizing radiations

    Bourguignon, M.; Masse, R.; Slama, R.; Spira, A.; Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Rogel, A.; Telle Lamberton, M.; Catelinois, O.; Thierry, I.; Grosche, B.; Ron, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Cherie Challine, L.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph.; Bloch, J.; Setbon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The ionizing radiations have effects on living being. The determinist effects appear since a threshold of absorbed dose of radiation is reached. In return, the stochastic effects of ionizing radiations are these ones whom apparition cannot be described except in terms of probabilities. They are in one hand, cancers and leukemia, on the other hand, lesions of the genome potentially transmissible to the descendants. That is why epidemiology, defined by specialists as the science that studies the frequency and distribution of illness in time and space, the contribution of factors that determine this frequency and this distribution among human populations. This issue gathers and synthesizes the knowledge and examines the difficulties of methodologies. It allows to give its true place to epidemiology. (N.C.)

  5. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate......, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present...

  6. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  7. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards

  8. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology

    1985-11-22

    caused by ingesting eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium . It has been described as the most com- mon parasitic disease of the central nervous...rather difficult to detect in stool specimens and at this stage it is impossible to distinguish between T. solium and T. saginata eggs either by...Knowledge and Perspectives, pp. 25-38. Academic Press, New York. 12. Pawlowskz S. (1982). Epidemiology and prevention of Taenia saginata infec- tion. In

  9. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justi...

  10. Conocimientos de los alumnos de últimos años de Medicina y residentes sobre indicadores de riesgo epidemiológico utilizados en ensayos clínicos Knowledge of epidemiological risk indicators used in clinical trials among medical students in advanced years and medical residents

    Alonso Zea-Vera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio que evaluó el conocimiento de 182 estudiantes de los dos últimos años de medicina y 70 residentes de un hospital nacional de Perú, sobre los indicadores de riesgo utilizados en la presentación de resultados en ensayos clínicos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en el que se aplicó un cuestionario que evaluó la capacidad de reconocer y calcular los indicadores de riesgo epidemiológico más utilizados en la literatura médica. El 19,4% no reconoció ninguno de los indicadores y el 81,4% no logró calcularlos. La reducción de riesgo relativo fue el indicador más reconocido (55,2%, seguida del número necesario a tratar (51,6%; reducción de riesgo absoluto (26,6%, y hazard ratio (9,5%. En conclusión, los alumnos de los dos últimos años de medicina y los residentes, no reconocen ni calculan adecuadamente los indicadores de riesgo utilizados en ensayos clínicos.A cross-sectional study evaluated 182 students in the last two years of medical school and 70 residents of a national hospital in Peru on the risk indicators used for reporting results in clinical trials. A questionnaire was used to assess the ability to recognize and calculate risk indicators most widely used in the epidemiological literature. From the participants, 19.4% did not recognize any of the indicators and 81.4% was not able to calculate them. The relative risk reduction was the most recognized indicator (55.2%, followed by the number needed to treat (51.6%, the absolute risk reduction (26.6%, and the hazard ratio (9.5%. In conclusion, medical students in the last two years of school and medical residents do not recognize or are able to calculate properly the risk indicators used in clinical trials.

  11. Operational indicators

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  12. The Training of Epidemiologists and Diversity in Epidemiology: Findings from the 2006 Congress of Epidemiology Survey

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Spirtas, Robert; Bethune, Lisa; Mays, Vickie; Freeman, Vincent L.; Cozier, Yvette C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the past decade, we have witnessed increasing numbers of individuals entering the field of epidemiology. With the increase also has come a diversity of training and paths by which individuals entered the field. The purpose of this survey was characterization of the epidemiology workforce, its job diversity, and continuing education needs. Methods The Minority Affairs and Membership committees of the American College of Epidemiology (ACE) prepared and administered a workforce survey to identify racial/ethnic diversity, demographic background, workplace type, credentials, income, subspecialties, and continuing education needs of epidemiologists. The survey was self-administered to attendees of the Second North American Congress of Epidemiology in June 2006. Results A sample of 397 respondents of the 1348 registered for the Congress was captured (29.5% response). Epidemiologists who participated were from 36 states and 18 countries; 54.6% were trained at the doctoral level; 19.1% earned $120,001 or more a year. A wide range of epidemiology subspecialties and continuing education needs were identified. Conclusions This preliminary snapshot of epidemiologists indicates a wide range of training mechanisms, workplace sites, and subspecialties. Results indicate a need for examination of the core graduate training needs of epidemiologist as well as responding to desired professional development needs through the provision of continuing educations efforts. PMID:19344867

  13. Variability in human metabolism of arsenic

    Loffredo, C.A.; Aposhian, H.V.; Cebrian, M.E.; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Silbergeld, E.K.

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the nature and extent of human cancer risks due to arsenic (As) in drinking water is currently of great concern, since millions of persons worldwide are exposed to arsenic, primarily through natural enrichment of drinking water drawn from deep wells. Humans metabolize and eliminate As through oxidative methylation and subsequent urinary excretion. While there is debate as to the role of methylation in activation/detoxification, variations in arsenic metabolism may affect individual risks of toxicity and carcinogenesis. Using data from three populations, from Mexico, China, and Chile, we have analyzed the distribution in urine of total arsenic and arsenic species (inorganic arsenic (InAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA). Data were analyzed in terms of the concentration of each species and by evaluating MMA:DMA and (MMA+DMA):InAs ratios. In all persons most urinary As was present as DMA. Male:female differences were discernible in both high- and low-exposure groups from all three populations, but the gender differences varied by populations. The data also indicated bimodal distributions in the ratios of DMA to InAs and to MMA. While the gene or genes responsible for arsenic methylation are still unknown, the results of our studies among the ethnic groups in this study are consistent with the presence of functional genetic polymorphisms in arsenic methylation leading to measurable differences in toxicity. This analysis highlights the need for continuing research on the health effects of As in humans using molecular epidemiologic methods

  14. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  15. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  16. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  17. Epidemiology of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis.

    Thomas, Abbey C; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Wikstrom, Erik A; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2017-06-02

    Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability whose prevalence and incidence continue to increase. History of joint injury represents an important risk factor for posttraumatic osteoarthritis and is a significant contributor to the rapidly growing percentage of the population with osteoarthritis. This review will present the epidemiology associated with posttraumatic osteoarthritis, with particular emphasis on the knee and ankle joints. It is important to understand the effect of posttraumatic osteoarthritis on the population so that sufficient resources can be devoted to countering the disease and promoting optimal long-term health for patients after joint injury.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fennella; Nejsum, Peter

      We are using molecular epidemiology techniques to study the population structure of Ascaris obtained from humans and pigs. Worms were obtained from human hosts on Zanzibar and in Uganda, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Nepal and Ascaris from pigs were collected from in Uganda, Tanzania, Denmark......, Guatemala and the Philippines. Genomic DNA was extracted from each worm and a 450 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit 1 (COI) was PCR amplified. The products were sequenced from both strands and sequences were manually edited. Fifty different Ascaris CO1 haplotypes were...

  19. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    ... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...

  20. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  1. Influência de diferentes concentrações de flúor na água em indicadores epidemiológicos de saúde/doença bucal Influence of different concentrations of fluoride in the water on epidemiologic indicators of oral health/disease

    Raquel Baroni de Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o acesso a fontes de fluoreto e as condições de saúde bucal de 237 escolares de nove a dezesseis anos, de três localidades com diferentes concentrações de fluoreto na água. O teor de flúor na água de cada região foi analisado pela técnica do eletrodo seletivo para o íon flúor e a foi avaliada prevalência de cárie e fluorose, respectivamente, pelo índice CPOD e TSIF, apresentando diferença estatisticamente significante (ANOVA; p The scope of this study was to evaluate access to fluoride sources and oral health hygiene of 237 schoolchildren aged nine to sixteen, from three locations with different fluoride concentrations in the water. The fluoride level in the water of each area was analyzed by the selective electrode technique for the fluoride ion and the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis were evaluated, respectively, by the DMFT and TSIF index, revealing a statistically significant difference (ANOVA; p <0,05 in the three locations: area without artificial fluoridation (DMTF 5.32 ± 3.49 and 16% of dental fluorosis; area with artificial fluoridation of 0.8 ppmF (DMTF 1.88 ± 2.22 and 94% of dental fluorosis; area with natural fluoridation of 2.54 ppmF (DMTF 3.96 ± 2.38 and 100% of dental fluorosis. The findings suggest that the epidemiologic indicators of oral health/disease are influenced by the presence of fluoride in the water supply and that supervision and orientation are fundamental in the correct use of fluoridated compositions, taking advantage of the maximum benefit in the control of dental caries with minimum risk of the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

  2. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  3. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 327

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Epidemiology, Human Diseases, Health, Malaria, AIDS, Homosexual Male, Medical Administration, Rabies, Tuberculosis, Encephalitis Statistics, Gastroenteritie, Mystery Diseases, Children, Epidemics...

  4. Epidemiology, hunger and development

    Paulo H. Battaglin Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between epidemiology and food security implies in disclosing famine causes, the way it is distributed in the society and to which extent it affects the populations. Building up from that perspective, this paper attempts to understand the famine logic throughout the various transitions accomplished in the past decades: epidemiologic, demographic, risk, nutritional and development. The reflexes of the demographic transition that took place in Brazil in the XXth century are related to the population nutritional status standard changes, that is, they shifted from malnutrition high prevalence to a significant increase in obesity. However, the paradox of this situation is due to the fact that most risk factors that bring about diseases of the modern world come from the “excess”, while millions die around the globe because of “deprivation”. The food production alone does not ensure its equitable distribution among the various groups of the society. The access alone does not lead to quality. The choices are made individually, but life style options imply in a set of correlations that go from economy to culture. It means that this field has a collective basis and encompasses environment and development.

  5. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  7. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence.

    Yamagata, Kazuo

    2018-02-04

    Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome.

  8. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence

    Yamagata, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome. PMID:29401716

  9. Comparison of Calorie-Restricted Diet and Resveratrol Supplementation on Anthropometric Indices, Metabolic Parameters, and Serum Sirtuin-1 Levels in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Asghari, Somayyeh; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Somi, Mohammad-Hossein; Ghavami, Seyed-Mostafa; Rafraf, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    There is a promising perspective regarding the potential effect of resveratrol in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances similar to that of calorie restriction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of calorie-restricted (CR) diet on metabolic parameters and then to investigate whether resveratrol supplementation has beneficial effects similar to CR diet in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 90 patients with NAFLD (males and females) aged 20 to 60 years with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 25 to 35 kg/m 2 . Participants were assigned to one of three intervention groups as follows: The CR diet group (n = 30) received a prescribed low-calorie diet, the resveratrol group (n = 30) received 600 mg pure trans-resveratrol (2 × 300 mg) daily, and the placebo group (n = 30) received placebo capsules (2 × 300 mg) daily for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and dietary intake and physical activity data were collected for all participants at baseline and at the end of the trial. CR diet significantly reduced weight (by 4.5%); BMI; waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio; and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lipid profiles in participants compared to resveratrol and placebo (all p 0.05). No significant changes were seen in hepatic steatosis grade, serum glycemic parameters, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and sirtuin-1 levels in any group (all p > 0.05). CR diet with moderate weight loss has favorable effects on NAFLD, and resveratrol supplementation induced weight loss but failed to mimic other aspects of CR diet. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term and dose-dependent effects of resveratrol on metabolic diseases.

  10. Probing the genome-scale metabolic landscape of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough.

    Branco Dos Santos, Filipe; Olivier, Brett G; Boele, Joost; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Krumpochova, Petra; Klau, Gunnar W; Giera, Martin; Dehottay, Philippe; Teusink, Bas; Goffin, Philippe

    2017-08-25

    Whooping cough is a highly-contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussi s. Despite vaccination, its incidence has been rising alarmingly, and yet, the physiology of B. pertussis remains poorly understood. We combined genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, a novel optimization algorithm and experimental data to probe the full metabolic potential of this pathogen, using strain Tohama I as a reference. Experimental validation showed that B. pertussis secretes a significant proportion of nitrogen as arginine and purine nucleosides, which may contribute to modulation of the host response. We also found that B. pertussis can be unexpectedly versatile, being able to metabolize many compounds while displaying minimal nutrient requirements. It can grow without cysteine - using inorganic sulfur sources such as thiosulfate - and it can grow on organic acids such as citrate or lactate as sole carbon sources, providing in vivo demonstration that its TCA cycle is functional. Although the metabolic reconstruction of eight additional strains indicates that the structural genes underlying this metabolic flexibility are widespread, experimental validation suggests a role of strain-specific regulatory mechanisms in shaping metabolic capabilities. Among five alternative strains tested, three were shown to grow on substrate combinations requiring a functional TCA cycle, but only one could use thiosulfate. Finally, the metabolic model was used to rationally design growth media with over two-fold improvements in pertussis toxin production. This study thus provides novel insights into B. pertussis physiology, and highlights the potential, but also limitations of models solely based on metabolic gene content. IMPORTANCE The metabolic capabilities of Bordetella pertussis - the causative agent of whooping cough - were investigated from a systems-level perspective. We constructed a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic model for B. pertussis , and challenged its predictions

  11. [Metabolic acidosis].

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Fani, Filippo; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Castellano, Giuseppe; Cremaschi, Elena; Greco, Paolo; Parenti, Elisabetta; Morabito, Santo; Sabatino, Alice; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is frequently observed in clinical practice, especially among critically ill patients and/or in the course of renal failure. Complex mechanisms are involved, in most cases identifiable by medical history, pathophysiology-based diagnostic reasoning and measure of some key acid-base parameters that are easily available or calculable. On this basis the bedside differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis should be started from the identification of the two main subtypes of metabolic acidosis: the high anion gap metabolic acidosis and the normal anion gap (or hyperchloremic) metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis, especially in its acute forms with elevated anion gap such as is the case of lactic acidosis, diabetic and acute intoxications, may significantly affect metabolic body homeostasis and patients hemodynamic status, setting the stage for true medical emergencies. The therapeutic approach should be first aimed at early correction of concurrent clinical problems (e.g. fluids and hemodynamic optimization in case of shock, mechanical ventilation in case of concomitant respiratory failure, hemodialysis for acute intoxications etc.), in parallel to the formulation of a diagnosis. In case of severe acidosis, the administration of alkalizing agents should be carefully evaluated, taking into account the risk of side effects, as well as the potential need of renal replacement therapy.

  12. The risk of metabolic syndrome and nutrition

    Aleksandr Konstantinovich Kuntsevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present literature review modern epidemiological studies the role of nutrition in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Were analyzed mainly work on the association of certain types of dietary intake of the population to the risk of metabolic syndrome in several Western and Asian countries. The purpose of these studies was to determine deemed "good" type and the "bad" type of food, risk assessment and exchange of metabolic disorders to determine the optimal dietary recommendations.  Application of factor and cluster analysis allowed in a number of studies to identify groups of products associated with a decrease in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to estimate the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome when compared with the "bad" diet.  A number of papers were obtained confirm the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of metabolic disorders. Commitment to the traditional Western diet is associated with deterioration in health, compared with the recommended "healthy" diet.  Data from epidemiological studies nutrition and metabolic disorders associated with a number of diseases, may be useful in determining how the recommendations on the best type of feeding the population, so to identify ways to further research.

  13. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  14. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  15. Epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Neumann, Lily; Buskila, Dan

    2003-10-01

    Chronic widespread pain, the cardinal symptom of fibromyalgia (FM), is common in the general population, with comparable prevalence rates of 7.3% to 12.9% across different countries. The prevalence of FM in the general population was reported to range from 0.5% to 5% and up to 15.7% in the clinic. The common association of FM with other rheumatic disorders, chronic viral infections, and systemic illnesses has been well documented in several studies. Up to 65% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus meet the criteria for FM. FM is considered a member of the family of functional somatic syndromes. These syndromes are very common and share a similar phenomenology, epidemiologic characteristics, high rates of occurrence, a common pathogenesis, and similar management strategies. A high prevalence of FM was demonstrated among relatives of patients with FM and it may be attributed to genetic and environmental factors.

  16. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    Grazio, Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures.

  17. Temporal network epidemiology

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  18. [Ethics and epidemiology].

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2005-01-01

    Human actions take place at the confluence of circumstances that require us to discern the proper way to act. Ethics falls within the terrain of practical knowledge, of knowledge about what is contingent. It belongs to the domain of moral judgments or value judgments. The counterpart of disenchantment with our contemporary world lies in an effort to re-establish an interest in ethics. There are basically three orders of relations between public health and human rights: the quest for balance between the collective good and individual rights; methods and techniques for identifying human rights violations and assessing their negative impact; and the tie between protecting individual rights and promoting health. The relationship between ethics and epidemiology goes beyond the ethical aspects involving research on human beings to encompass political commitments, practices within health services, and the production of knowledge.

  19. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    Burningham Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend

  20. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    Dennis J White

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized laboratory services can play an important role in providing data. Epidemiologists can gain a better understanding of Lyme disease through the collection of data from such programs. The interpretation of data and provision of information to the medical and general communities are important functions of public health agencies.

  1. Drug Metabolism

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...

  2. Drug Metabolism

    IAS Admin

    behind metabolic reactions, importance, and consequences with several ... required for drug action. ... lism, which is catalyzed by enzymes present in the above-men- ... catalyze the transfer of one atom of oxygen to a substrate produc-.

  3. Metabolic Myopathies.

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness. The glycogen-storage diseases present during brief bouts of high-intensity exercise, whereas fatty acid oxidation defects and mitochondrial myopathies present during a long-duration/low-intensity endurance-type activity or during fasting or another metabolically stressful event (eg, surgery, fever). The clinical examination is often normal between acute events, and evaluation involves exercise testing, blood testing (creatine kinase, acylcarnitine profile, lactate, amino acids), urine organic acids (ketones, dicarboxylic acids, 3-methylglutaconic acid), muscle biopsy (histology, ultrastructure, enzyme testing), MRI/spectroscopy, and targeted or untargeted genetic testing. Accurate and early identification of metabolic myopathies can lead to therapeutic interventions with lifestyle and nutritional modification, cofactor treatment, and rapid treatment of rhabdomyolysis.

  4. Animal metabolism

    Walburg, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144 Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  5. Epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look

    Wynder, E.L.; Goldsmith, R.

    1977-09-01

    A case-control study among 574 male and 158 female bladder cancer patients and equal numbers of matched controls was conducted between 1969 and 1974 in 17 hospitals in six United States cities. We determined that cigarette smokers of both sexes were at higher relative risk than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking was responsible for about one-half of male and one-third of female bladder cancer. There was an excess of bladder cancer patients with some previous occupational exposure, such as rubber, chemicals, and textiles. A weak association with coffee drinking, which appeared to be independent of smoking, was found for males. Users of artificial sweetners were not over-represented among the cases. The authors conclude that the epidemiologic pattern of bladder cancer cannot be fully accounted for by cigarette smoking and occupational exposure and suggest a series of metabolic studies to assess the role of additional factors, such as nutrition.

  6. Participatory epidemiology: the contribution of participatory research to epidemiology

    Mario Bach

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiology has contributed in many ways to identifying various risk factors for disease and to promoting population health. However, there is a continuing debate about the ability of epidemiology not only to describe, but also to provide results which can be better translated into public health practice. It has been proposed that participatory research approaches be applied to epidemiology as a way to bridge this gap between description and action. A systematic account of what constitutes participatory epidemiology practice has, however, been lacking. Methods A scoping review was carried out focused on the question of what constitutes participatory approaches to epidemiology for the purpose of demonstrating their potential for advancing epidemiologic research. Relevant databases were searched, including both the published and non-published (grey literature. The 102 identified sources were analyzed in terms of comparing common epidemiologic approaches to participatory counterparts regarding central aspects of the research process. Exemplary studies applying participatory approaches were examined more closely. Results A highly diverse, interdisciplinary body of literature was synthesized, resulting in a framework comprised of seven aspects of the research process: research goal, research question, population, context, data synthesis, research management, and dissemination of findings. The framework specifies how participatory approaches not only differ from, but also how they can enhance common approaches in epidemiology. Finally, recommendations for the further development of participatory approaches are given. These include: enhancing data collection, data analysis, and data validation; advancing capacity building for research at the local level; and developing data synthesis. Conclusion The proposed framework provides a basis for systematically developing the emergent science of participatory epidemiology.

  7. Manipulating the circadian and sleep cycles to protect against metabolic disease

    Kazunari eNohara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of human society parallels an epidemic of metabolic disorders including obesity. Apart from excess caloric intake, a 24/7 lifestyle poses another important challenge to our metabolic health. Recent research under both laboratory and epidemiological settings has indicated that abnormal temporal organization of sleep and wakeful activities including food intake is a significant risk factor for metabolic disease. The circadian clock system is our intrinsic biological timer that regulates internal rhythms such as the sleep/wake cycle and also responses to external stimuli including light and food. Initially thought to be mainly involved in the timing of sleep, the clock and/or clock genes may also play a role in sleep architecture and homeostasis. Importantly, an extensive body of evidence has firmly established a master regulatory role of the clock in energy balance. Together, a close relationship between well-timed circadian/sleep cycles and metabolic health is emerging. Exploiting this functional connection, an important holistic strategy toward curbing the epidemic of metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity involves corrective measures on the circadian clock and sleep. In addition to behavioral and environmental interventions including meal timing and light control, pharmacological agents targeting sleep and circadian clocks promise convenient and effective applications. Recent studies, for example, have reported small molecules targeting specific clock components and displaying robust beneficial effects on sleep and metabolism. Furthermore, a group of clock-amplitude enhancing small molecules (CEMs identified via high-throughput chemical screens are of particular interest for future in vivo studies of their metabolic and sleep efficacies. Elucidating the functional relationship between clock, sleep and metabolism will also have far-reaching implications for various chronic human diseases and aging.

  8. Manipulating the circadian and sleep cycles to protect against metabolic disease.

    Nohara, Kazunari; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Chen, Zheng Jake

    2015-01-01

    Modernization of human society parallels an epidemic of metabolic disorders including obesity. Apart from excess caloric intake, a 24/7 lifestyle poses another important challenge to our metabolic health. Recent research under both laboratory and epidemiological settings has indicated that abnormal temporal organization of sleep and wakeful activities including food intake is a significant risk factor for metabolic disease. The circadian clock system is our intrinsic biological timer that regulates internal rhythms such as the sleep/wake cycle and also responses to external stimuli including light and food. Initially thought to be mainly involved in the timing of sleep, the clock, and/or clock genes may also play a role in sleep architecture and homeostasis. Importantly, an extensive body of evidence has firmly established a master regulatory role of the clock in energy balance. Together, a close relationship between well-timed circadian/sleep cycles and metabolic health is emerging. Exploiting this functional connection, an important holistic strategy toward curbing the epidemic of metabolic disorders (e.g., obesity) involves corrective measures on the circadian clock and sleep. In addition to behavioral and environmental interventions including meal timing and light control, pharmacological agents targeting sleep and circadian clocks promise convenient and effective applications. Recent studies, for example, have reported small molecules targeting specific clock components and displaying robust beneficial effects on sleep and metabolism. Furthermore, a group of clock-amplitude-enhancing small molecules (CEMs) identified via high-throughput chemical screens are of particular interest for future in vivo studies of their metabolic and sleep efficacies. Elucidating the functional relationship between clock, sleep, and metabolism will also have far-reaching implications for various chronic human diseases and aging.

  9. Population health and status of epidemiology: WHO European Region I.

    Rahu, Mati; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Pega, Frank; Andreeva, Tatiana; Ay, Pinar; Baburin, Aleksei; Bencko, Vladimír; Csépe, Péter; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita; Ondrusová, Martina; Ribak, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    This article of the International Epidemiological Association commissioned paper series stocktakes the population health and status of epidemiology in 21 of the 53 countries of the WHO European Region. By United Nations geographical classification, these countries belong to Eastern Europe, Western Asia and South-Central Asia. Published data were used to describe population health indicators and risk factors. Epidemiological training and research was assessed based on author knowledge, information searches and E-mail survey of experts. Bibliometric analyses determined epidemiological publication outputs. Between-country differences in life expectancy, amount and profile of disease burden and prevalence of risk factors are marked. Epidemiological training is affected by ongoing structural reforms of educational systems. Training is advanced in Israel and several Eastern European countries. Epidemiological research is mainly university-based in most countries, but predominantly conducted by governmental research institutes in several countries of the former Soviet Union. Funding is generally external and limited, partially due to competition from and prioritization of biomedical research. Multiple relevant professional societies exist, especially in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Few of the region's 39 epidemiological academic journals have international currency. The number of epidemiological publications per population is highest for Israel and lowest for South-Central Asian countries. Epidemiological capacity will continue to be heterogeneous across the region and depend more on countries' individual historical, social, political and economic conditions and contexts than their epidemiologists' successive efforts. National and international research funding, and within- and between-country collaborations should be enhanced, especially for South-Central Asian countries.

  10. The epidemiology of endometriosis.

    Cramer, Daniel W; Missmer, Stacey A

    2002-03-01

    Advances in understanding the epidemiology of endometriosis have lagged behind other diseases because of methodologic problems related to disease definition and control selection. Nevertheless, a better picture of the epidemiology of endometriosis has emerged over the past few decades. Prevalence estimates of the disease in clinic populations vary from about a 4% occurrence of largely asymptomatic endometriosis found in women undergoing tubal ligation to 50% of teenagers with intractable dysmenorrhea. General population incidence during the 1970s in this country has been suggested to be 1.6 per 1000 white females aged 15-49, while a more current study based upon hospital discharges finds endometriosis as a first listed diagnosis in 1.3 per 1000 discharges in women aged 15-44. There is a clinical impression that blacks have lower rates of endometriosis and Orientals have higher rates than whites. A variety of personal risk factors for endometriosis have also been described. Women with endometriosis may be taller and thinner. Menstrual factors reported to increase risk include dysmenorrhea, early menarche, and shorter cycle lengths. There is support for the idea that lifestyle exposures that might raise or lower estrogen levels could affect risk, including a decreased risk associated with smoking and exercise and an increased risk associated with caffeine or alcohol use. These risk factors appear to be compatible with the central importance of retrograde menstruation influenced by outflow obstruction that might affect its amount, immune factors that might affect its ability to be cleared, or hormonal stimuli that might affect its growth. In this model, dysmenorrhea could be either a disease symptom or a manifestation of outflow obstruction. Nulliparity could be either a consequence of disease or a cause since nulliparous women would not have the benefit of cervical dilation associated with labor and delivery. Since there is evidence that family history is a risk

  11. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida.

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-08-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underreporting and identify high risk demographic groups, fish types, and catch locations. Incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 adjusted for underreporting. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate (relative risk [RR] = 3.4) and were more likely to eat barracuda than non-Hispanics. The most common catch locations for ciguatera-causing fish were the Bahamas and Florida Keys. Cases caused by fish from northern Florida were infrequent. These results indicate that ciguatera incidence is higher than estimated from public health reports alone. There is little evidence that incidence or geographic range has increased because of increased seawater temperatures since earlier studies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. [Metabolic myopathies].

    Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael

    2013-09-06

    To review the metabolic myopathies manifested only by crisis of myalgias, cramps and rigidity of the muscles with decreased voluntary contractions and normal inter crisis neurologic examination in children and adolescents. These metabolic myopathies are autosomic recessive inherited enzymatic deficiencies of the carbohydrates and lipids metabolisms. The end result is a reduction of intra muscle adenosine triphosphate, mainly through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with decrease of available energy for muscle contraction. The one secondary to carbohydrates intra muscle metabolism disorders are triggered by high intensity brief (fatty acids metabolism disorders are triggered by low intensity prolonged (> 10 min) exercises. The conditions in the first group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of myophosforilase (GSD V), muscle phosphofructokinase (GSD VII), phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (GSD X) and beta enolase (GSD XIII). The conditions in the second group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyl transferase II and very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase. The differential characteristics of patients in each group and within each group will allow to make the initial presumptive clinical diagnosis in the majority and then to order only the necessary tests to achieve the final diagnosis. Treatment during the crisis includes hydration, glucose and alkalinization of urine if myoglobin in blood and urine are elevated. Prevention includes avoiding exercise which may induce the crisis and fasting. The prognosis is good with the exception of rare cases of acute renal failure due to hipermyoglobinemia because of severe rabdomyolisis.

  13. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows. Materials and Methods Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow. Results There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum) on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and

  14. Epidemiology of prostatitis

    Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

  15. TUBERCULOSIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL

    Giorgia Sulis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with some where prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently launched the new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035, based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

  16. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    Desaintes, C; Holmstock, L.

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported

  18. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    Desaintes, C; Holmstock, L

    2001-04-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported.

  19. Associação entre cobertura por serviços de saneamento e indicadores epidemiológicos nos países da América Latina: estudo com dados secundários Association between sanitation services coverage and epidemiological indicators in Latin America: a study with secondary data

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação entre cobertura por serviços de saneamento básico e indicadores epidemiológicos nos países da América Latina, utilizando dados secundários da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS relativos ao período de 2005 a 2010. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo ecológico incluindo dados de 21 países da América Latina, com população total estimada de 596 milhões de habitantes. Foram analisadas: mortalidade infantil em menores de 1 ano em 2008, mortalidade em menores de 5 anos em 2008 e mortalidade por enfermidades diarreicas agudas em menores de 5 anos em 2008. Esses indicadores foram analisados por meio de sua correlação "um a um" com indicadores de cinco classes de fatores de risco (demográficos, socioeconômicos, de saúde infantil, de gasto público com saúde e de cobertura por serviços de saúde e saneamento. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios para a região foram de 18,2 óbitos de crianças menores de 1 ano por 1 000 nascidos vivos, 23,5 óbitos de menores de 5 anos por 1 000 nascidos vivos e mortalidade de 5,8% por enfermidades diarreicas agudas em menores de 5 anos. Quanto maior a cobertura populacional por serviços de esgotamento sanitário e por sistemas de abastecimento de água, menor a mortalidade infantil e menor a taxa de mortalidade de menores de 5 anos de idade. Quanto maior a taxa de crescimento anual da população, maior a mortalidade por enfermidades diarreicas agudas em menores de 5 anos. CONCLUSÕES: A melhoria da saúde pública na América Latina depende da ampliação do acesso aos serviços públicos de abastecimento de água e de esgotamento sanitário.OBJECTIVE: To study the association between water and sanitation coverage and epidemiological indicators in Latin America, using secondary data from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO for the period of 2005 to 2010. METHODS: An ecological study was carried out including data from 21 Latin American countries, with a total

  20. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis.

    Higdon, Jane V; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2007-03-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized

  1. NUTRIBASE - Data base for Nutritional Evaluation and Dietetic Treatment in Populational Metabolic Diseases

    Silvia Ştefania IANCU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional evaluation and diet prescription are laborious and require much time. They need calculations of basic nutritional indices, to precisely diagnose and finally to indicate the proper nutritional recommendations based on demographic, anthropometric, biochemical data and medical history of the patient. Our purpose was to create a new strategic approach to increase the rapid elaboration of nutritional evaluation, calculation of carbohydrate controlled diets and a software implementation. We named the outcome application Nutribase. The application could be used in clinical settings and/or nutritional research environments for calculating the composition of diet in diabetes and other metabolic disturbances, for helping dieticians and nutrition professionals as well as an educational instrument for patients and students. Nutribase (an Access based software collects data on nutritional and biological parameters related to dietary assessment and treatment of the subjects with metabolic diseases but not only, calculates the body mass index, ideal body weight and metabolic requirements of patients, provides ready-made diet models and recommendations according to the calculated metabolic requirements, diagnosis, provides tables of composition of foods (calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, allows an assessment of diet composition per meal, provides a flexible educational instrument for creating or adjusting a diet according to the patients’ preferences, is very much time saving in clinical settings and it may be adapted for epidemiological nutritional studies.

  2. Vestibular migraine: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Ligia Oliveira Gonçalves Morganti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Vestibular migraine (VM is one of the most often common diagnoses in neurotology, but only recently has been recognized as a disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with VM. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, and descriptive study, with analysis of patients' records from an outpatient VM clinic. RESULTS: 94.1% of patients were females and 5.9% were males. The mean age was 46.1 years; 65.6% of patients had had headache for a longer period than dizziness. A correlation was detected between VM symptoms and the menstrual period. 61.53% of patients had auditory symptoms, with tinnitus the most common, although tonal audiometry was normal in 68.51%. Vectoelectronystagmography was normal in 67.34%, 10.20% had hyporeflexia, and 22.44% had vestibular hyperreflexia. Electrophysiological assessment showed no abnormalities in most patients. Fasting plasma glucose and glycemic curve were normal in most patients, while the insulin curve was abnormal in 75%. 82% of individuals with MV showed abnormalities on the metabolism of carbohydrates. CONCLUSION: VM affects predominantly middle-aged women, with migraine headache representing the first symptom, several years before vertigo. Physical, auditory, and vestibular evaluations are usually normal. The most frequent vestibular abnormality was hyperreflexia. Most individuals showed abnormality related to carbohydrate metabolism.

  3. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  4. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  5. Metabolic surgery: quo vadis?

    Ramos-Leví, Ana M; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of bariatric surgery beyond its effect on weight loss has entailed a change in the way of regarding it. The term metabolic surgery has become more popular to designate those interventions that aim at resolving diseases that have been traditionally considered as of exclusive medical management, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Recommendations for metabolic surgery have been largely addressed and discussed in worldwide meetings, but no definitive consensus has been reached yet. Rates of diabetes remission after metabolic surgery have been one of the most debated hot topics, with heterogeneity being a current concern. This review aims to identify and clarify controversies regarding metabolic surgery, by focusing on a critical analysis of T2D remission rates achieved with different bariatric procedures, and using different criteria for its definition. Indications for metabolic surgery for patients with T2D who are not morbidly obese are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Korea

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seon-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Won; Hong, Hyon-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a disease entity defined as persistent pain after the acute pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves. It is associated with impaired daily activities, resulting in reduced quality of life. General epidemiological data on PHN is necessary for the effective management. However, data on the epidemiology of PHN in Korea is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of PHN in the general population. We used population-based medical data for 51,448,491 subscribers to the Health Insurance Service in the year of 2013 to analyze of PHN epidemiology in Korea, such as the incidence, regional distribution, seasonal variation, and healthcare resource utilization. Total number of patients and medical cost on PHN were analyzed from 2009 to 2013. Findings indicate that the incidence of PHN in Korea was 2.5 per 1000 person-years, which was strongly correlated with age and sex. There were no differences in seasonal variation or regional distribution. The medical cost increased steadily over the study period. When admitted to general hospitals, patients with PHN were mainly managed in the dermatology and anesthesiology departments. The incidence and prevalence rates of PHN in Koreans appear to be considerably higher compared to those in western populations, while the sex and age predisposition was similar. Considering that the pain associated with PHN can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life resulting in a medicosocial economic burden, anesthesiology physicians have an important role in primary care in Korea. Future research on the cost-effectiveness of the management of PHN is needed. PMID:27057902

  7. Occupational reproductive epidemiology: Pt. 1

    Roman, Eve; Doyle, Pat

    1993-01-01

    The authors review the current state of knowledge about possible adverse effects of hazardous paternal workplace exposures on human reproduction is scant. The methodology for studying possible association between occupational exposures and adverse reproductive events is not well developed. More detailed laboratory and epidemiological research is clearly required, and better collaboration between these two disciplines is needed. Associations suggested in the course of epidemiological research need to be tested in the laboratory, and vice versa. (author)

  8. Nucleotide Metabolism

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolis...

  9. Social phobia: epidemiology and health care.

    Wancata, Johannes; Fridl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian

    2009-12-01

    This paper gives an overview on the epidemiology of social phobia. About 4.5% of the adult general populations suffer from social phobia, i.e. it is the most frequent of all anxiety disorders. Social phobia is clearly more frequent among women than among men. About the half of all individuals with social phobia suffer from any comorbid mental disorders. Reviews show a large variability between single studies, probably due to methodological differences. Several population surveys indicate that a marked proportion of those with social phobia do not receive adequate treatment.

  10. Epidemiology of selected gynaecological malignancies in Slovakia

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Sadovsky, O.

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses selected trends of descriptive epidemiology of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer in Slovakia point to time trends in their development, enabling a prediction of the development of the indicators in the years to come. Based on the results of analyses, it was discovered that the incidence of ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer in women in Slovakia is rising continually and significantly, while mortality in both diagnoses is declining. In respect of cervical cancer, a stabilised trend in incidence was registered, with an important, but very mild drop in mortality values. (author)

  11. [Epidemiology of malnutrition].

    Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter E

    2014-03-01

    The World Health Organisation classifies malnutrition worldwide as the greatest threat to public health. An expert report of the Council of Europe clearly showed that malnutrition in hospitalised patients is a real existing problem in all European countries, including Switzerland. According to the literature, malnutrition is prevalent in 20 - 60 % of patients on hospital admission. Malnutrition increases with age and is found more and more in obese subjects. Unintentional weight loss is the main feature of disease-related malnutrition in normalweight and obese individuals. The nutritional problem in obese persons manifests itself through nutrient imbalances and micronutrient deficiency. The cause for nutritional deficiencies is a hypercaloric diet with its energy - dense, but qualitative low - value foods. Depending on the extent of obesity, certain micronutrients are to be critically evaluated. It has been proven that for instance the vitamin D and iron metabolism are pathologically impaired by the increased fatty tissue. In Switzerland, the proportion of people under 20 years has decreased from 40.7 % (1900) to 20.6 % (2011), whereas in the elderly over 64 years, an increase from 5.8 % to 17.2 % has been recorded. In the very elderly people over 80 years, the increase from 0.5 % to 4.8 % has been particularly pronounced. Because malnutrition increases with age, it will be an important issue in the future and hospitals, nursing homes and home care will be particularly affected.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  13. Cellular metabolism

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  14. Epidemiology of Massive Transfusion

    Halmin, Märit; Chiesa, Flaminia; Vasan, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    in Sweden from 1987 and in Denmark from 1996. A total of 92,057 patients were included. Patients were followed until the end of 2012. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the patients and indications. Post transfusion mortality was expressed as crude 30-day...... mortality and as long-term mortality using the Kaplan-Meier method and using standardized mortality ratios. The incidence of massive transfusion was higher in Denmark (4.5 per 10,000) than in Sweden (2.5 per 10,000). The most common indication for massive transfusion was major surgery (61.2%) followed...

  15. Alzheimer-associated Aβ oligomers impact the central nervous system to induce peripheral metabolic deregulation

    Clarke, Julia R; Lyra e Silva, Natalia M; Figueiredo, Claudia P; Frozza, Rudimar L; Ledo, Jose H; Beckman, Danielle; Katashima, Carlos K; Razolli, Daniela; Carvalho, Bruno M; Frazão, Renata; Silveira, Marina A; Ribeiro, Felipe C; Bomfim, Theresa R; Neves, Fernanda S; Klein, William L; Medeiros, Rodrigo; LaFerla, Frank M; Carvalheira, Jose B; Saad, Mario J; Munoz, Douglas P; Velloso, Licio A; Ferreira, Sergio T; De Felice, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with peripheral metabolic disorders. Clinical/epidemiological data indicate increased risk of diabetes in AD patients. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular infusion of AD-associated Aβ oligomers (AβOs) in mice triggered peripheral glucose intolerance, a phenomenon further verified in two transgenic mouse models of AD. Systemically injected AβOs failed to induce glucose intolerance, suggesting AβOs target brain regions involved in peripheral metabolic control. Accordingly, we show that AβOs affected hypothalamic neurons in culture, inducing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation (eIF2α-P). AβOs further induced eIF2α-P and activated pro-inflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the hypothalamus of mice and macaques. AβOs failed to trigger peripheral glucose intolerance in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1 knockout mice. Pharmacological inhibition of brain inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress prevented glucose intolerance in mice, indicating that AβOs act via a central route to affect peripheral glucose homeostasis. While the hypothalamus has been largely ignored in the AD field, our findings indicate that AβOs affect this brain region and reveal novel shared molecular mechanisms between hypothalamic dysfunction in metabolic disorders and AD. PMID:25617315

  16. Utilización de indicadores metabólicos en la valoración de la transferencia de inmunidad pasiva en neonatos bovinos Assessment of the passive transference of immunity in calves through metabolic indicators

    Angie Fairut Carrillo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Para determinar la utilidad de la actividad sérica de la fosfatasa alcalina (FA y las proteínas séricas totales (PST como indicadores de transferencia de inmunidad en terneros por el consumo de calostro en sus primeros días de vida, en un hato del trópico bajo de Colombia se escogieron al azar 15 vacas de las razas Gyr, Brahaman y el cruce Gyr x Holstein y sus respectivos terneros. En las vacas se recolectaron aproximadamente 300 ml de calostro el primer día del parto para determinar sólidos totales, proteína total y cenizas. En los terneros se tomaron muestras de sangre sin anticoagulante mediante venipunción yugular los días 0, 4, 12 y 30 posnacimiento. La concentración de las PST se determinó por refractometría y la FA mediante colorimetría enzimática. Se encontró relación alta y significativa (P Fifteen bovines and their calves were chosen randomly in order to determine the usefulness of the Alkaline phosphatase's (ALP seric activity and the total seric proteins (TSP as indicators of transference of immunity in calves through colostrums' consumption in their first days of life. Three hundred ml (300 ml of colostrums of the first day after delivery were collected from the cows. In it total solids, crude protein and ashes were found. Blood samples without anticoagulant and through jugular venipuncture were taken from the calves on the 0, 4, 12, and 30th day after delivery. The concentration of the TSP was determined through refractometry, while the ALP was determined through the enzymatic colourimetric assay. A high and statistically significant relationship between the percentages of crude protein of the colostrums and the total solids was found, thus, it can be concluded that just one measurement is valid in order to study both indicators. The effect of time on the concentrations of TSP as well as on the enzymatic activity was evaluated through the use of ANOVA (Analysis of Variance. In the TSP there was a

  17. Epidemiology of dizziness in northern Poland – The first Polish neurootologic survey of the general population

    Romuald Wojtczak

    2017-09-01

    The authors present the first Polish neurootologic survey of epidemiology of dizziness in the general population. This condition is common in the general population, and this study indicates its prevalence in 16.4% of the inhabitants of the town and district of Bytów. It is recommendable that epidemiological studies should be carried out.

  18. Systematic reviews of epidemiology in diabetes: finding the evidence

    Waugh Norman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methodological research to support searching for those doing systematic reviews of epidemiological studies is a relatively neglected area. Our aim was to determine how many databases it is necessary to search to ensure a comprehensive coverage of the literature in diabetes epidemiology, with the aim of examining the efficiency of searching in support of systematic reviews of the epidemiology of diabetes Methods Three approaches were used. First, we defined a set of English language diabetes journals and examined their coverage in bibliographic databases. Second, we searched extensively for diabetes epidemiology articles (in all languages to determine which are the most useful databases; and third, we analysed the scattering of these articles to determine the core journals in the area. Results The overlap between MEDLINE and Embase for diabetes journals was 59%. A search for diabetes epidemiology articles across both MEDLINE and Embase, showed that MEDLINE alone retrieved about 94% of the total articles. Searching for diabetes epidemiology studies beyond MEDLINE and Embase retrieved no additional English language journal articles. The only diabetes epidemiology studies found by searching beyond MEDLINE and Embase were found in LILACS, and were Spanish or Portuguese language studies from Latin America; no additional English language studies were found. Only 30% of the meeting abstracts were converted to full publication after three years. One third of journal articles were published in just six journals, with Diabetes Care contributing 14.3% of the articles, followed by Diabetic Medicine (5.0%; Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (4.1%; Diabetologia (4.0%; Diabetes & Metabolism (2.4% and Diabetes (2.0%. Conclusions Our results show that when searching for articles on diabetes epidemiology, MEDLINE and Embase would suffice for English language papers, with LILACS giving some additional non-English articles from Latin America

  19. Association of Dioxin and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) with Diabetes: Epidemiological Evidence and New Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction

    De Tata, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide explosion of the rates of diabetes and other metabolic diseases in the last few decades cannot be fully explained only by changes in the prevalence of classical lifestyle-related risk factors, such as physical inactivity and poor diet. For this reason, it has been recently proposed that other “nontraditional” risk factors could contribute to the diabetes epidemics. In particular, an increasing number of reports indicate that chronic exposure to and accumulation of a low concentration of environmental pollutants (especially the so-called persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) within the body might be associated with diabetogenesis. In this review, the epidemiological evidence suggesting a relationship between dioxin and other POPs exposure and diabetes incidence will be summarized, and some recent developments on the possible underlying mechanisms, with particular reference to dioxin, will be presented and discussed. PMID:24802877

  20. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  1. Epidemiología de campo y epidemiología social Field epidemiology and social epidemiology

    Javier Segura del Pozo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la comparación de la epidemiología de campo y la epidemiología social, se pretende reflexionar sobre los imaginarios no explícitos que operan en ambos ámbitos, necesariamente convergentes, sobre los obstáculos de la práctica epidemiológica actual para alcanzar su función social y sobre la necesidad de cambiar las bases epistemológicas, metodológicas y prácticas que operan en la epidemiología, empezando por la formación del epidemiólogo de campo. La epidemiología de campo tiende a la acción sin marco teórico. La epidemiología social, por el contrario, tiende a los desarrollos teóricos (reflexión e investigación sobre los determinantes sociales alejados de la acción, debido a los limitantes para cambiar las políticas públicas. Otras diferencias se sitúan en el nivel de intervención (micro/macroespacios, el objeto de intervención (control del brote frente a control de las desigualdades y en la forma de articular la comunicación con la sociedad. Se asemejan en la preocupación por el método, la predominancia de una orientación positivista y condicionada por la estadística, aunque en proceso de cierta apertura epistemológica, la tensión experimentada entre relacionarse con un mundo virtual de bases de datos o con la sociedad real, su situación en la periferia del sistema político-social-institucional-profesional y por estar abocadas a la frustración profesional. Finalmente, se formulan 10 interrogantes a los epidemiólogos de campo sobre su práctica actual, a través de los cuales se podría evaluar si están realizando una epidemiología social, y se sugieren cambios para introducir en la formación y práctica del epidemiólogo.Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of

  2. Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes.

    Anubhav Das

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed. Based on the diversities and abundances of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various bacterial taxa were classified into three groups, namely, least versatile, intermediately versatile and highly versatile xenobiotic metabolizers. Most interestingly, specific relationships were observed between the overall drug consumption profile and the abundance and diversity of the xenobiotic metabolizing repertoire in various geographies. The obtained differential abundance patterns of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and bacterial genera harboring them, suggest their links to pharmacokinetic variations among individuals. Additional analyses of a few well studied classes of drug modifying enzymes (DMEs also indicate geographic as well as age specific trends.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of human rhinoviruses

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita

    2006-01-01

    The first part of this work investigates the molecular epidemiology of a human enterovirus (HEV), echovirus 30 (E-30). This project is part of a series of studies performed in our research team analyzing the molecular epidemiology of HEV-B viruses. A total of 129 virus strains had been isolated in different parts of Europe. The sequence analysis was performed in three different genomic regions: 420 nucleotides (nt) in the VP4/VP2 capsid protein coding region, the entire VP1 capsid protein cod...

  4. Data on education: from population statistics to epidemiological research

    Pallesen, Palle Bo; Tverborgvik, Torill; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Level of education is in many fields of research used as an indicator of social status. METHODS: Using Statistics Denmark's register for education and employment of the population, we examined highest completed education with a birth-cohort perspective focusing on people born between...... of population trends by use of extrapolated values, solutions are less obvious in epidemiological research using individual level data....

  5. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in selected countries

    Bruggmann, P; Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo; Moreno, C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained...

  6. Quantification of patterns of regional cardiac metabolism

    Lear, J.L.; Ackermann, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    To quantitatively map and compare patterns of regional cardiac metabolism with greater spatial resolution than is possible with positron emission tomography (PET), the authors developed autoradiographic techniques for use with combinations of radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), glucose (GLU), and acetate (ACE) and applied the techniques to normal rats. Kinetic models were developed to compare GLU-based oxidative glucose metabolism with FDG-based total glucose metabolism (oxidative plus anaerobic) and to compare ACE-based overall oxidative metabolism with FDG-based total glucose metabolism. GLU-based metabolism generally paralleled FDG-based metabolism, but divergence occurred in certain structures such as the papillary muscles, where FDG-based metabolism was much greater. ACE-based metabolism also generally paralleled FDG-based metabolism, but again, the papillary muscles had relatively greater FDG-based metabolism. These discrepancies between FDG-based metabolism and GLU- or ACE-based metabolism suggest the presence of high levels of anaerobic glycolysis. Thus, the study indicates that anaerobic glycolysis, in addition to occurring in ischemic or stunned myocardium (as has been shown in recent PET studies), occurs normally in specific cardiac regions, despite the presence of abundant oxygen

  7. Use of tritiated water as indicator of the water metabolism on normal and operate patients; Emploi de l'eau tritiee comme indicateur du metabolisme de l'eau chez les sujets normaux et operes

    Fallot, P; Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Water disruptions are very frequent during the medical and surgical affections. In order to study the kinetics of the water exchanges as well as the determination of the total water of the body, we have chosen tritiated water as indicator. This work presents a rapid process, faithful and sensitive of dosage of the Tritium in the biologic liquids. This method has been applied to the survey of the intestinal absorption of water among normal subjects and during some medical and surgical affections. The exam of the experimental curves permitted to get information concerning the kinetics of water ingested as well as of data on the volume of total water of the human body and on the biologic period of the Tritium in the organism. (M.B.) [French] Les perturbations hydriques sont tres frequentes au cours des affections medicales et chirurgicales. Afin d'etudier la cinetique des echanges hydriques ainsi que la determination de l'eau totale du corps, nous avons choisit l'eau tritiee comme indicateur. Ce travail presente une methode rapide, fidele et sensible de dosage du Tritium dans les liquides biologiques. Cette methode a ete appliquee a l'etude de l'absorption intestinale de l'eau chez des sujets normaux et au cours de certaines affections medicales et chirurgicales. L'examen des courbes experimentales ont permis d'obtenir des renseignements concernant la cinetique de l'eau ingeree ainsi que des donnees sur le volume d'eau totale du corps humain et sur la periode biologique du Tritium dans l'organisme. (M.B.)

  8. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  9. Metabolism and virulence in Neisseria meningitidis

    Christoph eSchoen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding question in infection biology addresses the genetic basis for invasive behaviour in commensal pathogens. A prime example for such a pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis. On the one hand it is a harmless commensal bacterium exquisitely adapted to humans, and on the other hand it sometimes behaves like a ferocious pathogen causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute bacterial meningitis. Despite the lack of a classical repertoire of virulence genes in N. meningitidis separating commensal from invasive strains, molecular epidemiology suggests that carriage and invasive strains belong to genetically distinct populations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that metabolic adaptation enables meningococci to exploit host resources, supporting the concept of nutritional virulence as a crucial determinant of invasive capability. Here, we discuss the contribution of core metabolic pathways in the context of colonization and invasion with special emphasis on results from genome-wide surveys. The metabolism of lactate, the oxidative stress response, and, in particular, glutathione metabolism as well as the denitrification pathway provide examples of how meningococcal metabolism is intimately linked to pathogenesis. We further discuss evidence from genome-wide approaches regarding potential metabolic differences between strains from hyperinvasive and carriage lineages and present new data assessing in vitro growth differences of strains from these two populations. We hypothesize that strains from carriage and hyperinvasive lineages differ in the expression of regulatory genes involved particularly in stress responses and amino acid metabolism under infection conditions.

  10. Toxic influence of organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides on cellular metabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates: a systematic review.

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    Pesticides, including organophosphate (OP), organochlorine (OC), and carbamate (CB) compounds, are widely used in agricultural and indoor purposes. OP and CB act as acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that affect lots of organs such as peripheral and central nervous systems, muscles, liver, pancreas, and brain, whereas OC are neurotoxic involved in alteration of ion channels. There are several reports about metabolic disorders, hyperglycemia, and also oxidative stress in acute and chronic exposures to pesticides that are linked with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. In this respect, there are several in vitro and in vivo but few clinical studies about mechanism underlying these effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for the years 1963-2010 and resulted in 1652 articles. After elimination of duplicates or irrelevant papers, 204 papers were included and reviewed. Results indicated that OP and CB impair the enzymatic pathways involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein within cytoplasm, mitochondria, and proxisomes. It is believed that OP and CB show this effect through inhibition of AChE or affecting target organs directly. OC mostly affect lipid metabolism in the adipose tissues and change glucose pathway in other cells. As a shared mechanism, all OP, CB and OC induce cellular oxidative stress via affecting mitochondrial function and therefore disrupt neuronal and hormonal status of the body. Establishing proper epidemiological studies to explore exact relationships between exposure levels to these pesticides and rate of resulted metabolic disorders in human will be helpful.

  11. Landscape Epidemiology of Tularemia Outbreaks in Sweden

    Svensson, Kerstin; Bäck, Erik; Eliasson, Henrik; Berglund, Lennart; Granberg, Malin; Karlsson, Linda; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Summer outbreaks of tularemia that occurred from 1995 through 2005 in 2 locations in Sweden affected 441 persons. We performed an epidemiologic investigation of these outbreaks using a novel strategy, involving high-resolution genotyping of Francisella tularensis isolates obtained from 136 patients (using 18 genetic markers developed from 6 F. tularensis genome sequences) and interviews with the patients. Strong spatial associations were found between F. tularensis subpopulations and the places of disease transmission; infection by some subpopulations occurred within areas as small as 2 km2, indicating unidentified environmental point sources of tularemia. In both locations, disease clusters were associated with recreational areas beside water, and genetic subpopulations were present throughout the tularemia season and persisted over years. High-resolution genotyping in combination with patients’ statements about geographic places of disease transmission provided valuable indications of likely sources of infection and the causal genotypes during these tularemia outbreaks. PMID:19961673

  12. Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome.

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Purrello, Agata; Vitaglione, Paola; Calabrese, Giorgio; Drago, Filippo; Galvano, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of medical disorders, such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The role of food and nutrients in the aetiology of chronic diseases has become clearer over the last 15 years. In this review we collected evidence on the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet on MetS by analyzing epidemiological reports documenting its prevalence in subjects who have adopted this dietary pattern. We also explored the role of the individual components of the diet on the specific aspects characterizing the MetS (i.e. metabolic indices, body weight and blood pressure). There is ample evidence showing that subjects adherent to the Mediterranean diet have lower prevalence and incidence rates of MetS than non-adherent. Moreover, it has been widely documented that specific components of this dietary pattern play a role in the prevention of several morbid conditions related to the MetS.

  13. Metabolic endotoxemia and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    Gomes, Júnia Maria Geraldo; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2017-03-01

    In this systematic review we analyzed studies that assessed serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or lipopolysacharide-binding protein (LBP) in diabetic patients compared with healthy people. Articles were selected using PubMed and Scopus. Search terms used were endotoxemia, endotoxins, LPS, LBP, diabetes mellitus (DM), type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), insulin resistance, humans, epidemiologic studies, population-based, survey, representative, cross-sectional, case-control studies, observational, and clinical trials. Two authors independently extracted articles using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. There was a great variability in the estimates of metabolic endotoxemia among the studies. Most of the studies observed higher LPS or LBP concentrations in diabetic subjects than in healthy controls. T1DM and T2DM subjects presented higher mean fasting LPS of 235.7% and 66.4% compared with non-diabetic subjects, respectively. Advanced complications (e.g. macroalbuminuria) and disease onset exacerbate endotoxemia. Antidiabetic medications decrease fasting LPS concentrations. Among these medications, rosiglitazone and insulin present higher and lower effects, respectively, compared with other treatments. T1DM and T2DM seem to increase metabolic endotoxemia. However, some confounders such as diet, age, medication, smoking and obesity influence both diabetes and endotoxemia manifestation. A better understanding of the interaction of these factors is still needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A first-approximation urban-air-quality indicator

    David M. Paproski; Julian R. Walker

    1977-01-01

    Development of the first-approximation-urban-air-quality indicator was reported by the Economic Council of Canada. The indicator takes account of ambient concentrations of five pollutants: sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and total oxidants. Epidemiological evidence indicating the potential impact of these pollutants on human...

  15. Epidemiological methods: a brief review

    Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiology, the study of disease distributions in populations and the factors which influence these distributions, is an observational science, i.e., its data base consists of measurements made on free living individuals characterized by presence or absence of disease states and putative risk factors. Epidemiological studies are usually classified as descriptive or analytical. Descriptive studies are primarily used for planning and evaluating health programs or to generate etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are primarily used for testing etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are designed either as cohort investigations in which populations with and without a putative risk factor are followed through time to ascertain their differential incidence of disease, or case-control investigations in which the history of exposure to a putative risk factor is compared among persons with a disease and appropriate controls free of disease. Both descriptive and analytical epidemiological studies have been applied to health physics problems. Examples of such problems and the epidemiological methods used to explore them will be presented

  16. Glossary for econometrics and epidemiology.

    Gunasekara, F Imlach; Carter, K; Blakely, T

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologists and econometricians are often interested in similar topics-socioeconomic position and health outcomes-but the different languages that epidemiologists and economists use to interpret and discuss their results can create a barrier to mutual communication. This glossary defines key terms used in econometrics and epidemiology to assist in bridging this gap.

  17. Killing fields; The epidemiological evidence

    Best, Simon

    1990-02-01

    The threat posed by low frequency fields emerged initially because a researcher, looking for environmental factors in childhood leukaemia, observed a link between low voltage, high current power lines and disease occurrence. Cellular evidence now supports the findings but epidemiology still leads the argument. (43 references). (author).

  18. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  19. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and

  20. Panel 1 : Epidemiology and Diagnosis

    Homøe, Preben; Kværner, Kari; Casey, Janet R; Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Jensen, Ramon G; Kvestad, Ellen; Morris, Peter S; Weinreich, Heather M

    Objective To create a literature review between 2011 and June 1, 2015, on advances in otitis media (OM) epidemiology and diagnosis (including relevant audiology studies). Data Sources Electronic search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) with a predefined search strategy. Review Methods

  1. [Epidemiology of rabies in Algeria].

    Benelmouffok, A; Belkaid, M; Benhassine, M

    An epidemiological study on rabies in Algeria has been carried out on data provided by the "Institut national de Santé publique" and the "Institut Pasteur d'Algérie". It showed that no region is unhurt. The animal reservoir is of the domestic type, essentially the dog. In 40% of cases, bites are due to stray dogs.

  2. TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report

    Stapleton, Fiona; Alves, Monica; Bunya, Vatinee Y.; Jalbert, Isabelle; Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Malet, Florence; Na, Kyung-Sun; Schaumberg, Debra; Uchino, Miki; Vehof, Jelle; Viso, Eloy; Vitale, Susan; Jones, Lyndon

    The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was

  3. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen's discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks

  4. [Occupational epidemiology: some methodological considerations].

    Alvear-Galindo, María Guadalupe; del Pilar Paz-Román, María

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, occupational epidemiology has gained a great importance, not only because of the increase of pollutants and their noxiousness, but also because it has gone from the descriptive to the analytic level. The purpose of this work is to present what has been reported on epidemiological studies, different ways of characterizing and measuring occupational exposure, by emphasizing slants of exposure and selection measurement. In the reviewed studies, an interest in improving the exposure evaluation has been shown. The mainly reported measurement slants are the ways of measuring and classifying the exposure. The main designs were transversal with the use of matrixes to improve the evaluation of exposure. Conditions of hygiene and security were considered in order to control the quality of the information. This information was analyzed with different criteria. Some of the elements that hinder the research on occupational epidemiology are a mixed exposure, small populations, lack of exposure data, low levels of exposure and long periods of illness latency. Some breakthroughs in the strategies of epidemiological analysis and some other areas of knowledge have made possible a better understanding of work and health conditions of workers.

  5. Update on the epidemiology of the rheumatic diseases.

    Gabriel, S E

    1996-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies continue to enhance our understanding of the rheumatic diseases. Such studies now indicate that 26 million American women are at risk for osteoporotic fractures. Contrary to previous recommendations, the identification and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis may be valuable even among very elderly people. Other epidemiologic studies suggest that the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis is decreasing and that it is a more benign disease than previously recognized. Osteoarthritis remains a leading cause of physical and work disability in North America. The roles of occupational physical activity, obesity, and highly competitive (though not low-impact) exercise as risk factors for osteoarthritis continue to be explored. Pharmacoepidemiologic research has recently demonstrated that a policy of prior authorization for prescription of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be highly cost effective. Finally, controlled epidemiologic studies have not confirmed an association between silicone breast implants and connective tissue diseases, a conclusion recently endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Epidemiology of COPD

    C. Raherison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is responsible for early mortality, high death rates and significant cost to health systems. The projection for 2020 indicates that COPD will be the third leading cause of death worldwide (from sixth in 1990 and fifth leading cause of years lost through early mortality or handicap (disability-adjusted life years (12th in 1990. Active smoking remains the main risk factor, but other factors are becoming better known, such as occupational factors, infections and the role of air pollution. Prevalence of COPD varies according to country, age and sex. This disease is also associated with significant comorbidities. COPD is a disorder that includes various phenotypes, the continuum of which remains under debate. The major challenge in the coming years will be to prevent onset of smoking along with early detection of the disease in the general population.

  7. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  8. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in hyperprolactinemia

    Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels...... in patients with T2D. HyperPRL is a biomarker for decreased dopaminergic tonus in the hypothalamic-pituitary circuit. Patients with a prolactinoma, patients with schizophrenia and/or T2D often have disturbances in this balance and the finding of lower prolactin (PRL) levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS......) may indicate increased dopaminergic tonus. Recent studies supported that PRL levels within or above reference range may be differently related to MetS. In healthy study populations and in PCOS, PRL levels were inversely associated with metabolic risk markers. Ongoing research on PRL fragments...

  11. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  12. Impact of beverage intake on metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    Helm, Laura; Macdonald, Ian A

    2015-09-01

    This review is based on a presentation that was made at a meeting concerning hydration. It summarizes the epidemiological evidence for selected beverages in relation to cardiovascular and/or metabolic health. The review focuses on tea, cocoa, milk, orange juice, alcohol, and beverages sweetened with sugars. These beverage types were chosen because of their widespread consumption, with tea, cocoa, orange juice, and milk being of potential benefit while alcohol and sugars may be detrimental. There is reasonably consistent evidence of reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with high consumption of tea, with the tea flavonoids appearing to be responsible for these benefits. There is also a growing evidence base for cocoa flavanols to have beneficial cardiovascular effects. The bulk of the evidence supporting these conclusions is epidemiological and needs to be confirmed with randomized controlled trials. Milk is associated with reduced risk of CVD, particularly in relation to blood pressure, with certain milk tripeptides being implicated in having effects to reduce angiotensin action. Further work is needed to confirm these potentially beneficial effects. There is some evidence of potentially beneficial effects of orange juice on aspects of cardiovascular function, but this is by no means convincing, and further evidence is needed from randomized controlled trials, together with the elucidation of whether any benefits are linked to the citrus flavanones or simply to the vitamin C content. While there is some evidence that red wine may convey some health benefits, there is also clear evidence that alcoholic beverages can have undesirable effects on blood pressure and increase the risk of CVD. It is possible that low to moderate intakes of alcoholic beverages may be beneficial. There is some evidence that beverages sweetened with sugars may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain, and there is also an indication from longitudinal cohort

  13. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear

  14. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among ...

    Background: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is rapidly increasing in developing countries. However, the epidemiology of MetS is not well reported in the pediatric and young adult population. We determined the prevalence of MetS and its components among overweight and obese Nigerian adolescents and ...

  15. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: state of the evidence

    Allen, Kelli D.; Golightly, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on recent studies of osteoarthritis epidemiology, including research on prevalence, incidence, and a broad array of potential risk factors at the person level and joint level. Recent findings Studies continue to illustrate the high impact of osteoarthritis worldwide, with increasing incidence. Person-level risk factors with strong evidence regarding osteoarthritis incidence and/or progression include age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history, and obesity. Joint-level risk factors with strong evidence for incident osteoarthritis risk include injury and occupational joint loading; the associations of injury and joint alignment with osteoarthritis progression are compelling. Moderate levels of physical activity have not been linked to increased osteoarthritis risk. Some topics of high recent interest or emerging evidence for association with osteoarthritis include metabolic pathways, vitamins, joint shape, bone density, limb length inequality, muscle strength and mass, and early structural damage. Summary Osteoarthritis is a complex, multifactorial disease, and there is still much to learn regarding mechanisms underlying incidence and progression. However, there are several known modifiable and preventable risk factors, including obesity and joint injury; efforts to mitigate these risks can help to lessen the impact of osteoarthritis. PMID:25775186

  16. Metabolic reprogramming during neuronal differentiation.

    Agostini, M; Romeo, F; Inoue, S; Niklison-Chirou, M V; Elia, A J; Dinsdale, D; Morone, N; Knight, R A; Mak, T W; Melino, G

    2016-09-01

    Newly generated neurons pass through a series of well-defined developmental stages, which allow them to integrate into existing neuronal circuits. After exit from the cell cycle, postmitotic neurons undergo neuronal migration, axonal elongation, axon pruning, dendrite morphogenesis and synaptic maturation and plasticity. Lack of a global metabolic analysis during early cortical neuronal development led us to explore the role of cellular metabolism and mitochondrial biology during ex vivo differentiation of primary cortical neurons. Unexpectedly, we observed a huge increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. Changes in mitochondrial mass, morphology and function were correlated with the upregulation of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, TFAM and PGC-1α. Concomitant with mitochondrial biogenesis, we observed an increase in glucose metabolism during neuronal differentiation, which was linked to an increase in glucose uptake and enhanced GLUT3 mRNA expression and platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKp) protein expression. In addition, glutamate-glutamine metabolism was also increased during the differentiation of cortical neurons. We identified PI3K-Akt-mTOR signalling as a critical regulator role of energy metabolism in neurons. Selective pharmacological inhibition of these metabolic pathways indicate existence of metabolic checkpoint that need to be satisfied in order to allow neuronal differentiation.

  17. History and philosophy of modern epidemiology

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerge...

  18. Novel metabolic activity indicator in Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Deng, D.M.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of micro-organisms in biofilms requires novel strategies to evaluate the efficacy of caries preventive agents in actual biofilms. Hence we investigated fluorescence intensity (FI) in Streptococcus mutans biofilms constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

  19. Epidemiological bases and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    Gutiérrez-Salmerón, María; Chocarro-Calvo, Ana; García-Martínez, José Manuel; de la Vieja, Antonio; García-Jiménez, Custodia

    2017-02-01

    The association between diabetes and cancer was hypothesized almost one century ago. Today, a vast number of epidemiological studies support that obese and diabetic populations are more likely to experience tissue-specific cancers, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Obesity, diabetes, and cancer share many hormonal, immune, and metabolic changes that may account for the relationship between diabetes and cancer. In addition, antidiabetic treatments may have an impact on the occurrence and course of some cancers. Moreover, some anticancer treatments may induce diabetes. These observations aroused a great controversy because of the ethical implications and the associated commercial interests. We report an epidemiological update from a mechanistic perspective that suggests the existence of many common and differential individual mechanisms linking obesity and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus to certain cancers. The challenge today is to identify the molecular links responsible for this association. Classification of cancers by their molecular signatures may facilitate future mechanistic and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Gout and Metabolic Syndrome: a Tangled Web.

    Thottam, Gabrielle E; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H

    2017-08-26

    The complexity of gout continues to unravel with each new investigation. Gout sits at the intersection of multiple intrinsically complex processes, and its prevalence, impact on healthcare costs, and association with important co-morbidities make it increasingly relevant. The association between gout and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and obesity suggest that either gout, or its necessary precursor hyperuricemia, may play an important role in the manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we analyze the complex interconnections between gout and metabolic syndrome, by reviewing gout's physiologic and epidemiologic relationships with its major co-morbidities. Increasing evidence supports gout's association with metabolic syndrome. More specifically, both human studies and animal models suggest that hyperuricemia may play a role in promoting inflammation, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, adipogenesis and lipogenesis, insulin and glucose dysregulation, and liver disease. Fructose ingestion is associated with increased rates of hypertension, weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia and is a key driver of urate biosynthesis. AMP kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of processes that tend to mitigate against the metabolic syndrome. Within hepatocytes, leukocytes, and other cells, a fructose/urate metabolic loop drives key inhibitors of AMPK, including AMP deaminase and fructokinase, that may tilt the balance toward metabolic syndrome progression. Preliminary evidence suggests that agents that block the intracellular synthesis of urate may restore AMPK activity and help maintain metabolic homeostasis. Gout is both an inflammatory and a metabolic disease. With further investigation of urate's role, the possibility of proper gout management additionally mitigating metabolic syndrome is an evolving and important question.

  1. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  2. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  3. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  4. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  5. Epidemiologic perspectives in radiation carcinogenesis

    Jablon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiological studies can tell much about carcinogenic effects at large doses, but not at small. To embark on large, long-term, expensive follow-up studies to learn something of scientific value about the effects of low doses-an average of three rads, say - is to waste time, effort, and money. It would be a fruitless effort even if the only problem to overcome was sampling variability - but it is not

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most com...

  7. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    Joffe Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s. Transmitted causes ("causes of causes" tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

  8. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology.

    Joffe, Michael; Gambhir, Manoj; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-03-19

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed.The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties.The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets.Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

  9. Panel 1: Epidemiology and Diagnosis.

    Homøe, Preben; Kværner, Kari; Casey, Janet R; Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Jensen, Ramon G; Kvestad, Ellen; Morris, Peter S; Weinreich, Heather M

    2017-04-01

    Objective To create a literature review between 2011 and June 1, 2015, on advances in otitis media (OM) epidemiology and diagnosis (including relevant audiology studies). Data Sources Electronic search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) with a predefined search strategy. Review Methods Articles with appropriate epidemiologic methodology for OM, including acute mastoiditis and eustachian tube dysfunction. Items included OM worldwide and in high-risk populations, OM-related hearing loss, news in OM diagnostics, prenatal risk factors and comorbidities, postnatal risk factors, genetics, microbiological epidemiology, guidelines, and quality of life. Conclusions Diagnostic evidence and genetic studies are increasing; guidelines are introduced worldwide; and there is evidence of benefit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. New risk factors and comordities are identified in the study period, and quality of life is affected in children and their families. Implications for Practice Chronic suppurative OM occurs worldwide and contributes to lifelong hearing loss. Uniform definitions are still lacking and should be provided. An association between HIV and chronic suppurative OM has been found. Tympanometry is recommended for diagnosis, with or without pneumatic otoscopy. Video otoscopy, algorithms, and validated questionnaires may assist clinicians. Childhood obesity is associated with OM. Heritability accounts for 20% to 50% of OM diagnoses. OM-prone children seem to produce weaker immunologic responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Clinicians tend to individualize treatment without adhering to guidelines.

  10. Quality in epidemiological surveillance of contact allergy

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    , and concentration of allergens. However, concerning other aspects, explicit compliance with international patch testing guidelines, notably the European Society of Contact Dermatitis guideline, which covers all relevant general aspects, is deemed to be a sufficient description of methods, supplemented by study......-specific information, including partial non-compliance with the guideline, as indicated. Besides technical aspects, the quality of reporting of scientific results has several other dimensions, including epidemiological and biostatistical aspects discussed in this article. Prospectively, when a study is planned......, performed, and reported, issues such as selection of patients and sample size and their impact on power and precision, the role of misclassification and potential conflicts of interests need to be addressed and discussed, respectively. Retrospectively, when a study is read and analysed, all relevant aspects...

  11. Epidemiologic view of phenylketonuria (PKU in Latinamerica

    Gustavo JC Borrajo

    2014-07-01

    Phenylketonuria newborn screening programs vary among different Latin American countries; each one has its own history; quality standards, newborn population covered and the mandatory legislation of newborn screening. Epidemiological knowledge on phenylketonuria of this region is imprecise due to the lack of national statistic registries, thus avoiding an objective assessment of population coverage and disease incidence; therefore available data is obtained from isolated observations. Analysis of phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalaninemia based on available information of several Latin American newborn screening programs shows mean incidence values of 1: 23,518 and 1: 20,759 respectively; however, individual analysis of incidence by country indicates that phenylketonuria ranges between 1:12,473 and 1:161,748 live newborns.

  12. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi.

  13. Epidemiology

    Hubert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the concern of people, a study of mortality has previously been conducted in two Pennsylvania counties located near manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials over the period 1950-1995. No excessive mortality has been identified in the population exposed counties in comparison to control counties. The current study is the continuation of the previous study of mortality over a period of eight additional years (up to 2004) and the addition of a study of cancer incidence over the period 1990-2004 and mortality for causes out of cancer from 1996 to 2004. Method: The population of each county of the study was compared to the population of three control counties selected according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the same way as in the previous study. The demographic, mortality and incidence data for the different counties have been earned at the state of Pennsylvania. Results: over the period 1996-2004, mortality from cancer (10 457 deaths) in the two counties studied was comparable to that of six control counties (relative risk .97 [95% CI .94 -. 99]) and previous results. Similarly, the incidence of cancer was similar in the counties studied (39350 cases of cancer) and the control counties (relative risk .99 [95% CI .97-1.00]). The number of deaths unrelated to cancer was 36 565, very close to the expected number (relative risk .99 [95% CI 1.01-1.01]). Conclusion: Overall, no increase in cancer or non-cancer disease could be attributed to living in counties that had manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials. (N.C.)

  14. The relationship between circadian disruption and the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

    Karatsoreos IN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilia N Karatsoreos Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA Abstract: Circadian (daily rhythms are pervasive in nature, and expressed in nearly every behavioral and physiological process. In mammals, circadian rhythms are regulated by the master brain clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus that coordinates the activity of “peripheral” oscillators throughout the brain and body. While much progress has been made in understanding the basic functioning of the circadian clock at the level of genes, molecules, and cells, our understanding of how these clocks interact with complex systems is still in its infancy. Much recent work has focused on the role of circadian clocks in the etiology of disorders as diverse as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Given the rapid rise in obesity, and the economic costs involved in treating its associated cardiometabolic disorders such as heart disease and diabetes mellitus, understanding the development of obesity and metabolic dysregulation is crucial. Significant epidemiological data indicate a role for circadian rhythms in metabolic disorders. Shift workers have a higher incidence of obesity and diabetes, and laboratory studies in humans show misaligning sleep and the circadian clock leads to hyperinsulinemia. In animal models, body-wide “clock gene” knockout mice are prone to obesity. Further, disrupting the circadian clock by manipulating the light–dark cycle can result in metabolic dysregulation and development of obesity. At the molecular level, elegant studies have shown that targeted disruption of the genetic circadian clock in the pancreas leads to diabetes, highlighting the fact that the circadian clock is directly coupled to metabolism at the cellular level. Keywords: glucose, metabolism, sleep, rhythms, obesity

  15. Metabolic fate of neutral human milk oligosaccharides in exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Dotz, Viktoria; Rudloff, Silvia; Meyer, Christina; Lochnit, Günter; Kunz, Clemens

    2015-02-01

    Various biological effects have been postulated for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro, animal, and epidemiological studies. Little is known about their metabolic fate in vivo in the breast-fed infant, which is presented here. Human milk and infant urine and feces were collected from ten mother-child pairs and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS (/MS), accompanied by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Previously, we detected intact small and complex HMO in infant urine, which had been absorbed from gut, as verified via intrinsic (13) C-labeling. Our current work reveals the presence of novel HMO metabolites in urine and feces of breast-fed infants. The novel metabolites were identified as acetylated HMOs and other HMO-like structures, produced by the infants or by their gut microbiota. The finding of secretor- or Lewis-specific HMO in the feces/urine of infants fed with nonsecretor or Lewis-negative milk suggested a correspondent modification in the infant. Our study reveals new insights into the metabolism of neutral HMO in exclusively breast-fed infants and provides further indications for multiple factors influencing HMO metabolism and functions that should be considered in future in vivo investigations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Air Pollution Exposure During Pregnancy and Fetal Markers of Metabolic function

    Lavigne, Eric; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Hystad, Perry; Johnson, Markey; Crouse, Dan L.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sun, Liu; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renée; Fraser, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that exposure to outdoor air pollution during pregnancy could alter fetal metabolic function, which could increase the risk of obesity in childhood. However, to our knowledge, no epidemiologic study has investigated the association between prenatal exposure to air pollution and indicators of fetal metabolic function. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and umbilical cord blood leptin and adiponectin levels with mixed-effects linear regression models among 1,257 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, conducted in Canada (2008–2011). We observed that an interquartile-range increase in average exposure to fine particulate matter (3.2 µg/m3) during pregnancy was associated with an 11% (95% confidence interval: 4, 17) increase in adiponectin levels. We also observed 13% (95% confidence interval: 6, 20) higher adiponectin levels per interquartile-range increase in average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (13.6 parts per billion) during pregnancy. Significant associations were seen between air pollution markers and cord blood leptin levels in models that adjusted for birth weight z score but not in models that did not adjust for birth weight z score. The roles of prenatal exposure to air pollution and fetal metabolic function in the potential development of childhood obesity should be further explored. PMID:27026336

  17. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  18. Statistical significance of epidemiological data. Seminar: Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    Weber, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    In stochastic damages, the numbers of events, e.g. the persons who are affected by or have died of cancer, and thus the relative frequencies (incidence or mortality) are binomially distributed random variables. Their statistical fluctuations can be characterized by confidence intervals. For epidemiologic questions, especially for the analysis of stochastic damages in the low dose range, the following issues are interesting: - Is a sample (a group of persons) with a definite observed damage frequency part of the whole population? - Is an observed frequency difference between two groups of persons random or statistically significant? - Is an observed increase or decrease of the frequencies with increasing dose random or statistically significant and how large is the regression coefficient (= risk coefficient) in this case? These problems can be solved by sttistical tests. So-called distribution-free tests and tests which are not bound to the supposition of normal distribution are of particular interest, such as: - χ 2 -independence test (test in contingency tables); - Fisher-Yates-test; - trend test according to Cochran; - rank correlation test given by Spearman. These tests are explained in terms of selected epidemiologic data, e.g. of leukaemia clusters, of the cancer mortality of the Japanese A-bomb survivors especially in the low dose range as well as on the sample of the cancer mortality in the high background area in Yangjiang (China). (orig.) [de

  19. Some aspects of cancer epidemiology

    Lilienfeld, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiolgic studies have strongly suggested that a vast majority (80-90%) of cancers are caused by radiation, chemical and biologic agents; the remainder result from endogenous or genetic factors. Biologically, cancer is most probably the end result of a complex multistage process and therefore may be due to a sequence of exposures to different agents at each of these stages. This emphasizes the need to stress the study of interactions in epidemiologic studies to a greater extent than has been done thus far. Examples of the importance of interactions in several types of cancer are presented

  20. An introduction to mathematical epidemiology

    Martcheva, Maia

    2015-01-01

    The book is a comprehensive, self-contained introduction to the mathematical modeling and analysis of infectious diseases. It includes model building, fitting to data, local and global analysis techniques. Various types of deterministic dynamical models are considered: ordinary differential equation models, delay-differential equation models, difference equation models, age-structured PDE models and diffusion models. It includes various techniques for the computation of the basic reproduction number as well as approaches to the epidemiological interpretation of the reproduction number. MATLAB code is included to facilitate the data fitting and the simulation with age-structured models.

  1. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  2. Epidemiology: past, present and future.

    Kesteloot, H

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiology in the past was concerned essentially by the study of infectious diseases which were the cause of huge mortalities especially since urbanisation was initiated. Epidemics of pest, typhus, cholera, influenza a.o. were common. The epidemics were halted by better hygiene, vaccination and antibiotics. Since the second world war epidemiology was dominated by an "epidemic" of new chronic diseases, especially heart disease and cancer. This was due to an increase in life span and to an increase in smoking habits and in the intake of saturated fat and a too small intake of fruit and vegetables combined with a too high intake of salt (NaCl). Gradually epidemiology evolved as the study of the causes, the distribution, the risk factors and the prevention of chronic diseases, but also including accidents, suicide, depression a.o., diseases with a mass occurrence at the population level. The importance of nutrition as a determinant of health gradually became recognized, but remains undervalued by the medical profession. Mortality at the population level follows some simple mathematical laws and can be represented accurately (r2>0.99) between the ages of 35 and 84 year by either Gompertz equations (ln mortality versus age) or by a polynomial equation (ln mortality versus age, age2). This is valid for all populations and both sexes and remains valid at times of great and rapid changes in mortality. This shows that measures for prevention should be directed towards the total population. The future of epidemiology should be directed towards the slowing of the ageing process at the population level by a healthy life style consisting of: not smoking, avoiding obesity, a fair amount of physical activity and a healthy nutrition i.e little salt, little saturated fat, an adequate amount of omega-3 fatty acids and a large amount of fruit and vegetables, with an occasional glass of red wine. This contains the secret of a long and healthy life. Conceptually it will be important

  3. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  4. Biological indicators of radiation quality

    Bender, M.A.; Wong, R.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of many biological effects by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is strikingly different in one or two respects from the induction by acute low-LET radiation. If the acute low-LET dose-effect curve is of the usual quadratic form, it becomes linear as LET increases. In any case the linear slope increases as LET increases; that is, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increases. Both changes might be exploited as biological indicators of whether or not the recent recalculations of dose and of neutron contribution to dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki seem consistent with the epidemiological observations. The biological end points that have been extensively studied in survivors include acute effects, growth and development after in utero or childhood exposure, genetic and cytogenetic effects in offspring, somatic chromosomal aberrations in survivors, and, of course, cancers, including leukemia. No significant indication among offspring of genetic or cytogenetic effects attributable to parental exposure has been found. Among the remaining end points, only the data on somatic chromosomal aberrations and on cancers appear robust enough to allow one to draw definite inferences by comparing experiences at the two cities

  5. [Epidemiologic and medical sociological aspects of hypertension].

    Siegrist, J

    1995-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major determinant of overall and premature mortality in advanced and in rapidly developing societies. In view of their importance it is mandatory to identify underlying risk factors and to guide preventive and therapeutic actions accordingly. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent and well-established cardiovascular risk factors. This paper briefly summarizes some major determinants of high blood pressure from an epidemiologic and sociomedical point of view. Determinants include age, overweight, physical inactivity, salt and alcohol intake, family history of hypertension, race and socio-economic status. The complexity of these influences is discussed by pointing to interactions between genetic and socio-environmental influences, e.g. in the case of age, bodyweight and salt intake. Based on experimental animal research there is now solid evidence on direct links between psychosocial stress, patterns of neuroendocrine activation and elevation of blood pressure. Four theoretical concepts are described which identify conditions of chronic psychosocial vulnerability or protection in man, and their role in explaining the prevalence of hypertension in epidemiologic studies is discussed. The four concepts are labelled "socioemotional support", "lifestyle incongruity", "job strain" and "effort-reward-imbalance at work". Special emphasis is given to the two latter concepts in view of the potential role of occupational life in triggering high blood pressure during middle adulthood. For instance, Table 1 indicates that high job strain, i.e. high demands in combination with low control at work, is associated with a relative risk of 3 of being hypertensive, after adjusting for important confounders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. The Association of Dietary Fiber Intake with Cardiometabolic Risk in Four Countries across the Epidemiologic Transition

    Louise Lie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Considering the emerging prevalence of these cardiometabolic disease states across the epidemiologic transition, the objective of this study is to explore these associations of dietary fiber with cardiometabolic risk factors in four countries across the epidemiologic transition. We examined population-based samples of men and women, aged 25–45 of African origin from Ghana, Jamaica, the Seychelles and the USA. Ghanaians had the lowest prevalence of obesity (10%, while Jamaicans had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (5% across all the sites. Participants from the US presented with the highest prevalence of obesity (52%, and metabolic syndrome (22%. Overall, the Ghanaians consumed the highest dietary fiber (24.9 ± 9.7 g, followed by Jamaica (16.0 ± 8.3 g, the Seychelles (13.6 ± 7.2 g and the lowest in the USA (14.2 ± 7.1 g. Consequently, 43% of Ghanaians met the fiber dietary guidelines (14 g/1000 kcal/day, 9% of Jamaicans, 6% of Seychellois, and only 3% of US adults. Across all sites, cardiometabolic risk (metabolic syndrome, inflammation and obesity was inversely associated with dietary fiber intake, such that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 13% for those in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, compared to 9% those in the highest quartile of fiber intake. Notably, twice as many of participants (38% in the lowest quartile were obese compared to those in the highest quartile of fiber intake (18%. These findings further support the need to incorporate strategies and policies to promote increased dietary fiber intake as one component for the prevention of cardiometabolic

  7. Transcriptomic epidemiology of smoking: the effect of smoking on gene expression in lymphocytes

    Almasy Laura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation offers insights into system-wide pathological processes induced in response to cigarette smoke exposure by determining its influences at the gene expression level. Methods We obtained genome-wide quantitative transcriptional profiles from 1,240 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study, including 297 current smokers. Using lymphocyte samples, we identified 20,413 transcripts with significantly detectable expression levels, including both known and predicted genes. Correlation between smoking and gene expression levels was determined using a regression model that allows for residual genetic effects. Results With a conservative false-discovery rate of 5% we identified 323 unique genes (342 transcripts whose expression levels were significantly correlated with smoking behavior. These genes showed significant over-representation within a range of functional categories that correspond well with known smoking-related pathologies, including immune response, cell death, cancer, natural killer cell signaling and xenobiotic metabolism. Conclusions Our results indicate that not only individual genes but entire networks of gene interaction are influenced by cigarette smoking. This is the largest in vivo transcriptomic epidemiological study of smoking to date and reveals the significant and comprehensive influence of cigarette smoke, as an environmental variable, on the expression of genes. The central importance of this manuscript is to provide a summary of the relationships between gene expression and smoking in this exceptionally large cross-sectional data set.

  8. The association between long working hours and health: a systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Bannai, Akira; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between long working hours and health. By focusing on differences in the definition of long working hours and the influence of shift work, we attempt to explain why the results of these studies remain inconclusive. We defined long working hours as working time greater than around 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day. Since previous studies have indicated that shift work is detrimental to health, we minimized the influence of shift work in the studies. We also placed importance on the existence of reference groups since this made the results clearer. Based on these points, we analyzed previous studies to clarify the epidemiological evidence regarding the association between long working hours and health. We established inclusion criteria and carried out a systematic search for articles published in the Medline and PsycINFO databases between 1995-2012. We identified a total of 17 articles and 19 studies (12 prospective cohort and 7 cross-sectional studies). The outcomes were all-cause mortality, circulatory disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, depressive state, anxiety, other psychological disorders, sleep condition, cognitive function, and health-related behavior. Long working hours had significant adverse effects on most health outcomes. We concluded that working long hours is associated with depressive state, anxiety, sleep condition, and coronary heart disease. However, further studies that appropriately deal with the definition of long working hours and shift work are needed.

  9. THE IMPACT OF SELENIUM STATUS ON THE METABLISM AND DISPOSITION OF ARSENIC AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS

    The Impact of Selenium Status on the Metabolism and Disposition of Arsenic and Its Implications for Epidemiologic InvestigationsE. M. Kenyon1*, M.F. Hughes1, L.M. Del Razo2, and O.A. Levander31Office of Research and Development, Experimental Toxicology Division, N...

  10. Fertility and pregnancy: an epidemiologic perspective

    Wilcox, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    .... Weaving together history, biology, obstetrics, pediatrics, demography, infectious diseases, molecular genetics, and evolutionary biology, Allen Wilcox brings a fresh coherence to the epidemiologic...

  11. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  12. en epidemiología

    Ana V. Diez Roux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología sociocultural se caracteriza por la integración de procesos sociales, culturales, económicos y políticos con procesos biológicos en el estudio de los determinantes de la salud. Por definición, esto implica la consideración de determinantes especificados a múltiples niveles, desde los genes hasta las características de la sociedad en su totalidad. En este artículo se analizan diversos problemas metodológicos que surgen en epidemiología (y en las ciencias sociales en general por la presencia de múltiples niveles de organización que pueden ser relevantes para entender las causas de la salud y la enfermedad. Se subraya la necesidad de investigar conjuntamente (o de integrar determinantes de la salud definidos a distintos niveles. El artículo concluye con un examen de las implicaciones de la presencia de múltiples niveles para el estudio de los determinantes sociales o culturales de la salud.

  13. Epidemiology: second-rate science?

    Parascandola, M

    1998-01-01

    In recent years epidemiology has come under increasing criticism in regulatory and public arenas for being "unscientific." The tobacco industry has taken advantage of this, insisting for decades that evidence linking cigarettes and lung cancer falls short of proof. Moreover, many epidemiologists remain unduly skeptical and self-conscious about the status of their own causal claims. This situation persists in part because of a widespread belief that only the laboratory can provide evidence sufficient for scientific proof. Adherents of this view erroneously believe that there is no element of uncertainty or inductive inference in the "direct observation" of the laboratory researcher and that epidemiology provides mere "circumstantial" evidence. The historical roots of this attitude can be traced to philosopher John Stuart Mill and physiologist Claude Bernard and their influence on modern experimental thinking. The author uses the debate over cigarettes and lung cancer to examine ideas of proof in medical science and public health, concluding that inductive inference from a limited sample to a larger population is an element in all empirical science.

  14. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection

    DePestel, Daryl D.; Aronoff, David M.

    2014-01-01

    There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st Century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challenges in the management of CDI. The increased incidence and severity associated with CDI has coincided with the emergence and rapid spread of a previously rare strain, ribotype 027. Recent data from the U.S. and Europe suggest the incidence of CDI may have reached a crescendo in recent years and is perhaps beginning to plateau. The acute-care direct costs of CDI were estimated to be $4.8 billion in 2008. However, nearly all the published studies have focused on CDI diagnosed and treated in acute-care hospital setting and fail to measure the burden outside the hospital, including recently discharged patients, outpatients, and those in long-term care facilities. Enhanced surveillance methods are needed to monitor the incidence, identify populations at risk, and characterize the molecular epidemiology of strains causing CDI. PMID:24064435

  15. Childhood vitiligo: Clinical epidemiological profile

    Asmae Lahlou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical and the epidemiologic profiles of childhood vitiligo. Patients and Methods: We prospectively analyzed the clinical data of children with vitiligo presented to the dermatology derpartement at University Hospital – Fès for 5 years from May 2011 to May 2016. This study included 31 patients. All patients were assessed for the natural history, clinical characteristics, family history, and associated abnormalities of vitiligo. Results: Of the 31 children with vitiligo 9 (29,03% were boys and 21 (67.74% were girls. The mean age of onset of the vitiligo was 10 years. The mean duration of the disease was 38,9 weeks. The most common type of vitiligo was vitiligo vulgaris (49.5% followed by focal vitiligo (39%, acrofacial vitiligo (32%, and segmental vitiligo (16% The most frequent site of onset was the extremities followed by the head and the neck, then the trunk and the genitalia. Of the 31 children with vitiligo, 39% had a family history and 4 % had an antecedent of autoimmune diesease like le diabète, une thyroïdite, l’anémie et le psoriasis, retrouvé. Conclusion: Our children have a strong family history of vitiligo and they are developing the disease at a slightly older age compared with those of other studies; however, other epidemiologic features appear to be similar to those reported in the previously published studies.

  16. Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography

    1993-05-01

    This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and any others relating to the study of human health effects. The Office's mission is evolving to encompass the new role of the Department in environmental restoration, weapons dismantlement and nuclear material storage, and development of new energy technologies. Publications in these areas will be included in future editions of the bibliography. The present edition brings the listing up to date, and should facilitate access to specific reports. The program has been divided into several general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers; studies on internally deposited alpha emitters; medical/histologic studies; studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage; community health surveillance studies; and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible

  17. [Metabolic syndrome: what, why, how and who?].

    Pavlić-Renar, Ivana; Poljicanin, Tamara; Metelko, Zeljko

    2007-06-01

    being recommended that the discussion on the metabolic syndrome be limited to persons without diabetes or already diagnosed cardiovascular disease, as the primary goal for these individuals is to prevent these diseases. It has already been shown that this was possible, primarily by intensive change in lifestyle - healthy diet and exercise. In conclusion, further basic research is necessary to explain the pathophysiologic mechanisms, which might serve to develop new therapies. Moreover, epidemiological and public health aspects are extremely important in the creation of a prevention program. Preliminary results of the Croatian Health Survey (2003) indicate that the metabolic syndrome according to the IDF criteria is present even in the youngest age group, with expected age-dependent increase in both men and women. This is even an underestimate since in this survey only blood pressure and waist circumference were actually measured, and data on dislipidemia and blood glucose were based on a questionnaire. It is already obvious that a wide action with two main goals aimed primarily at the youngest population is necessary: an increase in regular physical activity and the promotion of healthy and energy-adequate diet in the population at large.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Marta Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Marta Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  20. Health state of population in vicinity of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. Epidemiologic study

    Celko, M.; Durov, M.; Letkovicova, M.; Holy, R.; Sedliak, D.; Zrubec, M.; Kristufek, P.; Machata, M.; Prikazsky, V.; Rehak, R.; Stehlikova, B.; Vladar, M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of epidemiologic study of health state of population in vicinity of the Mochovce nuclear power plant (Slovak Republic) are presented. This report is reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Basic information about Mochovce NPP; (3) Assessment of population exposition by environmental factors; (4) Basic conceptions and principles of epidemiologic study; (5) Demography and health state of population; (6) Characterisation of databases and data; (7) Description of demographic and health indicators; (8) Calculation of demographic and health indicators in vicinity of the Mochovce NPP and in control areas; (9) Calculated indicators; (10) Statistical methods and evaluation of calculated indicators; (11) Summary and conclusions; (12) References; Appendixes: Literature review of similar epidemiologic studies; Quantities and units in radiation protection; Definitions of indicators calculation - specification of method

  1. The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.

    Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

    The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M.…

  2. Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

    Higdon, Jane V.; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable in...

  3. Significance of epidemiological studies for estimating the genetic radiation hazards of man

    Stephan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Following a brief presentation of the fundamentals of epidemiological studies, the problems associated with such studies are discussed. Epidemiological investigations on survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also on the population of Kerala, a state in south west India with a high natural radiation load, are then discussed. Consideration was given to the question whether the Down-Syndrom is a valid indicator for proving a causal relationship between radiation dose and genetic effects. (MG) [de

  4. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia

    Adeli Khosrow

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and type 2 diabetes are occurring at epidemic rates in the United States and many parts of the world. The "obesity epidemic" appears to have emerged largely from changes in our diet and reduced physical activity. An important but not well-appreciated dietary change has been the substantial increase in the amount of dietary fructose consumption from high intake of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup, a common sweetener used in the food industry. A high flux of fructose to the liver, the main organ capable of metabolizing this simple carbohydrate, perturbs glucose metabolism and glucose uptake pathways, and leads to a significantly enhanced rate of de novo lipogenesis and triglyceride (TG synthesis, driven by the high flux of glycerol and acyl portions of TG molecules from fructose catabolism. These metabolic disturbances appear to underlie the induction of insulin resistance commonly observed with high fructose feeding in both humans and animal models. Fructose-induced insulin resistant states are commonly characterized by a profound metabolic dyslipidemia, which appears to result from hepatic and intestinal overproduction of atherogenic lipoprotein particles. Thus, emerging evidence from recent epidemiological and biochemical studies clearly suggests that the high dietary intake of fructose has rapidly become an important causative factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome. There is an urgent need for increased public awareness of the risks associated with high fructose consumption and greater efforts should be made to curb the supplementation of packaged foods with high fructose additives. The present review will discuss the trends in fructose consumption, the metabolic consequences of increased fructose intake, and the molecular mechanisms leading to fructose-induced lipogenesis, insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia.

  5. The Epidemiology of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Asia

    Koh, Wee Ming; Bogich, Tiffany; Siegel, Karen; Jin, Jing; Chong, Elizabeth Y.; Tan, Chong Yew; Chen, Mark IC; Horby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease caused primarily by human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). Objective: This study reports a systematic review of the epidemiology of HFMD in Asia. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched up to December 2014. Study Selection: Two reviewers independently assessed studies for epidemiologic and serologic information about prevalence and incidence of HFMD against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Two reviewers extracted answers for 8 specific research questions on HFMD epidemiology. The results are checked by 3 others. Results: HFMD is found to be seasonal in temperate Asia with a summer peak and in subtropical Asia with spring and fall peaks, but not in tropical Asia; evidence of a climatic role was identified for temperate Japan. Risk factors for HFMD include hygiene, age, gender and social contacts, but most studies were underpowered to adjust rigorously for confounding variables. Both community-level and school-level transmission have been implicated, but their relative importance for HFMD is inconclusive. Epidemiologic indices are poorly understood: No supporting quantitative evidence was found for the incubation period of EV-A71; the symptomatic rate of EV-A71/Coxsackievirus A16 infection was from 10% to 71% in 4 studies; while the basic reproduction number was between 1.1 and 5.5 in 3 studies. The uncertainty in these estimates inhibits their use for further analysis. Limitations: Diversity of study designs complicates attempts to identify features of HFMD epidemiology. Conclusions: Knowledge on HFMD remains insufficient to guide interventions such as the incorporation of an EV-A71 vaccine in pediatric vaccination schedules. Research is urgently needed to fill these gaps. PMID:27273688

  6. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  7. [Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].

    Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the

  8. Epidemiology of gout and chondrocalcinosis

    M. Govoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis affecting at least 1% of the population in industrialized countries. It is closely associated with hyperuricemia and is characterized by formation and reversible deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and extra-articular tissues. Several studies suggest that the prevalence and incidence of gout are rising. Numerous risk factors may in part explain this increasing trend including dietary and lifestyle changes, genetic factors, diuretic use and comorbid conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic renal disease and the metabolic syndrome. Chondrocalcinosis is characterized by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in articular tissues, most commonly fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. Sporadic chondrocalcinosis is a common condition in the elderly and frequently associates with osteoarthritis. Hereditary haemochromatosis, hyperparathyroidism and hypomagnesaemia are metabolic disorders that predispose to secondary chondrocalcinosis.The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis is still rather uncertain and varies depending on the diagnostic criterion used in different studies.

  9. Metabolic Profiles of Brain Metastases

    Tone F. Bathen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the brain is a feared complication of systemic cancer, associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor metabolism might help us meet the challenges in controlling brain metastases. The study aims to characterize the metabolic profile of brain metastases of different origin using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to correlate the metabolic profiles to clinical and pathological information. Biopsy samples of human brain metastases (n = 49 were investigated. A significant correlation between lipid signals and necrosis in brain metastases was observed (p < 0.01, irrespective of their primary origin. The principal component analysis (PCA showed that brain metastases from malignant melanomas cluster together, while lung carcinomas were metabolically heterogeneous and overlap with other subtypes. Metastatic melanomas have higher amounts of glycerophosphocholine than other brain metastases. A significant correlation between microscopically visible lipid droplets estimated by Nile Red staining and MR visible lipid signals was observed in metastatic lung carcinomas (p = 0.01, indicating that the proton MR visible lipid signals arise from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. MRS-based metabolomic profiling is a useful tool for exploring the metabolic profiles of metastatic brain tumors.

  10. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa.

  11. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  12. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    Sang Woo Oh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Epidemiology of extremity fractures in the Netherlands

    Beerekamp, M. S. H.; de Muinck Keizer, R. J. O.; Schep, N. W. L.; Ubbink, D. T.; Panneman, M. J. M.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Insight in epidemiologic data of extremity fractures is relevant to identify people at risk. By analyzing age- and gender specific fracture incidence and treatment patterns we may adjust future policy, take preventive measures and optimize health care management. Current epidemiologic data on

  14. Complex epidemiological approach to human mutagenesis

    Czeizel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The main characteristics of the epidemiological approach are summarised and the criteria discussed for the adoption of this approach for the detection of human mutagenesis. Mutation monitoring systems are described and results of epidemiological studies of higher risk populations are presented. (C.F.)

  15. Maritim epidemiologi på Supercourse

    Jensen, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Maritim epidemiologi er nu kommet med i samlingen af undervisningsmidler på ”Supercourse”. Der er oprettet en særlig mappe med Maritime Epidemiology og alle der har gode bidrag inden for området opfordres hermed til at publicere her. Supercourse er en samling af foredrag beregnet til at være en r...

  16. Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and ...

    Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and biological profils of 62 colorectal cancers cases in Jijel provence (Algeria) ... Our results were often compatible with the available literature and may provide reliable and relevant data on this disease. Key words: Colorectal cancer; Epidemiology; Therapy; ...

  17. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence

  18. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Respiratory mucus in epidemiology has mainly been studied using standardized questionnaires including questions on cough and phlegm. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) much controversy exists regarding the importance of mucus hypersecretion. From being the key element in the 'British...... hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function......, such an effect has been shown in subsequent studies on general population samples. Chronic mucus hypersecretion also increases risk of hospital admission which may be due to an increased risk of lower respiratory tract infection. In severe COPD this may explain the increased mortality associated...

  19. [Scientific journalism and epidemiological risk].

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the communications media in the construction of symbols has been widely acknowledged. Many of the articles on health published in the daily newspapers mention medical studies, sourced from scientific publications focusing on new risks. The disclosure of risk studies in the mass media is also a topic for editorials and articles in scientific journals, focusing the problem of distortions and the appearance of contradictory news items. The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning and content of disclosing scientific risk studies in large-circulation daily newspapers, analyzing news items published in Brazil and the scientific publications used as their sources during 2000. The "risk" is presented in the scientific research projects as a "black box" in the meaning of Latour, with the news items downplaying scientific disputes and underscoring associations between behavioral habits and the occurrence of diseases, emphasizing individual aspects of the epidemiological approach, to the detriment of the group.

  20. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated...... in the emergency room were examined according to an algorithm until a diagnosis was established. The overall incidence of wrist trauma was 69 per 10,000 inhabitants per year. Incidence of wrist trauma requiring x-ray examination was 58 per 10,000 per year. The incidence of distal radius fractures was 27 per 10...... using data from a population-based study. A completeness rate of 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.78) was found. An x-ray had been taken for all patients reporting a fracture thus justifying the use of fractures as an incidence measure when comparing groups of patients with wrist trauma....

  1. Epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi Infections.

    González-Beiras, Camila; Marks, Michael; Chen, Cheng Y; Roberts, Sally; Mitjà, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The global epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi infections is poorly documented because of difficulties in confirming microbiological diagnoses. We evaluated published data on the proportion of genital and nongenital skin ulcers caused by H. ducreyi before and after introduction of syndromic management for genital ulcer disease (GUD). Before 2000, the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi ranged from 0.0% to 69.0% (35 studies in 25 countries). After 2000, the proportion ranged from 0.0% to 15.0% (14 studies in 13 countries). In contrast, H. ducreyi has been recently identified as a causative agent of skin ulcers in children in the tropical regions; proportions ranged from 9.0% to 60.0% (6 studies in 4 countries). We conclude that, although there has been a sustained reduction in the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi, this bacterium is increasingly recognized as a major cause of nongenital cutaneous ulcers.

  2. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC: From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56, 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most common site and moderately differentiated carcinoma was considered as the main common histopathological variety. In conclusion, increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in younger Iranian population, below 30 and late admission and diagnosis were the main findings in the present study necessitating screening programs with annual fecal occult blood tests in high risk families.

  4. Global epidemiology of celiac disease

    S. V. Bykova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the data on the prevalence of celiac disease in various world regions. The numbers of patients with celiac disease continues to rise every year. According to some authors, this is to be related not only to improvement in diagnosis, but to other extrinsic factors, as well, that require additional studies. In the 1980s the prevalence of this disease was 1.05%, and by the beginning of 2000s, it amounted to 1.99%. In particular, from 1993 to 2002 in Britain its incidence increased from 6 to 13.3 per 100,000. Both raised awareness of doctors and conduction of epidemiological studies play a decisive role in the improvement of the diagnosis of celiac disease. The information cumulated up to now makes it possible to conclude that the highest diagnostic rates of celiac disease can be found in the risk groups. They include 1st and 2nd degree relatives of patients with celiac disease, patients with autoimmune disorders (type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis; those with clinical signs of an intestinal disorder, such as chronic diarrhea, as well as patients with anemia, osteoporosis and high transaminase levels of unknown origin. According to the Finnish epidemiological study, the prevalence of celiac disease, depending on the risk group, may vary from 6.6 to 16.3%. The guidelines by the American College of Gastroenterology, British Society of Gastroenterology, North-American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, and the Russian Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Celiac Disease in Adults and Children all recommend thorough examination of patients from the risk groups. Active diagnosis of celiac disease (screening has been recognized as one of the approaches to primary prevention to autoimmune disorders and cancer.

  5. Metabolic syndrome criteria as predictors of insulin resistance, inflammation and mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Vogt, Barbara Perez; Souza, Priscilla L; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; Barretti, Pasqual; Caramori, Jacqueline Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic syndrome are characterized by overlapping disorders, including glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and, in some cases, obesity. However, there are no specific criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in CKD. Metabolic syndrome can also be associated with increased risk of mortality. Some traditional risk factors may protect dialysis patients from mortality, known as "reverse epidemiology." Metabolic syndrome might undergo reverse epidemiology. The objectives were to detect differences in frequency and metabolic characteristics associated with three sets of diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, to evaluate the accuracy of insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation to identify patients with metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the effects of metabolic syndrome by three sets of diagnostic criteria on mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. An observational study was conducted. Diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome proposed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome (HMetS) statement were applied to 98 hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 51%, 66.3%, and 75.3% according to NCEP ATP III, IDF, and HMetS criteria, respectively. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome by HMetS was simultaneously capable of revealing both inflammation and IR, whereas NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria were only able to identify IR. Mortality risk increased in the presence of metabolic syndrome regardless of the criteria used. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis varies according to the diagnostic criteria used. IR and inflammation predict metabolic syndrome only when diagnosed by HMetS criteria. HMetS was the diagnostic criteria that can predict the highest risk of mortality.

  6. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management

    Larsen, Signe; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations occur rather frequently in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), e.g. ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The present paper provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, and management of rheumatic......, metabolic, dermatologic (mucocutaneous), ophthalmologic, hepatobiliary, hematologic, thromboembolic, urinary tract, pulmonary, and pancreatic extraintestinal manifestations related to IBD. Articles were identified through search of the PubMed and Embase databases, the Cochrane Library, and the web sites......', 'thromboembolism', and 'treatment'. The search was performed on English-language reviews, practical guidelines, letters, and editorials. Articles were selected based on their relevance, and additional papers were retrieved from their reference lists. Since some of the diseases discussed are uncommon, valid...

  7. Simple Sugar Intake and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiological and Mechanistic Insight

    Juan Carlos Laguna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Interestingly, all of these metabolic alterations have also been related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence coming from epidemiological studies and data from animal models relating the consumption of simple sugars, and specifically fructose, with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and to gain insight into the putative molecular mechanisms involved.

  8. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  9. Metabolism and disease

    Grodzicker, Terri; Stewart, David J; Stillman, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    ...), cellular, organ system (cardiovascular, bone), and organismal (timing and life span) scales. Diseases impacted by metabolic imbalance or dysregulation that were covered in detail included diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer...

  10. Factors involved in the paradox of reverse epidemiology.

    Martín-Ponce, Esther; Santolaria, Francisco; Alemán-Valls, María-Remedios; González-Reimers, Emilio; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gaspar, Melchor; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Eva

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis of reverse epidemiology holds that some cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, in the elderly or in some chronic diseases are not harmful but permit better survival. However, this phenomenon is controversial and the underlying reasons are poorly understood. To search for factors simultaneously linked to reverse epidemiology and to short or long term survival. We included 400 patients, older than 60 years, hospitalized in a general internal medicine unit; 61 died in hospital and 338 were followed up by telephone. Obesity, higher blood pressure and serum cholesterol, besides being related to lower mortality both in hospital and after discharge, were associated with better nutrition and functional capacity, less intense acute phase reaction and organ dysfunction, and lower incidence of high-mortality diseases such as dementia, pneumonia, sepsis or cancer. These associations may explain why obesity and other reverse epidemiology data are inversely related to mortality. Weight loss was related to mortality independently of BMI. Patients with BMI under 30 kg/m(2) who died in hospital showed more weight loss than those who survived; the lower the BMI, the greater the weight loss. In contrast, patients with BMI over 30 kg/m(2) who died in hospital gained more weight than those who survived; the higher the BMI, the greater the weight gain. In patients over 60 years of age admitted to an internal medicine ward, obesity did not show independent survival value, being displaced by other nutritional parameters, functional capacity, acute phase reaction, organ dysfunction and diseases with poor prognosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer: Molecular, Epidemiological, and Clinical Evidence

    Dou, Ruoxu; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    In many cells throughout the body, vitamin D is converted into its active form calcitriol, and binds to vitamin D receptor (VDR), which functions as a transcription factor to regulate various biological processes including cellular differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes (including CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) and VDR play major roles in exerting and regulating effects of vitamin D. Preclinical and epidemiological studies provide evidence for anticancer effects of vitamin D (in particular, against colorectal cancer), though clinical trials have yet to prove its benefit. Additionally, molecular pathological epidemiology research can provide insights into the interaction of vitamin D with tumour molecular and immunity status. Other future research directions include genome-wide research on VDR transcriptional targets, gene-environment interaction analyses, and clinical trials on vitamin D efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. Here we review the literature on vitamin D and colorectal cancer from both mechanistic and population studies, and discuss the links and controversies within and between the two parts of evidence. PMID:27245104

  12. Epidemiologic study of Phenylketonuria disease in Lorestan province

    Azita Zafar Mohtashami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disease with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance caused by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver. Phenylketonuria incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of phenylketonuria in Lorestan province. Materials and Methods: All 81 phenylketonuria patients known in Lorestan province up to winter 2014 were considered in this descriptive epidemiologic study. Based on the goals and variables of the study, a complete questionnaire was developed to collect data through interviews with parents and the records and they were analyzed by use of SPSS v.16 software with preparing tables and graphs and using chi-square and t-test. Results: Results showed that phenylketonuria prevalence is 4.3 out of 100,000 people in Lorestan province. Twenty of the patients (24.7% were identified through screening and 61 patients (75.3% through other methods. Forty-six of the samples (56.8% were female and 35 cases (43.2% were male. Nearly 75% of PKU patients had a positive history of consanguinity marriage in their parents. The prevalence of the disease was significantly different from other cities. Conclusion: Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria is necessary and should be done within 3-5 days of birth. In families with children suffering from PKU, prenatal diagnosis is necessary for other pregnancies.

  13. Epidemiological study around La Hague

    1999-01-01

    The North Cotentin is in France, the area where have been led until now, the biggest number of epidemiology studies on the effects of ionizing radiations on man, in order to assess the leukemia incidences and other cancer pathologies around nuclear facilities. The North Cotentin concentrates four nuclear installations.The objective of this file is to take stock of the situation in this field. In 1995 and 1998 have been published two sections of an epidemiology study about the incidence of leukemia in North Cotentin (J.F. Viel study for the period 1978-1992, Spira study for 1993-1997). The study of the Professor Spira does not bring to the fore a significant excess of leukemia for the period 1978-1997. The report of the professor Spira advocates several complementary epidemiology studies to precise or complete the data and lighten the causes of leukemia in North Cotentin. The studies of J.F.Viel shows that it does not exist a significant excess of cases in the studied area (25 cases for 22.8 expected cases, so a non significant difference) but notices an aggregate at the limit to be significant in the Beaumont-Hague canton (4 cases for 1.4 expected cases). J.F.Viel puts forward a relationship between the risk increase (of leukemia incidence) and some individual characteristics linked to the way of life of the studied persons: the North Cotentin beaches frequenting by the mothers or the children at least one time by month, the consumption of fish or shellfish having a local origin at least one time by week. This study suggests that it is the radioactivity, on the beaches on in fishes and shellfish that would be at the origin of the additional noticed leukemia. The authorities asked at the beginning of 1997, a scientific commission directed by the Professor Souleau to propose a new epidemiology study on the leukemia risk around La Hague. The report concludes that the leukemia incidence in the North Cotentin is in accordance with the expected incidence (25 observed

  14. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  15. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

    Alberti, K G M M; Eckel, Robert H; Grundy, Scott M; Zimmet, Paul Z; Cleeman, James I; Donato, Karen A; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; James, W Philip T; Loria, Catherine M; Smith, Sidney C

    2009-10-20

    A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.

  16. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  17. The metabolic burden of sleep loss.

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Schultes, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, sleep loss has become common in modern societies. An increasing number of epidemiological studies show an association between short sleep duration, sleep disturbances, and circadian desynchronisation of sleep with adverse metabolic traits, in particular obesity and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, experimental studies point to distinct mechanisms by which insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health. Changes in the activity of neuroendocrine systems seem to be major mediators of the detrimental metabolic effects of insufficient sleep, through favouring neurobehavioural outcomes such as increased appetite, enhanced sensitivity to food stimuli, and, ultimately, a surplus in energy intake. The effect of curtailed sleep on physical activity and energy expenditure is less clear, but changes are unlikely to outweigh increases in food intake. Although long-term interventional studies proving a cause and effect association are still scarce, sleep loss seems to be an appealing target for the prevention, and probably treatment, of metabolic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulin resistance and protein energy metabolism in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Siew, Edward D; Ikizler, Talat Alp

    2010-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), the reciprocal of insulin sensitivity is a known complication of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with a number of metabolic derangements. The complex metabolic abnormalities observed in CKD such as vitamin D deficiency, obesity, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, and accumulation of "uremic toxins" are believed to contribute to the etiology of IR and acquired defects in the insulin-receptor signaling pathway in this patient population. Only a few investigations have explored the validity of commonly used assessment methods in comparison to gold standard hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic clamp technique in CKD patients. An important consequence of insulin resistance is its role in the pathogenesis of protein energy wasting, a state of metabolic derangement characterized by loss of somatic and visceral protein stores not entirely accounted for by inadequate nutrient intake. In the general population, insulin resistance has been associated with accelerated protein catabolism. Among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, enhanced muscle protein breakdown has been observed in patients with Type II diabetes compared to ESRD patients without diabetes. In the absence of diabetes mellitus (DM) or severe obesity, insulin resistance is detectable in dialysis patients and strongly associated with increased muscle protein breakdown, primarily mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Recent epidemiological data indicate a survival advantage and better nutritional status in insulin-free Type II DM patients treated with insulin sensitizer thiazolidinediones. Given the high prevalence of protein energy wasting in ESRD and its unequivocal association with adverse clinical outcomes, insulin resistance may represent an important modifiable target for intervention in the ESRD population.

  19. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Patten Scott B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  20. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology.

    Patten, Scott B

    2007-06-08

    Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.). These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers). In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  1. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of blastocystis hominis].

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Ali, Ichraf Ben Haj; Khaled, Samira

    2010-03-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal parasite known since long. It is cosmopolitan and lives in the colon. It is still the subject of controversy regarding its pathogenicity and possibly opportunistic character. We exhibit in this article the results obtained for 4 years on the epidemiological, clinical and biological character and opportunistic Blastocystis hominis, often overlooked in the examination of parasitological laboratories city. This is a retrospective study of 3257 stool examination (PSE), performed in the Mycology Laboratory of Parasitology of the Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis over a period of 4 years (January 2005-December 2008). Detection of Blastocystis hominis has been made by microscopic examination of samples by direct examination and concentration. Blastocystis was found in 7.27% of cases and 48.5% in men. Endolimax nanus is the parasite most frequently associated with Blastocystis (40.4% of cases). The port was symptomatic in 72.1% of cases, diarrhea is the symptom most often found (27.7%). There is a seasonal distribution; in fact, it is more frequently diagnosed in summer and autumn. The absence of gravity and the saprophytic nature of this infection do not lead to an indication for treatment even among profoundly immunosuppressed individuals. Only the persistence of clinical disorders associated with the detection of the parasite and in the absence of other micro-organisms and intestinal parasites justifies the treatement. Metronidazole is the molecule used conventionally.

  2. WiFi networks and malware epidemiology.

    Hu, Hao; Myers, Steven; Colizza, Vittoria; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-02-03

    In densely populated urban areas WiFi routers form a tightly interconnected proximity network that can be exploited as a substrate for the spreading of malware able to launch massive fraudulent attacks. In this article, we consider several scenarios for the deployment of malware that spreads over the wireless channel of major urban areas in the US. We develop an epidemiological model that takes into consideration prevalent security flaws on these routers. The spread of such a contagion is simulated on real-world data for georeferenced wireless routers. We uncover a major weakness of WiFi networks in that most of the simulated scenarios show tens of thousands of routers infected in as little as 2 weeks, with the majority of the infections occurring in the first 24-48 h. We indicate possible containment and prevention measures and provide computational estimates for the rate of encrypted routers that would stop the spreading of the epidemics by placing the system below the percolation threshold.

  3. The community epidemiology work group approach.

    Kozel, Nicholas J; Robertson, Elizabeth B; Falkowski, Carol L

    2002-01-01

    "Drug abuse" provides many unique challenges to the research community. Some of these involve fundamental epidemiologic issues, such as measuring the extent of the problem, identifying and assessing changes in patterns and trends, detecting emerging "drugs of abuse", characterizing vulnerable populations and determining health and social consequences. A number of research methods are employed to address these issues. This paper describes one of these--a model in which ongoing surveillance of "drug abuse" is maintained through a network of community-based researchers, local officials, academics, and other interested and qualified members of the community. Timely, accurate, and cost-effective data can be generated through systematic collection and analysis of indirect indicators of "drug abuse" that are often routinely produced by a variety of community sources. This information, in turn, can be used to make informed public health policy decisions. The community-based network model has been implemented at the city, state, national, regional, and international levels, and a case is made that this type of program could be useful, as well, in understanding the dynamics of "drug abuse" in rural areas of the country.

  4. [Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Spain].

    Asensio, Angel; Monge, Diana

    2012-06-01

    There has been increasing interest in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due its association with healthcare and its impact on morbidity and mortality in the elderly. During the last few years there has been a growing increase in the number of published studies on the incidence, changes on the clinical presentation and on the epidemiology, with the description of new risk factors. The frequency of CDI in Spain is not sufficiently characterised. The available data indicates that incidence is within the range of that of surrounding countries but increasing. Furthermore, the high and growing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, both in our hospitals and in the community setting, are factors that favour the increase of the disease. The hyper-virulent ribotype 027 has not spread in our hospitals. We need to know with enhanced validity and accuracy the incidence of CDI, both community and healthcare-associated, the information on outbreaks, the incidence on certain population groups, the characterisation of circulating ribotypes and the impact of the disease in terms of mortality and health costs. We need to implement programs for the improvement of antibiotic therapy in the hospital, as well as in the community. Furthermore, the knowledge and the performance of standard precautions need to be improved, particularly hand hygiene, and the specific measures to limit the transmission of C. difficile among the healthcare institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662

  6. WiFi networks and malware epidemiology

    Hu, Hao; Myers, Steven; Colizza, Vittoria; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    In densely populated urban areas WiFi routers form a tightly interconnected proximity network that can be exploited as a substrate for the spreading of malware able to launch massive fraudulent attacks. In this article, we consider several scenarios for the deployment of malware that spreads over the wireless channel of major urban areas in the US. We develop an epidemiological model that takes into consideration prevalent security flaws on these routers. The spread of such a contagion is simulated on real-world data for georeferenced wireless routers. We uncover a major weakness of WiFi networks in that most of the simulated scenarios show tens of thousands of routers infected in as little as 2 weeks, with the majority of the infections occurring in the first 24–48 h. We indicate possible containment and prevention measures and provide computational estimates for the rate of encrypted routers that would stop the spreading of the epidemics by placing the system below the percolation threshold. PMID:19171909

  7. Indicators and their functions

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Joumard, Robert; Aschemann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... for indicators and assessments. As the decision making context influences the perceived and actual needs for indicators and methods, we also analysed the dimensions and context of decision making. We derived criteria and methods for the assessment and selection of indicators of environmental sustainability......This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...

  8. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  9. Metabolic learning and memory formation by the brain influence systemic metabolic homeostasis.

    Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng

    2015-04-07

    Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, but whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help in balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipid levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but also the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting that the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis.

  10. Metabolic learning and memory formation by the brain influence systemic metabolic homeostasis

    Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipids levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:25848677

  11. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  12. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  13. Epidemiological issues related to dose reconstruction

    Shore, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    When a dose reconstruction is performed around some nuclear site, a decision has to be made as to whether an epidemiologic study should be performed there and, if so, what form the study should take. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of epidemiologic and biostatistical issues that help determine whether an epidemiologic study around a nuclear facility is worthwhile doing from a scientific standpoint. We are all aware that public health and sociopolitical concerns often assume considerable importance in these decisions, but they will not be considered here. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Radon epidemiology: A guide to the literature

    Marks, S.

    1988-12-01

    This document was written as a comprehensive overview of the voluminous literature on both uranium miner and residential radon epidemiology studies. This document provides the reader with a fairly complete list of radon epidemiology publications and key features of each, so that readers may further pursue only those publications of interest in the vast body of radon literature. A companion document, exploring all on-going residential radon epidemiology studies will be published by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Department of Energy (DOE) in the spring of 1989

  15. [Epidemiology of human rabies in China, 2016].

    Li, Y R; Zhu, L L; Zhu, W Y; Tao, X Y

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 and provide evidence for the control and prevention of human rabies. Methods: The incidence data of human rabies in China in 2016 were collected from national infectious disease reporting information management system. The surveillance data were collected from provinces of Shandong, Guizhou, Anhui, Hunan, Jiangsu and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Excel 2013 software was used to process and summarize the data, the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 were described by using indicators such as morbidity, mortality and constituent ratio. Results: A total of 644 human rabies cases were reported in 28 provinces in China in 2016, a decrease of 19.60% (157/801) compared with 2015. The provinces reporting high incidences of human rabies were Henan, Hunan, Guangxi and Guizhou, accounting for 39.44% (254/644) of the total cases. One case was reported in Qinghai province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region respectively. The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.14∶1 (439/205), and the majority of the patients were farmers (444/644). Surveillance points in 6 provinces reported 1 281 340 persons seeking post-exposure treatment, of whom 1 018 367 were treated for dog bite or scratch. A total of 764 234 persons completed the vaccination series, accounting for 63.90% (764 234/1 195 956) of the persons with grade Ⅱ and Ⅲ exposures, and 28.89% (165 677/573 571) of the persons with grade Ⅲ exposure were treated with passive immunization product. The average density of dogs in each surveillance area was 7.03/100 persons, the average canine immunization rate was 37.64%. Conclusion: The incidence of human rabies has remained decline in China in 2016, the number of the affected provinces has increased and that has the tendency of spreading to low-risk regions. The cases mainly occurred in men and farmers, and caused by dog bite or scratch. It is

  16. Canine Dirofilaria infections in two uninvestigated areas of Serbia: epidemiological and genetic aspects.

    Tasić, Aleksandar; Tasić-Otašević, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Miladinović-Tasić, Nataša; Ignjatović, Aleksandra; Dorđević, Jovana; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    In 2009 canine filarial infections were investigated in two northern areas of Serbia (Pančevo and Veliko Gradište), applying morphometry, biochemical staining, and immunological kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigens, and two home-made ELISAs to detect antibodies to D. repens and D. immitis somatic/metabolic polyproteins. Moreover, molecular tools were applied to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates. The microfilariae detected in 21/122 dogs (17.2%) were identified as D. repens (n=21) and D. immitis (n=2). D. immitis antigens were found in another 13 animals with occult infection. All of the 15 heartworm-positive dogs also had antibodies to this parasite, which were detected in another 13 subjects, indicating an overall D. immitis seroprevalence rate of 22.9%. Serology for D. repens revealed evidence of antibodies in 42.6% of the dogs, but was negative for 4 microfilaremic dogs. As for the two different areas, the prevalence of microfilariae and/or D. immitis antigens, mainly due to D. repens microfilaremic animals, was not significantly higher in Veliko Gradište (33.3%) than in Pančevo (22%). However, serology showed a different epidemiological picture. Heartworm infection occurred more often in both areas, and antibodies to dirofilarial nematodes were detected in 72.9% of dogs living in Pančevo, a rate higher than in those living in Veliko Gradište (57.1%). No risk factors for infection were found, confirming the uselessness of prophylactic drugs against D. repens, and suggesting the presence in these areas of sunrise- or sunset-biting mosquitoes as important vectors. The results indicate the need for both appropriate entomological studies and further research on the intra-species variability shown by D. repens.

  17. Internal dosimetry for epidemiologic studies

    Groer, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    In traditional epidemiologic analyses, a single valued summary index, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), is quite popular. The SMR is simply the ratio of the number of deaths observed in the study population to the number of deaths expected if the study population were subject to the age-specific rates of a standard population. SMRs for all causes or specific causes can be calculated. For such a simple analysis an exposed cohort is often characterized by an average organ or whole body dose or dose interval, and the necessary dose estimation effort is relatively minor. Modern statistical methods focus on the estimation of the cause-specific mortality rate λ for study populations exposed to ionizing radiations or toxic chemicals. The dependence of λ on factors other than demographic characteristics, such as race and sex, is usually described through a parametric model. Such factors, often called covariates or covariables, are incorporated in the mathematical expression for the hazard rate. The external gamma dose or the internal lung dose from inhaled uranium are good examples for covariates. This type of analysis permits the use of individual doses and gives a detailed and quantitative description of the mortality rate as a function of the covariables, but at the cost of a major dosimetric effort. The generation of the necessary dose information and also the calculational efforts become especially taxing for time-dependent covariates such as an internal, cumulative organ dose. 4 refs

  18. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  19. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  20. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela.

    Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Delgado, Alejandro; Colella, Maria T; Landaeta-Nezer, Maria E; Rosello, Arantza; Perez de Salazar, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Hartung, Claudia; Magaldi, Sylvia; Velasquez, Etna

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycoses in Venezuela. It is a granulomatous chronic infection with cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue lesions. Regional lymphatic involvement may be present; extracutaneous disease is rare. The causal fungus Sporothrix schenckii has been isolated from soil, vegetation, and animals on numerous occasions and in many localities throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of sporotrichosis observed in Venezuela and review of the literature. We included the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment, and follow-up of patients with sporotrichosis from 1963 to 2009, diagnosed at the Department of Medical Mycology. One-hundred and thirty-three sporotrichosis cases were diagnosed. Most patients were under the age of 30 years (66.15%). In 61.6% of them, the mode of transmission was not identified. The predominant clinical form in this population was lymphocutaneous (63.15%). Direct microscopic diagnosis was performed in 123 cases, and 57.9% yielded positive results for asteroid body. Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Venezuela. There are no reports to this date of disseminated forms of the disease, even amongst patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Direct microscopic examination of wet mount slides with saline solution or distilled water in the search for asteroid bodies is paramount. Saturated sodium and potassium iodine solutions continue to be extremely efficacious and affordable to most of our patients, therefore our treatment of choice. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.