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Sample records for metabolic effects norwegian

  1. The effect of a prenatal lifestyle intervention on glucose metabolism: results of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Øverby, Nina C; Bere, Elling; Torstveit, Monica K; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Hillesund, Elisabet R; Pripp, Are; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-06-02

    The effectiveness of prenatal lifestyle intervention to prevent gestational diabetes and improve maternal glucose metabolism remains to be established. The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized, controlled trial studied the effect of a combined lifestyle intervention provided to a general population, and found significantly lower gestational weight gain among intervention participants but no improvement in obstetrical outcomes or the proportion of large infants. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of the NFFD intervention on glucose metabolism, including an assessment of the subgroups of normal-weight and overweight/obese participants. Healthy, non-diabetic women expecting their first child, with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥19 kg/m 2 , age ≥ 18 years and a singleton pregnancy of ≤20 gestational-weeks were enrolled from healthcare clinics in southern Norway. Gestational weight gain was the primary endpoint. Participants (n = 606) were individually randomized to intervention (two dietary consultations and access to twice-weekly exercise groups) or control group (routine prenatal care). The effect of intervention on glucose metabolism was a secondary endpoint, measuring glucose (fasting and 2-h following 75-g glucose load), insulin, homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and leptin levels at gestational-week 30. Blood samples from 557 (91.9%) women were analyzed. For the total group, intervention resulted in reduced insulin (adj. Mean diff -0.91 mU/l, p = 0.045) and leptin levels (adj. Mean diff -207 pmol/l, p = 0.021) compared to routine care, while glucose levels were unchanged. However, the effect of intervention on both fasting and 2-h glucose was modified by pre-pregnancy BMI (interaction p = 0.030 and p = 0.039, respectively). For overweight/obese women (n = 158), intervention was associated with increased risk of at least one glucose measurement exceeding International Association of

  2. Effectiveness and regulation in the Norwegian power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittelsen, S.A.C.

    1994-03-01

    The report deals with the Norwegian research project dubbed ''Effectiveness in the power supply''. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology and a suitable tool (EDB-PC) to assess the cost effectiveness in the electric power distribution network in order to stipulate the average prices of power distribution in the different network levels. Topics cover as follow: Demand of regulation; measuring method and data; measured effectiveness; regulation of the Norwegian power distribution. 52 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verreault, Jonathan; Bech, Claus; Letcher, Robert J.; Ropstad, Erik; Dahl, Ellen; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. Effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, PBDEs, hydroxylated (OH)- and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs and OH-PCBs, circulating TH levels and BMR in breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Negative associations were found between BMR and concentrations of ΣPCB, ΣDDT and particularly Σchlordane, which combined made up 91% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of THs (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were not associated significantly with variation of BMR or concentrations of any of the compounds determined. The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous gulls exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. - Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively associated with plasma organochlorine concentrations, but not with circulating thyroid hormone levels

  4. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreault, Jonathan [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Department of Aquatic BioSciences, University of Tromso, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: jonathan@npolar.no; Bech, Claus [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Letcher, Robert J. [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Ropstad, Erik [Department of Reproduction and Forensic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., NO-0033 Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Ellen [Department of Reproduction and Forensic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., NO-0033 Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2007-01-15

    Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. Effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, PBDEs, hydroxylated (OH)- and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs and OH-PCBs, circulating TH levels and BMR in breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Negative associations were found between BMR and concentrations of {sigma}PCB, {sigma}DDT and particularly {sigma}chlordane, which combined made up 91% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of THs (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were not associated significantly with variation of BMR or concentrations of any of the compounds determined. The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous gulls exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. - Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively associated with plasma organochlorine concentrations, but not with circulating thyroid hormone levels.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Lean fish consumption is associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome: a Norwegian cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørris, C; Molin, M; Cvancarova, M Småstuen

    2016-04-19

    Fish consumption may have a role in reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to identify associations between fish consumption and MetS and its components, especially regarding differences concerning consumption of fatty and lean fish. This cross sectional study uses data from the Tromsø 6 survey (2007-08), where a sample of 12 981 adults, aged 30-87 years (47 % men) from the Norwegian general population was included. Fish consumption was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Blood sample assessments, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out according to standard protocols. MetS was defined using the Joint Interim Societies (JIS) definition. All tests were two-sided. Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (Pearson's correlation, Chi-Square tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear and logistic regression models). Mean age was 57.5, and the prevalence of MetS was 22.6 %. Fish consumption once a week or more was associated with lower risk of having MetS among men (OR 0.85, CI 95 % 0.74 to 0.98, P = 0.03). In the adjusted models, lean fish consumption was associated with a decreased risk of having MetS, whereas fatty fish consumption was not associated with a decreased risk of having MetS. Both an increased fatty and lean fish consumption (0-1 times per month, 2-3 times per month, 1-3 times per week, 4-6 times per week, 1-2 times per day) were associated with decreased serum triglyceride (TG), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Fish consumption may be associated with a lower risk of having MetS and consumption of lean fish seems to be driving the association. Further investigation is warranted to establish associations between fish consumption and MetS.

  7. Lean fish consumption is associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome: a Norwegian cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tørris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption may have a role in reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to identify associations between fish consumption and MetS and its components, especially regarding differences concerning consumption of fatty and lean fish. Methods This cross sectional study uses data from the Tromsø 6 survey (2007–08, where a sample of 12 981 adults, aged 30–87 years (47 % men from the Norwegian general population was included. Fish consumption was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ. Blood sample assessments, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out according to standard protocols. MetS was defined using the Joint Interim Societies (JIS definition. All tests were two-sided. Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (Pearson’s correlation, Chi-Square tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA, linear and logistic regression models. Results Mean age was 57.5, and the prevalence of MetS was 22.6 %. Fish consumption once a week or more was associated with lower risk of having MetS among men (OR 0.85, CI 95 % 0.74 to 0.98, P = 0.03. In the adjusted models, lean fish consumption was associated with a decreased risk of having MetS, whereas fatty fish consumption was not associated with a decreased risk of having MetS. Both an increased fatty and lean fish consumption (0–1 times per month, 2–3 times per month, 1–3 times per week, 4–6 times per week, 1–2 times per day were associated with decreased serum triglyceride (TG, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions Fish consumption may be associated with a lower risk of having MetS and consumption of lean fish seems to be driving the association. Further investigation is warranted to establish associations between fish consumption and MetS.

  8. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellevik AI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alf Inge Hellevik,1,2 Marianne Bakke Johnsen,3,4 Arnulf Langhammer,1 Valborg Baste,5 Ove Furnes,6,7 Kjersti Storheim,3,4 John Anker Zwart,3,4 Gunnar Birkeland Flugsrud,2 Lars Nordsletten2,4 1The HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, 2Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 3Research and Communication Unit for Musculoskeletal Health, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, 5Uni Research Health, Bergen, 6The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 7Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Objective: Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR or total knee replacement (TKR due to primary osteoarthritis.Design: In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2 were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. The analyses were stratified by age (<50, 50–69.9 and ≥70 years and adjusted for gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and education.Results: Of the 62,661 participants, 12,593 (20.1% were identified as having metabolic syndrome, and we recorded 1,840 (2.9% THRs and 1,111 (1.8% TKRs during a mean follow-up time of 15.4 years. Cox regression analyses did not show any association between full metabolic syndrome and THR or TKR, except in persons <50 years with metabolic syndrome who had a decreased risk

  9. FinTech in Norway : the effect of FinTech on the traditional Norwegian banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Omreng, Stian; Gjendem, Ida

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effect of FinTech on the Norwegian banking industry. We investigate the drivers of FinTech, the current and potential Norwegian FinTech market, and the international competitiveness of the Norwegian FinTech movement. We identify nine segments of FinTech within the traditional banking functions Financing, Asset management, Payments and Authentication, and we find the key drivers behind the rapid growth of the FinTech market as cha...

  10. Radioactive substances - fluxes, concentrations and possible effects in the Norwegian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.; Nilsen, K.A.; Graefvert, T.; Skjerdal, H.

    2012-10-01

    Report for the comprehensive management plan for the Norwegian Sea. Different scenarios are modeled: an accident occurring while spent nuclear fuel is being transported, pollution from a submarine that sinks off the coast, discharges from Sellafield, and the consequences of discharges from the petroleum industry. Possible effects of ionising radiation to the marine environment, doses to marine organisms and contaminants in seafood, are considered. (Author)

  11. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness in the Norwegian Army through Simulation-Based Training

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bakken; O. Boe

    2009-01-01

    The Norwegian Military Academy (Army) has initiated a project with the main ambition to explore possible avenues to enhancing operational effectiveness through an increased use of simulation-based training and exercises. Within a cost/benefit framework, we discuss opportunities and limitations of vertical and horizontal integration of the existing tactical training system. Vertical integration implies expanding the existing training system to span the full range of traini...

  12. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellevik, Alf Inge; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Langhammer, Arnulf; Baste, Valborg; Furnes, Ove; Storheim, Kjersti; Zwart, John Anker; Flugsrud, Gunnar Birkeland; Nordsletten, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) due to primary osteoarthritis. In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2) were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. The analyses were stratified by age (<50, 50-69.9 and ≥70 years) and adjusted for gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and education. Of the 62,661 participants, 12,593 (20.1%) were identified as having metabolic syndrome, and we recorded 1,840 (2.9%) THRs and 1,111 (1.8%) TKRs during a mean follow-up time of 15.4 years. Cox regression analyses did not show any association between full metabolic syndrome and THR or TKR, except in persons <50 years with metabolic syndrome who had a decreased risk of THR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83). However, when including only participants whose exposure status did not change during follow-up, this protective association was no longer significant. Increased waist circumference was associated with increased risk of TKR in participants <50 years (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.10-2.39) and 50-69.9 years (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.80). Hypertension significantly increased the risk of TKR in participants <50 years (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05-1.81), and this risk was greater for men. This study found an increased risk of TKR in men <50 years with hypertension and persons <70 years with increased waist circumference. Apart from this, neither metabolic syndrome nor its components were associated with increased risk of THR or TKR due to primary osteoarthritis.

  13. Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population. PMID:21864407

  14. Fluoroacetylcarnitine: metabolism and metabolic effects in mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, J; Davis, E J

    1973-01-01

    The metabolism and metabolic effects of fluoroacetylcarnitine have been investigated. Carnitineacetyltransferase transfers the fluoro-acetyl group of fluoroacetylcarnitine nearly as rapidly to CoA as the acetyl group of acetylcarnitine. Fluorocitrate is then formed by citrate synthase, but this second reaction is relatively slow. The fluorocitrate formed intramitochondrially inhibits the metabolism of citrate. In heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria the accumulated citrate inhibits citrate synthesis and the ..beta..-oxidation of fatty acids. Free acetate is formed, presumably because accumulated acetyl-CoA is hydrolyzed. In liver mitochondria the accumulation of citrate leads to a relatively increased rate of ketogenesis. Increased ketogenesis is obtained also upon the addition of citrate to the reaction mixture.

  15. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Malin E.; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine

    2012-01-01

    of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002–2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock...... at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply...

  16. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  17. Managing the environmental effects of the Norwegian oil and gas industry: from conflict to consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, John S.; Bakke, Torgeir; Beck, Hans Jakob; Nilssen, Ingunn

    1999-01-01

    In the early days of exploitation of the oil resources on Norway's continental shelf there was little control over environmental impacts. The oil companies expected effects of their activity to be found to a 1 Km radius round platforms. In the late 1980s data started appearing that suggested that effects were over much larger areas. These findings were disputed but subsequent studies showed that a more realistic figure of the area affected was 3 km radius giving roughly 10 times the area predicted by the companies. The Norwegian authorities reacted by imposing restrictions on discharges of oil-based drilling cuttings and since 1993 oil-based drilling mud or cuttings have not been intentionally discharged to sea on the Norwegian shelf. In 1996 Norway changed its offshore monitoring from field based monitoring of sediments to a regional monitoring of both sediments and the water column. The change makes it possible to obtain a better overview of the environmental conditions, at the same time it also reduces costs for the operators. (Author)

  18. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Mellingen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS.

  19. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellingen, Sonja; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS) throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS.

  20. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossige, Svein; Huang, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma. Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization. Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  1. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Mossige

    Full Text Available This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years.Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531 to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma.Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization.Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  2. Efficiency effects of quality of service and environmental factors. Experience from Norwegian electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian [WIK Wissenschaftliches Institut fuer Infrastruktur und Kommunikationsdienste GmbH, Bad Honnef (Germany). Dept. of Energy Markets and Energy Regulation; Jamasb, Tooraj [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics; Wetzel, Heike [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2010-08-15

    Since the 1990s, efficiency and benchmarking analysis has increasingly been used in network utilities research and regulation. A recurrent concern is the effect of environmental factors that are beyond the influence of firms (observable heterogeneity) and factors that are not identifiable (unobserved heterogeneity) on measured cost and quality performance of firms. This paper analyses the effect of geographic and weather factors and unobserved heterogeneity on a set of 128 Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the 2001-2004 period. We utilize data on almost 100 geographic and weather variables to identify real economic inefficiency while controlling for observable and unobserved heterogeneity. We use the factor analysis technique to reduce the number of environmental factors into few composite variables and to avoid the problem of multicollinearity. We then estimate the established stochastic frontier models of Battese and Coelli (1992; 1995) and the recent true fixed effects models of Greene (2004; 2005) without and with environmental variables. In the former models some composite environmental variables have a significant effect on the performance of utilities. These effects vanish in the true fixed effects models. However, the latter models capture the entire unobserved heterogeneity and therefore show significantly higher average efficiency scores. (orig.)

  3. Noise effect in metabolic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Yan, Li; Zheng-Wei, Xie; Tong, Chen; Qi, Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    Constraint-based models such as flux balance analysis (FBA) are a powerful tool to study biological metabolic networks. Under the hypothesis that cells operate at an optimal growth rate as the result of evolution and natural selection, this model successfully predicts most cellular behaviours in growth rate. However, the model ignores the fact that cells can change their cellular metabolic states during evolution, leaving optimal metabolic states unstable. Here, we consider all the cellular processes that change metabolic states into a single term 'noise', and assume that cells change metabolic states by randomly walking in feasible solution space. By simulating a state of a cell randomly walking in the constrained solution space of metabolic networks, we found that in a noisy environment cells in optimal states tend to travel away from these points. On considering the competition between the noise effect and the growth effect in cell evolution, we found that there exists a trade-off between these two effects. As a result, the population of the cells contains different cellular metabolic states, and the population growth rate is at suboptimal states. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  5. Efficiency effects of observed and unobserved heterogeneity: Evidence from Norwegian electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Wetzel, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, efficiency and benchmarking analysis has increasingly been used in network utilities research and regulation. A recurrent concern is the effect of observable environmental factors that are beyond the influence of firms and unobserved factors that are not identifiable on measured cost and quality performance of firms. This paper analyses the effect of observed geographic and weather factors and unobserved heterogeneity on a set of 128 Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the 2001–2004 period. We utilise data on 78 geographic and weather variables to identify real economic inefficiency while controlling for observed and unobserved heterogeneity. We use the Factor Analysis technique to reduce the number of environmental factors into few composite variables and to avoid the problem of multicollinearity. In order to identify firm-specific inefficiency, we then estimate a pooled version of the established stochastic frontier model of Aigner et al. (1977) and the recent true random effects model of Greene (2004; 2005a,b) without and with environmental variables. The results indicate that the observed environmental factors have a rather limited influence on the utilities' average efficiency and the efficiency rankings. Moreover, the difference between the average efficiency scores and the efficiency rankings among the pooled and the true random effects models imply that the type of SFA model used is highly influencing the efficiency estimates.

  6. Effect of playing tactics on goal scoring in Norwegian professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenga, Albin; Holme, Ingar; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Bahr, Roald

    2010-02-01

    Methods that include an assessment of opponent interactions are thought to provide a more valid analysis of team match performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing tactics on goal scoring by assessing opponent interactions in Norwegian elite soccer. The sample included 203 team possessions leading to goals (cases) and 1688 random team possessions (control group) from 163 of 182 (90%) matches played in the men's professional league during the 2004 season. Multidimensional qualitative data using ten ordered categorical variables were obtained to characterize each team possession. The proportion of goals scored during counterattacks (52%) was higher than during elaborate attacks (48%), while for the control group the proportion using elaborate attacks (59%) was higher than when using counterattacks (41%) (P = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that, for the main variable "team possession type", counterattacks were more effective than elaborate attacks when playing against an imbalanced defence (OR = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 2.61; P = 0.038). Assessment of opponent interactions is critical to evaluate the effectiveness of offensive playing tactics on the probability of scoring goals, and improves the validity of team match-performance analysis in soccer.

  7. Radioactive substances - fluxes, concentrations and possible effects in the Norwegian Sea.; Radioaktive stoffer: tilfoersler, konsentrasjoner og mulige effekter i Norskehavet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liland, A.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.; Nilsen, K.A.; Graefvert, T.; Skjerdal, H.

    2012-10-15

    Report for the comprehensive management plan for the Norwegian Sea. Different scenarios are modeled: an accident occurring while spent nuclear fuel is being transported, pollution from a submarine that sinks off the coast, discharges from Sellafield, and the consequences of discharges from the petroleum industry. Possible effects of ionising radiation to the marine environment, doses to marine organisms and contaminants in seafood, are considered. (Author)

  8. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Kjekshus, Lars Erik

    2012-09-17

    Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager's behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager's behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%). Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35) and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers' display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. The findings clearly support the line manager's importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager's role in change processes is needed.

  9. Final report: The effect of climate change on the Norwegian Energy System towards 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljom, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Fidje, A.; Meir, M.; Haugen, J.E.; Jarlseth, T.

    2010-08-15

    The climate impact on the renewable resources, end use demand, and on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050 is identified. Climate change will reduce the heat demand, increase the cooling demand, result in no impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro power potential. The total impact is reduced energy system costs, and lower Norwegian electricity prices. The net electricity export will increase, and national investments in new renewable power production like offshore wind- , tidal- and wave power will decrease due to climate change. Additionally, the electricity consumption in the residential and in the commercial sector will decrease, and climate change will lead to an earlier profitable implementation of electric based vehicles in Norway. Despite great uncertainties in the future climate, various future emission scenarios are compatible regarding the Norwegian climate impact, although the magnitude of the impact varies. (Author)

  10. Knowledge about the Greenhouse Effect and the Effects of the Ozone Layer among Norwegian Pupils Finishing Compulsory Education in 1989, 1993, and 2005--What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer have been in the media and public focus for more than two decades. During the same period, Norwegian compulsory schools have had four national curricula. The two last-mentioned prescribe explicitly the two topics. Media and public discourse might have been sources of information causing…

  11. Methods development for cost-effective marine environmental monitoring at offshore wind farms in Norwegian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, Thomas; Schlaeppy, Marie-Lise; Olenin, Sergej; Shashkov, Alexej; Heggoey, Erling; Troedsson, Christofer

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Current understanding of the environmental impact from offshore wind farms and experiences in monitoring practices, are restricted to soft-bottom habitats. Due to the large expansion of this source of energy, and the national and international drive to place large parks offshore, there is at present a strong need to further increase our knowledge of the impact on the marine environment in a wider range of habitats. At a national level, it is of importance to develop monitoring methods that are suitable for Norwegian sites and that are adjusted to impact levels expected from wind parks. Biological data on the impact of offshore wind farms in marine ecosystems are predominantly focused on the southern Baltic and southern North Sea. It is shown that large wind farms do have an impact on the marine ecosystem. The most studied effects relate to the introduction of hard substrate (the turbine foundation and scour protection) in an area made exclusively of soft sediments. This leads to an introduction of a new category of fauna, a higher productivity and a shift in community structure and species composition. In addition, the construction of an offshore wind farm excludes other activities with potentially high negative impacts on the marine ecosystem such as bottom trawling. These findings are not necessary applicable to rocky shorelines such as those bordering the Norwegian coast and the first full-scale offshore wind farm, Havsul 1. The Havsul site borders an open ocean with high average yearly wind-speeds of more than 20 knots. A relatively narrow shelf and steep underwater topography creates waves of substantial heights and a benthic marine ecosystem that is fundamentally different from the shallow water, soft sediment substrates in the southern Baltic and North Seas. Instead, areas in Norway with water depths suitable for today.s design of offshore wind farms (down to a depth of about 30-50 m) have a complex topography and a mosaic of substrate types are

  12. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Malin E; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine; Hofshagen, Merete

    2012-11-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU. A recent report states that between 50% and 80% of the human campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to broiler as a reservoir. The current study was conducted to investigate associations between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002-2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply, presence of other livestock farms within a distance of 2 km, presence of other broiler farms within a distance of 4 km with flocks positive for Campylobacter spp. within 30 days prior to slaughter, heavy rainfall 11-30 days prior to slaughter, region and year. Daily mean temperature below 0°C reduced the probability. The study emphasises the importance of the farm environment and the climate for the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks. The farm environment is probably a part of the Campylobacter spp. pathway into and between broiler flocks where farmyard run-off and humans or flies entering the houses might constitute vehicles transporting the organism. Fly activity is temperature-driven and flies might be a part of the explanation of the increased risk for Campylobacter spp. related to increased temperature demonstrated in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of snow grain shape on climate simulations: sensitivity tests with the Norwegian Earth System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Räisänen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4, both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM. In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH is compared with another (NONSPH in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region than in the spherical case ( ≈  0.89. Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area, the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain

  14. Liberating and regulating of active effect reserves in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Bjoern H.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a summary of the work done in the project ''Active reserves and current control of the effect situation'' in the period 1997 - 99. The project is one of the 7 partial projects in the project '' Operational safety planning and control'' in the Norges forskningsraad's (The Research Council of Norway) EFFEKT program. The aim of the project has been to study and test methods for liberating and regulating active reserves in the Norwegian power system. Traditionally Norway has been rich in effect reserves but in the present deregulated system it will no longer obvious that these reserves are available as the micro economy is more focussed upon in an increasingly pressured operational situation. In the recent years the margins between the available generator effects and the systems maximum load have become increasingly smaller. With the various problems discussed in this report in mind, recommendations may be given with respect to specific measures in order to improve the systems operator possibilities for current control of the effect situation as well as recommendations regarding interesting concepts that ought to be continued in new research projects. The systems operators have implemented some of the proposed measures while others are being studied further. The following specific measures are proposed to the systems operators: 1) To implements graphical survey of the production and the reported reserves in the systems operator EMS tool. 2) To implement tools of the type ''gradual load flow'' in order to prepare possible regulations in critical periods. 3) Reserved instantaneous reserves are introduced as a systems service. 4) The systems operator can reserve effect up to the operational time. 5) Introduce incentives in order to activate the end user more strongly in the ''RK'' market. 5) To modify the methodology corresponding to ''Simultaneous load'' for forecasting bottlenecks in future operation weeks. 6) The systems service ''ramping'' is

  15. Effects of snow grain shape on climate simulations: sensitivity tests with the Norwegian Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.

    2017-12-01

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77-0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02-0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. -0.22 W m-2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the

  16. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  17. Knowledge about the Greenhouse Effect and the Effects of the Ozone Layer among Norwegian Pupils Finishing Compulsory Education in 1989, 1993, and 2005 : What Now?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Pål J. Kirkeby

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer have been in the media and public focus for more than two decades. During the same period, Norwegian compulsory schools have had four national curricula. The two last-mentioned prescribe explicitly the two topics. Media and public discourse might have been sources of information causing informal learning among pupils. The point of departure for this questionnaire-based examination of the development of pupils' knowledge about the greenh...

  18. The Impact of Financial Diplomacy and the Effects of Financial Crisis on Norwegian Firms' Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on investigating changes in the financial diplomacy of the Norwegian firms’ leverages due to the decrease in banks’ lending as a consequence of the financial crisis shock wave. The research question is whether the leverage ratio measured as debt-to-equity significantly declined as a consequence of the credit crunch. Its purpose is to analyze the relationship between firms, financial diplomacy and banks and find out its implications on the capital structure, answering to the question whether firms whose bank received a large shock after Lehman Brothers’ default changed their capital structure or they found substitutes for bank lending. This paper does not study whether the changes in financial leverage led to a decreased performance of the companies, the research focuses on the relationship between Norwegian financial diplomacy and firms, emphasizing how performance of the banks influences the way in which a company finances its assets and which substitutes does it have when there is a credit crunch.

  19. Exporting the 'Norwegian Model': The effect of administrative design on oil sector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, Mark C.; Hults, David R.; Heller, Patrick R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Norway has administered its petroleum resources using three distinct government bodies: a national oil company engaged in commercial hydrocarbon operations; a government ministry to direct policy; and a regulatory body to provide oversight and technical expertise. Norway's relative success in managing its hydrocarbons has prompted development institutions to consider whether this 'Norwegian Model' of separated government functions should be recommended to other oil-producing countries. By studying ten countries that have used widely different approaches in administering their hydrocarbon sectors, we conclude that separation of functions is not a prerequisite to successful oil sector development. Countries where separation of functions has worked are characterized by the combination of high institutional capacity and robust political competition. Unchallenged leaders often appear able to adequately discharge commercial and policy/regulatory functions using the same entity, although this approach may not be robust against political changes. Where institutional capacity is lacking, better outcomes may result from consolidating commercial, policy, and regulatory functions until such capacity has further developed. Countries with vibrant political competition but limited institutional capacity pose the most significant challenge for oil sector reform: Unitary control over the sector is impossible but separation of functions is often difficult to implement. - Highlights: → The 'Norwegian Model' separates commercial, policy, and regulatory functions in oil. → We study ten oil-producing countries to assess the separation of functions model. → The model is useful where there is institutional capacity and political competition. → Consolidation of functions can work better when political power is concentrated. → Countries with low capacity may also be better off consolidating functions.

  20. Translation, data quality, reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of the Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjansson Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17 is a self-administered questionnaire for evaluating self-management interventions that empower and educate people with rheumatic conditions. The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the Norwegian version of EC-17 against the necessary criteria for a patient-reported outcome measure, including responsiveness to change. Methods Data quality, reliability, validity and responsiveness were assessed in two groups. One group comprising 103 patients received a questionnaire before and at the end of a self-management programme. The second group comprising 96 patients' received the questionnaire two weeks before and on arrival of the program. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Construct validity was assessed through comparisons with the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire, (BACQ, the Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EAC and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20. Responsiveness was assessed with the Standardised Response Mean (SRM. Results Respondents included 66 (64% and 52 (54% patients from the first and second groups respectively. Levels of missing data were low for all items. There was good evidence for unidimensionality, item-total correlations ranged from 0.59 to 0.82 and Cronbach's Alpha and test-retest correlations were over 0.90. As hypothesised EC-17 scores had statistically significant low to moderate correlations with the BACQ, EAC and GHQ-20 in the range 0.26 to 0.42. Following the self-management program, EC-17 scores showed a significant improvement with an SRM of 0.48. Conclusion The Norwegian version of the EC-17 has evidence for data quality, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness to change. The EC-17 seems promising as an outcome measure for evaluating self-management interventions for people with rheumatic conditions, but further studies are needed.

  1. Translation, data quality, reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of the Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnes, Bente; Garratt, Andrew; Kjeken, Ingvild; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Hagen, Kåre B

    2010-01-29

    The Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17) is a self-administered questionnaire for evaluating self-management interventions that empower and educate people with rheumatic conditions. The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the Norwegian version of EC-17 against the necessary criteria for a patient-reported outcome measure, including responsiveness to change. Data quality, reliability, validity and responsiveness were assessed in two groups. One group comprising 103 patients received a questionnaire before and at the end of a self-management programme. The second group comprising 96 patients' received the questionnaire two weeks before and on arrival of the program. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Construct validity was assessed through comparisons with the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire, (BACQ), the Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EAC) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20). Responsiveness was assessed with the Standardised Response Mean (SRM). Respondents included 66 (64%) and 52 (54%) patients from the first and second groups respectively. Levels of missing data were low for all items. There was good evidence for unidimensionality, item-total correlations ranged from 0.59 to 0.82 and Cronbach's Alpha and test-retest correlations were over 0.90. As hypothesised EC-17 scores had statistically significant low to moderate correlations with the BACQ, EAC and GHQ-20 in the range 0.26 to 0.42. Following the self-management program, EC-17 scores showed a significant improvement with an SRM of 0.48. The Norwegian version of the EC-17 has evidence for data quality, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness to change. The EC-17 seems promising as an outcome measure for evaluating self-management interventions for people with rheumatic conditions, but further studies are needed.

  2. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  3. On Apologizing in Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Awedyk, Witosław

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses selected points concerning the verbal realization of the speech act of apology in Norwegian. It sets out to establish prevailing tendencies in the choice of apology strategies applied by the native speakers of Norwegian. The present findings, which seem to indicate that Norwegian apology strategies are fairly routinized, ought to be perceived as preliminary as a more detailed analysis of apology formulae will be presented in an upcoming article.

  4. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  5. Particle mixing processes of Chernobyl fallout in deep Norwegian Sea sediments: Evidence for seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, W.

    1996-09-01

    A 1430 m deep station in the Norwegian Sea (Voering Plateau) was occupied five times between May 1986 and February 1987 to investigate the seasonal variation in sediment mixing rates. Cherbnbyl-derived radiocesium, identified by its high proportion of short-lived 134Cs, was used as a tracer for mixing. Most of the nuclide input arrived at the sediment within a narrow time span in June/early July during the beginning of the seasonal biogenic sedimentation pulse. Measured 137Cs profiles in the sediment over time were compared with modelled distributions calculated with a finite difference scheme. The input function of radiocesium to the sea floor was evaluated from the increase of the total inventory with time. Time-invariant mixing coefficients did not provide reasonable fits to either summer or winter distributions. The best fit was obtained with a rate of mixing proportional to the radiocesium input flux, with an average enhancement factor of 6.6 during the two summer months. It appears that the benthic macrofauna are more active during the food supply season and rapidly ingest/bury freshly sedimented materials.

  6. Norwegian emissions of CO2 1987-1994. A study of some effects of the CO2 tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.M.; Nesbakken, R.

    1997-01-01

    Several countries have introduced taxes on fossil fuels with the aim of reducing atmospheric emissions, partly because of local environmental goals (SO2, NOx) and partly to participate in a global effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Many macroeconomic studies, based on both global and national models, have been made of how emissions can be reduced with the help of taxes and the consequent reduction in GDP following the introduction of such taxes. Norway has had a CO2 tax for five years, thereby providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of this tax on emissions. The paper provides a counterfactual analysis of energy consumption and emissions if no CO2 taxes had been introduced, compared with the actual situation in which such taxes exist. The effect of a CO2 tax on oil consumption, and thus CO2 emissions, is studied on the basis of partial economic models for various sectors of the Norwegian economy. The study indicates that the CO2 tax has had an impact on CO2 emissions in Norway. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  7. Effect of household size on mental problems in children: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinde, Bjørn; Tambs, Kristian

    2016-06-02

    Most people in industrialized societies grow up in core (parents only) families with few if any siblings. Based on an evolutionary perspective, it may be argued that this environment reflects a mismatch, in that the tribal setting offered a larger number of close affiliates. The present project examined whether this mismatch may have a negative impact on mental health. We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), which includes 114 500 children. The mothers were recruited during pregnancy and followed up with questionnaires as the infants grew older. Correlates between number and type of people living in the household and questions probing mental health were corrected for likely confounders. The number of household members correlated with scores on good mental health at all ages tested (3, 5 and 8 years). The effects were distinct, highly significant, and present regardless of how mental issues were scored. The outcome could be attributed to having older siblings, rather than adults beyond parents. The more siblings, and the closer in age, the more pronounced was the effect. Living with a single mother did not make any difference compared to two parents. Girls were slightly more responsive to the presence of siblings than boys. Household pets did not have any appreciable impact. A large household is associated with fewer mental problems in children.

  8. Knowledge about the Greenhouse Effect and the Effects of the Ozone Layer among Norwegian Pupils Finishing Compulsory Education in 1989, 1993, and 2005—What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby Hansen, Pål J.

    2010-02-01

    The greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer have been in the media and public focus for more than two decades. During the same period, Norwegian compulsory schools have had four national curricula. The two last-mentioned prescribe explicitly the two topics. Media and public discourse might have been sources of information causing informal learning among pupils. The point of departure for this questionnaire-based examination of the development of pupils' knowledge about the greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer from 1989 to 2005 is the changing curricula and formal and informal learning. In 2005 the trends seem to be that more pupils confuse the greenhouse effect with the effects of the ozone layer. At the same time, specific knowledge about the greenhouse effect is improving. This article will discuss some possible causes for these trends, and give some recommendations for teaching the topics in accordance with the last national curriculum implemented in 2006.

  9. Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Nilsen, Roy M; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margareta

    2011-12-01

    There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.

  10. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  11. The Effects of Topic Familiarity, Author Expertise, and Content Relevance on Norwegian Students' Document Selection: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Stenseth, Tonje; Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the extent to which author expertise and content relevance were salient to secondary Norwegian students (N = 153) when they selected documents that pertained to more familiar and less familiar topics. Quantitative results indicated that author expertise was more salient for the less familiar topic (nuclear…

  12. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Emilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is metabolic effect of low glycaemic-index diet. The currently available scientific literature shows that low glycaemic-index diets acutely induce a number of favorable effects, such as a rapid weight loss, decrease of fasting glucose and insulin levels, reduction of circulating triglyceride levels and improvement of blood pressure. The long-term effect of the combination of these changes is at present not known. Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of cardiovascular disease, further controlled studies on low-GI diet and metabolic disease are needed.

  13. Norwegian petroleum technology. A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the Norwegian petroleum industry is an economic and technological fairy tale. In the course of a little more than 30 years Norway has developed a petroleum industry with world class products and solutions. This book highlights some of the stories behind this Norwegian success. A strong Norwegian home market has helped Norwegian industries to develop technologies in the absolute forefront. In some important areas, like the subsea market, the Norwegian 'oil cluster' became world leaders through companies like Vetco, Aker Kvaerner and FMC Technologies. Advanced products for the domestic market, with cost effective and flexible solutions, are also sought after in the international market place. Norwegian companies are now involved in some of the world's foremost projects, from Sakhalin in the east to Brazil in the west and Angola in the south. Norway, with its 4.5 million inhabitants, is a very small country indeed. As an energy supplier, however, Norway will play an increasingly important role. This will require an even stronger emphasis on research, competence and technology development. Today some 75.000 highly qualified people are working directly in the Norwegian petroleum industry, where the domestic market is still strong with large field developments like Snoehvit and Ormen Lange. Norway has established a unique Petroleum Fund, which currently is passing $ 160 billion, and political leaders in resource rich oil countries are looking to Norway for inspiration and guidance. This book describes some of the best technology stories that have emerged from Norwegian research institutions. Financial support, text and illustrations from the companies and institutions presented in the book have made its publication possible and are gratefully acknowledged. An editorial committee has been responsible for producing the book under the chairmanship of Research Director Ole Lindefjeld of ConocoPhillips, who once demonstrated a multiplier effect of at least 15

  14. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Norwegian Men from 1979 to 2007: Intraindividual Changes, Age–Period–Cohort Effects, and Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Knut; Fuskevåg, Ole-Martin; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2013-01-01

    in Norwegian men from 1979 to 2007: intraindividual changes, age–period–cohort effects, and model predictions. Environ Health Perspect 121:1292–1298; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206317 PMID:24007675

  15. Linking Arsenic Metabolism and Toxic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although arsenic has been long recognized as a toxicant and a carcinogen, the molecular basis for few of its adverse effects are well understood. Like other metalloids, arsenic undergoes extensive metabolism involving oxidation state changes and formation of methyl-arsenic bonds ...

  16. The Flynn Effect in Families: Studies of Register Data on Norwegian Military Conscripts and Their Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Martin Sundet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper published data and new analyses are presented and discussed in order to demonstrate the power of family data (siblings and parents to military conscripts with IQ data in the study of the Flynn effect (FE. In particular, it is shown how studies of the mean intelligence changes in sibships of different sizes and changing proportions of sibship sizes can enhance our understanding how these factors may influence FE. Some new analyses of correlations between intelligence and sibship sizes illustrate how family data can be used to investigate changes in the correlation pattern across generations. It is shown that comparison of the secular trends in the general population and in sibling pairs can be a powerful method in the exploration of the relative influence of between-families and within-families factors in the FE. Surprising connections between the birth order effect on intelligence and the FE are demonstrated.

  17. The effects of Norwegian gas export on the global CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report analyses how a limitation of Norway's gas export might affect the global CO 2 emission. In principle, a reduction of this export can lead to decreased or increased CO 2 emission depending on changes in several conditions that individually have conflicting emission effects. What the total effect will be can only become clear after a thorough empirical analysis of the supply and demand structure. The model calculations presented in the report show that the global emission will probably increase if Norway reduces the gas export. A gas export reduction of 10 million tonne oil equivalents in 2015 will increase the global emission by 1.4 and 7.5 million tonne CO 2 depending on the assumption made for alternative gas supplies to the European market and for market conditions in the importing countries. 4 refs., 32 figs., 44 tabs

  18. The Daily Liquidity Effect in a Floor System – Empirical Evidence from the Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Syrstad, Olav

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the liquidity effect in Norway by examining the relationship between a range of liquidity variables and five different measures of the short-term interbank premium. The models are estimated on data from January 2007 and up to the end of September 2011, a period in which Norges Bank implemented its liquidity policy within a so-called floor system, and prior to the new liquidity system introduced on 3 October 2011. In a floor system the key policy rate is equal to banks’ dep...

  19. The Daily Liquidity Effect in a Floor System – Empirical Evidence from the Norwegian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Syrstad, Olav

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the liquidity effect in Norway by examining the relationship between a range of liquidity variables and five different measures of the short-term interbank premium. The models are estimated on data from January 2007 and up to the end of September 2011, a period in which Norges Bank implemented its liquidity policy within a so-called floor system, and prior to the new liquidity system introduced on 3 October 2011. In a floor system the key policy rate is equal to banks' dep...

  20. Effects of air pollution on landscape and land-use around Norwegian aluminium smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, O L

    1975-01-01

    Investigations around three aluminium smelters in Norway revealed that air pollution emanating from the works was affecting landscape and land-use for a distance of several kilometers. A zonal pattern of damage to the total flora is described in sufficient detail to act as a field guide for the recognition of this type of fume damage. Reasons for believing the observed effects to be due to fluorides are given and the visual and ecological consequences discussed. It is important that when expansion of the aluminium producing industry occurs this is undertaken in full realization of the possible consequences.

  1. Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for growth hormone receptor, which is synthesized as a prohormone, and then proteolytically converted into 28-amino acid peptide. This peptide stimulates the secretion of growth hormone, regulates food intake, effect on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Ghrelin enhances the bioavailability of nitric oxide and maintains the balance between endothelin-1 and nitric oxide in the vascular wall. It increases cardiac output, and reduces blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. Antiinflammatory effect of ghrelin is also appreciated. Since ghrelin is a circulating peptide that stimulates appetite and regulate energy balance, and its role in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes it is the subject of intense research. A variety of metabolic functions of ghrelin requires extreme caution in the use of therapeutic approaches aimed at the stimulation or blockade of its action.

  2. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  3. Does Community Context Have an Important Impact on Divorce Risk? A Fixed-Effects Study of Twenty Norwegian First-Marriage Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The decision to divorce may be affected by the characteristics of the local community. Community characteristics may be barriers to divorce, or they may increase the attractiveness of divorcing (e.g., access to a good remarriage market), but our knowledge of such influences is sparse. This study examines two such community-level factors: socio-economic conditions and the local marriage market. In this study, discrete-time hazard models with community-level fixed effects are estimated using register-based data on Norwegian first marriages during the period from 1980 to 1999, with longitudinal information on both the community and couple levels (N = 283,493). The results show that there are important community-level influences on couples’ divorce risk, but these change dramatically when fixed effects are introduced. PMID:21350587

  4. Effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possessions in a random series of team possessions from Norwegian professional soccer matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenga, Albin; Holme, Ingar; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Bahr, Roald

    2010-02-01

    Methods of analysis that include an assessment of opponent interactions are thought to provide a more valid means of team match performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possession by assessing opponent interactions in Norwegian elite soccer matches. We analysed a random series of 1703 team possessions from 163 of 182 (90%) matches played in the professional men's league during the 2004 season. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from ten ordered categorical variables were used. Offensive tactics were more effective in producing score-box possessions when playing against an imbalanced defence (28.5%) than against a balanced defence (6.5%) (P tactics on producing score-box possessions, and improves the validity of team match-performance analysis in soccer.

  5. Norwegian Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, SCADA systems were considered safe from cyber attacks and were not designed for security. The situation...operational data that could result in public safety concerns.43 In 2013 Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet found over 2,500 SCADA systems in Norway used for ...a. Siberian Pipeline Explosion (1982) In 1982, intruders planted a Trojan horse in the SCADA system that controls the Siberian Pipeline . This is the

  6. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  7. Transforming Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertsen, Tom A

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of Norwegian Special Operation Forces (NORSOF), raising the hypothesis that its current organizational structure is inconsistent with its future roles and missions...

  8. Exporting the 'Norwegian Model': The effect of administrative design on oil sector performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, Mark C., E-mail: mark.thurber@stanford.edu [Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hults, David R. [Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Heller, Patrick R.P. [Revenue Watch Institute, New York, NY 10019 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Norway has administered its petroleum resources using three distinct government bodies: a national oil company engaged in commercial hydrocarbon operations; a government ministry to direct policy; and a regulatory body to provide oversight and technical expertise. Norway's relative success in managing its hydrocarbons has prompted development institutions to consider whether this 'Norwegian Model' of separated government functions should be recommended to other oil-producing countries. By studying ten countries that have used widely different approaches in administering their hydrocarbon sectors, we conclude that separation of functions is not a prerequisite to successful oil sector development. Countries where separation of functions has worked are characterized by the combination of high institutional capacity and robust political competition. Unchallenged leaders often appear able to adequately discharge commercial and policy/regulatory functions using the same entity, although this approach may not be robust against political changes. Where institutional capacity is lacking, better outcomes may result from consolidating commercial, policy, and regulatory functions until such capacity has further developed. Countries with vibrant political competition but limited institutional capacity pose the most significant challenge for oil sector reform: Unitary control over the sector is impossible but separation of functions is often difficult to implement. - Highlights: > The 'Norwegian Model' separates commercial, policy, and regulatory functions in oil. > We study ten oil-producing countries to assess the separation of functions model. > The model is useful where there is institutional capacity and political competition. > Consolidation of functions can work better when political power is concentrated. > Countries with low capacity may also be better off consolidating functions.

  9. Quantifying the ocean, freshwater and human effects on year-to-year variability of one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon angled in multiple Norwegian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (1979-2007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions to

  10. Quantifying the ocean, freshwater and human effects on year-to-year variability of one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon angled in multiple Norwegian rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Otero

    Full Text Available Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (1979-2007. Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching

  11. Effect of atmospheric fluoride on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suketa, Y; Yamamoto, T

    1971-05-01

    Studies on the relationship between the exposure factor and foliar deposition of fluoride, or foliar burn, are introduced. Photosynthesis is adversely affected by atmospheric fluoride. The photosynthesis of a strawberry deteriorated by 50% when the strawberry was exposed to 48 ppb hydrofluoric acid for one hour. The effect of fluoride on the respiratory organs of plants is also reported. Soy beans exposed to 0.03 ppm HF had metabolic abnormalities. The total sugar quantity of leaves decreased from 242-253 mg/100 g to 111-141 mg/100 g and the non-reduced sugar/reduced sugar ratio decreased from 4.6-8.7 to 0.8-1.6. 30 references, 3 figures, 14 tables.

  12. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  13. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  14. The Norwegian hydrogen guide 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen technologies are maturing at rapid speed, something we experience in Norway and around the globe every day as demonstration projects for vehicles and infrastructure expand at a rate unthinkable of only a few years ago. An example of this evolution happened in Norway in 2009 when two hydrogen filling stations were opened on May the 11th, making it possible to arrange the highly successful Viking Rally from Oslo to Stavanger with more than 40 competing teams. The Viking Rally demonstrated for the public that battery and hydrogen-electric vehicles are technologies that exist today and provide a real alternative for zero emission mobility in the future. The driving range of the generation of vehicles put into demonstration today is more than 450 km on a full hydrogen tank, comparable to conventional vehicles. As the car industry develops the next generation of vehicles for serial production within the next 4-5 years, we will see vehicles that are more robust, more reliable and cost effective. Also on the hydrogen production and distribution side progress is being made, and since renewable hydrogen from biomass and electrolysis is capable of making mobility basically emission free, hydrogen can be a key component in combating climate change and reducing local emissions. The research Council of Norway has for many years supported the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and The Research Council firmly believes that hydrogen and fuel cell technologies play a crucial role in the energy system of the future. Hydrogen is a flexible transportation fuel, and offers possibilities for storing and balancing intermittent electricity in the energy system. Norwegian companies, research organisations and universities have during the last decade developed strong capabilities in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, capabilities it is important to further develop so that Norwegian actors can supply high class hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to global markets

  15. Genetic/metabolic effect of iron metabolism and rare anemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Camaschella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in iron metabolism have allowed a novel classification of iron disorders and to identify previously unknown diseases. These disorders include genetic iron overload (hemochromatosis and inherited iron-related anemias, in some cases accompanied by iron overload. Rare inherited anemias may affect the hepcidin pathway, iron absorption, transport, utilization and recycling. Among the genetic iron-related anemias the most common form is likely the iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia (IRIDA, due to mutations of the hepcidin inhibitor TMPRSS6 encoding the serine protease matriptase-2. IRIDA is characterized by hepcidin up-regulation, decrease iron absorption and macrophage recycling and by microcytic- hypochromic anemia, unresponsive to oral iron. High serum hepcidin levels may suggest the diagnosis, which requires demonstrating the causal TMPRSS6 mutations by gene sequencing. Other rare microcytic hypochromic anemias associated with defects of iron transport-uptake are the rare hypotransferrinemia, and DMT1 and STEAP3 mutations. The degree of anemia is variable and accompanied by secondary iron overload even in the absence of blood transfusions. This is due to the iron-deficient or expanded erythropoiesis that inhibits hepcidin transcription, increases iron absorption, through the erythroid regulator, as in untransfused beta-thalassemia. Sideroblastic anemias are due to decreased mitochondrial iron utilization for heme or sulfur cluster synthesis. Their diagnosis requires demonstrating ringed sideroblasts by Perl’s staining of the bone marrow smears. The commonest X-linked form is due to deltaamino- levulinic-synthase-2-acid (ALAS2 mutations. The recessive, more severe form, affects SLC25A38, which encodes a potential mitochondrial importer of glycine, an amino acid essential for ALA synthesis and thus results in heme deficiency. Two disorders affect iron/sulfur cluster biogenesis: deficiency of the ATP-binding cassette B7 (ABCB7 causes X

  16. Endocrine and Metabolic Changes during Exhaustive Multifactorial Military Stress. Results from Studies during the Ranger Training Course of the Norwegian Military Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    effect is due to secondary mechanisms. In the brain, noradrenaline serves as neurotransmitter for the neurones in the locus coeruleus, which have a...stimulates energy mobilization at many levels. First of all cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis through the stimulation of relevant hepatic enzyme...behaviour, mood, neuronal excitability and electrical activity. Behavioural changes are observed both in excess states such as Cushing’s disease and

  17. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  18. Gender Identity and Labor Division In Norwegian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Hafzi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Economic analysis We investigate if gender identity has any effect on the division of household labor among Norwegian couples. By deriving the potential income distribution of the Norwegian population, we compare couples’ comparative advantage in market work. Our results indicate that women who have higher potential income than their spouse are more likely to increase their labor supply and work full-time, rather than reduce their hours allocated to market work in order ...

  19. A study of side-effects of Pandemrix® influenza (H1N1) vaccine on board a Norwegian naval vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Johan Storm; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Birkeland, Ingelin; Finne, Morten; Utkilen, Torun; Bøe, Tommy; Mjølhus, Gry; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The frigate His Norwegian Majesty's ship (HNoMS) Fridtjof Nansen was participating in operations in the Gulf of Aden in support of the EU mission tasked with protecting vessels from the threat of piracy. The crew was therefore prioritized and given the first batch of Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (Pandemrix(®)). To investigate the type, frequency, and intensity of side effects after whole-crew vaccination with Pandemrix vaccine in healthy subjects in a controlled environment. A hundred and thirty-three members of the crew were vaccinated, and then they participated in the study. The side effects of the vaccination were evaluated through a survey. Seventy-five per cent of the vaccinated sailors reported adverse reactions to the vaccine, with 9% not being able to perform their daily duties for one day. Muscle pain, headaches, malaise, and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms reported. The vaccination program using Pandemrix H1N1 vaccine resulted in a high rate of side effects, which were generally mild and resolved within a few days. No serious lasting side effects of the vaccination were reported or registered. The adverse effects of the vaccination did not affect the operational capacity of the vessel.

  20. Nutritional conditioning : The effect of fasting on drug metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis focus on the effect of fasting, as nutritional modulator, on drug metabolism. Drug metabolism varies considerably between and within patients, which may result in treatment failure or, conversely, in untoward side effects. Many factors contribute to the

  1. Metabolic effects of Olanzapine versus Iloperidone: A 24 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atypical antipsychotics have become the mainstay of therapy for psychosis. Though extrapyramidal side effects have been reduced with atypical antipsychotics, yet there are increased concerns over metabolic effects. The present study is aimed to comparatively evaluate the metabolic profile of olanzapine and iloperidone ...

  2. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  3. Effects of SO2 and sulfite on stromal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.E.; Muschinek, G.; Marques, I.

    1986-01-01

    SO 2 appears to have multiple effects on chloroplast stromal metabolism. What is unique about metabolism in the chloroplast is reductive modulation of enzyme activity. The evidence summarized here implicates both the components of the modulation process and the light modulated enzymes and ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase in SO 2 -sensitivity. Interference with electron transport, acidification of the stroma, and depletion of phosphates will further complicate metabolism in the photosynthesizing chloroplast when sensitive plants are exposed to SO 2 . 35 refs., 6 figs

  4. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  5. Norwegian Salmon : a study of in-store promotions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Marius; Haeger, Jarling Mathias Kvam; Mikkelsen, Guro Johanne; Tomaszewski, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses primarily on two in-store promotions currently used as a marketing strategy by Norwegian Seafood Council to spread the awareness of Norwegian salmon. Due to the uncertainty of the effects of these promotions on the average Chinese consumers’ purchase behavior and attention, the authors have decided to conduct a research to find out which of these are the most cost-efficient, and how Norwegian Seafood Council may improve their in-store promotions in order to ...

  6. Maximising Organisational Information Sharing and Effective Intelligence Analysis in Critical Data Sets. A case study on the information science needs of the Norwegian criminal intelligence and law enforcement community

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Organisational information sharing has become more and more important as the amount of information grows. In order to accomplish the most effective and efficient sharing of information, analysis of the information needs and the organisation needs are vital. This dissertation focuses on the information needs sourced through the critical data sets of law enforcement organisations; specifically the Norwegian criminal intelligence and law enforcement community represented by the Na...

  7. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  8. Metabolic changes in cancer: beyond the Warburg effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Wu; Shimin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells.The best-known metabolic abnormality in cancer cells is the Warburg effect,which demonstrates an increased glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen.However,tumor-related metabolic abnormalities are not limited to altered balance between glucose fermentation and oxidative phosphorylation.Key tumor genes such as p53 and c-myc are found to be master regulators of metabolism.Metabolic enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase,fumarate hydratase,pyruvate kinase,and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations or expressing level alterations are all linked to tumorigenesis.In this review,we introduce some of the cancer-associated metabolic disorders and current understanding of their molecular tumorigenic mechanisms.

  9. Presence of the relative age effect and its effect on playing time among under-20 players in the Norwegian premier league Tippeligaen – a four-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arve Sæther

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available European top-level soccer clubs are continually looking for talented players. Few clubs, however, are willing to let youth players play at the highest senior level. Perhaps as a consequence, the search for talented players has resulted in an imbalance in the characteristics of these players, towards an overrepresentation of players born early in the selection year, an effect called the relative age effect (RAE. The RAE has been documented to be present among senior top-level players. Even so, few studies have investigated the effect among youth players at the senior level. The aim of this study is to examine RAE among U17-U20 players in the Norwegian premier league Tippeligaen in the 2009-2012 seasons. Participants were 315 male players born in 1990-1996. The results showed that 68% of the players were born in the two first quartiles of the year. The effect was even increasing in the four-year period. As we could expect based on the literature, the oldest players are given more playing time. However, the connection between playing time and RAE was inconsistent. Norwegian top-level soccer seems to be affected by the RAE when selecting their players. These players are not however guaranteed playing time because of the RAE.

  10. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  11. Effects of introducing heterologous pathways on microbial metabolism with respect to metabolic optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Byoungjin; Seung, Do Young

    2014-01-01

    reactions are more frequently introduced into various microbial hosts. The genome-scale metabolic simulations of Escherichia coli strains engineered to produce 1,4-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and amorphadiene suggest that microbial metabolism shows much different responses to the introduced heterologous...... reactions in a strain-specific manner than typical gene knockouts in terms of the energetic status (e.g., ATP and biomass generation) and chemical production capacity. The 1,4-butanediol and 1,3-propanediol producers showed greater metabolic optimality than the wild-type strains and gene knockout mutants...... for the energetic status, while the amorphadiene producer was metabolically less optimal. For the optimal chemical production capacity, additional gene knockouts were most effective for the strain producing 1,3-propanediol, but not for the one producing 1,4-butanediol. These observations suggest that strains having...

  12. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with metabolic syndrome,[9] this is a serious adverse effect of which the .... and Toronto Nocturnal Hypersalivation Scale (TNHS).[15] The presence ..... Positive and negative symptoms in affected sib pairs with schizophrenia: ...

  13. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  14. Body image mediates the depressive effects of weight gain in new mothers, particularly for women already obese: evidence from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yong Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies show that obesity and depression tend to cluster in women. An “appearance concern” pathway has been proposed as one basic explanation of why higher weights might lead to depression. The transition to motherhood is a life phase in which women’s body image, weight, and depressive risk are in flux, with average weight increasing overall during this period. Examination of how these factors interact from pre- to post-pregnancy provides a means to test how body image plays a key role, as proposed, in causally shaping women’s depressive risk. Methods Tracking 39,915 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBA Cohort Study forward 36 months after their deliveries, we test the moderating and mediating effects of body image concerns on the emergence of new mothers’ depressive symptoms by using a binary logistic regression model with a discrete-time event history approach and mediation analysis with bootstrapping. Results For women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain heightens their depressive symptoms over time. Body image concerns mediate the association between weight gain and the development of depressive symptoms regardless of weight status. However, the mediation effect is more evident for women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Conversely, better body image is highly protective against the transition to mild or more severe depressive symptoms among new mothers, but only for women who were not classified as obese prior to their pregnancies. Conclusions These findings support a role for body image concerns in the etiology of depressive symptoms during the transition to motherhood. The findings suggest body image interventions before or during pregnancy could help reduce risks of depression in the early postpartum period and well beyond.

  15. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  16. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  17. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  18. Walking- and cycling track networks in Norwegian cities : cost-benefit analyses including health effects and external costs of road traffic : summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Cost- benefit analyses of walking- and cycling track net-works in three Norwegian cities are presented in this study. A project group working with a National Cycling Strategy in Norway initialised the study. Motivation for starting the study is the P...

  19. Fructose use in clinical nutrition: metabolic effects and potential consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Sandra; Seematter, Gérald; Seyssel, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The current article presents recent findings on the metabolic effects of fructose. Fructose has always been considered as a simple 'caloric' hexose only metabolized by splanchnic tissues. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that fructose acts as a second messenger and induces effects throughout the human body. Recent discoveries made possible with the evolution of technology have highlighted that fructose induces pleiotropic effects on different tissues. The fact that all these tissues express the specific fructose carrier GLUT5 let us reconsider that fructose is not only a caloric hexose, but could also be a potential actor of some behaviors and metabolic pathways. The physiological relevance of fructose as a metabolic driver is pertinent regarding recent scientific literature.

  20. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  1. Metabolic effects of physiological levels of caffeine in myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuck, Jamie K; Gould, Lacey M; Parry, Hailey A; Johnson, Michele A; Gannon, Nicholas P; Sunderland, Kyle L; Vaughan, Roger A

    2018-02-01

    Caffeine has been shown to stimulate multiple major regulators of cell energetics including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Additionally, caffeine induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial biogenesis. While caffeine enhances oxidative metabolism, experimental concentrations often exceed physiologically attainable concentrations through diet. This work measured the effects of low-level caffeine on cellular metabolism and gene expression in myotubes, as well as the dependence of caffeine's effects on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ). C2C12 myotubes were treated with various doses of caffeine for up to 24 h. Gene and protein expression were measured via qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cellular metabolism was determined via oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate. Caffeine significantly induced regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial staining was suppressed in PPARβ/δ-inhibited cells which was rescued by concurrent caffeine treatment. Caffeine-treated cells also displayed elevated peak oxidative metabolism which was partially abolished following PPARβ/δ inhibition. Similar to past observations, glucose uptake and GLUT4 content were elevated in caffeine-treated cells, however, glycolytic metabolism was unaltered following caffeine treatment. Physiological levels of caffeine appear to enhance cell metabolism through mechanisms partially dependent on PPARβ/δ.

  2. The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, E. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    This report includes abstracts from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme 11-12 March 1996. The abstracts are organized according to the sessions: (1) Regional effects of climate change with emphasis on ecology, (2) Climate research related to the North Atlantic, (3) What lessons can be drawn from paleoclimatology about changes in the current climate?, (4) Changes in the ozone layer and their effect on UV and biology. Abstracts of a selection of papers presented at the workshop can be found elsewhere in the present data base. 70 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effects of current education on second- and third-birth rates among Norwegian women and men born in 1964: Substantive interpretations and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Kravdal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of approaches have been employed to assess the importance of women's education for their second- or third-birth rates. Some researchers have included the educational level measured at a relatively high age in their models, whereas others have included current education. A few have taken selection into account by modelling first-, second-, and higher-order birth rates jointly, with a common unobserved factor. The corresponding education-fertility relationships among men, however, has not attracted any attention. In this study, based on Norwegian register data for the 1964 cohort, a high current educational level for a woman is found to stimulate her second- and third-birth rates. Controlling for selection through joint modelling turns out to be quite unimportant, but the results are very different if the educational level attained by age 39 is included instead of current education. It is important to be aware of such sensitivity to the specification of education. The corresponding effects for men are also positive, but not more strongly positive than those for women. These results may suggest that we should not take for granted that women's education generally reduces fertility, and that it does so because of higher opportunity costs for the better educated. However, it is also possible that a high current educational level is linked with modest aspirations for further schooling, which would tend to stimulate subsequent fertility, that it is partly caused by some individual, family or community characteristics that also lead to high fertility, or that it even to some extent is a result of plans to have a child fairly soon. These alternative interpretations are discussed.

  4. Norwegian oil and gas policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjerde, B

    1978-04-01

    The Norwegian Minister of Oil and Energy explains the importance of integrating petroleum policy into the broad political picture because of Norway's economic situation. Since oil was found on the continental shelf 13 years ago, changes have been made in projected production levels to reflect the international recession and concerns over unemployment in Norway. Policies are aimed at keeping a constant activity in the petroleum sector through allocation of particular block development that will improve continental shelf mapping and encourage new deepwater exploration and development. He outlines licensing criteria and future exploratory activities. The report covers aspects of safety, transportation, and landing and the impacts of petroleum activities on Norwegian communities.

  5. The metabolic effects of diuron in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Simões, Mellina; Bracht, Lívia; Parizotto, Angela Valderrama; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2017-09-01

    A systematic study on the effects of diuron on the hepatic metabolism was conducted with emphasis on parameters linked to energy metabolism. The experimental system was the isolated perfused rat liver. The results demonstrate that diuron inhibited biosynthesis (gluconeogenesis) and ammonia detoxification, which are dependent of ATP generated within the mitochondria. Conversely, it stimulated glycolysis and fructolysis, which are compensatory phenomena for an inhibited mitochondrial ATP generation. Furthermore, diuron diminished the cellular ATP content under conditions where the mitochondrial respiratory chain was the only source of this compound. Besides the lack of circulating glucose due to gluconeogenesis inhibition, one can expect metabolic acidosis due to excess lactate production, impairment of ammonia detoxification and cell damage due to a deficient maintenance of its homeostasis. Some of the general signs of toxicity that were observed in diuron-treated rats can be attributed, partly at least, to the effects of the herbicide on energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  7. Effects of intermittent fasting on metabolism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Fernanda Reis de; Ikeoka, Dimas; Caramelli, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes the available literature on the impact of intermittent fasting (IF), a nutritional intervention, on different aspects of metabolism. The epidemic of metabolic disturbances, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and diabetes mellitus type 2 has led to an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, and affected patients might significantly benefit from modifications in nutritional habits. Recent experimental studies have elucidated some of the metabolic mechanisms involved with IF. Animal models have shown positive changes in glucose (lower plasma glucose and insulin levels) and in lipid metabolism (reduced visceral fat tissue and increased plasma adiponectin level), and an increased resistance to stress. Despite the limited number of samples studied, positive results have been reported on the impact of IF for human health. IF is reported to improve the lipid profile; to decrease inflammatory responses, reflected by changes in serum adipokine levels; and to change the expression of genes related to inflammatory response and other factors. Studies on obese individuals have shown that patient compliance was greater for IF than other traditional nutritional approaches (calorie restriction), and IF was found to be associated with low oxidative stress. Recent reports suggest that IF exerts a positive impact on the metabolic derangements commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases, and that it may be a viable and accessible intervention for most individuals. Therefore, further clinical studies are essential to test the effectiveness of IF in preventing and controlling metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Operating costs on Norwegian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.; Nansve, A.H.

    1992-09-01

    In this report we summarize some of the findings in a project for A/S Norske Shell, where the objective was to find trends in the development of operating expenditures on the Norwegian Continental Shelf if any, and to explain these. We also present a short compilation of articles on the subject. 23 refs., 13 figs

  9. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  10. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Norwegian Gas in International Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Scarcity of oil and gas will continue to characterize international energy markets, either in an economic, physical or political sense, over shorter or longer time. With a constantly increasing Norwegian petroleum production, it is likely that the international community closely will observe petroleum developments in Norway. Apart from security policy, petroleum issues may be the most central single factor in Norwegian foreign policy, simply because the outside world defines it so. The size of the natural gas exports makes Norway a strategic player in a market of vital interest for the energy supplies to Europe. The economic development and national security of the receiving countries depend on secure supplies of energy at stable prices on an acceptable level. Norwegian gas strategy must be conscious that the USA, the EU and great European purchasing countries like Germany, France, the UK and Italy, as well as competitors Russia, Algeria and others, will be interested in its content. As an example of how Norwegian petroleum policy may be influenced from the outside world, the author analyzes the case when Norwegian energy policy first became an explicit element in a larger political game. In order to prevent Western European countries from completing a notable gas contract with the Soviet Union in 1982, the U.S. introduced a ban on all American exports to firms supporting the project. Also the U.S. boycotted European firms supplying equipment. The Americans claimed that if Western Europe became too dependent on Soviet gas, one might come under pressure in a future political crisis if the Soviets turned off the taps to stop the energy supply. The U. S. urged Norway to increase her gas exports as a substitute for Soviet gas. Norway, on the other hand, maintained that gas production could not be increased as quickly as desired. The Norwegians also wanted, in case a development should be accelerated, a ''price premium'' to justify an act that otherwise would have been

  12. An assessment of the effects on seabirds of oil exploration in the Norwegian part of the Skagerrak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentsen, S.-H.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Kroglund, R.T.; Oestnes, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the effects on seabirds of possible petroleum exploration in the North Sea east of 7 o East (Skagerrak). Relative index values for the direct effects of oil spills were calculated by combining oil spill simulations with the distribution of the valued ecosystem components, Common Eider and auks, and their vulnerability indexes, using the analysis system SIMPACT. Based on these results and other considerations, recommendations for limiting possible drilling activity are given. 105 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs

  13. 3-D thermal effect of late Cenozoic erosion and deposition within the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy Petrovich; Gernigon, Laurent; Olesen, Odleiv; Ottesen, Dag; Rise, Leif

    2018-05-01

    A 3-D subsurface temperature distribution within the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin and adjacent areas has been studied to understand the thermal effect of late Cenozoic erosion of old sedimentary and crystalline rocks and subsequent deposition of glacial sediments during the Pleistocene. A lithosphere-scale 3-D structural model of the Lofoten-Vesterålen area has been used as a realistic approximation of the geometries of the sedimentary infill, underlying crystalline crust and lithospheric mantle during the 3-D thermal modelling. The influence of late Cenozoic erosion and sedimentation has been included during the 3-D thermal calculations. In addition, the 3-D thermal modelling has been carried out by taking also into account the influence of early Cenozoic continental breakup. The results of the 3-D thermal modelling demonstrate that the mainland is generally colder than the basin areas within the upper part of the 3-D model. The thermal influence of the early Cenozoic breakup is still clearly recognizable within the western and deep parts of the Lofoten-Vesterålen margin segment in terms of the increased temperatures. The thermal effects of the erosion and deposition within the study area also indicate that a positive thermal anomaly exists within the specific subareas where sedimentary and crystalline rocks were eroded. A negative thermal effect occurs in the subareas affected by subsidence and sedimentation. The erosion-related positive thermal anomaly reaches its maximum of more than +27 °C at depths of 17-22 km beneath the eastern part of the Vestfjorden Basin. The most pronounced deposition-related negative anomaly shows a minimum of around -70 °C at 17-20 km depth beneath the Lofoten Basin. The second negative anomaly is located within the northeastern part of the Vøring Basin and has minimal values of around -48 °C at 12-14 km depth. These prominent thermal anomalies are associated with the subareas where

  14. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E [ed.

    2004-07-01

    production for the year totalled 73.4 bn scm. Gas sales are expected to build up sharply from today's level to reach 120 bn scm in 2010. Development plans for Ormen Lange in the Norwegian Sea and a new gas transport system to the UK were completed by the end of 2003. Ormen Lange is the largest gas discovery on the NCS after Troll. This development and the planned transport system to the UK are very important contributions to the future activity on the NCS, and these projects will have substantial national and regional effects. Against the background of disappointing exploration results in immature areas of the Norwegian and North Seas during recent years, the government decided to announce an extensive 18th licensing round in these parts of the NCS. It will give companies the access to immature acreage, which is important for increasing exploration activity. In announcing it, the government has carefully balanced the interests of the environment, the fisheries, the aquaculture and the petroleum activities. While being highly significant for future Norwegian petroleum operations, the Lofoten-Barents Sea area of the NCS is very important both ecologically and for the fishing industry. At the end of 2003, 48 fields were in production on the NCS, 42 in the North Sea and six in the Norwegian Sea. Production began in 2003 from Fram, Grane and Mikkel. Kristin, Kvitebjoern, Skirne and Snoehvit have approved plans for development and operation, but are being developed. Forecasts indicate that remaining resources on the NCS could permit profitable production of oil for 50 years and gas for almost a century. Achieving such a positive development is very demanding. Key challenges include access to new acreage to ensure the necessary exploration activity, development of resources close to existing infrastructure and improved recovery factor for producing fields. The government is concerned to facilitate the achievement of the long-term scenario. This will accordingly be the key subject

  15. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    day in 2003, while gas production for the year totalled 73.4 bn scm. Gas sales are expected to build up sharply from today's level to reach 120 bn scm in 2010. Development plans for Ormen Lange in the Norwegian Sea and a new gas transport system to the UK were completed by the end of 2003. Ormen Lange is the largest gas discovery on the NCS after Troll. This development and the planned transport system to the UK are very important contributions to the future activity on the NCS, and these projects will have substantial national and regional effects. Against the background of disappointing exploration results in immature areas of the Norwegian and North Seas during recent years, the government decided to announce an extensive 18th licensing round in these parts of the NCS. It will give companies the access to immature acreage, which is important for increasing exploration activity. In announcing it, the government has carefully balanced the interests of the environment, the fisheries, the aquaculture and the petroleum activities. While being highly significant for future Norwegian petroleum operations, the Lofoten-Barents Sea area of the NCS is very important both ecologically and for the fishing industry. At the end of 2003, 48 fields were in production on the NCS, 42 in the North Sea and six in the Norwegian Sea. Production began in 2003 from Fram, Grane and Mikkel. Kristin, Kvitebjoern, Skirne and Snoehvit have approved plans for development and operation, but are being developed. Forecasts indicate that remaining resources on the NCS could permit profitable production of oil for 50 years and gas for almost a century. Achieving such a positive development is very demanding. Key challenges include access to new acreage to ensure the necessary exploration activity, development of resources close to existing infrastructure and improved recovery factor for producing fields. The government is concerned to facilitate the achievement of the long-term scenario. This

  16. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Polak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  17. Effects of rosiglitazone on metabolic parameters and large artery sclerosis in nondiabetic patients with metabolic sydrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhenhai; Lu Yun; Feng Yinbo; Jin Xian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of rosiglitazone on metabolic parameters, carotid intimamedia thickness (IMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) in nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Seventy-nine nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome were randomly divided into treatment group (n = 41) and control group (n = 38). The patients in treatment group were treated with rosiglitazone on the basis of life-style intervention, those in control group were treated with life-style intervention for 9 months. All patients were followed up every 3 months. Body mass index (BMI) ,waist circumference(WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdendity lipoprotein (HDL-C), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), HbA 1 C, fasting insulin (FIns), HOMA-IR, IMT, baPWV and ABI were measured in both groups before treatment and at the 6th, 9th month after treatment. Results: (1) After treatment with rosiglitazone for 6 months, FPG, TG, HDL-C, hsC RP, HbA 1 C, Fins and HOMA-IR in treatment group were improved (P 1 C, Fins and HOMA-IR got further improvement at the 9th month after treatment (P 1 C, Fins and HOMA-IR were changed significantly in treatment group compared to those in control group (P 1 C and HOMA-IR was independently related to the improvement of ABI by multivarient analysis. Conclusion: In nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, rosiglitazone can significantly improve insulin resistance, correct metabolic disorders, has anti-inflammatory effect and retard atherosclerosis at some extent. (authors)

  18. Facts 2006. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokka, Ane; Midttun, Oeyvind

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector is extremely important to Norway. The industry is responsible for one fourth of all value creation in the country and more than one fourth of the state's revenues. It is currently Norway's largest industry, and the spillover effects to other industries are substantial. Norway ranks as the world's third largest exporter of oil and the eighth largest oil producer. Less than one third of the estimated petroleum reserves Norway has have been produced. The level of activity on the Norwegian continental shelf was very high in 2005. The number of producing fields was 50, and these fields produced 3 million barrels of oil (including NGL and condensate) per day and 85 billion standard cubic metres (scm) gas, for a total production saleable petroleum of 257 million scm of oil equivalents. Resource management is conducted through the models of cooperation and competition. Annual licensing rounds are held by the authorities where companies are given access to new exploration areas. The interest in the 19th licensing round in 2005 was considerable, indicating a continuous high interest in the Norwegian continental shelf. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates for the future a gradual increase in the petroleum production up until 2011, and a gradual fall thereafter. Gas production is expected to increase until 2013. Gas production represents 35 percent of the total production in 2006. It is expected that by 2013 it will represent 50 percent of the total. Other aspects accounted for include government petroleum revenues, environmental considerations, petroleum resources and overviews of fields in production, fields where production has ceased and fields under development

  19. Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier F. Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes.

  20. Effects of kinins on glucose metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, W H; Jauch, K W; Wolfe, R R; Schildberg, F W

    1990-01-01

    Current concepts of the physiological importance of the kinin/prostaglandin system view these tissue factors as part of a defense system, which protects tissues from potentially noxious factors, such as hypoxia or destructive inflammatory reactions. This kinin-triggered defense reaction includes an improvement in cellular energy metabolism. The latter is brought about in peripheral tissues by an increased availability of glucose for anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis, whereas in liver tissue, energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis are attenuated. There is evidence that such favorable effects can also be produced in man when kinins are administered systemically. Prostaglandins are most likely the second messengers of kinin-induced metabolic effects. Thus, it may be advantageous to increase the availability of kinins either by exogenous infusion or by inhibiting endogenous degradation during postoperative stress or in diseases such as diabetes mellitus, in which glucose metabolism is severely disturbed.

  1. Biochemical and cytological effects of sulphur dioxide on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, S S; Hocking, D

    1976-01-01

    Biochemical effects of sulfur dioxide arise from its unique ability to act as an oxidizing or a reducing agent. Among some of the important metabolic effects are direct interference with photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation (competitive inhibiton of ribulose diphosphate carbosylase by SO/sub 3/) and with energy metabolism (inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production by SO/sub 3//sup =/). Many indirect effects result from formation of sulfites and organic sulfonates with other cell constituents. These compounds can cause inhibition of a variety of metabolic enzyme systems. All these factors are probably instrumental in the gross disruption of chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Injurious effects result when sulfur dioxide is taken up in excess of the capacity of the tissue to incorporate sulfur into the normal metabolic activities. The ubiquitous presence of small amounts of SO/sub 2/ and the subtle and varied nature of its biochemical effects suggest that crop losses to SO/sub 2/ pollution may be more widespread and serious than is generally suspected.

  2. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of hyperammonemia on brain energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Leke, Renata

    2014-01-01

    . In this review, we discuss both recent and older literature related to this controversial topic. We find that it has been consistently reported that hepatic encephalopathy and concomitant hyperammonemia lead to reduced cerebral oxygen consumption. However, this may not be directly linked to an effect of ammonia...

  4. Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during laparoscopic surgery: changes in pH, arterial partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCo 2 ) and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide (EtCO 2 ) ... Respiratory adjustments were done for EtCO2 levels above 60mmHg or SPO2 below 92% or adverse haemodynamic changes.

  5. Effects of reducing dietary crude protein and metabolic energy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of a pure reduction in the dietary crude protein (CP) and metabolic energy (ME) contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, faecal microflora and odour gas emission in weaned pigs. A total of 80 weaned piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) ...

  6. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  7. Effect of saccharin on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to study the effect of saccharin on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, HGPRT+ cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of saccharin, all the interactions that developed in 4 and 24 h were positive for metabolic cooperation. When saccharin was added after donor cells and recipient cells had made contact, the proportion of interactions that were positive for metabolic cooperation was unchanged but the number of grains over primary recipients was reduced. However, in donor cells saccharin caused a reduction in [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation into both acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions, although the relative distribution of radioactivity between these two fractions and between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated derivatives of [ 3 H]hypoxanthine was unchanged. Metabolic cooperation was studied under conditions in which the number of grains over the nuclei of both the primary recipient and the primary recipient's donor could be counted. The change in the number of grains over these two cell types in response to saccharin was compared and found to be the same. Thus in normal human fibroblasts saccharin does not appear to affect metabolic cooperation, which is a measure of cell-to-cell communication

  8. Beneficial Effects of Corn Silk on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Xiao, Tiegang; Ruan, Jun; Liu, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a very common medical problem worldwide. It includes obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abnormal levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is closely associated with insulin resistance and may lead to diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, or cardiovascular diseases. Corn silk (CS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to have multiple beneficial effects, including hypotensive, anti-diabetic, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests that corn silk could be used to treat or prevent metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of corn silk in different components of metabolic syndrome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Norwegian Foreign Direct Investment : Destination Singapore Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasli, Siri Hetle

    2009-01-01

    The growth and spread of FDI during the 20th century has been described as a significant economic-geographic development. Norwegian FDI has been increasing since the 1980s, but the large scale of it is a new phenomenon. Singapore is now the third most important host country for Norwegian FDI. This thesis is a study of Norwegian FDI in Singapore, and the research question is: Which economic and political factors do Norwegian companies regard as important when investing abroad, and to what degr...

  10. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Steinar; Hagen, Leif Otto

    1998-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO 2 and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NO x and NO 2 , CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  11. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  12. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L; Gilligan, C

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.

  13. Metabolic effects of portal vein sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithieux, G

    2014-09-01

    The extrinsic gastrointestinal nerves are crucial in the sensing of nutrients and hormones and its translation in terms of control of food intake. Major macronutrients like glucose and protein are sensed by the extrinsic nerves located in the portal vein walls, which signal to the brain and account for the satiety phenomenon they promote. Glucose is sensed in the portal vein by neurons expressing the glucose receptor SGLT3, which activate the main regions of the brain involved in the control of food intake. Proteins indirectly act on food intake by inducing intestinal gluconeogenesis and its sensing by the portal glucose sensor. The mechanism involves a prior antagonism by peptides of the μ-opioid receptors present in the portal vein nervous system and a reflex arc with the brain inducing intestinal gluconeogenesis. In a comparable manner, short-chain fatty acids produced from soluble fibre act via intestinal gluconeogenesis to exert anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. In the case of propionate, the mechanism involves a prior activation of the free fatty acid receptor FFAR3 present in the portal nerves and a reflex arc initiating intestinal gluconeogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of endotoxin on monoamine metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorecky, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Taam, D.; Fine, J.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of effects of administered endotoxin on catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain, sympathetic neurons, and adrenal medulla. It is found that endotoxin, administered intraperitoneally, lowers the norepinephrine content in peripheral sympathetic neurons and the brain, and the catecholamine content in the adrenal medulla. It also accelerates the disappearance of H3-norepinephrine from all these tissues. It is therefore suggested that the effects of endotoxin on body temperature may be mediated in part by central non-adrenergic neurons.

  15. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Blaner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A, as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.

  16. Effects of canrenone in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Bonaventura, Aldo; Bianchi, Lucio; Romano, Davide; D'Angelo, Angela; Fogari, Elena; Maffioli, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a common disease due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. The aim was to evaluate the effects of canrenone compared to placebo on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients affected by metabolic syndrome. A total of 145 patients were treated with placebo or canrenone, 50 mg/day, for 3 months and then 50 mg b.i.d. till the end of the study. Blood pressure, body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, plasma aldosterone, brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and M value were evaluated. A decrease of blood pressure was observed in canrenone group compared to baseline; moreover, systolic blood pressure value recorded after 6 months of canrenone therapy was lower than the one recorded with placebo. Canrenone gave a significant decrease of FPI and HOMA index, and an increase of M value both compared to baseline and to placebo. Canrenone also decreased triglycerides and FPG was not observed with placebo. Canrenone also decreased plasma aldosterone, Hs-CRP and TNF-α compared to baseline and to placebo. Canrenone seems to be effective in reducing some factors involved in metabolic syndrome and in improving insulin-resistance and the inflammatory state observed in these patients.

  17. Effect of air-polluting gases on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, I

    1972-01-01

    Among the air-polluting gases, SO/sub 2/, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and fluorine are those whose action is studied most. This review tries to show the connection between the well-known macroscopic symptoms, on the one hand, the the primary point of attack at the enzymatic level, the changes in the plant's metabolism, and the microscopic and electronmicroscopic results, on the other. PAN and ozone, which originate through the action of sunlight on auto-exhausts, cause the strong oxidizing character of this type of smog. Their primary point of attack seems to be their oxidizing effect on protein SH-groups. PAN in special oxidizes the SH-groups of a photoreducible disulfide containing chloroplast protein, thus blocking photosynthesis. SO/sub 2/, which originates from combustion of coal and petroleum as well as from roasting of sulfur-containing ores, causes the reductive character of this type of smog. SO/sub 2/ has a special position among the air-polluting gases because it can be incorporated without damaging effect into the normal sulfur metabolism up to a certain level. After exceeding this limit, it causes a rapid depression of photosynthesis. F/sup -/ is bound as a salt in the cell wall or in the cell vacuole and is thereby prevented from its damaging effect on metabolic processes up to a certain level. Upon exceeding this, it acts mainly on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. In a few examples it is shown in which way the collapse of cell compartmentation causes the loss of regulatory mechanisms of the cell. The influence of internal (genetic conditions, physiological age etc.) and external (light, temperature, humidity etc.) factors on the general metabolism, and, in this way, on the sensitivity of the plant to air-polluting gases, is shown. 195 references.

  18. Effect of increasing plant maturity in timothy-dominated grass silage on the performance of growing/finishing Norwegian Red bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, Å T; Nørgaard, P; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made of the potential for attaining high daily live weight (LW) gain, high feeding efficiency and carcass quality in Norwegian Red (NRF) bulls fed grass silage harvested at early stages of maturity, supplemented with minimal amounts of concentrates. Roundbale silage was produ......An investigation was made of the potential for attaining high daily live weight (LW) gain, high feeding efficiency and carcass quality in Norwegian Red (NRF) bulls fed grass silage harvested at early stages of maturity, supplemented with minimal amounts of concentrates. Roundbale silage...... and a formic acid-based additive applied. All silages were preserved with restricted fermentation. Silage DOMD values were 0·747, 0·708 and 0·647 for harvesting time (H) 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Silages were fed ad libitum as sole feed, or supplemented with 2–4 kg concentrate at increasing LW, to six bulls per...... treatment from age 7 months (288 kg) to slaughter at 575 kg. Daily LW gain for bulls fed unsupplemented silage was 1423, 1262 and 936 g, respectively, for H1, H2 and H3, and 1570, 1567 and 1357 g for supplemented bulls. For concentrate-supplemented bulls, higher energy intake increased proportions...

  19. Metabolic effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yejin; Lee, Hye-Jin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS. Methods Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85th percentile and those being overweight and obese with a BMI greater than 85th percentile. Results Hemoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (r-GT), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 2-hour postglucose load plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in the lean PCOS group than in the lean control group. In the overweight/obese PCOS group, hemoglobin and r-GT levels were significantly elevated than in the overweight/obese control group. In the normal weight group, none of the subjects had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, but the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the overweight/obese PCOS group was 8.3% and that in the overweight/obese control group was 6.7%. Conclusion PCOS in adolescents causes metabolic abnormalities, underscoring the importance of early diagnosis of PCOS in oligomenorrheic adolescents. PMID:26512349

  20. Metabolic effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejin Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposePolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS.MethodsAnthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85th percentile and those being overweight and obese with a BMI greater than 85th percentile.ResultsHemoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (r-GT, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 2-hour postglucose load plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in the lean PCOS group than in the lean control group. In the overweight/obese PCOS group, hemoglobin and r-GT levels were significantly elevated than in the overweight/obese control group. In the normal weight group, none of the subjects had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, but the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the overweight/obese PCOS group was 8.3% and that in the overweight/obese control group was 6.7%.ConclusionPCOS in adolescents causes metabolic abnormalities, underscoring the importance of early diagnosis of PCOS in oligomenorrheic adolescents.

  1. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Overall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins, black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins, blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins, maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins, Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins, and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health.

  2. Genetic Manipulations of PPARs: Effects on Obesity and Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaacov Barak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in genetic manipulations of PPARs is as old as their discovery as receptors of ligands with beneficial clinical activities. Considering the effects of PPAR ligands on critical aspects of systemic physiology, including obesity, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and diabetes, gene knockout (KO in mice is the ideal platform for both hypothesis testing and discovery of new PPAR functions in vivo. With the fervent pursuit of the magic bullet to eradicate the obesity epidemic, special emphasis has been placed on the impacts of PPARs on obesity and its associated diseases. As detailed in this review, understanding how PPARs regulate gene expression and basic metabolic pathways is a necessary intermediate en route to deciphering their effects on obesity. Over a decade and dozens of genetic modifications of PPARs into this effort, valuable lessons have been learned, but we are left with more questions to be answered. These lessons and future prospects are the subject of this review.

  3. Norwegian gas sales and the impacts on European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.; Boug, P.; Kverndokk, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied the impacts on Western European CO 2 emissions of a reduction in Norwegian gas sales. Such impacts are due to changes in energy demand, energy supply, and environmental and political regulations. The gas supply model DYNOPOLY was used to analyse the effects on Russian and Algerian gas exports of a reduction in Norwegian gas supply. The effects on the demand side and the effects of committing to CO 2 targets were analysed using the energy demand model SEEM. If Western European countries commit to their announced CO 2 emissions targets, reduced Norwegian gas sales will have no impact on emissions. The consumption of oil and coal will increase slightly, while the total energy consumption will go down. Also, a reduction in Norwegian gas sales will have only minor impacts on the CO 2 emissions from Western Europe when no emissions regulations are considered

  4. Can Parallelingualism Save Norwegian from Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Language extinction is one of the most pressing issues in linguistics today, and the literature is full of discussion about how to combat it. Statements that Norwegian is amongst the languages that are already extinct are merely examples of a widespread tendency in the literature towards erroneous information about Norwegian. Nonetheless, there is…

  5. Norwegian gas supplies for the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the Norwegian key role in the European gas market with increasing market shares. The supply capacity in a long-term perspective can be 65-70 bcm/year or more if export prices support the development of new and more costly gas resources. The main challenges for the Norwegian shelf are discussed. 5 figs

  6. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  7. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  8. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. https://www.norad.no/en/front/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative · View all initiatives.

  9. Effects of Extremity Armor on Metabolic Cost and Gait Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    of prosthetics , orthotics, and exercise equipment could benefit from knowing the tipping point at which a mass on the limb begins to effect metabolic...measured. For this, you wear a nose clip and 4 breathe through a rubber mouthpiece and valve , similar to those found in scuba diving 5 equipment. The...32 33 Stress fractures , or breaks of bones in the foot and leg, have been associated with road 34 marching while carrying loads, especially

  10. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway's largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on saccharomyces uvarum metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciano, J.Z.; Hix, C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect of UV radiation on the metabolism of Saccharomcyes uvarum in wort used in beer production. Pure yeast cultures were exposed to a Westinghouse G8T5 germicidal lamp for 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes and added to fresh wort. The cultures were allowed to ferment for 96 hours at 130 C and fermentation products were assayed at 24 hour intervals and analyzed on a SCABA BEER ANALYZER. Metabolic parameters measured were balling, alcohol and cell count. Percent alcohol (V/V %) increased significantly at all exposures, but as the UV dosage increased, alcohol levels showed a significant decline with longer exposures. The assimilation of sugars or balling levels dropped at each exposure level among samples. The ability for the yeast to assimilate sugars decreased as UV exposure was increased although pitching rates fluctuated. (Pitching rates are the cell count readings at inoculation). None of the samples showed a logarithmic growth pattern, except for the controls which did not exhibit a lag phase. All other samples decreased cell counts as exposure levels increased, without peaks. Substrate availability was not a factor in the metabolism of Saccharomyces uvarum. Cell count levels at each exposure could have possibly affected the metabolic parameters because of excessive cell killing. Viabilities at the exposure levels studied show that the number of live cells available for nutrient uptake was lower at each level. However, the peak levels of the parameters measured were very close to the controls. Although the availability of cells was low, metabolic rates could have been altered by the UV light

  12. Effects of intermittent fasting on glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2017-08-01

    Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism. For IER, there is a growing evidence demonstrating its benefits on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the short-to-medium term; however, more long-term safety studies are required. Whilst the metabolic benefits of TRF appear quite profound in rodents, findings from the few human studies have been mixed. There is some suggestion that the metabolic changes elicited by these approaches can occur in the absence of energy restriction, and in the context of IER, may be distinct from those observed following similar weight-loss achieved via modest continuous energy restriction. Mechanistically, the frequently repeated prolonged fasting intervals may favour preferential reduction of ectopic fat, beneficially modulate aspects of adipose tissue physiology/morphology, and may also impinge on circadian clock regulation. However, mechanistic evidence is largely limited to findings from rodent studies, thus necessitating focused human studies, which also incorporate more dynamic assessments of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ultimately, much remains to be learned about intermittent fasting (in its various forms); however, the findings to date serve to highlight promising avenues for future research.

  13. The effect of phorbols on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to study the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), 4-O-methyl TPA, and phorbol on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase+ (HGPRT+) cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of [ 3 H]hypoxanthine and either 4-O-methyl TPA or phorbol, nearly all interactions that developed in 4 h were positive for metabolic cooperation whereas when high concentrations of TPA were used, the number of positive interactions was significantly less than the control. If the phorbol analogs were added after the donors and recipients had made contact, the number of positive interactions was the same as the control in all cases. However, although primary recipients in the cultures that had been treated with phorbol had the same number of grains as those in the control, primary recipients in cultures that had been treated with TPA or high concentrations of 4-O-methyl TPA had significantly fewer grains than those in the control. TPA treatment for 4 h had no effect on total [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation or incorporation into acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Thus, the effect of TPA on metabolic cooperation is interpreted as a reduction in the transfer of [ 3 H]nucleotides and is an indication of an interference with intercellular communication

  14. Adrenergic Metabolic and Hemodynamic Effects of Octopamine in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Bracht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite suppressants. A component of these extracts is octopamine, which is an adrenergic agent. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of octopamine on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways and hemodynamics. Octopamine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake, gluconeogenesis and the portal perfusion pressure. Octopamine also accelerated the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids (octanoate and oleate, as revealed by the increase in 14CO2 production derived from 14C labeled precursors. The changes in glycogenolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure were almost completely abolished by α1-adrenergic antagonists. The same changes were partly sensitive to the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. It can be concluded that octopamine accelerates both catabolic and anabolic processes in the liver via adrenergic stimulation. Acceleration of oxygen uptake under substrate-free perfusion conditions also means acceleration of the oxidation of endogenous fatty acids, which are derived from lipolysis. All these effects are compatible with an overall stimulating effect of octopamine on metabolism, which is compatible with its reported weight-loss effects in experimental animals.

  15. The effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on cytosolic nucleotide metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Lykke, Anne; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2010-01-01

    Several enzymes of the metabolic pathways responsible for metabolism of cytosolic ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides are located in mitochondria. Studies described in this paper suggest dysfunction of the mitochondria to affect these metabolic pathways and limit the available levels...

  16. Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During very low carbohydrate intake, the regulated and controlled production of ketone bodies causes a harmless physiological state known as dietary ketosis. Ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. In comparison with glucose, the ketone bodies are actually a very good respiratory fuel. Indeed, there is no clear requirement for dietary carbohydrates for human adults. Interestingly, the effects of ketone body metabolism suggest that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. Also, the recent landmark study showed that a very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. Contrary to popular belief, insulin is not needed for glucose uptake and utilization in man. Finally, both muscle fat and carbohydrate burn in an amino acid flame.

  17. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-09-29

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  18. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies. (orig.) [de

  19. [Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Santiago Tavares; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2015-01-01

    To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. A search was performed in Pubmed/Medline and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies have found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of the effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. Regardless of type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in combating obesity. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Nrf2 deficiency on arsenic metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Zhu, Jiayu; Li, Lu; Li, Yongfang; Lv, Hang; Xu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Guifan; Pi, Jingbo

    2017-12-15

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a known toxicant and carcinogen. Worldwide arsenic exposure has become a threat to human health. The severity of arsenic toxicity is strongly correlated with the speed of arsenic metabolism (methylation) and clearance. Furthermore, oxidative stress is recognized as a major mechanism for arsenic-induced toxicity. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key regulator in cellular adaptive antioxidant response, is clearly involved in alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative damage. Multiple studies demonstrate that Nrf2 deficiency mice are more vulnerable to arsenic-induced intoxication. However, what effect Nrf2 deficiency might have on arsenic metabolism in mice is still unknown. In the present study, we measured the key enzymes involved in arsenic metabolism in Nrf2-WT and Nrf2-KO mice. Our results showed that basal transcript levels of glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (Gsto2) were significantly higher and GST mu 1 (Gstm1) lower in Nrf2-KO mice compared to Nrf2-WT control. Arsenic speciation and methylation rate in liver and urine was then studied in mice treated with 5mg/kg sodium arsenite for 12h. Although there were some alterations in arsenic metabolism enzymes between Nrf2-WT and Nrf2-KO mice, the Nrf2 deficiency had no significant effect on arsenic methylation. These results suggest that the Nrf2-KO mice are more sensitive to arsenic than Nrf2-WT mainly because of differences in adaptive antioxidant detoxification capacity rather than arsenic methylation capacity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A Nationwide Study of Norwegian Beliefs About Same-sex Marriage and Lesbian and Gay Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Hollekim, Ragnhild; Slaatten, Hilde; Anderssen, Norman

    2012-01-01

    In Norway, a gender-neutral Marriage Law that secured equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples took effect in January 2009. The aim of the current study was to explore Norwegian beliefs about equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples and the welfare of children with lesbian and gay parents. A sample of 1,246 Norwegians participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire. The majority reported...

  2. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    [English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time

  3. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.

  4. Effects of environmental stressors on lipid metabolism in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2018-07-01

    Lipid metabolism is crucial for the survival and propagation of the species, since lipids are an essential cellular component across animal taxa for maintaining homeostasis in the presence of environmental stressors. This review aims to summarize information on the lipid metabolism under environmental stressors in aquatic invertebrates. Fatty acid synthesis from glucose via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway is mostly well-conserved across animal taxa. The structure of free fatty acid (FFA) from both dietary and DNL pathway could be transformed by elongase and desaturase. In addition, FFA can be stored in lipid droplet as triacylglycerol, upon attachment to glycerol. However, due to the limited information on both gene and lipid composition, in-depth studies on the structural modification of FFA and their storage conformation are required. Despite previously validated evidences on the disturbance of the normal life cycle and lipid homeostasis by the environmental stressors (e.g., obesogens, salinity, temperature, pCO 2 , and nutrients) in the aquatic invertebrates, the mechanism behind these effects are still poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, omics approaches such as transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been used, but there are still gaps in our knowledge on aquatic invertebrates as well as the lipidome. This paper provides a deeper understanding of lipid metabolism in aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results:Large for gestational age (LGA babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA group (P < 0.001. Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05. However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01. Conclusion:The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies.

  6. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  7. The effects of phosphorus limitation on carbon metabolism in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembu, Tore; Mühlroth, Alice; Alipanah, Leila; Bones, Atle M

    2017-09-05

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life, serving as an integral component of nucleic acids, lipids and a diverse range of other metabolites. Concentrations of bioavailable phosphorus are low in many aquatic environments. Microalgae, including diatoms, apply physiological and molecular strategies such as phosphorus scavenging or recycling as well as adjusting cell growth in order to adapt to limiting phosphorus concentrations. Such strategies also involve adjustments of the carbon metabolism. Here, we review the effect of phosphorus limitation on carbon metabolism in diatoms. Two transcriptome studies are analysed in detail, supplemented by other transcriptome, proteome and metabolite data, to gain an overview of different pathways and their responses. Phosphorus, nitrogen and silicon limitation responses are compared, and similarities and differences discussed. We use the current knowledge to propose a suggestive model for the carbon flow in phosphorus-replete and phosphorus-limited diatom cells.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Regional effects of craniotomy on cerebral circulation and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abumiya, Takeo; Sayama, Ichiro; Asakura, Ken; Hadeishi, Hiromu; Mizuno, Makoto; Suzuki, Akifumi; Yasui, Nobuyuki; Shishido, Fumio; Uemura, Kazuo

    1990-01-01

    Regional effects of craniotomy on cerebral circulation and metabolism, such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional cerebral oxygen consumption (rCMRO 2 ), regional oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were examined by a PET (positron emission tomography) study concerning surgery that was performed on un-ruptured aneurysm patients. Eight patients with intracranial un-ruptured aneurysms were studied pre- and post-operatively by the 15 O labelled-gas steady-state method, using HEADTOME-III. All patients underwent aneurysmal surgery performed by the transsylvian approach. There was a significant increase in the mean OEF values taken from the whole-brains of 8 patients, but there was not a significant change in CBF, CMRO 2 or CBV. The increase in OEF was caused by decrease of O 2 content, which was caused by post-operative decrease in the Hb value. So, this OEF increase was not the direct effect of craniotomy. In 2 patients, the rCBF and rCMRO 2 , in the fronto-temporal region (where craniotomy was performed) increased post-operatively. This regional effect suggests transient reactive hyperemia following compressive ischemia during the operative procedure, and metabolic demands for recovery of brain function. In 2 other patients, who had relatively low rCBFs during the pre-operative study, rCBF and rCMRO 2 in the bi-frontal region had decreased more at the post-operative study. This change appears to have been caused by removal of cerebrospinal fluid and depression of the frontal lobe. From this study, it becomes evident that the regional effect of craniotomy on cerebral circulation and metabolism is not so great, when adequate microsurgical techniques are used. (author)

  9. Effect of Diet on Metabolism of Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P. C.; Riskowski, G. L.; McKee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    In previous studies when rats were fed a processed, semipurified, extruded rodent food bar (RFB) developed for space science research, we noted a difference in the appearance of gastrointestinal tissue (GI); therefore the following study evaluated GI characteristics and growth and metabolic rates of rats fed chow (C) or RFB. Two hundred and twenty-four rats (78 g mean body weight) were randomly assigned to 28 cages and provided C or RFB. Each cage was considered the experimental unit and a 95 percent level of significance, indicated by ANOVA, was used for inference. After each 30-, 60-, and 90-day period, eight cages were shifted from the C to RFB diet and housing density was reduced by two rats per cage. The two rats removed from each cage were sacrificed and used for GI evaluation. Metabolic rates of the rats in each cage were determined by indirect calorimetry. No differences in body weight were detected at 0, 30, 60 or 90 days between C and RFB. Heat production (kcal/hr/kg), CO2 production (L/hr/kg) and O2 consumption (L/hr/kg) were different by light:dark and age with no effect of diet. Respiratory quotient was different by age with no effect of light:dark or diet. Rats on the C diet ate less food and drank more water than those on RFB. C rats produced more fecal and waste materials than the RFB. GI lengths increased with age but were less in RFB than C. GI full and empty weights increased with age but weighed less in RFB than C. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) numbers increased with age with no effect of diet. No differences in ileum-associated GALT area were detected between C and RFB. Switching C to RFB decreased GI length, GI full and empty weights, with no changes in GALT number or area. We concluded RFB decreased GI mass without affecting metabolic rate or general body growth.

  10. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    . Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous...... different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion......, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental...

  11. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Met...

  12. The effects of vitamine C on lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, J P

    1975-09-20

    Evidence is presented showing that vitamin C had definite effects on lipid metabolism. The stress of captivity on free-living baboons causes a decrease in serum vitamin C levels and an increase in serum cholesterol levels. Increased dietary intake of vitamin C during the initial stages of captivity significantly decreases the serum cholesterol values. Dietary vitamin C stimulates the synthesis of cholesterol from 14C-labelled acetate and mevalonate in baboon liver homogenates and increases the turnover rate of the cholesterol body pool. Vitamin C inhibits baboon cardiac lipoprotein lipase activity.

  13. Autonomic and metabolic effects of OSA in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F M; Tran, W H; Lesser, D; Bhatia, R; Ortega, R; Mittelman, S D; Keens, T G; Davidson Ward, S L; Khoo, M C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of exposure to intermittent hypoxia on cardiovascular autonomic control and metabolic function in obese children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Each subject underwent: (1) a polysomnography; (2) morning fasting blood samples and a subsequent FSIVGTT; (3) noninvasive measurement of respiration, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate during supine and standing postures. Assessment of adiposity was performed using a DEXA scan. From these measurements, we deduced the pertinent sleep parameters, Bergman minimal model parameters and the parameters characterizing a minimal model of cardiovascular variability. Results suggest that intermittent hypoxia in OSA contributes independently to insulin resistance and autonomic dysfunction in overweight children.

  14. Norwegian Hydrological Reference Dataset for Climate Change Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Norwegian hydrological measurement network, NVE has selected a Hydrological Reference Dataset for studies of hydrological change. The dataset meets international standards with high data quality. It is suitable for monitoring and studying the effects of climate change on the hydrosphere and cryosphere in Norway. The dataset includes streamflow, groundwater, snow, glacier mass balance and length change, lake ice and water temperature in rivers and lakes.(Author)

  15. Effects of lithium on brain glucose metabolism in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Tomoya; Shiga, Tohru; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Kusumi, Ichiro; Matsuyama, Tetsuaki; Inoue, Tetsuya; Katoh, Chietsugu; Koyama, Tsukasa; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-12-01

    Lithium is clinically available for the treatment of mood disorders. However, it has remained unclear how lithium acts on the brain to produce its effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic lithium on human brain activity using positron emission tomography and clarify the correlation between brain activity changes and cognitive functional changes as induced by chronic lithium administration. A total of 20 healthy male subjects (mean age, 32 +/- 6 years) underwent positron emission tomographic scans with F-fluorodeoxyglucose and a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline condition and after 4 weeks of lithium administration. Brain metabolic data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Lithium increased relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) in the bilateral dorsomedial frontal cortices including the anterior cingulate gyrus and decreased rCMRglc in the right cerebellum and left lingual gyrus/cuneus. There was no difference in any of the variables of cognitive functions between the baseline condition and after chronic lithium administration. There was no correlation between rCMRglc changes in any of the brain regions and individual variable changes in any of the neuropsychological tests. The results suggest that the effects of chronic lithium are associated with increased activity in the bilateral dorsomedial frontal cortices including the anterior cingulate gyrus and decreased activity in the right cerebellum and left lingual gyrus/cuneus.

  16. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  18. Transcriptional and metabolic effects of glucose on Streptococcus pneumoniae sugar metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura ePaixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative human pathogen that relies on carbohydrate metabolism to generate energy for growth. The nasopharynx colonised by the bacterium is poor in free sugars, but mucosa lining glycans can provide a source of sugar. In blood and inflamed tissues glucose is the prevailing sugar. As a result during progression from colonisation to disease S. pneumoniae has to cope with a pronounced shift in carbohydrate nature and availability. Thus, we set out to assess the pneumococcal response to sugars found in glycans and the influence of glucose (Glc on this response at the transcriptional, physiological and metabolic levels. Galactose (Gal, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc and mannose (Man affected the expression of 8 to 14% of the genes covering cellular functions including central carbon metabolism and virulence. The pattern of end-products as monitored by in vivo 13C-NMR is in good agreement with the fermentation profiles during growth, while the pools of phosphorylated metabolites are consistent with the type of fermentation observed (homolactic vs. mixed and regulation at the metabolic level. Furthermore, the accumulation of α-Gal6P and Man6P indicate metabolic bottlenecks in the metabolism of Gal and Man, respectively. Glc added to cells actively metabolizing other sugar(s was readily consumed and elicited a metabolic shift towards a homolactic profile. The transcriptional response to Glc was large (over 5% of the genome. In central carbon metabolism (most represented category, Glc exerted mostly negative regulation. The smallest response to Glc was observed on a sugar mix, suggesting that exposure to varied sugars improves the fitness of S. pneumoniae. The expression of virulence factors was negatively controlled by Glc in a sugar-dependent manner. Overall, our results shed new light on the link between carbohydrate metabolism, adaptation to host niches and virulence.

  19. Transcriptional and metabolic effects of glucose on Streptococcus pneumoniae sugar metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Laura; Caldas, José; Kloosterman, Tomas G; Kuipers, Oscar P; Vinga, Susana; Neves, Ana R

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative human pathogen that relies on carbohydrate metabolism to generate energy for growth. The nasopharynx colonized by the bacterium is poor in free sugars, but mucosa lining glycans can provide a source of sugar. In blood and inflamed tissues glucose is the prevailing sugar. As a result during progression from colonization to disease S. pneumoniae has to cope with a pronounced shift in carbohydrate nature and availability. Thus, we set out to assess the pneumococcal response to sugars found in glycans and the influence of glucose (Glc) on this response at the transcriptional, physiological, and metabolic levels. Galactose (Gal), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and mannose (Man) affected the expression of 8 to 14% of the genes covering cellular functions including central carbon metabolism and virulence. The pattern of end-products as monitored by in vivo (13)C-NMR is in good agreement with the fermentation profiles during growth, while the pools of phosphorylated metabolites are consistent with the type of fermentation observed (homolactic vs. mixed) and regulation at the metabolic level. Furthermore, the accumulation of α-Gal6P and Man6P indicate metabolic bottlenecks in the metabolism of Gal and Man, respectively. Glc added to cells actively metabolizing other sugar(s) was readily consumed and elicited a metabolic shift toward a homolactic profile. The transcriptional response to Glc was large (over 5% of the genome). In central carbon metabolism (most represented category), Glc exerted mostly negative regulation. The smallest response to Glc was observed on a sugar mix, suggesting that exposure to varied sugars improves the fitness of S. pneumoniae. The expression of virulence factors was negatively controlled by Glc in a sugar-dependent manner. Overall, our results shed new light on the link between carbohydrate metabolism, adaptation to host niches and virulence.

  20. Accident analyses performed for the Norwegian committee on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Thomassen, D.; Kvaal, E.

    1979-02-01

    As part of the work performed for the Norwegian Government Committee on Nuclear Power, risk calculations were carried out for two examples of possible reactor sites in Norway. The calculations were performed with the computer program COMO (or CRACK), which was also used in the American reactor safety study (WASH-1400). In connection with the Norwegian calculations some modifications were made to the program, and relevant data for Norwegian conditions were introduced. The atmospheric dispersion model and meteorological data are discussed at some length. An analysi of the population distribution around both sites is presented and land usage is also discussed. Radiation dose calculations internal, and external, are summarised. Shielding factors from terrain and buildings are also given, and the effect of evacuation briefly discussed. Health effects, immediate mortalities, and delayed and genetic effects are discussed at some length. The economic consequences of an accident due to e.g. evacuation, condemnation of agricultural products, cost of decontamination, loss in property value and relocation costs are estimated. The results are presented graphically as a function of probability. (JIW)

  1. The pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol: Beyond bone-mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, Jesús; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Bover, Jordi; Praga, Manuel; Torregrosa, José Vicente; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Solozábal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is characterised by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and a series of bone-mineral metabolism anomalies. In patients with SHPT, treatment with paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, has been shown to reduce PTH levels with minimal serum calcium and phosphorus variations. The classic effect of paricalcitol is that of a mediator in mineral and bone homeostasis. However, recent studies have suggested that the benefits of treatment with paricalcitol go beyond PTH reduction and, for instance, it has a positive effect on cardiovascular disease and survival. The objective of this study is to review the most significant studies on the so-called pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol treatment in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians in private practice: comparison of German and Norwegian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Rosta, Judith; Siegrist, Johannes; Aasland, Olaf G

    2012-10-01

    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress of German compared to Norwegian physicians in private practice. A representative sample of physicians in private practice of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (N = 414) and a nationwide sample of Norwegian general practitioners and private practice specialists (N = 340) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire comprised the standard instruments "Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS)" and a short form of the "Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI)". Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (job satisfaction scale compared to German physicians (M 5.57, SD 0.74 vs. M 4.78, SD 1.01). The effect size was highest for the items freedom to choose method (d = 1.012), rate of pay (d = 0.941), and overall job satisfaction (d = 0.931). While there was no significant difference in the mean of the overall effort scale between German and Norwegian physicians, Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (p job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and reward were significantly higher in Norwegian than in German physicians. An almost threefold higher proportion of German physicians exhibited a high level of work-related stress. Findings call for active prevention and health promotion among stressed practicing physicians, with a special focus on improved working conditions.

  3. Organising Ethics: The Case of the Norwegian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen-Marie Forsberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how institutionalism, a theory in organisational social science, provides a model for diagnosing organisational challenges that influence the ethical practices and integration in the Norwegian Army. Institutionalism provides tools for analysing the differences between expressed values and actual practices and for understanding the organisational dynamics that unfold at the crossroads of the organisation's formal structure, informal culture and stakeholder relations. In this article we present and discuss such differences and dynamics in the Norwegian Army based on findings from a survey and a number of workshops. We also provide some suggestions for effective implementation of strategies for strengthening ethics in such an organisation. We argue that the perspective taken in this project is also relevant for other highly professionalised complex organisations and that such interdisciplinary research will strengthen practical ethics' potential for real impact.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i1.1779

  4. Possible Oxcarbazepine Inductive Effects on Aripiprazole Metabolism: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Ian R; Loveland, Joshua G; de Leon, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Oxcarbazepine is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inducer, which is structurally similar to carbamazepine. Although lacking Food and Drug Administration approval, oxcarbazepine is sometimes prescribed to treat aggressive behavior in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These youths may also be taking second-generation antipsychotics, some of which are substrates of the CYP3A4 metabolic pathway. The combination of these medications may result in decreased serum antipsychotic concentrations, potentially reducing effectiveness. A limited number of reports are available which discuss reduced atypical antipsychotic concentrations secondary to oxcarbazepine CYP3A4 induction. We report a young boy taking oxcarbazepine (1200 mg/d) who presented with an unexpectedly low serum aripiprazole concentration. Utilizing therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacogenetic testing, and a tool to evaluate drug-drug interactions, we estimate that oxcarbazepine possibly reduced his serum aripiprazole concentration by 68%. Our report is important, as it is the first to describe a drug-drug interaction between oxcarbazepine and aripiprazole. This report should encourage the completion of in vitro and clinical studies and the publication of case reports describing the possible inductive effects of oxcarbazepine on atypical antipsychotics (including cariprazine, lurasidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, iloperidone, and risperidone) mediated by induction of the CYP3A4 metabolic pathway.

  5. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Haub

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.

  6. Big challenges for the Norwegian processessing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry has been reduced by 50 per cent during the last decade. This is due to the large sums invested by the industry in environmental technology. The article deals with the environmental challenges of the Norwegian processing industry in general, but with an emphasis on energy recovery from waste. It also discusses industrial competitivity; unlike Norway, some of the major competing countries have not committed themselves to the Kyoto agreement

  7. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Effects of intermittent fasting on metabolism in men

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo,Fernanda Reis de; Ikeoka,Dimas; Caramelli,Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes the available literature on the impact of intermittent fasting (IF), a nutritional intervention, on different aspects of metabolism. The epidemic of metabolic disturbances, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and diabetes mellitus type 2 has led to an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, and affected patients might significantly benefit from modifications in nutritional habits. Recent experimental studies have elucidated some of the metabolic mecha...

  9. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  10. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... epidemiological studies but the evidence is inconclusive. One major obstacle for epidemiological studies investigating associations between flavonoid intake and risk of CHD is the estimation of flavonoid intake. There is a vast variety of flavonoids in commonly eaten food products but only limited knowledge...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...

  11. Adverse effects of fluoride towards thyroid hormone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggar Abdullah Idris MZ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An easily ionized fluoride compound like Sodium Fluoride (NaF has been used thus far as a dental caries prevention substance. However, fluoride ions also have a negative effect because it is very toxic. Several types of research on the effect of fluoride on guinea pigs and human beings indicate the presence synthesis obstruction of T3 and T4 that causes declined production, known as hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism condition may obstruct tissue growth process and metabolism so as to impact various body organ systems. Preventive efforts against hypothyroidism caused by fluoride include avoiding diffusible fluoride compound intake, like NaF, in a long run systemic use, whereas efforts to overcome fluoride intoxication include consuming food that is rich in calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant.

  12. Effect of radiographic contrast agents on leukocyte metabolic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernanz-Schulman, M. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanholder, R.; Waterloos, M.A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Section, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Hakim, R.; Schulman, G. [Department of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Barium, at clinical dilutions, causes a significant increase of baseline ''resting state'' phagocytic activity, which in turn leads to significant blunting of subsequent response to phagocytic challenge and adversely affects the response to all bacteria tested. There is no baseline activation of leukocytes by the water-soluble media, although there was some inhibition (rather than activation) of leukocyte metabolic activity. The effect of the water-soluble media in bacteria was more complex (although inhibition is minor compared to barium). Our data demonstrate that barium is a significat activator of phagocytic cells, which results in deactivation of phagocytic response when challenged; these dsata serve to explain the enhanced adverse effect of barium in cased of fecal peritonitis. (orig.)

  13. Effect of radiographic contrast agents on leukocyte metabolic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Vanholder, R.; Waterloos, M.A.; Hakim, R.; Schulman, G.

    2000-01-01

    Barium, at clinical dilutions, causes a significant increase of baseline ''resting state'' phagocytic activity, which in turn leads to significant blunting of subsequent response to phagocytic challenge and adversely affects the response to all bacteria tested. There is no baseline activation of leukocytes by the water-soluble media, although there was some inhibition (rather than activation) of leukocyte metabolic activity. The effect of the water-soluble media in bacteria was more complex (although inhibition is minor compared to barium). Our data demonstrate that barium is a significant activator of phagocytic cells, which results in deactivation of phagocytic response when challenged; these data serve to explain the enhanced adverse effect of barium in cased of fecal peritonitis. (orig.)

  14. Cardiopulmonary and metabolic effects of yoga in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Satheesh Divya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga the spiritual union of mind with the divine intelligence of the universe aims to liberate a human being from conflicts of body–mind duality. Beneficial cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of yoga are in par with aerobic exercise, even amounting to replace the exercise model. We conducted an interventional study in healthy volunteers, to analyze the impact of short-term yoga training on cardiovascular, pulmonary, autonomic function tests, lipid profile, and thyroid function tests. Materials and Methods: A sample of fifty new recruits attending the district yoga center was subject to 75 min yoga practice a day for 41 days. Basal values of cardiovascular, pulmonary, autonomic function tests, lipid profile, and thyroid function tests were recorded before yoga training and were reassessed for postyoga changes after 41 days. Results: After yoga practice there was a significant reduction in the resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure of the participants. Effects on autonomic function tests were variable and inconclusive. There was a significant increase in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak expiratory flow rate after yoga. A significant reduction in body mass index was observed. Effects on metabolic parameters were promising with a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar level, serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides serum low-density lipoprotein levels, and significant increase in high-density lipoprotein. There was no significant change in thyroid function tests after yoga. Conclusion: Short-term yoga practice has no effect on thyroid functions. Yoga practice was found beneficial in maintaining physiological milieu pertaining to cardiovascular and other metabolic parameters.

  15. Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Effects of Yoga in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, T Satheesh; Vijayalakshmi, M T; Mini, K; Asish, K; Pushpalatha, M; Suresh, Varun

    2017-01-01

    Yoga the spiritual union of mind with the divine intelligence of the universe aims to liberate a human being from conflicts of body-mind duality. Beneficial cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of yoga are in par with aerobic exercise, even amounting to replace the exercise model. We conducted an interventional study in healthy volunteers, to analyze the impact of short-term yoga training on cardiovascular, pulmonary, autonomic function tests, lipid profile, and thyroid function tests. A sample of fifty new recruits attending the district yoga center was subject to 75 min yoga practice a day for 41 days. Basal values of cardiovascular, pulmonary, autonomic function tests, lipid profile, and thyroid function tests were recorded before yoga training and were reassessed for postyoga changes after 41 days. After yoga practice there was a significant reduction in the resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure of the participants. Effects on autonomic function tests were variable and inconclusive. There was a significant increase in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak expiratory flow rate after yoga. A significant reduction in body mass index was observed. Effects on metabolic parameters were promising with a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar level, serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides serum low-density lipoprotein levels, and significant increase in high-density lipoprotein. There was no significant change in thyroid function tests after yoga. Short-term yoga practice has no effect on thyroid functions. Yoga practice was found beneficial in maintaining physiological milieu pertaining to cardiovascular and other metabolic parameters.

  16. Effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on glucose metabolism in awake healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Mariam; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with alterations in glucose metabolism. Although the pathophysiology of metabolic dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea is not well understood, studies of murine models indicate that intermittent hypoxemia has an important contribution. However, corroborating data on the metabolic effects of intermittent hypoxia on glucose metabolism in humans are not available. Thus the primary aim of this study was to characterize th...

  17. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Pharmacology of Phenobarbital in Neonates: Effects, Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Gian M

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital is an effective and safe anticonvulsant drug introduced in clinical use in 1904. Its mechanism of action is the synaptic inhibition through an action on GABAA. The loading dose of phenobarbital is 20 mg/kg intravenously and the maintenance dose is 3 to 4 mg/kg by mouth. The serum concentration of phenobarbital is up to 40 µg/ml. Nonresponders should receive additional doses of 5 to 10 mg/kg until seizures stop. Infants with refractory seizures may have a serum concentration of phenobarbital of 100 µg/ml. Phenobarbital is metabolized in the liver by CYP2C9 with minor metabolism by CYP2C19 and CYP2E1. A quarter of the dose of phenobarbital is excreted unchanged in the urine. In adults, the half-life of phenobarbital is 100 hours and in term and preterm infants is 103 and 141 hours, respectively. The half-life of phenobarbital decreases 4.6 hours per day and it is 67 hours in infants 4 week old.

  19. Biological effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, Audrey; Prawitt, Janne; Fabien Soulé, Véronique; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2017-06-13

    Osteoporosis is a chronic and asymptomatic disease characterized by low bone mass and skeletal microarchitectural deterioration, increased risk of fracture, and associated comorbidities most prevalent in the elderly. Due to an increasingly aging population, osteoporosis has become a major health issue requiring innovative disease management. Proteins are important for bone by providing building blocks and by exerting specific regulatory function. This is why adequate protein intake plays a considerable role in both bone development and bone maintenance. More specifically, since an increase in the overall metabolism of collagen can lead to severe dysfunctions and a more fragile bone matrix and because orally administered collagen can be digested in the gut, cross the intestinal barrier, enter the circulation, and become available for metabolic processes in the target tissues, one may speculate that a collagen-enriched diet provides benefits for the skeleton. Collagen-derived products such as gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen (HC) are well acknowledged for their safety from a nutritional point of view; however, what is their impact on bone biology? In this manuscript, we critically review the evidence from literature for an effect of HC on bone tissues in order to determine whether HC may represent a relevant alternative in the design of future nutritional approaches to manage osteoporosis prevention.

  20. In vitro phase I metabolism of gamabufotalin and arenobufagin: Reveal the effect of substituent group on metabolic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yujie; Wang, Chao; Tian, Xiangge; Huo, Xiaokui; Feng, Lei; Sun, Chengpeng; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Ling; Ning, Jing; Ma, Xiaochi

    2017-09-01

    Bufadienolides are a major class of bioactive compounds derived from amphibian skin secretion. Gamabufotalin (GB) and arenobufagin (AB) are among the top of the intensively investigated natural bufadienolides for their outstanding biological activities. This study aimed to characterize the phase I metabolism of GB and AB with respect to the metabolic profiles, enzymes involved, and catalytic efficacy, thereafter tried to reveal substituent effects on metabolism. Two mono-hydroxylated products of GB and AB were detected in the incubation mixtures, and they were accurately identified as 1- and 5-hydroxylated bufadienolides by NMR and HPLC-MS techniques. Reaction phenotyping studies demonstrated that CYP3A mediated the metabolism of the two bufadienolides with a high specific selectivity. Further kinetic evaluation demonstrated that the metabolism stability of GB and AB were better than other reported bufadienolides. Additionally, the CYP3A5 preference for hydroxylation of AB was observed, which was different to the selectivity of CYP3As for bufadienolides suggested by our previous report. This study can provide important data for elucidating the phase I metabolism of GB and AB and can lead to a better understanding of the bufadienolide-CYP3A interaction which is helpful for preclinical development and rational use of bufadienolides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  2. The effects of hypoglycin on glucose metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, H.; Billington, D.; Taylor, J.R.; Sherratt, H.S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of glucose metabolism were evaluated in rats deprived of food 15 to 21 h after the administration of hypoglycaemic doses of hypoglycin (100 mg/kg body wt.) by following changes in the specific radioactivities of 14 C and 3 H in blood glucose after an intravenous dose of [U- 14 C,2- 3 H]glucose. During this time, recycling of glucose through the Cori cycle was virtually abolished, the rate of irreversible disposal of glucose and its total body mass were both decreased by about 70%, whereas there was little effect on the mean transit time for glucose. It was concluded that hypoglycaemia is due to inhibition of gluconeogenesis. (author)

  3. Effect of anxiety on cortical cerebral blood flow and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Resnick, S.M.; Skolnick, B.E.; Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between anxiety and cortical activity was compared in two samples of normal volunteers. One group was studied with the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the other with positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 Flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) for measuring cerebral metabolic rates (CMR) for glucose. The inhalation technique produced less anxiety than the PET procedure, and for low anxiety subjects, there was a linear increase in CBF with anxiety. For higher anxiety subjects, however, there was a linear decrease in CBF with increased anxiety. The PET group manifested a linear decrease in CMR with increased anxiety. The results indicate that anxiety can have systematic effects on cortical activity, and this should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different procedures. They also suggest a physiologic explanation of a fundamental behavioral law that stipulates a curvilinear, inverted-U relationship between anxiety and performance

  4. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopi, Aikaterina; Deda, Olga; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spyros; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Komninou, Despina; Raikos, Nikolaos; Christoulas, Kosmas; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Mougios, Vassilis

    2017-01-26

    Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14) completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  5. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterina Siopi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14 completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE, continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME, and resistance exercise (RE. Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  6. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Tongjun; Han, Linna; Liu, Yongmei

    2009-11-23

    Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic beta-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p corn silk extract 15 days later. Also, the body weight of the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice was increased gradually. However, ascension of blood glucose induced by adrenalin and gluconeogenesis induced by L-alanine were not inhibited by corn silk extract treatment (p > 0.05). Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05). Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured beta-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  7. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  8. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several epidemiologi......Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...... effective absorption of hesperetin and naringenin from the small intestine when consumed as glucosides compared to absorption in the colon VII after microbial degradation of the rhamnoglucosides. In addition it was shown that the conjugate profile was neither affected by the absorption site nor by a 3-fold...

  9. Effect of altitude on the protein metabolism of Bolivian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Miguel Simron, J.L.; Berger, J.; Spielvogel, H.; Tellez Castellon, W.; Lujan Medina, C.; Caceres, E.

    1996-01-01

    The malnutrition is prevalent and is a major problem among Bolivian children. It is caused by several interacting factors: (1) inadequate protein energy intake due to low socio-economic status; (ii) exposure to acute, repeated and chronic bacterial infections; (iii) exposure to multiple and chronic parasitic infections; (iv) high altitude of the capital, La Paz, 3600 m, with a numerous populations compared to the rest of the country. The research objectives in the first phase are: (i) determination of protein utilization with a non-invasive method using stable isotope tracer among children living at high and low altitude; (ii) determination of protein metabolism among eutrophic children without parasitic or acute bacterial infections at both altitudes; (iii) determination of protein requirement among these children. Two groups of 10 pubertal children, matched for age and sex, of same socio-economic status, eutrophic, without malnutrition, infections or intestinal parasites will be studied; the different status being arrived by anthropometric, nutritional intake, biochemical and pediatrical evaluation. For the metabolic study, stable isotopes L-[1-13C] leucine labelled casein will be used and 13 CO 2 excreted will be measured. All the basic nutritional assessment and VCO 2 measurements will be performed in Bolivia, while the samples of expired gas will be stored in Vacutainers for further analysis by isotope radio mass spectrometer (IRMS), in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The plans for future work is based on the study of the effects of the different variables and their interactions. The following will be evaluated: (i) the socio-economic status; (ii) the bacterial infections: (iii) the parasitic infections; (iv) the altitude. As published by Obert, et al., the socio-economic variable is more connected with the nutritional status than with the altitude. 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Acute effects of Surya Namaskar on the cardiovascular & metabolic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Bhavesh Surendra

    2011-07-01

    With the recent rise in obesity awareness and the increased understanding of the importance of physical activity in promoting overall health, greater emphasis has been placed on improving physical fitness to enhance quality of life. Surya Namaskar, a component of Hatha Yoga, has been practiced by Asian Indians for hundreds of years and is often used in place of a typical fitness program. It consists of a series of postures (asanas) that are repeated 12 times per round. Only one published study has looked specifically at Surya Namaskar, measuring the energy cost of individual asanas (Sinha et al., 2004). However, practitioners typically perform several rounds of the asanas during a session. To assess the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of four rounds of Surya Namaskar, a typical amount performed by practitioners, to determine its potential as a training and weight loss tool. Six healthy Asian Indian men and women (18-22 years) who had trained in Surya Namaskar for over two years participated in the study. Testing was completed in a single session lasting about 30 min. To measure heart rate and oxygen consumption while performing the four rounds, participants were connected to a heart rate monitor and the Oxycon Mobile Metabolic System. Participants exercised at 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) during Round 2, 84% during Round 3, and 90% during Round 4. Average intensity during the four rounds was 80% HRmax, sufficient to elicit a cardiorespiratory training effect. Oxygen consumption averaged 26 ml/kg/min during each round, resulting in an energy expenditure of 230 kcals during a 30 min session for a 60 kg individual. Regular practice of Surya Namaskar may maintain or improve cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as promote weight management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of silver ions on copper metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyechova, E Yu; Saveliev, A N; Skvortsov, A N; Babich, P S; Zatulovskaia, Yu A; Pliss, M G; Korzhevskii, D E; Tsymbalenko, N V; Puchkova, L V

    2014-10-01

    The influence of short and prolonged diet containing silver ions (Ag-diet) on copper metabolism was studied. Two groups of animals were used: one group of adult rats received a Ag-diet for one month (Ag-A1) and another group received a Ag-diet for 6 months from birth (Ag-N6). In Ag-A1 rats, the Ag-diet caused a dramatic decrease of copper status indexes that was manifested as ceruloplasmin-associated copper deficiency. In Ag-N6 rats, copper status indexes decreased only 2-fold as compared to control rats. In rats of both groups, silver entered the bloodstream and accumulated in the liver. Silver was incorporated into ceruloplasmin (Cp), but not SOD1. In the liver, a prolonged Ag-diet caused a decrease of the expression level of genes, associated with copper metabolism. Comparative spectrophotometric analysis of partially purified Cp fractions has shown that Cp from Ag-N6 rats was closer to holo-Cp by specific enzymatic activities and tertiary structure than Cp from Ag-A1 rats. However, Cp of Ag-N6 differs from control holo-Cp and Cp of Ag-A1 in its affinity to DEAE-Sepharose and in its binding properties to lectins. In the bloodstream of Ag-N6, two Cp forms are present as shown in pulse-experiments on rats with the liver isolated from circulation. One of the Cp isoforms is of hepatic origin, and the other is of extrahepatic origin; the latter is characterized by a faster rate of secretion than hepatic Cp. These data allowed us to suggest that the disturbance of holo-Cp formation in the liver was compensated by induction of extrahepatic Cp synthesis. The possible biological importance of these effects is discussed.

  12. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican children: Low effectiveness of diagnostic definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Barbara Itzel; Granados-Silvestre, María de Los Ángeles; Sánchez-Pozos, Katy; Ortiz-López, María Guadalupe; Menjivar, Marta

    Early identification of children with metabolic syndrome (MS) is essential to decrease the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Detection of MS is however challenging because of the different definitions for diagnosis; as a result, preventive actions are not taken in some children at risk. The study objective was therefore to compare prevalence of MS in children according to the IDF, NCEP-ATP-III, Cook, de Ferranti and Weiss definitions, considering insulin resistance (IR) markers such as HOMA-IR and/or metabolic index (MI). A total of 508 Mexican children (aged 9 to 13 years) from seven schools were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Somatometric, biochemical, and hormonal measurements were evaluated. Frequency of MS was 2.4-45.9% depending on the definition used. Frequency of IR in children not diagnosed with MS was 12.4-25.2% using HOMA-IR and 4.0-16.3% using MI. When HOMA-IR or MI was included in each of the definitions, frequency of MS was 8.5-50.2% and 7.7-46.9% respectively. The kappa value including HOMA-IR and/or MI was greater than 0.8. This study demonstrated the poor effectiveness of the current criteria used to diagnose MS in Mexican children, as shown by the variability in the definitions and by the presence of IR in children who not diagnosed with MS. Inclusion of HOMA-IR and/or MI in definitions of MS (thus increasing agreement between them) decreases the chance of excluding children at risk and allows for MS prevalence between populations. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  14. Effect of altitude on the protein metabolism of Bolivian children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel Simron, J L; Berger, J; Spielvogel, H; Tellez Castellon, W; Lujan Medina, C; Caceres, E [Instituto Boliviano de Boliviano de Biologia de Altura, La Paz (Bolivia). Dept. de Nutricion; Beaufrere, B; Gachons, P; Coudert, J [Laboratoire de Nutrition Humaine, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    1997-12-31

    The malnutrition is prevalent and is a major problem among Bolivian children. It is caused by several interacting factors: (1) inadequate protein energy intake due to low socio-economic status; (ii) exposure to acute, repeated and chronic bacterial infections; (iii) exposure to multiple and chronic parasitic infections; (iv) high altitude of the capital, La Paz, 3600 m, with a numerous populations compared to the rest of the country. The research objectives in the first phase are: (i) determination of protein utilization with a non-invasive method using stable isotope tracer among children living at high and low altitude; (ii) determination of protein metabolism among eutrophic children without parasitic or acute bacterial infections at both altitudes; (iii) determination of protein requirement among these children. Two groups of 10 pubertal children, matched for age and sex, of same socio-economic status, eutrophic, without malnutrition, infections or intestinal parasites will be studied; the different status being arrived by anthropometric, nutritional intake, biochemical and pediatrical evaluation. For the metabolic study, stable isotopes L-[1-13C] leucine labelled casein will be used and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} excreted will be measured. All the basic nutritional assessment and VCO{sub 2} measurements will be performed in Bolivia, while the samples of expired gas will be stored in Vacutainers for further analysis by isotope radio mass spectrometer (IRMS), in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The plans for future work is based on the study of the effects of the different variables and their interactions. The following will be evaluated: (i) the socio-economic status; (ii) the bacterial infections: (iii) the parasitic infections; (iv) the altitude. As published by Obert, et al., the socio-economic variable is more connected with the nutritional status than with the altitude. 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities

  16. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  17. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  19. Effect of flomoxef on blood coagulation and alcohol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Matsubara, T

    1991-01-01

    The effect of flomoxef, a newly developed oxacephem antibiotic with an N-hydroxyethyltetrazolethiol (HTT) side chain, on blood coagulation and alcohol metabolism was compared with that of a series of cephalosporin antibiotics with N-methyltetrazolethiol (NMTT), thiadiazolethiol (TDT) or methylthiadiazolethiol (MTDT) side chains in position 3' of the cephalosporin nucleus known to cause hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding in patients who are malnourished, debilitated and/or of high age. A disulfiram-like effect caused by inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed for NMTT-containing antibiotics. Studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and on rats. Eight-day treatment with 2 g flomoxef i.v. once or twice daily in five and six healthy male volunteers, respectively, did not cause any significant changes in prothrombin time (PT), coagulation factors II, VII, IX or X, in hepaplastin values or fibrinogen levels, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet counts, bleeding time, or collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase was observed in rats treated with flomoxef, yet to a much lesser extent than observed for cephalosporins with NMTT, TDT or MTDT side chains. This defect was quickly normalized by vitamin K injection. There were no differences between oxacephem (1-O) and cephem (1-S) compounds with respect to effects on blood clotting and platelet aggregation. Flomoxef and its side chain HTT showed no influence on alcohol metbolism.

  20. Effects of uranium on the metabolism of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustine, Starrlight; Gagnaire, Béatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for nuclear energy results in heightened levels of uranium (U) in aquatic systems which present a potential health hazard to resident organisms. The aim of this study was to mechanistically assess how chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of U perturbs the complex interplay between feeding, growth, maintenance, maturation and reproduction throughout the life-cycle of an individual. To this end we analysed literature-based and original zebrafish toxicity data within a same mass and energy balancing conceptual framework. U was found to increase somatic maintenance leading to inhibition of spawning as well as increase hazard rate and costs for growth during the early life stages. The fish's initial conditions and elimination through reproduction greatly affected toxico-kinetics and effects. We demonstrate that growth and reproduction should be measured on specific individuals since mean values were hardly interpretable. The mean food level differed between experiments, conditions and individuals. This last ‘detail’ contributed substantially to the observed variability by its combined effect on metabolism, toxic effects and toxico-kinetics. The significance of this work is that we address exactly how these issues are related and derive conclusions which are independent of experimental protocol and coherent with a very large body of literature on zebrafish eco-physiology.

  1. Effects of uranium on the metabolism of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Starrlight, E-mail: starr-light.augustine@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radionuclide Ecotoxicology, PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Caradache, Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gagnaire, Beatrice, E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radionuclide Ecotoxicology, PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Caradache, Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radionuclide Ecotoxicology, PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Caradache, Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M., E-mail: bas.kooijman@vu.nl [Department of Theoretical Biology, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The increasing demand for nuclear energy results in heightened levels of uranium (U) in aquatic systems which present a potential health hazard to resident organisms. The aim of this study was to mechanistically assess how chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of U perturbs the complex interplay between feeding, growth, maintenance, maturation and reproduction throughout the life-cycle of an individual. To this end we analysed literature-based and original zebrafish toxicity data within a same mass and energy balancing conceptual framework. U was found to increase somatic maintenance leading to inhibition of spawning as well as increase hazard rate and costs for growth during the early life stages. The fish's initial conditions and elimination through reproduction greatly affected toxico-kinetics and effects. We demonstrate that growth and reproduction should be measured on specific individuals since mean values were hardly interpretable. The mean food level differed between experiments, conditions and individuals. This last 'detail' contributed substantially to the observed variability by its combined effect on metabolism, toxic effects and toxico-kinetics. The significance of this work is that we address exactly how these issues are related and derive conclusions which are independent of experimental protocol and coherent with a very large body of literature on zebrafish eco-physiology.

  2. Doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occuring radiation and from the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.

    1987-01-01

    The doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occuring radiation are extensively reviewed. The annual population weighted average dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from 222 Rn and its daughters is estimated to be between 3.5 and 4.5 mSv. The average concentration of 220 Rn daughters in Norwegian dwellings is most probably between 1.0 and 1.5 Bq m -3 . The corresponding effective dose equivalent for 220 Rn and its daughters is estimated to be between 0.4 and 0.6 mSv. The total annual collective dose equivalent from naturally occuring radiation in Norway is found to be between 21000 and 27000 man Sv. The doses to the Norwegian population from the Chernobyl fallout are briefly discussed. Based on the results of a ''food basket'' project and supplementary data from about 30000 measurements on food samples the first year after the reactor accident, the total annual effective dose equivalent from foodstuffs to an average Norwegian consumer during this first year is estimated to be 0.15 +-0.002 m Sv at the 95% confidence level. The per caput effective dose equivalent from external fallout gamma radiation in the first year after the Chernobyl accident, is approximately 82 μSv in Norway

  3. Effect of chronic renal failure with metabolic acidosis on alanine metabolism in isolated liver cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, N.; Sturm, J. M.; Meijer, A. J.; El-Mir, M. Y.; Novaretti, R.; Reynier, J. P.; Leverve, X. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background Et aims: Decreased ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis from atanine have been reported during chronic renal failure in rat. This study addressed the respective roles of plasma-membrane transport and intracellular metabolism in these abnormalities of alanine pathways. Methods: In hepatocytes

  4. Metabolism and Aging : Effects of Cold Exposure on Metabolic Rate, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Schubert, Kristin A.; Visser, G. Henk

    2009-01-01

    The proposition that increased energy expenditure shortens life has a long history. The rate-of-living theory ( Pearl 1928) states that life span and average mass-specific metabolic rate are inversely proportional. Originally based on interspecific allometric comparisons between species of mammals,

  5. Transcriptional and metabolic effects of glucose on Streptococcus pneumoniae sugar metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paixão, Laura; Caldas, José; Kloosterman, Tomas G; Kuipers, Oscar P; Vinga, Susana; Neves, Ana R

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative human pathogen that relies on carbohydrate metabolism to generate energy for growth. The nasopharynx colonized by the bacterium is poor in free sugars, but mucosa lining glycans can provide a source of sugar. In blood and inflamed tissues glucose

  6. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.

  7. Applying Blockchain Technology: Evidence from Norwegian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H. Gausdal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a theoretical framework for blockchain, operations in particular. Furthermore, we aim to identify the main drivers and barriers of digital innovation and explore the general possibilities of blockchain applications within the maritime industry. A case study approach is applied: the Norwegian offshore industry. Primary data is collected through interviews, while secondary data is collected from industrial and company reports, the Internet, and national and international media reports. We have discovered that cost reduction intentions, the high level of regulation in the maritime industry, and the large amount of data that maritime companies should process, along with the intention to work more effectively, are the main drivers of digital innovation. On the other hand, the high cost of implementation, the bad quality of Internet connections offshore, the old age of decision-makers, the technology-oriented culture, the lack of investment initiatives, the low level of blockchain diffusion through the supply chain, and risk aversion are the main barriers. The results of the qualitative study show that some of the barriers and motives of digital innovation and the introduction to blockchain technology were pointed out by earlier studies. However, we have identified several unique drivers and barriers specific to the industry. Finally, the blockchain process framework is developed.

  8. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  9. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  10. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  11. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  12. Effect of thimerosal on thyroid hormones metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago U Pantaleão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mercury seems to exert an inhibitory effect on deiodinases, but there are few studies using Thimerosal (TM as the mercury source. We aimed to elucidate the effect of TM on thyroid hormones peripheral metabolism. Adult Wistar female rats received 0.25 μg or 250 μg TM/100 g BW, IM, twice a week, for a month. We evaluated serum total T3 and T4, D1 activity using 125I-rT3 as tracer, and D2 activity using 125I-T4. NADPH oxidase activity was measured by Amplex-red/HRP method and mRNA levels by real time PCR. Serum T4 was increased and T3 decreased by the greatest dose of TM. Even though D1 activity in pituitary and kidney was reduced by the highest dose of TM, hepatic D1 activity and D1 mRNA levels remained unchanged. D2 activity was also significantly decreased by the highest dose of TM in all CNS samples tested, except cerebellum, but D2 mRNA was unaltered. mRNA levels of the tested NADPH oxidases were not affected by TM and NADPH oxidase activity was either unaltered or decreased. Our results indicate that TM might directly interact with deiodinases, inhibiting their activity probably by binding to their selenium catalytic site, without changes in enzyme expression.

  13. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration.

  14. White Paper No 54 (2000-2001). Norwegian Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This White Paper from the Norwegian Government discusses the climate problem as a global challenge, Norway's strategy for meeting the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, the national climate policies of other countries, Norwegian national climate policy in the short term, and Norwegian national climate policy with the Kyoto agreement in force

  15. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  16. Norwegian gas on the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    1999-01-01

    Article. Norsk Hydro's acquisition of Saga has made the organization of Norwegian gas sales a very topical issue. Traditionally, Norwegian gas has been sold on long-term take-or-pay contracts where the sales volume is secured and the price is linked to the prices of other energy carriers, primarily oil. Norway has sold large volumes of gas to the continent and has an increasing share of the market. However, the long-term contracts place most of the price risk on the seller. Although the sale is guaranteed, earnings are low. Statoil, the largest seller of Norwegian gas, has so far earned much more by transporting the gas to the continent than by producing and selling it. The long-term take-or-pay contracts are no longer safe. In Germany, the power market is quickly opening for competition, implying falling prices and lapsing long-term contracts. A similar development is likely to occur in the gas market. From Norwegian quarters there has been little interest in establishing oneself in the gas markets on the continent, which worries the author. However, the traditional contracts will have to be renegotiated so that the prices will reflect the real competition in the market. It is argued that a sensible Norwegian strategy will be to prepare for a new world for gas, not to hold tight to historical positions. It is suggested that old plans to establish a gas transport company, Gassledd, should be revived. Such a company would be subject to the European Gas Directive and would have to admit a third party. It is likely that the Norwegian opposition to liberalization of the European gas market will one day appear poorly thought out, and that defensive considerations have overshadowed new opportunities

  17. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Norwegians would - UK wouldn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, David.

    1988-01-01

    The Norwegians are now the world leaders in wave power technology and are exporting oscillating water column power stations to Tonga, Western Samoa, Vanuatu and Bali. The United Kingdom research programme was curtailed, although a wave power unit is being constructed on Islay in the Inner Hebrides. Those who favour nuclear energy generation claim that renewable sources, such as wave power, are uneconomic, but the Norwegians claim that the cost of wave-generated electricity is between 3p and 8p depending on local conditions. The economic case for nuclear power over renewables that will be presented at the Hinkley Point C Inquiry is thus less convincing. (U.K.)

  19. Metabolic Effects of Two Different Doses of Venlafaxine Therapy on Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária Imre

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Venlafaxine is an antidepressant, categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI with suspected metabolic side effects. The aim of our study was to assess these metabolic effects in rats, using two different doses of venlafaxine.

  20. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...

  1. Effect of nanosilver on metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): An investigation using different respirometric approches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Laura; Rennie, Michael D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    Nanosilver (nAg) has been incorporated into many consumer products, including clothing and washing machines, because of its antimicrobial properties. Consequently, the potential for its release into aquatic environments is of significant concern. Documented toxic effects on fish include altered.......60 ± 5.13 μg/L) for 28 d, after which their standard metabolic rate (SMR), forced maximum metabolic rate (MMRf), and spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMRs) were measured. There was no effect observed in SMR, MMRf, or MMRs, suggesting that nAg is unlikely to directly affect fish metabolism. On average...

  2. First-pass metabolism of ethanol in human beings: effect of intravenous infusion of fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, MH; Schäfer, C.

    2004-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of fructose has been shown to enhance reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reoxidation and, thereby, to enhance the metabolism of ethanol. In the current study, the effect of fructose infusion on first-pass metabolism of ethanol was studied in human volunteers....... A significantly higher first-pass metabolism of ethanol was obtained after administration of fructose in comparison with findings for control experiments with an equimolar dose of glucose. Because fructose is metabolized predominantly in the liver and can be presumed to have virtually no effects in the stomach...

  3. Early metabolic effects and mechanism of ammonium transport in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A.; Pardo, J.P.; Ramirez, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were performed to define the effects and mechanism of NH+4 transport in yeast. The following results were obtained. Glucose was a better facilitator than ethanol-H 2 O 2 for ammonium transport; low concentrations of uncouplers or respiratory inhibitors could inhibit the transport with ethanol as the substrate. With glucose, respiratory inhibitors showed only small inhibitory effects, and only high concentrations of azide or trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone could inhibit ammonium transport. Ammonium in the free state could be concentrated approximately 200-fold by the cells. Also, the addition of ammonium produced stimulation of both respiration and fermentation; an increased rate of H+ extrusion and an alkalinization of the interior of the cell; a decrease of the membrane potential, as monitored by fluorescent cyanine; an immediate decrease of the levels of ATP and an increase of ADP, which may account for the stimulation of both fermentation and respiration; and an increase of the levels of inorganic phosphate. Ammonium was found to inhibit 86Rb+ transport much less than K+. Also, while K+ produced a competitive type of inhibition, that produced by NH4+ was of the noncompetitive type. From the distribution ratio of ammonium and the pH gradient, an electrochemical potential gradient of around -180 mV was calculated. The results indicate that ammonium is transported in yeast by a mechanism similar to that of monovalent alkaline cations, driven by a membrane potential. The immediate metabolic effects of this cation seem to be due to an increased [H+]ATPase, to which its transport is coupled. However, the carriers seem to be different. The transport system studied in this work was that of low affinity

  4. Effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chylomicron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Aleksandra T; Maranhão, Raul C; Alves, Maria-Janieire N N; Negrão, Carlos E; da Silva, Jeferson L; Vinagre, Carmen G C

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on chylomicron metabolism. An artificial lipid emulsion labeled with radioactive cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG) mimicking chylomicrons was intravenously injected into individuals who regularly weight trained and made regular use of AAS (WT+AAS group), normolipidemic sedentary individuals (SDT group) and individuals who also regularly weight trained but did not use AAS (WT group). Fractional clearance rates (FCR) were determined by compartmental analysis for emulsion plasma decay curves. FCR-CE for the WT+AAS group was reduced (0.0073 ± 0.0079 min(-1), 0.0155 ± 0.0100 min(-1), 0.0149 ± 0.0160 min(-1), respectively; p<0.05), FCR-TG was similar for both the WT and SDT groups. HDL-C plasma concentrations were lower in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (22 ± 13; 41 ± 7; 38 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively; p<0.001). Hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was greater in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (7243 ± 1822; 3898 ± 1232; 2058 ± 749, respectively; p<0.001). However, no difference was observed for lipoprotein lipase activity. Data strongly suggest that AAS may reduce the removal from the plasma of chylomicron remnants, which are known atherogenic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of the anticarcinogenic drug 6-mercaptopurine on mineral metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, K.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) on mineral metabolism was investigated using rats and mice. A single 6-mercaptopurine injection in pregnant rats on day 11 of gestation proved to be highly teratogenic. At term, fetuses from 6-MP injected dams had lower livers zinc concentrations than non-injected or vehicle injected controls while dams showed no differences in liver zinc. Fetuses from dams injected with 6-MP and fed supplemental levels of zinc had a lower frequency of malformations and had higher hepatic zinc concentrations than fetuses from dams fed less zinc with drug injection. Non-pregnant mice injected with 6-MP had higher zinc concentrations compared to controls. In addition, iron, copper and calcium concentrations were higher in the livers of 6-MP injected mice than in controls, indicating that the drug affected several elements. Hepatic concentrations of metallothionein (MT) were also elevated in 6-MP injected mice, suggesting that the change in zinc concentrations associated with drug administration was the result of a drug induction of MT. Dams injected with 6-MP on day 13 of pregnancy had livers which retained more of an absorbed dose of 65 zinc than non-injected dams. Plasma from these drug injected dams also retained less of the absorbed dose than control dams. In contrast, day 14 from dams injected with 6-MP, retained less of an absorbed dose than control embryos

  6. The effect of interleukin-1 on iron metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Yamagiwa, Akio; Nakamura, Kenichi (The First Department of Internal Medicine, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of interleukin-1 on iron metabolism in rats was evaluated. Plasma iron decreased from 184 +- 16 {mu}g/dl (mean +- SE) to 24 +- 12 at 6 hours after interleukin-1 intramuscular administration in non-fasting rats and 109 +- 6 {mu}g/dl to 12 +- 1 {mu}g/dl in fasting rats, which was significantly lower than in control rats. Ferrokinetic studies showed a more rapid disapperance rate and lower iron turnover in interleukin-1-injected rats. The release of iron from the mononuclear phagocyte system to plasma was studied at 3 h after interleukin-1 administration. Although the percent of radioactivity in plasma of the total injected dose was 3.2 +- 0.6% in interleukin-1, which was significantly lower than in the control rats (5.4 +- 0.6%) at 9 h after intravenous injection of {sup 59}Fe chondroitin ferrous sulfate, there was no differnece between the amount of {sup 59}Fe released from the mononuclear phagocyte system over the first 9 h in interleukin-1 and control rats. These data appear to imply that iron release is unimpaired but that, for some reason, there is an enhanced rate of clearance of the {sup 59}Fe once it has been released from the mononuclear phagocyte system into the plasma. (author).

  7. Exercise attenuates the metabolic effects of dim light at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-01-30

    Most organisms display circadian rhythms that coordinate complex physiological and behavioral processes to optimize energy acquisition, storage, and expenditure. Disruptions to the circadian system with environmental manipulations such as nighttime light exposure alter metabolic energy homeostasis. Exercise is known to strengthen circadian rhythms and to prevent weight gain. Therefore, we hypothesized providing mice a running wheel for voluntary exercise would buffer against the effects of light at night (LAN) on weight gain. Mice were maintained in either dark (LD) or dim (dLAN) nights and provided either a running wheel or a locked wheel. Mice exposed to dim, rather than dark, nights increased weight gain. Access to a functional running wheel prevented body mass gain in mice exposed to dLAN. Voluntary exercise appeared to limit weight gain independently of rescuing changes to the circadian system caused by dLAN; increases in daytime food intake induced by dLAN were not diminished by increased voluntary exercise. Furthermore, although all of the LD mice displayed a 24h rhythm in wheel running, nearly half (4 out of 9) of the dLAN mice did not display a dominant 24h rhythm in wheel running. These results indicate that voluntary exercise can prevent weight gain induced by dLAN without rescuing circadian rhythm disruptions. © 2013.

  8. Metabolic effects of Olanzapine versus Iloperidone: A 24 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    The present study is aimed to comparatively evaluate the metabolic profile of olanzapine and iloperidone in cases of ... delusional disorders, acute and transient psychotic ... Data regarding age, sex, socio-economic status, family history, and.

  9. Sublethal effects of manganese on the carbohydrate metabolism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbohydrate metabolism provides (1) energy,. (2) precursors for synthetic reactions ... as a response to the adrenal corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the ... During the exposure experiments, control groups were also set-up. The control fish ...

  10. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Song; Seo-Jin Park; Jung-hyoun Cho; Sung-Goo Kang; Hyun-Kook Lim; Yu-Bae Ahn; Minjeong Kim; Se-Hong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants...

  11. Effect of Lineage-Specific Metabolic Traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on Sourdough Microbial Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increas...

  12. Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS detected total choline (tCho signal can serve as an early noninvasive imaging biomarker of chemotherapy response in breast cancer. We have quantified the individual components of the tCho signal, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, phosphocholine (PC and free choline (Cho, before and after treatment with the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in weakly metastatic human MCF7 and triple-negative human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. While the tCho concentration did not change following doxorubicin treatment, GPC significantly increased and PC decreased. Of the two phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD enzymes, only PLD1, but not PLD2, mRNA was down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment. For the two reported genes encoding GPC phosphodiesterase, the mRNA of GDPD6, but not GDPD5, decreased following doxorubicin treatment. mRNA levels of choline kinase α (ChKα, which converts Cho to PC, were reduced following doxorubicin treatment. PLD1 and ChKα protein levels decreased following doxorubicin treatment in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with the PLD1 specific inhibitor VU0155069 sensitized MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of 100 nM of doxorubicin increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration. GDPD6, but not PLD1 or ChKα, silencing by siRNA abolished doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell migration. Doxorubicin induced GPC increase and PC decrease are caused by reductions in PLD1, GDPD6, and ChKα mRNA and protein expression. We have shown that silencing or inhibiting these genes/proteins can promote drug effectiveness and reduce adverse drug effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of detecting PC and GPC individually.

  13. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  14. Improvement of fish habitat in a Norwegian river channelization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, J.E.; Brabrand, A.; Saltveit, S.J.; Heggenes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for reducing adverse effects of river and lake regulation are being developed and tested within the framework of the Norwegian Biotope Adjustment Programme. The programme is illustrated by studies of a river flowing through the wetland area, Lesjaleirene, which has been drained and channelized to provide additional agricultural land. The channelized river has a homogeneous sand substrate. Experimental placement of rocks and stones increased brown trout densities, especially in areas in contact with the river banks. The new areas of rocks and stones provide cover for fish as well as a greater variation in depth and flow conditions. (Author)

  15. Non-audit services and auditor independence: Norwegian evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu (Elli); Hay, David; Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect on auditor independence of auditors providing non-audit services in the Norwegian audit market. We report the results of three tests of independence of mind and one test of independence in appearance. These tests find that there is a positive relationship between audit fees......-audit services and the frequency with which auditors issue modified audit opinions. There is no association between non-audit services and audit tenure. Finally, we examine the relationship between unexpected or excess non-audit fees and cost of capital. There is no relationship. Our findings fail to find any...

  16. Effect of metabolic syndrome on mitsugumin 53 expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Ma

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia that increases the individual's likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases. Patients inflicted with metabolic disorders also suffer from tissue repair defect. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53 is a protein essential to cellular membrane repair. It facilitates the nucleation of intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane disruption to create repair patches, contributing to the regenerative capacity of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues upon injury. Since individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome possess tissue regeneration deficiency and MG53 plays a crucial role in restoring membrane integrity, we studied MG53 activity in mice models exhibiting metabolic disorders induced by a 6 month high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Western blotting showed that MG53 expression is not altered within the skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice with metabolic syndrome. Rather, we found that MG53 levels in blood circulation were actually reduced. This data directly contradicts findings presented by Song et. al that indict MG53 as a causative factor for metabolic syndrome (Nature 494, 375-379. The diminished MG53 serum level observed may contribute to the inadequate tissue repair aptitude exhibited by diabetic patients. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses reveal that skeletal muscle fibers of mice with metabolic disorders experience localization of subcellular MG53 around mitochondria. This clustering may represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress resulting from HFD feeding and may implicate MG53 as a guardian to protect damaged mitochondria. Therapeutic approaches that elevate MG53 expression in serum circulation may be a novel method to treat the degenerative tissue repair function of diabetic patients.

  17. Metabolic Profiling of Somatic Tissues from Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae Reveals Effects of Irradiation on Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangjian Qu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-level of sexual sterility is of importance for the sterile insect technique (SIT. However, the use of high-dose-intensity gamma radiation to induce sterility has negative impacts not only on reproductive cells but also on somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the metabolite differences in somatic tissues between non-irradiated, 20-Gy-irradiated, and 40-Gy-irradiated male Monochamus alternatus, an important vector of the pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which kills Asian pines. The results showed that metabolite levels changed moderately in the 20-Gy samples but were markedly altered in the 40-Gy samples compared with the non-irradiated samples. Twenty-six and 53 metabolites were disturbed by 20-Gy and 40-Gy radiation, respectively. Thirty-six metabolites were found to be markedly altered in the 40-Gy samples but were not changed significantly in the 20-Gy samples. The comprehensive metabolomic disorders induced by 40-Gy radiation dysregulated six metabolic pathways involved in the life process. The findings presented in this manuscript will contribute to our knowledge of the characteristic metabolic changes associated with gamma-radiation-induced damage to somatic cells and will allow for better exploration of the SIT for the control of this target pest.

  18. Assessing the Metabolic Effects of Aromatherapy in Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy, a form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM that uses essential oils through inhalation, is believed to enhance physical and spiritual conditions. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of aromatherapy in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive metabolomics study that reveals metabolic changes in people after exposed to aroma inhalation for 10 continuous days. In this study, the metabolic alterations in urine of 31 females with mild anxiety symptoms exposed to aerial diffusion of aromas were measured by GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analyses. A significant alteration of metabolic profile in subjects responsive to essential oil was found, which is characterized by the increased levels of arginine, homocysteine, and betaine, as well as decreased levels of alcohols, carbohydrates, and organic acids in urine. Notably, the metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and gut microbial metabolism were significantly altered. This study demonstrates that the metabolomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils, which may lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of aromatherapy.

  19. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EFFECT OF TELMISARTAN (ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKER ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesekhar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The metabolic syndrome is currently a major worldwide epidemic. It strongly associates with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are major pathologies contributing to mortality and morbidity worldwide. The effect of PPAR-y on metabolic syndrome is significant it is critical regulator of adipogenesis the gain in PPAR-y is resulted in obesity but loss of PPAR–y by mutation is associated with loss of weight and insulin resistance. Telmisartan is an orally active, long-acting, non-peptide angiotensin type 1 (ATI receptor blocker. In addition to this, it has been identified as partial agonist/selective modulator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-y. MATERIAL AND METHOD This is a prospective, randomised and open labelled 16 weeks study conducted in the Dept. of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Science, Amalapuram. Present study is designed to study the effect of telmisartan on various metabolic parameters in hypertensive patients who fulfilled the criteria of metabolic syndrome. RESULT There was statistically significant change in all parameters most important was lipid profile; LDL concentration was decreased from 139.2 mg/dL to 120.2 mg/dL. Baseline triglyceride concentration was 161.0 mg/dL which was changed 152.8 mg/dL Total cholesterol was decreased from 203.2 to 193.8 mg/dL. CONCLUSION In our study, we have also found that use of telmisartan is associated with decrease in lipid concentration in addition to its effect on blood pressure regulation. But a long term study with high dose required of this drug is required because safety profile of this drug is better than thiazolidinedione. Financial part of this study is our limitation.

  20. Patient safety culture in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter

    2017-06-20

    Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV). We studied whether variations in safety attitudes were related to professional background, age, work experience and mother tongue. In February 2016, 463 healthcare providers working in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, were invited to answer the SAQ-AV, translated and adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting. Previous validation of the Norwegian SAQ-AV for nursing homes identified five patient safety factors: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. SPSS v.22 was used for statistical analysis, which included estimations of mean values, standard deviations and multiple linear regressions. P-values safety factors teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions. Not being a Norwegian native speaker was associated with a significantly higher mean score for job satisfaction and a significantly lower mean score for stress recognition. Neither professional background nor work experience were significantly associated with mean scores for any patient safety factor. Patient safety factor scores in nursing homes were poorer than previously found in Norwegian general practices, but similar to findings in out-of-hours primary care clinics. Patient safety culture assessment may help nursing home leaders to initiate targeted quality improvement interventions. Further research should investigate associations between patient safety culture and the occurrence

  1. Environment 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the government's goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of produced water treatment techniques. It demonstrates that new Norwegian technology helps to limit the risk of environmental harm. New treatment techniques have been developed and adopted, but it can be difficult to understand why a specific solution is not applicable to every field. Through the thematic section in part 2, we endeavour to explain why the choice of solution will vary from field to field, and how that reflects such considerations as technical reservoir conditions and costs. The strong focus on the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas production has undoubtedly helped to make the Norwegian petroleum sector a leader in this area. That reflects both the way the authorities have incorporated environmental considerations extensively into the industry's frame conditions, and from the commitment made by the industry itself. Environment 2004 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions discharges, environmental impacts, measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities.

  2. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  3. Risk level project. Summary report, Norwegian Shelf, Phase 7; Risikonivaaprosjektet. Sammendragsrapport Norsk Sokkel, fase 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The project 'developments in risk level - Norwegian shelf', also known as the risk level project, was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate in 2000. From 2004 the project has been continued by Petroleum Safety Authority Norway. The project's main objectives are to measure the effect of the health, security and environment (HSE) work in the industry, and contribute to identify the areas critical to HSE, where efforts must be made to prevent unwanted events or accidents. A summary report with results from phase 7 in the project (ml)

  4. Effects of hypo- und hyperthyroidism on skeletal muscle metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.; Theissen, P.; Linden, A.; Waters, W.; Schicha, H.

    1991-01-01

    31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows non-invasive evaluation of phosphorus metabolism in man. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of hyper- and hypothyroidism on the metabolism of resting human skeletal muscle. The present data show that quantitative measurement of phosphate metabolism by NMR is possible as also demonstrated by other studies. Using a quantitative evaluation method with an external standard, significant differences in the levels of phosphocreatine, adenosintriphosphate, and phosphodiesters were found. In hypothyroid patients a TSH-dependent increase in phosphodiesters and a decrease in adenosintriphosphate and phosphocreatine was observed. In hyperthyroidism a similar decrease in adenosintriphosphate but a considerably higher decrease in phosphocreatine occurred. In the light of the results of other studies of muscle matabolism, these changes appear to be non-specific so that further studies are required to assess the clinical value of such measurements. (orig.) [de

  5. Effect of temperature on the metabolism, behaviour and oxygen requirements of Sparus aurata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remen, M.; Nederlof, M.A.J.; Folkedal, O.; Thorsheim, G.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Pérez-Sánchez, J.; Oppedal, F.; Olsen, R.E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the limiting oxygen saturation (LOS) of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. This threshold was defined as the % O2 saturation where fish no longer upheld their routine metabolic rate (RMR, the metabolic rate of fed and active fish) during a progressive

  6. Modulatory effect of raloxifene and estrogen on the metabolic action of growth hormone in hypopituitary women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Birzniece, Vita

    2010-05-01

    The metabolic action of GH is attenuated by estrogens administered via the oral route. Selective estrogen receptor modulators lower IGF-I to a lesser degree than 17beta-estradiol in GH-deficient women, and their effect on fat and protein metabolism is unknown.

  7. Effect of pioglitazone on glucose metabolism and luteinizing hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To thoroughly examine the mechanisms for insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to evaluate the effects of pioglitazone treatment on insulin resistance, beta-cell function, LH secretion, and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study. ......, impaired insulin-stimulated oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism, which was partly reversed by pioglitazone treatment....

  8. Effect of Different Types of Food on Metabolic Rate in Rats | Azeez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method used in measuring the metabolic rate was by indirect calorimetry. Results showed that the different food- carbohydrate, protein and fat ingestion each, caused a significant increase (p<0.0001) when compared with the control metabolic rate. Comparing the effect of the three, protein ingestion caused the greatest ...

  9. Effects of Quercetin Supplementation on Lipid and Protein Metabolism after Classic Boxing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic fitness (MF) is a component of athletes' physical conditioning. This study aims to investigate the effects of quercetin supplementation on Turkish Junior athletes' lipid and protein metabolism relating to MF after one month classic boxing training. Totally 20 voluntary junior male athletes were separated into two equal groups as the…

  10. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs

  11. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sveum, P

    1991-09-01

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity.

  13. Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Cummings, J H

    2007-12-01

    The energy values of carbohydrates continue to be debated. This is because of the use of different energy systems, for example, combustible, digestible, metabolizable, and so on. Furthermore, ingested macronutrients may not be fully available to tissues, and the tissues themselves may not be able fully to oxidize substrates made available to them. Therefore, for certain carbohydrates, the discrepancies between combustible energy (cEI), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and net metabolizable energy (NME) may be considerable. Three food energy systems are in use in food tables and for food labelling in different world regions based on selective interpretation of the digestive physiology and metabolism of food carbohydrates. This is clearly unsatisfactory and confusing to the consumer. While it has been suggested that an enormous amount of work would have to be undertaken to change the current ME system into an NME system, the additional changes may not be as great as anticipated. In experimental work, carbohydrate is high in the macronutrient hierarchy of satiation. However, studies of eating behaviour indicate that it does not unconditionally depend on the oxidation of one nutrient, and argue against the operation of a simple carbohydrate oxidation or storage model of feeding behaviour to the exclusion of other macronutrients. The site, rate and extent of carbohydrate digestion in, and absorption from the gut are key to understanding the many roles of carbohydrate, although the concept of digestibility has different meanings. Within the nutrition community, the characteristic patterns of digestion that occur in the small (upper) vs large (lower) bowel are known to impact in contrasting ways on metabolism, while in the discussion of the energy value of foods, digestibility is defined as the proportion of combustible energy that is absorbed over the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Carbohydrates that reach the large bowel are fermented to

  14. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  15. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interval (with Bazett's correction). Conclusion. The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in this sample points to a need to monitor glucose levels and BMI on a regular basis. A larger study should be done to ...

  16. Effects of temperature and salinity on resting metabolism in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the resting metabolic rate (RMR; mg O2 g/h) of the resident rock pool fish Caffrogobius caffer and the transient sparid Diplodus sargus capensis at a range of salinities (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 PSU) and temperatures (14, 20 and 28°C) using closed-vessel respirometry. Both species were temperature ...

  17. Effects of photoperiod on energy metabolism and thermogenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plasticity in energy intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) was very important for the regulations in energy balance and thermogenesis in Melano-bellied oriental vole exposed to different photoperiod. Change in brown adipose tissue (BAT) cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity and ...

  18. Third ventricle neuropeptide-Y infusion effect on metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to determine whether neuropeptide-Y affects the mean plasma concentrations of metabolic parameters such as thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), insulin, glucagon, glucose, fatty acid and urea in the goats fed different energy content in diets. 16 goats were randomly ...

  19. Effects of photoperiod on energy metabolism and thermogenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... levels, the responses of this species were studied in different photoperiods. Experiment data ... thermogenesis. Key words: Melano-bellied oriental vole, photoperiod, energy metabolism, brown adipose tissue, cytochrome c .... Folin phenol method with bovine serum albumin as standard (Lowry et al., 1951).

  20. Metabolism and transport of tamoxifen in relation to its effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Damkier, Per; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by approximately a half. Tamoxifen is metabolized to more active metabolites by enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Tamoxifen is a substrate for ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins. We review ta...

  1. Metabolic Action Of Sex Steroids: The Effects Of Testosterone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been widely reported that sex steroids affect carbohydrate metabolism and may have influences on hepatic enzymes. There have also been reports that glucocorticoids and sex steroids sometimes bind to similar receptors. All these suggest possible functional similarities or antagonism between glucocorticoids and ...

  2. Effects of hypoglycaemia on neuronal metabolism in the adult brain: role of alternative substrates to glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Ana I

    2013-07-01

    Hypoglycaemia is characterized by decreased blood glucose levels and is associated with different pathologies (e.g. diabetes, inborn errors of metabolism). Depending on its severity, it might affect cognitive functions, including impaired judgment and decreased memory capacity, which have been linked to alterations of brain energy metabolism. Glucose is the major cerebral energy substrate in the adult brain and supports the complex metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, which are essential for synaptic activity. Therefore, hypoglycaemia disturbs cerebral metabolism and, consequently, neuronal function. Despite the high vulnerability of neurons to hypoglycaemia, important neurochemical changes enabling these cells to prolong their resistance to hypoglycaemia have been described. This review aims at providing an overview over the main metabolic effects of hypoglycaemia on neurons, covering in vitro and in vivo findings. Recent studies provided evidence that non-glucose substrates including pyruvate, glycogen, ketone bodies, glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate, are metabolized by neurons in the absence of glucose and contribute to prolong neuronal function and delay ATP depletion during hypoglycaemia. One of the pathways likely implicated in the process is the pyruvate recycling pathway, which allows for the full oxidation of glutamate and glutamine. The operation of this pathway in neurons, particularly after hypoglycaemia, has been re-confirmed recently using metabolic modelling tools (i.e. Metabolic Flux Analysis), which allow for a detailed investigation of cellular metabolism in cultured cells. Overall, the knowledge summarized herein might be used for the development of potential therapies targeting neuronal protection in patients vulnerable to hypoglycaemic episodes.

  3. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  4. Molecular effect of fenofibrate on PBMC gene transcription related to lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, I; Tinahones, F J; Clemente-Postigo, M; Castellano-Castillo, D; Fernández-García, J C; Macias-Gonzalez, M; Queipo-Ortuño, M I; Cardona, F

    2017-06-01

    Both fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia are considered independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. Treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia is based on fibrates, which activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). However, the metabolic pathways that activate or inhibit fibrates, and how the postprandial triglyceride levels are modified, have not yet been fully described. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to study the effects of fenofibrate in patients with the metabolic syndrome. A fat overload was given to 50 patients before and after treatment with fenofibrate for 3 months. Anthropometric and biochemical variables as well as gene expression in PBMC were analysed. After treatment with fenofibrate, we observed a decrease in both baseline and postprandial (3 h after the fat overload) levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol and uric acid and an increase in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels. After treatment, there was also a rise in PPARα and RXRα expression and changes in genes regulated by PPARα, both baseline and postprandial. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that a PPARα agonist changed the expression of genes related with lipid metabolism. Treatment with fenofibrate reduced fasting and postprandial serum triglyceride levels, possibly through a mechanism related with an increase in the expression of RXRα and PPARα, by activating the pathways involved in the uptake and degradation of triglycerides and increasing the synthesis of apolipoprotein. These results suggest that PBMC may be useful for the easy study of fenofibrate actions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Beneficial effect of pistachio consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation, and related metabolic risk markers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Baldrich-Mora, Mònica; Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Bulló, Mònica

    2014-11-01

    To examine whether a pistachio-rich diet reduces the prediabetes stage and improves its metabolic risk profile. Prediabetic subjects were recruited to participate in this Spanish randomized clinical trial between 20 September 2011 and 4 February 2013. In a crossover manner, 54 subjects consumed two diets, each for 4 months: a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD) and a control diet (CD). A 2-week washout period separated study periods. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber, and saturated fatty acids. A total of 55% of the CD calories came from carbohydrates and 30% from fat, whereas for the PD, these percentages were 50 and 35%, respectively (including 57 g/day of pistachios). Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA of insulin resistance decreased significantly after the PD compared with the CD. Other cardiometabolic risk markers such as fibrinogen, oxidized LDL, and platelet factor 4 significantly decreased under the PD compared with the CD (P pistachio intervention (P pistachio consumption is emerging as a useful nutritional strategy for the prediabetic state. Data suggest that pistachios have a glucose- and insulin-lowering effect, promote a healthier metabolic profile, and reverse certain metabolic deleterious consequences of prediabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Effect of novel dietary supplement on metabolism in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and preventable morbidity with multiple behavioral, surgical and pharmacological interventions currently available. Commercial dietary supplements are often advertised to stimulate metabolism and cause rapid weight and/or fat loss, although few well-controlled studies have demonstrated such effects. We describe a commercially available dietary supplement (purportedly containing caffeine, catechins, and other metabolic stimulators on resting metabolic rate in humans, and on metabolism, mitochondrial content, and related gene expression in vitro. Human males ingested either a placebo or commercially available supplement (RF in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over fashion. Metabolic rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood pressure were measured hourly for 3 h post-ingestion. To investigate molecular effects, human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD and mouse myocytes (C2C12 were treated with various doses of RF for various durations. RF enhanced energy expenditure and systolic blood pressure in human males without altering substrate utilization. In myocytes, RF enhanced metabolism, metabolic gene expression, and mitochondrial content suggesting RF may target common energetic pathways which control mitochondrial biogenesis. RF appears to increase metabolism immediately following ingestion, although it is unclear if RF provides benefits beyond those provided by caffeine alone. Additional research is needed to examine safety and efficacy for human weight loss.

  7. Effects of Cola-Flavored Beverages and Caffeine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsey, Roger P; Moser, Elizabeth A S; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    To examine the effects of cola-flavored beverages and caffeine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. This study was designed to determine if carbonated beverages or caffeine can increase S. mutans growth and biofilm formation and metabolic activity in vitro, potentially leading to increased S. mutans-associated cariogenicity in children that consume them. Six different cola-flavored products, plus pure caffeine, and pure high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), at different concentrations similar to those in the beverages were tested. A 16-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with different dilutions in bacteriological media. To test for the effect on biofilm formation, the biofilm was stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was determined to evaluate biofilm growth. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured based on biofilm having the ability to reduce XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. The inclusion of HFCS in the beverages, as well as pure HFCS, significantly enhanced bacterial biofilm formation and metabolic activity. Pure caffeine and the presence of caffeine in beverages did not significantly increase biofilm formation, but pure caffeine significantly increased metabolism, and Diet Coke had significantly greater metabolic activity than Caffeine-Free Diet Coke. HFCS increases both the biofilm formation and metabolism of S. mutans, and caffeine in some cases increases metabolism of S. mutans.

  8. Norwegian implementation of the Climate Convention; Norsk gjennomfoering av Klimakonvensjonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The international climate cooperation has become one of the most important results of the UN conference on environment and development that took place in Rio in 1992. This report examines whether Norway has fulfilled the goal of the Climate Convention. Norway played an important role in the negotiations of the Climate Convention, on issues of joint implementation, on the need for a just sharing of burden and on the goal of cost effectiveness. Since the end of the 1980s, Norway has implemented a series of climate measures, although probably not all directly due to the Climate Convention. A carbon dioxide tax was introduced already in 1991. The effects of the measures are still uncertain, but they appear to be insufficient. Norwegian gas emissions are increasing. The increased oil- and gas activities in the North Sea and plans for a gas power station in the western part of Norway make it very difficult to attain the goal of stabilising the CO{sub 2} emissions on the 1989 level within the year 2000. The oil- and energy policy of the Norwegian government is being criticised by the opposition and by the environmental movement. It seems that it will become difficult for Norway to assume a leading role in international climate policy that is compatible with the same country`s business interests in the energy sector. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  10. Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints.

  11. Environmental effects on energy metabolism and 86Rb elimination rates of fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between energy metabolism and the turnover rates of number of important chemical and radiological elements (particularly the Group IA alkali metals: K, Rb, and Cs) have been observed in fishes. Using response surface statistics and fractional factorial ANOVA, the author examined the relative influences of temperature, salinity, food intake rate, mass, and their first order interactions on routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates. Routine metabolic rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity, with a strong body mass effect and a significant effect of food intake. 86 Rb elimination rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity. There were no interactive effects between mass and either temperature or salinity for either routine energy metabolism or 86 Rb elimination rates. There was a significant interaction effect between temperature and salinity on routine energy metabolism rates, but not on 86 Rb elimination. The authors also observed a relationship between routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates that may possibly be exploited as a means of estimating energy metabolic rates of fishes in the field. The statistical techniques used in this experiment have broad potential applications in assessing the contributions of combinations of environmental variables on contaminant kinetics, as well as in multiple toxicity testing, in that they greatly simplify experimental designs compared with traditional full-factorial methods

  12. Examining Convergence in the Cultural Value Orientations of Norwegians in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Jennifer

    There is much debate in Norway as to whether Norwegian cultural values are being diluted by the increasing influx of international organizations. Little empirical work has been done to assess the effect of employment by international organizations on the cultural values of Norwegians. The aim of this study was to determine if individuals retain cultural values closest to their own nationality or the nationality of their employing organization. This objective was accomplished by comparing cultural value dimensions of Norwegians employed in organizations headquartered in one of five countries. Recruitment emails were sent to 612 possible participants and 160 individuals completed the survey completely, resulting in a sample size of N=160, a response rate of 26%. From the completed surveys, cultural dimension scores were calculated for each individual and group in the areas of power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Using those cultural dimension scores, three groups of one-way ANOVA tests were run in accordance with the parameters of each of three research questions. Comparing Norwegians employed in local government or a Norwegian oil and gas company, a significant difference existed only for uncertainty avoidance (p=.0074). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in local government with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil companies resulted in significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0007), individualism (p=.0000), and uncertainty avoidance (p=.0000); however, there was not a statistically significant difference in masculinity scores between the two groups (p=.0792). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in a Norwegian oil and gas company with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil and gas companies also resulted in statistically significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0015), individualism (p=.0000), and

  13. Warburg effect or reverse Warburg effect? A review of cancer metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao Dong; Shao, Shi Xiu; Jiang, Hai Ping; Cao, Yan Wei; Wang, Yong Hua; Yang, Xue Cheng; Wang, You Lin; Wang, Xin Sheng; Niu, Hai Tao

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to human health. A considerable amount of research has focused on elucidating the nature of cancer from its pathogenesis to treatment and prevention. Tumor cell metabolism has been considered a hallmark of cancer. Cancer cells differ from normal cells through unlimited cell division, and show a greater need for energy for their rapid growth and duplication. Research on glycometabolism, as the key point of energy metabolism, has played a unique role. In the 1920s, Warburg found that cancer cells prefer to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by glycolysis, which is a less efficient pathway compared to oxidative phosphorylation. This striking discovery, called 'the Warburg effect', has influenced and guided the study of the mechanism and treatment of tumors for generations, but its causal relationship with cancer progression is still unclear. Some studies have now shown contradicting evidence and a new hypothesis, the reverse Warburg effect, has been put forward, in which cancer cells produce most of their ATP via glycolysis, even under aerobic conditions. In this review we discuss the new points concerning the energy metabolism of a tumor, as well as the current facts and perspectives. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  14. Effects of total solar eclipse on the behavioural and metabolic activities of tropical intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Verlecar, X.N.; Harkantra, S.N.

    To study the effects of total solar eclipse of 16th Feb. 1980, on the behaviour and metabolic activities of intertidal invertebrates - nematodes, gastropods and bivalves - having different habitat preference a set of relevant observations, covering...

  15. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Huei Phing

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Effects of Gemfibrozil on Cholesterol Metabolism, Steroidogenesis, and Reproduction in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, which are transcriptional cofactors that regulate expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Gemfibrozil is a fibrate th...

  17. Effects of Gemfibrozil on Cholesterol Metabolism and Steroidogenesis in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), which are transcriptional cofactors that regulate expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Gemfibrozil is a fib...

  18. Effects of gemfibrozil on lipid metabolism, steroidogenesis and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are transcriptional cofactors that regulate expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Gemfibrozil is a fi...

  19. Creatine, energetic function, metabolism and supplementation effects on sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Gimenes Bernardo da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to review the literature regarding creatine ingestion by athletes and physical activity enthusiasts, discussing its necessity and, if possible, predicting some consequences. In order to achieve this purpose it was necessary to study the relationship between the muscles energetic system and their regulation. It was also proved necessary to investigate the creatine cycle, its endogenous origin, its metabolizing and conversion into creatine-phosphate. A bibliography was used to collect information about the subject. The research lead to the following conclusions: diet supplementation with creatine leads to increased phosphocreatine levels in human muscles. However, new in vivo experiments are most desirable, because it is already known that creatine interferes with the regulation of some metabolic pathways.

  20. The effects of estrus cycle on drug metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Y; Kaplanski, J; Leibson, V; Ben-Zvi, Z

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the female rat estral cycle on microsomal drug metabolism in-vivo and in-vitro has been studied. Two microsomal enzymes, aminopyrine-N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase showed a greater specific activity (p less than 0.01) in the diestrus phase of the estral cycle while the oxidative enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the conjugative enzyme, glucuronyl transferase, were not affected. In vivo studies which included theophylline and antipyrine metabolism, and hexobarbital sleeping times showed no difference between the different phases of the estral cycle. Conflicting evidence about the effect of steroid sex hormones on hepatic drug metabolism is discussed.

  1. Metabolic mapping of the effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine on the brains of congenitally helpless rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumake, Jason; Colorado, Rene A; Barrett, Douglas W; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2010-07-09

    Antidepressants require adaptive brain changes before efficacy is achieved, and they may impact the affectively disordered brain differently than the normal brain. We previously demonstrated metabolic disturbances in limbic and cortical regions of the congenitally helpless rat, a model of susceptibility to affective disorder, and we wished to test whether administration of fluoxetine would normalize these metabolic differences. Fluoxetine was chosen because it has become a first-line drug for the treatment of affective disorders. We hypothesized that fluoxetine antidepressant effects may be mediated by decreasing metabolism in the habenula and increasing metabolism in the ventral tegmental area. We measured the effects of fluoxetine on forced swim behavior and regional brain cytochrome oxidase activity in congenitally helpless rats treated for 2 weeks with fluoxetine (5mg/kg, i.p., daily). Fluoxetine reduced immobility in the forced swim test as anticipated, but congenitally helpless rats responded in an atypical manner, i.e., increasing climbing without affecting swimming. As hypothesized, fluoxetine reduced metabolism in the habenula and increased metabolism in the ventral tegmental area. In addition, fluoxetine reduced the metabolism of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This study provided the first detailed mapping of the regional brain effects of an antidepressant drug in congenitally helpless rats. All of the effects were consistent with previous studies that have metabolically mapped the effects of serotonergic antidepressants in the normal rat brain, and were in the predicted direction of metabolic normalization of the congenitally helpless rat for all affected brain regions except the prefrontal cortex. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of leptin level upon lipid metabolism in climacteric women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Lijing; Yan Ruming; Sun Enhua

    2005-01-01

    To observe the relationship between leptin and obesity of climacteric women with their lipid metabolism, 110 cases of climacteric women were chosen as observation group, consisting of 69 cases obese subgroup and 45 cases non-obese group, and 60 cases of normal reproduction- age women were arranged as control group. Blood levels of leptin, INS, LDL-C, TG, HDL-C, apoA1, apoB, LH, FSH, E-2, T, and P were detected and BMI was calculated. The results showed that blood levels of leptin and INS of obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of non-obese sub-group and control group(P<0.01), and that LDL-C(5.01 mmol/L), TG(2.21mmal/L) and apoB(0.89g/L) levels in obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of control group. Furthermore, an important observation was that in climacteric women group, blood leptin level was positively and significantly correlated with insulin, BMI and several atherogenic blood lipid parameters, including LDL-C, TG and apoB. Thus, a preliminary conclusion might be reached as that the high climacteric level of leptin is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism related to atherogenity, and so leptin and lipid metabolism as a whole should be paid more attention in climateric women, especially those with obesity. (authors)

  3. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  4. Radioactivity in the Norwegian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The national monitoring programme for radioactivity in the marine environment was established in 1999. The programme is coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) in cooperation with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR). The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of radionuclides in the marine environment. Data regarding discharges of radionuclides from both Norwegian and other sources are collected, and assessments of the resulting radiation exposures of humans and biota will be carried out. Results from the analysis of environmental samples collected in 1999 are presented in a new NRPA report (NRPA, 2001:9 ''Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999''. Some results from the monitoring programme in 1999 are summarised below along with more recent data concerning concentrations of the radionuclide technetium-99. (author)

  5. Supertankers are threatening the Norwegian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steensen, Anders J.; Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article has three sections. The first discusses the environmental problems the tanker traffic poses to the Norwegian coastal waters and shores. Various precautionary measures and requirements are briefly presented. The size of the present marine transportation and the future Russian marine petroleum activity in the Barents area are briefly mentioned. The second named, conflicting exploration drilling, presents the conflicting interests regarding exploratory drilling in the Barents Sea in Norway. The environmental problems are large and have lead to an on-going reevaluation. Some pollution abatement measures are mentioned. The regional economic development is briefly outlined. The third deals with the Norwegian governmental safety activities and presents a brief survey of the official safety activities in the petroleum sector in Norway and the international cooperation particularly with the Russian Federation. The emphasis is on the maritime security, the safety of the maritime transportation systems, the environmental aspects such as pollution management and on the legal frameworks

  6. Relexification in a Northern Norwegian dialect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Sollid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how the process of relexification can contribute to the understanding of the genesis of the new Norwegian dialect of Sappen in Nordreisa. The dialect has emerged in the context of language shift from Finnish to Norwegian, and the dialect syntax has features that might be regarded as products of relexification. One example is declarative main clauses with the finite verb in the third position (V3. The discussion adheres to a more general discussion of approaches to language genesis, where substratist and universalist (and also superstratist theories often are regarded as contrary to each other. I argue that different theories can contribute to the understanding of different aspects of the same question.

  7. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  8. Inbreeding effects on standard metabolic rate investigated at cold, benign and hot temperatures in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    in replicated lines of inbred and outbred Drosophila melanogaster at stressful low, benign and stressful high temperatures. The lowest measurements of metabolic rate in our study are always associated with the low activity period of the diurnal cycle and these measurements therefore serve as good estimates...... of standard metabolic rate. Due to the potentially added costs of genetic stress in inbred lines we hypothesized that inbred individuals have increased metabolic rate compared to outbred controls and that this is more pronounced at stressful temperatures due to synergistic inbreeding by environment...... interactions. Contrary to our hypothesis we found no significant difference in metabolic rate between inbred and outbred lines and no interaction between inbreeding and temperature. Inbreeding however effected the variance; the variance in metabolic rate was higher between the inbred lines compared...

  9. The effects of exercise program on burnout and metabolic syndrome components in banking and insurance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han Hui; Yeh, Ching Ying; Su, Chien Tien; Chen, Chiou Jong; Peng, Shu Mei; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effectiveness of exercise program for banking and insurance workers and clarify the association between exercise, burnout, and metabolic syndrome components. In the process of the study, a practicable worksite exercise program was developed for bank and insurance enterprises. A three-month (12-wk) exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. Levels of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed after exercise intervention. After intervention, the indicators of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were significantly improved in both low and high intensity groups, and the improvement were expressed in reduction of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, person burnout and work-related burnout. A dose-response of burnouts and metabolic syndrome components with exercise intensity are shown (psyndrome components were independently associated with burnout and exercise intensity in the crude model. After adjustment for potential confounders, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure differences showed significant associations with exercise intensity (pburnouts and metabolic syndrome components.

  10. Acute renal metabolic effect of metformin treatment assessed with hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Haiyun; Nielsen, Per Mose; Schroeder, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is the primary anti-diabetic drug in type-2 diabetes patients. However, controversy exists on its use in patients with renal impairment. Here we investigated the acute metabolic effects of metformin treatment in rat kidneys, with hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate and Clark......-electrodes. A significantly altered metabolic phenotype was observed 30 min post metformin treatment. Anaerobic metabolism was elevated in the cytosol, indicated by increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, and mitochondrial aerobic metabolism was reduced, indicated by decreased bicarbonate/pyruvate ratio. Acute metformin treatment...... increased renal blood flow with higher O2 saturation and did not change tubular O2 consumption. These results indicate that metformin reduces mitochondrial respiration and enhances anaerobic metabolism, even with enough oxygen supply, within only 30 min of treatment....

  11. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Online consumer behavior among Norwegian business students

    OpenAIRE

    Møller-Hansen, Tor Ragnar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2013 E-commerce is an ever growing phenomenon which merits further research. This study conducts a literature review in the field of online consumer behavior, focusing on online consumer purchase intention and online consumer loyalty in the context of Norwegian business students. We also conduct a survey with 196 business students in Norway, and go on to identify three important variables impacting online consumer purchase i...

  13. Effects of switching from olanzapine to aripiprazole on the metabolic profiles of patients with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, open-label study [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani RA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wani RA, Dar MA, Chandel RK, et al Title of paper should have been “Effects of switching from olanzapine to aripiprazole on the metabolic profiles of patients with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome: a randomized, open-label study”.  Read the original paper 

  14. Akt signaling-associated metabolic effects of dietary gold nanoparticles in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Nan; Wei, Yingliang; Li, Jiang; Sun, Li; Wu, Jiarui; Huang, Qing; Liu, Chang; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2012-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are often used as vehicles to deliver drugs or biomolecules, due to their mild effect on cell survival and proliferation. However, little is known about their effect on cellular metabolism. Here we examine the in vivo effect of AuNPs on metabolism using Drosophila as a model. Drosophila and vertebrates possess similar basic metabolic functions, and a highly conserved PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of energy metabolism in both organisms. We show that dietary AuNPs enter the fat body, a key metabolic tissue in Drosophila larvae. Significantly, larvae fed with AuNP show increased lipid levels without triggering stress responses. In addition, activities of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and fatty acids synthesis are increased in these larvae. This study thus reveals a novel function of AuNPs in influencing animal metabolism and suggests its potential therapeutic applications for metabolic disorders.

  15. Comparative metabolomics in primates reveals the effects of diet and gene regulatory variation on metabolic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Perry, George H; Shahbaz, Sevini; Fiehn, Oliver; Clark, Andrew G; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-07-28

    Human diets differ from those of non-human primates. Among few obvious differences, humans consume more meat than most non-human primates and regularly cook their food. It is hypothesized that a dietary shift during human evolution has been accompanied by molecular adaptations in metabolic pathways. Consistent with this notion, comparative studies of gene expression levels in primates have found that the regulation of genes with metabolic functions tend to evolve rapidly in the human lineage. The metabolic consequences of these regulatory differences, however, remained unknown. To address this gap, we performed a comparative study using a combination of gene expression and metabolomic profiling in livers from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. We show that dietary differences between species have a strong effect on metabolic concentrations. In addition, we found that differences in metabolic concentration across species are correlated with inter-species differences in the expression of the corresponding enzymes, which control the same metabolic reaction. We identified a number of metabolic compounds with lineage-specific profiles, including examples of human-species metabolic differences that may be directly related to dietary differences.

  16. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  17. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Technical Student Programme draws Norwegians

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Erik Hejne, second from left, Chairman of the Technical Students Committee, and Jens Vigen, who is concerned spefically with Norwegian students at CERN, with some of the Norwegian technical students who arrived at CERN in spring 2005, together with their teachers. From mid-April, CERN's PH and IT Departments are hosting ten Norwegian students from Bergen University College, the Sør-Trøndelag University College and the University of Science and Technology in Trondheim to take part in the Laboratory's Technical Student Programme. The Technical Student Programme is open to students of universities and technical higher education establishments in the Member States who, in the course of their studies, are required to complete a period of professional training in industry or in a laboratory. Around 70 Technical Students come to work at CERN each year. Selected by a committee, they spend between six months and one year with the Organization. The programme is funded by CERN. However, once the Laboratory's quota of...

  19. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  20. Cultural and musical activity among Norwegian doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2013-06-25

    The cultural and musical activity of Norwegian doctors was studied in 1993. We wished to re-examine their cultural and musical activity, analyse the development and study the correlation with satisfaction, health and other leisure activities. In the autumn of 2010, a survey was undertaken among a representative sample of economically active Norwegian doctors. The survey asked the same questions as in 1993, and the responses were also compared to the population studies conducted by Statistics Norway. We also used a cultural index that we have developed ourselves. Altogether 1,019 doctors (70%) responded to the survey. They reported a higher level of cultural activity in 2010 than in 1993, measured in terms of reading of non-medical literature and visits to the cinema, theatre and concerts. The doctors engaged in musical activity of their own especially frequently: 58% reported to be able to play an instrument, and 21% reported to play on a regular basis, which is more than among other academic professions. We found a significant correlation between the doctors' level of cultural activity and their job satisfaction, general satisfaction, self-reported health and physical activity. The doctors who engage most frequently in cultural activities are thus most satisfied with their work and with life in general. Furthermore, they also have better self-reported health. Norwegian doctors give priority to cultural and musical activities. The assertion that doctors are particularly fond of music is more than just a myth.

  1. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  2. Calculation of dietary exposure to acrylamide in the Norwegian population

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) is requested by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to calculate the dietary exposure to acrylamide in the Norwegian population. NFSA refers to the recent scientific opinion on acrylamide in food by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). EFSA concludes that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups.

  3. Ichthyophonus hoferi disease in the herring in Norwegian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Hjeltnes, Brit K.; Skagen, Dankert W.

    1992-01-01

    After the discovery of I. hoferi disease in Norwegian spring spawning herring in summer 1991, a program for systematic surveillance of the disease in the herring in Norwegian waters was developed. The programme, which aims primarily at monitoring the prevalence of the disease, is described. Macroscopic lesions in the heart emerged as the standard diagnostic criterium. The results so far indicate that the situation for Norwegian spring spawning herring is not alarming, ...

  4. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, body composition, and dietary intake in Emiratis of Ajman (UAE) with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiya, Amena; Ahmed, Solafa; Siddieg, Hisham Hussain; Babas, Irish Joy; Carlsson, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, body composition and dietary intake in native Emiratis of Ajman, UAE with the metabolic syndrome (MS). 19 patients (14 Female, 5 Male) aged 37.1 ± 12.5 years, were encouraged healthy lifestyle changes during fasting and data was collected 1 week before and in the fourth week of Ramadan. No patients experienced complications or increased symptoms of hypoglycemia during Ramadan. Total energy consumption remained similar. Meal frequency decreased (3.2 ± 0.5 vs 2.1 ± 0.4 meals/day). Protein intake decreased 12% (P = 0.04) but fat intake increased 23% (P = 0.03). Body weight (103.9 ± 29.8 vs 102.1 ± 29.0 kg, P = 0.001) and waist circumference (123 ± 14 vs 119 ± 17 cm, P = 0.001) decreased. Forty percent of patients increased their physical activity due to increased praying hours. Fasting P-glucose (6.3 ± 1.7 vs 6.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L, P = 0.024) and B-HbA(1c) concentrations 6.3 ± 0.9 vs 6.5% ± 0.9%, P = 0.003) increased but P-insulin concentration, HOMA-IR index and lipid concentrations remained unchanged. The present study investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on dietary intake, metabolic parameters and body composition showing that the energy consumption per day did not decrease, although the fat intake increased. However, the patients lost weight and reduced their waist circumference. Ramadan fasting has also elicited small but significant increases in Glucose and HbA(1c) after 4 weeks.

  5. Effect of Microgravity on Bone Tissue and Calcium Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Human Bone Tissue Changes after Long-Term Space Flight: Phenomenology and Possible Mechanics; (2) Prediction of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Change in Space; (3) Dietary Calcium in Space; (4) Calcium Metabolism During Extended-Duration Space Flight; (5) External Impact Loads on the Lower Extremity During Jumping in Simulated Microgravity and the Relationship to Internal Bone Strain; and (6) Bone Loss During Long Term Space Flight is Prevented by the Application of a Short Term Impulsive Mechanical Stimulus.

  6. Compartmentalized metabolic network reconstruction of microbial communities to determine the effect of agricultural intervention on soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Yela, Astrid Catalina; Gómez-Cano, Fabio; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Husserl, Johana; Danies, Giovanna; Restrepo, Silvia; González-Barrios, Andrés Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are responsible for a wide range of ecological processes and have an important economic impact in agriculture. Determining the metabolic processes performed by microbial communities is crucial for understanding and managing ecosystem properties. Metagenomic approaches allow the elucidation of the main metabolic processes that determine the performance of microbial communities under different environmental conditions and perturbations. Here we present the first compartmentalized metabolic reconstruction at a metagenomics scale of a microbial ecosystem. This systematic approach conceives a meta-organism without boundaries between individual organisms and allows the in silico evaluation of the effect of agricultural intervention on soils at a metagenomics level. To characterize the microbial ecosystems, topological properties, taxonomic and metabolic profiles, as well as a Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) were considered. Furthermore, topological and optimization algorithms were implemented to carry out the curation of the models, to ensure the continuity of the fluxes between the metabolic pathways, and to confirm the metabolite exchange between subcellular compartments. The proposed models provide specific information about ecosystems that are generally overlooked in non-compartmentalized or non-curated networks, like the influence of transport reactions in the metabolic processes, especially the important effect on mitochondrial processes, as well as provide more accurate results of the fluxes used to optimize the metabolic processes within the microbial community. PMID:28767679

  7. Effects of Insulin on Brain Glucose Metabolism in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Nesterov, Sergey V.; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism, but this effect of insulin is already maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects. It is not known whether insulin is able to stimulate glucose metabolism above fasting concentrations in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the effects of insulin on brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow in 13 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and nine healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET). All subjects underwent PET with both [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for brain glucose metabolism) and [15O]H2O (for cerebral blood flow) in two separate conditions (in the fasting state and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp). Arterial blood samples were acquired during the PET scans to allow fully quantitative modeling. RESULTS The hyperinsulinemic clamp increased brain glucose metabolism only in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (whole brain: +18%, P = 0.001) but not in healthy subjects (whole brain: +3.9%, P = 0.373). The hyperinsulinemic clamp did not alter cerebral blood flow in either group. CONCLUSIONS We found that insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism at physiological postprandial levels in patients with impaired glucose tolerance but not in healthy subjects. These results suggest that insulin stimulation of brain glucose metabolism is maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects but not in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:21270256

  8. Compartmentalized metabolic network reconstruction of microbial communities to determine the effect of agricultural intervention on soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Alvarez-Silva

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities are responsible for a wide range of ecological processes and have an important economic impact in agriculture. Determining the metabolic processes performed by microbial communities is crucial for understanding and managing ecosystem properties. Metagenomic approaches allow the elucidation of the main metabolic processes that determine the performance of microbial communities under different environmental conditions and perturbations. Here we present the first compartmentalized metabolic reconstruction at a metagenomics scale of a microbial ecosystem. This systematic approach conceives a meta-organism without boundaries between individual organisms and allows the in silico evaluation of the effect of agricultural intervention on soils at a metagenomics level. To characterize the microbial ecosystems, topological properties, taxonomic and metabolic profiles, as well as a Flux Balance Analysis (FBA were considered. Furthermore, topological and optimization algorithms were implemented to carry out the curation of the models, to ensure the continuity of the fluxes between the metabolic pathways, and to confirm the metabolite exchange between subcellular compartments. The proposed models provide specific information about ecosystems that are generally overlooked in non-compartmentalized or non-curated networks, like the influence of transport reactions in the metabolic processes, especially the important effect on mitochondrial processes, as well as provide more accurate results of the fluxes used to optimize the metabolic processes within the microbial community.

  9. Mapping of Norwegian civil society organizations working on energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study provides a mapping of Norwegian CSOs working on energy and development issues in developing countries and an overview assessment of how the CSOs fit with the priorities of the Norwegian Governments Clean Energy for Development Initiative. The study has been commissioned by Norad, the Norwegian agency for development aid. The study surveys 10 Norwegian CSOs, five of which are primarily environmentally oriented (Bellona, FIVAS, Naturvernforbundet, WWF-Norway and Zero, with green backgrounds in the tables) and five of which are primarily socially oriented (ARC-Aid, Kirkens Noedhjelp, Misjonsalliansen, Norges Vel and Utviklingsfondet, with reddish background in the tables). The study is based on a desk-top review of available material from the CSOs as well as semi-structured interviews. The goal of the Clean Energy for Development Initiative is to increase access to clean energy at an affordable price based on the long-term management of natural resources and efficient energy use. Activities shall also contribute to sustainable economic and social development in selected partner countries and to international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.The study shows that many Norwegian CSOs have potential to contribute further to effective implementation of Clean Energy for Development Initiative strategies and realization of goals: At least five Cos are already carrying out relevant work in the Initiatives core countries (ref. table A below). In addition, most of the Cos surveyed have a long track-record of relevant activities in non-core countries (ref. table A), something which provides substantial potential for transfer of relevant experience and concepts from non-core countries to work in core countries. Most of the Cos have a relevant and professional competence base, capacity and plans for scaling-up Clean Energy for Development Initiative related work.The CSOs engaged in clean energy for development activities are mainly engaged in developing clean

  10. Effect of creatine on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle in swimmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, C H; Kemp, G J; Sanderson, A L; Dixon, R M; Styles, P; Taylor, D J; Radda, G K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a relatively low dose of creatine on skeletal muscle metabolism and oxygen supply in a group of training athletes. METHODS: 31P magnetic resonance and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to study calf muscle metabolism in a group of 10 female members of a university swimming team. Studies were performed before and after a six week period of training during which they took either 2 g creatine daily or placebo. Calf muscle metabolism and creatine/choline rat...

  11. ERRs and cancers: effects on metabolism and on proliferation and migration capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Stéphanie; Sailland, Juliette; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2012-07-01

    ERRs are orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily which, at least for ERRα and ERRγ display important roles in the control of various metabolic processes. On other hand, correlations have been found between the expression of ERRα and γ and diverse parameters of tumor progression in human cancers. Whereas it is tempting to speculate that ERR receptors act in tumors through the regulation of metabolism, recent data have suggested that they also may directly regulate tumor proliferation and progression independently of their effects on metabolism. The two aspects of tumoral functions of ERR receptors are the purpose of the present review. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of phenobarbital pretreatment on the in vivo metabolism of carbaryl in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, E.V.; Alvares, A.P.; Chin, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment of animals is known to induce the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver microsomes. Previous studies showed that incubation of carbaryl with microsomes obtained from livers of untreated or PB-treated rats resulted in little or no oxidative metabolism of the substrate. In addition, no spectral interactions were observed when carbaryl was added to hepatic microsomal suspensions. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of PB pretreatment on the in vivo metabolism of carbaryl in rats

  13. Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Purrello, Agata; Vitaglione, Paola; Calabrese, Giorgio; Drago, Filippo; Galvano, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of medical disorders, such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The role of food and nutrients in the aetiology of chronic diseases has become clearer over the last 15 years. In this review we collected evidence on the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet on MetS by analyzing epidemiological reports documenting its prevalence in subjects who have adopted this dietary pattern. We also explored the role of the individual components of the diet on the specific aspects characterizing the MetS (i.e. metabolic indices, body weight and blood pressure). There is ample evidence showing that subjects adherent to the Mediterranean diet have lower prevalence and incidence rates of MetS than non-adherent. Moreover, it has been widely documented that specific components of this dietary pattern play a role in the prevention of several morbid conditions related to the MetS.

  14. Metabolic effects of obesity causing disease in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Pamela; Levitt Katz, Lorraine E

    2011-02-01

    Childhood obesity is rising to epidemic proportions throughout the world, and much emphasis has been placed on the long-term consequences that can result later, in adulthood. This article reviews the metabolic consequences of obesity that can manifest as disease during the childhood years. Obese children suffer from many disease processes once thought to affect only adults. They can have type 2 diabetes mellitus, and potentially early β cell failure with rapid progression to an insulin requirement. There is a high prevalence of fatty liver disease in obese children, and complications such as steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis can develop during childhood. Visceral fat has been shown to have many different properties than subcutaneous fat, and children with central adiposity can develop the metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Hyperandrogenism, sleep disturbances, and many types of orthopedic complications can also develop in young children. Physicians should not only warn obese children and their families about the long-term consequences of obesity for which they are at risk in adulthood, they should also screen for the many diseases that may already be present.

  15. Metabolic Effects of a Succinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Shakh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses promises for clinical use of substrate antihypoxants.Objective: to investigate the efficacy of succinate containing  substrate  antihypoxants  on  systemic  oxygen  consumption,  blood  buffer  capacity,  and  changes  in  the  mixed venous blood level of lactate when they are used in gravely sick patients and victims with marked metabolic posthypoxic disorders.Subjects and methods. The trial enrolled 30 patients and victims who had sustained an episode of severe hypoxia of mixed genesis, the severity of which was evaluated by the APACHE II scale and amounted to 23 to 30 scores with a 46 to 70.3% risk of death. The standard infusion program in this group involved the succinate-containing drug 1.5% reamberin solution  in  a  total  dose  of  800  ml.  A  comparison  group  included  15  patients  who  had  undergone  emergency  extensive surgery for abdominal diseases. 400 ml of 10% glucose solution was used as an infusion medium. Oxygen consumption (VO2ml/min and carbon dioxide production (VCO2ml/min were measured before infusion and monitored for 2 hours. Arterial blood gases and acid-base balance (ABB parameters and mixed venous blood lactate levels were examined. Measurements were made before and 30 minutes after the infusion of reamberin or glucose solution.Results. Infusion of 1.5% reamberin solution was followed by a significant increase in minute oxygen consumption from 281.5±21.2 to 310.4±24.4 ml/min. CO2 production declined (on average, from 223.3±6.5 to 206.5±7.59 ml/min. During infusion of 10% glucose solution, all the patients of the comparison group showed a rise in oxygen consumption from 303.6±33.86 to 443.13±32.1 ml/min, i.e. about 1.5-fold. VCO2 changed similarly. The intravenous infusion of 800 ml of 1.5% reamberin solution raised arterial blood buffer capacity, which was reflected by changes in pH, BE, and HCO3. There was a clear trend for lactate values to drop in the

  16. Effects of hypogonadism on bone metabolism in female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita

    2012-01-24

    Gonadal steroids, including androgens and oestrogens, play a critical part in bone metabolism, and conditions associated with a deficiency of gonadal steroids can reduce BMD in adults and impair bone accrual in adolescents. In addition, other associated hormone alterations, for example, insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency or high cortisol levels, can further exacerbate the effect of hypogonadism on bone metabolism, as can factors such as calcium and vitamin D deficiency, low body weight and exercise status. This Review discusses the effects of different hypogonadal states on bone metabolism in female adolescents and young adults, with particular emphasis on conditions associated with low energy availability, such as anorexia nervosa and athletic amenorrhoea, in which many factors other than hypogonadism affect bone. In contrast to most hypogonadal conditions, in which replacement of gonadal steroids is sufficient to normalize bone accrual rates and BMD, gonadal steroid replacement may not be sufficient to normalize bone metabolism in these states of energy deficit.

  17. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.L.; London, E.D.; Links, J.M.; Cascella, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states

  18. The Effect of Oral Leucine on Protein Metabolism in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhini Desikan; Izolda Mileva; Jeremy Garlick; Andrew H. Lane; Thomas A. Wilson; Margaret A. McNurlan

    2010-01-01

    Lack of insulin results in a catabolic state in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which is reversed by insulin treatment. Amino acid supply, especially branched chain amino acids such as leucine, enhances protein synthesis in both animal and human studies. This small study was undertaken to assess the acute effect of supplemental leucine on protein metabolism in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. L-[1-13C] Leucine was used to assess whole-body protein metabolism in six adolesc...

  19. Tissue-Specific Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Expression and Metabolic Effects of Telmisartan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal; Kurtz, T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2013), s. 829-835 ISSN 0895-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0505; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11049; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : telmisartan * metabolic effects * tissue-specific Pparg knockout mice Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.402, year: 2013

  20. Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Ioannou, G.; Jay, J. Bennett; Kittleson, S.; Savard, C.; Roth, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5–15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructo...

  1. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chee Huei Phing; Hazizi Abu Saad; M.Y. Barakatun Nisak; M.T. Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prom...

  2. Yerba Mat? (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Yerba Mat? (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measu...

  3. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean

  4. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  6. Snacks With Nutrition Labels: Tastiness Perception, Healthiness Perception, and Willingness to Pay by Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2016-02-01

    Consumers tend to have the perception that healthy equals less tasty. This study aimed to identify whether information provided by the Keyhole symbol, a widely used front-of-package symbol in Nordic countries to indicate nutritional content, and percent daily values (%DVs) affect Norwegian adolescents' perception of the healthiness of snacks and their intention to buy them. Two tasks were used to evaluate adolescents' perception of snacks with the Keyhole symbol: with %DVs or with no nutrition label. A third task was used to test their abilities to use %DVs (pairwise selections). A survey obtained personal attributes. A total of 566 Norwegian adolescents. Taste perception, health perception, and ability to use %DVs. Linear mixed models and logistic models that tested effects of labels and personal attributes on main outcome measures. The Keyhole symbol increased health perception without influencing taste perception of snacks. Norwegian adolescents had limited abilities to use information from the %DVs correctly to identify healthier foods. Norwegian adolescents had a positive perception of the Keyhole symbols. Keyhole symbols as a simple, heuristic front-of-package label have potential as an information strategy that may influence self-efficacy in promoting healthy snack choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  8. The effect of metabolic syndrome components on exercise performance in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Montgomery, Polly S

    2008-06-01

    To determine the effect of metabolic syndrome components on intermittent claudication, physical function, health-related quality of life, and peripheral circulation in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to identify the metabolic syndrome components most predictive of each outcome measure. Patients limited by intermittent claudication with three (n = 48), four (n = 45), or five (n = 40) components of metabolic syndrome were studied. Patients were assessed on PAD-specific measures consisting of ankle-brachial index (ABI), initial claudication distance, absolute claudication distance, physical function measures, health-related quality of life, and calf blood flow and transcutaneous oxygen tension responses after 3 minutes of vascular occlusion. Initial claudication distance (mean +/- SD) progressively declined (P = .019) in those with three (203 +/- 167 m), four (124 +/- 77 m), and five (78 +/- 57 m) metabolic syndrome components, and absolute claudication distance progressively declined (P = .036) in these groups as well (414 +/- 224 m vs 323 +/- 153 m vs 249 +/- 152 m, respectively). Furthermore, compared with patients with only three components of metabolic syndrome, those with all five components had impaired values (P obesity was the predictor (P fasting glucose was the predictor (P intermittent claudication, physical function, health-related quality of life, and peripheral circulation. Abdominal obesity and elevated fasting glucose are the metabolic syndrome components that are most predictive of these outcome measures. Aggressively treating these metabolic syndrome components may be particularly important in managing symptoms and long-term prognosis of PAD patients.

  9. Effect of CAR activation on selected metabolic pathways in normal and hyperlipidemic mouse livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezen, Tadeja; Tamasi, Viola; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Björkhem, Ingemar; Meyer, Urs A; Rozman, Damjana

    2009-08-19

    Detoxification in the liver involves activation of nuclear receptors, such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), which regulate downstream genes of xenobiotic metabolism. Frequently, the metabolism of endobiotics is also modulated, resulting in potentially harmful effects. We therefore used 1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) to study the effect of CAR activation on mouse hepatic transcriptome and lipid metabolome under conditions of diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Using gene expression profiling with a dedicated microarray, we show that xenobiotic metabolism, PPARalpha and adipocytokine signaling, and steroid synthesis are the pathways most affected by TCPOBOP in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. TCPOBOP-induced CAR activation prevented the increased hepatic and serum cholesterol caused by feeding mice a diet containing 1% cholesterol. We show that this is due to increased bile acid metabolism and up-regulated removal of LDL, even though TCPOBOP increased cholesterol synthesis under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis was not accompanied by an increase in mature SREBP2 protein. As determined by studies in CAR -/- mice, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis is however CAR-dependent; and no obvious CAR binding sites were detected in promoters of cholesterogenic genes. TCPOBOP also affected serum glucose and triglyceride levels and other metabolic processes in the liver, irrespective of the diet. Our data show that CAR activation modulates hepatic metabolism by lowering cholesterol and glucose levels, through effects on PPARalpha and adiponectin signaling pathways, and by compromising liver adaptations to hyperlipidemia.

  10. The effect of dietary sugars on triacylglycerol metabolism in subjects at increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background: High sugar diet may increase plasma triacylglycerol (TG) levels and cause dyslipidaemia, resulting in a higher cardiometabolic risk. High sugar intake may also promote the accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver. Objectives: To determine the effect of two isocaloric diets, low and high in extrinsic sugars (6% or 26% total energy respectively corresponding to the lower and upper 2.5th percentile of the intake in men aged 40-65 in the UK) but with the same total carbohydrate co...

  11. Effect of temperature on routine metabolism in Tilapia rendalli boulenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulton, M.S.

    1977-12-01

    Using a continuous flow respirometer it was shown that young Tilapia rendalli had three distinct phases of oxygen consumption over the temperature range of 17 to 40/sup 0/C. In the first phase (17 to 28/sup 0/C) the metabolic energy demand followed the normal logarithmic increase with increasing temperature. Between 28 and 37/sup 0/C the increased oxygen uptake was suppressed and showed a relatively small increase with increasing temperature. This feature was believed to be a significant energy saving function important to the growth of these fish which feed in the warm eulitoral margins of lakes during the day. The final phase shows a return to the original logarithmic increase in oxygen consumption. These results were related to, and compared with, actual changes in biomass at various temperatures and the theoretical and actual biomass changes were found to compare favorably.

  12. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), plant uptake and effects on metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.R.; Lytle, C.M.; Stone, R.L.; Smith, B.N [Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Hansen, L.D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In the USA and Canada, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese (MMT) is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive. Manganese concentrations in roadside soil and plants are increasing and correlated with distance from the roadway, traffic volume, plant type, and microhabitat. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings were treated for either five or thirty-five days with different levels of manganous chloride (0-1000ppm). Metabolic heat rates (q) and respiration rates (R{sub CO{sub 2}}), measured calorimetrically, indicated severe stress at Mn concentrations between 10 and 100ppm and at temperatures above 20C. Predicted growth rates (R{sub SG}) also decreased in these circumstances.

  13. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  14. Direct suppressive effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis on parathyroid hormone secretion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Felsenfeld, Arnold J; Estepa, Jose Carlos; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico

    2003-08-01

    Acute alkalosis may directly affect PTH secretion. The effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis was studied in 20 dogs. PTH values were lower in the metabolic (5.6 +/- 0.8 pg/ml) and respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml). Acute alkalosis is an independent factor that decreases PTH values during normocalcemia and delays the PTH response to hypocalcemia. We recently showed that acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis stimulated PTH secretion. This study was designed to evaluate whether acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Three groups of 10 dogs were studied: control, acute metabolic alkalosis, and acute respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was induced with an infusion of sodium bicarbonate and respiratory alkalosis by hyperventilation. Calcium chloride was infused to prevent alkalosis-induced hypocalcemia during the first 60 minutes. During the next 30 minutes, disodium EDTA was infused to induce hypocalcemia and to evaluate the PTH response to hypocalcemia. Because the infusion of sodium bicarbonate resulted in hypernatremia, the effect of hypernatremia was studied in an additional group that received hypertonic saline. After 60 minutes of a normocalcemic clamp, PTH values were less (p respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml); the respective blood pH values were 7.61 +/- 0.01, 7.59 +/- 0.02, and 7.39 +/- 0.02. The maximal PTH response to hypocalcemia was similar among the three groups. However, the maximal PTH response was observed after a decrease in ionized calcium of 0.20 mM in the control group but not until a decrease of 0.40 mM in the metabolic and respiratory alkalosis groups. In contrast to the metabolic alkalosis group, hypernatremia (157 +/- 2 mEq/liter) in the hypertonic saline group was associated with an increased PTH value (46 +/- 4 pg/ml). Finally, the half-life of intact PTH

  15. Inhibition of HIV by Legalon-SIL is independent of its effect on cellular metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Janela [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Margineantu, Daciana H. [Department of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Sweet, Ian R. [Department of Medicine (Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Polyak, Stephen J., E-mail: polyak@uw.edu [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbN or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases.

  16. Inhibition of HIV by Legalon-SIL is independent of its effect on cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, Janela; Margineantu, Daciana H.; Sweet, Ian R.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbN or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases

  17. The effect of temperature and body weight on the routine metabolic rate and postprandial metabolic response in mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Igor; Booth, Mark A

    2009-09-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA) is the energy expended on the physiological processes associated with meal digestion and is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the meal and the body weight (BW) and temperature of the organism. This study assessed the effects of temperature and body weight on the routine metabolic rate (RMR) and postprandial metabolic response in mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus. RMR and SDA were established at 3 temperatures (14, 20 and 26 degrees C). 5 size classes of mulloway ranging from 60 g to 1.14 kg were used to establish RMR with 3 of the 5 size classes (60, 120 and 240 g) used to establish SDA. The effect of body size on the mass-specific RMR (mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) varied significantly depending on the temperature; there was a greater relative increase in the mass-specific RMR for smaller mulloway with increasing temperature. No statistical differences were found between the mass exponent (b) values at each temperature when tested against H(0): b=0.8. The gross RMR of mulloway (mg O(2) fish(-1) h(-1)) can be described as function of temperature (T; 14-26 degrees C) as: (0.0195T-0.0454)BW(g)(0.8) and the mass-specific RMR (mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) can be described as: (21.042T-74.867)BW(g)(-0.2). Both SDA duration and time to peak SDA were influenced by temperature and body weight; SDA duration occurred within 41-89 h and peak time occurred within 17-38 h of feeding. The effect of body size on peak metabolic rate varied significantly depending on temperature, generally increasing with temperature and decreasing with increasing body size. Peak gross oxygen consumption (MO(2): mg O(2) fish(-1) h(-1)) scaled allometrically with BW. Temperature, but not body size, significantly affected SDA scope, although the difference was numerically small. There was a trend for MO(2) above RMR over the SDA period to increase with temperature; however, this was not statistically significant. The average proportion of energy expended over the SDA period

  18. Can melatonin prevent or improve metabolic side effects during antipsychotic treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio MC

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Cristina Porfirio,1 Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida,2 Maddalena Stornelli,1 Silvia Giovinazzo,1 Diane Purper-Ouakil,3 Gabriele Masi4 1Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Italy; 2Unit of Child Neurology, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital São Paulo, Brazil; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France; 4IRCCS Stella Maris, Scientific Institute of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Abstract: In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects. In this paper, we point out the possible protective effect of add-on melatonin treatment in preventing, mitigating, or even reversing SGAs metabolic effects, improving quality of life and providing safer long-term treatments in pediatric patients. Melatonin is an endogenous indolamine secreted during darkness by the pineal gland; it plays a key role in regulating the circadian rhythm, generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus, and has many other biological functions, including chronobiotic, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects, and diminishing oxidative injury and fat distribution. It has been hypothesized that SGAs cause adverse metabolic effects that may be restored by nightly administration of melatonin because of its influence on autonomic and hormonal outputs. Interestingly, atypical anti-psychotics (AAPs can cause

  19. Evaluation of the Norwegian R&D Tax Credit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ådne Cappelen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We find that the Norwegian R&D tax credit scheme introduced in 2002 mainly works as intended. The scheme is cost-effective and it is used by a large number of firms. It stimulates these firms to invest more in R&D, and, in particular, the effect is positive for small firms with little R&D experience. The returns on the R&D investments supported by the scheme are positive and generally not different from the returns to other R&D investments. We have found examples of what can be interpreted as tax motivated adjustments to the scheme, but to some extent this must be accepted as a cost to subsidy and support schemes intended for use by a large number of economic agents. This is particularly so when attempts are made to keep administrative expenditures and control routines at a low level.

  20. A central role of eNOS in the protective effect of wine against metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Federico; Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Urquiaga, Inés

    2006-01-01

    The positive health effects derived from moderate wine consumption are pleiotropic. They appear as improvements in cardiovascular risk factors such as plasma lipids, haemostatic mechanisms, endothelial function and antioxidant defences. The active principles would be ethanol and mainly polyphenols. Results from our and other laboratories support the unifying hypothesis that the improvements in risk factors after red wine consumption are mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Many genes are involved, but the participation of eNOS would be a constant feature. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The National Cholesterol Education Programmmes Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III) clinical definition of the metabolic syndrome requires the presence of at least three risk factors, from among abdominal obesity, high plasma triacylglycerols, low plasma HDL, high blood pressure and high fasting plasma glucose. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metabolic syndrome are not known. Since metabolic syndrome apparently affects 10-30% of the population in the world, research on its pathogenesis and control is needed. The recent finding that eNOS knockout mice present a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors comparable to those of the metabolic syndrome suggests that defects in eNOS function may cause human metabolic syndrome. These mice are hypertensive, insulin resistant and dyslipidemic. Further support for a pathogenic role of eNOS comes from the finding in humans that eNOS polymorphisms associate with insulin resistance and diabetes, with hypertension, with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and with albuminuria. So, the data sustain the hypothesis that eNOS enhancement should reduce metabolic syndrome incidence and its consequences. Therefore red wine, since it enhances eNOS function, should be considered as a potential tool for the control of metabolic

  1. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Methods and Material: Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  2. Effects of metabolic syndrome on the functional outcomes of corticosteroid injection for De Quervain tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Y H; Noh, J H; Gong, H S; Baek, G H

    2017-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of medical conditions that arise from insulin resistance and abnormal adipose deposition and function. In patients with metabolic syndrome and De Quervain tenosynovitis this might affect the outcome of treatment by local corticosteroid injection. A total of 64 consecutive patients with De Quervain tenosynovitis and metabolic syndrome treated with corticosteroid injection were age- and sex-matched with 64 control patients without metabolic syndrome. The response to treatment, including visual analogue scale score for pain, objective findings consistent with De Quervain tenosynovitis (tenderness at first dorsal compartment, Finkelstein test result), and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 weeks follow-up. Treatment failure was defined as persistence of symptoms or surgical intervention. Prior to treatment, patients with metabolic syndrome had mean initial pain visual analogue scale and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores similar to those in the control group. The proportion of treatment failure in the metabolic syndrome group (43%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (20%) at 6 months follow-up. The pain visual analogue scale scores in the metabolic syndrome group were higher than the scores in the control group at the 12- and 24-week follow-ups. The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores of the metabolic syndrome group were higher (more severe symptoms) than those of the control group at the 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Although considerable improvements in symptom severity and hand function will likely occur in patients with metabolic syndrome, corticosteroid injection for De Quervain tenosynovitis is not as effective in these patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls in terms of functional outcomes and treatment failure. III.

  3. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim : The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Materials and Methods : Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  4. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M.; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2014-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  5. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  6. Deleterious Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Intake: The Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus kefiri Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiría, María Guillermina; Gambaro, Sabrina Eliana; Rey, María Amanda; Carasi, Paula; Serradell, María de Los Ángeles; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2017-05-17

    Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus kefiri ( L. kefiri ) administration in a fructose-rich diet (FRD) mice model. Mice were provided with tap water or fructose-added (20% w / v ) drinking water supplemented or not with L. kefiri . Results showed that probiotic administration prevented weight gain and epidydimal adipose tissue (EAT) expansion, with partial reversion of the adipocyte hypertrophy developed by FRD. Moreover, the probiotic prevented the increase of plasma triglycerides and leptin, together with the liver triglyceride content. Leptin adipocyte secretion was also improved by L. kefiri , being able to respond to an insulin stimulus. Glucose intolerance was partially prevented by L. kefiri treatment (GTT) and local inflammation (TNFα; IL1β; IL6 and INFγ) was completely inhibited in EAT. L. kefiri supplementation generated an impact on gut microbiota composition, changing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes profiles. Overall, our results indicate that the administration of probiotics prevents the deleterious effects of FRD intake and should therefore be promoted to improve metabolic disorders.

  7. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  8. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  9. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  10. Monitoring of harmful algal blooms along the Norwegian coast using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Norwegian monitoring system for harmful algal blooms, consisting of an Observer Network, the State Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily ...

  11. Work Plans 2011 – Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2011-01-01

    The annual work plan for 2011 summaries activities for the Scientific Steering Committee and the 9 panels of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM). VKM carries out independent risk assessments for the Norwegian Food Safety Authority across the Authority’s field of responsibility as well as environmental risk assessments of genetically modified organisms for the Directorate for Nature Management.

  12. Topicality and Complexity in the Acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Merete; Bentzen, Kristine; Rodina, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of object shift in Norwegian child language. We show that object shift is complex derivationally, distributionally, and referentially, and propose a new analysis in terms of IP-internal topicalization. The results of an elicited production study with 27 monolingual Norwegian-speaking children (ages…

  13. Effect of Myoinositol and Antioxidants on Sperm Quality in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montanino Oliva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective longitudinal study investigated the effects of a dietary supplement in patients affected by reduced sperm motility (asthenospermic males with metabolic syndrome. The product tested was Andrositol®, which contains myoinositol (MI as principal compound, in association with other molecules, and the parameters evaluated were semen characteristics as well as hormone and metabolic profiles. The inclusion criteria were subjects aged over 18 years, with asthenospermia and metabolic syndrome. The exclusion criteria were presence of cryptorchidism, varicocele, and prostatitis. For this study, 45 males who had such features were enrolled. Their selection was made according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO criteria (5th Edition for the Evaluation of Human Semen. Hormone and metabolic profiles and semen parameters were assessed at the beginning of the study and after three months of treatment with Andrositol. The differences between the values before and after the supplementation were found statistically significant. Andrositol normalized the metabolic profile of these patients, improving their insulin sensitivity. Moreover, testosterone levels were increased and the semen characteristics, such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, highly improved. In conclusion, the association of MI with other molecules (micronutrients and vitamins could be an effective therapy for metabolic disorders, as well as hormonal and spermatic changes responsible for male infertility.

  14. Effect of long-distance transportation on serum metabolic profiles of steer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Satoshi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-12-01

    Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Transportation affected 38 metabolites in the serum. A pathway analysis suggested that 26, 10, and 10 pathways were affected immediately after transportation, and 3 and 7 days after transportation, respectively. Some pathways were disturbed only immediately after transportation, likely because of feed and water withdrawal during transit. Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and citric acid cycle were affected for 3 days after transportation, whereas propionate metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism were affected throughout the experiment. Four pathways were not affected immediately after transportation, but were altered thereafter. These results suggested that many metabolic pathways had marked perturbations during transportation. Metabolites such as citric acid, propionate, tyrosine and niacin can be candidate supplements for mitigating transportation-induced adverse effects. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Evaluation of regional metabolic abnormality and treatment effect in patients with narcolepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Shin, Youn Kyung; Eo, Jae Sean; Won, Oh So; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluated regional metabolic abnormalities in untreated narcoleptic patients and the changes in regional cerebral metabolism after treatment with modafinil. Eight drug free narcoleptic patients (mean age of 17{+-}1 yr) participated in this study. Two [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans before and after a 2-week titrated modafinil treatment (target dose = 100{approx}400 mg/day). The PET data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping methods to identify the regional cerebral abnormalities compared with those of healthy young controls. In addition, treatment effect was evaluated by comparison between before and after treatment scan. In narcolepsy patients, a significant reduction of regional metabolism was demonstrated in the brain stem, bilateral hypothalamus, posterior thalamus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and adjacent perihinal area on pretreatment scans compared with those of healthy subjects. The decrease glucose metabolism was also found in the occipital cortex and cerebellum. The patients could control daytime sleepiness after treatment. Posttreatment scan showed a significant increase in regional metabolism in the left hippocampus. This study demonstrated the metabolic abnormalities and the effect of modafinil treatment in narcoleptic patients in the sleep associated regions. This results could be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of the narcolepsy and treatment mechanism.

  16. Effects of velocity and weight support on ground reaction forces and metabolic power during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; Kram, Rodger

    2008-08-01

    The biomechanical and metabolic demands of human running are distinctly affected by velocity and body weight. As runners increase velocity, ground reaction forces (GRF) increase, which may increase the risk of an overuse injury, and more metabolic power is required to produce greater rates of muscular force generation. Running with weight support attenuates GRFs, but demands less metabolic power than normal weight running. We used a recently developed device (G-trainer) that uses positive air pressure around the lower body to support body weight during treadmill running. Our scientific goal was to quantify the separate and combined effects of running velocity and weight support on GRFs and metabolic power. After obtaining this basic data set, we identified velocity and weight support combinations that resulted in different peak GRFs, yet demanded the same metabolic power. Ideal combinations of velocity and weight could potentially reduce biomechanical risks by attenuating peak GRFs while maintaining aerobic and neuromuscular benefits. Indeed, we found many combinations that decreased peak vertical GRFs yet demanded the same metabolic power as running slower at normal weight. This approach of manipulating velocity and weight during running may prove effective as a training and/or rehabilitation strategy.

  17. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  18. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues

  19. Who are they? Identities in the Norwegian radiographer profession as presented in the Norwegian printed press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalsberg, R.; Thingnes, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore how Norwegian radiographers are portrayed in written press. Method: Textual discourse analysis, following a multiple step strategy, combining both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. 189 newspaper articles were included. The articles were registered and subject fields were inductively categorized. Each subject field was analysed regarding the field's role as an agent of influence on public perception of radiographers. Results: On average, less than one article a year concerning radiography profession is published in Norwegian newspapers. A majority are published in newspapers with small circulation figures, often reporting on resources in the local health services where radiographers are involved. Mostly radiographers are placed in the articles' background playing supporting roles, frequently mentioned in the cutline as an operator of a new medical technology. There is a heavy emphasis on the technology, leaving the specialized expertise and radiography knowledge out. This focus persist in the instances where radiographers play a main role in the texts. When patient stories are told, positive value-laden words are used to describe the radiographer and both the technical and the patient-care aspects of being a radiographer are noticeable. Conclusion: Norwegian radiographers typically appear, in glimpses, as anonymous allied health technicians in local reports on new diagnostic equipment or resource utilization. The professional qualities and decisive skills required to handle sophisticated diagnostic equipment and continuity of patient care are underestimated. A more-nuanced media coverage might give radiographers a strengthened identity as important health-care service contributors. - Highlights: • The radiography profession is an inconspicuous topic in Norwegian written press. • Written press involving radiographers highlight new equipment and medical technology. • Radiographers' professional qualities and decisive

  20. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei Phing, Chee; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Barakatun Nisak, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2017-12-01

    Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula. Step counts were evaluated by Lifecorder e-STEP accelerometers for all participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 'harmonizing' definition, in which individuals who have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) will be classified as having metabolic syndrome. A total of 80% of the enrolled government employees with metabolic syndrome completed the programme. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL). There were significantly higher step counts on average in the aerobics group compared to the control group over assessments. Assessments at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up showed a significant difference in step counts between the intervention and control groups. The greatest reductions in the proportions of individuals with metabolic syndrome were observed in the aerobics group with a reduction of 79.4% in the post-intervention assessment compared to the assessment at baseline. The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Reduced-Nicotine Cigarettes in Young Smokers: Impact of Nicotine Metabolism on Nicotine Dose Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paul; Ghahremani, Dara G; Tyndale, Rachel F; Cox, Chelsea M; Kazanjian, Ari S; Paterson, Neil; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Petersen, Nicole; Vigil, Celia; London, Edythe D

    2017-07-01

    The use of cigarettes delivering different nicotine doses allows evaluation of the contribution of nicotine to the smoking experience. We compared responses of 46 young adult smokers to research cigarettes, delivering 0.027, 0.110, 0.231, or 0.763 mg nicotine, and conventional cigarettes. On five separate days, craving, withdrawal, affect, and sustained attention were measured after overnight abstinence and again after smoking. Participants also rated each cigarette, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was used to identify participants as normal or slow metabolizers. All cigarettes equally alleviated craving, withdrawal, and negative affect in the whole sample, but normal metabolizers reported greater reductions of craving and withdrawal than slow metabolizers, with dose-dependent effects. Only conventional cigarettes and, to a lesser degree, 0.763-mg nicotine research cigarettes increased sustained attention. Finally, there were no differences between ratings of lower-dose cigarettes, but the 0.763-mg cigarettes and (even more so) conventional cigarettes were rated more favorably than lower-dose cigarettes. The findings indicate that smoking-induced relief of craving and withdrawal reflects primarily non-nicotine effects in slow metabolizers, but depends on nicotine dose in normal metabolizers. By contrast, relief of withdrawal-related attentional deficits and cigarette ratings depend on nicotine dose regardless of metabolizer status. These findings have bearing on the use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes to facilitate smoking cessation and on policy regarding regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. They suggest that normal and slow nicotine metabolizers would respond differently to nicotine reduction in cigarettes, but that irrespective of metabolizer status, reductions to <0.763 mg/cigarette may contribute to temporary attentional deficits.

  2. Effect of Toxicants on Fatty Acid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grünig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of hepatic fatty acid metabolism can lead to liver steatosis and injury. Testing drugs for interference with hepatic fatty acid metabolism is therefore important. To find out whether HepG2 cells are suitable for this purpose, we investigated the effect of three established fatty acid metabolism inhibitors and of three test compounds on triglyceride accumulation, palmitate metabolism, the acylcarnitine pool and dicarboxylic acid accumulation in the cell supernatant and on ApoB-100 excretion in HepG2 cells. The three established inhibitors [etomoxir, methylenecyclopropylacetic acid (MCPA, and 4-bromocrotonic acid (4-BCA] depleted mitochondrial ATP at lower concentrations than cytotoxicity occurred, suggesting mitochondrial toxicity. They inhibited palmitate metabolism at similar or lower concentrations than ATP depletion, and 4-BCA was associated with cellular fat accumulation. They caused specific changes in the acylcarnitine pattern and etomoxir an increase of thapsic (C18 dicarboxylic acid in the cell supernatant, and did not interfere with ApoB-100 excretion (marker of VLDL export. The three test compounds (amiodarone, tamoxifen, and the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 depleted the cellular ATP content at lower concentrations than cytotoxicity occurred. They all caused cellular fat accumulation and inhibited palmitate metabolism at similar or higher concentrations than ATP depletion. They suppressed medium-chain acylcarnitines in the cell supernatant and amiodarone and tamoxifen impaired thapsic acid production. Tamoxifen and WIN 55,212-2 decreased cellular ApoB-100 excretion. In conclusion, the established inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism caused the expected effects in HepG2 cells. HepG cells proved to be useful for the detection of drug-associated toxicities on hepatocellular fatty acid metabolism.

  3. Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Vaska, Paul; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Alexoff, Dave; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Context The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. Objective To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes (“on” condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated (“off” condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm3) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Main Outcome Measure Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism (µmol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Results Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 µmol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.67–4.2]; P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001

  4. Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucos Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Vaska, P.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Alexoff, D.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with ( 18 F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes ('on' condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated ('off' condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm 3 ) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism ((micro)mol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 (micro)mol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-4.2); P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001). In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone

  5. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  6. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Source: doi: 10.1017/S1368980015000245 To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.Adult women (n 69 471).Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and ...

  7. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross (domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  8. NOM removal technologies – Norwegian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ødegaard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the methods for removal of natural organic matter (NOM in water, particularly humic substances (HS, with focus on the Norwegian experiences. It is demonstrated that humic substances may be removed by a variety of methods, such as; molecular sieving through nanofiltration membranes, coagulation with subsequent floc separation (including granular media or membrane filtration, oxidation followed by biofiltration and sorption processes including chemisorption (ion exchange and physical adsorption (activated carbon. All these processes are in use in Norway and the paper gives an overview of the operational experiences.

  9. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  10. Komparativ analyse - Scandinavian Airlines & Norwegian Air Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Kallesen, Martin Nystrup; Singh, Ravi Pal; Boesen, Nana Wiaberg

    2017-01-01

    The project is based around a pondering of how that a company the size of Scandinavian Airlines or Norwegian Air Shuttle use their Finances and how they see their external environment. This has led to us researching the relationship between the companies and their finances as well as their external environment, and how they differ in both.To do this we have utilised a myriad of different methods to analyse the companies, including PESTEL, SWOT, TOWS; DCF, risk analysis, Sensitivity, Porter’s ...

  11. [Effect of acute biliary pancreatitis on liver metabolism of phenazone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartleb, M; Nowak, A; Nowakowska-Duława, E; Mańczyk, I; Becker, A; Kacperek, T

    1990-03-01

    In 22 patients with acute pancreatitis caused by biliary calculi and 9 healthy controls the rate of hepatic elimination of phenazone was measured. The aim of the study was evaluation of the oxidative-detoxicating action of the liver in this disease in relation to its severity. In pancreatitis patients the half-time (T2) of phenazone was significantly (p less than 0.01 longer than in healthy subjects (23.6 +/- 10.5 vs 13.2 +/- 7.2 hrs). The T2 of phenazone was not correlated with the concentrations of transaminases, bilirubin and prothrombin, but was correlated positively with the concentration of hepatic lactic dehydrogenase (p less than 0.001). In the initial stage of pancreatitis the T2 of phenazone was without prognostic significance and showed no agreement with Ranson's clinical-laboratory classification of the severity of the disease. The degree of impairment of the hepatic metabolism of phenazone measured with the percent difference between T2 of phenazone in both tests was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater in the group of patients with complications than in those without pancreatitis complications (70.7 +/- 64.4% vs 21.4 +/- 16.2%). Biliary pancreatitis impairs the oxidative-reductive function of the liver proportionally to the degree of hepatic lactic dehydrogenase in the serum. Evaluation of the rate of hepatic elimination of phenazone in the initial stage of this pancreatitis was without prognostic importance for the severity of the disease.

  12. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p350   This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  13. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  14. Effects of superfoods on risk factors of metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of human intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driessche, José J; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2018-04-25

    Functional foods can be effective in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and subsequently the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. More recently, however, another term was introduced to describe foods with additional health benefits: "superfoods", for which, to date, no generally accepted definition exists. Nonetheless, their consumption might contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, for example due to the presence of potentially bioactive compounds. This review provides an overview of controlled human intervention studies with foods described as "superfoods" and their effects on metabolic syndrome parameters. First, an Internet search was performed to identify foods described as superfoods. For these superfoods, controlled human intervention trials were identified until April 2017 investigating the effects of superfood consumption on metabolic syndrome parameters: waist circumference or BMI, blood pressure, or concentrations of HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol or glucose. Seventeen superfoods were identified, including a total of 113 intervention trials: blueberries (8 studies), cranberries (8), goji berries (3), strawberries (7), chili peppers (3), garlic (21), ginger (10), chia seed (5), flaxseed (22), quinoa (1), cocoa (16), maca (1), spirulina (7), wheatgrass (1), acai berries (0), hemp seed (0) and bee pollen (0). Overall, only limited evidence was found for the effects of the foods described as superfoods on metabolic syndrome parameters, since results were not consistent or the number of controlled intervention trials was limited. The inconsistencies might have been related to intervention-related factors, such as duration or dose. Furthermore, conclusions may be different if other health benefits are considered.

  15. Cancer metabolism and the Warburg effect: the role of HIF-1 and PI3K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtnay, Rupert; Ngo, Darleen C; Malik, Neha; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Cancer cells have been shown to have altered metabolism when compared to normal non-malignant cells. The Warburg effect describes a phenomenon in which cancer cells preferentially metabolize glucose by glycolysis, producing lactate as an end product, despite being the presence of oxygen. The phenomenon was first described by Otto Warburg in the 1920s, and has resurfaced as a controversial theory, with both supportive and opposing arguments. The biochemical aspects of the Warburg effect outline a strong explanation for the cause of cancer cell proliferation, by providing the biological requirements for a cell to grow. Studies have shown that pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) as well as hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) are central regulators of glycolysis, cancer metabolism and cancer cell proliferation. Studies have shown that PI3K signaling pathways have a role in many cellular processes such as metabolism, inflammation, cell survival, motility and cancer progression. Herein, the cellular aspects of the PI3K pathway are described, as well as the influence HIF has on cancer cell metabolism. HIF-1 activation has been related to angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and modulation of key enzymes involved in aerobic glycolysis, thereby modulating key processes required for the Warburg effect. In this review we discuss the molecular aspects of the Warburg effect with a particular emphasis on the role of the HIF-1 and the PI3K pathway.

  16. The metabolic effects of olanzapine and topiramate in rats and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.S.; van Dijk, G.; van Vliet, A.; Scheurink, A.J.W.

    In humans the anti-psychotic Olanzapine (OLZ) has negative side effects on metabolism: it causes weight gain and increases the risk of developing type 2 Diabetes. The anti-convulsant Topiramate (TPM) has the opposite effects: it reduces body weight and improves insulin sensitivity. Because of this,

  17. Effect of folic acid on methionine and homocysteine metabolism in end-stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.; van Guldener, C.; ter Wee, P.M.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; van der Meer, K.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. Folic acid lowers, but does not normalize, the plasma homocysteine level in patients with ESRD, but its effect on whole body metabolism of homocysteine is unknown. Methods We studied the effect of 3

  18. A study on the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia mice. Materials andMethods: Through the establishment of an experimental mouse model of hyperlipidemia, the effect of resveratrol on change in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol ...

  19. [Dry immersion effects on the mechanisms of metabolic-reflex regulation of hemodynamics during muscular work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyĭ, Ia R; Bersenev, E Iu; Missina, S S; Borovik, A S; Sharova, A P; Vinogradova, O L

    2008-01-01

    Effects of 4-d dry immersion on metabolic-reflex regulation of hemodynamics were evaluated during local static work (30% of maximum voluntary effort) of the talocrural extensors. One group of immersed test-subjects received low-frequency electrostimulation of leg muscles to offset the immersion effect on EMG of working muscles. Metabolic-reflex regulation was evaluated through comparison of cardiovascular responses to physical tests with and w/o post-exercise vascular occlusion. Immersion vaguely increased heart rate and reduced systolic arterial pressure in resting subjects; however, it did not have a distinct effect on arterial pressure and HR during muscular work or metabolic-reflex potentiation of hemodynamic shifts.

  20. Comprehensive insights into microcystin-LR effects on hepatic lipid metabolism using cross-omics technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zongyao; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Yin, Jinbao; Yu, Yunjiang; Yang, Liuyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of cross-omics technologies to evaluate toxic effects of microcystin-LR. • Disturbance of hepatic lipid metabolism by oral exposure to microcystin-LR. • Crucial roles of gut microbial community shift in the metabolic disturbance induced by microcystin-LR. - Abstract: Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can induce hepatic tissue damages and molecular toxicities, but its effects on lipid metabolism remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of MC-LR exposure on mice lipid metabolism and uncovered the underlying mechanism through metabonomic, transcriptomic and metagenomic analyses after administration of mice with MC-LR by gavage for 28 d. Increased liver weight and abdominal fat weight, and evident hepatic lipid vacuoles accumulation were observed in the mice fed with 0.2 mg/kg/d MC-LR. Serum nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that MC-LR treatment altered the levels of serum metabolites including triglyceride, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and very low density lipoprotein. Digital Gene Expression technology was used to reveal differential expression of hepatic transcriptomes, demonstrating that MC-LR treatment disturbed hepatic UFA biosynthesis and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways via Pparγ, Fabp1 and Fabp2 over-expression. Metagenomic analyses of gut microbiota revealed that MC-LR exposure also increased abundant ratio of Firmicutes vs. Bacteroidetes in gut and altered biosynthetic pathways of various microbial metabolic and pro-inflammatory molecules. In conclusion, oral MC-LR exposure can induce hepatic lipid metabolism disorder mediated by UFA biosynthesis and PPAR activation, and gut microbial community shift may play an important role in the metabolic disturbance.

  1. Comprehensive insights into microcystin-LR effects on hepatic lipid metabolism using cross-omics technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zongyao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Center for Environmental Health Research, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, The Ministry of Environmental Protection of PRC, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Zhang, Xu-Xiang, E-mail: zhangxx@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wu, Bing; Yin, Jinbao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yu, Yunjiang [Center for Environmental Health Research, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, The Ministry of Environmental Protection of PRC, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Yang, Liuyan, E-mail: yangly@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • Use of cross-omics technologies to evaluate toxic effects of microcystin-LR. • Disturbance of hepatic lipid metabolism by oral exposure to microcystin-LR. • Crucial roles of gut microbial community shift in the metabolic disturbance induced by microcystin-LR. - Abstract: Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can induce hepatic tissue damages and molecular toxicities, but its effects on lipid metabolism remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of MC-LR exposure on mice lipid metabolism and uncovered the underlying mechanism through metabonomic, transcriptomic and metagenomic analyses after administration of mice with MC-LR by gavage for 28 d. Increased liver weight and abdominal fat weight, and evident hepatic lipid vacuoles accumulation were observed in the mice fed with 0.2 mg/kg/d MC-LR. Serum nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that MC-LR treatment altered the levels of serum metabolites including triglyceride, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and very low density lipoprotein. Digital Gene Expression technology was used to reveal differential expression of hepatic transcriptomes, demonstrating that MC-LR treatment disturbed hepatic UFA biosynthesis and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways via Pparγ, Fabp1 and Fabp2 over-expression. Metagenomic analyses of gut microbiota revealed that MC-LR exposure also increased abundant ratio of Firmicutes vs. Bacteroidetes in gut and altered biosynthetic pathways of various microbial metabolic and pro-inflammatory molecules. In conclusion, oral MC-LR exposure can induce hepatic lipid metabolism disorder mediated by UFA biosynthesis and PPAR activation, and gut microbial community shift may play an important role in the metabolic disturbance.

  2. Effects of Metformin on the Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, has numerous effects on human metabolism. Based on emerging cellular, animal, and epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that metformin leads to cerebral metabolic changes in diabetic patients. To explore metabolism-influenced foci of brain, we used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography for type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin (MET, n=18, withdrawing from metformin (wdMET, n=13, and not taking metformin (noMET, n=9. Compared with the noMET group, statistical parametric mapping showed that the MET group had clusters with significantly higher metabolism in right temporal, right frontal, and left occipital lobe white matter and lower metabolism in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In volume of interest (VOI- based group comparisons, the normalized FDG uptake values of both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic clusters were significantly different between groups. The VOI-based correlation analysis across the MET and wdMET groups showed a significant negative correlation between normalized FDG uptake values of hypermetabolic clusters and metformin withdrawal durations and a positive but nonsignificant correlation in the turn of hypometabolic clusters. Conclusively, metformin affects cerebral metabolism in some white matter and semantic memory related sites in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, LaQuia A; Goodlett, Amy K; Huang, Ruijie; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-09-15

    Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity. Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.

  4. Unsupportive parenting moderates the effects of family psychosocial intervention on metabolic syndrome in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E; Miller, G E; Yu, T; Brody, G H

    2018-04-01

    Family relationships have been linked to obesity and related disorders in youth, but few studies have provided causal evidence of this association. This study tested the impact of a family psychosocial intervention on components of metabolic syndrome-a condition driven largely by abdominal obesity-in African American youth. In particular, the study tested whether effects were strongest among those who started at highest risk, that is, with high levels of unsupportive parenting at baseline. Randomized clinical trial of a community sample of 391 African American youth (mean age=11.2 years) conducted in 2001-2002, with follow-up metabolic syndrome assessment in 2014-2015. Participants were assigned either to receive a weekly family intervention or to a control group. The primary study outcome was the number of components of metabolic syndrome that were clinically elevated at age 25, including central adiposity, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and low high-density lipoproteins. Unsupportive parenting was measured by questionnaires at baseline. Significant interaction effects were found between group assignment and baseline unsupportive parenting on counts of metabolic syndrome components in youth (beta=-0.17, P=0.03). Among those who started with higher levels of unsupportive parenting at age 11, participation in the family intervention reduced the number of clinically elevated components of the metabolic syndrome at age 25 relative to the control group. No such effect was seen among those who started with good parenting. Mediation analyses suggested that changes in the psychosocial targets of the parenting intervention partially accounted for the effects amongst those high in unsupportive parenting at baseline (effect size=-0.350, s.e.=0.178). These findings suggest that efforts to improve family relationships may be able to ameliorate the detrimental effects that harsh and unsupportive parenting have on obesity-related outcomes such as metabolic syndrome in

  5. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being.

  6. Promoting coordination in Norwegian health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor I. Romøren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors - primary health and long term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures.Policy practice: Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term "Coordination Reform". These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented.Discussion: The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden.

  7. The acquisition of compositional definiteness in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Anderssen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim to explain why the prenominal definiteness marker found in modified structures only is acquired much later than the suffixal definite article in Norwegian. The coexistence of the two definiteness markers is the result of the so-called double definiteness phenomenon in Norwegian which occurs in definite structures involving an attributive adjective. As the prenominal determiner only occurs in modified contexts, one obvious explanation that presents itself is that the omission of the prenominal determiner is related to the fact that it is much less frequent in the input than the suffixal article. However, if we consider the form of this determiner, it is clear that the form itself must be very frequent in the input, as it is homophonous with the demonstrative and with inanimate third person pronouns, which are all frequent in use. Consequently, a lexical insertion approach to the double definiteness phenomenon is proposed according to which the discrepancy in the order of acquisition is argued to be due to a combination of prosodic saliency and the lexicalisation of semantic features, the latter of which will be dealt with here.

  8. The Norwegian nuclear emergency preparedness system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naadland, E.; Stranden, E.

    1995-01-01

    A new national organisation for nuclear emergency preparedness was established in Norway in 1993, based on experiences from the Chernobyl accident. This organisation is based on authorities and research institutions which in a normal situation have responsibilities and knowledge in fields that are also of major importance in a nuclear accident situation. The national emergency preparedness organisation consists of the Ministerial Co-ordination Committee, the Advisory Committee for Nuclear Accidents and their secretariat at the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, and an Information Group. The organisations participating in the Advisory Committee operate measuring networks, stations and laboratories. In an early phase of an accident, a minor group from the Advisory Committee forms a Crisis Committee for Nuclear Accidents. This committee has been delegated the authority to make decisions in this phase. The organisation represented by its secretariat at the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is responsible for coordinating the emergency planning, the measuring capacities and the professional needs ordinarily. The secretariat is on call 24 hours a day as point of contact according to bilateral and international agreements on early notification. In this paper the features of the emergency preparedness organisation are presented. (Author)

  9. Effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on plasma oxysterols and fatty acids in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Zerbinati, Chiara; Pacelli, Antonio; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Lubrano, Carla; Ducheix, Simon; Guillou, Hervé; Iuliano, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and the related entity metabolic syndrome are characterized by altered lipid metabolism and associated with increased morbidity risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Oxysterols belong to a large family of cholesterol-derived molecules known to play crucial role in many signaling pathways underlying several diseases. Little is known on the potential effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on oxysterols in human. In this work, we questioned whether circulating oxysterols might be significantly altered in obese patients and in patients with metabolic syndrome. We also tested the potential correlation between circulating oxysterols and fatty acids. 60 obese patients and 75 patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in the study along with 210 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects, used as control group. Plasma oxysterols were analyzed by isotope dilution GC/MS, and plasma fatty acids profiling was assessed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection. We found considerable differences in oxysterols profiling in the two disease groups that were gender-related. Compared to controls, males showed significant differences only in 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol levels in obese and metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, females showed consistent differences in 7-oxocholesterol, 4α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and triol. Concerning fatty acids, we found minor differences in the levels of these variables in males of the three groups. Significant changes were observed in plasma fatty acid profile of female patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome. We found significant correlations between various oxysterols and fatty acids. In particular, 4β-hydroxycholesterol, which is reduced in obesity and metabolic syndrome, correlated with a number of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are end-products of de novo lipogenesis. Our data provide the first evidence that obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with

  10. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism...... (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth...

  11. Effect of metabolic inhibitors on 3H-lysine incorporation in the stilbestrol stimulated chick oviduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.K.; Joshi, B.C.

    1976-01-01

    Effect of metabolic inhibitors, namely, actinomycin-D and mitomycin-C on 3 H-lysine incorporation in the stilbestrol stimulated chick oviduct has been studied. It was inferred from the study that the action of the metabolic inhibitors used may be dependent on the level of the hormone present or in other words, on the rate at which the protein synthesis is going on in the system. Mitomycin-C has the same effect in this system as actinomycin-D but at a dose level almost 4 times that of the latter. The results are discussed in the light of the findings of other workers. (author)

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on photosynthetic metabolism of Chlorella pyrenoidosa studied by 14CO2 assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Moreno, C.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five dose of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on photosynthetic activity and metabolism of the primary products of photosynthesis has been studied, on Chlorella pyrenoidoBa cultures, by 14 C O 2 assimilation. The photosynthetic assimilation rate is remarkably depressed after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy dose, which also produce a significant change in radioactivity distribution pattern of primary compounds from photosynthesis. No significant effects have been observed on photosynthetic metabolism after irradiation at 10 and 100 Gy. (Author) 19 refs

  13. Older Norwegians' understanding of loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Hauge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This interpretive study explored older people's understanding of loneliness and what they considered appropriate and effective ways of dealing with it. Thirty elderly people were interviewed in-depth; 12 described themselves as “lonely” and 18 as “not lonely.” We found a striking difference in the way “lonely” and “not lonely” people talked about loneliness. The “not lonely” participants described loneliness as painful, caused by the person's negative way of behaving and a state they should pull themselves out of. The “lonely” participants also described loneliness as painful, and gave more detailed descriptions of loneliness as disconnection from others, from their former home and from today's society. The “lonely” participants were more reserved and subdued in trying to explain loneliness, attributing it partly to themselves, but mostly to the lack of social contact with important others. Some felt able to handle their loneliness, while others felt unable to cope. This study underlines the importance of subjective experiences in trying to understand a phenomenon like loneliness and of developing support for lonely older people unable to cope on their own.

  14. Effects of 6-month aerobic interval training on skeletal muscle metabolism in middle-aged metabolic syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe-Grau, A; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic interval training (AIT) improves the health of metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) more than moderate intensity continuous training. However, AIT has not been shown to reverse all metabolic syndrome risk factors, possibly due to the limited duration of the training programs. Thus, we...

  15. Metabolic effects of dark chocolate consumption on energy, gut microbiota, and stress-related metabolism in free-living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Rezzi, Serge; Peré-Trepat, Emma; Kamlage, Beate; Collino, Sebastiano; Leibold, Edgar; Kastler, Jürgen; Rein, Dietrich; Fay, Laurent B; Kochhar, Sunil

    2009-12-01

    Dietary preferences influence basal human metabolism and gut microbiome activity that in turn may have long-term health consequences. The present study reports the metabolic responses of free living subjects to a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate for up to 14 days. A clinical trial was performed on a population of 30 human subjects, who were classified in low and high anxiety traits using validated psychological questionnaires. Biological fluids (urine and blood plasma) were collected during 3 test days at the beginning, midtime and at the end of a 2 week study. NMR and MS-based metabonomics were employed to study global changes in metabolism due to the chocolate consumption. Human subjects with higher anxiety trait showed a distinct metabolic profile indicative of a different energy homeostasis (lactate, citrate, succinate, trans-aconitate, urea, proline), hormonal metabolism (adrenaline, DOPA, 3-methoxy-tyrosine) and gut microbial activity (methylamines, p-cresol sulfate, hippurate). Dark chocolate reduced the urinary excretion of the stress hormone cortisol and catecholamines and partially normalized stress-related differences in energy metabolism (glycine, citrate, trans-aconitate, proline, beta-alanine) and gut microbial activities (hippurate and p-cresol sulfate). The study provides strong evidence that a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate during a period of 2 weeks is sufficient to modify the metabolism of free living and healthy human subjects, as per variation of both host and gut microbial metabolism.

  16. Antimetabolic Effects of Polyphenols in Breast Cancer Cells: Focus on Glucose Uptake and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Elisa; Martel, Fátima

    2018-01-01

    In the last years, metabolic reprogramming became a new key hallmark of tumor cells. One of its components is a deviant energetic metabolism, known as Warburg effect-an aerobic lactatogenesis- characterized by elevated rates of glucose uptake and consumption with high-lactate production even in the presence of oxygen. Because many cancer cells display a greater sensitivity to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity than normal cells, inhibitors of glucose cellular uptake (facilitative glucose transporter 1 inhibitors) and oxidative metabolism (glycolysis inhibitors) are potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Polyphenols, abundantly contained in fruits and vegetables, are dietary components with an established protective role against cancer. Several molecular mechanisms are involved in the anticancer effect of polyphenols, including effects on apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways, and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, inhibition of glucose cellular uptake and metabolism in cancer cell lines has been described for several polyphenols, and this effect was shown to be associated with their anticarcinogenic effect. This work will review data showing an antimetabolic effect of polyphenols and its involvement in the chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic potential of these dietary compounds, in relation to breast cancer.

  17. The Effect of Piceatannol from Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Seeds on Metabolic Health in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munehiro Kitada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 39 subjects, including 10 overweight men and 9 overweight women (BMI ≥ 25, as well as 10 non-overweight men and 10 non-overweight women (BMI < 25. Subjects received piceatannol (20 mg/day or placebo capsules for eight weeks in a random order. The primary outcome was the effect of piceatannol on glucose-metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. The secondary outcomes were the effects on other parameters, including blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1 and phospho-AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK expression in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs. Supplementation with piceatannol in overweight men reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, BP and HR. Other groups, including non-overweight men, as well as overweight and non-overweight women, showed no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, BP and HR. Furthermore, piceatannol is not associated with other data, including body weight (BW, body composition, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1/p-AMPK expression in PBMNCs. In conclusion, supplementation with piceatannol can improve metabolic health, including insulin sensitivity, BP and HR, in overweight men.

  18. Metabolic effect of combined telmisartan and nifedipine CR therapy in patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Y

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Shimizu,1,4 Fumiyasu Yamasaki,4 Takashi Furuno,1,4 Toru Kubo,1 Takayuki Sato,3,4 Yoshinori Doi,1 Tetsuro Sugiura21Medicine and Geriatrics, 2Clinical Laboratory, 3Cardiovascular Control, Kochi Medical, School, Nankoku, Japan; 4Section of Cardiology, Inoue Hospital, Takaoka, JapanBackground: In addition to exerting a blood pressure (BP-lowering effect, telmisartan produces favorable metabolic effects via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation. While a combination of telmisartan and a calcium channel blocker is often used to achieve a target BP level, the metabolic effects of this drug combination remain unclear. Therefore, this study evaluated the metabolic effects of telmisartan plus nifedipine controlled release (CR therapy, in hypertensive patients without metabolic disease.Methods: Sixteen patients with essential hypertension, who had not undergone antihypertensive therapy in the previous 6 months, were studied. Patients were initiated on telmisartan (40 mg/day. If their office BP was not reduced to 140/90 mmHg after 6 weeks, nifedipine CR (20–40 mg per day was added for 18 weeks. The other patients whose BP had achieved the target of 140/90 mmHg, continued only telmisartan.Results: Telmisartan reduced BP (174 ± 13/92 ± 10 to 143 ± 22/78 ± 11 mmHg; P < 0.01 at 6 weeks in 16 patients, but eight patients did not achieve target BP levels and required addition of nifedipine. Telmisartan also resulted in a reduction in the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (1.30 ± 0.65 to 1.10 ± 0.42; P < 0.05 at 6 weeks, but did not affect adiponectin or leptin levels. Addition of nifedipine (n = 8 resulted in a reduction in BP (158 ± 18/80 ± 13 to 131 ± 8/73 ± 13 mmHg; P < 0.01 at 18 weeks, but did not affect the HOMA-IR (1.10 ± 0.40 to 1.02 ± 0.56; ns. In patients who did not require addition of nifedipine (n = 8, BP levels remained nearly identical at 18 weeks (127 ± 13/73 ± 9 to 128 ± 13/68 ± 8

  19. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release. As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course...... with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762....

  20. Effect of moderate static electric field on the growth and metabolism of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezammahalleh, Hassan; Ghanati, Faezeh; Adams, Thomas A; Nosrati, Mohsen; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2016-10-01

    An electric field (EF) generator device was fabricated and applied to the treatment of Chlorella vulgaris ISC33 at three distinct concentrations before cultivation. The EF of moderate intensity (2.7kVcm(-1)) has a hormetic effect on algal growth. The highest growth stimulation of 51% was observed after 50min treatment of 0.4gL(-1) algal suspension. The influence of EF on the system was then studied from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. The growth rate increased with treatment time up to a maximum because of improved membrane permeability, and then declined afterwards due to peroxide accumulation in the medium. The contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins were also measured to understand possible changes on algal metabolism. The EF treatment of algal suspension has no observable effect on the cell metabolism while both algal growth and metabolism was significantly affected by the inoculum size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The direct effect of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; P. Mortensen, Stefan; H. Knudsen, Sine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the insulin-independent effects of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics under eu- and hyperglycemic conditions. Young, healthy males (n=10) underwent three trials in a randomized, controlled, cross-over study. Each trial c...... hyperglycemia, GIP increases femoral artery blood flow with no effect on glucose metabolism, whereas GLP-1 increases glucose disposal, potentially, however, due to increased insulin levels....... consisted of a 2-stage (eu- and hyperglycemia) pancreatic clamp (using somatostatin to prevent endogenous insulin secretion). Glucose and lipid metabolism were measured via infusion of stable glucose and glycerol isotopic tracers. Hemodynamic variables (femoral, brachial and common carotid artery blood flow...... or glycerol kinetics were seen during euglycemia, whereas hyperglycemia resulted in increased GIR and glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) during GLP-1 compared to CON and GIP (Plevels, no differences between trials were seen for GIR or glucose Rd. Besides...

  2. Maternal resveratrol consumption and its programming effects on metabolic health in offspring mechanisms and potential implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Feng, Qianyun; Cheng, Jing; Zheng, Jia

    2018-04-27

    A growing body of evidence has clearly demonstrated that maternal nutrition can strongly determine the susceptibility to the development of metabolic diseases in offspring. With the increasing prevalence of maternal overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus, it yields enormous burden for individual and public health. Interventions during pregnancy have been proven to be challenging, with limited efficacy and low compliance. Resveratrol, as a natural polyphenolic compound, has a wide-range of beneficial properties, including potent antiobesogenic, antiatherosclerotic, and antidiabetic effects. However, the role of maternal resveratrol intake on metabolic health in offspring has not been extensively investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the effects of maternal resveratrol supplementation on metabolic health in offspring and its potential mechanisms. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors...... addition of phytanic acid. Third, we investigated butter and phytanic acid effects on human T-cell polarization, both by in vitro incubation with phytanic acid, and by a 12 weeks intervention with intake of butter. Finally, we performed two human interventions, first one with intake of butter and cheese...... fatty acids are raised in dairy fat along with the amount of green plant material intake of the cattle. Phytanic acid is one of these minor fatty acids, due to agonist activities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. To determine the effects of both...

  4. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Bachiller

    Full Text Available The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS herring (Clupea harengus, blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou and Northeast Atlantic (NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of

  5. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  6. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Shokri Kojori, Ehsan; Fowler, Joanna S; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75 g/kg alcohol vs placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video stimulation (VS) versus when given with no stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HDs) and 23 healthy controls, each of whom underwent four PET-(18)FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p = 0.04); that alcohol (compared with placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20 ± 13%) than controls (9 ± 11%, p = 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10 ± 12%) compared with NS in both groups (15 ± 13%, p = 0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e., acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in HDs, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353248-08$15.00/0.

  7. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-01-01

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET- 18 FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal

  8. Immune System: An Emerging Player in Mediating Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Metabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Amita; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Simmons, Rebecca A

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity continues to increase. In addition to the well-known contributors to these disorders, such as food intake and sedentary lifestyle, recent research in the exposure science discipline provides evidence that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals like bisphenol A and phthalates via multiple routes (e.g., food, drink, skin contact) also contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disorders. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt any aspect of hormone action. It is becoming increasingly clear that EDCs not only affect endocrine function but also adversely affect immune system function. In this review, we focus on human, animal, and in vitro studies that demonstrate EDC exposure induces dysfunction of the immune system, which, in turn, has detrimental effects on metabolic health. These findings highlight how the immune system is emerging as a novel player by which EDCs may mediate their effects on metabolic health. We also discuss studies highlighting mechanisms by which EDCs affect the immune system. Finally, we consider that a better understanding of the immunomodulatory roles of EDCs will provide clues to enhance metabolic function and contribute toward the long-term goal of reducing the burden of environmentally induced diabetes and obesity. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  9. The effectiveness of metformin in patients with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Butrova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of action of metformin is realized through activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, leading to a decrease hepatic glucose production as well as to decrease the synthesis of triglycerides and an increase in fat oxidation. Several studies have demonstrated the positive effect of the drug in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, manifested in reducing the activity of enzymes, reducing the size of the liver and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of metformin in patients with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The study found that the use Siofor 850 mg 2 times a day in conjunction with a reduced-calorie nutrition in patients with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease leads to a significant reduction in insulin resistance associated with decreased activity of transaminases, improvement of metabolic parameters. The therapy Siofor majority of patients (60% with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease achieved a clinically significant weight loss and improved body composition. Application Siofor improves lifestyle changes in obese patients with non-alcoholic liver disease dirovoy and metabolic disorders.

  10. Effect of nanosilver on metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): An investigation using different respirometric approches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Laura; Rennie, Michael D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    gene expression, gill damage, and impaired gas exchange, as well as mortality at high nAg concentrations. The present study reports the effects of nAg on the metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.28 ± 0.02 μg/L) and higher (47.......60 ± 5.13 μg/L) for 28 d, after which their standard metabolic rate (SMR), forced maximum metabolic rate (MMRf), and spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMRs) were measured. There was no effect observed in SMR, MMRf, or MMRs, suggesting that nAg is unlikely to directly affect fish metabolism. On average......, MMRs tended to be greater than MMRf, and most MMRs occurred when room lighting increased. The timing of MMRf chase protocols was found to affect both MMRf and SMR estimates, in that chasing fish before respirometric experiments caused higher MMRf estimates and lower SMR estimates. Although compounded...

  11. In vivo effects of Faizol Ubat Batuk, a herbal product on aminopyrine metabolism in rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Hj Hussin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines, in particular herbal products, have been used abundantly over the years in curing several diseases. Pharmacological interactions of herbal products with modern drugs, however, remain to some extent unknown. Herein, we examined whether co-administration of Faizol Ubat Batuk (FUB, a mixture of aqueous extract of different plants, modifies the metabolism of aminopyrine, a conventional analgesic drug, in rat liver. We used rat hepatocytes outfitted by collagenase perfusion technique. Determination of aminopyrine n-demethylase activity was performed using the Nash colorimetric method, by measuring the amount of formaldehyde produced. Compared to control treatment, FUB significantly increased the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in healthy adult male rats. In contrast, the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in adult female rats was decreased. Besides, a biphasic effect in n-demethylase activity was observed in young male rats treated with FUB. In a subsequent experiment, FUB did not change the metabolism of aminopyrine in streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic adult male rats. In conclusion, administration of FUB could affect phase I aminopyrine metabolism in rat heptocytes. In addition, the effects of FUB on hepatic n-demethylase activity were gender and disease dependent.

  12. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Song

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group. The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048, word list delayed recall (p = 0.038, word list recognition (p = 0.007, and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037. However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Norwegian physicians' knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Ida Iren; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bringedal, Berit

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to measure physicians' knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals, and investigate whether there are differences in knowledge of prices between groups of physicians. This article reports on a survey study of physicians' knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals conducted on a representative sample of Norwegian physicians in the autumn of 2010. The importance of physicians' knowledge of costs derives from their influence on total spending and allocation of limited health-care resources. Physicians are important drivers in the effort to contain costs in health care, but only if they have the knowledge needed to choose the most cost-effective treatment options. A survey was sent to 1543 Norwegian physicians, asking them for price estimates and their opinions on the importance of considering the cost of treatment to society as a decision factor when treating their patients. This article deals with a subsection in which the physicians were asked to estimate the price of five pharmaceuticals: simvastatin, alendronate (Fosamax), infliximab (Remicade), natalizumab (Tysabri) and escitalopram (Cipralex). The response rate was 65%. For all the five pharmaceuticals, more than 50% and as many as 83% gave responses that differed more than 50% from the actual drug price. The price of more expensive pharmaceuticals was underestimated, while the opposite was the case for less expensive medicines. The data show that physicians in general have poor knowledge of the prices of the pharmaceuticals they offer their patients. However, the physicians who frequently deal with a drug have better knowledge of its price than those who do not handle a medication as often. The data also suggest that those physicians who agree that cost of care to society is an important decision factor have better knowledge of drug prices.

  14. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... (fructose and glucose) accumulated to higher levels and the content of ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were ... analysis. Sink strength was expressed as the dry matter accumu-.

  15. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were weak under the ... The growth of different sink organs depends firstly on the use of ..... isoforms, location and regulatory mechanisms by endo-.

  16. Bisulfite compounds as metabolic inhibitors: nonspecific effects on membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettge, U; Osmond, C B; Ball, E; Brinckmann, E; Kinze, G

    1972-01-01

    Bisulfite compounds are shown to be nonspecific inhibitors of photosynthetic processes and of ion transport in green tissues. CO/sub 2/ fixation and light-dependent transient changes in external pH are inhibited about 50% by 5 x 10/sup -4/M glyoxal-Na-bisulfite. Chloride uptake in the light and in the dark is inhibited to the same extent at this concentration. At 5 x 10/sup -3/M the inhibitor reduces ATP levels in the light and in the dark, and the effects on glycolate oxidase and PEP carboxylase are observed. The extent of inhibition is dependent on time of treatment with glyoxal-Na-bisulfite and freshly prepared NaHSO/sub 3/ is equally as effective as the addition compound. Possible explanations of the bisulfite effects and the relationships to SO/sub 2/ effects on photosynthesis are discussed.

  17. Metformin and male reproduction: effects on Sertoli cell metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is increasingly becoming the subject of research in other areas of medicine. Apart form antihyperglycemic effect of metformin has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of various tumor cells both in vivo and in vitro. Metformin is well established in the treatment of anovulatory infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome, while its influence male reproductive function are poorly understood.

  18. Effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization and drought on reactive oxygen species metabolism of Nothofagus dombeyi roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Fernandez, Carlos; Gacitúa, Yessy; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Infection with ectomycorrhizal fungi can increase the ability of plants to resist drought stress through morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the metabolism of antioxidative enzyme activities in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis remains poorly understood. This study investigated biomass production, reactive oxygen metabolism (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in pure cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Descolea antartica Sing. and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, and non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) roots under well-watered conditions and drought conditions (DC). The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi regulated their antioxidative enzyme metabolism differentially in response to drought, resulting in cellular damage in D. antartica but not in P. tinctorius. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation and water treatment had a significant effect on all parameters studied, including relative water content of the plant. As such, N. dombeyi plants in symbiosis experienced a lower oxidative stress effect than non-mycorrhizal plants under DC. Additionally, ectomycorrhizal N. dombeyi roots showed a greater antioxidant enzyme activity relative to non-mycorrhizal roots, an effect which was further expressed under DC. The association between the non-specific P. tinctorius and N. dombeyi had a more effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism than the specific D. antartica-N. dombeyi symbiosis. We conclude that the combination of effective ROS prevention and ROS detoxification by ectomycorrhizal plants resulted in reduced cellular damage and increased plant growth relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought.

  19. Pre-eclampsia research in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Magnus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder of unknown origin. In Norway, pre-eclampsia is reported in 3 to 4 per cent of registered births. At present, November 2014, a series of investigations into the etiology of preeclampsia have been published internationally from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and several studies are ongoing. The intention of this paper is to give a short summary of what has been accomplished, and to discuss future avenues of research concerning causes, mechanisms and consequences of pre-eclampsia. The papers that have been published up to now include seven that concern life-styles (physical activity, tobacco and diet, six that include prior pregnancies, infection, gestational weight gain, toxicants and tryptophan metabolism, and two studies concerning issues of selection and validity. Major findings are that tobacco smoking is only associated with reduced risk of pre-eclampsia when it occurs in the last trimester; that processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with increased risk while vegetables, vitamin D and probiotics are associated with reduced risk; and that prior induced abortions have the same risk-reducing effect as a prior pregnancy. For future studies, we suggest that better use should be made of the family structure built into MoBa. This includes better use of the discordant pregnancy design. A series of ongoing genetic studies, partly in international consortia, will hopefully open new etiological insights. The indications that pre-eclampsia is related to cardiovascular disease and other complex disorders should be further investigated through systematic follow-up of pre-eclamptic women and controls. Finally, MoBa is eminently suited to study the influences that pre-eclampsia can have on the growing child.

  20. Metabolomics analysis of metabolic effects of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT inhibition on human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tolstikov

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics. It is responsible for converting nicotinamide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an essential molecule in cellular metabolism. NAMPT has been extensively studied over the past decade due to its role as a key regulator of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-consuming enzymes. NAMPT is also known as a potential target for therapeutic intervention due to its involvement in disease. In the current study, we used a global mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of FK866, a small molecule inhibitor of NAMPT currently in clinical trials, on metabolic perturbations in human cancer cells. We treated A2780 (ovarian cancer and HCT-116 (colorectal cancer cell lines with FK866 in the presence and absence of nicotinic acid. Significant changes were observed in the amino acids metabolism and the purine and pyrimidine metabolism. We also observed metabolic alterations in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (TCA, and the pentose phosphate pathway. To expand the range of the detected polar metabolites and improve data confidence, we applied a global metabolomics profiling platform by using both non-targeted and targeted hydrophilic (HILIC-LC-MS and GC-MS analysis. We used Ingenuity Knowledge Base to facilitate the projection of metabolomics data onto metabolic pathways. Several metabolic pathways showed differential responses to FK866 based on several matches to the list of annotated metabolites. This study suggests that global metabolomics can be a useful tool in pharmacological studies of the mechanism of action of drugs at a cellular level.

  1. Effects of furfural on the respiratory metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostats,

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvari Horvath, I; Franzén, C J; Taherzadeh, M J; Niklasson, C; Lidén, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Effects of furfural on the aerobic metabolism of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by performing chemostat experiments, and the kinetics of furfural conversion was analyzed by performing dynamic experiments. Furfural, an important inhibitor present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, was shown to have an inhibitory effect on yeast cells growing respiratively which was much greater than the inhibitory effect previously observed for anaerobically growing yeast cells. The residual fur...

  2. Greenhouse gas quotas on the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd; Kolshus, Hans H.; Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses advantages and disadvantages of voluntary quota obligations in a greenhouse gas emissions trading system at the company level, and advantages and disadvantages associated with various initial allocation mechanisms in a quota system. The analysis is based on the situation for the Norwegian oil industry in an early Norwegian emissions trading system in the period 2005-2007, and on oil companies' participation in international emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol in the period 2008-2012. The report has been commissioned by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association, and was written in the period March-April 2002. (author)

  3. Assessing a Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Lone, Jon Anders; Bjørkli, Cato A; Ulleberg, Pål; Hoff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure developed by Patterson and colleagues. The Organizational Climate Measure is a global measure of organizational climate based on Quinn and Rohrbaugh's competing values model. The survey was administered to a Norwegian branch of an international service sector company (N = 555). The results revealed satisfactory internal reliability and interrater agreement for the 17 scales, and confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure. The findings gave preliminary support for the Organizational Climate Measure as a reliable measure with a stable factor structure, and indicated that it is potentially useful in the Norwegian context.

  4. Effect of cadmium on lipid metabolism of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, S.; Gill, K.D.; Nath, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of early postnatal cadmium exposure on the in vivo incorporation of (1- 14 C) sodium acetate into various lipid classes of the weanling rat brain was studied. A stimulated incorporation of the label was observed in total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, cerebrosides and sulphatides of the brain of Cd-exposed animals compared to controls. (author)

  5. Absorption, metabolism and health effects of dietary flavonoids in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4,000 different flavonoids have been described, and they are categorized into flavonols, flavones, catechins, flavanones, anthocyanidins and isoflavonoids. Flavonoids have a variety of biological effects in

  6. No effect of oral contraceptives on the metabolism of levetiracetam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The effect on clearance of levetiracetam (LEV) was estimated in women with epilepsy of childbearing potential using oral contraceptives (OCs). The estimated clearance (plasma concentration/daily dose) was 39 nmol/L/mg (range 14-88 nmol/L/mg) among women who did not use OC (n=30) and 38 nmol...

  7. Age-Dependent Metabolic and Immunosuppressive Effects of Tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzien, F; Quante, M; Heinbokel, T; Seyda, M; Minami, K; Uehara, H; Biefer, H R C; Schuitenmaker, J M; Gabardi, S; Splith, K; Schmelzle, M; Petrides, A K; Azuma, H; Pratschke, J; Li, X C; ElKhal, A; Tullius, S G

    2017-05-01

    Immunosuppression in elderly recipients has been underappreciated in clinical trials. Here, we assessed age-specific effects of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TAC) in a murine transplant model and assessed its clinical relevance on human T cells. Old recipient mice exhibited prolonged skin graft survival compared with young animals after TAC administration. More important, half of the TAC dose was sufficient in old mice to achieve comparable systemic trough levels. TAC administration was able to reduce proinflammatory interferon-γ cytokine production and promote interleukin-10 production in old CD4 + T cells. In addition, TAC administration decreased interleukin-2 secretion in old CD4 + T cells more effectively while inhibiting the proliferation of CD4 + T cells in old mice. Both TAC-treated murine and human CD4 + T cells demonstrated an age-specific suppression of intracellular calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx, two critical pathways in T cell activation. Of note, depletion of CD8 + T cells did not alter allograft survival outcome in old TAC-treated mice, suggesting that TAC age-specific effects were mainly CD4 + T cell mediated. Collectively, our study demonstrates age-specific immunosuppressive capacities of TAC that are CD4 + T cell mediated. The suppression of calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx in both old murine and human T cells emphasizes the clinical relevance of age-specific effects when using TAC. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. The effect of vinblastine on DNA metabolism in tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabela, E.; Klein, W.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the influence of Vinblastine on normal and tumor cells show that semiconservative DNA-synthesis correlates with the enzymatic activity of thymidinkinase. DNA-repair-investigations performed with Yoshida-Ascites cells indicate an inhibition effect on the ligase system after Vinblastine-treatment and gamma irradiation. (author)

  9. The Effect of Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan, Won

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture(CFP on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3days in the absence or presence of CFP ranging from 0.01 to 1mg/mL. The effect of CFP on adipogenesis was examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with CFP ranging from 0.01 to 1mg/mL for 3 hrs. The effect of CFP on lipolysis was examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with CFP ranging from 0.1 to 10mg/mL to examine the effect of CFP on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 1.0mg/mL 2. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH at the concentration of 0.1mg/mL. 3. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture ok. lipolysis at the concentration of 0.1mg/ml. 4. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture ranging 0.1 to 10mg/mL failed to exert lysis of cell membrane in porcine fat tissue. Conclusions : These results suggest that Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture at relatively high concentration inhibited adipogenesis and increased lipolysis of adipocytes. However, Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture didn’t exert any effect on lysis of cell membrane in fat tissue.

  10. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Danish patients with HIV infection: the effect of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Petersen, J; Haugaard, S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a subject of debate. We investigated the prevalence of MS in a cohort of Danish HIV-infected patients and estimated the effect of the various classes of antiretroviral...

  11. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  12. Warming increases the top-down effects and metabolism of a subtidal herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A. Carr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological theory and experiments indicate that warming can increase the relative strength of top-down effects via alterations to metabolic rates in several different systems, thereby resulting in decreased plant biomass at higher temperatures. However, the general influence of increased environmental temperature on top-down effects is not well understood in systems where organisms experience relatively large variation in temperature. Rapid ocean temperature changes are pervasive throughout the Galápagos Islands due to upwelling and downwelling of internal waves, ENSO events and seasonality. We measured the effect of large, but not uncommon, water temperature variation on the metabolism and grazing rate of a common subtidal herbivore and on photosynthesis of their algal prey in the Galápagos Islands in July 2012. We found that green urchin consumption and metabolism were greater at the higher temperature treatment (28°C, resulting in significantly less algal biomass. Our result that warming increased green urchin metabolic rates, even in a highly dynamic system, provides further support for a mechanistic link between environmental temperature and feeding rates. And further, our findings suggest individual response to temperature results in changes in top-down effects. And if this response is maintained over longer-time scales of days to weeks, this could translate to alterations of larger-scale ecological patterns, such as primary producer community composition and structure.

  13. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism was studied in young chickens. Immunization was performed by injecting intramuscularly 0.5 ml packed SRBC (sheep red blood cells) in both thighs of 32 days old pullets ( WarrenSSL ). The

  14. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on free radical metabolism of liver in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Free Radical Metabolism of Liver in mice during endurance exercise. Forty-eight mice were divided into the quiet group and the exercised group. And the two groups were both grouped again, including the control group and the drug-treated group.

  15. Acute effects of thalamotomy and pallidotomy on regional cerebral metabolism, evaluated by PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, JML; de Jong, BM; Pruim, J; Staal, MJ; Rutgers, AWF; Haaxma, R

    The subacute effect of thalamotomy and pallidotomy on regional cerebral metabolism was studied by means of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this way we aimed to identify the pattern of functional deafferentiation following a specific lesion in the basal ganglia. The cerebral distribution of

  16. Metabolic Effects of High Altitude Trekking in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Fokkert, Marion J.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Gans, Rijnold O. B.; Tack, Cees J.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Limited information is available regarding the metabolic effects of high altitude trekking in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Thirteen individuals with type 2 diabetes took part, in a 12-day expedition to the summit of Mount Toubkal (altitude, 4,167 m), Morocco,

  17. Metabolic effects of high altitude trekking in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, P. de; Fokkert, M.J.; Vries, S.T. de; Koning, E.J. de; Dikkeschei, B.D.; Gans, R.O.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bilo, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Limited information is available regarding the metabolic effects of high altitude trekking in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirteen individuals with type 2 diabetes took part in a 12-day expedition to the summit of Mount Toubkal (altitude, 4,167 m), Morocco,

  18. The effects of intermittent, CD4-guided antiretroviral therapy on body composition and metabolic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Esteban; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Grund, Birgit; Thomas, Avis; Gibert, Cynthia; Shlay, Judith; Drummond, Fraser; Pearce, Daniel; Edwards, Simon; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Carr, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of decreased antiretroviral therapy exposure on body fat and metabolic parameters. Design: Substudy of the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy study, in which participants were randomized to intermittent CD4-guided [Drug Conservation (DC) group] or

  19. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  20. Effect of supplemental protein source during the winter on pre- and postpartum glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating serum glucose concentrations as well as glucose utilization have been shown to be affected by forage quality. Supplemental protein provided to grazing range cows while consuming low quality forage may improve glucose metabolism. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of ...

  1. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert

    Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves

  2. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  3. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finan, A.; Cleary, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either [1- 14 C] glucose or [6- 14 C] glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO 2 production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats

  4. Effect Of Caffeine And Ethanol Consumption On the Metabolism Of 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caffeine and ethanol on the metabolism of 5-hydroxy tryptamine in the rat was investigated. Rats were divided into four groups and the first group was fed rat chow with water and an oral administration of 2ml of 1% caffeine. The second group of rats was fed rat chow with 7% ethanol and the third group was fed ...

  5. Metabolic, gastrointestinal, and CNS neuropeptide effects of brain leptin administration in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, G; Seeley, RJ; Thiele, TE; Friedman, MI; Ji, H; Wilkinson, CW; Burn, P; Campfield, LA; Tenenbaum, R; Baskin, DG; Woods, SC; Schwartz, MW; Seeley, Randy J.; Thiele, Todd E.; Friedman, Mark I.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Baskin, Denis G.; Woods, Stephen C.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    To investigate whether brain leptin involves neuropeptidergic pathways influencing ingestion, metabolism, and gastrointestinal functioning, leptin (3.5 mu g) was infused daily into the third cerebral ventricular of rats for 3 days. To distinguish between direct leptin effects and those secondary to

  6. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and fiber from fenugreek: mechanisms of actions and potential effects on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Scott; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its complications continue to rise in prevalence and show no signs of abating in the immediate future. Therefore, the search for effective treatments is a high priority in biomedical research. Products derived from botanicals have a time-honored history of use in the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is an annual herbaceous plant that has been a staple of traditional herbal medicine in many cultures. Although fenugreek has been studied in both clinical and basic research settings, questions remain about its efficacy and biologic mechanisms of action. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and the fiber component of the plant are the most intensively studied bioactive constituents present in fenugreek. These compounds have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on several physiologic markers including glucose tolerance, inflammation, insulin action, liver function, blood lipids, and cardiovascular health. Although insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the favorable effects of fenugreek have been gained, we still do not have definitive evidence establishing its role as a therapeutic agent in metabolic disease. This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on the physiologic effects of the 3 best-characterized bioactive compounds of fenugreek, with particular emphasis on biologic mechanisms of action relevant in the context of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Effect of acute metabolic acid/base shifts on the human airway calibre.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brijker, F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Bosch, F.H.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Acute metabolic alkalosis (NaHCO(3)), acidosis (NH(4)Cl), and placebo (NaCl) were induced in 15 healthy volunteers (12 females, median age 34 (range 24-56) years) in a double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the presence of the effects on airway calibre. Acid-base shifts were determined

  8. Effect of various chemicals on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by cultured rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Fugaro, Steven

    1977-01-01

    The effect of various co- and anti-carcinogens of colon carcinogenesis on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in cultured rat colon is reported. Rat colon enzymatically converted BP into metabolites which bind to cellular macromolecules i.e., DNA and protein. Activity of aryl hydrocarbon...

  9. The rhythm of feeding : Effect of nutrients on metabolism and the molecular clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes studies we performed to assess the relationship between nutrients and the circadian clock. We assessed the effects of sugar and fatty acids on the daily rhythmicity of hepatic clock genes and whole-body metabolism in vivo, and on circadian rhythmicity of clock genes in vitro.

  10. Effect of Galla chinensis on growth and metabolism of microcosm biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Zhou, X.; Li, J.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE) interferes with de- and remineralization of dental enamel and the growth and metabolism in planktonic bacteria. However, no information is available on GCE effects on biofilms formed with saliva as inoculum. The aim of the current experiments was to investigate the

  11. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  12. EFFECT OF DOSE ON THE EXCRETION AND METABOLISM OF MONOMETHYLARSONIC ACID IN THE MOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFECT OF DOSE ON THE EXCRETION AND METABOLISM OF MONOMETHYLARSONIC ACID IN THE MOUSEM F Hughes1, V Devesa2, B C Edwards1, C T Mitchell1, E M Kenyon1, and D J Thomas1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2UNC-CH, CEMALB, Chapel Hill, NCMonomethylar...

  13. Effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn, E.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Mashaly, M.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens was studied. Eight groups of six female broiler chickens each were assigned to a continuous lighting schedule [23 h light (L):1 h darkness (D)] or an intermittent lighting schedule (1L:3D), and were fed a diet

  14. Effects of cyclodextrin glycosiltransferase modified starch and cyclodextrins on plasma glucose and lipids metabolism in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential functional and nutritional benefits of granular starch treated with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and the released cyclodextrins (CDs) were explored in in vivo studies. The metabolic effects of diets in the C57BL/6J mouse containing native and enzymatically modified corn st...

  15. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic amino acid metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic AA metabolism. The experimental design was a split plot, with cow as the whole...

  16. Effect of oxandrolone on glucose metabolism in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Stijnen, T.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) may increase height but may also affect glucose metabolism in girls with Turner syndrome (TS). METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we assessed the effect of Ox at a dosage of either 0.06 or 0.03 mg/kg/day on glucose

  17. THE EFFECT OF PIROXICAM ON THE METABOLISM OF ISOLATED HUMAN CHONDROCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULSTRA, SK; KUIJER, R; BUURMAN, WA; TERWINDTROUWENHORST, E; GUELEN, PJM; VANDERLINDEN, AJ

    The effect of piroxicam on the metabolism of healthy and osteoarthrotic (OA) chondrocytes was studied in vitro. The chondrocytes were obtained from five healthy, five moderately OA, and four severely OA hips or knees. The chondrocytes were cultured in a high-density, short-term in vitro model. In

  18. Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube

    OpenAIRE

    Shaoying Zhang; Qin Li; Yulan Mao

    2014-01-01

    To prolong the shelf life postharvest jujube, the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on senescence of postharvest jujube in relation to active oxygen metabolism was investigated. Jujubes were fumigated with CO gas at 5, 10, 20 or 40μmol/L for 1 h, and then stored for 30 days at room temperature. Changes in membrane permeability, malonaldehyde (MDA), H2O2, O2•− content, and activities of active oxygen metabolism associated enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase...

  19. Functional Effects of Prebiotic Fructans in Colon Cancer and Calcium Metabolism in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Huerta, Marisol; Liz?rraga-Grimes, Vania Lorena; Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Tinoco-M?ndez, Mabel; Mac?as-Rosales, Luc?a; S?nchez-Bart?z, Francisco; Tapia-P?rez, Graciela Guadalupe; Romero-Romero, Laura; Gracia-Mora, Mar?a Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin “Synergy 1®” and inulin from Mexican agave “Metlin®” in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon c...

  20. Effect of phytooestrogen - coumestrol and estrone on some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in ovariectomized female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogowski, L.; Nowak, K.W.; Mackowiak, P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study is a comparison of phytooestrogen -coumestrol and estrone effects on carbohydrate metabolism in ovariectomized female rats and to examine the partition of pancreatic hormones in changes of this metabolism. Administration of coumestrol diminished muscle glycogen in investigated animals. There were no significant changes in insulin and glucagon blood level but decrease in the specific insulin binding in the insulin receptor activity in this tissue and it could be a cause of glycogen deficiency. (author). 28 refs, 4 tabs

  1. Effect of antibiotics on gut microbiota, glucose metabolism and bodyweight regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbaek; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Knop, Filip Krag

    2016-01-01

    Gut bacteria are involved in a number of host metabolic processes and have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Use of antibiotics changes the composition of the gut microbiota and there is accumulating evidence from observational studies for an association...... between exposure to antibiotics and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we review human studies examining effects of antibiotics on bodyweight regulation and glucose metabolism and discuss whether the observed findings may relate to alterations in the composition and function of the gut...

  2. [Effects of berberine on the recovery of rat liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes after partial hepatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverinsky, I V; Zverinskaya, H G; Sutsko, I P; Telegin, P G; Shlyahtun, A G

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of berberine on the recovery processes of liver xenobiotic-metabolizing function during its compensatory growth after 70% partial hepatectomy. It was found the hepatic ability to metabolize foreign substances are not restored up to day 8. Administration of berberine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 6 days led to normalization of both cytochrome P450-dependent and flavin-containing monooxygenases. It is suggested that in the biotransformation of berberine involved not only cytochrome P450, but also flavin-containing monooxygenases.

  3. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration......; C), propanol (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM; P), and propylacetate (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM and 15 g propylacetate/kg DM; PPA) in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14 d period. Daily rations were fed in three equally sized portions at 8 hour intervals and 8 hourly sets of ruminal fluid, arterial...

  4. The Effect of Bangpungtongsung-san Extracts on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Min, Lee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Bangpungtongsung-san extracts on the preadipocytes proliferation, of 3T3-L1 cell line. lipolysis of adipocytes in rat's epididymis and localized fat accumulation of porcine by extraction methods(alcohol and water. Methods : Diminish 3T3-L1 proliferation and lipogenesis do primary role to reduce obesity. So, 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures, and using Sprague-Dawley rats for the lipogenesis, and treated with 0.01-1 ㎎/㎖ Bangpungtongsung-san Extracts depend on concentrations. Porcine skin including fat tissue after treated Bangpungtongsung-san Extracts by means of the dosage dependent variation are investigated the histologic changes after injection of these extracts. Results : Following results were obtained from the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte in rats and histologic investigation of fat tissue. 1. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed the effect of decreased preadipocyte proliferation on the high dosage(1.0㎎/㎖. 2. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed the effect of decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH on the high dosage(1.0㎎/㎖ and Specially, alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung -san was clear as time goes by high concentration. 3. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed tries to compare the effect of lipolysis, alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung-san on the high dosage(1.0㎎/㎖ was observed the effect is higher than water extract. 4. Investigated the histological changes in porcine fat tissue after treated Bangpungtongsung-san extracts, we knew that water extract of Bangpungtongsung-san was showed the effect of lipolysis on the high dosage(10.0㎎/㎖ and alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung-san was showed significant activity to the lysis of cell membranes in all concentration. Conclusion : These results suggest that Bangpungtongsung-san extracts efficiently

  5. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Han Linna; Liu Tongjun; Guo Jianyou; Liu Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk ...

  6. Metabolism and biological effects of alpha-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W. J.

    1979-05-01

    The emphasis of much of the current and planned research on the toxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides is directed toward the complexities of actual and potential conditions of occupational environmental exposures of human beings. These, as well as the more limited studies on mechanisms of biological transport and effects, should increase our ability to predict health risks more accurately and to deal more confidently with human exposures, if and when they occur.

  7. Observation of the long-term effects of lifestyle intervention during balneotherapy in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Henri; Demeaux, Jean-Louis; Grelaud, Angela; Grolleau, Adeline; Droz-Perroteau, Cécile; Robinson, Philip; Lassalle, Régis; Abouelfath, Abdelilah; Boisseau, Michel; Toussaint, Christian; Moore, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Estimate the effect of lifestyle adjustment activities in patients with metabolic syndrome treated by prescribed balneotherapy. Observational pilot cohort study with 12-month follow-up after multidimensional lifestyle training (physical, dietary, educational) during 3-week standard stay in the spa town of Eugénie-les-Bains. Of 145 eligible patients, 97 were included; 63 were followed and analysable. At inclusion all had ≥3 National cholesterol education program-Adult treatment panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria defining metabolic syndrome, 76.2% were female, mean age was 61.2 years. At the end of follow-up (median:10.4 months, Inter-Quartile Range: [6.7;11.4]), 48 of these 63 patients (76.2%) no longer had metabolic syndrome (95%CI [65.7;86.7]). These 48 patients without metabolic syndrome at the end of follow-up represented 49.5% of the 97 included (95%CI [39.5;59.4]). Future studies of lifestyle interventions taking advantage of the spa environment can be expected to find least one third of patients free of metabolic syndrome at the end of 12-month follow-up in the intervention group. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Factors influencing the grass carp gut microbiome and its effect on metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yan, Qingyun; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota have attracted extensive attention recently because of their important role in host metabolism, immunity and health maintenance. The present study focused on factors affecting the gut microbiome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and further explored the potential effect of the gut microbiome on metabolism. Totally, 43.39 Gb of screened metagenomic sequences obtained from 24 gut samples were fully analysed. We detected 1228 phylotypes (116 Archaea and 1112 Bacteria), most of which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria. Totally, 41335 of the detected open reading frames (ORFs) were matched to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism was the main matched pathway deduced from the annotated ORFs. Redundancy analysis based on the phylogenetic composition and gene composition of the gut microbiome indicated that gut fullness and feeding (i.e. ryegrass vs. commercial feed, and pond-cultured vs. wild) were significantly related to the gut microbiome. Moreover, many biosynthesis and metabolism pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids were significantly enhanced by the gut microbiome in ryegrass-fed grass carp. These findings suggest that the metabolic role played by the gut microbiome in grass carp can be affected by feeding. These findings contribute to the field of fish gut microbial ecology and also provide a basis for follow-up functional studies. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental and genetic effects on tomato seed metabolic balance and its association with germination vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosental, Leah; Perelman, Adi; Nevo, Noa; Toubiana, David; Samani, Talya; Batushansky, Albert; Sikron, Noga; Saranga, Yehoshua; Fait, Aaron

    2016-12-19

    The metabolite content of a seed and its ability to germinate are determined by genetic makeup and environmental effects during development. The interaction between genetics, environment and seed metabolism and germination was studied in 72 tomato homozygous introgression lines (IL) derived from Solanum pennelli and S. esculentum M82 cultivar. Plants were grown in the field under saline and fresh water irrigation during two consecutive seasons, and collected seeds were subjected to morphological analysis, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolic profiling and germination tests. Seed weight was under tight genetic regulation, but it was not related to germination vigor. Salinity significantly reduced seed number but had little influence on seed metabolites, affecting only 1% of the statistical comparisons. The metabolites negatively correlated to germination were simple sugars and most amino acids, while positive correlations were found for several organic acids and the N metabolites urea and dopamine. Germination tests identified putative loci for improved germination as compared to M82 and in response to salinity, which were also characterized by defined metabolic changes in the seed. An integrative analysis of the metabolite and germination data revealed metabolite levels unambiguously associated with germination percentage and rate, mostly conserved in the different tested seed development environments. Such consistent relations suggest the potential for developing a method of germination vigor prediction by metabolic profiling, as well as add to our understanding of the importance of primary metabolic processes in germination.

  10. Effects of Lysine deficiency and Lys-Lys dipeptide on cellular apoptosis and amino acids metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Lijian; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Wu, Fei; Fang, Rejun; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Chunyong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liu, Gang; Yao, Jiming; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2017-09-01

    Lysine (Lys) is a common limiting amino acids (AA) for humans and animals and plays an important role in cell proliferation and metabolism, while metabolism of Lys deficiency and its dipeptide is still obscure. Thus, this study mainly investigated the effects of Lys deficiency and Lys-Lys dipeptide on apoptosis and AA metabolism in vitro and in vivo models. Lys deficiency induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and upregulated Lys transporters in vitro and in vivo. SLC7A11, a cystine-glutamate antiporter, was markedly upregulated by Lys deficiency and then further mediated cystine uptake and glutamate release, which was negatively regulated by cystine and glutamate transporters. Meanwhile, Lys deprivation upregulated pept1 expression, which might improve Lys-Lys dipeptide absorption to compensate for the reduced Lys availability. Lys-Lys dipeptide alleviated Lys deficiency induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and influenced AA metabolism. Furthermore, the mammalian target of rapamycin signal might be involved in sensing cellular Lys starvation and Lys-Lys dipeptide. Altogether, these studies suggest that Lys deficiency impairs AA metabolism and causes apoptosis. Lys-Lys dipeptide serves as a Lys source and alleviates Lys deficiency induced cellular imbalance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effects of air pollution exposure on glucose metabolism in Los Angeles minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Corral, C M; Alderete, T L; Habre, R; Berhane, K; Lurmann, F W; Weigensberg, M J; Goran, M I; Gilliland, F D

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO 2 , PM 2.5 and O 3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes. AAP and TRAP exposure were associated with adverse effects on glucose metabolism independent of body fat percent. PM 2.5 was associated with 25.0% higher fasting insulin (p pollution exposure was associated with a metabolic profile that is characteristic of increased risk for type 2 diabetes. These results indicate that increased prior year exposure to air pollution may adversely affect type 2 diabetes-related pathophysiology in overweight and obese minority children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  12. The effects of smoking on steroid metabolism and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušková, M; Hruškovičová, H; Šimůnková, K; Stárka, L; Pařízek, A

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a serious psychosocial and health problem. A pregnant woman who smokes not only influences the maternal organism, but also passes health risks on to the unborn child. A fetus exposed to maternal smoking is not only directly influenced, but is also endangered by a wide range of diseases up to his or her adult years. The components of tobacco smoke play a significant role in the development of a number of diseases for a large proportion of the smoking population, as well as among those pregnant. This article summarizes findings regarding the impacts on the production of steroid hormones - first describing the smoking-related changes in steroidogenesis in women, and then focusing on the influence of maternal smoking on the fetus's developing steroidogenesis. We assume that if during prenatal development the fetus has already been exposed to the effect of endocrine disruptors at the time fetal steroidogenesis begins fetal programming, this exposure can have serious pathophysiological effects both in the pregnancy as well as later in life. An example of such effects might be a delay in the creation of kidney adrenal androgens, which could also be evident on the level of steroid neuroactive metabolites that may influence the individual's psychological state and lead to later addictions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effects of marijuana consumption on food intake and nutrient metabolism: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Morales Basto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is one of the most consumed psychoactive in Colombia and worldwide. It has been observed that it has effects over central nervous system; in consequence it may affect the metabolism and nutritional status of marijuana users. This article intends to evaluate if consumption of marijuana and the activation of the cannabinoid system have the capacity to activate physiological mechanisms through which the intake and the nutrient metabolism get affected. As a result, it is found that the consumption of marijuana influences increasing the orexigenic stimulus and decreasing the anorexigenic stimulus, which influence increasing the ingestion and changing the production of important enzymes in the metabolism of fat. Likewise, it affects the appearance of alterations in the nutritional status of the consumers that involve the decrease of their body max index (BMI, which contrasts with the results related to the intake, thus highlights the importance of carry out deep studies that could explain this questioning.

  14. Predicting effects of structural stress in a genome-reduced model bacterial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güell, Oriol; Sagués, Francesc; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2012-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen recently proposed as a genome-reduced model for bacterial systems biology. Here, we study the response of its metabolic network to different forms of structural stress, including removal of individual and pairs of reactions and knockout of genes and clusters of co-expressed genes. Our results reveal a network architecture as robust as that of other model bacteria regarding multiple failures, although less robust against individual reaction inactivation. Interestingly, metabolite motifs associated to reactions can predict the propagation of inactivation cascades and damage amplification effects arising in double knockouts. We also detect a significant correlation between gene essentiality and damages produced by single gene knockouts, and find that genes controlling high-damage reactions tend to be expressed independently of each other, a functional switch mechanism that, simultaneously, acts as a genetic firewall to protect metabolism. Prediction of failure propagation is crucial for metabolic engineering or disease treatment.

  15. The effects of old, new and emerging medicines on metabolic aberrations in PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiota, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age that is associated with significant adverse short- and long-term health consequences. Multiple metabolic aberrations, such as insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinaemia, high incidence of impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia are associated with the syndrome. Assessing the metabolic aberrations and their long term health impact in women with PCOS is challenging and becomes more important as therapeutic interventions currently available for the management of PCOS are not fully able to deal with all these consequences. Current therapeutic management of PCOS has incorporated new treatments resulting from the better understanding of the pathophysiology of the syndrome. The aim of this review is to summarize the effect of old, new and emerging therapies used in the management of PCOS, on the metabolic aberrations of PCOS PMID:23148192

  16. Effects of anesthesia on renal function and metabolism in rats assessed by hyperpolarized MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Haiyun; Mariager, Christian Østergaard; Lindhardt, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    . In the present study, we aimed to investigate the renal functional and metabolic consequences of 3 typical rodent anesthetics used in preclinical MRI: sevoflurane, inaction, and a mixture of fentanyl, fluanisone, and midazolam (FFM). METHODS: The renal effects of 3 different classes of anesthetics (inactin......, servoflurane, and FFM) were investigated using functional and metabolic MRI. The renal glucose metabolism and hemodynamics was characterized with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRI and by DCE imaging. RESULTS: Rats receiving sevoflurane or FFM had blood glucose levels that were 1.3-fold to 1.4-fold higher than...... rats receiving inactin. A 2.9-fold and 4.8-fold increased13C-lactate/13C-pyruvate ratio was found in the FFM mixture anesthetized group compared with the sevoflurane and the inactin anesthetized groups. The FFM anesthesia resulted in a 50% lower renal plasma flow compared with the sevoflurane...

  17. Effects of Coptis chinensis decoction on the metabolic index and renal protection in rats with metabolism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qing CHEN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effects of Coptis chinensis decoction on the metabolic index and renal function of rats with fructose-induced metabolism syndrome (MS. Methods From 56 male Wistar rats, 6 were randomly selected as normal control group, the other rats were daily fed with 10% fructose water for 8 weeks to reproduce the MS model. Twenty-four rats were established successfully as MS model and randomly divided into 4 groups (6 each: model group, Coptis decoction group, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA group and berberine hydrochloride (BH group. The body weight, visceral fat weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosidase (NAG, urine microalbumin (m-ALB, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr levels were compared between the groups, and the renal pathological changes were observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Results The levels of body weight, visceral fat weight, FINS, HOMA- IR, TC, TG, SBP, DBP and urinary NAG were obviously higher in the four MS model groups than in normal control group (P0.05. After the intervention, the levels of body weight, visceral fat weight, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, SBP and DBP decreased significantly in Coptis decoction group than in model group (P0.05. It was observed in model group by light microscopy and electron microscopy that the glomerular swelled obviously, the capillary basement membrane of glomerular and renal tubules thickened, mesangial region and interstitial substances hyperplasia, podocytes swelled markedly and most of fusion, the epithelial cells of renal tubules serious vacuolar degeneration, and a lot of secondary lysosomes formed, autophagy of organelles occurred, and most of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria disappeared. The kidney pathological damage reduced obviously after

  18. The shift of accounting models and accounting quality: the case of Norwegian GAAP

    OpenAIRE

    Stenheim, Tonny; Madsen, Dag Øivind

    2017-01-01

    This is an Open Access journal available from http://www.virtusinterpress.org This paper investigates the change in accounting quality w hen firms shift from a revenue - oriented historical cost accounting regime as Norwegian GAAP (NGAAP) to a balance - oriented fair value accounting regime as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Previous studies have demonstrated mixed effects o n the accounting quality upon IFRS adoption. One possible reason is that the investigated domest...

  19. Norwegian High-School Students Internship Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The High-School Students Internship Programme (HSSIP is a programme developed by the ECO group’s Teacher and Student Programmes section to engage students from a young age with scientific research and innovation. Norway was selected as one out of five countries for the pilot programmes run in 2017. Out of some 150 applications, 10 boys and 14 girls, from Longyearbyen (Svalbard) in the North to Flekkefjord in the South, were invited to participate in the Norwegian programme that took place from 15 October - 28 October. The youngsters were offered an intense two-week internship at CERN, during which they took part in many diverse activities. Accompanied by mentors, the students got a deeper insight into how CERN supports particle physics by working on their own projects and through a variety of visits.

  20. Absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG): An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin; Sui, Zhong-Quan; Corke, Harold

    2018-04-13

    Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world, especially in Asian countries. Consumption of green tea has been demonstrated to possess many health benefits, which mainly attributed to the main bioactive compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavone-3-ol polyphenol, in green tea. EGCG is mainly absorbed in the intestine, and gut microbiota play a critical role in its metabolism prior to absorption. EGCG exhibits versatile bioactivities, with its anti-cancer effect most attracting due to the cancer preventive effect of green tea consumption, and a great number of studies intensively investigated its anti-cancer effect. In this review, we therefore, first stated the absorption and metabolism process of EGCG, and then summarized its anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo, including its manifold anti-cancer actions and mechanisms, especially its anti-cancer stem cell effect, and next highlighted its various molecular targets involved in cancer inhibition. Finally, the anti-cancer effect of EGCG analogs and nanoparticles, as well as the potential cancer promoting effect of EGCG were also discussed. Understanding of the absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of EGCG can be of importance to better utilize it as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent.