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Sample records for meta-coexpression conservation analysis

  1. Meta-coexpression conservation analysis of microarray data: a "subset" approach provides insight into brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmusk Tõnis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene expression contribute to serious pathologies such as depression, epilepsy, cancer, Alzheimer's, Huntington and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, exploring the mechanisms of BDNF regulation represents a great clinical importance. Studying BDNF expression remains difficult due to its multiple neural activity-dependent and tissue-specific promoters. Thus, microarray data could provide insight into the regulation of this complex gene. Conventional microarray co-expression analysis is usually carried out by merging the datasets or by confirming the re-occurrence of significant correlations across datasets. However, co-expression patterns can be different under various conditions that are represented by subsets in a dataset. Therefore, assessing co-expression by measuring correlation coefficient across merged samples of a dataset or by merging datasets might not capture all correlation patterns. Results In our study, we performed meta-coexpression analysis of publicly available microarray data using BDNF as a "guide-gene" introducing a "subset" approach. The key steps of the analysis included: dividing datasets into subsets with biologically meaningful sample content (e.g. tissue, gender or disease state subsets; analyzing co-expression with the BDNF gene in each subset separately; and confirming co- expression links across subsets. Finally, we analyzed conservation in co-expression with BDNF between human, mouse and rat, and sought for conserved over-represented TFBSs in BDNF and BDNF-correlated genes. Correlated genes discovered in this study regulate nervous system development, and are associated with various types of cancer and neurological disorders. Also, several transcription factor identified here have been reported to regulate BDNF expression in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion The study demonstrates the potential of the "subset" approach in co-expression conservation

  2. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  3. Meta-analysis of landscape conservation plan evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaela Foster; M. Nils Peterson; Frederick Cubbage; Gerard McMahon

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies evaluating the quality and content of many types of plans have grown in recent decades. Natural resource conservation plans have been included in some of these plan evaluation studies; however, no meta-analysis of natural resource planning literature has been conducted. This focus is needed because natural resource conservation planning differs...

  4. Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) - Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature ...

  5. Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) - Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature ...

  6. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Mujeebu, M. Abdul; Salah, Wael

    2009-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors.

  7. Analysis of Energy Conservation in Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qiang; Blow, Keith J.; Holding, David J.; Marshall, Ian W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we use the Erlang theory to quantitatively analyse the trade offs between energy conservation and quality of service in an ad-hoc wireless sensor network. Nodes can be either sleeping, where no transmission or reception can occur, or awake where traffic is processed. Increasing the proportion of time spent in the sleeping state will decrease throughput and increase packet loss and delivery delay. However there is a complex relationship between sleeping time and energy consumptio...

  8. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  10. Conservatively treated acetabular fractures: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are a few studies reporting the long term outcome of conservatively treated acetabular fractures. The present study aims to evaluate the quality of reduction, and radiological and functional outcome in displaced acetabular fractures treated conservatively. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine patients (55 men and 14 women with 71 displaced acetabular fractures (mean age 38.6 years managed conservatively were retrospectively evaluated. There were 11 posterior wall, 5 posterior column, 6 anterior column, 13 transverse, 2 posterior column with posterior wall, 9 transverse with posterior wall, 6 T-shaped, 1 anterior column with posterior hemi-transverse, and 18 both-column fractures. The follow-up radiographs were graded according to the criteria developed by Matta J. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris hip score and Merle d′Aubigne and Postel score at final followup. Average follow-up was 4.34 years (range 2-11 years. Results: Patients with congruent reduction (n=45 had good or excellent functional outcome. Radiologic outcome in incongruent reduction (n=26 was good or excellent in 6 and fair or poor in 20 hips. The functional outcome in patients with incongruent reduction was good or excellent in 16 and satisfactory or poor in 10 hips. Good to excellent radiologic and functional outcome was achieved in all patients with posterior wall fractures including four having more than 50% of broken wall. Good to excellent functional outcome was observed in 88.8% of both-column fractures with secondary congruence despite medial subluxation. Conclusions: Nonoperative treatment of acetabular fractures can give good radiological and functional outcome in congruent reduction. Posterior wall fractures with a congruous joint without subluxation on computed tomography axial section, posterior column, anterior column, infratectal transverse or T-shaped, and both-column fractures may be managed conservatively. Small osteochondral fragments

  11. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  12. Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This book presents thirteen papers, representing the most significant advances and current trends in nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and related analysis with applications. Topics covered include a survey on multidimensional systems of conservation laws as well as novel results  on liquid crystals, conservation laws with discontinuous flux functions, and applications to sedimentation.  Also included are articles on recent advances in the Euler equations and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system, in addition to new results on collective phenomena described by the Cucker-Smale model.    The Workshop on Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (Edinburgh, UK) held in Edinburgh, September 2011, produced this fine collection of original research and survey articles. Many leading mathematicians attended the event and submitted their contributions for this volume. It is addressed to researchers and graduate students inter...

  13. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyfitz, Barbara Lee [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  14. Sensitivity analysis and energy conservation measures implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Wan, Kevin K.W.; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Electricity use characteristics of 10 air-conditioned office buildings in subtropical Hong Kong were investigated. Monthly electricity consumption data were gathered and analysed. The annual electricity use per unit gross floor area ranged from 233 to 368 kWh/m 2 , with a mean of 292 kWh/m 2 . The ranges of percentage consumption for the four major electricity end-users - namely heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical equipment, and lifts and escalators - were 40.1-50.7%, 22.1-29%, 16.6-32.9% and 2.2-5.3%, respectively. Ten key design variables were identified in the parametric and sensitivity analysis using building energy simulation technique. Analysis of the resulting influence coefficients suggested that indoor design condition (from 22 to 25.5 deg. C), electric lighting (a modest 2 W/m 2 reduction in the current lighting code) and chiller COP (from air- to water-cooled) could offer great electricity savings potential, in the order of 14%, 5.2% and 11%, respectively

  15. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  16. Emergency petroleum conservation: a review and analysis of selected measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F.D.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Hull, E.; Savadelis, J.; Valentini, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    ORNL was asked by the Economic Regulatory Administration to (1) collect, screen, and recommend a limited number of emergency measures that might conserve petroleum in residential and commercial buildings and in commercial transportation and (2) provide a detailed analysis of the energy savings and the economic and environmental impacts associated with restricting the hours of operation of commercial buildings. A total of 41 emergency measures were identified that might conserve petroleum, and these were reduced to a list of five that seemed most promising. Analysis of the measure to restrict hours of operation for commercial buildings shows that it might save 4 to 6% of annual commercial building energy use. The type of fuel conserved would vary widely from region to region, and appreciable negative economic impacts would result from implementing the measure.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Military Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Seth L; Smith, Kenneth J; Palmer, Catherine

    2018-02-07

    Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a military hearing conservation program, relative to no intervention, in relation to cases of hearing loss prevented. We employed cost-effectiveness analytic methods to compare the costs and effectiveness, in terms of hearing loss cases prevented, of a military hearing conservation program relative to no program. We used costs and probability estimates available in the literature and publicly available sources. The effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed based on whether hearing loss occurred over a 20-yr time frame. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention was $10,657 per case of hearing loss prevented. Workers were 28% less likely to sustain hearing loss in our model when they received the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention, which reflected the greater effectiveness of the hearing conservation program. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to estimated values for the probability of acquiring hearing loss from both interventions and the cost of hearing protection. We performed a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis where we simultaneously varied all the model parameters to their extreme plausible bounds. When we ran 10,000 Monte Carlo iterations, we observed that the hearing conservation program was more cost-effective in 99% of cases when decision makers were willing to

  18. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  19. Economic analysis of wildlife conservation in crop farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenum, van J.H.

    2002-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to present an economic analysis of wildlife conservation in Dutch crop farming. This general objective was broken down into 5 specific research objectives around which the research was organised: (1) selection and definition of appropriate indicators for

  20. Genome Analysis of Conserved Dehydrin Motifs in Vascular Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Malik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins, a large family of abiotic stress proteins, are defined by the presence of a mostly conserved motif known as the K-segment, and may also contain two other conserved motifs known as the Y-segment and S-segment. Using the dehydrin literature, we developed a sequence motif definition of the K-segment, which we used to create a large dataset of dehydrin sequences by searching the Pfam00257 dehydrin dataset and the Phytozome 10 sequences of vascular plants. A comprehensive analysis of these sequences reveals that lysine residues are highly conserved in the K-segment, while the amino acid type is often conserved at other positions. Despite the Y-segment name, the central tyrosine is somewhat conserved, but can be substituted with two other small aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine or histidine. The S-segment contains a series of serine residues, but in some proteins is also preceded by a conserved LHR sequence. In many dehydrins containing all three of these motifs the S-segment is linked to the K-segment by a GXGGRRKK motif (where X can be any amino acid, suggesting a functional linkage between these two motifs. An analysis of the sequences shows that the dehydrin architecture and several biochemical properties (isoelectric point, molecular mass, and hydrophobicity score are dependent on each other, and that some dehydrin architectures are overexpressed during certain abiotic stress, suggesting that they may be optimized for a specific abiotic stress while others are involved in all forms of dehydration stress (drought, cold, and salinity.

  1. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1997-07-01

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap. This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. Although radiologically justified, raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In

  2. Structural Simulations and Conservation Analysis -Historic Building Information Model (HBIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the current findings to date of the Historic Building Information Model (HBIM of the Four Courts in Dublin are presented. The Historic Building Information Model (HBIM forms the basis for both structural and conservation analysis to measure the impact of war damage which still impacts on the building. The laser scan survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 of the internal and external structure. After registration and processing of the laser scan survey, the HBIM was created of the damaged section of the building and is presented as two separate workflows in this paper. The first is the model created from historic data, the second a procedural and segmented model developed from laser scan survey of the war damaged drum and dome. From both models structural damage and decay simulations will be developed for documentation and conservation analysis.

  3. Social Network Analysis Identifies Key Participants in Conservation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Cooper M; Reed, Sarah E; Pejchar, Liba

    2018-03-03

    Understanding patterns of participation in private lands conservation, which is often implemented voluntarily by individual citizens and private organizations, could improve its effectiveness at combating biodiversity loss. We used social network analysis (SNA) to examine participation in conservation development (CD), a private land conservation strategy that clusters houses in a small portion of a property while preserving the remaining land as protected open space. Using data from public records for six counties in Colorado, USA, we compared CD participation patterns among counties and identified actors that most often work with others to implement CDs. We found that social network characteristics differed among counties. The network density, or proportion of connections in the network, varied from fewer than 2 to nearly 15%, and was higher in counties with smaller populations and fewer CDs. Centralization, or the degree to which connections are held disproportionately by a few key actors, was not correlated strongly with any county characteristics. Network characteristics were not correlated with the prevalence of wildlife-friendly design features in CDs. The most highly connected actors were biological and geological consultants, surveyors, and engineers. Our work demonstrates a new application of SNA to land-use planning, in which CD network patterns are examined and key actors are identified. For better conservation outcomes of CD, we recommend using network patterns to guide strategies for outreach and information dissemination, and engaging with highly connected actor types to encourage widespread adoption of best practices for CD design and stewardship.

  4. Painleve analysis, conservation laws, and symmetry of perturbed nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Chowdhury, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors consider the Lie-Backlund symmetries and conservation laws of a perturbed KdV equation and NLS equation. The arbitrary coefficients of the perturbing terms can be related to the condition of existence of nontrivial LB symmetry generators. When the perturbed KdV equation is subjected to Painleve analysis a la Weiss, it is found that the resonance position changes compared to the unperturbed one. They prove the compatibility of the overdetermined set of equations obtained at the different stages of recursion relations, at least for one branch. All other branches are also indicated and difficulties associated them are discussed considering the perturbation parameter epsilon to be small. They determine the Lax pair for the aforesaid branch through the use of Schwarzian derivative. For the perturbed NLS equation they determine the conservation laws following the approach of Chen and Liu. From the recurrence of these conservation laws a Lax pair is constructed. But the Painleve analysis does not produce a positive answer for the perturbed NLS equation. So here they have two contrasting examples of perturbed nonlinear equations: one passes the Painleve test and its Lax pair can be found from the analysis itself, but the other equation does not meet the criterion of the Painleve test, though its Lax pair is found in another way

  5. Nature Conservation Against All? Aquatic Macrophyte De-Weeding – Cut or Conserve? A Stakeholder Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Brummer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available De-weeding of streams and lakes occurs in Germany on a widespread level, mostly to ensure water runoff and to provide flood protection. But de-weeding also affects a range of stakeholders, who have their own reasons to support or oppose it. For the list of stakeholders identified, see chapter 4. As part of a project analysing the feasibility of using water plant biomass as a substrate for biogas production, we conducted a multi-method stakeholder analysis to evaluate stakeholders’ opinions about de-weeding. The results show a preference of all stakeholders, except those identifying with nature conservation, for aquatic de-weeding. Our findings also point to a lack of communication between stakeholders, resulting in biased opinions of the stakeholders against other stakeholders and starting points for conflict.

  6. Point Cloud Analysis for Conservation and Enhancement of Modernist Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, M.; Maietti, F.; Mugayar Kühl, B.

    2017-02-01

    Documentation of cultural assets through improved acquisition processes for advanced 3D modelling is one of the main challenges to be faced in order to address, through digital representation, advanced analysis on shape, appearance and conservation condition of cultural heritage. 3D modelling can originate new avenues in the way tangible cultural heritage is studied, visualized, curated, displayed and monitored, improving key features such as analysis and visualization of material degradation and state of conservation. An applied research focused on the analysis of surface specifications and material properties by means of 3D laser scanner survey has been developed within the project of Digital Preservation of FAUUSP building, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. The integrated 3D survey has been performed by the DIAPReM Center of the Department of Architecture of the University of Ferrara in cooperation with the FAUUSP. The 3D survey has allowed the realization of a point cloud model of the external surfaces, as the basis to investigate in detail the formal characteristics, geometric textures and surface features. The digital geometric model was also the basis for processing the intensity values acquired by laser scanning instrument; this method of analysis was an essential integration to the macroscopic investigations in order to manage additional information related to surface characteristics displayable on the point cloud.

  7. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Development of a Conservative Model Validation Approach for Reliable Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    conservativeness level , the conservative probability of failure obtained from Section 4 must be maintained. The mathematical formulation of conservative model... CIE 2015 August 2-5, 2015, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [DRAFT] DETC2015-46982 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONSERVATIVE MODEL VALIDATION APPROACH FOR RELIABLE...PDF and a probability of failure are selected from these predicted output PDFs at a user-specified conservativeness level for validation. For

  9. Identification of conserved regulatory elements by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareborg Niclas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For genes that have been successfully delineated within the human genome sequence, most regulatory sequences remain to be elucidated. The annotation and interpretation process requires additional data resources and significant improvements in computational methods for the detection of regulatory regions. One approach of growing popularity is based on the preferential conservation of functional sequences over the course of evolution by selective pressure, termed 'phylogenetic footprinting'. Mutations are more likely to be disruptive if they appear in functional sites, resulting in a measurable difference in evolution rates between functional and non-functional genomic segments. Results We have devised a flexible suite of methods for the identification and visualization of conserved transcription-factor-binding sites. The system reports those putative transcription-factor-binding sites that are both situated in conserved regions and located as pairs of sites in equivalent positions in alignments between two orthologous sequences. An underlying collection of metazoan transcription-factor-binding profiles was assembled to facilitate the study. This approach results in a significant improvement in the detection of transcription-factor-binding sites because of an increased signal-to-noise ratio, as demonstrated with two sets of promoter sequences. The method is implemented as a graphical web application, ConSite, which is at the disposal of the scientific community at http://www.phylofoot.org/. Conclusions Phylogenetic footprinting dramatically improves the predictive selectivity of bioinformatic approaches to the analysis of promoter sequences. ConSite delivers unparalleled performance using a novel database of high-quality binding models for metazoan transcription factors. With a dynamic interface, this bioinformatics tool provides broad access to promoter analysis with phylogenetic footprinting.

  10. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. PMID:25552747

  11. RUINS AND URBAN CONTEXT: ANALYSIS TOWARDS CONSERVATION AND ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romeo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of classics theatres and amphitheatres in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin. The analysis started from the mapping of the Greek and Roman cities and has been focused in particular to the study of the transformations of these cities from the Middle Age to today, carried out through cartographic surveys, archival investigations and direct analysis. This process has led to understanding the different kinds of reuse that the theaters and amphitheatres have undergone throughout the centuries. Then, by comparing the historical city maps to the current ones (e.g. the maps of urban land registers, the archaeological traces of theatres and amphitheatres still incorporated in the current urban buildings have been located. Finally, a survey of the current situation has allowed identifying the material consistency and morphological characterization of these ancient artifacts. The process led to the proposal of strategies for the conservation and enhancement of ancient entertainment buildings, that respect both the archeological elements and the successive stratification that characterize today our historical cities.

  12. Ruins and Urban Context: Analysis Towards Conservation and Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, E.; Rudiero, R.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of classics theatres and amphitheatres in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin. The analysis started from the mapping of the Greek and Roman cities and has been focused in particular to the study of the transformations of these cities from the Middle Age to today, carried out through cartographic surveys, archival investigations and direct analysis. This process has led to understanding the different kinds of reuse that the theaters and amphitheatres have undergone throughout the centuries. Then, by comparing the historical city maps to the current ones (e.g. the maps of urban land registers), the archaeological traces of theatres and amphitheatres still incorporated in the current urban buildings have been located. Finally, a survey of the current situation has allowed identifying the material consistency and morphological characterization of these ancient artifacts. The process led to the proposal of strategies for the conservation and enhancement of ancient entertainment buildings, that respect both the archeological elements and the successive stratification that characterize today our historical cities.

  13. Mapping and navigating mammalian conservation: from analysis to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Kent H.; Ray, Justina C.; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Although mammals are often seen as important objects of human interest and affection, many are threatened with extinction. A range of efforts have been proposed and much work has been done to try to conserve mammals, but there is little overall understanding of what has worked and why. As a result, there is no global-scale, coordinated approach to conserving all mammals. Rather, conservation efforts are usually focused at jurisdictional levels where relevant legislation and policies are in force. To help build the framework for a global-scale approach, in this paper we review the many ways that have been proposed for conserving mammals. First, we examine the overall pattern of threat faced by mammals at the global level. Secondly, we look at the major structuring issues in prioritizing and planning mammal conservation, examining in particular the roles of values and scale and a set of approaches to conservation, each of which varies along a continuum. Finally, we lay out the steps necessary to move from planning to implementing mammalian conservation. PMID:21844050

  14. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  15. Property Regimes in Resource Conservation-A Framework for Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Lubna

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for analysing property regimes in conservation of natural resources. Human beings interaction with their environment is governed through institutions of property; therefore they play an important role in the conservation of natural resources. This paper uses concepts from the New Institutional Economics School of thought and from theories of property to develop normative criteria to assess property institutions in resource management.

  16. Stochastic analysis of transport of conservative solutes in caisson experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagan, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted in the past a series of experiments of transport of conservative and reactive solutes. The experimental setup and the experimental results are presented in a series of reports. The main aim of the experiments was to validate models of transport of solutes in unsaturated flow at the caisson intermediate scale, which is much larger than the one pertaining to laboratory columns. First attempts to analyze the experimental results were by one-dimensional convective-dispersion models. These models could not explain the observed solute breakthrough curves and particularly the large solute dispersion in the caisson effluent Since there were some question marks about the uniformity of water distribution at the caisson top, the transport experiments were repeated under conditions of saturated flow. In these experiments constant heads were applied at the top and the bottom of the caisson and the number of concentration monitoring stations was quadrupled. The analysis of the measurements by the same one-dimensional model indicated clearly that the fitted dispersivity is much larger than the pore-sole dispersivity and that it grows with the distance in an approximately linear fashion. This led to the conclusion, raised before, that transport in the caisson is dominated by heterogeneity effects, i.e. by spatial variability of the material Such effects cannot be captured by traditional one-dimensional models. In order to account for the effect of heterogeneity, the saturated flow experiments have been analyzed by using stochastic transport modeling. The apparent linear growth of dispersivity with distance suggested that the system behaves like a stratified one. Consequently, the model of Dagan and Bresier has been adopted in order to interpret concentration measurements. In this simple model the caisson is viewed as a bundle of columns of different permeabilities, which are characterized by a p.d.f. (probability denasity function)

  17. Scenario Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Xiejia Watershed Based on Improved CSLE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieying; Yu, Ming; Wu, Yong; Huang, Yao; Nie, Yawen

    2018-01-01

    According to the existing research results and related data, use the scenario analysis method, to evaluate the effects of different soil and water conservation measures on soil erosion in a small watershed. Based on the analysis of soil erosion scenarios and model simulation budgets in the study area, it is found that all scenarios simulated soil erosion rates are lower than the present situation of soil erosion in 2013. Soil and water conservation measures are more effective in reducing soil erosion than soil and water conservation biological measures and soil and water conservation tillage measures.

  18. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in [7], the more interesting case being the latter since these lead to conservation laws via ... obtained and, hence, more conservation laws are classified. .... −2r2 sin θurt − 2r sin θut + 2r sin θ. (. 1 −. 2t r. ) ur + 2t sin θur. +r2 sin θ. (. 1 −. 2t r. ) urr + cos θuθ + sin θuθθ = 0,. (15) and then ¯X2 = u∂u + t∂t + r∂r leads to dt t. = dr.

  19. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  20. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Production of rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid B in Ti transformed Salvia miltiorrhiza cell suspension cultures. Process Biochem. 34: 777-784. Clarke GM, Dwyer CO (2000). Genetic variability and population structure of the endangered golden sun moth, Synemon plana. Biol. Conserv. 92: 371- 381.

  1. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some interesting physical conclusions relating to conservation laws such as energy, linear and angular momenta are also determined. We also present some interesting comparisons with the standard wave equations on a flat geometry. Finally, we pursue the existence of higher-order variational symmetries of equations on ...

  2. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  3. Analysis of Conserved Structural Features of Selenoprotein K | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selenium plays important roles in human health and these roles may be exerted through its presence in selenoproteins. Among the 25 selenoproteins in human is selenoprotein K (SelK) whose exact function is still unclear. Here, we investigated the conserved structural features of SelK using bioinformatics as an approach ...

  4. Symmetry analysis and conservation laws of the Drinfeld-Sokolov-Wilson system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonglong; Zhang, Yufeng; Han, Zhong

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, Lie symmetry analysis is performed on the Drinfeld-Sokolov-Wilson system. We get the corresponding Lie algebra and similarity reductions of the system. In addition, we utilize Noether's approach and the new conservation theorem deriving the conservation laws of this system.

  5. Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

  6. In Vivo Enhancer Analysis Chromosome 16 Conserved NoncodingSequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Ahituv, Nadav; Moses, Alan M.; Nobrega,Marcelo; Prabhakar, Shyam; Shoukry, Malak; Minovitsky, Simon; Visel,Axel; Dubchak, Inna; Holt, Amy; Lewis, Keith D.; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Akiyama, Jennifer; De Val, Sarah; Afzal, Veena; Black, Brian L.; Couronne, Olivier; Eisen, Michael B.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2006-02-01

    The identification of enhancers with predicted specificitiesin vertebrate genomes remains a significant challenge that is hampered bya lack of experimentally validated training sets. In this study, weleveraged extreme evolutionary sequence conservation as a filter toidentify putative gene regulatory elements and characterized the in vivoenhancer activity of human-fish conserved and ultraconserved1 noncodingelements on human chromosome 16 as well as such elements from elsewherein the genome. We initially tested 165 of these extremely conservedsequences in a transgenic mouse enhancer assay and observed that 48percent (79/165) functioned reproducibly as tissue-specific enhancers ofgene expression at embryonic day 11.5. While driving expression in abroad range of anatomical structures in the embryo, the majority of the79 enhancers drove expression in various regions of the developingnervous system. Studying a set of DNA elements that specifically droveforebrain expression, we identified DNA signatures specifically enrichedin these elements and used these parameters to rank all ~;3,400human-fugu conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. The testingof the top predictions in transgenic mice resulted in a three-foldenrichment for sequences with forebrain enhancer activity. These datadramatically expand the catalogue of in vivo-characterized human geneenhancers and illustrate the future utility of such training sets for avariety of iological applications including decoding the regulatoryvocabulary of the human genome.

  7. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moiety with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. We also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties. PMID:27870845

  8. Analysis of the dance of native Isan artists for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakawat Petatano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative investigation to analyse native dance in North-eastern Thailand. There were three objectives for this investigation, which were to study the history of Isan folk dance, current dance postures and ways to conserve the current dance postures of Isan folk artists. Research tools were interview, observation, participation, focus group discussion and workshop. The purposively selected research sample was composed of 3 groups of national artists. The findings show that Isan folk dancer shave their own unique dancing styles. Each artist has his or her own identity, which is constructed based on personal experience of dancing and singing. Mor lam is a dance used to accompany traditional Isansung poetry. Modern dance postures have been adapted from the traditional forms. Dance postures have been adapted from three primary sources: traditional literature, the ethnic and Lanchang dancing in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and rhythmic Khon Kaen compositions. The conclusions of this investigation suggest that preservation of the dancing arts and postures should centre on the incorporation of new knowledge, as well as the continuation of traditional dance postures. Further research is required for people interested in performing arts conservation in other provinces and other traditional performing arts.

  9. Gap analysis and conservation network for freshwater wetlands in Central Yangtze Ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Li; Haijin, Zhuge; Li, Mengdi

    2013-01-01

    The Central Yangtze Ecoregion contains a large area of internationally important freshwater wetlands and supports a huge number of endangered waterbirds; however, these unique wetlands and the biodiversity they support are under the constant threats of human development pressures, and the prevailing conservation strategies generated based on the local scale cannot adequately be used as guidelines for ecoregion-based conservation initiatives for Central Yangtze at the broad scale. This paper aims at establishing and optimizing an ecological network for freshwater wetland conservation in the Central Yangtze Ecoregion based on large-scale gap analysis. A group of focal species and GIS-based extrapolation technique were employed to identify the potential habitats and conservation gaps, and the optimized conservation network was then established by combining existing protective system and identified conservation gaps. Our results show that only 23.49% of the potential habitats of the focal species have been included in the existing nature reserves in the Central Yangtze Ecoregion. To effectively conserve over 80% of the potential habitats for the focal species by optimizing the existing conservation network for the freshwater wetlands in Central Yangtze Ecoregion, it is necessary to establish new wetland nature reserves in 22 county units across Hubei, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces.

  10. From continental priorities to local conservation: a multi-level analysis for African tortoises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bombi

    Full Text Available Terrestrial tortoises are the most endangered group of vertebrates but they are still largely ignored for defining global conservation priorities. In this paper, we explored within a hierarchical framework the potential contribution of prioritization studies at the continental scale to the planning of local initiatives for the conservation of African tortoises at the regional level. First, we modeled the distribution of all the African tortoise species, we calculated three indicators of conservation priority (i.e., species richness, conservation value, and complementarity, and we carried out a gap analysis at continental scale. Second, we focused on the most important region for tortoise conservation and performed the same analyses at higher resolution. Finally, we compared the results from the two scales for understanding the degree to which they are complementary. Southern Africa emerged from the continental analysis as the most important region for tortoises. Within this area, the high-resolution analysis pointed out specific core sites for conservation. The relative degree of species protection was assessed similarly at the two different resolutions. Two species appeared particularly vulnerable at both scales. Priority indices calculated at high resolution were correlated to the values calculated for the corresponding cells at low resolution but the congruence was stronger for species richness. Our results suggest to integrate the calculation of conservation value and complementarity into a hierarchical framework driven by species richness. The advantages of large scale planning include its broad perspective on complementarity and the capability to identify regions with greatest conservation potential. In this light, continental analyses allow targeting fine scale studies toward regions with maximum priority. The regional analyses at fine scale allow planning conservation measure at a resolution similar to that required for the practical

  11. From continental priorities to local conservation: a multi-level analysis for African tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombi, Pierluigi; D'Amen, Manuela; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial tortoises are the most endangered group of vertebrates but they are still largely ignored for defining global conservation priorities. In this paper, we explored within a hierarchical framework the potential contribution of prioritization studies at the continental scale to the planning of local initiatives for the conservation of African tortoises at the regional level. First, we modeled the distribution of all the African tortoise species, we calculated three indicators of conservation priority (i.e., species richness, conservation value, and complementarity), and we carried out a gap analysis at continental scale. Second, we focused on the most important region for tortoise conservation and performed the same analyses at higher resolution. Finally, we compared the results from the two scales for understanding the degree to which they are complementary. Southern Africa emerged from the continental analysis as the most important region for tortoises. Within this area, the high-resolution analysis pointed out specific core sites for conservation. The relative degree of species protection was assessed similarly at the two different resolutions. Two species appeared particularly vulnerable at both scales. Priority indices calculated at high resolution were correlated to the values calculated for the corresponding cells at low resolution but the congruence was stronger for species richness. Our results suggest to integrate the calculation of conservation value and complementarity into a hierarchical framework driven by species richness. The advantages of large scale planning include its broad perspective on complementarity and the capability to identify regions with greatest conservation potential. In this light, continental analyses allow targeting fine scale studies toward regions with maximum priority. The regional analyses at fine scale allow planning conservation measure at a resolution similar to that required for the practical implementation

  12. Error Analysis of Explicit Partitioned Runge–Kutta Schemes for Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, Willem

    2014-08-27

    An error analysis is presented for explicit partitioned Runge–Kutta methods and multirate methods applied to conservation laws. The interfaces, across which different methods or time steps are used, lead to order reduction of the schemes. Along with cell-based decompositions, also flux-based decompositions are studied. In the latter case mass conservation is guaranteed, but it will be seen that the accuracy may deteriorate.

  13. Bird Diversity, Birdwatching Tourism and Conservation in Peru: A Geographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; S??ksj?rvi, Ilari E.

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential...

  14. Stability Analysis for Hybrid Automata Using Conservative Gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, Romanus; Engell, S.; Guegen, H.; Polderman, Jan W.; Krilavicius, T.; Zaytoon, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis approach for a class of hybrid automata. It is assumed that the dynamics in each location of the hybrid automaton is linear and asymptotically stable, and that the guards on the transitions are hyperplanes in the state space. For each pair of ingoing and

  15. Applications of a broad-spectrum tool for conservation and fisheries analysis: aquatic gap analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Steen, Paul J.; Lyons, John; Stewart, Jana S.

    2009-01-01

    Natural resources support all of our social and economic activities, as well as our biological existence. Humans have little control over most of the physical, biological, and sociological conditions dictating the status and capacity of natural resources in any particular area. However, the most rapid and threatening influences on natural resources typically are anthropogenic overuse and degradation. In addition, living natural resources (i.e., organisms) do not respect political boundaries, but are aware of their optimal habitat and environmental conditions. Most organisms have wider spatial ranges than the jurisdictional boundaries of environmental agencies that deal with them; even within those jurisdictions, information is patchy and disconnected. Planning and projecting effects of ecological management are difficult, because many organisms, habitat conditions, and interactions are involved. Conservation and responsible resource use involves wise management and manipulation of the aspects of the environment and biological communities that can be effectively changed. Tools and data sets that provide new insights and analysis capabilities can enhance the ability of resource managers to make wise decisions and plan effective, long-term management strategies. Aquatic gap analysis has been developed to provide those benefits. Gap analysis is more than just the assessment of the match or mis-match (i.e., gaps) between habitats of ecological value and areas with an appropriate level of environmental protection (e.g., refuges, parks, preserves), as the name suggests. Rather, a Gap Analysis project is a process which leads to an organized database of georeferenced information and previously available tools to examine conservation and other ecological issues; it provides a geographic analysis platform that serves as a foundation for aquatic ecological studies. This analytical tool box allows one to conduct assessments of all habitat elements within an area of interest

  16. POINT CLOUD ANALYSIS FOR CONSERVATION AND ENHANCEMENT OF MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balzani

    2017-02-01

    An applied research focused on the analysis of surface specifications and material properties by means of 3D laser scanner survey has been developed within the project of Digital Preservation of FAUUSP building, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. The integrated 3D survey has been performed by the DIAPReM Center of the Department of Architecture of the University of Ferrara in cooperation with the FAUUSP. The 3D survey has allowed the realization of a point cloud model of the external surfaces, as the basis to investigate in detail the formal characteristics, geometric textures and surface features. The digital geometric model was also the basis for processing the intensity values acquired by laser scanning instrument; this method of analysis was an essential integration to the macroscopic investigations in order to manage additional information related to surface characteristics displayable on the point cloud.

  17. Journeys of our ancestors: Conservation science approaches to the analysis of cultural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Caitlin Rose

    The application and use of non-destructive portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a critical tool in the preservation and interpretation of cultural material. Portable XRF instrumentation produce elemental compositional data that is used to reconstruct current artifact composition, which can be related to materials and methods of manufacture, technological practice, as well as object condition and presence of corrosion surfaces. Portable XRF analysis is used to assess a variety of material classes utilized in artifact manufacture. The dissertation research is based on a series of three case studies that represent typical groups of material culture commonly encountered in conservation and conservation science research. Conservators and conservation scientists frequently undertake analysis and interpretation of disparate groups of materials. Often, these objects are tied together by research questions or themes directed by outside influences including preservation issues requiring action; curatorial research interests; museum exhibition programs; as well as many other cultural heritage stakeholders. To this end, both non-destructive and destructive tools that provide measurements of interest play critical roles in analysis. The case studies have been designed to answer common compositional questions relating to (a) bulk analysis of Chinese coins, (b) characterization of Southwestern ceramic colorants, and, (c) chemical examination of post-depositional manganese dioxide accretions occurring on archaeological ceramic materials. They evaluate the value of data produced using effectiveness of non-destructive portable XRF analysis for the interpretation of archaeological materials. The case studies provide a template for the development of conservation science research, predicated on object preservation, which produce meaningful data for the interpretation and conservation of the analyzed archaeological artifacts. Portable XRF provides useful data that is used to

  18. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Puhakka

    Full Text Available In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1.

  19. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1).

  20. Bird Diversity, Birdwatching Tourism and Conservation in Peru: A Geographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1). PMID:22132078

  1. Conservation analysis of dengue virust-cell epitope-based vaccine candidates using peptide block entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Zhang, Guang Lan; Keskin, Derin B.

    2011-01-01

    Broad coverage of the pathogen population is particularly important when designing CD8+ T-cell epitope vaccines against viral pathogens. Traditional approaches are based on combinations of highly conserved T-cell epitopes. Peptide block entropy analysis is a novel approach for assembling sets of ...

  2. Error Analysis of Explicit Partitioned Runge-Kutta Schemes for Conservation Laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hundsdorfer (Willem); D.I. Ketcheson; I. Savostianov (Igor)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractAn error analysis is presented for explicit partitioned Runge-Kutta methods and multirate methods applied to conservation laws. The interfaces, across which different methods or time steps are used, lead to order reduction of the schemes. Along with cell-based decompositions, also

  3. Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional fourth-order evolution equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional nonlinear fourth-order evolution equation. Using the method of Lie point symmetry, we provide the associated vector fields, and derive the similarity reductions of the equation, respectively. The method can be applied wisely and efficiently to get the reduced fractional ordinary differential equations based on the similarity reductions. Finally, by using the nonlinear self-adjointness method and Riemann-Liouville time-fractional derivative operator as well as Euler-Lagrange operator, the conservation laws of the equation are obtained.

  4. Symmetry analysis and conservation laws for a coupled (2 + 1)-dimensional hyperbolic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muatjetjeja, Ben; Khalique, Chaudry Masood

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to perform Lie symmetry analysis and Noether symmetry classification of a coupled (2 + 1)-dimensional hyperbolic system. In the Lie analysis, the principal Lie algebra which is six dimensional extends in thirteen cases. It is further shown that four main cases arise in the Noether classification with respect to the standard Lagrangian. Moreover, conservation laws are established for the cases which admit Noether point symmetries.

  5. Comparative analysis of the radish genome based on a conserved ortholog set (COS) of Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyong; Chung, Hee; Kim, Namshin; Park, Beom-Seok; Lim, Ki-Byung; Yu, Hee-Ju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    This manuscript provides a Brassica conserved ortholog set (COS) that can be used as diagnostic cross-species markers as well as tools for genetic mapping and genome comparison of the Brassicaceae. A conserved ortholog set (COS) is a collection of genes that are conserved in both sequence and copy number between closely related genomes. COS is a useful resource for developing gene-based markers and is suitable for comparative genome mapping. We developed a COS for Brassica based on proteome comparisons of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa, and B. oleracea to establish a basis for comparative genome analysis of crop species in the Brassicaceae. A total of 1,194 conserved orthologous single-copy genes were identified from the genomes based on whole-genome BLASTP analysis. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of them encoded proteins with unknown function and chloroplast-related genes were enriched. In addition, 152 Brassica COS primer sets were applied to 16 crop and wild species of the Brassicaceae and 57.9-92.8 % of them were successfully amplified across the species representing that a Brassica COS can be used as diagnostic cross-species markers of diverse Brassica species. We constructed a genetic map of Raphanus sativus by analyzing the segregation of 322 COS genes in an F2 population (93 individuals) of Korean cultivars (WK10039 × WK10024). Comparative genome analysis based on the COS genes showed conserved genome structures between R. sativus and B. rapa with lineage-specific rearrangement and fractionation of triplicated subgenome blocks indicating close evolutionary relationship and differentiation of the genomes. The Brassica COS developed in this study will play an important role in genetic, genomic, and breeding studies of crop Brassicaceae species.

  6. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Comparative retrospective analysis of pain afflictions in patients with lumbar discopathy receiving conservative or operative therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Krzysztof Roch

    2006-10-01

    Pain afflictions are the basic problems in patients with discopathy of the lumbar backbone. Pain control is the key therapeutic task in patients with a disease of the intervertebral disc. Degree of reduction of the pain sensations is one of the most important criteria in assessment of the treatment efficacy. of this study was to evaluate the pain afflictions in patients with lumbar discopathy treated with conservative and operative therapies. 665 patients aged between 16 and 76 years with discopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels have been enrolled to the study. In estimated group 348 patients received only a conservative therapy whereas 317 patients undergone an operative procedure. Analysis has been performed based on pain rating scores: Low Back Pain Rating Scale (LBPRS), Japanese Orthopedic Association Low Back Pain Score (JOA-LBPS), Domial's pain rating score. Results of performed studies show that conservative and operative treatment significantly alleviate pain affliction in patients with lumbar discopathy. Complete abatement of pain afflictions more frequent refers to operated patients than those only receiving conservative therapy. Alleviation of pain afflictions within a period of three years following operating procedure is significantly higher than within analogous period of conservative treatment. Reduction of pain obtained as a result of surgical procedure in higher degree refers to limb than backbone. Treatment method does not exert an influence on nature of pain afflictions within distant period. Alleviation of pain afflictions within a period of three years following operating procedure is significantly higher than within analogous period of conservative treatment. Treatment method does not exert an influence on nature of pain afflictions within distant period. Patients at the age of above 50 notify the higher level of intensity of pain ailments than young patients and patients in mid age.

  8. A Comprehensive Analysis of Adoption of Energy Crops, GM Crops and Conservation Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Gedikoglu, Haluk

    2013-01-01

    The future of the US agriculture relies on sustainable resource use and income generation for farmers, and maintaining the environmental quality. Hence, farmers are expected to adopt various technologies and practices, such as energy crops, genetically modified crops, and conservation practices. The objective of this study is, by using a multivariate probit model, to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the impact of certain socio-economic factors on adoption of Miscanthus, Roundup Ready® soyb...

  9. Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of a Conserved Syntenic Segment in the Solanaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Diehl, Adam; Wu, Feinan; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James; Siepel, Adam; Tanksley, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Comparative genomics is a powerful tool for gaining insight into genomic function and evolution. However, in plants, sequence data that would enable detailed comparisons of both coding and noncoding regions have been limited in availability. Here we report the generation and analysis of sequences for an unduplicated conserved syntenic segment (CSS) in the genomes of five members of the agriculturally important plant family Solanaceae. This CSS includes a 105-kb region of tomato chromosome 2 and orthologous regions of the potato, eggplant, pepper, and petunia genomes. With a total neutral divergence of 0.73–0.78 substitutions/site, these sequences are similar enough that most noncoding regions can be aligned, yet divergent enough to be informative about evolutionary dynamics and selective pressures. The CSS contains 17 distinct genes with generally conserved order and orientation, but with numerous small-scale differences between species. Our analysis indicates that the last common ancestor of these species lived ∼27–36 million years ago, that more than one-third of short genomic segments (5–15 bp) are under selection, and that more than two-thirds of selected bases fall in noncoding regions. In addition, we identify genes under positive selection and analyze hundreds of conserved noncoding elements. This analysis provides a window into 30 million years of plant evolution in the absence of polyploidization. PMID:18723883

  10. Niche analysis and conservation of the orchids of east Macedonia (NE Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiftsis, Spyros; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Karagiannakidou, Vassiliki; Alifragis, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The orchid family is one of the largest in the flowering plant kingdom and includes a lot of rare, threatened or endangered species. The determination of plant species niche is considered fundamental for their conservation. Two parameters closely related with species niche are niche marginality and breadth. The first parameter is a measure of how typical or atypical a species niche is within an area, while the second is a measure of species tolerance. This study deals with niche analysis of the orchids of east Macedonia (NE Greece). Factors that are known to determine species distribution on a regional scale, such as altitude, aspect, habitat type, bedrock type and soil properties (acidity, organic matter, and phosphorus content) were used as explanatory variables. Geographical coordinates were also employed in order to explore spatial patterns in orchid distribution. Niche analysis was carried out using the Outlying Mean Index (OMI) analysis. Out of the total data of 55 taxa that were analyzed, 41 had a significant marginal niche compared with the average niche of the study area. Altitude, soil acidity and certain habitat types were found to be the most important factors in determining orchid distribution. Five different species groups were distinguished on the basis of their ecological preferences and niche breadth. Species niche marginality and breadth, the amplitude of their geographical distribution, the size of their populations and the rareness and conservation status of their habitats were taken into account in order to set conservation priorities for the orchids in the study area. The above characteristics combined with intuitive criteria (e.g. geographical distribution, endemicity) for the species with a small number of occurrences could form a sound basis for setting conservation priorities.

  11. Effects of terracing on soil and water conservation in China: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Die; Wei, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Terracing has long been considered a powerful strategy for soil and water conservation. However, the efficiency is limited by many factors, such as climate, soil properties, topography, land use, population and socioeconomic status. The aim of this critical review was to discuss the effects of terracing on soil and water conservation in China, using a systematic approach to select peer-reviewed articles published in English and Chinese. 46 individual studies were analyzed, involving six terracing structures (level terraces, slope-separated terraces, slope terraces, reverse-slope terraces, fanya juu terraces and half-moon terraces), a wide geographical range (Northeastern China, Southeastern hilly areas, Southwestern mountain areas and Northwestern-central China), and six land use types (forest, crop trees, cropland, shrub land, grassland and bare land) as well as a series of slope gradients ranging from 3° to 35°. Statistical meta-analysis with runoff for 593 observations and sediment for 636 observations confirmed that terracing had a significant effect on water erosion control. In terms of different terrace structures, runoff and sediment reduction were uppermost on slope-separated terraces. Land use in terraces also played a crucial role in the efficiency of conservation, and tree crops and forest were detected as the most powerful land covers in soil and water conservation due to large aboveground biomass and strong root systems below the ground, which directly reduces the pressure of terraces on rainwater redistribution. In addition, a significant positive correlation between slope gradients (3° 15° and 16° 35°) and terracing efficiency on soil and water conservation was observed. This study revealed the effectiveness and variation of terracing on water erosion control on the national scale, which can serve as a scientific basis to land managers and decision-makers.

  12. Design and Analysis of Conservation Projects in Latin America: an Integrative Approach to Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Galindo-Leal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American countries have a disproportionate importance in global biodiversity conservation. Six of the 14 megadiversity countries that house 60-70% of the species in the world are located on this region. Unfortunately, the number of environmental professionals in Latin America is extremely small. Furthermore, most of them have no postgraduate degrees and are unacquainted with general research methodology and recently developed concepts and tools. In addition, many speak no English and have no way to communicate with colleagues in other parts of the world. In collaboration with Latin American colleagues, universities, government agencies, and nongovernment organizations, I have been developing an integrated field course titled "Design and Analyses of Projects to Manage Biological Diversity" to address these problems. To date, we have conducted nine courses in seven countries. The courses consist of five complementary components that are addressed sequentially: (1 conceptual framework, (2 critical analysis of personal projects, (3 methodological tools, (4 analytical tools, and (5 integration. I also discuss the elements that contribute to the success of these courses. Powerful elements in the course are the presentation, critical analysis, and constructive discussion of participants' real conservation projects. In addition, the careful matching of participants with instructors, subject matter, and learning environment has resulted in a great learning experience for everyone involved. Because of the lack of graduate training in conservation-related disciplines and the more general pitfalls associated with teaching science, there is a great demand in Latin America for integrated field courses.

  13. Conservation priorities of useful plants from different techniques of collection and analysis of ethnobotanical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucena, Reinaldo F P; Lucena, Camilla M; Araújo, Elcida L; Alves, Angelo G C; de Albuquerque, Ulysses P

    2013-03-01

    This study analyzes three methods of data analysis to verify which one would be more appropriate to get information aiming the conservation, selecting the use value (VU) inventory in situ and conservation property index (IPC). It was developed in in Northeast Brazil, via interviewed householders (46 informants). The VU was calculated considering only the effective use of plants; the inventory in situ was made through the frequency of species occurrence in homes; and the IPC combining ethnobotanical and phytossociological data. It was observed a similar cast of the indicated species by VU and inventory in situ, being different from the IPC cast. As this study sought to analyze the best technique for species identification which were needing conservationist actions, and obtained different results among the chosen methods. It has been suggested the use of methods that unite in their analysis both ethnobotanical and ecological aspects, like in the plants list from the priority index of conservation, which demonstrated to be more efficient to identify rare species in the local vegetation. The VU and the inventory in situ are more efficient to identify the most known and used species in the communities, however without analyzing these plants in the local vegetation.

  14. Chemical analysis of wine conservation agents and their impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esipov A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article provides the analysis of used conservation agents in the wine industry and the research about their impact on human's health. Sulfur dioxide and potassium sorbate are often used in the food industry and winery. This research shows which dose is potentially a threat to human's health. According to the norms of the Customs Union – the permissible dose of sulfites in wine is 300 mg/l. In this amount for healthy people, the E220 additive does not pose a threat. According to the research, the safest wines, with the minimum amount of conservation agents are "organic" wines, the content of sulfur dioxide in them is from 10 mg/l to 120 mg/l.

  15. Development of Non-Conservative Joints in Beam Networks for Vibration Energy Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hun Song

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aims to find a general solution for the vibrational energy flow through a plane network of beams on the basis of an energy flow analysis. A joint between two semi-infinite beams are modeled by three sets of springs and dashpots. Thus, the results can incorporate the case of complaint and non-conservative in all the three degrees of freedom. In the cases of finite coupled structures connected at a certain angle, the derived non-conservative joints and developed wave energy equation were applied. The joint properties, the frequency, the coupling angle, and the internal loss factor were changed to evaluate the proposed methods for predicting medium-to-high frequency vibrational energy and intensity distributions.

  16. Analysis of conservation priorities of Iberoamerican cattle based on autosomal microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginja, Catarina; Gama, Luís T; Cortes, Oscar; Delgado, Juan Vicente; Dunner, Susana; García, David; Landi, Vincenzo; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Martínez-Martínez, Amparo; Penedo, M Cecília T; Rodellar, Clementina; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cañon, Javier

    2013-09-30

    Determining the value of livestock breeds is essential to define conservation priorities, manage genetic diversity and allocate funds. Within- and between-breed genetic diversity need to be assessed to preserve the highest intra-specific variability. Information on genetic diversity and risk status is still lacking for many Creole cattle breeds from the Americas, despite their distinct evolutionary trajectories and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. A comprehensive genetic analysis of 67 Iberoamerican cattle breeds was carried out with 19 FAO-recommended microsatellites to assess conservation priorities. Contributions to global diversity were investigated using alternative methods, with different weights given to the within- and between-breed components of genetic diversity. Information on Iberoamerican plus 15 worldwide cattle breeds was used to investigate the contribution of geographical breed groups to global genetic diversity. Overall, Creole cattle breeds showed a high level of genetic diversity with the highest level found in breeds admixed with zebu cattle, which were clearly differentiated from all other breeds. Within-breed kinships revealed seven highly inbred Creole breeds for which measures are needed to avoid further genetic erosion. However, if contribution to heterozygosity was the only criterion considered, some of these breeds had the lowest priority for conservation decisions. The Weitzman approach prioritized highly differentiated breeds, such as Guabalá, Romosinuano, Cr. Patagonico, Siboney and Caracú, while kinship-based methods prioritized mainly zebu-related breeds. With the combined approaches, breed ranking depended on the weights given to the within- and between-breed components of diversity. Overall, the Creole groups of breeds were generally assigned a higher priority for conservation than the European groups of breeds. Conservation priorities differed significantly according to the weight given to within- and between

  17. [Comparative analysis of the neurological status in patients with lumbar discopathy receiving conservative or operative therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Krzysztof Roch

    2007-03-01

    Neurological examination is one of basic assessment methods of the patients with discopathy of the lumbar spine. Neurological status of the patients can significantly change depending on progression of the disease of the intervertebral disc. It often determines a selection of the treatment method; it is also important criterion for assessment of efficacy of the accepted procedure. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate neurological status in the patients with lumbar discopathy receiving only conservative therapy as well as undergoing surgical procedures. 665 patients aged between 16 and 76 years with discopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels have been enrolled to the study. In estimated group 348 patients received only a conservative therapy whereas 317 patients undergone an operative procedure. Study included hospitalization period and more than ten year period after discharge from the Clinic. Collected material has been analyzed in tree age groups: young persons (up to 30), mid age persons (31-50 years) and older persons (at the age of above 50). Neurological examination included analysis of the following parameters: cough symptom, Laségue's sign, stretch reflexes (patellar, ankle), superficial perception and vibration, function of sphincters, muscular power). No significant progression of the neurological symptoms up to the fifth year of treatment has been seen in group of patients receiving conservative therapy. In group of operated patients starting the second year after surgical procedure, number of diagnosed pathological neurological symptoms systematically was increasing. Patients at the age above 50 presented significantly higher level of neurological disturbances than young and patients in mid age. In the baseline study, level of diagnosed neurological disturbances in group of patients referred to surgical procedure was significantly higher than in group of patients receiving only conservative therapy. Conservative treatment and operative

  18. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  19. Analysis gives the penal treatment in Cuba to the tied infractions to the use and conservation gives radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Gonzalez, F.; Perez Velazquez, R.S.; Fornet, R.O.; Reyes Fajardo, E.

    1998-01-01

    The work refers the realized analysis to the Law 62 the Cuban penal code that with establishing to the treatment of the infractions referred standard's to the uses and conservation the radioactive substances and other ionizing radiations sources

  20. Conservative performance analysis of a PWR nuclear fuel rod using the FRAPCON code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: fabio@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, some of the preliminary results of the sensitivity and conservative analysis of a hypothetical pressurized water reactor fuel rod are presented, using the FRAPCON code as a basic and preparation tool for the future transient analysis, which will be carried out by the FRAPTRAN code. Emphasis is given to the evaluation of the cladding behavior, since it is one of the critical containment barriers of the fission products, generated during fuel irradiation. Sensitivity analyses were performed by the variation of the values of some parameters, which were mainly related with thermal cycle conditions, and taking into account an intermediate value between the realistic and conservative conditions for the linear heat generation rate parameter, given in literature. Time lengths were taken from typical nuclear power plant operational cycle, adjusted to the obtention of a chosen burnup. Curves of fuel and cladding temperatures, and also for their mechanical and oxidation behavior, as a function of the reactor operation's time, are presented for each one of the nodes considered, over the nuclear fuel rod. Analyzing the curves, it was possible to observe the influence of the thermal cycle on the fuel rod performance, in this preliminary step for the accident/transient analysis. (author)

  1. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: Cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Richard J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. Results The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360, cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. Conclusion We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases.

  2. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  3. Conservative treatment of acute cholecystitis: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Charlotte S; Oor, Jelmer E; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Boerma, Djamila

    2017-02-01

    In medical practice, the tendency to remove an inflamed gallbladder is deeply rooted. Cholecystectomy, however, is associated with relatively high complication rates, and therefore the decision whether or not to perform surgery should be well considered. For some patients, the surgical risk-benefit profile may favour conservative treatment. The objective of this study was to examine the short- and long-term outcome of conservative treatment of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was performed. Prospective studies reporting on the success rate of conservative treatment (i.e. non-invasive treatment) of acute cholecystitis during index admission were included, as well as prospective and retrospective studies reporting on the recurrence rate of gallstone-related disease during long-term follow-up (i.e. ≥12 months) after initial non-surgical management. Study selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers using predefined criteria. The risk of bias was assessed. The pooled success and mortality rate during index admission and the pooled recurrence rate of gallstone-related disease during long-term follow-up were calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 1841 patients were included in 10 randomized controlled trials and 14 non-randomized studies. Conservative treatment during index admission was successful in 87 % of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis and in 96 % of patients with mild disease. In the long term, 22 % of the patients developed recurrent gallstone-related disease. Pooled analysis showed a success rate of 86 % (95 % CI 0.8-0.9), a mortality rate of 0.5 % (95 % CI 0.001-0.009) and a recurrence rate of 20 % (95 % CI 0.1-0.3). Conservative treatment of acute calculous cholecystitis during index admission seems feasible and safe, especially in patients with mild disease. During long-term follow-up, less than a quarter of the patients appear to

  4. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report; Konservativitaetsanalysen bei Freigabegrenzwerten. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1997-07-01

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap (the reference). This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. The radiological model for the exposure via the groundwater pathway is much more conservative (concerning mainly beta emitting nuclides). Although radiologically justified

  5. Meta-analysis reveals conserved cell cycle transcriptional network across multiple human cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotti, Bruno; Joshi, Anagha; Freeman, Tom C

    2017-01-05

    Cell division is central to the physiology and pathology of all eukaryotic organisms. The molecular machinery underpinning the cell cycle has been studied extensively in a number of species and core aspects of it have been found to be highly conserved. Similarly, the transcriptional changes associated with this pathway have been studied in different organisms and different cell types. In each case hundreds of genes have been reported to be regulated, however there seems to be little consensus in the genes identified across different studies. In a recent comparison of transcriptomic studies of the cell cycle in different human cell types, only 96 cell cycle genes were reported to be the same across all studies examined. Here we perform a systematic re-examination of published human cell cycle expression data by using a network-based approach to identify groups of genes with a similar expression profile and therefore function. Two clusters in particular, containing 298 transcripts, showed patterns of expression consistent with cell cycle occurrence across the four human cell types assessed. Our analysis shows that there is a far greater conservation of cell cycle-associated gene expression across human cell types than reported previously, which can be separated into two distinct transcriptional networks associated with the G 1 /S-S and G 2 -M phases of the cell cycle. This work also highlights the benefits of performing a re-analysis on combined datasets.

  6. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry energy transfer system is developed based on model property. Firstly, a reconfigurable energy transfer process model, which is independent of energy types and energy-consuming equipment, is presented from the viewpoint of the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow. Thereafter the material balance determination is proposed based on both a dynamic incidence matrix and dynamic balance quantity. Moreover, the model-weighted conservation determination theorem is proved, and the energy efficiency analysis method is also discussed. Results confirmed the efficacy of the proposed methods, confirming its potential for use by process industry in energy efficiency analyses.

  7. State of the interface between conservation and physiology: a bibliometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary conservation science benefits from the perspectives of a variety of different disciplines, including a recent synergy with physiology, an interface known as ‘conservation physiology’. To evaluate the degree of interaction between conservation and animal/plant physiology, we conducted three bibliometric analyses. We first pursued the use of the term ‘conservation physiology’ since its first definition in 2006 to determine how frequently it has been used and in which publications. Secondly, we evaluated the occurrence of conservation terms in animal and plant physiology journals, physiological terms in conservation journals, and a combination of terms in ecology journals. Thirdly, we explored trends in a subset of conservation physiology articles published between 2006 and 2012. We identified a surge in the use of the term ‘conservation physiology’ in 2012, after only a slow increase in usage between 2006 and 2011. Conservation journals tend to have been significantly more active in publishing conservation physiology than animal physiology, plant physiology or ecology journals. However, we found evidence that ecology and animal physiology journals began to incorporate more conservation physiology after 2006, while conservation- and plant physiology-themed journals did not. Among 299 conservation physiology articles that we identified, vertebrate taxa have been over-represented in conservation physiology compared with their relative taxonomic abundance, invertebrate taxa have been under-represented, and plants have been represented in proportion to their relative taxonomic abundance; however, those findings are reasonably consistent with publication trends in conservation biology. Diffuse distribution of conservation physiology papers throughout the literature may have been a barrier to the growth of the subdiscipline when the interface was emerging. The introduction of the focused journal Conservation Physiology in 2013 may address that

  8. Analysis, Technical Investigation and Conservation of a Painted Enamel Qajar Pendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Wafaa Anwar Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims atinvestigating the chemical composition and the technical features of a painted enamel Qajar pendant. This investigation was followed by cleaning and conservation of the pendant. Optical light microscope (OLM, scanning electron microscope (SEM combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF were used respectively for imaging and micro-analysis of the object. The study proved that the pendant is made of gold foils, round and half-round gold wires of different sizes and carats. Different forming and decorative techniques were found to be used for the manufacturing of the pendent: repoussé, granulation, filigree, chasing, stamping, painted and cloisonné enameling. The study also proved that the central quatrefoil ornament is not solid metal, containing a wax core

  9. When experiment and energy conservation collide: video analysis of an unrolling mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.; Lipscombe, Trevor C.

    2018-03-01

    A mat consisting of round bamboo rods connected by strings perpendicular to their axes unrolls without slipping on a horizontal table. Video analysis is used to measure the position of the centre of the remaining roll as a function of time. It is found to accelerate with time due to the ‘rocket effect’ of the roll ejecting rods backward relative to itself. Mechanical energy is not conserved because of the inelastic collisions of the rods with the table. The fitted coefficient of restitution (COR) is 0.59 ± 0.04 which is consistent with known values for wood on wood. In support of this explanation, progressively smaller values of the COR are found when the mat is unrolled on a flat woven rug and on a shock-absorbing pad. The level of analysis is appropriate to an undergraduate course in physical mechanics.

  10. Radiographic analysis in works of art - its utilization in the restoration, conservation and authentification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, C.A.; Coelho, J.C.; Pereira, A.A.; Mendes, M.; Cunha, A.P.; Fernandes, L.E.A.P.V.; Menezes Freitas, A. de; Batista, A.C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The radiographic methods are important in the scientific inquiry of the art and archaelogic works throughout the world. In Brazil, this study has been realized at a few biological research groups and no more development can be recognized. By the radiographic analysis of six oils on canvas assigned to Ataide (Manuel da Costa Ataide), an impressionist painter of the 18th century, the authors try to determine his main technical pattern (distribution of heavy metal pigments, application of thick layers of pigment, etc.). The basic compositional elements were evaluated along with chemical tests and analysis by ultraviolet and infrared radiations, representing a historic document about Ataide's style. Each technique will be related to the purpose of the inquiry, affording the authors the opportunity to offer comments upon restoration, conservation and authentification of paintings. (author) [pt

  11. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  12. Analysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mediator reveals a set of essential subunits conserved between yeast and metazoan cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spåhr, H; Samuelsen, C O; Baraznenok, V

    2001-01-01

    . cerevisiae share an essential protein module, which associates with nonessential speciesspecific subunits. In support of this view, sequence analysis of the conserved yeast Mediator components Med4 and Med8 reveals sequence homology to the metazoan Mediator components Trap36 and Arc32. Therefore, 8 of 10...... essential genes conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae also have a metazoan homolog, indicating that an evolutionary conserved Mediator core is present in all eukaryotic cells. Our data suggest a closer functional relationship between yeast and metazoan Mediator than previously anticipated....

  13. Identification of conserved drought-adaptive genes using a cross-species meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaar-Moshe, Lidor; Hübner, Sariel; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-05-03

    Drought is the major environmental stress threatening crop-plant productivity worldwide. Identification of new genes and metabolic pathways involved in plant adaptation to progressive drought stress at the reproductive stage is of great interest for agricultural research. We developed a novel Cross-Species meta-Analysis of progressive Drought stress at the reproductive stage (CSA:Drought) to identify key drought adaptive genes and mechanisms and to test their evolutionary conservation. Empirically defined filtering criteria were used to facilitate a robust integration of 17 deposited microarray experiments (148 arrays) of Arabidopsis, rice, wheat and barley. By prioritizing consistency over intensity, our approach was able to identify 225 differentially expressed genes shared across studies and taxa. Gene ontology enrichment and pathway analyses classified the shared genes into functional categories involved predominantly in metabolic processes (e.g. amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism), regulatory function (e.g. protein degradation and transcription) and response to stimulus. We further investigated drought related cis-acting elements in the shared gene promoters, and the evolutionary conservation of shared genes. The universal nature of the identified drought-adaptive genes was further validated in a fifth species, Brachypodium distachyon that was not included in the meta-analysis. qPCR analysis of 27, randomly selected, shared orthologs showed similar expression pattern as was found by the CSA:Drought.In accordance, morpho-physiological characterization of progressive drought stress, in B. distachyon, highlighted the key role of osmotic adjustment as evolutionary conserved drought-adaptive mechanism. Our CSA:Drought strategy highlights major drought-adaptive genes and metabolic pathways that were only partially, if at all, reported in the original studies included in the meta-analysis. These genes include a group of unclassified genes that could be involved

  14. Conservation and Use of Genetic Resources of Underutilized Crops in the Americas—A Continental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Galluzzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is home to dramatically diverse agroecological regions which harbor a high concentration of underutilized plant species, whose genetic resources hold the potential to address challenges such as sustainable agricultural development, food security and sovereignty, and climate change. This paper examines the status of an expert-informed list of underutilized crops in Latin America and analyses how the most common features of underuse apply to these. The analysis pays special attention to if and how existing international policy and legal frameworks on biodiversity and plant genetic resources effectively support or not the conservation and sustainable use of underutilized crops. Results show that not all minor crops are affected by the same degree of neglect, and that the aspects under which any crop is underutilized vary greatly, calling for specific analyses and interventions. We also show that current international policy and legal instruments have so far provided limited stimulus and funding for the conservation and sustainable use of the genetic resources of these crops. Finally, the paper proposes an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating a crop’s underutilization, in order to define the most appropriate type and levels of intervention (international, national, local for improving its status.

  15. Cloning of noggin gene from hydra and analysis of its functional conservation using Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramore, Kalpana; Ito, Yuzuro; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Hydra, a member of phylum Cnidaria that arose early in evolution, is endowed with a defined axis, organized nervous system, and active behavior. It is a powerful model system for the elucidation of evolution of developmental mechanisms in animals. Here, we describe the identification and cloning of noggin-like gene from hydra. Noggin is a secreted protein involved at multiple stages of vertebrate embryonic development including neural induction and is known to exert its effects by inhibiting the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that hydra Noggin shows considerable similarity with its orthologs at the amino acid level. When microinjected in the early Xenopus embryos, hydra noggin mRNA induced a secondary axis in 100% of the injected embryos, demonstrating functional conservation of hydra noggin in vertebrates. This was further confirmed by the partial rescue of Xenopus embryos by hydra noggin mRNA from UV-induced ventralization. By using animal cap assay in Xenopus embryos, we demonstrate that these effects of hydra noggin in Xenopus embryos are because of inhibition of BMP signaling by Noggin. Our data indicate that BMP/Noggin antagonism predates the bilaterian divergence and is conserved during the evolution.

  16. The effects of feedback on energy conservation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Beth; Zinger, Joanne F; Ford, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    Feedback has been studied as a strategy for promoting energy conservation for more than 30 years, with studies reporting widely varying results. Literature reviews have suggested that the effectiveness of feedback depends on both how and to whom it is provided; yet variations in both the type of feedback provided and the study methodology have made it difficult for conclusions to be drawn. The current article analyzes past theoretical and empirical research on both feedback and proenvironmental behavior to identify unresolved issues, and utilizes a meta-analysis of 42 feedback studies published between 1976 and 2010 to test a set of hypotheses about when and how feedback about energy usage is most effective. Results indicate that feedback is effective overall, r = .071, p < .001, but with significant variation in effects (r varied from -.080 to .480). Several treatment variables were found to moderate this relationship, including frequency, medium, comparison message, duration, and combination with other interventions (e.g., goal, incentive). Overall, results provide further evidence of feedback as a promising strategy to promote energy conservation and suggest areas in which future research should focus to explore how and for whom feedback is most effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Urban life cycle analysis and the conservation of the urban fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algreen-Ussing, Gregers; Hassler, Uta; Kohler, Niklaus

    2004-01-01

    into consideration some new and emerging cultural aspects and to integrate them into adapted conservation procedures. This enlarged and more complex view on urban built heritage conservation problems has driven the SUIT project to propose introducing a new concept: the "active conservation". The definition...... of strategic objectives related to urban fragments heritage active-conservation and their management on long-term is a collective action that necessitates the ability to evaluate the quality of an urban fragment as a whole....

  18. State of the interface between conservation and physiology: a bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lennox, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary conservation science benefits from the perspectives of a variety of different disciplines, including a recent synergy with physiology, an interface known as ?conservation physiology?. To evaluate the degree of interaction between conservation and animal/plant physiology, we conducted three bibliometric analyses. We first pursued the use of the term ?conservation physiology? since its first definition in 2006 to determine how frequently it has been used and in which publications. ...

  19. Analysis of explicit multirate and partitioned Runge-Kutta schemes for conservation laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hundsdorfer (Willem); A. Mozartova (Anna); V. Savcenco (Valeriu)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMultirate schemes for conservation laws or convection-dominated problems seem to come in two flavors: schemes that are locally inconsistent, and schemes that lack mass-conservation. In this paper these two defects are discussed for one-dimensional conservation laws. Particular attention

  20. Hartung-Knapp method is not always conservative compared with fixed-effect meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiksten, Anna; Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido

    2016-07-10

    A widely used method in classic random-effects meta-analysis is the DerSimonian-Laird method. An alternative meta-analytical approach is the Hartung-Knapp method. This article reports results of an empirical comparison and a simulation study of these two methods and presents corresponding analytical results. For the empirical evaluation, we took 157 meta-analyses with binary outcomes, analysed each one using both methods and performed a comparison of the results based on treatment estimates, standard errors and associated P-values. In several simulation scenarios, we systematically evaluated coverage probabilities and confidence interval lengths. Generally, results are more conservative with the Hartung-Knapp method, giving wider confidence intervals and larger P-values for the overall treatment effect. However, in some meta-analyses with very homogeneous individual treatment results, the Hartung-Knapp method yields narrower confidence intervals and smaller P-values than the classic random-effects method, which in this situation, actually reduces to a fixed-effect meta-analysis. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct a sensitivity analysis based on the fixed-effect model instead of solely relying on the result of the Hartung-Knapp random-effects meta-analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws, solitary and periodic waves for a coupled Burger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei-Juan; Tian, Shou-Fu; Tu, Jian-Min; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a generalized (2 + 1)-dimensional coupled Burger equation with variable coefficients, which describes lots of nonlinear physical phenomena in geophysical fluid dynamics, condense matter physics and lattice dynamics. By employing the Lie group method, the symmetry reductions and exact explicit solutions are obtained, respectively. Based on a direct method, the conservations laws of the equation are also derived. Furthermore, by virtue of the Painlevé analysis, we successfully obtain the integrable condition on the variable coefficients, which plays an important role in further studying the integrability of the equation. Finally, its auto-Bäcklund transformation as well as some new analytic solutions including solitary and periodic waves are also presented via algebraic and differential manipulation.

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Conservation Agriculture Implementation in Syrdarya Province of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daujanov Azizbek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most irrigated lands of Central Asia suffer from land degradation, and unsustainable agricultural practices are one of the factors contributing to land degradation. Conservation agriculture (CA is seen as a way to mitigate land degradation and rationalize resource use. The aim of this article is to investigate the efficiency of CA implementation in the Syrdarya province of Uzbekistan, Central Asia by carrying out a cost-benefit analysis (CBA. The CBA was conducted for a hypothetical situation where the farm decides to switch from conventional agriculture to CA. Unlike the previous studies, this study investigates complete crop rotation cycle in the long-term period. The study outcomes suggest that investment in CA implementation results in positive incremental benefit if the advantages of CA are monetized.

  3. Global analysis of asymmetric RNA enrichment in oocytes reveals low conservation between closely related Xenopus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claußen, Maike; Lingner, Thomas; Pommerenke, Claudia; Opitz, Lennart; Salinas, Gabriela; Pieler, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    RNAs that localize to the vegetal cortex during Xenopus laevis oogenesis have been reported to function in germ layer patterning, axis determination, and development of the primordial germ cells. Here we report on the genome-wide, comparative analysis of differentially localizing RNAs in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis oocytes, revealing a surprisingly weak degree of conservation in respect to the identity of animally as well as vegetally enriched transcripts in these closely related species. Heterologous RNA injections and protein binding studies indicate that the different RNA localization patterns in these two species are due to gain/loss of cis-acting localization signals rather than to differences in the RNA-localizing machinery. PMID:26337391

  4. Cost Analysis of a Surgical Consensus Guideline in Breast-Conserving Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer; Elmore, Leisha C; Cyr, Amy E; Aft, Rebecca L; Gillanders, William E; Margenthaler, Julie A

    2017-08-01

    The Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society of Radiation Oncology consensus statement was the first professional guideline in breast oncology to declare "no ink on tumor" as a negative margin in patients with stages I/II breast cancer undergoing breast-conservation therapy. We sought to analyze the financial impact of this guideline at our institution using a historic cohort. We identified women undergoing re-excision after breast-conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer from 2010 through 2013 using a prospectively maintained institutional database. Clinical and billing data were extracted from the medical record and from administrative resources using CPT codes. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. Of 254 women in the study population, 238 (93.7%) had stage I/II disease and 182 (71.7%) had invasive disease with ductal carcinoma in situ. A subcohort of 83 patients (32.7%) who underwent breast-conservation therapy for stage I/II disease without neoadjuvant chemotherapy had negative margins after the index procedure, per the Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society of Radiation Oncology guideline. The majority had invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 70 [84.3%]) and had invasive disease (n = 45 [54.2%]), and/or ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 49 [59.0%]) within 1 mm of the specimen margin. Seventy-nine patients underwent 1 re-excision and 4 patients underwent 2 re-excisions, accounting for 81 hours of operative time. Considering facility fees and primary surgeon billing alone, the overall estimated cost reduction would have been $195,919, or $2,360 per affected patient, under the guideline recommendations. Implementation of the Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society of Radiation Oncology consensus guideline holds great potential to optimize resource use. Application of the guideline to a retrospective cohort at our institution would have decreased the overall re-excision rate by 5.6% and reduced costs by nearly $200

  5. [Conservative therapy for metatarsal 5 basis fractures - retrospective and prospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoz, S; Voelcker, A L; Burchhardt, H; Tezval, M; Schleikis, A; Stürmer, K M; Sehmisch, S

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 30 % of all bone injuries are foot metatarsal fractures. Metatarsal V basis fractures occur most frequently. The classification is done into the tuberosity avulsion fractures, Jones fractures and stress fractures of the proximal diaphysis. The treatments of non-displaced fractures are generally conservative. The indication for surgical treatment depends on the load and the associated refracture rate. There are different types of treatment of these fractures. We present a possible approach to conservative treatments and show how different therapies affect healing of metatarsal V basis fractures and social reintegration of patients. A retrospective study consisted of 68 patients analysed during a 9-year period, whereas for a prospective analysis 18 patients were included for a period of 3 years. The treatment was performed using either a splint, closed bandage of the ankle or special Göttinger Anklesplint bandage, with immediate pain-oriented full load in all groups. The subjective and objective treatment results were analysed accoding the Göttinger Phillips score. In retrospect, the fracture consolidation was observed after 8.1 weeks full load-bearing was achieved after 6.3 weeks on average. In the prospective analysis, the osseous consolidation occurred after 6.2 weeks, and the full load was applied after 1.7 weeks. After 10 weeks the treatment with the Anklesplint bandage was assessed with 105 points of a maximum 110 points of the Phillips score. The Anklesplint bandage was also the cheapest option in the cost comparison. Using the immobilisation of the metatarsal supination with the Anklesplint bandage the metatarsal V basis fractures can heal in a regular way. The functional outcome is better in comparison to the that with other treatments and it is a cost-effective treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Information strategies and energy conservation behavior: A meta-analysis of experimental studies from 1975 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, Magali A.; Fischlein, Miriam; Asensio, Omar I.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies that provide information about the environmental impact of activities are increasingly seen as effective to encourage conservation behavior. This article offers the most comprehensive meta-analysis of information based energy conservation experiments conducted to date. Based on evidence from 156 published field trials and 525,479 study subjects from 1975 to 2012, we quantify the energy savings from information based strategies. On average, individuals in the experiments reduced their electricity consumption by 7.4%. Our results also show that strategies providing individualized audits and consulting are comparatively more effective for conservation behavior than strategies that provide historical, peer comparison energy feedback. Interestingly, we find that pecuniary feedback and incentives lead to a relative increase in energy usage rather than induce conservation. We also find that the conservation effect diminishes with the rigor of the study, indicating potential methodological issues in the current literature. - Highlights: • We conduct a meta-analysis of information-based energy conservation experiments. • We analyze 156 published trials and 524,479 study subjects from 1975 to 2012. • On average, individuals in the experiments reduced electricity consumption by 7.4%. • Individualized feedback via audits and consulting results in the largest reductions. Pecuniary feedback and incentives lead to a relative increase in energy usage

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of conservation priorities for aquatic mammals and their terrestrial relatives, with a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura J; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss and overexploitation are among the primary factors threatening populations of many mammal species. Recently, aquatic mammals have been highlighted as particularly vulnerable. Here we test (1) if aquatic mammals emerge as more phylogenetically urgent conservation priorities than their terrestrial relatives, and (2) if high priority species are receiving sufficient conservation effort. We also compare results among some phylogenetic conservation methods. A phylogenetic analysis of conservation priorities for all 620 species of Cetartiodactyla and Carnivora, including most aquatic mammals. Conservation priority ranking of aquatic versus terrestrial species is approximately proportional to their diversity. However, nearly all obligated freshwater cetartiodactylans are among the top conservation priority species. Further, ∼74% and 40% of fully aquatic cetartiodactylans and carnivores, respectively, are either threatened or data deficient, more so than their terrestrial relatives. Strikingly, only 3% of all 'high priority' species are thought to be stable. An overwhelming 97% of these species thus either show decreasing population trends (87%) or are insufficiently known (10%). Furthermore, a disproportional number of highly evolutionarily distinct species are experiencing population decline, thus, such species should be closely monitored even if not currently threatened. Comparison among methods reveals that exact species ranking differs considerably among methods, nevertheless, most top priority species consistently rank high under any method. While we here favor one approach, we also suggest that a consensus approach may be useful when methods disagree. These results reinforce prior findings, suggesting there is an urgent need to gather basic conservation data for aquatic mammals, and special conservation focus is needed on those confined to freshwater. That evolutionarily distinct--and thus 'biodiverse'--species are faring relatively poorly is alarming

  8. Dipeptide frequency/bias analysis identifies conserved sites of nonrandomness shared by cysteine-rich motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, S R; Ameen, A S; Lai, L; King, J M; Munzenmaier, T N

    2001-08-15

    This report describes the application of a simple computational tool, AAPAIR.TAB, for the systematic analysis of the cysteine-rich EGF, Sushi, and Laminin motif/sequence families at the two-amino acid level. Automated dipeptide frequency/bias analysis detects preferences in the distribution of amino acids in established protein families, by determining which "ordered dipeptides" occur most frequently in comprehensive motif-specific sequence data sets. Graphic display of the dipeptide frequency/bias data revealed family-specific preferences for certain dipeptides, but more importantly detected a shared preference for employment of the ordered dipeptides Gly-Tyr (GY) and Gly-Phe (GF) in all three protein families. The dipeptide Asn-Gly (NG) also exhibited high-frequency and bias in the EGF and Sushi motif families, whereas Asn-Thr (NT) was distinguished in the Laminin family. Evaluation of the distribution of dipeptides identified by frequency/bias analysis subsequently revealed the highly restricted localization of the G(F/Y) and N(G/T) sequence elements at two separate sites of extreme conservation in the consensus sequence of all three sequence families. The similar employment of the high-frequency/bias dipeptides in three distinct protein sequence families was further correlated with the concurrence of these shared molecular determinants at similar positions within the distinctive scaffolds of three structurally divergent, but similarly employed, motif modules.

  9. Exergy analysis on industrial boiler energy conservation and emission evaluation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-06-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipments in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption. Industrial boilers in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment. In recent years, our country in the big scope, long time serious fog weather, with coal-fired industrial boilers is closely related to the regional characteristics of high strength and low emissions [1]. The energy-efficient and emission-reducing of industry boiler is of great significance to improve China’s energy usage efficiency and environmental protection. Difference in thermal equilibrium theory is widely used in boiler design, exergy analysis method is established on the basis of the first law and second law of thermodynamics, by studying the cycle of the effect of energy conversion and utilization, to analyze its influencing factors, to reveal the exergy loss of location, distribution and size, find out the weak links, and a method of mining system of the boiler energy saving potential. Exergy analysis method is used for layer combustion boiler efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics analysis and evaluation, and can more objectively and accurately the energy conserving potential of the mining system of the boiler, find out the weak link of energy consumption, and improve equipment performance to improve the industrial boiler environmental friendliness.

  10. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  11. Rational sub-division of plant trypanosomes (Phytomonas spp.) based on minicircle conserved region analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Nancy R; Dollet, Michel; Lukes, Julius; Campbell, David A

    2007-09-01

    The sequences of minicircle conserved regions from various plant trypanosomatids have been determined and analyzed. The goal of this study was to add another tool to the arsenal of molecular probes for distinguishing between the different trypanosomatids occurring in plants: systemic trypanosomatids multiplying in the sap, those from the laticiferous tubes, and those developing in fruits, seeds or flowers but not in the plant itself and that are frequently considered as opportunistic insect trypanosomatids. As some plant intraphloemic trypanosomatids are the causative agents of important diseases, a clear definition of the different types of trypanosomatids is critical. The conserved region of the mitochondrial minicircle provides several specific features in a small sequence region containing three functionally elements required for minicircle replication. Trees generated from the analysis recapitulated trees drawn from analyses of isoenzymes, RAPD, and particular gene sequences, supporting the validity of the small region used in this work. Three groups of isolates were significant and in accordance with previous work. The peculiarity of phloem-restricted trypanosomatids associated with wilts of coconut and oil palm in Latin America - group H - is confirmed. In agreement with previous studies on their biological and serological properties the results highlighted this group called 'phloemicola'. It always differentiated from all other latex and fruit isolates or opportunistic trypanosomatids, like insect trypanosomatids. We can assert that phloemicola is the only well-defined taxon among all plant trypanosomatids. A group of non-pathogenic latex isolates from South American euphorbs (G), and a heterogenous group (A) including one fruit, one possible latex and one insect isolate are clearly distinct groups. The group of Mediterranean isolates from latex (D), even with a low boostrap, stood out well from other groups. The remainder of the isolates fell into a

  12. Estimation of the stress related to conservative scoliosis therapy: an analysis based on BSSQ questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent girls treated with a brace for scoliosis are submitted to prolonged stress related to both the disease and the therapy. Currently proposed quality of life questionnaires are focused on the outcome of therapy. Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ enables monitoring of patients being under treatment with a brace or exercises. The aim of the study was to assess the stress level in conservatively managed scoliotic girls using BSSQ. Materials and methods 111 girls, aged 14,2 ± 2,2 years, mean Cobb angle of the primary curve 42,8° ± 17,0° and mean Bunnell angle of 11,4° ± 4,5° were examined with two versions of BSSQ (Deformity and Brace. The analysis considered the type of treatment, curve location, correlation of the total score with age, Cobb angle and Bunnell rotation angle. Results The BSSQ Deformity revealed the median of 17 points in patients managed with exercises (from 4 to 24 points, 18 in patients managed with a brace (from 8 to 24 points and 12 in patients before surgery (from 3 to 21 points. Braced patients who completed both questionnaires (n = 50 revealed significantly higher score with BSSQ Deformity (median = 18 comparing to BSSQ Brace (median = 9. There was a correlation between the total score of BSSQ Deformity and the Cobb angle (r = -0,34, Bunnell primary curve rotation (r = -0,34 and Bunnell sum of rotation (r = -0,33 but not with the age of patients. Conclusion Scoliotic adolescents managed with exercises and brace suffered little stress from the deformity. The brace increased the level of stress over the stress induced by the deformity. The stress level correlated with clinical deformity (Bunnell angle, radiological deformity (Cobb angle and the type of treatment (exercises, bracing, surgery. Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires are simple and helpful in the management of girls treated conservatively for idiopathic scoliosis.

  13. Proposed biodiversity conservation areas: gap analysis and spatial prioritization on the inadequately studied Qinghai Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Renqiang; Powers,Ryan; Xu,Ming; Zheng,Yunpu; Zhao,Shujie

    2018-01-01

    Global biodiversity priorities are primarily addressed through the establishment or expansion of conservation areas (CAs). Spatial prioritization of these CAs can help minimize biodiversity loss by accounting for the uneven distribution of biodiversity and conservation considerations (e.g., accessibility, cost, and biodiversity threats). Furthermore, optimized spatial priorities can help facilitate the judicious use of limited conservation resources by identifying cost effective CA designs. H...

  14. Local participation in biodiversity conservation initiatives: a comparative analysis of different models in South East Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-López, María Elena; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Pritchard, Diana J; Sánchez González, María Consuelo; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2014-12-01

    In Mexico, biodiversity conservation is primarily implemented through three schemes: 1) protected areas, 2) payment-based schemes for environmental services, and 3) community-based conservation, officially recognized in some cases as Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas. In this paper we compare levels of local participation across conservation schemes. Through a survey applied to 670 households across six communities in Southeast Mexico, we document local participation during the creation, design, and implementation of the management plan of different conservation schemes. To analyze the data, we first calculated the frequency of participation at the three different stages mentioned, then created a participation index that characterizes the presence and relative intensity of local participation for each conservation scheme. Results showed that there is a low level of local participation across all the conservation schemes explored in this study. Nonetheless, the payment for environmental services had the highest local participation while the protected areas had the least. Our findings suggest that local participation in biodiversity conservation schemes is not a predictable outcome of a specific (community-based) model, thus implying that other factors might be important in determining local participation. This has implications on future strategies that seek to encourage local involvement in conservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis and adaptive control of a novel 3-D conservative no-equilibrium chaotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan Sundarapandian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available First, this paper announces a seven-term novel 3-D conservative chaotic system with four quadratic nonlinearities. The conservative chaotic systems are characterized by the important property that they are volume conserving. The phase portraits of the novel conservative chaotic system are displayed and the mathematical properties are discussed. An important property of the proposed novel chaotic system is that it has no equilibrium point. Hence, it displays hidden chaotic attractors. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel conservative chaotic system are obtained as L1 = 0.0395,L2 = 0 and L3 = −0.0395. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel conservative chaotic system is DKY =3. Next, an adaptive controller is designed to globally stabilize the novel conservative chaotic system with unknown parameters. Moreover, an adaptive controller is also designed to achieve global chaos synchronization of the identical conservative chaotic systems with unknown parameters. MATLAB simulations have been depicted to illustrate the phase portraits of the novel conservative chaotic system and also the adaptive control results.

  16. An analysis of heating and cooling conservation features in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    One purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship in commercial buildings between conservation investments, fuel prices, building occupancy and building characteristics for new buildings and for existing buildings. The data base is a nationwide survey of energy in commercial buildings conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 1986. Some simple cross-tabulations indicate that conservation measures vary with building size, building age, type of building, and fuel used for building heating. Regression estimates of a conservation model indicate that the number of conservation features installed during construction is a positive function of the price of the heating fuel at the time of construction. Subsequent additions of conservation features are positively correlated with increases in heating fuel prices. Given the EIA projection of relatively stable future energy prices, the number of retrofits may not increase significantly. Also, energy efficiency in new buildings may not continue to increase relative to current new buildings. If fuel prices affect consumption via initial conservation investments, current fuel prices, marginal or average, are not the appropriate specification. The fuel price regression results indicate that conservation investments in new buildings are responsive to market signals. Retrofits are less responsive to market signals. The number of conservation features in a building is not statistically related to the type of occupancy (owner versus renter), which implies that conservation strategies are not impeded by the renting or leasing of buildings

  17. Residue conservation and dimer-interface analysis of olfactory receptor molecular models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sowdhamini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory Receptors (ORs are members of the Class A rhodopsin like G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs which are the initial players in the signal transduction cascade, leading to the generation of nerve impulses transmitted to the brain and resulting in the detection of odorant molecules. Despite the accumulation of thousands of olfactory receptor sequences, no crystal structures of ORs are known tο date. However, the recent availability of crystallographic models of a few GPCRs allows us to generate homology models of ORs and analyze their amino acid patterns, as there is a huge diversity in OR sequences. In this study, we have generated three-dimensional models of 100 representative ORs from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and Sacharomyces cerevisiae which were selected on the basis of a composite classification scheme and phylogenetic analysis. The crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin was used as a template and it was found that the full-length models have more than 90% of their residues in allowed regions of the Ramachandran plot. The structures were further used for analysis of conserved residues in the transmembrane and extracellular loop regions in order to identify functionally important residues. Several ORs are known to be functional as dimers and hence dimer interfaces were predicted for OR models to analyse their oligomeric functional state.

  18. Comparative genomics of Mycoplasma: analysis of conserved essential genes and diversity of the pan-genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma, the smallest self-replicating organism with a minimal metabolism and little genomic redundancy, is expected to be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes needed to sustain bacterial life. This study employs comparative evolutionary analysis of twenty Mycoplasma genomes to gain an improved understanding of essential genes. By analyzing the core genome of mycoplasmas, we finally revealed the conserved essential genes set for mycoplasma survival. Further analysis showed that the core genome set has many characteristics in common with experimentally identified essential genes. Several key genes, which are related to DNA replication and repair and can be disrupted in transposon mutagenesis studies, may be critical for bacteria survival especially over long period natural selection. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,355 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among mycoplasma strains. To obtain deeper insight into the relative roles of molecular evolution in pathogen adaptation to their hosts, we also analyzed the positive selection pressures on particular sites and lineages. There appears to be an approximate correlation between the divergence of species and the level of positive selection detected in corresponding lineages.

  19. Prediction of functional sites in proteins using conserved functional group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, C Axel; Anand, A Prem; Sowdhamini, R

    2004-04-02

    A detailed knowledge of a protein's functional site is an absolute prerequisite for understanding its mode of action at the molecular level. However, the rapid pace at which sequence and structural information is being accumulated for proteins greatly exceeds our ability to determine their biochemical roles experimentally. As a result, computational methods are required which allow for the efficient processing of the evolutionary information contained in this wealth of data, in particular that related to the nature and location of functionally important sites and residues. The method presented here, referred to as conserved functional group (CFG) analysis, relies on a simplified representation of the chemical groups found in amino acid side-chains to identify functional sites from a single protein structure and a number of its sequence homologues. We show that CFG analysis can fully or partially predict the location of functional sites in approximately 96% of the 470 cases tested and that, unlike other methods available, it is able to tolerate wide variations in sequence identity. In addition, we discuss its potential in a structural genomics context, where automation, scalability and efficiency are critical, and an increasing number of protein structures are determined with no prior knowledge of function. This is exemplified by our analysis of the hypothetical protein Ydde_Ecoli, whose structure was recently solved by members of the North East Structural Genomics consortium. Although the proposed active site for this protein needs to be validated experimentally, this example illustrates the scope of CFG analysis as a general tool for the identification of residues likely to play an important role in a protein's biochemical function. Thus, our method offers a convenient solution to rapidly and automatically process the vast amounts of data that are beginning to emerge from structural genomics projects.

  20. Energy Conservation in Existing Housing Sites; a Comparative Case Analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    2009-01-01

    The housing sector in the Netherlands is responsible for a significant fraction of primary energy use and CO2 emissions. Great energy conservation opportunities are to be found in the existing housing stock, especially in large renovation projects on existing sites. Energy conservation savings of up

  1. Is conservative surgery for tubal pregnancy preferable to salpingectomy? An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, B. W.; Hajenius, P. J.; Engelsbel, S.; Ankum, W. M.; Hemrika, D. J.; van der Veen, F.; Bossuyt, P. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The traditional treatment of ectopic pregnancy is salpingectomy, while conservative surgery aims to save the function of the uterine tube. This study compares the effectiveness and the economic costs of salpingectomy and conservative tubal surgery in women with a tubal pregnancy. METHODS:

  2. Balanced program plan: analysis for biomedical and environmental research. Volume 7. Conservation and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Energy conservation technologies encompass the entire spectrum of human activities: electrical supply, industry, commercial and residential buildings, transportation and various overlapping combinations of these. This report is concerned with those conservation technologies that appear to be most important in the near and intermediate terms. Many of the specific R and D programs are contained in the preliminary ''Conservation Program Plan'' of the ERDA Assistant Administrator for Conservation. However, some projects are included that are supported by other Federal agencies and private industry. Section 1 contains a brief description of each conservation technology and an enumeration of health/safety/environmental impacts, both beneficial and adverse, that are expected to accrue from the new technology. Section 2 contains a brief discussion of problems, priorities and programs. Section 3 contains ''Problem Definitions'' and ''Program Units'' that are recommended to become a part of the ''BER Balanced Program Plan.''

  3. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for the Nondestructive Investigation of Conservation Treatments of Cultural Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Marcello; Robotti, Elisa; Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Barberis, Elettra; Shor, Pnina; Marengo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Today the long-term conservation of cultural heritage is a big challenge: often the artworks were subjected to unknown interventions, which eventually were found to be harmful. The noninvasive investigation of the conservation treatments to which they were subjected to is a crucial step in order to undertake the best conservation strategies. We describe here the preliminary results on a quick and direct method for the nondestructive identification of the various interventions of parchment by means of direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and chemometrics. The method has been developed for the noninvasive analysis of the Dead Sea Scrolls, one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. In this study castor oil and glycerol parchment treatments, prepared on new parchment specimens, were investigated in order to evaluate two different types of operations. The method was able to identify both treatments. In order to investigate the effect of the ion source temperature on the mass spectra, the DART-MS analysis was also carried out at several temperatures. Due to the high sensitivity, simplicity, and no sample preparation requirement, the proposed analytical methodology could help conservators in the challenging analysis of unknown treatments in cultural heritage.

  4. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds..

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Collado, D.; Diaz, D.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Gandini, G.

    2013-01-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors

  5. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for the Nondestructive Investigation of Conservation Treatments of Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Manfredi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the long-term conservation of cultural heritage is a big challenge: often the artworks were subjected to unknown interventions, which eventually were found to be harmful. The noninvasive investigation of the conservation treatments to which they were subjected to is a crucial step in order to undertake the best conservation strategies. We describe here the preliminary results on a quick and direct method for the nondestructive identification of the various interventions of parchment by means of direct analysis in real time (DART ionization and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and chemometrics. The method has been developed for the noninvasive analysis of the Dead Sea Scrolls, one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. In this study castor oil and glycerol parchment treatments, prepared on new parchment specimens, were investigated in order to evaluate two different types of operations. The method was able to identify both treatments. In order to investigate the effect of the ion source temperature on the mass spectra, the DART-MS analysis was also carried out at several temperatures. Due to the high sensitivity, simplicity, and no sample preparation requirement, the proposed analytical methodology could help conservators in the challenging analysis of unknown treatments in cultural heritage.

  6. [Thermal energy utilization analysis and energy conservation measures of fluidized bed dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liming; Zhao, Zhengsheng

    2012-07-01

    To propose measures for enhancing thermal energy utilization by analyzing drying process and operation principle of fluidized bed dryers,in order to guide optimization and upgrade of fluidized bed drying equipment. Through a systematic analysis on drying process and operation principle of fluidized beds,the energy conservation law was adopted to calculate thermal energy of dryers. The thermal energy of fluidized bed dryers is mainly used to make up for thermal consumption of water evaporation (Qw), hot air from outlet equipment (Qe), thermal consumption for heating and drying wet materials (Qm) and heat dissipation to surroundings through hot air pipelines and cyclone separators. Effective measures and major approaches to enhance thermal energy utilization of fluidized bed dryers were to reduce exhaust gas out by the loss of heat Qe, recycle dryer export air quantity of heat, preserve heat for dry towers, hot air pipes and cyclone separators, dehumidify clean air in inlets and reasonably control drying time and air temperature. Such technical parameters such air supply rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, material temperature and outlet temperature and humidity are set and controlled to effectively save energy during the drying process and reduce the production cost.

  7. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  8. Analysis of the effect and potential of energy conservation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiankun; Liu Bin; Zhang Aling

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a quantitative algorithm for direct and indirect energy savings is developed based on the database analysis of China's energy consumption per GDP in the last two decades. The result shows that direct energy savings due to improved energy conversion and end-use utilization efficiencies only account for 26.5% of the total energy savings, and that indirect energy savings due to increased added value of products, product shifts, and structure shifts in industries account for 73.5% of the total energy savings. Factors affecting indirect energy savings are then analyzed, and total energy system efficiencies and direct energy savings in 2020 are quantitatively estimated, which shows that enlarging indirect energy savings is a more crucial task for China's macro-energy conservation in the future. The paper suggests that China should pay more attention to indirect energy savings to improve the energy utilization output benefits by increasing the added value of products, optimizing product and industry structures, and improving production technologies. The potential of indirect energy savings in China is more significant compared with developed countries

  9. Energy Conservation Analysis and Control of Hybrid Active Semiactive Suspension with Three Regulating Damping Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active suspension has not been popularized for high energy consumption. To address this issue, this paper introduces the concept of a new kind of suspension. The linear motor is considered to be integrated into an adjustable shock absorber to form the hybrid active semiactive suspension (HASAS. To realize the superiority of HASAS, its energy consumption and regeneration mechanisms are revealed. And the system controller which is composed of linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller, mode decision and switch controller, and the sliding mode control based thrust controller is developed. LQR controller is designed to maintain the suspension control objectives, while mode decision and switch controller decides the optimal damping level to tune motor thrust. The thrust controller ensures motor thrust tracking. An adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels to be used in HASAS is trial produced and tested to obtain its working characteristics. Finally, simulation analysis is made with the experimental three damping characteristics. The impacts of adjustable damping on the motor force and energy consumption are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of HASAS in energy conservation with various suspension control objectives. Even self-powered active control and energy regenerated to the power source can be realized.

  10. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  11. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws and exact solutions of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Emrullah; Yıldırım, Yakup; Khalique, Chaudry Masood

    In this paper Lie symmetry analysis of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito (FSKI) equation with Riemann-Liouville derivative is performed. Using the Lie point symmetries of FSKI equation, it is shown that it can be transformed into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation of fractional order with a new dependent variable. In the reduced equation the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober sense. Furthermore, adapting the Ibragimov's nonlocal conservation method to time fractional partial differential equations, we obtain conservation laws of the underlying equation. In addition, we construct some exact travelling wave solutions for the FSKI equation using the sub-equation method.

  12. Conservation analysis of dengue virus T-cell epitope-based vaccine candidates using peptide block entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ronn Olsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Broad coverage of the pathogen population is particularly important when designing CD8+ T-cell epitope vaccines against viral pathogens. Traditional approaches to assembling broadly covering sets of peptides are commonly based on assembling highly conserved epitopes. Peptide block entropy analysis is a novel approach to assembling sets of broadly covering antigens. Since T-cell epitopes are recognized as peptides rather than individual residues, this method is based on calculating the information content of blocks of peptides from a multiple sequence alignment of homologous proteins rather than individual residues. The block entropy analysis provides broad coverage by variant inclusion, since high frequency may not be the sole determinant of the immunogenic potential of a predicted MHC class I binder. We applied block entropy analysis method to the proteomes of the four serotypes of dengue virus and found 1,551 blocks of 9-mer peptides, which covered all available sequences with five or fewer unique peptides. In contrast, the benchmark study by Khan et al. (2008, resulted in 165 9-mers being determined as conserved. Many of the blocks are located consecutively in the proteins, so connecting these blocks resulted in 78 conserved regions which can be covered with 457 subunit peptides. Of the 1551 blocks of 9-mer peptides, 110 blocks consisted of peptides all predicted to bind to MHC with similar affinity and the same HLA restriction. In total, we identified a pool of 333 peptides as T-cell epitope candidates. This set could form the basis for a broadly neutralizing dengue virus vaccine. The peptide block entropy analysis approach significantly increases the number of conserved peptide regions in comparison to traditional conservation analysis of individual residues. We determined 457 subunit peptides with the capacity to encompass the diversity of all sequenced DENV strains.

  13. Proposed biodiversity conservation areas: gap analysis and spatial prioritization on the inadequately studied Qinghai Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renqiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global biodiversity priorities are primarily addressed through the establishment or expansion of conservation areas (CAs. Spatial prioritization of these CAs can help minimize biodiversity loss by accounting for the uneven distribution of biodiversity and conservation considerations (e.g., accessibility, cost, and biodiversity threats. Furthermore, optimized spatial priorities can help facilitate the judicious use of limited conservation resources by identifying cost effective CA designs. Here, we demonstrate how key species and ecosystems can be incorporated into systematic conservation planning to propose the expansion and addition of new CAs in the biodiversity-unique and data-poor region of Qinghai Plateau, China. We combined species distribution models with a systematic conservation planning tool, MARXAN to identify CAs for biodiversity on Qinghai Plateau. A set of 57 optimal CAs (273,872 km2, 39.3 % of this Province were required to achieve the defined conservation targets in Qinghai Province. We also identified 29 new CAs (139,216 km2, 20% of Qinghai Province outside the existing nature reserve (NRs that are necessary to fully achieve the proposed conservation targets. The conservation importance of these 29 new CAs was also indicated, with 10 labeled as high priority, 11 as medium priority, and 8 as low priority. High priority areas were more abundant in the eastern and southeastern parts of this region. Our results suggest that many species remain inadequately protected within the Qinghai Plateau, with conservation gaps in eastern and northwestern regions. The proposed more representative and effective CAs can provide useful information for adjusting the existing NRs and developing the first National Park in China.

  14. Baseline energy forecasts and analysis of alternative strategies for airline fuel conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of fuel conservation strategies, baseline forecasts of airline activity and energy consumption to 1990 were developed. Alternative policy options to reduce fuel consumption were identified and analyzed for three baseline levels of aviation activity within the framework of an aviation activity/energy consumption model. By combining the identified policy options, a strategy was developed to provide incentives for airline fuel conservation. Strategies and policy options were evaluated in terms of their impact on airline fuel conservation and the functioning of the airline industry as well as the associated social, environmental, and economic costs. (GRA)

  15. Functional conservation analysis and expression modes of grape anthocyanin synthesis genes responsive to low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Jia, Haifeng; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2015-12-10

    In grape cultivation, low temperature generally increases the expression of genes involved in synthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, multi-type structural analysis of the proteins encoded by five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes VvF3H, VvPAL, VvCHS3, VvCHS2 and VvLDOX, in addition to nine of their homologous genes revealed that proteins in grapevine shared a high similarity with that in kiwi, red orange and some other species in which the biosynthesis of anthocyanin significantly influenced by low temperature as proved by previous studies. Low temperature regulatory elements were also found in the promoter region of the grapevine genes VvCHS2, VvPAL and VvF3H. These findings indicate that the functions of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in grapevine are conservative and might be sensitive to low temperature. In order to identify the specific expression patterns of the five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and the changes of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids under low temperature stress. The transcription analysis of the five genes and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids in grape skins were examined, by using Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Yongyou 1' and 'Juxing' berries as experimental material and treated at 4°C and 25°C for 24h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. The results showed that low temperature greatly enhanced the expression of the five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Low temperature greatly slowed down the decomposition of polyphenol, anthocyanin, and flavonoid in grape skins. Our study also found that cv. 'Juxing' responded more sensitively to low temperature than cv. 'Yongyou 1'. All the findings would provide a basis for further study on the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis under environmental stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  17. Impacts of Common Urban Development Factors on Cultural Conservation in World Heritage Cities: An Indicators-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Guzman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the urban context, heritage conservation has been acknowledged as fundamental for sustainable development. This paper address the need to develop methodologies that enable understanding of the dynamics between these two fields that for long were regarded as opposing practices. The research crosses disciplinary boundaries through a mixed methodology that identifies 27 urban development common indicators as factors that are affecting the conservation of 69 World Heritage Cities (WHC. Indicators, which were selected from global urban monitoring tools, were analyzed within UNESCO State-of-Conservation reporting system. Results reveal key trends on urban factors assessed as a SWOT analysis in relation to the management of WHC. We argue that urban indicators can facilitate the understanding of development impacts in cultural heritage conservation, across the social, economic, and environmental dimensions. This paper contributes to the debate on the ability of indicators to bridge interdisciplinary and methodological issues that were related to common conceptualizations between urban development and heritage conservation and sustainability. The conceptual approach that is presented has proven to offer an empirical basis for a monitoring practice that fosters the sustainable management of urban heritage, which in the light of the New Development Agenda and the gaps in the state-of-the-art, is very much needed.

  18. Analysis of regional banks' efforts to promote energy conservation among commercial customers. Task II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-30

    The study approach explored the hypothesis that regional banks can play an important role in disseminating energy conservation information to their commercial/industrial customers. The four phases of the study are described in detail. (MCW)

  19. Comparative Analysis Of River Conservation In The United States And South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the United States and South Africa are recognized for their strong and innovative approaches to the conservation of river ecosystems. These national programs possess similar driving legislation and ecoregional classification schemes supported by comprehensive monitoring prog...

  20. A long-term analysis of the conservative surgery behavior in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Duran, Daisy; Diaz Mitjans, Orlando; Abreu Vazquez, Maria del Rosario

    2012-01-01

    In past years the conservative surgery became consolidated as a valid procedure in treatment of a determined group of breast cancer patients, thus allows to achieve a satisfactory local control with a lesser level of mutilation, neither modifying the survival nor distant metastasis index from a distance. To determine the results of conservative surgery of breast cancer according to the variables selected during 1991-2009. Our results not differ from those found in studies at world level

  1. What Drives Biodiversity Conservation Effort in the Developing World? An analysis for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Manuela Amin

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in low-income economies is a vital issue and hence needs to be addressed for development and poverty eradication. A variety of empirical works exist on the subject, but the focus is often limited on the search for possible causes of biodiversity erosion. Research on the "driving forces" that influence biodiversity conservation effort is still largely missing, especially for developing countries. In this study, we seek to address this gap. We test, using different mod...

  2. A conceptual analysis of the application of tradable permits to biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissel, Silvia; Wätzold, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Tradable permits have been applied in many areas of environmental policy and may be a response to increasing calls for flexible conservation instruments that successfully conserve biodiversity while allowing for economic development. The idea behind applying tradable permits to conservation is that developers wishing to turn land to economic purposes, thereby destroying valuable habitat, may only do so if they submit a permit to the conservation agency showing that habitat of at least the equivalent ecological value is restored elsewhere. The developer himself does not need to carry out the restoration, but may buy a permit from a third party, thus allowing a market to emerge. Nevertheless, the application of tradable permits to biodiversity conservation is a complex issue because destroyed and restored habitats are likely to differ. There may be various trade-offs between the ecological requirements that destroyed and restored habitats be as similar as possible, and the need for a certain level of market activity to have a functioning trading system. The success of tradable permits as an instrument for reconciling the conflicts between economic development and conservation depends on the existence of certain economic, institutional, and ecological preconditions, for example, a functioning institutional framework, sufficient expert knowledge, and adequate monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.

  3. Baseline energy forecasts and analysis of alternative strategies for airline fuel conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify measures to reduce airline fuel consumption and to evaluate the impact of these alternatives on fuel consumption through 1990. To evaluate the impact of fuel conservation strategies, baseline forecasts of airline activity and energy consumption to 1990 were developed. Alternative policy options to reduce fuel consumption were identified and analyzed for three baseline levels of aviation activity within the framework of an aviation activity/energy consumption model. By combining the identified policy options, a strategy was developed to provide incentives for airline fuel conservation. Strategies and policy options were evaluated in terms of their impact on airline fuel conservation and the functioning of the airline industry as well as the associated social, environmental, and economic costs. The need for strategies to conserve airline fuel is based on air transportation's dependence upon petroleum; the current lack of alternative energy sources; the potential for disruption of air service due to crises in fuel availability such as experienced during the OPEC oil embargo; and the overall national goal of energy independence through energy conservation in all consuming sectors. The transition from the current situation to that described by strategies and policy options may require difficult adjustments by the airline industry in the short term. In the long term, however, conservation strategies can enhance the health of the airline industry as well as its fuel efficiency.

  4. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Eric D; Katari, Manpreet S; Stevenson, Dennis W; Rudd, Stephen A; Douglas, Andrew W; Moss, Walter N; Twigg, Richard W; Runko, Suzan J; Stellari, Giulia M; McCombie, W R; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2005-10-15

    Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate), female (megasporangiate), and vegetative organs (leaves) of Ginkgo biloba. RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants--many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and pollen evolution, and to resolve the ambiguous phylogenetic

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen L; Spannagl, Manuel; Mayer, Klaus F X; Asp, Torben

    2015-03-28

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf fescues, both belonging to the subfamily Pooideae. This subfamily also includes wheat, barley, oat and rye, making it extremely important to world agriculture. Species within the Lolium-Festuca complex show very diverse phenotypes, and many of them are related to agronomically important traits. Analysis of sequenced transcriptomes of these non-model species may shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic diversity. We have generated de novo transcriptome assemblies for four species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family clusters for the four species using OrthoMCL and analyzed their inferred phylogenetic relationships. Our results indicate that VRN2 is a candidate gene for differentiating vernalization and non-vernalization types in the Lolium-Festuca complex. Grouping of the gene families based on their BLAST identity enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some of the differences between the more stress tolerant Festuca, and the less stress tolerant Lolium species. Our data presents a comprehensive transcriptome sequence comparison between species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, with the identification of potential candidate genes underlying some important phenotypical differences within the complex (such as VRN2). The orthologous genes between the species have a very high %id (91,61%) and the majority of gene families were shared for all of them. It is

  6. ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE, ENERGY CONSERVATION, AND EMISSION REDUCTION IN THE FINANCIAL PROSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHOIRUL ANWAR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effect of environmental disclosure to financial performance (quantitative case study of company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in the year 2008. Empirical result of this study furthermore is being extended by qualitative research for exploring more deeply about implementation of green gas houses in Indonesia trough energy audit. The quantitative research in this study is based on cross-sectional empirical applied research. Through a purposive judgment sampling technique, 31 companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange which also participated in PROPER (environmental program held by Indonesian Ministry of Environment were included in this study. The first hypothesis is asserted as there is significant effect between environmental performance and financial performance. The second hypothesis is asserted as there is significant effect between environmental disclosure and financial performance. The method of data analysis is multiple linear regressions. The results for both first and second hypotheses indicated that environmental performance and disclosure were significantly affecting financial performance. Further qualitative study in this article extends empirical result of above study. This study discusses about energy conservation and emission reduction in 16 steel industries and 5 pulp and paper industries. Based on result of audit energy that is converted to economical measurement, this study came up with the conclusion that many industries are still extravagant in consuming energy due to inefficient of old equipment process and lack of energy flow Metter measurement. By showing the comparison results of energy consumption in old and new equipment process that are converted to economical measurement, this study recommends to use new machinery for industrial life cycle to support green gas houses program.

  7. Mangrove and Freshwater Wetland Conservation Through Carbon Offsets: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Establishing Environmental Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-González, César; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Hernández, María Elizabeth; Campos, Adolfo; Espejel, Ileana; Fermán-Almada, José Luis

    2017-02-01

    Mexico has extensive coastal wetlands (4,243,137 ha), and one of its most important sites is the Alvarado Lagoon System, located in the Papaloapan River Basin on the Gulf of Mexico. The land cover dedicated to livestock and sugarcane has increased: by 25 % in 2005 and 50 % in 2010, with a loss of wetland vegetation and the carbon that it stores. We found that the Net Present Value of mangrove carbon offsets profit is equal to $5822.71, that of broad-leaved marshes is $7958.86, cattail marshes $5250.33, and forested wetlands $8369.41 per hectare, during a 30-year-carbonoffset contract. However, the opportunity cost from conserving wetland instead of growing sugarcane is positive according to REDD+ methodology, e.g., broad-leaved marsh conservation ranged from $6.73 to $20 USD/t CO2e, that of cattail marshes from $12.20 to $32.65 USD/t CO2e, and forested wetlands from $7.15 to $20.60 USD/t CO2e, whereas the opportunity cost between conservation and livestock was negative, it means that conservation is more profitable. The cost-benefit analysis for assessing investment projects from a governmental perspective is useful to determine the viability of conserving coastal wetlands through carbon offset credits. It also shows why in some areas it is not possible to conserve ecosystems due to the opportunity cost of changing from one economic activity (livestock and sugarcane) to carbon offsets for protecting wetlands. Furthermore, it allows for a comparison of carbon markets and assessment in terms of REDD+ and its methods for determining the social cost per ton of carbon avoided.

  8. Vulnerability analysis for implementation of conservation units in the Serra de Carrancas microregion, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimilla Portela Zambaldi Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation Units are among the best methods found to secure biodiversity conservation. The physical and biotic characteristics of high altitude areas such as Serra de Carrancas and Luminárias, in Minas Gerais state, make these places a home to endemic species and to rich biodiversity. However, these environments are highly susceptible to fast advancing erosive processes that potentially lead to soil, habitat and species loss. This study aims to evaluate the physical and biotic characteristics of the Serra de Carrancas and Luminárias region using Natural Vulnerability indicators, and also to propose Conservation Unit implementation in areas which, as per this index, are considered environmentally critical and highly sensitive to anthropic actions. Biotic and abiotic indicators, as managed by a geographic information system, identified the most vulnerable areas in the study site and, given the sensitivity and scope of Serra de Carrancas and Luminárias, a State Park was proposed. The natural vulnerability index proved to be an effective tool to pinpoint prospective conservation unit areas, gathering important environmental factors and thus improving the efficiency of conservation strategies.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of land unit suitability for conservation using a knowledge-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Hope C; Bourgeron, Patrick S; Reynolds, Keith M

    2010-08-01

    The availability of spatially continuous data layers can have a strong impact on selection of land units for conservation purposes. The suitability of ecological conditions for sustaining the targets of conservation is an important consideration in evaluating candidate conservation sites. We constructed two fuzzy logic-based knowledge bases to determine the conservation suitability of land units in the interior Columbia River basin using NetWeaver software in the Ecosystem Management Decision Support application framework. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of suitability ratings, derived from evaluating the knowledge bases, to fuzzy logic function parameters and to the removal of data layers (land use condition, road density, disturbance regime change index, vegetation change index, land unit size, cover type size, and cover type change index). The amount and geographic distribution of suitable land polygons was most strongly altered by the removal of land use condition, road density, and land polygon size. Removal of land use condition changed suitability primarily on private or intensively-used public land. Removal of either road density or land polygon size most strongly affected suitability on higher-elevation US Forest Service land containing small-area biophysical environments. Data layers with the greatest influence differed in rank between the two knowledge bases. Our results reinforce the importance of including both biophysical and socio-economic attributes to determine the suitability of land units for conservation. The sensitivity tests provided information about knowledge base structuring and parameterization as well as prioritization for future data needs.

  10. Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians Energy Conservation and Options Analysis - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Turner

    2008-07-11

    The Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians was awarded a grant through the Department of Energy First Steps program in June of 2006. The primary purpose of the grant was to enable the Tribe to develop energy conservation policies and a strategy for alternative energy resource development. All of the work contemplated by the grant agreement has been completed and the Tribe has begun implementing the resource development strategy through the construction of a 1.0 MW grid-connected photovoltaic system designed to offset a portion of the energy demand generated by current and projected land uses on the Tribe’s Reservation. Implementation of proposed energy conservation policies will proceed more deliberately as the Tribe acquires economic development experience sufficient to evaluate more systematically the interrelationships between conservation and its economic development goals.

  11. Lie symmetry analysis, explicit solutions and conservation laws for the space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the symmetry analysis, explicit solutions, convergence analysis, and conservation laws (Cls) for two different space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order using their Lie point symmetries. In the reduced equations, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense, power series technique is applied to derive an explicit solutions for the reduced fractional ODEs. The convergence of the obtained power series solutions is also presented. Moreover, the new conservation theorem and the generalization of the Noether operators are developed to construct the nonlocal Cls for the equations . Some interesting figures for the obtained explicit solutions are presented.

  12. ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT for ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT TOWARD COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AND NATURAL CONSERVATION at TM GUNUNG HALIMUN SALAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Gilang Widagdyo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to analyze ecotourism development within Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak (TNGHS area and determine association among its elements which is ecotourism activities, community involvement, and natural conservation. To convey comprehensive and factual result, theoretical considerations appear as basis for this study as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis. Some theories tend to be guidance that will be confront with qualitative data that was obtain from interview with several expertise and community’s representative and compare with questionnaire distribution to determine how significant association occur between those three variables. The statistical analysis explains that ecotourism deliver positive impact toward local community and natural conservationDOI: 10.15408/etk.v11i1.1871

  13. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.

    1978-09-01

    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  14. Convergent Analysis of Energy Conservative Algorithm for the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Zhong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using average vector field method in time and Fourier pseudospectral method in space, we obtain an energy-preserving scheme for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We prove that the proposed method conserves the discrete global energy exactly. A deduction argument is used to prove that the numerical solution is convergent to the exact solution in discrete L2 norm. Some numerical results are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the numerical scheme in preserving the energy conservation law.

  15. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runko Suzan J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate, female (megasporangiate, and vegetative organs (leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and

  16. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Eric D; Katari, Manpreet S; Stevenson, Dennis W; Rudd, Stephen A; Douglas, Andrew W; Moss, Walter N; Twigg, Richard W; Runko, Suzan J; Stellari, Giulia M; McCombie, WR; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2005-01-01

    Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate), female (megasporangiate), and vegetative organs (leaves) of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and pollen evolution, and to

  17. Conservation genomic analysis of domestic and wild pig populations from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Medrano, Juan Manuel; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Groenen, Martien A M; Ramis, Guillermo; Bosse, Mirte; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel; Crooijmans, Richard P M A

    2013-10-30

    Inbreeding is among the major concerns in management of local livestock populations. The effective population size of these populations tends to be small, which enhances the risk of fitness reduction and extinction. High-density SNP data make it possible to undertake novel approaches in conservation genetics of endangered breeds and wild populations.A total of 97 representative samples of domestic and wild pig populations from the Iberian Peninsula, subjected to different levels of threat with extinction, were genotyped with a 60 K SNP panel. Data analyses based on: (i) allele frequency differences; (ii) linkage disequilibrium and (iii) runs of homozygosity were integrated to study population relationships, inbreeding and demographic history. The domestic pigs analyzed belonged to local Spanish and Portuguese breeds: Iberian ─ including the variants Retinto Iberian, Negro Iberian and Manchado de Jabugo ─, Bisaro and Chato Murciano. The population structure and persistence of phase analysis suggested high genetic relations between Iberian variants, with recent crossbreeding of Manchado de Jabugo with other pig populations. Chato Murciano showed a high frequency of long runs of homozygosity indicating recent inbreeding and reflecting the recent bottleneck reported by historical records. The Chato Murciano and the Manchado de Jabugo breeds presented the lowest effective population sizes in accordance with their status of highly inbred breeds. The Iberian wild boar presented a high frequency of short runs of homozygosity indicating past small population size but no signs of recent inbreeding. The Iberian breed showed higher genetic similarities with Iberian wild boar than the other domestic breeds. High-density SNP data provided a consistent overview of population structure, demographic history and inbreeding of minority breeds and wild pig populations from the Iberian Peninsula. Despite the very different background of the populations used, we found a good

  18. Stability analysis of explicit entropy viscosity methods for non-linear scalar conservation equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-10-03

    We establish the L2-stability of an entropy viscosity technique applied to nonlinear scalar conservation equations. First-and second-order explicit time-stepping techniques using continuous finite elements in space are considered. The method is shown to be stable independently of the polynomial degree of the space approximation under the standard CFL condition. © 2013 American Mathematical Society.

  19. Temporal correlations in population trends: Conservation implications from time-series analysis of diverse animal taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Keith; H. Resit Akcakaya; Stuart H.M. Butchart; Ben Collen; Nicholas K. Dulvy; Elizabeth E. Holmes; Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Doug Keinath; Michael K. Schwartz; Andrew O. Shelton; Robin S. Waples

    2015-01-01

    Population trends play a large role in species risk assessments and conservation planning, and species are often considered threatened if their recent rate of decline meets certain thresholds, regardless how large the population is. But how reliable an indicator of extinction risk is a single estimate of population trend? Given the integral role this decline-...

  20. Impacts of project attributes on investment preferences : an empirical cluster analysis of energy conservation investment attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisner, Jan; Gillissen, Merlijn

    1994-01-01

    Investment attitude refers to the way managements of firms value attributes of investmentproposals and weigh them in their final appraisal. It seems that among firms in the Netherlands an investment attitude exists that hinders theimplementation of energy conservation projects. Using paired

  1. Structure-sequence based analysis for identification of conserved regions in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemla, Adam T; Zhou, Carol E; Lam, Marisa W; Smith, Jason R; Pardes, Elizabeth

    2013-05-28

    Disclosed are computational methods, and associated hardware and software products for scoring conservation in a protein structure based on a computationally identified family or cluster of protein structures. A method of computationally identifying a family or cluster of protein structures in also disclosed herein.

  2. Conservation priorities in a biodiversity hotspot: analysis of narrow endemic plant species in New Caledonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien S Wulff

    Full Text Available New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot facing extreme environmental degradation. Given the urgent need for conservation prioritisation, we have made a first-pass quantitative assessment of the distribution of Narrow Endemic Species (NES in the flora to identify species and sites that are potentially important for conservation action. We assessed the distributional status of all angiosperm and gymnosperm species using data from taxonomic descriptions and herbarium samples. We characterised species as being NES if they occurred in 3 or fewer locations. In total, 635 of the 2930 assessed species were classed as NES, of which only 150 have been subjected to the IUCN conservation assessment. As the distributional patterns of un-assessed species from one or two locations correspond well with assessed species which have been classified as Critically Endangered or Endangered respectively, we suggest that our distributional data can be used to prioritise species for IUCN assessment. We also used the distributional data to produce a map of "Hotspots of Plant Narrow Endemism" (HPNE. Combined, we used these data to evaluate the coincidence of NES with mining activities (a major source of threat on New Caledonia and also areas of conservation protection. This is to identify species and locations in most urgent need of further conservation assessment and subsequent action. Finally, we grouped the NES based on the environments they occurred in and modelled the habitat distribution of these groups with a Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Model (MaxEnt. The NES were separable into three different groups based primarily on geological differences. The distribution of the habitat types for each group coincide partially with the HPNE described above and also indicates some areas which have high habitat suitability but few recorded NES. Some of these areas may represent under-sampled hotspots of narrow endemism and are priorities for further field work.

  3. Analysis of CT and MRI investigations of patients with lumbar discopathy treated conservatively or surgically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziszewski, K.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging investigations (radiculography, X-ray, CT, MRI) constitute an integral part of the therapeutic process in the treatment of patients suffering from lumbar discopathy. The results obtained with the imaging techniques provide the crucial data concerning the stage of disease development; assist the choice of optimal therapy method and the evaluation of the therapeutic actions efficiency. The aim of the study was to analyze the results of CT and MRI investigations carried out on patients suffering from lumbar discopathy, who had been treated with conservative or surgical methods. 665 patients aged between 16 and 76 years with discopathy at L4-L5, L5-S1 levels were enrolled to the study. In the analyzed group, 348 patients received only conservative therapy whereas 317 patients underwent surgical procedures. CT and MRI investigations were applied at the beginning of the observation (W), after three years (III) and after ten years (X) since the operation (or exclusively conservative treatment). The results obtained with imaging techniques were divided into three categories: intradiscal, peridiscal and disc-related changes caused by herniation of vertebral discs. During the subsequent periods of inspection, the rising number of degenerative changes was found. The progression of the imaging technique results concerned both the L4-L5, L5-S1 spaces, which showed distortion initially, and the L3-L4, L2-L3 levels, which were not degenerated in the preliminary examination. The remote examination showed that the number of degenerations in the two examined groups was substantially higher than it had been during the preliminary examination. The total number of degenerative changes among the patients operated on was higher than among the patients in conservative treatment. The number of degenerative changes of the spine grows from level L2-L3 to level L5-S1. The stage of spinal degenerative changes rises along with the duration of the disease. The patients operated on show

  4. Identification of evolutionarily conserved Momordica charantia microRNAs using computational approach and its utility in phylogeny analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Saravanan, Subramanian; Karikalan, Kulandaivelu; Bharanidharan, Rajaraman; Lalitha, Perumal; Ilango, S; HairulIslam, Villianur Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd, bitter melon) is a monoecious Cucurbitaceae with anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-diabetic potential. Molecular studies on this economically valuable plant are very essential to understand its phylogeny and evolution. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved, small, non-coding RNA with ability to regulate gene expression by bind the 3' UTR region of target mRNA and are evolved at different rates in different plant species. In this study we have utilized homology based computational approach and identified 27 mature miRNAs for the first time from this bio-medically important plant. The phylogenetic tree developed from binary data derived from the data on presence/absence of the identified miRNAs were noticed to be uncertain and biased. Most of the identified miRNAs were highly conserved among the plant species and sequence based phylogeny analysis of miRNAs resolved the above difficulties in phylogeny approach using miRNA. Predicted gene targets of the identified miRNAs revealed their importance in regulation of plant developmental process. Reported miRNAs held sequence conservation in mature miRNAs and the detailed phylogeny analysis of pre-miRNA sequences revealed genus specific segregation of clusters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of C. elegans NR2E nuclear receptors defines three conserved clades and ligand-independent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Katherine P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors (NRs are an important class of transcription factors that are conserved across animal phyla. Canonical NRs consist of a DNA-binding domain (DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD. While most animals have 20–40 NRs, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis have experienced a spectacular proliferation and divergence of NR genes. The LBDs of evolutionarily-conserved Caenorhabditis NRs have diverged sharply from their Drosophila and vertebrate orthologs, while the DBDs have been strongly conserved. The NR2E family of NRs play critical roles in development, especially in the nervous system. In this study, we explore the phylogenetics and function of the NR2E family of Caenorhabditis elegans, using an in vivo assay to test LBD function. Results Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the NR2E family of NRs consists of three broadly-conserved clades of orthologous NRs. In C. elegans, these clades are defined by nhr-67, fax-1 and nhr-239. The vertebrate orthologs of nhr-67 and fax-1 are Tlx and PNR, respectively. While the nhr-239 clade includes orthologs in insects (Hr83, an echinoderm, and a hemichordate, the gene appears to have been lost from vertebrate lineages. The C. elegans and C. briggsae nhr-239 genes have an apparently-truncated and highly-diverged LBD region. An additional C. elegans NR2E gene, nhr-111, appears to be a recently-evolved paralog of fax-1; it is present in C. elegans, but not C. briggsae or other animals with completely-sequenced genomes. Analysis of the relatively unstudied nhr-111 and nhr-239 genes demonstrates that they are both expressed—nhr-111 very broadly and nhr-239 in a small subset of neurons. Analysis of the FAX-1 LBD in an in vivo assay revealed that it is not required for at least some developmental functions. Conclusions Our analysis supports three conserved clades of NR2E receptors, only two of which are represented in vertebrates, indicating three ancestral NR2E genes in the

  6. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  7. Symmetry Analysis and Conservation Laws for the Hunter—Saxton Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Nadjafikhah; Fatemeh, Ahangari

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the problem of determining the most general Lie point symmetries group and conservation laws of a well known nonlinear hyperbolic PDE in mathematical physics called the Hunter-Saxton equation (HSE) is analyzed. By applying the basic Lie symmetry method for the HSE, the classical Lie point symmetry operators are obtained. Also, the algebraic structure of the Lie algebra of symmetries is discussed and an optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras of the HSE symmetry algebra which creates the preliminary classification of group invariant solutions is constructed. Particularly, the Lie invariants as well as similarity reduced equations corresponding to infinitesimal symmetries are obtained. Mainly, the conservation laws of the HSE are computed via three different methods including Boyer's generalization of Noether's theorem, first homotopy method and second homotopy method.

  8. Use of wood for space heating: Analysis of Hood River Conservation project submetered homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; White, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    This report analyzes wood use in the 100 homes that had wood channel submeters installed as part of the Hood River Conservation project. In addition to wood heat output data, data were also available on electricity use, house characteristics, household demographics, and weatherization measures installed. The data indicate that in wood using homes, space heat produced by wood burning is approximately twice as much as provided by electricity. Woodusers tend to have larger homes and families, and use wood for strictly economic reasons. Patterns of wood and electricity use for space heating do not vary much by day of week, but are strongly correlated with outdoor temperatures. The large residential demand for wood may present difficult power planning problems for the Bonneville Power Administration if households suddenly switch back to electricity. However, conservation programs provide Bonneville benefits by dampening the magnitude of any potential swings.

  9. Analysis of whole Breast Radiotherapy Methods for Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer after Conserving Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utehina, O.; Popovs, S.; Berzins, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. At present moment breast cancer in Latvia is at second place for whole population and at first place among women. In year 2004 there were 1012 new breast cancer cases discovered. There was growth in number of breast cancer patients from 58.6 per 100 000 inhabitants in 1995 to 80.4 per 100 000 inhabitants in 2004. This growth is primarily attributed to breast cancer screening program which is nowadays active in Latvia. Breast cancer is third death cause among cancers in Latvia, - in 1995 there where 27.4 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants and in 2004 - 36.2 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants. Due to screening program there is increasing number of patients with stage I and II breast cancer. In 2004 toe where 9884 women with breast cancer registered in Latvian Cancer Registry and among them 79 percent were presented as stage I or II. Breast conservative surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy as standard part of it plays great role in breast cancer treatment in our Center. In year 2004 there were 103 breast conservative surgeries performed in our Center. Radiotherapy is a standard part of treatment in modem breast saving operations for early stage breast cancer, At present, only whole breast postoperative irradiation is performed in Latvia. For selected group of patients this treatment can be substituted with other radiotherapy methods in order to reduce acute reactions and/or late toxicity, maintaining the same tumor control. Aim of this work is to show that during whole breast irradiation dose maximum and tissue volume which receives doses more than 105% from prescribed dose, is linked with size of treated volume (treated volume - tissue volume receiving > 95% from prescribed dose), which is strictly linked with breast volume. Because of this for large breast volumes there is higher complication probability performing whole breast irradiation, and it seems to be meaningful to use Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy or Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for

  10. Comparative Economic and Gender, Labor Analysis of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Tribal Villages in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Cynthia; Chan, Catherine; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Shariq, Linsey; Roul, Pravat; Idol, Travis; Ray, Chittanrajan; Evensen, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Marginal land use and subsequent natural resource degradation is a common issue among tribal villages in the Kendujhar district of India. In this study, Conservation Agriculture (CA) technologies at an experimental site, specifically the practices of intercropping and minimum tillage, were compared to conventional tillage practices of three tribal villages (145 households total) in this district. The impacts of CA implementation on gender, labor, and economic (yield and profitability) factors...

  11. Association analysis between polymorphisms in the conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) gene and cocaine dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Lohoff, Falk W.; Bloch, Paul J.; Ferraro, Thomas N.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Dackis, Charles A.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Oslin, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine induced neuroplasticity changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of cocaine dependence. Since neurotrophic factors have been observed to prevent/reverse and mimic cocaine-induced neurobiological changes in the brain, related genes are plausible candidates for susceptibility to cocaine dependence. The novel conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor protein (CDNF) promotes the survival, growth, and function of dopamine-specific neu...

  12. Theoretical analysis of multiphase flow during oil-well drilling by a conservative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Lopez, Ruben

    2005-11-01

    In order to decrease cost and improve drilling operations is necessary a better understood of the flow mechanisms. Therefore, it was carried out a multiphase conservative model that includes three mass equations and a momentum equation. Also, the measured geothermal gradient is utilized by state equations for estimating physical properties of the phases flowing. The mathematical model is solved by numerical conservative schemes. It is used to analyze the interaction among solid-liquid-gas phases. The circulating system consists as follow, the circulating fluid is pumped downward into the drilling pipe until the bottom of the open hole then it flows through the drill bit, and at this point formation cuttings are incorporated to the circulating fluid and carried upward to the surface. The mixture returns up to the surface by an annular flow area. The real operational conditions are fed to conservative model and the results are matched up to field measurements in several oil wells. Mainly, flow rates, drilling rate, well and tool geometries are data to estimate the profiles of pressure, mixture density, equivalent circulating density, gas fraction and solid carrying capacity. Even though the problem is very complex, the model describes, properly, the hydrodynamics of drilling techniques applied at oil fields. *Authors want to thank to Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo and Petroleos Mexicanos for supporting this research.

  13. Examination, characterisation and analysis techniques for the knowledge and the conservation / restoration of cultural heritage - importance of ionising radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine; J. L.

    2004-01-01

    For the examination, characterisation and analysis of cultural heritage artefacts or art objects and their component materials, the conservation scientist needs a palette of non destructive and non invasive techniques, in order to improve our knowledge concerning their elaboration, their evolution and/or degradation during time, and to give rational basis for their restoration and conservation. A general survey and illustrations showing the usefulness of these techniques will be presented. Among these methods, many are based on the use of ionising radiation. 1. Radiography (using X-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, secondary electrons, neutrons), electron emission radiography, tomodensimetry, 2. Scanning electron microscope associated with X-ray spectrometry, 3. X-ray diffraction, 4. Synchrotron radiation characterisation, 5. X-ray fluorescence analysis, 6. Activation analysis, 7. Ion beam analysis (PIXE, PIGE, RBS, secondary X-ray fluorescence), 8. Thermoluminescence dating, 9. Carbon-14 dating. These methods are used alone or in connection with other analytical methods. Any kind of materials can be encountered, for instance: i. stones, gems, ceramics, terracotta, enamels, glasses, i i. wood, paper, textile, bone, ivory, i i i. metals, jewellery, i v. paint layers, canvas and wooden backings, pigments, dyers, oils, binding media, varnishes, glues. Some examples will be taken, among recent work done at the Centre of Research and Restoration of the Museums of France (C2RMF), from various geographical origins, various ages and different art disciplines. This will illustrate the kind of assistance that science and technology can provide to a better knowledge of mankind's cultural heritage and also to the establishment of rational basis for its better conservation for the future generations. (Author)

  14. Application of agriculture-developed demographic analysis for the conservation of the Hawaiian alpine wekiu bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiben, Jesse; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Insects that should be considered for conservation attention are often overlooked because of a lack of data. The detailed information necessary to assess population growth, decline, and maximum range is particularly difficult to acquire for rare and cryptic species. Many of these difficulties can be overcome with the use of life table analyses and heat energy accumulation models common in agriculture. The wekiu bug (Nysius wekiuicola), endemic to the summit of one volcanic mountain in Hawaii, is a rare insect living in an environmentally sensitive alpine stone desert, where field-based population assessments would be inefficient or potentially detrimental to natural and cultural resources. We conducted laboratory experiments with the insects by manipulating rearing temperatures of laboratory colonies and made detailed observations of habitat conditions to develop life tables representing population growth parameters and environmental models for wekiu bug phenology and demographic change. Wekiu bugs developed at temperatures only found in its environment on sunny days and required the thermal buffer found on cinder cones for growth and population increase. Wekiu bugs required approximately 3.5 months to complete one generation. The bug developed optimally from 26 to 30 °C, temperatures that are much higher than the air temperature attains in its elevational range. The developmental temperature range of the species confirmed a physiological reason why the wekiu bug is only found on cinder cones. This physiology information can help guide population monitoring and inform habitat restoration and conservation. The wekiu bug was a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and the developmental parameters we quantified were used to determine the species would not be listed as endangered or threatened. The use of developmental threshold experiments, life table analyses, and degree day modeling can directly inform otherwise unobservable habitat needs and

  15. Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibley L David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in the recently completed genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Theileria spp. Results Comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies of apicomplexan genomes reveals that most contain only a single conventional actin and yet they each have 8–10 additional actin-related proteins. Among these are a highly conserved Arp1 protein (likely part of a conserved dynactin complex, and Arp4 and Arp6 homologues (subunits of the chromatin-remodeling machinery. In contrast, apicomplexans lack canonical Arp2 or Arp3 proteins, suggesting they lost the Arp2/3 actin polymerization complex on their evolutionary path towards intracellular parasitism. Seven of these actin-like proteins (ALPs are novel to apicomplexans. They show no phylogenetic associations to the known Arp groups and likely serve functions specific to this important group of intracellular parasites. Conclusion The large diversity of actin-like proteins in apicomplexans suggests that the actin protein family has diverged to fulfill various roles in the unique biology of intracellular parasites. Conserved Arps likely participate in vesicular transport and gene expression, while apicomplexan-specific ALPs may control unique biological traits such as actin-based gliding motility.

  16. Comparative analysis of ABCB1 reveals novel structural and functional conservation between monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur Dhaliwal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in modulating plant architecture by creating a gradient regulated via its transporters such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC B1. Except for Arabidopsis and maize, where it was shown to interrupt auxin transport, ABCB1’s presence, structure and function in crop species is not known. Here we describe the structural and putative functional organization of ABCB1 among monocots relative to that of dicots. Identified from various plant species following specific and stringent criteria, ZmABCB1’s ‘true’ orthologs sequence identity ranged from 56-90% at the DNA and 75-91% at the predicted amino acid (aa level. Relative to ZmABCB1, the size of genomic copies ranged from -27 to +1.5% and aa from -7.7 to +0.6%. With the average gene size being similar (5.8 kb in monocots and 5.7 kb in dicots, dicots have about triple the number of introns with an average size of 194 bp (total 1743 bp compared to 556 bp (total 1667 bp in monocots. The intron-exon junctions across species were however conserved. N-termini of the predicted proteins were highly variable: in monocots due to mismatches and small deletions of 1-13 aa compared to large, species-specific deletions of up to 77 aa in dicots. The species- family-, and group- specific conserved motifs were identified in the N-terminus and linker regions of protein, possibly responsible for the specific functions. The near-identical conserved motifs of Nucleotide Binding Domains (NBDs in two halves of the protein showed subtle aa changes possibly favoring ATP binding to the N-terminus. Predicted 3-D protein structures showed remarkable similarity with each other and for the residues involved in auxin binding.

  17. Solutions and laws of conservation for coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations: Lie group analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulov, V. I.; Uzunov, I. M.; Chacarov, E. J.

    1998-03-01

    A set of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations is systematically analyzed by means of Lie group technique. The physical situations under consideration include nonlinear propagation in strongly birefringent and multimode optical fibers. The most general Lie group of point symmetries, its Lie algebra, and a group of adjoint representations that correspond to the Lie algebra are identified. As a result, a complete list of group-invariant exact solutions is obtained and compared with earlier results. The corresponding laws of conservation are derived employing Noether's theorem.

  18. The miRNAome of globe artichoke: conserved and novel micro RNAs and target analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paola Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant microRNAs (miRNAs are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of several processes, including the response to biotic and abiotic stress, often contributing to the adaptive response of the plant to adverse conditions. In addition to conserved miRNAs, found in a wide range of plant species a number of novel species-specific miRNAs, displaying lower levels of expression can be found. Due to low abundance, non conserved miRNAs are difficult to identify and isolate using conventional approaches. Conversely, deep-sequencing of small RNA (sRNA libraries can detect even poorly expressed miRNAs. No miRNAs from globe artichoke have been described to date. We analyzed the miRNAome from artichoke by deep sequencing four sRNA libraries obtained from NaCl stressed and control leaves and roots. Results Conserved and novel miRNAs were discovered using accepted criteria. The expression level of selected miRNAs was monitored by quantitative real-time PCR. Targets were predicted and validated for their cleavage site. A total of 122 artichoke miRNAs were identified, 98 (25 families of which were conserved with other plant species, and 24 were novel. Some miRNAs were differentially expressed according to tissue or condition, magnitude of variation after salt stress being more pronounced in roots. Target function was predicted by comparison to Arabidopsis proteins; the 43 targets (23 for novel miRNAs identified included transcription factors and other genes, most of which involved in the response to various stresses. An unusual cleaved transcript was detected for miR393 target, transport inhibitor response 1. Conclusions The miRNAome from artichoke, including novel miRNAs, was unveiled, providing useful information on the expression in different organs and conditions. New target genes were identified. We suggest that the generation of secondary short-interfering RNAs from miR393 target can be a general rule in the plant

  19. Numerical solution of the thermalhydraulic conservation equations from fundamental concepts to multidimensional two-fluid analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    The discussion briefly establishes some requisite concepts of differential equation theory, and applies these to describe methods for numerical solution of the thermalhydraulic conservation equations in their various forms. The intent is to cover the general methodology without obscuring the principles with details. As a short overview of computational thermalhydraulics, the material provides an introductory foundation, so that those working on the application of thermalhydraulic codes can begin to understand the many intricacies involved without having to locate and read the references given. Those intending to work in code development will need to read and understand all the references. (author). 49 refs

  20. Meta-Analysis of Early Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ± Endoscopic Sphincterotomy (ES) Versus Conservative Management for Gallstone Pancreatitis (GSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstow, Matthew J; Yunus, Rossita M; Hossain, Md Belal; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed A

    2015-06-01

    The utility of early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ± endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in the treatment of gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) is still contentious. The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the treatment of GSP by early ERCP ± ES versus conservative management and analyzing the patient outcomes. A search of Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews identified all RCTs comparing early ERCP to conservative management in GSP published between January 1970 and January 2014. Search terms included "Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)"; "Endoscopic sphincterotomy"; "Gallstones"; "Bile duct stones"; "Gallstone pancreatitis"; "Biliary pancreatitis"; "Randomize/Randomised controlled trials"; "Conservative management/treatment"; "Human"; "English." Only prospective RCTs comparing early intervention (ie, between 24 and 72 h) with ERCP ± ES versus conservative management in GSP were included. Data extraction and critical appraisal was carried out independently by 2 authors (M.J.B. and M.A.M.) using predefined data fields. Variables analyzed included severity of pancreatitis (mild or severe), overall mortality, overall complications which included pseudocyst formation, organ failure (renal, respiratory, and cardiac), abnormal coagulation, biliary sepsis, and development of pancreatic abscess/phlegmon. The quality of RCTs was assessed using Jadad's scoring system. Random-effects model was used to calculate the outcomes of both binary and continuous data. Heterogeneity among the outcome variables of these trials was determined by the Cochran Q statistic and I2 index. The meta-analysis was prepared in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. Eleven RCTs consisting of 1314 patients (conservative management=662, ERCP=652) were analyzed. There was a

  1. A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals conserved features of stem cell pluripotency in planarians and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Roselyne M; Irimia, Manuel; Currie, Ko W; Lin, Alexander; Zhu, Shu Jun; Brown, David D R; Ross, Eric J; Voisin, Veronique; Bader, Gary D; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Pearson, Bret J

    2012-08-01

    Many long-lived species of animals require the function of adult stem cells throughout their lives. However, the transcriptomes of stem cells in invertebrates and vertebrates have not been compared, and consequently, ancestral regulatory circuits that control stem cell populations remain poorly defined. In this study, we have used data from high-throughput RNA sequencing to compare the transcriptomes of pluripotent adult stem cells from planarians with the transcriptomes of human and mouse pluripotent embryonic stem cells. From a stringently defined set of 4,432 orthologs shared between planarians, mice and humans, we identified 123 conserved genes that are ≥5-fold differentially expressed in stem cells from all three species. Guided by this gene set, we used RNAi screening in adult planarians to discover novel stem cell regulators, which we found to affect the stem cell-associated functions of tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and stem cell maintenance. Examples of genes that disrupted these processes included the orthologs of TBL3, PSD12, TTC27, and RACK1. From these analyses, we concluded that by comparing stem cell transcriptomes from diverse species, it is possible to uncover conserved factors that function in stem cell biology. These results provide insights into which genes comprised the ancestral circuitry underlying the control of stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Analysis of medaka sox9 orthologue reveals a conserved role in germ cell maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nakamura

    Full Text Available The sex determining gene is divergent among different animal species. However, sox9 is up-regulated in the male gonads in a number of species in which it is the essential regulator of testis determination. It is therefore often discussed that the sex determining gene-sox9 axis functions in several vertebrates. In our current study, we show that sox9b in the medaka (Oryzias latipes is one of the orthologues of mammalian Sox9 at syntenic and expression levels. Medaka sox9b affects the organization of extracellular matrices, which represents a conserved role of sox9, but does not directly regulate testis determination. We made this determination via gene expression and phenotype analyses of medaka with different copy numbers of sox9b. Sox9b is involved in promoting cellular associations and is indispensible for the proper proliferation and survival of germ cells in both female and male medaka gonads. Medaka mutants that lack sox9b function exhibit a seemingly paradoxical phenotype of sex reversal to male. This is explained by a reduction in the germ cell number associated with aberrant extracellular matrices. Together with its identified roles in other vertebrate gonads, a testis-determining role for Sox9 in mammals is likely to have been neofunctionalized and appended to its conserved role in germ cell maintenance.

  3. A cost analysis of conservative management of spinal cord-injured patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawu, A A; Olawepo, A; Salami, A O O; Kuranga, S A; Abdulhameed, S; Esenwah, V C

    2011-11-01

    A prospective study. To determine the cost of acute phase of injury (ASCI) among spinal cord-injured patients managed conservatively in Nigeria. Gwagwalada, Abuja. Over a 1-year period (1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009), the cost of ASCI of consecutive spinal cord-injured patients, gainfully employed preinjury, who paid the hospital bill directly from their purses and could estimate their daily income, and who were managed conservatively for 6 weeks before discharge to rehabilitation, was prospectively examined. A total of 34 cases of spinal cord-injured patients with a mean age of 35.4 ± 12.8 years were included in this study. The mean cost of ASCI over 6 weeks was $1598.29, an average of 6.4-232.8% of patients' annual income where >50% of the people live on less than a dollar a day. The mean cost of hospitalization was 14.9% of the total cost of ASCI in this study. It was significantly more expensive to treat tetraplegics compared with paraplegics. This study identified the cost of acute phase of spinal cord injury in Nigeria to assist clinicians in planning treatment that could reduce financial burden on the patients but optimize patients' care.

  4. NGO Partnerships in Using Ecotourism for Conservation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania P Romero-Brito

    Full Text Available We analyse 214 cases worldwide where non-governmental organisations (NGOs use ecotourism for conservation. Other stakeholders in these initiatives include local communities, the private sector, and government agencies. Stakeholder relationships determine NGO roles and project management structures and governance. We classified cases into 10 structural categories based on the initiating stakeholder and the NGO role, and used these categories to analyze geographic patterns and success factors. Most of the 214 cases are community-based (~170; 79%; most are in developing countries (190; 89%; and most are in protected areas (196; 91%. Frequencies of structural categories differ between continents. More cases in Latin America and Asia are initiated by NGOs and local communities, and more in Africa by the private sector. Case-study authors used a range of economic, socio-cultural and environmental criteria to judge whether projects were successful. At global scale, we found no significant association between project success and the involvement of private tourism entrepreneurs. Projects involving either local or international NGOs had higher success rates than those that involved both simultaneously. Future research could adopt political ecology approaches to examine: the factors that lead NGOs to adopt ecotourism enterprises; their internal decision-making processes and strategies; their interactions with the stakeholders involved; and their conservation goals and outcomes.

  5. NGO Partnerships in Using Ecotourism for Conservation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Brito, Tania P; Buckley, Ralf C; Byrne, Jason

    2016-01-01

    We analyse 214 cases worldwide where non-governmental organisations (NGOs) use ecotourism for conservation. Other stakeholders in these initiatives include local communities, the private sector, and government agencies. Stakeholder relationships determine NGO roles and project management structures and governance. We classified cases into 10 structural categories based on the initiating stakeholder and the NGO role, and used these categories to analyze geographic patterns and success factors. Most of the 214 cases are community-based (~170; 79%); most are in developing countries (190; 89%); and most are in protected areas (196; 91%). Frequencies of structural categories differ between continents. More cases in Latin America and Asia are initiated by NGOs and local communities, and more in Africa by the private sector. Case-study authors used a range of economic, socio-cultural and environmental criteria to judge whether projects were successful. At global scale, we found no significant association between project success and the involvement of private tourism entrepreneurs. Projects involving either local or international NGOs had higher success rates than those that involved both simultaneously. Future research could adopt political ecology approaches to examine: the factors that lead NGOs to adopt ecotourism enterprises; their internal decision-making processes and strategies; their interactions with the stakeholders involved; and their conservation goals and outcomes.

  6. Structural and functional analysis of hypothetical and conserved proteins of Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enany, Shymaa

    2014-01-01

    The progress in biological technologies has led to rapid accumulation of microbial genomic sequences with a vast number of uncharacterized genes. Proteins encoded by these genes are usually uncharacterized, hypothetical, and/or conserved. In Clostridium tetani (C. tetani), these proteins constitute up to 50% of the expressed proteins. In this regard, understanding the functions and the structures of these proteins is crucially important, particularly in C. tetani, which is a medically important pathogen. Here, we used a variety of bioinformatics tools and databases to analyze 10 hypothetical and conserved proteins in C. tetani. We were able to provide a detailed overview of the functional contributions of some of these proteins in several cellular functions, including (1) evolving antibiotic resistance, (2) interaction with enzymes pathways, and (3) involvement in drug transportation. Among these candidates, we postulated the involvement of one of these hypothetical proteins in the pathogenic activity of tetanus. The structural and functional prediction of these proteins should serve in uncovering and better understanding the function of C. tetani cells to ultimately discover new possible drug targets. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing Guidelines for the Community Land Conservation Planning Process: With an Analysis of the West Virginia New River Parkway Project

    OpenAIRE

    Childers, Jonathan Aragorn

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to establish land conservation, or the prudent use of land and its protection from indiscriminate use and development, have recently been on an upswing in the United States. Effective conservation initiatives accurately address appropriate land use issues, adequately protect resources, and provide for sustainable use and return of benefits to citizens affected by the conservation. Efficient conservation programs consider multiple perspectives on conservation issues and respond to pe...

  8. Assessing community-based conservation projects: A systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based conservation (CBC promotes the idea that long-term conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for local communities. Though widespread, CBC projects are not always successful or free of controversy. With criticisms on all sides of the conservation debates, it is critical to have a better understanding of (1 whether CBC is an effective conservation tool, and (2 of the factors associated with the success or failure of CBC projects, and the scale at which these factors operate. Recent CBC reviews have typically examined only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a newly coded global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic and explore synergies and tradeoffs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context (H-NC, project design (H-PD, and local community characteristics (H-CC affect these four measures of success. Methods To add to a sample of 62 projects that we used from previous systematic reviews, we systematically searched the conservation literature using six terms in four online databases. To increase the number of projects for each country in order to conduct a multilevel analysis, we also conducted a secondary search using the Advancing Conservation in a Social Context online library. We coded projects for 65 pieces of information. We conducted bivariate analyses using two-dimensional contingency tables and proportional odds logistic regression and conducted multivariate analyses by fitting reduced form proportional odds logistic regression models that were selected using a forward stepwise AIC approach. Results The primary and secondary searches produced 74 new projects to go along with the 62

  9. Breast conserving operation and radiation therapy in early breast cancer: interim analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, You Sah

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate interim results in terms of failure, cosmetic results and survival after breast conserving operation and radiation therapy in early breast cancer. From January 1992 through December 1997, seventy two patients with early stage 0, I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. Age distribution was 25 to 77 years old with median age of 43. Ac cording to TNM stage, five patients had stage 0, thirty three were stage I, twenty five were lIa, and nine were llb. Most patients underwent excision of all gross tumor and ipsilateral axillary dissection. Breast was irradiated through medial and lateral tangential fields of 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks. We delivered a boost irradiation dose of 10 to 16 Gy in 1 to 2 weeks to excision site. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in forty one patients with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5fluorouracil) regimens of 6 cycles concurrently or before radiation. Cosmetic results were assessed by questionnaire to patients grading of excellent, good, fair, poor. Follow-up periods were 22 to 91 months with median 40 months. Five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 95.8%. According to stage, 5YDFS was 100%, 96.9%, 96% and 88.9% in stage 0, I, lIa and llb, respectively. Two patients had distant metastasis and one had local and distant failure. One patient with distant failure had bone and liver metastasis at 14 months after treatment and the other had lung and both supraclavicular metastasis at 21 months after treatment. Patient with local and distant failure had local recurrence on other quadrant in same breast and then salvaged with total mastectomy and chemotherapy but she died due to brain metastasis at 55 months. Complications were radiation pneumonitis in five patients (four patients of asymptomatic, one patient of symptomatic) and hand or arm edema(4 patients). Fifty nine patients answered our cosmetic

  10. Surgical versus conservative treatment of primary patellar dislocation. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomanno, Maristella F; Sircana, Giuseppe; Fodale, Mario; Donati, Fabrizio; Milano, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of surgical and conservative treatment in the prevention of recurrence after primary patellar dislocation. Studies were searched on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINHAL from their inception to April 2015. All randomized controlled clinical trials comparing surgical versus conservative treatment after first patellar dislocation were included. Primary outcomes were: recurrent dislocation, subluxation, overall instability and subsequent surgery. Secondary outcomes included imaging, and subjective and objective clinical assessment tools. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "Risk of Bias" tool. Pooled analyses were reported as risk ratio (RR) using a random effects model. Continuous data were reported as standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed using I². Nine studies were included in the meta-analyses. Methodological quality of the studies was moderate to low. Meta-analyses showed that surgical treatment significantly reduces the redislocation rate (RR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.39, 0.98, p = 0.04) and provides better results on Hughston VAS score (SMD = -0.32; 95% CI = -0.61, -0.03; p = 0.03) and running (OR = -0.52; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.88; p = 0.01). Conservative treatment showed less occurrence of minor complications (OR = 3.46; 95% CI = 2.08, 5.77; p = 0.01) and better results in the figure-of-8 run test (SMD = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.77; p = 0.02) and in the squat down test (SMD = -0.45; 95% CI = -0.81, -0.10; p < 0.00001). No other significant differences could be found. Based on the available data, surgical treatment of primary patella dislocation significantly reduces the risk of patella redislocation.

  11. Preliminary Nearshore Sedimentation Rate Analysis of the Tuungane Project Northern Mahale Conservation Area, Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, R. A.; McGlue, M. M.; Yeager, K. M.; Soreghan, M. J.; Lucas, J.; Kimirei, I.; Mbonde, A.; Limbu, P.; Apse, C.

    2017-12-01

    The combined effects of climate change, overfishing, and sediment pollution are altering Lake Tanganyika's littoral fisheries in profoundly negative ways. One method for conserving critical fish resources and safeguarding biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika is by establishing small-scale nearshore protected zones, which can be administrated by lakeshore villagers organized into beach management units (BMUs). Each BMU endeavors to manage offshore "no-catch" protected zones, prohibit the use of illegal fishing gear, and promote sustainable agriculture that abates erosion in the lake watershed, in order to mitigate sediment pollution in the lake. We adopted a limnogeological approach to assist in characterizing the littoral zone associated with BMUs in the northern Mahale region of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania), a critical conservation area for the Nature Conservancy's Tuungane Project (https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/africa/wherewework/tuungane-project.xml). We hypothesized that BMUs with heavy onshore agricultural activity would experience relatively high offshore sedimentation rates, due to enhanced sediment-laden runoff in the wet season. Such changes are predicted to alter benthic substrates and degrade habitat available for fish spawning. We mapped bathymetry and sediment types along a 29 km2 area of the littoral zone using high-resolution geophysical tools, and assessed short-term sedimentation rates using sediment cores and radionuclide geochronology (210Pb). Initial results from 210Pb analyses show that sedimentation rates at the mud-line ( 85-100 m water depth) are relatively slow but spatially variable in the northern Mahale area. Offshore of the Kalilani village BMU, linear sedimentation rates are 0.50 mm/yr. By contrast, sedimentation rates offshore from the Igualula village BMU are 0.90-1.30 mm/yr. Higher sedimentation rates near Igualula are consistent with greater sediment inputs from the nearby Lagosa River and its watershed, which has been

  12. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouborg, N. Joop; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    in conservation biology. This has allowed assessment of the impact of genetic drift on genetic variation, of the level of inbreeding within populations, and of the amount of gene flow between or within populations. Recent developments in genomic techniques, including next generation sequencing, whole genome scans...... and gene-expression pattern analysis, have made it possible to step up from a limited number of neutral markers to genome-wide estimates of functional genetic variation. Here, we focus on how the transition of conservation genetics to conservation genomics leads to insights into the dynamics of selectively...

  13. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2005-01-01

    O-GalNAc-glycosylation is one of the main types of glycosylation in mammalian cells. No consensus recognition sequence for the O-glycosyltransferases is known, making prediction methods necessary to bridge the gap between the large number of known protein sequences and the small number of proteins...... experimentally investigated with regard to glycosylation status. From O-GLYCBASE a total of 86 mammalian proteins experimentally investigated for in vivo O-GalNAc sites were extracted. Mammalian protein homolog comparisons showed that a glycosylated serine or threonine is less likely to be precisely conserved...... than a nonglycosylated one. The Protein Data Bank was analyzed for structural information, and 12 glycosylated structures were obtained. All positive sites were found in coil or turn regions. A method for predicting the location for mucin-type glycosylation sites was trained using a neural network...

  14. Apparatus for Investigating Momentum and Energy Conservation With MBL and Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth; Vazquez-Abad, Jesus

    1998-04-01

    We describe the development and use of a laboratory setup that is appropriate for computer-aided student investigation of the principles of conservation of momentum and mechanical energy in collisions. The setup consists of two colliding carts on a low-friction track, with one of the carts (the target) attached to a spring, whose extension or compression takes the place of the pendulum's rise in the traditional ballistic pendulum apparatus. Position vs. time data for each cart are acquired either by using two motion sensors or by digitizing images obtained with a video camera. This setup allows students to examine the time history of momentum and mechanical energy during the entire collision process, rather than simply focusing on the before and after regions. We believe that this setup is suitable for helping students gain understanding as the processes involved are simple to follow visually, to manipulate, and to analyze.

  15. Phylogeographical analysis reveals multiple conservation units in brook lampreys Lampetra planeri of Portuguese streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A M; Robalo, J I; Freyhof, J; Maia, C; Fonseca, J P; Valente, A; Almada, V C

    2010-08-01

    The populations of brook lamprey Lampetra planeri of Portuguese Rivers were analysed phylogeographically using a fragment of 644 bp of the mitochondrial control region of 158 individuals from six populations. Samples representing L. planeri and migratory lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis of rivers draining to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were also included to assess the relationships of Portuguese samples. The data support a clear differentiation of all the populations studied. Several populations, which are isolated among themselves and also from the migratory lampreys, proved to be entirely composed of private haplotypes, a finding that supports some time of independent evolutionary history for these populations. This, combined with the geographic confinement to small water bodies, justifies the recognition of at least four conservation units in the Portuguese rivers Sado, São Pedro, Nabão and Inha.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Reciprocal Linkages between Temperate Seagrasses and Waterfowl with Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Kollars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-trophic conservation and management strategies may be necessary if reciprocal linkages between primary producers and their consumers are strong. While herbivory on aquatic plants is well-studied, direct top-down control of seagrass populations has received comparatively little attention, particularly in temperate regions. Herein, we used qualitative and meta-analytic approaches to assess the scope and consequences of avian (primarily waterfowl herbivory on temperate seagrasses of the genus Zostera. Meta-analyses revealed widespread evidence of spatio-temporal correlations between Zostera and waterfowl abundances as well as strong top-down effects of grazing on Zostera. We also documented the identity and diversity of avian species reported to consume Zostera and qualitatively assessed their potential to exert top-down control. Our results demonstrate that Zostera and their avian herbivores are ecologically linked and we suggest that bird herbivory may influence the spatial structure, composition, and functioning of the seagrass ecosystem. Therefore, the consequences of avian herbivory should be considered in the management of seagrass populations. Of particular concern are instances of seagrass overgrazing by waterfowl which result in long-term reductions in seagrass biomass or coverage, with subsequent impacts on local populations of waterfowl and other seagrass-affiliated species. While our results showed that bird density and type may affect the magnitude of the top-down effects of avian herbivory, empirical research on the strength, context-dependency, and indirect effects of waterfowl–Zostera interactions remains limited. For example, increased efforts that explicitly measure the effects of different functional groups of birds on seagrass abundance and/or document how climate change-driven shifts in waterfowl migratory patterns impact seagrass phenology and population structure will advance research programs for both ecologists and

  17. Toward target 2 of the global strategy for plant conservation: an expert analysis of the Puerto Rican flora to validate new streamlined methods for assessing conservation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Miller; G.A. Krupnick; H. Stevens; H. Porter-Morgan; B. Boom; Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez; J. Ackerman; D. Kolterman; E. Santiago; C. Torres; J. Velez; NO-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    Target 2 of the 2020 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) calls for a comprehensive list of the world’s threatened plant species. The lack of such a list is one of the greatest impediments to protecting the full complement of the world’s plant species, and work to achieve this has been slow. An efficient system for identifying those species that are at risk of...

  18. APPLICATION OF THE QUALITY NORMS TO THE MONITORING AND THE PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Andretta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the indoor microclimate has assumed increasing importance, especially for the problems associated with the conservation of the cultural heritage housed in museums, galleries and libraries. In this paper, we describe the most important national standards relative to the procedures for the measurements and the analysis of the environmental conditions regarding the preservation of the works of art. These methods are related to the measurement techniques, which have to be applied for monitoring and analyzing the microclimatic conditions of museums, galleries and archives; these norms report, also, the threshold reference values for optimal climatic conditions. Furthermore, we present some considerations on the importance and on the foundations of the proposed scientific/methodological approaches. Finally, we have done a reasoned analysis on some reference values reported by the international regulations with some considerations on the possible chemical/physical mechanisms of degradation of the valuable objects.

  19. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Collado, D; Díaz, C; Mäki-Tanila, A; Colinet, F; Duclos, D; Hiemstra, S J; Gandini, G

    2013-06-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influencing breed dynamics. We developed a quantified SWOT method as a decision-making tool for identification and ranking of conservation and development strategies of local breeds, and applied it to a set of 13 cattle breeds of six European countries. The method has four steps: definition of the system, identification and grouping of the driving factors, quantification of the importance of driving factors and identification and prioritization of the strategies. The factors were determined following a multi-stakeholder approach and grouped with a three-level structure. Animal genetic resources expert groups ranked the factors, and a quantification process was implemented to identify and prioritize strategies. The proposed SWOT methodology allows analyzing the dynamics of local cattle breeds in a structured and systematic way. It is a flexible tool developed to assist different stakeholders in defining the strategies and actions. The quantification process allows the comparison of the driving factors and the prioritization of the strategies for the conservation and development of local cattle breeds. We identified 99 factors across the breeds. Although the situation is very heterogeneous, the future of these breeds may be promising. The most important strengths and weaknesses were related to production systems and farmers. The most important opportunities were found in marketing new products, whereas the most relevant threats were found in selling the current products. The across-breed strategies utility decreased as they gained specificity. Therefore, the strategies at European level should focus on general aspects and be flexible enough to be adapted to the country and breed

  20. Standby Conservation Plan No. 1: emergency weekend gasoline sales restrictions. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Emergency Weekend Sales Restrictions Plan has been designed to conserve gasoline and diesel fuel normally used for social and recreational purposes. The plan would authorize the Secretary of Energy to impose restrictions on the retail sale of motor fuels during weekend hours, defined as Friday noon to Sunday midnight. Only certain types of commercial vehicles and emergency vehicles could purchase fuel during these hours. The implementation of the measure is examined relative to a baseline economy characterized by a 15% petroleum shortfall. It is estimated that the measure would save 246,000 barrels per day of motor fuels, principally gasoline. Because the saved fuel can be made available to other sectors of the economy that are less petroleum intensive, it is projected that GNP would rise by approximately $7 billion as a result of the measure. The impact of the measure would vary sharply from one sector of the economy to another, however, with some industries experiencing losses in revenue. The cost of imposing the measure is preliminarily estimated at $5.2 million for nine months.

  1. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): Application for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Flavia T; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Caparroz, Renato; Biondo, Cibele; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2011-04-01

    Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation.

  2. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae: application for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia T. Presti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable], and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao. Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus to 0.85 (A. macao. As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation.

  3. Spatially explicit scenario analysis for reconciling agricultural expansion, forest protection, and carbon conservation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2010-06-15

    Palm oil is the world's most important vegetable oil in terms of production quantity. Indonesia, the world's largest palm-oil producer, plans to double its production by 2020, with unclear implications for the other national priorities of food (rice) production, forest and biodiversity protection, and carbon conservation. We modeled the outcomes of alternative development scenarios and show that every single-priority scenario had substantial tradeoffs associated with other priorities. The exception was a hybrid approach wherein expansion targeted degraded and agricultural lands that are most productive for oil palm, least suitable for food cultivation, and contain the lowest carbon stocks. This approach avoided any loss in forest or biodiversity and substantially ameliorated the impacts of oil-palm expansion on carbon stocks (limiting net loss to 191.6 million tons) and annual food production capacity (loss of 1.9 million tons). Our results suggest that the environmental and land-use tradeoffs associated with oil-palm expansion can be largely avoided through the implementation of a properly planned and spatially explicit development strategy.

  4. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of Dof transcription factors identified a conserved motif for intercellular protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Ahmad, Munawar; Rim, Yeonggil; Lucas, William J; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2013-06-01

    · Cell-to-cell trafficking of transcription factors (TFs) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of plant developmental events, but the evolutionary relationship between cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous (NCA) TFs remains elusive. · AtDof4.1, named INTERCELLULAR TRAFFICKING DOF 1 (ITD1), was chosen as a representative NCA member to explore this evolutionary relationship. Using domain structure-function analyses and swapping studies, we examined the cell-to-cell trafficking of plant-specific Dof TF family members across Arabidopsis and other species. · We identified a conserved intercellular trafficking motif (ITM) that is necessary and sufficient for selective cell-to-cell trafficking and can impart gain-of-function cell-to-cell movement capacity to an otherwise cell-autonomous TF. The functionality of related motifs from Dof members across the plant kingdom extended, surprisingly, to a unicellular alga that lacked plasmodesmata. By contrast, the algal homeodomain related to the NCA KNOX homeodomain was either inefficient or unable to impart such cell-to-cell movement function. · The Dof ITM appears to predate the evolution of selective plasmodesmal trafficking in the plant kingdom, which may well have acted as a molecular template for the evolution of Dof proteins as NCA TFs. However, the ability to efficiently traffic for KNOX homeodomain (HD) proteins may have been acquired during the evolution of early nonvascular plants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Comparative analysis of components incorporated in conservation priority assessments: a case study based on South African species of terrestrial mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keith, M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available of South African Mammals. These results suggest that the two conservation priority assessment techniques used in the present study may represent a practical and quantitative method for determining regional conservation priorities, and include measures...

  6. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  7. Ancient DNA analysis of Indigenous rockfish use on the Pacific Coast: Implications for marine conservation areas and fisheries management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia T Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Rockfish (Sebastes spp. are a common marine fish in nearshore and continental shelf environments in the North Pacific Ocean. They are frequently identified in coastal archaeological sites in western North America; however, the morphological similarity of rockfish species limits conventional zooarchaeological identifications to the genus level. This study applies ancient DNA analysis to 96 archaeological rockfish specimens from four sites on separate islands in an archipelago on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Two of the archaeological sites are located within a marine protected area specifically designed to facilitate the recovery of inshore rockfish populations; two sites are located outside this boundary and remain subject to considerable fishing pressure. Using mitochondrial 16S and control region DNA sequences, we identify at least twelve different rockfish species utilized during the past 2,500 years. Identification of rockfish at closely spaced and contemporaneously occupied sites confirms that a variety of Sebastes species were consistently exploited at each site, with more exposed areas having a higher number of species present. Identification results indicate that four of the twelve species did not occur within the conservation area boundary and, instead, were found in sites where commercial and recreational fishing continues to be permitted. This study demonstrates that ancient DNA identifications of archaeological assemblages can complement and expand perspective on modern day fisheries conservation and management in this National Park Reserve and First Nations ancestral territory.

  8. Ancient DNA analysis of Indigenous rockfish use on the Pacific Coast: Implications for marine conservation areas and fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Antonia T; McKechnie, Iain; Yang, Dongya Y

    2018-01-01

    Rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are a common marine fish in nearshore and continental shelf environments in the North Pacific Ocean. They are frequently identified in coastal archaeological sites in western North America; however, the morphological similarity of rockfish species limits conventional zooarchaeological identifications to the genus level. This study applies ancient DNA analysis to 96 archaeological rockfish specimens from four sites on separate islands in an archipelago on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Two of the archaeological sites are located within a marine protected area specifically designed to facilitate the recovery of inshore rockfish populations; two sites are located outside this boundary and remain subject to considerable fishing pressure. Using mitochondrial 16S and control region DNA sequences, we identify at least twelve different rockfish species utilized during the past 2,500 years. Identification of rockfish at closely spaced and contemporaneously occupied sites confirms that a variety of Sebastes species were consistently exploited at each site, with more exposed areas having a higher number of species present. Identification results indicate that four of the twelve species did not occur within the conservation area boundary and, instead, were found in sites where commercial and recreational fishing continues to be permitted. This study demonstrates that ancient DNA identifications of archaeological assemblages can complement and expand perspective on modern day fisheries conservation and management in this National Park Reserve and First Nations ancestral territory.

  9. Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Plain Journal Bearing on the Basis of a New Mass Conserving Cavitation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivam Alakhramsing

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of cavitation is an important feature in hydrodynamic bearing modeling. Especially for thermo-hydrodynamic modeling, it is crucial to use a mass-conservative cavitation algorithm. This paper introduces a new mass-conserving Reynolds cavitation algorithm, which provides fast convergence and easy implementation in finite element models. The proposed algorithm is based on a variable transformation for both the pressure and mass fraction, which is presented in the form of a complementary condition. Stabilization in the streamline and crosswind direction is provided by artificial diffusion. The model is completed by including a simple and efficient thermal model and is validated using the numerical values of a reference plain journal bearing experiment under steady-state conditions. In addition, a transient analysis is performed of a journal bearing subjected to a harmonic load. It is shown that the proposed cavitation algorithm results are in good agreement with the reference measurement results. Moreover, the algorithm proves to be stable and requires only a small number of iterations to convergence in the Reynolds-based finite element model.

  10. Multicomponent fluid flow analysis using a new set of conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali, Reza; Emdad, Homayoon; Alishahi, Mohammad M

    2008-01-01

    In this work hydrodynamics of multicomponent ideal gas mixtures have been studied. Starting from the kinetic equations, the Eulerian approach is used to derive a new set of conservation equations for the multicomponent system where each component may have different velocity and kinetic temperature. The equations are based on the Grad's method of moment derived from the kinetic model in a relaxation time approximation (RTA). Based on this model which contains separate equation sets for each component of the system, a computer code has been developed for numerical computation of compressible flows of binary gas mixture in generalized curvilinear boundary conforming coordinates. Since these equations are similar to the Navier-Stokes equations for the single fluid systems, the same numerical methods are applied to these new equations. The Roe's numerical scheme is used to discretize the convective terms of governing fluid flow equations. The prepared algorithm and the computer code are capable of computing and presenting flow fields of each component of the system separately as well as the average flow field of the multicomponent gas system as a whole. Comparison of the present code results with those of a more common algorithm based on the mixture theory in a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle provides the validation of the present formulation. Afterwards, a more involved nozzle cooling problem with a binary ideal gas (helium-xenon) is chosen to compare the present results with those of the ordinary mixture theory. The present model provides the details of the flow fields of each component separately which is not available otherwise. It is also shown that the separate fluids treatment, such as the present study, is crucial when considering time scales on the order of (or shorter than) the intercollisions relaxation times.

  11. Multivariate Analysis of Rangeland Vegetation and Soil Organic Carbon Describes Degradation, Informs Restoration and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Allen McGranahan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion has eliminated a high proportion of native land cover and severely degraded remaining native vegetation. Managers must determine where degradation is severe enough to merit restoration action, and what action, if any, is necessary. We report on grassland degraded by multiple factors, including grazing, soil disturbance, and exotic plant species introduced in response to agriculture management. We use a multivariate method to categorize plant communities by degradation state based on floristic and biophysical degradation associated with historical land use. The variables we associate with degradation include abundance of the invasive cool-season grass, tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix (Scop. Holub; soil organic carbon (SOC; and heavy livestock grazing. Using a series of multivariate analyses (ordination, hierarchical clustering, and multiple regression, we identify patterns in plant community composition and describe floristic degradation states. We found vegetation states to be described largely by vegetation composition associated primarily with tall fescue and secondarily by severe grazing, but not soil organic carbon. Categorizing grasslands by vegetation states helps managers efficiently apply restoration inputs that optimize ecosystem response, so we discuss potential restoration pathways in a state-and-transition model. Reducing stocking rate on grassland where grazing is actively practiced is an important first step that might be sufficient for restoring grassland with high native species richness and minimal degradation from invasive plants. More severe degradation likely requires multiple approaches to reverse degradation. Of these, we recommend restoration of ecological processes and disturbance regimes such as fire and grazing. We suggest old-field grasslands in North America, which are similar to European semi-natural grassland in composition and function, deserve more attention by conservation biologists.

  12. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  13. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  14. Sensitivity analysis techniques applied to a system of hyperbolic conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirs, V. Gregory; Kamm, James R.; Swiler, Laura P.; Tarantola, Stefano; Ratto, Marco; Adams, Brian M.; Rider, William J.; Eldred, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is comprised of techniques to quantify the effects of the input variables on a set of outputs. In particular, sensitivity indices can be used to infer which input parameters most significantly affect the results of a computational model. With continually increasing computing power, sensitivity analysis has become an important technique by which to understand the behavior of large-scale computer simulations. Many sensitivity analysis methods rely on sampling from distributions of the inputs. Such sampling-based methods can be computationally expensive, requiring many evaluations of the simulation; in this case, the Sobol' method provides an easy and accurate way to compute variance-based measures, provided a sufficient number of model evaluations are available. As an alternative, meta-modeling approaches have been devised to approximate the response surface and estimate various measures of sensitivity. In this work, we consider a variety of sensitivity analysis methods, including different sampling strategies, different meta-models, and different ways of evaluating variance-based sensitivity indices. The problem we consider is the 1-D Riemann problem. By a careful choice of inputs, discontinuous solutions are obtained, leading to discontinuous response surfaces; such surfaces can be particularly problematic for meta-modeling approaches. The goal of this study is to compare the estimated sensitivity indices with exact values and to evaluate the convergence of these estimates with increasing samples sizes and under an increasing number of meta-model evaluations. - Highlights: ► Sensitivity analysis techniques for a model shock physics problem are compared. ► The model problem and the sensitivity analysis problem have exact solutions. ► Subtle details of the method for computing sensitivity indices can affect the results.

  15. Comparative analysis of function and interaction of transcription factors in nematodes: Extensive conservation of orthology coupled to rapid sequence evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rama S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the morphological diversity in eukaryotes results from differential regulation of gene expression in which transcription factors (TFs play a central role. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an established model organism for the study of the roles of TFs in controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of gene expression. Using the fully sequenced genomes of three Caenorhabditid nematode species as well as genome information from additional more distantly related organisms (fruit fly, mouse, and human we sought to identify orthologous TFs and characterized their patterns of evolution. Results We identified 988 TF genes in C. elegans, and inferred corresponding sets in C. briggsae and C. remanei, containing 995 and 1093 TF genes, respectively. Analysis of the three gene sets revealed 652 3-way reciprocal 'best hit' orthologs (nematode TF set, approximately half of which are zinc finger (ZF-C2H2 and ZF-C4/NHR types and HOX family members. Examination of the TF genes in C. elegans and C. briggsae identified the presence of significant tandem clustering on chromosome V, the majority of which belong to ZF-C4/NHR family. We also found evidence for lineage-specific duplications and rapid evolution of many of the TF genes in the two species. A search of the TFs conserved among nematodes in Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed 150 reciprocal orthologs, many of which are associated with important biological processes and human diseases. Finally, a comparison of the sequence, gene interactions and function indicates that nematode TFs conserved across phyla exhibit significantly more interactions and are enriched in genes with annotated mutant phenotypes compared to those that lack orthologs in other species. Conclusion Our study represents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of TFs across three nematode species and other organisms. The findings indicate substantial conservation of transcription

  16. rSPACE: Spatially based power analysis for conservation and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha M. Ellis; Jacob S. Ivan; Jody M. Tucker; Michael K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    1.) Power analysis is an important step in designing effective monitoring programs to detect trends in plant or animal populations. Although project goals often focus on detecting changes in population abundance, logistical constraints may require data collection on population indices, such as detection/non-detection data for occupancy estimation. 2.) We describe the...

  17. Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1986-11-12

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

  18. Conservation and Use of Genetic Resources of Underutilized Crops in the Americas—A Continental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gea Galluzzi; Isabel López Noriega

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is home to dramatically diverse agroecological regions which harbor a high concentration of underutilized plant species, whose genetic resources hold the potential to address challenges such as sustainable agricultural development, food security and sovereignty, and climate change. This paper examines the status of an expert-informed list of underutilized crops in Latin America and analyses how the most common features of underuse apply to these. The analysis pays special attent...

  19. Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1. An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Vinokur, M.

    1988-06-01

    Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed

  20. Preparation of waste analysis plans under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Interim guidance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This document is organized to coincide with the suggested structure of the actual Waste Analysis Plans (WAP) discussed in the previous section. The contents of the remaining eleven chapters and appendices that comprise this document are described below: Chapter 2 addresses waste streams, test parameters, and rationale for sampling and analytical method selection; test methods for analyzing parameters; proceduresfor collecting representative samples; and frequency of sample collection and analyses. These are the core WAP requirements. Chapter 3 addresses analysis requirements for waste received from off site. Chapter 4addresses additional requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes. Chapter 5 addresses unit-specific requirements. Chapter 6 addresses special procedures for radioactive mixed waste. Chapter 7 addresses wastes subject to the land disposal restrictions. Chapter 8 addresses QA/QC procedures. Chapter 9 compares the waste analysis requirements of an interim status facility with those of a permitted facility. Chapter 10 describes the petition process required for sampling and analytical procedures to deviate from accepted methods, such as those identified in promulgated regulations. Chapter 11 reviews the process for modification of WAPs as waste type or handling practices change at a RCRA permitted TSDF. Chapter 12 is the list of references that were used in the preparation of this guidance. Appendix A is a sample WAP addressing physical/chemical treatment and container storage. Appendix B is a sample WAP addressing an incinerator and tank systems. Appendix C discusses the relationship of the WAP to other permitting requirements and includes specific examples of how waste analysis is used to comply with certain parts of a RCRA permit. Appendix D contains the exact wording for the notification/certification requirements under theland disposal restrictions

  1. BIS2Analyzer: a server for co-evolution analysis of conserved protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteri, Francesco; Nadalin, Francesca; Champeimont, Raphaël; Carbone, Alessandra

    2017-07-03

    Along protein sequences, co-evolution analysis identifies residue pairs demonstrating either a specific co-adaptation, where changes in one of the residues are compensated by changes in the other during evolution or a less specific external force that affects the evolutionary rates of both residues in a similar magnitude. In both cases, independently of the underlying cause, co-evolutionary signatures within or between proteins serve as markers of physical interactions and/or functional relationships. Depending on the type of protein under study, the set of available homologous sequences may greatly differ in size and amino acid variability. BIS2Analyzer, openly accessible at http://www.lcqb.upmc.fr/BIS2Analyzer/, is a web server providing the online analysis of co-evolving amino-acid pairs in protein alignments, especially designed for vertebrate and viral protein families, which typically display a small number of highly similar sequences. It is based on BIS2, a re-implemented fast version of the co-evolution analysis tool Blocks in Sequences (BIS). BIS2Analyzer provides a rich and interactive graphical interface to ease biological interpretation of the results. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Retrospective analysis of energy use and conservation trends: 1972-1982. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.; Belzer, D.B.; Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Lax, D.H.; Moe, R.J.; Roop, J.M.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

    1985-06-01

    This appendix contains the detailed documentation corresponding to the end-use sectoral analyses presented in the main report. The data and methods used to calculate alternative scenarios for estimating energy savings in four economic sectors are provided in this volume. Appendix A contains the detailed documentation for the residential sector analysis. The methodology used to prepare estimates of building energy savings in the commercial sector is provided in Appendix B. Finally, Appendices C and D discuss the data and explain the analytical techniques used to derive estimates of energy savings in the industrial and transportation sectors, respectively. 9 refs., 14 figs., 86 tabs.

  3. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits......, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate the terrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory...... conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management....

  4. Comparative analysis of sugarcane bagasse metagenome reveals unique and conserved biomass-degrading enzymes among lignocellulolytic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Charoensawan, Varodom; Kanokratana, Pattanop; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most abundant agricultural wastes, sugarcane bagasse is largely under-exploited, but it possesses a great potential for the biofuel, fermentation, and cellulosic biorefinery industries. It also provides a unique ecological niche, as the microbes in this lignocellulose-rich environment thrive in relatively high temperatures (50°C) with varying microenvironments of aerobic surface to anoxic interior. The microbial community in bagasse thus presents a good resource for the discovery and characterization of new biomass-degrading enzymes; however, it remains largely unexplored. We have constructed a fosmid library of sugarcane bagasse and obtained the largest bagasse metagenome to date. A taxonomic classification of the bagasse metagenome reviews the predominance of Proteobacteria, which are also found in high abundance in other aerobic environments. Based on the functional characterization of biomass-degrading enzymes, we have demonstrated that the bagasse microbial community benefits from a large repertoire of lignocellulolytic enzymes, which allows them to digest different components of lignocelluoses into single molecule sugars. Comparative genomic analyses with other lignocellulolytic and non-lignocellulolytic metagenomes show that microbial communities are taxonomically separable by their aerobic "open" or anoxic "closed" environments. Importantly, a functional analysis of lignocellulose-active genes (based on the CAZy classifications) reveals core enzymes highly conserved within the lignocellulolytic group, regardless of their taxonomic compositions. Cellulases, in particular, are markedly more pronounced compared to the non-lignocellulolytic group. In addition to the core enzymes, the bagasse fosmid library also contains some uniquely enriched glycoside hydrolases, as well as a large repertoire of the newly defined auxiliary activity proteins. Our study demonstrates a conservation and diversification of carbohydrate-active genes among diverse

  5. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix D, Conservation, Load Management and Fuel Switching Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Analysis of CP conserving Higgs bosons self couplings in SM×S(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, E Barradas; Félix-Beltrán, O; Rodríguez-Jáuregui, E

    2013-01-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of a minimal S 3 -invariant extension of the Standard Model, with an extended S 3 -Higgs sector. Within this extended S(3)-Standard Model, we study the trilinear Higgs couplings and its dependence on the details of the model, even when the lightest Higgs boson mass is taken to be a fixed parameter. We study quantitatively the trilinear Higgs couplings, and compare these couplings to the corresponding Standard Model trilinear Higgs coupling in some regions of the parameter space. A precise measurement of the trilinear Higgs self coupling will also make it possible to test this extended S(3)-Standard Model with the Standard Model trilinear Higgs coupling. We present analytical expressions for the trilinear Higgs couplings

  7. CONSERVATIVE ISLAM TURN OR POPULAR ISLAM? an Analysis of the Film Ayat-ayat Cinta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a film and cultural studies analysis of the Indonesian religious film Ayat-ayat Cinta. It examines the way in which the film represents Islam in the context of the globalisation of the media industry, the wider cultural transformation and religious context in Indonesia. This paper argues that the film Ayat-ayat Cinta represents “popular Islam”, which resulted from the interaction between the santri religious variants and the film industry, capitalism, market forces and popular culture in Indonesia. Santri religious variants in this film are rooted in traditionalist, fundamentalist, modernist, and liberal Islam in Indonesia, and those Islamic groups which have undergone a process of conformity with capitalism and popular culture. As a result, the representation of Islam in this film is pluralist, tolerant, and fashionable. Keywords: Ayat-ayat Cinta, popular Islam, santri, traditionalist, fundamentalist, modernist, cultural studies.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    -Festuca complex show very diverse phenotypes, including for many agronomically important traits. Analysis of sequenced transcriptomes of these non-model species may shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic diversity. Results We have generated de novo transcriptome assemblies for four......Background The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf fescues, both belonging to the subfamily Pooideae. This subfamily also includes wheat, barley, oat and rye, making it extremely important to world agriculture. Species within the Lolium...... species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family...

  9. Decision analysis for conservation breeding: Maximizing production for reintroduction of whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Des H.V.; Converse, Sarah J.; Gibson, Keith; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Maguire, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Captive breeding is key to management of severely endangered species, but maximizing captive production can be challenging because of poor knowledge of species breeding biology and the complexity of evaluating different management options. In the face of uncertainty and complexity, decision-analytic approaches can be used to identify optimal management options for maximizing captive production. Building decision-analytic models requires iterations of model conception, data analysis, model building and evaluation, identification of remaining uncertainty, further research and monitoring to reduce uncertainty, and integration of new data into the model. We initiated such a process to maximize captive production of the whooping crane (Grus americana), the world's most endangered crane, which is managed through captive breeding and reintroduction. We collected 15 years of captive breeding data from 3 institutions and used Bayesian analysis and model selection to identify predictors of whooping crane hatching success. The strongest predictor, and that with clear management relevance, was incubation environment. The incubation period of whooping crane eggs is split across two environments: crane nests and artificial incubators. Although artificial incubators are useful for allowing breeding pairs to produce multiple clutches, our results indicate that crane incubation is most effective at promoting hatching success. Hatching probability increased the longer an egg spent in a crane nest, from 40% hatching probability for eggs receiving 1 day of crane incubation to 95% for those receiving 30 days (time incubated in each environment varied independently of total incubation period). Because birds will lay fewer eggs when they are incubating longer, a tradeoff exists between the number of clutches produced and egg hatching probability. We developed a decision-analytic model that estimated 16 to be the optimal number of days of crane incubation needed to maximize the number of

  10. Global proteomic analysis in trypanosomes reveals unique proteins and conserved cellular processes impacted by arginine methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Kaylen; Li, Jun; Fisk, John C; Wang, Hao; Aletta, John M; Qu, Jun; Read, Laurie K

    2013-10-08

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification with reported functions in transcription, RNA processing and translation, and DNA repair. Trypanosomes encode five protein arginine methyltransferases, suggesting that arginine methylation exerts widespread impacts on the biology of these organisms. Here, we performed a global proteomic analysis of Trypanosoma brucei to identify arginine methylated proteins and their sites of modification. Using an approach entailing two-dimensional chromatographic separation and alternating electron transfer dissociation and collision induced dissociation, we identified 1332 methylarginines in 676 proteins. The resulting data set represents the largest compilation of arginine methylated proteins in any organism to date. Functional classification revealed numerous arginine methylated proteins involved in flagellar function, RNA metabolism, DNA replication and repair, and intracellular protein trafficking. Thus, arginine methylation has the potential to impact aspects of T. brucei gene expression, cell biology, and pathogenesis. Interestingly, pathways with known methylated proteins in higher eukaryotes were identified in this study, but often different components of the pathway were methylated in trypanosomes. Methylarginines were often identified in glycine rich contexts, although exceptions to this rule were detected. Collectively, these data inform on a multitude of aspects of trypanosome biology and serve as a guide for the identification of homologous arginine methylated proteins in higher eukaryotes. T. brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes lethal African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock, thereby imposing a significant medical and economic burden on sub-Saharan Africa. The parasite encounters very different environments as it cycles between mammalian and insect hosts, and must exert cellular responses to these varying milieus. One mechanism by which all cells respond to changing

  11. The use of conservation supply curves in energy policy and economic analysis: The case study of Thai cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Menke, Christoph; Therdyothin, Apichit

    2010-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the largest energy-consuming industries in Thailand with high carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Using a bottom-up electricity Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) model, the cost effective and the total technical electricity-efficiency potential for the Thai cement industry in 2008 is estimated to be about 265 and 1697 gigawatt-hours (GWh) which account for 8% and 51% of the total electricity used in the cement industry in 2005, respectively. The fuel CSC model shows the cost-effective fuel-efficiency potential to be 17,214 terajoules (TJ) and the total technical fuel-efficiency potential equal to 21,202 TJ, accounting for 16% and 19% of the total fuel used in cement industry in 2005, respectively. The economic analysis in this paper shows how the information from the CSCs can be used to calculate the present value (PV) of net cost savings over a period of time taking into account the energy price escalation rate. The results from the policy scenario analysis show that the most effective and efficient policy scenario is the introduction of an energy-related CO 2 tax for the cement industry under a voluntary agreement program. This scenario results in 16.9% primary energy-efficiency improvement over a 5-year implementation period.

  12. Complications of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery Involving Soft Tissue Transfer Versus Breast-Conserving Surgery: An Analysis of the NSQIP Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cil, Tulin D; Cordeiro, Erin

    2016-10-01

    Oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS) aims to provide breast cancer patients with optimum oncologic outcomes and excellent cosmesis. We sought to determine if there is a difference in complications associated with OBS involving soft tissue transfer compared with the traditional breast-conserving surgical (BCS) approach. Analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was performed. Patients with breast cancer who underwent BCS from 2005 to 2014 were included in the study cohort, while patients undergoing concurrent high-risk non-breast surgery, male patients, and those with metastatic disease were excluded. Patients with concomitant current procedural terminology codes identifying soft tissue transfer were categorized as having OBS. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine the independent effect of OBS on postoperative morbidity. We identified 75,972 patients who underwent BCS for breast cancer between 2005 and 2014, of whom 1363 (1.8 %) underwent OBS with soft tissue transfer. Compared with the standard lumpectomy group, patients undergoing OBS were more likely to be younger, had a lower body mass index, were less likely to be smokers, and more often received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. OBS with soft tissue transfer also had a significantly longer operative time (83 vs. 59 min; p breast cancer treatment does not confer an increased risk of surgical complications, despite the longer operative time. This is important given the increasing use of oncoplastic surgery techniques within North America.

  13. Scenario analysis for biodiversity conservation: a social-ecological system approach in the Australian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Lockwood, Michael; Moore, Susan A; Clement, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Current policy interventions are having limited success in addressing the ongoing decline in global biodiversity. In part, this is attributable to insufficient attention being paid to the social and governance processes that drive decisions and can undermine their implementation. Scenario planning that draws on social-ecological systems (SES) analysis provides a useful means to systematically explore and anticipate future uncertainties regarding the interaction between humans and biodiversity outcomes. However, the effective application of SES models has been limited by the insufficient attention given to governance influences. Understanding the influence governance attributes have on the future trajectory of SES is likely to assist choice of effective interventions, as well as needs and opportunities for governance reform. In a case study in the Australian Alps, we explore the potential of joint SES and scenario analyses to identify how governance influences landscape-scale biodiversity outcomes. Novel aspects of our application of these methods were the specification of the focal system's governance attributes according to requirements for adaptive capacity, and constraining scenarios according to the current governance settings while varying key social and biophysical drivers. This approach allowed us to identify how current governance arrangements influence landscape-scale biodiversity outcomes, and establishes a baseline from which the potential benefits of governance reform can be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Plain Journal Bearing on the Basis of a New Mass Conserving Cavitation Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alakhramsing, S.; Van Ostayen, R.A.J.; Eling, R.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cavitation is an important feature in hydrodynamic bearing modeling. Especially for thermo-hydrodynamic modeling, it is crucial to use a mass-conservative cavitation algorithm. This paper introduces a new mass-conserving Reynolds cavitation algorithm, which provides fast

  15. Identification and analysis of 21 novel disease-causing amino acid substitutions in the conserved part of ATP7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, L.B.; Bukrinsky, J.T.; Mølgaard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    ATP7A encodes a copper. translocating ATPase that belongs to the large family of P-type ATPases. Eight conserved regions define the core of the P-type ATPase superfamily. We report here the identification of 21 novel missense mutations in the conserved part of ATP7A that encodes the residues p.V842...

  16. "The man, the administration and the counter-discourse”: An analysis of the sudden turn in Dutch nature conservation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Mattijssen, T.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands were at the forefront of European nature conservation policy until recently. For years, a stable ‘social contract’ around Dutch nature conservation existed. To the surprise of many, this stability suddenly disappeared and Dutch nature policy has taken a dramatic shift with changing

  17. Depression Induced by Total Mastectomy, Breast Conserving Surgery and Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjiao; Hu, Guangfu; Biskup, Ewelina; Qiu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Haiyin

    2018-02-09

    To carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine whether different type of surgery induces different depression occurrence in female breast cancer at mean time more than 1-year term postoperatively. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, OvidSP, EBSCO and PsycARTICLES was conducted. Observational clinical studies that compared the depression incidence in different surgery groups and presented empirical findings were selected. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including 5, 4, 2 and 5 studies compared depression between total mastectomy (TM) and breast conserving therapy (BCS), TM and breast reconstruction (BR), BCS and BR, or among all three groups (TM, BCS and BR), respectively. Only 1 of 5 studies, which subjected to multivariate analysis of depression in female breast cancer, reported a statistically significant effect of type of surgery on depression occurrence. Our meta-analysis showed no significant differences among the three types of surgery, with BCS patients versus TM patients (relative risk [RR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.01; P = 0.06), BR patients versus TM patients (RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.71-1.06; P = 0.16) and BCS patients versus BR patients (RR = 1.10; 95% CI 0.89-1.35; P = 0.37), respectively. Our study showed that there were no statistically significant differences concerning the occurrence of depressive symptoms in breast cancer patients as a consequence of TM, BCS or BR at mean time more than 1-year term postoperatively.

  18. Functional analysis of the conserved transcriptional regulator CfWor1 in Cladosporium fulvum reveals diverse roles in the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ökmen, B.; Collemare, J.; Griffiths, S.A.; Burgt, van der A.; Cox, R.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal Wor1-like proteins are conserved transcriptional regulators that are reported to regulate the virulence of several plant pathogenic fungi by affecting the expression of virulence genes. Here, we report the functional analysis of CfWor1, the homologue of Wor1 in Cladosporium fulvum. ¿cfwor1

  19. Systematic functional analysis of the Ras GTPase family unveils a conserved network required for anterograde protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Marie-Elaine; Jenna, Sarah; Baillie, David L; Bossé, Roger; Simpson, Jeremy C; Chevet, Eric; Taouji, Saïd

    2017-01-01

    Phylogeny is often used to compare entire families of genes/proteins. We previously showed that classification of Caenorhabditis elegans Rho GTPases on the basis of their enzymatic properties was significantly different from sequence alignments. To further develop this concept, we have developed an integrated approach to classify C. elegans small GTPases based on functional data comprising affinity for GTP, sub-cellular localization, tissue distribution and silencing impact. This analysis led to establish a novel functional classification for small GTPases. To test the relevance of this classification in mammals, we focused our attention on the human orthologs of small GTPases from a specific group comprising arf-1.2, evl-20, arl-1, Y54E10BR.2, unc-108 and rab-7. We then tested their involvement in protein secretion and membrane traffic in mammalian systems. Using this approach we identify a novel network containing 18 GTPases, and 23 functionally interacting proteins, conserved between C. elegans and mammals, which is involved in membrane traffic and protein secretion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Hutchins

    Full Text Available Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  1. Air Force Hearing Conservation Program data 1998-2008: a cross-sectional analysis of positive threshold shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Eboniece M

    2012-05-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is an area of concern for military personnel. The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of hearing loss in military and civilian personnel enrolled in the Air Force Hearing Conservation Program between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. The research employed a cross-sectional design. Data stored in the Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System-Data Repository was analyzed. Among military personnel, the logistic regression model demonstrated a protective effect for enlisted members (OR = 0.78, p < 0.0001) and women (OR = 0.63, p < 0.0001) and an increased odds of having a positive threshold shift (PTS) with increasing age group (OR = 1.919, p < 0.001). Among civilians, the logistic regression model demonstrated a protective effect for women (OR = 0.52, p < 0.0001) and increased odds of having a PTS with increasing age group (OR = 1.73, p < 0.001). When compared to military personnel, civilian personnel had increased risk for PTS (RR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.67-1.69). Increasing age and being male were associated with higher PTS rates. PTS rates were higher in officers than in enlisted military members. When compared to military personnel, civilian personnel were found to have an increased risk for PTS.

  2. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramesha Mallegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat and their migration. Aim of this work is to create detailed NDVI based land change maps and to use them to identify time-series trends in greening and browning in forest corridors in the study area and to identify the drivers that are influencing the observed changes. Over the four decades in BRT, NDVI increased in the core area of the forest and reduced in the fringe areas. The change analysis between 1973 and 2014 shows significant changes; browning due to anthropogenic activities as well as natural processes and greening due to Lantana spread. This indicates that the change processes are complex, involving multiple driving factors, such as socio-economic changes, high population growth, historical forest management practices and policies. Our study suggests that the use of updated and accurate change detection maps will be useful in taking appropriate site specific action-oriented conservation decisions to restore and manage the degraded critical wildlife corridors in human-dominated landscape.

  3. Modular expression analysis reveals functional conservation between human Langerhans cells and mouse cross-priming dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyomov, Maxim N; Munk, Adiel; Gorvel, Laurent; Korenfeld, Daniel; Cella, Marina; Tung, Thomas; Klechevsky, Eynav

    2015-05-04

    Characterization of functionally distinct dendritic cell (DC) subsets in mice has fueled interest in whether analogous counterparts exist in humans. Transcriptional modules of coordinately expressed genes were used for defining shared functions between the species. Comparing modules derived from four human skin DC subsets and modules derived from the Immunological Genome Project database for all mouse DC subsets revealed that human Langerhans cells (LCs) and the mouse XCR1(+)CD8α(+)CD103(+) DCs shared the class I-mediated antigen processing and cross-presentation transcriptional modules that were not seen in mouse LCs. Furthermore, human LCs were enriched in a transcriptional signature specific to the blood cross-presenting CD141/BDCA-3(+) DCs, the proposed equivalent to mouse CD8α(+) DCs. Consistent with our analysis, LCs were highly adept at inducing primary CTL responses. Thus, our study suggests that the function of LCs may not be conserved between mouse and human and supports human LCs as an especially relevant therapeutic target. © 2015 Artyomov et al.

  4. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  5. True recurrence versus new primary: an analysis of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences after breast-conserving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panet-Raymond, Valerie; Truong, Pauline T; McDonald, Rachel E; Alexander, Cheryl; Ross, Louetta; Ryhorchuk, Aleata; Watson, Peter H

    2011-10-01

    Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) can occur in 5-20% of women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Two entities of IBTR have been described: true recurrence (TR), suggested to be regrowth of disease at the tumor bed, and new primary (NP), distinct from the index lesion in histology and location. This study compared survival outcomes between two patient cohorts classified clinically as having either TR or NP. Between 1989 and 1999, 6,020 women were referred to the BC Cancer Agency with newly diagnosed pT1-2, N0-1, M0 invasive breast cancer, treated with breast-conserving surgery. Of these, 289 patients had pathologically confirmed IBTR. Retrospective analysis was performed, and a set of decision rules was applied to classify cases as TR or NP based on change in histology, grade, hormone receptor status, and tumor location. Of 289 patients, 129 (45%) were classified as having TR and 139 (48%) as having NP; 21 (7%) were unclassified. The distributions of age at diagnosis, age at recurrence, and histopathologic factors were similar in the TR and NP cohorts (all p > 0.05). The mean time to recurrence was shorter in TR patients than in NP patients (4.8 years vs. 6.3 years, p = 0.001). Treatment of the IBTR did not differ between the two groups. In the TR and NP cohorts, breast cancer-specific survival was 55.7% vs. 61.3% (p = 0.93), and overall survival was 43.7% vs. 54.8% (p = 0.53). Time to recurrence is significantly shorter in patients with IBTR classified as true recurrence compared to new primary. Non-statistically significant trends for less favorable survival were observed for patients with TR. Further investigation of the hypothesis that TR and NP tumors are distinct entities with different survival prognoses will require standardized pathology review and molecular analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel......Analysis suggests that progress in conservation of plastics objects and artworks can be described by a series of overlapping mesocycles. Focus has been placed for periods of 5-10 years each on determining the degradation pathways in the 1990s, developing strategies to inhibit those pathways from...... plastics has been the origin of the data describing lifetimes. By contrast, mesocycles in developing suitable storage and display microclimates for plastics have mirrored preventive conservation practices for natural polymeric materials. The rate of the third mesocycle, interventive conservation, has been...

  7. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from ∼ 300 ppm to ∼ 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of ∼ 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants' Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants' Results

  8. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from {approximately} 300 ppm to {approximately} 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of {approximately} 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants` Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants` Results.

  9. Single-cell time-lapse analysis of depletion of the universally conserved essential protein YgjD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The essential Escherichia coli gene ygjD belongs to a universally conserved group of genes whose function has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Here, we put ygjD under control of an inducible promoter, and used time-lapse microscopy and single cell analysis to investigate the phenotypic consequences of the depletion of YgjD protein from growing cells. Results We show that loss of YgjD leads to a marked decrease in cell size and termination of cell division. The transition towards smaller size occurs in a controlled manner: cell elongation and cell division remain coupled, but cell size at division decreases. We also find evidence that depletion of YgjD leads to the synthesis of the intracellular signaling molecule (pppGpp, inducing a cellular reaction resembling the stringent response. Concomitant deletion of the relA and spoT genes - leading to a strain that is uncapable of synthesizing (pppGpp - abrogates the decrease in cell size, but does not prevent termination of cell division upon YgjD depletion. Conclusions Depletion of YgjD protein from growing cells leads to a decrease in cell size that is contingent on (pppGpp, and to a termination of cell division. The combination of single-cell timelapse microscopy and statistical analysis can give detailed insights into the phenotypic consequences of the loss of essential genes, and can thus serve as a new tool to study the function of essential genes.

  10. Defining Prolonged Length of Acute Care Stay for Surgically and Conservatively Treated Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Population-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The definition of prolonged length of stay (LOS during acute care remains unclear among surgically and conservatively treated patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Methods. Using a population-based quality assessment registry, we calculated change points in LOS for surgically and conservatively treated patients with ICH. The influence of comorbidities, baseline characteristics at admission, and in-hospital complications on prolonged LOS was evaluated in a multivariate model. Results. Overall, 13272 patients with ICH were included in the analysis. Surgical therapy of the hematoma was documented in 1405 (10.6% patients. Change points for LOS were 22 days (CI: 8, 22; CL 98% for surgically treated patients and 16 days (CI: 16, 16; CL: 99% for conservatively treated patients. Ventilation therapy was related to prolonged LOS in surgically (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5–3.1; P<0.001 and conservatively treated patients (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 2.2–2.9; P<0.001. Two or more in-hospital complications in surgical patients (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.1–3.5 and ≥1 in conservative patients (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 2.7–3.3 were predictors of prolonged LOS. Conclusion. The definition of prolonged LOS after ICH could be useful for several aspects of quality management and research. Preventing in-hospital complications could decrease the number of patients with prolonged LOS.

  11. Promiscuous prediction and conservancy analysis of CTL binding epitopes of HCV 3a viral proteome from Punjab Pakistan: an In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV is a positive sense RNA virus affecting approximately 180 million people world wide and about 10 million Pakistani populations. HCV genotype 3a is the major cause of infection in Pakistani population. One of the major problems of HCV infection especially in the developing countries that limits the limits the antiviral therapy is the long term treatment, high dosage and side effects. Studies of antigenic epitopes of viral sequences of a specific origin can provide an effective way to overcome the mutation rate and to determine the promiscuous binders to be used for epitope based subunit vaccine design. An in silico approach was applied for the analysis of entire HCV proteome of Pakistani origin, aimed to identify the viral epitopes and their conservancy in HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 of diverse origin. Results Immunoinformatic tools were applied for the predictive analysis of HCV 3a antigenic epitopes of Pakistani origin. All the predicted epitopes were then subjected for their conservancy analysis in HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 of diverse origin (worldwide. Using freely available web servers, 150 MHC II epitopes were predicted as promiscuous binders against 51 subjected alleles. E2 protein represented the 20% of all the predicted MHC II epitopes. 75.33% of the predicted MHC II epitopes were (77-100% conserve in genotype 3; 47.33% and 40.66% in genotype 1 and 2 respectively. 69 MHC I epitopes were predicted as promiscuous binders against 47 subjected alleles. NS4b represented 26% of all the MHC I predicted epitopes. Significantly higher epitope conservancy was represented by genotype 3 i.e. 78.26% and 21.05% for genotype 1 and 2. Conclusions The study revealed comprehensive catalogue of potential HCV derived CTL epitopes from viral proteome of Pakistan origin. A considerable number of predicted epitopes were found to be conserved in different HCV genotype. However, the number of conserved epitopes in HCV genotype 3 was

  12. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  13. Colorful Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  14. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  15. Modeling and analysis of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling in wireless ad hoc sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty.

  16. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  17. Conservation between higher plants and the moss Physcomitrella patens in response to the phytohormone abscisic acid: a proteomics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoqin

    2010-08-01

    accumulation levels as a result of treatment with ABA. Detailed analysis these protein functions showed that physiological and molecular responses to the plant hormone ABA appear to be conserved among higher plant species and bryophytes.

  18. Patient-reported Outcomes After Conservative or Surgical Management of Recurrent and Chronic Complaints of Diverticulitis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeweg, Caroline S; Berg, Rosalyn; Staal, J Bart; ten Broek, Richard P G; van Goor, Harry

    2016-02-01

    Patients with diverticulitis develop recurrences and chronic abdominal symptoms. Recurrent diverticulitis is seldom complicated, which has led to a conservative treatment approach. However, some studies suggest that surgical intervention reduces recurrence and chronic abdominal problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life (QOL) and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after conservative vs surgical treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo databases for randomized trials and cohort studies reporting on QOL or other PROs after conservative or operative treatment for uncomplicated diverticulitis from January 1990 through May 2014. Eight PROs were defined and graded according to their clinical relevance. Risk of bias was assessed by using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. The review protocol was registered through PROSPERO (CRD42013005854). We analyzed data from 21 studies that comprised 1858 patients; all studies had a high risk of bias. There were no head-to-head comparisons of gastrointestinal symptoms or general QOL between elective surgical vs conservative treatment of recurrent diverticulitis. On the basis of Short-Form 36 scores, patients had higher QOL scores after elective laparoscopic resection (73.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65.7-81.1) than conservative treatment (58.1; 95% CI, 47.2-69.1). A lower proportion of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms after laparoscopic surgery (9%; 95% CI, 4%-14%) than conservative treatment (36%; 95% CI, 27%-45%) in all cohorts and in 1 trial comparing these treatments (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.16-0.7). The proportion of patients with chronic abdominal pain after elective laparoscopy was 11% (95% CI, 1%-21%) compared with 38% (95% CI, 19%-56%) after conservative treatment. On the basis of a systematic review and meta-analysis, patients

  19. Multistate proteomics analysis reveals novel strategies used by a hibernator to precondition the heart and conserve ATP for winter heterothermy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabek, Katharine R.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hindle, Allyson; Hunter, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    The hibernator's heart functions continuously and avoids damage across the wide temperature range of winter heterothermy. To define the molecular basis of this phenotype, we quantified proteomic changes in the 13-lined ground squirrel heart among eight distinct physiological states encompassing the hibernator's year. Unsupervised clustering revealed a prominent seasonal separation between the summer homeotherms and winter heterotherms, whereas within-season state separation was limited. Further, animals torpid in the fall were intermediate to summer and winter, consistent with the transitional nature of this phase. A seasonal analysis revealed that the relative abundances of protein spots were mainly winter-increased. The winter-elevated proteins were involved in fatty acid catabolism and protein folding, whereas the winter-depleted proteins included those that degrade branched-chain amino acids. To identify further state-dependent changes, protein spots were re-evaluated with respect to specific physiological state, confirming the predominance of seasonal differences. Additionally, chaperone and heat shock proteins increased in winter, including HSPA4, HSPB6, and HSP90AB1, which have known roles in protecting against ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptosis. The most significant and greatest fold change observed was a disappearance of phospho-cofilin 2 at low body temperature, likely a strategy to preserve ATP. The robust summer-to-winter seasonal proteomic shift implies that a winter-protected state is orchestrated before prolonged torpor ensues. Additionally, the general preservation of the proteome during winter hibernation and an increase of stress response proteins, together with dephosphorylation of cofilin 2, highlight the importance of ATP-conserving mechanisms for winter cardioprotection. PMID:21914784

  20. The incidence of secondary vertebral fracture of vertebral augmentation techniques versus conservative treatment for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dawei; Meng, Bin; Gan, Minfeng; Niu, Junjie; Li, Shiyan; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Chenxi; Yang, Huilin

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) are minimally invasive and effective vertebral augmentation techniques for managing osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Recent meta-analyses have compared the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques or conservative treatment; however, the inclusions were not thorough and rigorous enough, and the effects of each technique on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures remain unclear. To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies with more rigorous inclusion criteria on the effects of vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for OVCF on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SpringerLink, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for relevant original articles comparing the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for patients with OVCFs. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were identified. The methodological qualities of the studies were evaluated, relevant data were extracted and recorded, and an appropriate meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 13 articles were included. The pooled results from included studies showed no statistically significant differences in the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis comparing different study designs, durations of symptoms, follow-up times, races of patients, and techniques were conducted, and no significant differences in the incidence of secondary fractures were identified (P > 0.05). No obvious publication bias was detected by either Begg's test (P = 0.360 > 0.05) or Egger's test (P = 0.373 > 0.05). Despite current thinking in the

  1. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  2. Analysis of the Capacity of Google Trends to Measure Interest in Conservation Topics and the Role of Online News.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le T P Nghiem

    Full Text Available With the continuous growth of internet usage, Google Trends has emerged as a source of information to investigate how social trends evolve over time. Knowing how the level of interest in conservation topics--approximated using Google search volume--varies over time can help support targeted conservation science communication. However, the evolution of search volume over time and the mechanisms that drive peaks in searches are poorly understood. We conducted time series analyses on Google search data from 2004 to 2013 to investigate: (i whether interests in selected conservation topics have declined and (ii the effect of news reporting and academic publishing on search volume. Although trends were sensitive to the term used as benchmark, we did not find that public interest towards conservation topics such as climate change, ecosystem services, deforestation, orangutan, invasive species and habitat loss was declining. We found, however, a robust downward trend for endangered species and an upward trend for ecosystem services. The quantity of news articles was related to patterns in Google search volume, whereas the number of research articles was not a good predictor but lagged behind Google search volume, indicating the role of news in the transfer of conservation science to the public.

  3. Analysis of the Capacity of Google Trends to Measure Interest in Conservation Topics and the Role of Online News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Le T P; Papworth, Sarah K; Lim, Felix K S; Carrasco, Luis R

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous growth of internet usage, Google Trends has emerged as a source of information to investigate how social trends evolve over time. Knowing how the level of interest in conservation topics--approximated using Google search volume--varies over time can help support targeted conservation science communication. However, the evolution of search volume over time and the mechanisms that drive peaks in searches are poorly understood. We conducted time series analyses on Google search data from 2004 to 2013 to investigate: (i) whether interests in selected conservation topics have declined and (ii) the effect of news reporting and academic publishing on search volume. Although trends were sensitive to the term used as benchmark, we did not find that public interest towards conservation topics such as climate change, ecosystem services, deforestation, orangutan, invasive species and habitat loss was declining. We found, however, a robust downward trend for endangered species and an upward trend for ecosystem services. The quantity of news articles was related to patterns in Google search volume, whereas the number of research articles was not a good predictor but lagged behind Google search volume, indicating the role of news in the transfer of conservation science to the public.

  4. Exporting conservation

    OpenAIRE

    LTRA-12

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record Soil degradation represents a major threat to food security, particularly in mountainous regions of Southeast Asia, where rainfall can wash away inches of topsoil. This article presents conservation agriculture as a potential solution, focusing on the work that North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University conducts in Southeast Asia in conjunction with regional partners as part of the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (SANREM) collabo...

  5. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity of southern Spain fig tree (Ficus carica L.) and reference materials as a tool for breeding and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Jiménez, M; López, B; Dorado, G; Pujadas-Salvá, A; Guzmán, G; Hernandez, P

    2012-06-01

    The common fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is a Mediterranean crop with problematic cultivar identification. The recovery and conservation of possible local varieties for ecological production requires the previous genetic characterization of the available germplasm. In this context, 42 lines corresponding to 12 local varieties and two caprifigs, in addition to 15 reference samples have been fingerprinted using 21 SSR markers. A total of 77 alleles were revealed, detecting a useful level of genetic variability within the local germplasm pools. UPGMA clustering analysis has revealed the genetic structure and relationships among the local and reference germplasm. Eleven of the local varieties could be identified and defined as obtained clusters, showing that SSR analysis is an efficient method to evaluate the Andalusian fig tree diversity for on-farm conservation. © 2012 The Authors.

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Harmonic technology compared with conventional techniques in mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery with lymphadenectomy for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Clymer, Jeffrey; Cheng,Hang; Ferko,Nicole; Patel,Leena; Soleas,Ireena M; Cameron,Chris G; Hinoul,Piet

    2016-01-01

    Hang Cheng,1 Jeffrey W Clymer,1 Nicole C Ferko,2 Leena Patel,2 Ireena M Soleas,2 Chris G Cameron,2 Piet Hinoul1 1Ethicon Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2Cornerstone Research Group, Burlington, ON, Canada Background: Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PERCEPTION OF RURAL COMMUNITIES AND ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE: SUBSIDIES FOR PRIORITY AREA FOR CONSERVATION PROPOSITION IN THE RIO GRANDE DO NORTE SEMIARID, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mycarla Araujo Lucena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Priority Areas for Conservation are defined in order to protect environments that are home to a richness of species, endemisms and/or endangered species. However, besides these factors, additional studies such as Environmental Perception of local communities and Landscape Analysis are relevant to assess and minimize the negative effects caused to natural environments. In this context and in this perspective, the Mountain Range Complex João do Vale was studied, located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, which holds a set of landscapes with different vegetation types that are being replaced by various economic activities resulting from disordered population growth and consequent exploitation of natural resources' potential. The use of these resources, in most cases, occurs improperly, leading to a depletion of this potential. This study proposes to combine Analysis of Landscape, through a Geographic Information System (GIS, to the Environmental Perception of rural communities in order to define Priority Areas for Conservation. Perception data were obtained through direct observation, questioning, interviews and application forms (n = 240; as to the landscape, data from slope maps, Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA and Environmental Vulnerability were used. The Content Analysis used for perception data showed that respondents have a sense of topophilia regarding where they live, hold a vast knowledge about natural resources and responded positively when asked about the choice of an exclusive area for conservation. These results coupledwith the Analysis of Landscape allowed with of Priorty Areas for Conservation in this Mountain Range Complex with three categories of priority low, medium and high.

  9. Wolf population genetics in Europe: a systematic review, meta-analysis and suggestions for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Remm, Jaanus; Pilot, Malgorzata; Godinho, Raquel; Stronen, Astrid Vik; Baltrūnaité, Laima; Czarnomska, Sylwia D; Leonard, Jennifer A; Randi, Ettore; Nowak, Carsten; Åkesson, Mikael; López-Bao, José Vicente; Álvares, Francisco; Llaneza, Luis; Echegaray, Jorge; Vilà, Carles; Ozolins, Janis; Rungis, Dainis; Aspi, Jouni; Paule, Ladislav; Skrbinšek, Tomaž; Saarma, Urmas

    2017-08-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is an iconic large carnivore that has increasingly been recognized as an apex predator with intrinsic value and a keystone species. However, wolves have also long represented a primary source of human-carnivore conflict, which has led to long-term persecution of wolves, resulting in a significant decrease in their numbers, genetic diversity and gene flow between populations. For more effective protection and management of wolf populations in Europe, robust scientific evidence is crucial. This review serves as an analytical summary of the main findings from wolf population genetic studies in Europe, covering major studies from the 'pre-genomic era' and the first insights of the 'genomics era'. We analyse, summarize and discuss findings derived from analyses of three compartments of the mammalian genome with different inheritance modes: maternal (mitochondrial DNA), paternal (Y chromosome) and biparental [autosomal microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. To describe large-scale trends and patterns of genetic variation in European wolf populations, we conducted a meta-analysis based on the results of previous microsatellite studies and also included new data, covering all 19 European countries for which wolf genetic information is available: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Belarus, Russia, Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Spain and Portugal. We compared different indices of genetic diversity in wolf populations and found a significant spatial trend in heterozygosity across Europe from south-west (lowest genetic diversity) to north-east (highest). The range of spatial autocorrelation calculated on the basis of three characteristics of genetic diversity was 650-850 km, suggesting that the genetic diversity of a given wolf population can be influenced by populations up to 850 km away. As an important outcome of this synthesis, we

  10. Participatory soil and water conservation planning using a financial analysis tool in the west usambara highlands of tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Okoba, B.O.; Sterk, G.

    2007-01-01

    Despite decades of soil and water conservation (SWC) efforts in Tanzania, the adoption of the recommended SWC measures by farmers is minimal. In the past, SWC plans did not incorporate farmers' knowledge, and the economics of SWC was not given much attention at the planning stage. This research

  11. Evaluation of soil and water conservation practices in the north-western Ethiopian highlands using multi-criteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome Firew, A.; Graaff, de J.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2014-01-01

    Investments by farmers in soil and water conservation (SWC) practices are influenced by the physical effectiveness, financial efficiency, and social acceptability of these practices. The objective of this study is to evaluate different SWC practices in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia using

  12. Project CAPTURE: using forest inventory and analysis data to prioritize tree species for conservation, management, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara S. Crane; William W. Hargrove

    2015-01-01

    A variety of threats, most importantly climate change and insect and disease infestation, will increase the likelihood that forest tree species could experience population-level extirpation or species-level extinction during the next century. Project CAPTURE (Conservation Assessment and Prioritization of Forest Trees Under Risk of Extirpation) is a cooperative effort...

  13. The effect of age in breast conserving therapy : A retrospective analysis on pathology and clinical outcome data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Bartelink, Harry; Verheij, Marcel; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    Background and propose: Age is an important prognostic marker of patient outcome after breast conserving therapy; however, it is not clear how age affects the outcome. This study aimed to explore the relationship between age with the cell quantity and the radiosensitivity of microscopic disease

  14. Conservation Status of Two Isolated Populations of Gentiana verna (Gentianaceae) in the Czech Republic: Insights from an Allozyme Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Kirschnerová, Ludmila; Bartish, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2011), s. 177-199 ISSN 0079-2047 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/112/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Gentiana verna * conservation * population genetics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2011

  15. How Do Visitors Relate to Biodiversity Conservation? An Analysis of London Zoo's "BUGS" Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmin-Pui, Lauriane Suyin; Perkins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using a case study of London Zoo's BUGS (Biodiversity Underpinning Global Survival) exhibit, this article assesses the role of experiential learning in raising biodiversity knowledge, concern and potential pro-conservation actions. Using Personal Meaning Mindmapping, a novel method in visitor research, the study examines how adult visitors relate…

  16. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  17. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A C; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  18. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vinceti

    Full Text Available Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1 was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2 at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  19. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Maarten van; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  20. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.: application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1 improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs; and (2 formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could

  1. Profiling conserved biological pathways in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disorder (ADPKD) to elucidate key transcriptomic alterations regulating cystogenesis: A cross-species meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Pandey, Priyanka

    2017-09-05

    Initiation and progression of fluid filled cysts mark Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Thus, improved therapeutics targeting cystogenesis remains a constant challenge. Microarray studies in single ADPKD animal models species with limited sample sizes tend to provide scattered views on underlying ADPKD pathogenesis. Thus we aim to perform a cross species meta-analysis to profile conserved biological pathways that might be key targets for therapy. Nine ADPKD microarray datasets on rat, mice and human fulfilled our study criteria and were chosen. Intra-species combined analysis was performed after considering removal of batch effect. Significantly enriched GO biological processes and KEGG pathways were computed and their overlap was observed. For the conserved pathways, biological modules and gene regulatory networks were observed. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) was performed for genes found in conserved pathways. We obtained 28 modules of significantly enriched GO processes and 5 major functional categories from significantly enriched KEGG pathways conserved in human, mice and rats that in turn suggest a global transcriptomic perturbation affecting cyst - formation, growth and progression. Significantly enriched pathways obtained from up-regulated genes such as Genomic instability, Protein localization in ER and Insulin Resistance were found to regulate cyst formation and growth whereas cyst progression due to increased cell adhesion and inflammation was suggested by perturbations in Angiogenesis, TGF-beta, CAMs, and Infection related pathways. Additionally, networks revealed shared genes among pathways e.g. SMAD2 and SMAD7 in Endocytosis and TGF-beta. Our study suggests cyst formation and progression to be an outcome of interplay between a set of several key deregulated pathways. Thus, further translational research is warranted focusing on developing a combinatorial therapeutic

  2. Prioritization of strategies for protected area management with local people using the hybrid SWOT-AHP analysis: the case of Kakum conservation area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Foli Fiagbomeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of protected areas towards conservation and protection of biodiversity cannot be over emphasized. Likewise, the dependence of local communities on forest and natural resources cannot be overlooked. Hence for the long term viability of forest reserves and wildlife protected area, the relationship of local people living close to these areas are of key importance if conflict of use can be mitigated. Admittedly, decision-making with respect to forest resource use and protection are complex due to the multiple interests of the major stakeholders. Stakeholder involvement in the planning, management and policy analysis can help resolve conflicts, and increase the commitment of local people to support conservation of protected areas. In this paper, we employ the SWOT-AHP methodology, with the aid of the Priority Estimation Tool (PriEsT, to evaluate and prioritize three management strategies for the Kakum conservation area in Ghana, as a means to facilitate conservation while ensuring benefits to local people. Considering the management objectives of the conservation area, seventeen SWOT sub-factors were identified and used in rating the three alternative management strategies. Among the strength sub-factors, enforcement of protection regulations (S4 is the most important. Similarly, limited funds for patrolling and outreach programs (W3, local people’s interest in alternative livelihood (O4 and the presence of illegal activities (T3 are the most important weakness, opportunity and threat sub-factors respectively. The management strategy “institute village committees to support monitoring and protection of resources” (A1 has the highest priority rating, indicating that management authorities must pay more attention to collaborative management. We propose that to improve on protected area management in Ghana, more management strategy studies must be conducted. However, these studies may apply the fuzzy AHP technique since it is

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of a neurotoxigenic Clostridium species using partial genome sequence: Phylogenetic analysis of a few conserved proteins involved in cellular processes and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Dixit, Aparna; Tomar, Arvind; Singh, Lokendra

    2010-04-01

    Clostridial organisms produce neurotoxins, which are generally regarded as the most potent toxic substances of biological origin and potential biological warfare agents. Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin and is responsible for the fatal tetanus disease. In spite of the extensive immunization regimen, the disease is an important cause of death especially among neonates. Strains of C. tetani have not been genetically characterized except the complete genome sequencing of strain E88. The present study reports the genetic makeup and phylogenetic affiliations of an environmental strain of this bacterium with respect to C. tetani E88 and other clostridia. A shot gun library was constructed from the genomic DNA of C. tetani drde, isolated from decaying fish sample. Unique clones were sequenced and sequences compared with its closest relative C. tetani E88. A total of 275 clones were obtained and 32,457 bases of non-redundant sequence were generated. A total of 150 base changes were observed over the entire length of sequence obtained, including, additions, deletions and base substitutions. Of the total 120 ORFs detected, 48 exhibited closest similarity to E88 proteins of which three are hypothetical proteins. Eight of the ORFs exhibited similarity with hypothetical proteins from other organisms and 10 aligned with other proteins from unrelated organisms. There is an overall conservation of protein sequences among the two strains of C. tetani and. Selected ORFs involved in cellular processes and metabolism were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Symmetry analysis and conservation laws of the geodesic equations for the Reissner-Nordström de Sitter black hole with a global monopole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjafikhah, Mehdi; Ahangari, Fatemeh

    2012-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the comprehensive analysis of the problem of symmetries and conservation laws for the geodesic equations of the Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) black hole with a global monopole. For this purpose, the system of geodesic equations is determined and the corresponding classical Lie point symmetry operators are obtained. An optimal system of one dimensional subalgebras is constructed and a brief discussion about the algebraic structure of the Lie algebra of symmetries is presented. Also, the Noether symmetries of the geodesic Lagrangian is calculated. Finally, by applying two methods including Noether's theorem and direct method the conservation laws associated to the system of geodesic equations are obtained.

  5. Landscape Conservative Cooperatives for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Landscape conservation cooperatives (LCCs) are conservation-science partnerships between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and other...

  6. Dual-porosity analysis of conservative tracer testing in saturated volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    A radially convergent conservative tracer injection test was conducted between boreholes UE-25 #2 and UE-25 c #3 of the C-hole complex at Yucca Mountain to determine effective porosity and longitudinal dispersivity. Approximately 47% of the tracer mass was recovered and a dual-porosity analytical model replicates the breakthrough curve. Fractured-rock analyses focus on the fracture-porosity and geometry as the controlling factors in transport.

  7. Analysis of risk factors for poor prognosis in conservatively managed juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Iseki, Tomoya; Kambara, Syunichiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the prognosis of conservative treatment for stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the lateral femoral condyle based on review of our patient population. A consecutive series of 43 knees in 37 patients with stable OCD of the lateral femoral condyle with open physes undergoing conservative treatment were included in the study. The mean age of the included subjects was 10.7±2.5years (range, seven to 16years) with the mean follow-up period of 33.3±15.1months (range, 12 to 67months). Conservative treatment consisting of prohibition of sports activities and use of a brace locking the knee in full extension was applied to all included patients. Potential prognostic factors examined were the presence of discoid meniscus, radiographic stage, lesion size on radiographs, time period from onset of symptoms to evaluation/consultation, number of hours of sporting activity per week, and age at starting sports activities. Prognosis of a patient was deemed to be poor when an apparent healing response was not detected in follow-up radiographic studies within six months. The prognosis was defined to be poor for 14 knees (32.6%). The presence of discoid meniscus was identified in 100% of the knees in the poor prognosis group and time-period from onset to consultation of six months or more was shown to be a risk factor with statistical significance. A majority of patients with juvenile OCD in the lateral femoral condyle could be managed with conservative treatment. The presence of discoid meniscus and longer time-period from onset to consultation were significantly related with poor prognosis. IV (case series). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brachytherapy in the conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas extending to neurovascular structures: an analysis of 38 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.; Delannes, M.; Stoeckle, E.; Martel, P.; Pigneux, J.; Daly-Schveitzer, N.; Bui, B.N.; Chevreau, C.; Kantor, G.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the tolerance of neurovascular structures to brachytherapy, a retrospective review of our series was undertaken. Between May 1986 and January 1994, 85 patients with soft tissue sarcomas underwent conservative surgery and low-dose rate interstitial irradiation. Thirty-eight patients had tumors extending to neurovascular structures. Brachytherapy was part of initial treatment in 30 patients and was done in 7 cases for recurrent sarcomas. Afterloading catethers for brachytherapy were inserted intraoperatively and placed direct upon or under the neurovascular structures in the tumor bed. A mean dose of 20 Gy was delivered to the target volume. Thirty patients received 45 to 50 Gy of postoperative external irradiation. With a median follow-up of 39 months, the 3-year actuarial survival was 82.9%, the 3-year disease-free survival was 71.9% and the 3-year actuarial local control was 91%. The 3-year actuarial incidence of distant metastase was 28%. Acute side effects occurred in 12 patients requiring conservative surgical procedures in 6 cases. Significant late toxicity occurred in 8 patients : 2 lymphoedemas interfering with normal activity, 1 partial artery stenosis, 5 peripheral neuropathy (2 grade 2, 3 grade 3). Late toxicity has led to significant impairment of mobility in 4 patients. Limb preservation was achieved in every patient, no amputation was required. We conclude that integration of brachytherapy in the conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas extending to neurovascular structures can provide excellent local control with an acceptable level of toxicity

  9. DNA analysis indicates that Asian elephants are native to Borneo and are therefore a high priority for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Borneo's elephants is controversial. Two competing hypotheses argue that they are either indigenous, tracing back to the Pleistocene, or were introduced, descending from elephants imported in the 16th-18th centuries. Taxonomically, they have either been classified as a unique subspecies or placed under the Indian or Sumatran subspecies. If shown to be a unique indigenous population, this would extend the natural species range of the Asian elephant by 1300 km, and therefore Borneo elephants would have much greater conservation importance than if they were a feral population. We compared DNA of Borneo elephants to that of elephants from across the range of the Asian elephant, using a fragment of mitochondrial DNA, including part of the hypervariable d-loop, and five autosomal microsatellite loci. We find that Borneo's elephants are genetically distinct, with molecular divergence indicative of a Pleistocene colonisation of Borneo and subsequent isolation. We reject the hypothesis that Borneo's elephants were introduced. The genetic divergence of Borneo elephants warrants their recognition as a separate evolutionary significant unit. Thus, interbreeding Borneo elephants with those from other populations would be contraindicated in ex situ conservation, and their genetic distinctiveness makes them one of the highest priority populations for Asian elephant conservation.

  10. An analysis to compare the effects of stereotactic surgery and conservative medical treatment on hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-dong GUO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the therapeutic effects of stereotactic surgery and conservative medical treatment in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.Methods The clinical data of 100 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent stereotactic surgery(stereotactic surgery group from June 2002 to October 2009 were retrospectively analyzed,and the result was compared with that of 80 contemporaneous patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage who received conservative medical treatment(medical treatment group.There was no significant difference of bleeding site,bleeding volume and state of consciousness on admission between two groups.Results The mortality rate of stereotactic surgery group was 21.0%,and of medical treatment group was 30.0%.The average hematoma absorption time in stereotactic surgery group was 4.8d,and that of medical treatment group was 15.1d.All of the surviving patients were followed-up for 6 months,the rate of cure and mild disability in stereotactic surgery group(37% was significantly higher than that of medical treatment group(26%,P 0.05.Conclusion Compared with conservative medical treatment,stereotactic surgery could decrease the mortality rate and improve the quality of life in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Percocypris pingi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): Implications for Conservation and Hatchery Release in the Yalong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Deng, Yuanping; Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya'an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi.

  12. What makes grassroots conservation organizations resilient? An empirical analysis of diversity, organizational memory, and the number of leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Nabin

    2013-03-01

    Conservation Area Management Committees (CAMCs)-the functional decision-making units consisting entirely of local villagers-are grassroots organizations legally established to manage the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. These committees suffered due to the decade-long Maoist insurgency, but they survived. The paper attempts to test what factors contributed to their resiliency. For this, I surveyed 30 CAMCs during the summer of 2007 and conducted semi-structured interviews of 190 executive members of the CAMCs and 13 park officials who closely monitor the CAMCs. Regression results showed that the number of leaders (b = 0.44, t = 2.38, P = .027) was the most critical variable for building the resilience of CAMCs to the Maoist insurgency, i.e., retaining the same function, structure, and identity of the committees. As there were no reported conflicts among leaders and they were involved in negotiations and devising contingency plans, CAMCs actually benefited from having more leaders. Of the three diversity indices, the quadratic terms of age diversity (b = -5.42, t = 1.95, P = .064) and ethnic diversity (b = -4.05, t = 1.78, P = .075) had a negative impact on the CAMCs' resilience. Skill diversity and organizational memory had no significant influence on the CAMCs' resilience (t  .10). These results have important implications for building resilience in community-based conservation.

  13. RISK ANALYSIS OF ROCK FALLS AT THE IBITIPOCA STATE CONSERVATION PARK AND ITS SURROUNDINGS, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo César Rocha

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ibitipoca region is located at the southeast part of Minas Gerais state, in Brazil (figure1.It is composed by the Ibitipoca State Conservation Park, a conservation unit that occupies thehighest areas of the Ibitipoca Range, and by the surroundings of those mountains, with lowesttopography, where there are farms and rural communities. This enveloping area of the parkfunctions as a buffer zone, protecting the direct impact of tourism at the park, with the aid offorests and biological corridors.This region occupies an area of 14000 ha, and the conservation unit itself covers 1480 ha,protecting important remainings of the Atlantic Tropical Forest, as well as endemic plants,and several caves developed in quartzites, CORREA NETO (1997; ZAIDAN (2002.The research group on Environmental Zoning and Risk of the Federal University of Juiz deFora has worked in the region since 1995, developing the environmental mapping of theregion, with the target to furnish data as a basis for the Management Plan of the whole area.The research has shown the extreme environmental fragility of the area, in respect not only tothe biotic system, as well as to the physical components, ROCHA et all (2002; ROCHA et all(2001; ROCHA e MACIEL (2000; ROCHA et all (2000.The vertiginous increment of the eco-tourism in the region, without rigid normalization ofthis activity, has magnified the environmental impacts, and also the risks to the tourist.The environmental data base already done permits the assessment of several important topicsto the management of the area; one of these is the risk of rock falls, a menace to the touristsand inhabitants of the region. In this way, the objective of this work is the development of theRock Fall Risk Map of the area, as a contribution to the sustainable management of theIbitipoca region.

  14. The RST and PARP-like domain containing SRO protein family: analysis of protein structure, function and conservation in land plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salojärvi Jarkko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SROs (SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE are a group of plant-specific proteins which have important functions in stress adaptation and development. They contain the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP domain and a C-terminal RST (RCD-SRO-TAF4 domain. In addition to these domains, several, but not all, SROs contain an N-terminal WWE domain. Results SROs are present in all analyzed land plants and sequence analysis differentiates between two structurally distinct groups; cryptogams and monocots possess only group I SROs whereas eudicots also contain group II. Group I SROs possess an N-terminal WWE domain (PS50918 but the WWE domain is lacking in group II SROs. Group I domain structure is widely represented in organisms as distant as humans (for example, HsPARP11. We propose a unified nomenclature for the SRO family. The SROs are able to interact with transcription factors through the C-terminal RST domain but themselves are generally not regulated at the transcriptional level. The most conserved feature of the SROs is the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PS51059 domain. However, bioinformatic analysis of the SRO PARP domain fold-structure and biochemical assays of AtRCD1 suggested that SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Conclusions The SROs are a highly conserved family of plant specific proteins. Sequence analysis of the RST domain implicates a highly preserved protein structure in that region. This might have implications for functional conservation. We suggest that, despite the presence of the catalytic core of the PARP domain, the SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Nevertheless, the function of SROs is critical for plants and might be related to transcription factor regulation and complex formation.

  15. Hydrodynamic limit of a B.G.K. like model on domains with boundaries and analysis of kinetic boundary conditions for scalar multidimensional conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Tidriri, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the hydrodynamic limit of a B.G.K. like kinetic model on domains with boundaries via $BV_{loc}$ theory. We obtain as a consequence existence results for scalar multidimensional conservation laws with kinetic boundary conditions. We require that the initial and boundary data satisfy the optimal assumptions that they all belong to $L^1\\cap L^\\infty$ with the additional regularity assumptions that the initial data are in $BV_{loc}$. We also extend our hydrodynamic analysis...

  16. Comprehensive analysis of the symmetries and conservation laws of the geodesic equations for a particular string inspired FRLW solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Scalar-field cosmology can be regarded as one of the significant fields of research in recent years. This paper is dedicated to a thorough investigation of the symmetries and conservation laws of the geodesic equations associated to a specific exact cosmological solution of a scalar-field potential which was originally motivated by six-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory. The mentioned string inspired Friedmann-Robertson-Lamai ^tre-Walker (FRLW) solution is one of the noteworthy solutions of Einstein field equations. For this purpose, first of all the Christoffel symbols and the corresponding system of geodesic equations are computed and then the associated Lie symmetries are totally analyzed. Moreover, the algebraic structure of the Lie algebra of local symmetries is briefly investigated and a complete classification of the symmetry subalgebras is presented. Besides by applying the resulted symmetry operators the invariant solutions of the system of geodesic equations are discussed. In addition, the Noether symmetries and the Killing vector fields of the geodesic Lagrangian are determined and the corresponding optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras is constructed. Mainly, an entire set of local conservation laws is computed for our analyzed scalar-field cosmological solution. For this purpose, two distinct procedures are applied: the celebrated Noether's theorem and the direct method which is fundamentally based on a systematic application of Euler differential operators which annihilate any divergence expression identically.

  17. Conservation Status of Marine Biodiversity in Oceania: An Analysis of Marine Species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Polidoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the economic and cultural dependence on the marine environment in Oceania and a rapidly expanding human population, many marine species populations are in decline and may be vulnerable to extinction from a number of local and regional threats. IUCN Red List assessments, a widely used system for quantifying threats to species and assessing species extinction risk, have been completed for 1190 marine species in Oceania to date, including all known species of corals, mangroves, seagrasses, sea snakes, marine mammals, sea birds, sea turtles, sharks, and rays present in Oceania, plus all species in five important perciform fish groups. Many of the species in these groups are threatened by the modification or destruction of coastal habitats, overfishing from direct or indirect exploitation, pollution, and other ecological or environmental changes associated with climate change. Spatial analyses of threatened species highlight priority areas for both site- and species-specific conservation action. Although increased knowledge and use of newly available IUCN Red List assessments for marine species can greatly improve conservation priorities for marine species in Oceania, many important fish groups are still in urgent need of assessment.

  18. The haloarchaeal MCM proteins: bioinformatic analysis and targeted mutagenesis of the β7-β8 and β9-β10 hairpin loops and conserved zinc binding domain cysteines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana P Kristensen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hexameric MCM complex is the catalytic core of the replicative helicase in eukaryotic and archaeal cells. Here we describe the first in vivo analysis of archaeal MCM protein structure and function relationships using the genetically tractable haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model system. Hfx. volcanii encodes a single MCM protein that is part of the previously identified core group of haloarchaeal MCM proteins. Three structural features of the N-terminal domain of the Hfx. volcanii MCM protein were targeted for mutagenesis: the β7-β8 and β9-β10 β-hairpin loops and putative zinc binding domain. Five strains carrying single point mutations in the β7-β8 β-hairpin loop were constructed, none of which displayed impaired cell growth under normal conditions or when treated with the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C. However, short sequence deletions within the β7-β8 β-hairpin were not tolerated and neither was replacement of the highly conserved residue glutamate 187 with alanine. Six strains carrying paired alanine substitutions within the β9-β10 β-hairpin loop were constructed, leading to the conclusion that no individual amino acid within that hairpin loop is absolutely required for MCM function, although one of the mutant strains displays greatly enhanced sensitivity to mitomycin C. Deletions of two or four amino acids from the β9-β10 β-hairpin were tolerated but mutants carrying larger deletions were inviable. Similarly, it was not possible to construct mutants in which any of the conserved zinc binding cysteines was replaced with alanine, underlining the likely importance of zinc binding for MCM function. The results of these studies demonstrate the feasibility of using Hfx. volcanii as a model system for reverse genetic analysis of archaeal MCM protein function and provide important confirmation of the in vivo importance of conserved structural features identified by previous bioinformatic, biochemical and structural

  19. Conservative fluid management or deresuscitation for patients with sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome following the resuscitation phase of critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, Jonathan A; Major, Emmet; Ferguson, Andrew J; Mann, Emma E; McAuley, Daniel F; Marshall, John C; Blackwood, Bronagh; Fan, Eddy

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown whether a conservative approach to fluid administration or deresuscitation (active removal of fluid using diuretics or renal replacement therapy) is beneficial following haemodynamic stabilisation of critically ill patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of conservative or deresuscitative fluid strategies in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the post-resuscitation phase of critical illness. We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials from 1980 to June 2016, and manually reviewed relevant conference proceedings from 2009 to the present. Two reviewers independently assessed search results for inclusion and undertook data extraction and quality appraisal. We included randomised trials comparing fluid regimens with differing fluid balances between groups, and observational studies investigating the relationship between fluid balance and clinical outcomes. Forty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Marked clinical heterogeneity was evident. In a meta-analysis of 11 randomised trials (2051 patients) using a random-effects model, we found no significant difference in mortality with conservative or deresuscitative strategies compared with a liberal strategy or usual care [pooled risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.02, I 2  = 0 %]. A conservative or deresuscitative strategy resulted in increased ventilator-free days (mean difference 1.82 days, 95 % CI 0.53-3.10, I 2  = 9 %) and reduced length of ICU stay (mean difference -1.88 days, 95 % CI -0.12 to -3.64, I 2  = 75 %) compared with a liberal strategy or standard care. In adults and children with ARDS, sepsis or SIRS, a conservative or deresuscitative fluid strategy results in an increased number of ventilator-free days and a decreased length of ICU stay compared with a liberal strategy or standard care. The effect on mortality

  20. Analysis Of Conservation Experience Of Heritage Objects In Lithuania (The Curonian Spit And Norway (The Vega Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Piekienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Vega Archipelago (Norway are objects on the UNESCO World Heritage List because of their special kind of landscapes that have been formed not without human intervention. Landscapes created by nature itself or with human help are exceptional works which, as determined by the legal acts in regulation of these processes, have to be referred to as objects of cultural heritage. The cultural heritage must be protected, exhibited and viewed as objects of science and cognition. Lithuania and Norway have different conditions formed for identification, conservation and protection of these works, but both countries have recognized that protection of cultural heritage, passing it on for future generations is the duty of the state. Prospects of heritage management and development, and exchange of experience should be the top priorities for action in Lithuania.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of F-bZIP transcription factors indicates conservation of the zinc deficiency response across land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Lilay, Grmay Hailu; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    data, we performed an evolutionary and structural characterization of plant F-bZIPs. We observed divergence during seed plant evolution, into two groups and inferred different selective pressures for each. Group 1 contains AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 and appears more conserved, whereas Group 2, containing......Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors control important developmental and physiological processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three gene F-bZIP subfamily has been associated with zinc deficiency and salt stress response. Benefiting from the present abundance of plant genomic...... of AtZIP4. A survey of AtZIP4 orthologs promoters across different plant taxa revealed an enrichment of the Zinc Deficiency Response Element (ZDRE) to which both AtbZIP19/23 bind. Overall, our results indicate that while the AtbZIP24 function in the regulation of the salt stress response may...

  2. Data Acquisition, Management, and Analysis in Support of the Audiology and Hearing Conservation and the Orbital Debris Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Todd

    2012-01-01

    My internship at Johnson Space Center, Houston TX comprised of working simultaneously in the Space Life Science Directorate (Clinical Services Branch, SD3) in Audiology and Hearing Conservation and in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Sciences Directorate in the Orbital Debris Program Office (KX). The purpose of the project done to support the Audiology and Hearing Conservation Clinic (AuHCon) is to organize and analyze auditory test data that has been obtained from tests conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in Johnson Space Center's clinic. Astronauts undergo a special type of auditory test called an On-Orbit Hearing Assessment (OOHA), which monitors hearing function while crewmembers are exposed to noise and microgravity during long-duration spaceflight. Data needed to be formatted to assist the Audiologist in studying, analyzing and reporting OOHA results from all ISS missions, with comparison to conventional preflight and post-flight audiometric test results of crewmembers. Orbital debris is the #1 threat to manned spacecraft; therefore NASA is investing in different measurement techniques to acquire information on orbital debris. These measurements are taken with telescopes in different parts of the world to acquire brightness variations over time, from which size, rotation rates and material information can be determined for orbital debris. Currently many assumptions are taken to resolve size and material from observed brightness, therefore a laboratory (Optical Measurement Center) is used to simulate the space environment and acquire information of known targets suited to best model the orbital debris population. In the Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) telescopic data were acquired and analyzed to better assess the orbital debris population.

  3. Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 Reveals Novel and Conserved Post-Translational Modifications in Sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Izabel; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Liu, Shichong; Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Garcia, Benjamin A; Casas-Mollano, J Armando

    2015-01-01

    Histones are the main structural components of the nucleosome, hence targets of many regulatory proteins that mediate processes involving changes in chromatin. The functional outcome of many pathways is "written" in the histones in the form of post-translational modifications that determine the final gene expression readout. As a result, modifications, alone or in combination, are important determinants of chromatin states. Histone modifications are accomplished by the addition of different chemical groups such as methyl, acetyl and phosphate. Thus, identifying and characterizing these modifications and the proteins related to them is the initial step to understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation and in the future may even provide tools for breeding programs. Several studies over the past years have contributed to increase our knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation in model organisms like Arabidopsis, yet this field remains relatively unexplored in crops. In this study we identified and initially characterized histones H3 and H4 in the monocot crop sugarcane. We discovered a number of histone genes by searching the sugarcane ESTs database. The proteins encoded correspond to canonical histones, and their variants. We also purified bulk histones and used them to map post-translational modifications in the histones H3 and H4 using mass spectrometry. Several modifications conserved in other plants, and also novel modified residues, were identified. In particular, we report O-acetylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine, a recently identified modification conserved in several eukaryotes. Additionally, the sub-nuclear localization of some well-studied modifications (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K9ac, H3T3ph) is described and compared to other plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of histones H3 and H4 as well as their post-translational modifications in sugarcane, and will provide a starting point for the study of chromatin regulation in

  4. Toward sustainable water use in North China Plain - Scenario analysis of water conservation strategies in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Qin, H.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Zheng, C.

    2016-12-01

    North China Plain (NCP), situated in the continental semi-arid climate region, is one of the most densely populated regions in the world, and contributes to over 1/10 of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in China. NCP is traditionally a water scarce area where precipitation equals to or less than ET. In recent years, due to rapid population and economic growth, and subsequently significantly larger water demand, the water crisis in this region has deepened. The surface water resources has run dry except for a few canals and reservoirs, and thus the water consumption of NCP is almost entirely dependent on groundwater. It is estimated that the groundwater table has declined at the rate of about 1 m/year in the past decades; therefore, sustainable water use in the NCP is of critical importance. In the present study, we explore the scale of the water scarcity problem in NCP as well as the possible water saving strategies to alleviate the crisis from a modeling approach. Water demand is extremely difficult to estimate due to the lack of actual data. To solve this problem, we use a System Dynamic model, where the resulted data are then used as groundwater pumping in a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. Five scenarios are developed to analyze different water management perspectives: 1) Business as usual, 2) Agricultural water saving, 3) Domestic and industrial water saving, 4) Managed aquifer recharge using water leftover from the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and 5) a combination of the above mentioned measures. The hydrological model will predict the overall water balance and water at different hydrological components for the period 2020-2050. Under each scenario, our study also accounts for dry, medium, and wet climate conditions. The results indicate if the current tendency continues, groundwater table will keep declining at the rate of about 1 m/year. Each single conservation measure will not be able to solve the water crisis on

  5. Bi-Temporal Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in Support of a Forest Conservation Program in Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Lambin, E.; Audy, R.; Biryahwaho, B.; de Laat, J.; Jayachandran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies in land use sustainability have shown the conservation value of even small forest fragments in tropical smallholder agricultural regions. Forest patches provide important ecosystem services, wildlife habitat, and support human livelihoods. Our study incorporates multiple dates of high-resolution Quickbird imagery to map forest disturbance and regrowth in a smallholder agricultural landscape in western Uganda. This work is in support of a payments for ecosystem services (PES) project which uses a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of PES for enhancing forest conservation. The research presented here details the remote sensing phase of this project. We developed an object-based methodology for detecting forest change from high-resolution imagery that calculates per class image reflectance and change statistics to determine persistent forest, non-forest, forest gain, and forest loss classes. The large study area (~ 2,400 km2) necessitated using a combination of 10 different image pairs of varying seasonality, sun angle, and viewing angle. We discuss the impact of these factors on mapping results. Reflectance data was used in conjunction with texture measures and knowledge-driven modeling to derive forest change maps. First, baseline Quickbird images were mapped into tree cover and non-tree categories based on segmented image objects and field inventory data, applied through a classification and regression tree (CART) classifier. Then a bi-temporal segmentation layer was generated and a series of object metrics from both image dates were extracted. A sample set of persistent forest objects that remained undisturbed was derived from the tree cover map and the red band (B3) change values. We calculated a variety of statistical indices for these persistent tree cover objects from the post- survey imagery to create maps of both forest cover loss and forest cover gain. These results are compared to visually assessed image objects in addition

  6. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  7. Path integrals for nonadiabatically coupled electrons and nuclei in molecules: Force analysis for branching nuclear paths and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanasaki, Kota; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Real-time dynamics in electron-nucleus coupled systems in molecules is studied using the path-integral formalism, with a special emphasis on nonadiabatic interactions. We first establish a formal path-integral description of the entire system. Applying the stationary phase approximation, we then derive coupled equations for the mixed quantum-classical treatment of the system: the equations of motion for electron wave-packet dynamics and those for nuclear dynamics driven by what we call the force form. Thus the present theory also serves as a general theory for dynamics in mixed quantum and classical systems. On this theoretical foundation, we analyze two theories of nonadiabatic electron-nucleus coupled systems from the viewpoint of path branching: the semiclassical Ehrenfest theory and the recently developed method of phase-space averaging and natural branching [T. Yonehara, S. Takahashi, and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 214113 (2009)]. We give a unified account of the essential feature of their physical implications and limitations. Path-integral formalism leads to further refinement of the idea of path branching caused by nonadiabatic coupling, thus giving deeper insight into the nonadiabatic dynamics. Further, we study the conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum in the general mixed quantum-classical representation. We also extend the present path-integral formulation so as to handle nonadiabatic dynamics in laser fields.

  8. A Sensitivity Analysis of Impacts of Conservation Practices on Water Quality in L’Anguille River Watershed, Arkansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of appropriate agricultural conservation practices (CPs frequently relies on the use of simulation models as a cost-effective tool instead of depending solely on the monitoring of water quality at individual field and watershed levels. This study evaluates the predicted impacts of several CPs on nutrient and sediment loss at the hydrological response unit scale in the L’Anguille River Watershed, which is a watershed identified as a “focus watershed” under the Mississippi River Basin healthy watershed Initiative (MRBI program. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model was calibrated and validated between 1998–2005 and 2006–2012, respectively for flow, sediment, total phosphorus, and nitrate nitrogen. Out of the seven MRBI CPs modeled in this study, the highest reduction in sediment (80% and nutrient (58% for total phosphorus and 16% for total nitrogen was predicted for the critical area planting practice, followed by filter strip, irrigation land leveling, grade stabilization structure, irrigation pipeline, nutrient management, and irrigation water management. Some of the predicted impacts conflicted with expected CP performance. The study underscores the importance of the proper formulation of CP algorithms in using simulation models for predicting impacts on water quality.

  9. The effect of age in breast conserving therapy: A retrospective analysis on pathology and clinical outcome data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Bartelink, Harry; Verheij, Marcel; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background and propose: Age is an important prognostic marker of patient outcome after breast conserving therapy; however, it is not clear how age affects the outcome. This study aimed to explore the relationship between age with the cell quantity and the radiosensitivity of microscopic disease (MSD) in relation to treatment outcome. Materials and methods: We employed a treatment simulation framework which contains mathematic models for describing the load and spread of MSD based on a retrospective cohort of breast pathology specimens, a surgery simulation model for estimating the remaining MSD quantity and a tumor control probability model for predicting the risk of local recurrence following radiotherapy. Results: The average MSD cell quantities around the primary tumor in younger (age ⩽ 50 years) and older patients were estimated at 1.9 ∗ 10 8 cells and 8.4 ∗ 10 7 cells, respectively (P < 0.01). Following surgical simulation, these numbers decreased to 2.0 ∗ 10 7 cells and 1.3 ∗ 10 7 cells (P < 0.01). Younger patients had smaller average surgical resection volume (118.9 cm 3 ) than older patients (162.9 cm 3 , P < 0.01) but larger estimated radiosensitivity of MSD cells (0.111 Gy −1 versus 0.071 Gy −1 , P < 0.01). Conclusion: The higher local recurrence rate in younger patients could be explained by larger clonogenic microscopic disease cell quantity, even though the microscopic disease cells were found to be more radiosensitive

  10. Analysis of army-wide hearing conservation database for hearing profiles related to crew-served and individual weapon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Ahroon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage-risk criteria (DRC for noise exposures are designed to protect 95% of the exposed populations from hearing injuries caused by those noise exposures. The current DRC used by the US military follows OSHA guidelines for continuous noise. The current military DRC for impulse exposures follows the recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA and are contained in the current military standard, MIL-STD-1474D "Noise Limits." Suggesting that the MIL-STD for impulse exposure is too stringent, various individuals have proposed that the DRC for exposure to high-level impulses be relaxed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current hearing status of US Army Soldiers, some of whom can be, by their military occupational specialties (MOS, reasonably expected to be routinely exposed to high-level impulses from weapon systems. The Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System - Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC was queried for the hearing status of enlisted Soldiers of 32 different MOSs. The results indicated that less than 95% of the Soldiers in the DOEHRS-HC database were classified as having normal hearing. In other words, the goal of the DRC used for limiting noise injuries (from continuous and impulse exposures was not stringent enough to prevent hearing injuries in all but the most susceptible Soldiers. These results suggest that the current military noise DRC should not be relaxed.

  11. Microbial communities analysis assessed by pyrosequencing--a new approach applied to conservation state studies of mural paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, T; Mirão, J; Candeias, A; Caldeira, A T

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the microbial communities present in mural paintings is of utmost importance to develop effective conservation and mitigation strategies. The present paper describes a methodological approach for the detailed characterisation of microorganisms thriving in mural paintings by combining culture-dependent methods that allow the identification of microorganisms capable of growing in the laboratory conditions and to obtain high cell densities for further studies, and culture independent methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The coupled use of culture-dependent methods and DGGE does not give enough information to investigate the diversity and abundance of microorganisms present in wall paintings. Pyrosequencing, a novel molecular technique, used here for the first time in this area of research, allowed the identification of a large number of microorganisms, confirming some already identified by the cultivation-dependent methods such as fungi of the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium, but also providing a great contribution in the identification of several genera and species, not previously identified in these artworks, giving also a detailed overview of contaminants which was not possible with the other approaches. The results obtained on several mural painting samples show a strong relationship between the most deteriorated areas of the paintings and higher microbial contamination.

  12. Exploring effective conservation networks based on multi-scale planning unit analysis. A case study of the Balsas sub-basin, Maranhao State, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreto, L.; Ribeiro, M.C.; Veldkamp, A.; Eupen, van M.; Kok, K.; Pontes, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nature conservation and restoration activities require delineation of effective conservation networks. This paper presents a methodology which allows a quick evaluation of different planning options for extensive areas. We analyzed the spatial structure of remaining patches of the natural Cerrado

  13. Complimentary analysis of metacommunity nestedness and diversity partitioning highlights the need for a holistic conservation strategy for highland lake fish assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metacommunity nestedness can be affected by both idiosyncratic species and species turnover, and diversity partitioning allows one to separate turnover and nested components within β-diversity. Thus, complimentary analysis of metacommunity nestedness and diversity partitioning allows for the identification of the underlying changes at both local and regional scales. We examined changes of fish assemblages in metacommunity nestedness and α-, β-, and γ-diversities resulting from the intense loss of native species and the invasion of nonnative species in Chinese highland lakes over the past 60 years. We found metacommunity nestedness rose markedly over time, following the loss of both β- and γ-diversity resulting from the loss of native species, and the increase of α diversity by the addition of nonnative species. This pattern is contradictory to the selective extinction leading to larger nestedness in natural ecosystems and indicates the human-induced negative effects on the metacommunity. However, β-diversity partitioning showed that the turnover component due to species replacement among lakes still contributes more than the nested component, suggesting the importance of avoiding setting conservation priorities based exclusively on metacommunity nestedness theory, but taking a more holistic metacommunity-approach to conservation instead.

  14. Modern methods of documentation for conservation - digital mapping in metigo® MAP, Software for documentation, mapping and quantity survey and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedler, Gunnar; Vetter, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Several years of experience of heritage documentation have given a background to develop methods of cartography and digital evaluation. The outcome of which is the development of a 2D-mapping software with integrated image rectification over a period of more then 10 years and that became the state of the art software in Germany initially and now elsewhere for Conservation and Restoration projects. If there are no mapping bases (image plan or CAD-drawing), the user can create its own image plans using different types of rectification functions. Based on true to scale mappings, quantity surveys of areas and lines can be calculated automatically. Digital maps were used for the documentation and analysis of materials and damages, for planning of required action and for calculation of costs. With the help of the hierarchy even large mapping projects with many sub projects can be managed. The results of quantification can be exported to excel spreadsheets for further processing. The combination of image processing and CAD-functionality makes operation of the programm user-friendly, both in the office and on-site. metigo MAP was developed in close cooperation with conservators and restorers. Based on simple equipment consisting of digital camera, laser measuring instrument for measuring distances or total station and standard notebook the mapping software is used in many restoration companies.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and protein structure modelling identifies distinct Ca(2+)/Cation antiporters and conservation of gene family structure within Arabidopsis and rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Jon K; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2016-12-01

    The Ca(2+)/Cation Antiporter (CaCA) superfamily is an ancient and widespread family of ion-coupled cation transporters found in nearly all kingdoms of life. In animals, K(+)-dependent and K(+)-indendent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCKX and NCX) are important CaCA members. Recently it was proposed that all rice and Arabidopsis CaCA proteins should be classified as NCX proteins. Here we performed phylogenetic analysis of CaCA genes and protein structure homology modelling to further characterise members of this transporter superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis of rice and Arabidopsis CaCAs in comparison with selected CaCA members from non-plant species demonstrated that these genes form clearly distinct families, with the H(+)/Cation exchanger (CAX) and cation/Ca(2+) exchanger (CCX) families dominant in higher plants but the NCKX and NCX families absent. NCX-related Mg(2+)/H(+) exchanger (MHX) and CAX-related Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-like (NCL) proteins are instead present. Analysis of genomes of ten closely-related rice species and four Arabidopsis-related species found that CaCA gene family structures are highly conserved within related plants, apart from minor variation. Protein structures were modelled for OsCAX1a and OsMHX1. Despite exhibiting broad structural conservation, there are clear structural differences observed between the different CaCA types. Members of the CaCA superfamily form clearly distinct families with different phylogenetic, structural and functional characteristics, and therefore should not be simply classified as NCX proteins, which should remain as a separate gene family.

  16. Credibility and advocacy in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Cristi C; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami; Peterson, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Stable Isotope Analysis Provides New Information on Winter Habitat Use of Declining Avian Migrants That Is Relevant to Their Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karl L.; Newton, Jason; Mallord, John W.; Markman, Shai

    2012-01-01

    stable isotope research can contribute to understanding avian migrants' winter ecology and conservation status. PMID:22496827

  18. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2011-02-01

    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Oncoplastic Breast-Conserving Surgery for Tumors Larger than 2 Centimeters: Is it Oncologically Safe? A Matched-Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Loschi, Pietro; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Rotmensz, Nicole; Hubner, Gabriel; Mazzarol, Giovanni; Orecchia, Roberto; Galimberti, Viviana; Veronesi, Paolo; Colleoni, Marco Angelo; Toesca, Antonio; Peradze, Nickolas; Mario, Rietjens

    2016-06-01

    Oncoplastic surgery is a well-established approach that combines conserving treatment for breast cancer and plastic surgery techniques. Although this approach has been described for T2 tumors, no long-term oncologic follow-up and no comparison with patients undergoing mastectomy has been published. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate that oncoplastic surgery is a safe and reliable treatment for managing invasive primary T2 breast cancer. We compared a consecutive series of 193 T2 patients who have undergone oncoplastic surgery (study group) with 386 T2 patients who have undergone mastectomy (control group). The endpoints evaluated were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), cumulative incidence of local recurrence (CI-L), regional recurrence (CI-R), and distant recurrence (CI-D), all measured from the date of surgery. Median follow-up is 7.4 years. The OS is similar within the two groups: 87.3 and 87.1 % at 10 years in the ONC group and control group, respectively (p value, adjusted for multifocality and tumor size, 0.74). Also, the DFS is similar in both groups: 60.9 and 56.3 % at 10 years in the ONC group and control group, respectively. The incidence of local events is slightly higher in the oncoplastic group, whereas the incidence of regional events is slightly higher in the mastectomy group. These differences are not statistically significant. The cumulative incidence of distant events is similar within the two groups. To our knowledge, the present study provides the best available evidence to suggest that oncoplastic approach is a safe and reliable treatment for managing invasive pT2 breast cancers.

  20. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  1. Economic growth, energy conservation and emissions reduction: A comparative analysis based on panel data for 8 Asian-Pacific countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Shuwen; Ding Yongxia; Niu Yunzhu; Li Yixin; Luo Guanghua

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption and efficiency of energy use in developing countries are far lower than in developed countries; however, the CO 2 emissions per unit of energy use is higher. Although developing countries may reduce their CO 2 emission per unit energy use, total energy consumption will rise rapidly with economic development. Thus, developing countries must determine how to undergo economic growth while conserving energy and reducing emissions. To respond to global climate change, it is necessary to develop innovative technology for energy use, transform the energy structure and conduct the clean development mechanism. - Research highlights: → There is a complex nexus between GDP-energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, the causalities from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions are observed generally, but there are some opposite relationships also. → There are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. → There is a large potential for carbon emission reduction in the developing countries through transforming the energy structure, improving energy utilization efficiency and controlling the total energy. → To respond to global climate change

  2. Structure-function analysis of the human sialyltransferase ST3Gal I - Role of N-glycosylation and a novel conserved sialylmotif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeanneau, C.; Chazalet, V.; Auge, C.

    2004-01-01

    of these residues and of the conserved residues of motif VS (HX4E) was assessed using as a template the human ST3Gal I. Mutational analysis showed that residues His(299) and Tyr(300) of the new motif, and His(316) of the VS motif, are essential for activity since their substitution by alanine yielded inactive...... showed that none of the mutants tested had any significant effect in nucleotide donor binding. Instead the mutant proteins were affected in their binding to the acceptor and/or demonstrated lower catalytic efficiency. Although the human ST3Gal I has four N-glycan attachment sites in its catalytic domain...... that are potentially glycosylated, none of them was shown to be necessary for enzyme activity. However, N-glycosylation appears to contribute to the proper folding and trafficking of the enzyme....

  3. Malonylome analysis in developing rice (Oryza sativa) seeds suggesting that protein lysine malonylation is well-conserved and overlaps with acetylation and succinylation substantially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Hana; Meng, Xiaoxi; Xing, Shihai; Peng, Xiaojun; Wang, Cailin; Peng, Zhaohua

    2018-01-06

    In recent years, lysine malonylation has garnered wide spread interest due to its potential regulatory roles. While studies have been performed in bacteria, mouse, and human, the involvement and the biological function of this modification in plant are still largely unknown. We examined the global proteome profile of lysine malonylation in developing rice seeds using affinity enrichment followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 421 malonylated lysine sites across 247 proteins. Functional analyses showed predominant presence of malonylated proteins in metabolic processes, including carbon metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, as well as photosynthesis. Malonylation was also detected on enzymes in starch biosynthesis pathway in developing rice seeds. In addition, we found a remarkable overlap among the malonylated, succinylated and acetylated sites identified in rice. Furthermore, malonylation at conserved sites of homologous proteins was observed across organisms of different kingdoms, including mouse, human, and bacteria. Finally, distinct motifs were identified when the rice malonylation sites were analyzed and conserved motifs were observed from bacterium to human and rice. Our results provide an initial understanding of the lysine malonylome in plants. The study has critical reference value for future understanding of the biological function of protein lysine malonylation in plants. Lysine malonylation is a newly discovered acylation with functional potential in regulating cellular metabolisms and activities. However, the malonylation status has not been reported in plants. Grain yield and quality, mainly determined during cereal seed development, are closely related to food security, human health and economic value. To evaluate malonylation level in plants and the possible regulatory functions of malonylation in seed development, we conducted comprehensive analyses of malonylome in developing rice seeds. A total of 421 malonylated lysine sites

  4. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  5. Comparative Analysis of Natural Convection Flows Simulated by both the Conservation and Incompressible Forms of the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Differentially-Heated Square Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Aurélia Esteve; Kurt D. Hamman; Dana A. Knoll; Ryosuke Park; William Taitano

    2009-01-01

    This report illustrates a comparative study to analyze the physical differences between numerical simulations obtained with both the conservation and incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for natural convection flows in simple geometries. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the incompressible flow assumption (which is based upon constant density advection, divergence-free flow, and the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation) differs from the conservation form (which only assumes that the fluid is a continuum) when solving flows driven by gravity acting upon density variations resulting from local temperature gradients. Driving this study is the common use of the incompressible flow assumption in fluid flow simulations for nuclear power applications in natural convection flows subjected to a high heat flux (large temperature differences). A series of simulations were conducted on two-dimensional, differentially-heated rectangular geometries and modeled with both hydrodynamic formulations. From these simulations, the selected characterization parameters of maximum Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, and normalized pressure reduction were calculated. Comparisons of these parameters were made with available benchmark solutions for air with the ideal gas assumption at both low and high heat fluxes. Additionally, we generated body force, velocity, and divergence of velocity distributions to provide a basis for further analysis. The simulations and analysis were then extended to include helium at the Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) normal operating conditions. Our results show that the consequences of incorporating the incompressible flow assumption in high heat flux situations may lead to unrepresentative results. The results question the use of the incompressible flow assumption for simulating fluid flow in an operating nuclear reactor, where large temperature variations are present. The results show that the use of

  6. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

  7. Functional analysis of all salmonid genomes (FAASG): an international initiative supporting future salmonid research, conservation and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Macqueen, Daniel J.; Primmer, Craig R.; Houston, Ross D.; Nowak, Barbara F.; Bernatchez, Louis; Bergseth, Steinar; Davidson, William S.; Gallardo-Escarate, Christian; Goldammer, Tom; Guiguen, Yann; Iturra, Patricia; Kijas, James W; Koop, Ben F.; Lien, Sigbjorn; Maass, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    We describe an emerging initiative - the "Functional Analysis of All Salmonid Genomes" (FAASG), which will leverage the extensive trait diversity that has evolved since a whole genome duplication event in the salmonid ancestor, to develop an integrative understanding of the functional genomic basis of phenotypic variation. The outcomes of FAASG will have diverse applications, ranging from improved understanding of genome evolution, through to improving the efficiency and sustainability of aqu...

  8. Network analysis of phenological units to detect important species in plant-pollinator assemblages: can it inform conservation strategies?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biella, Paolo; Ollerton, J.; Barcella, M.; Assini, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10 ISSN 1585-8553 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-10035P Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : community analysis * connectance * ecological network Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2016 http://akademiai.com/doi/abs/10.1556/168.2017.18.1.1

  9. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  10. Analysis of 90 Mb of the potato genome reveals conservation of gene structures and order with tomato but divergence in repetitive sequence composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Kimberly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae family contains a number of important crop species including potato (Solanum tuberosum which is grown for its underground storage organ known as a tuber. Albeit the 4th most important food crop in the world, other than a collection of ~220,000 Expressed Sequence Tags, limited genomic sequence information is currently available for potato and advances in potato yield and nutrition content would be greatly assisted through access to a complete genome sequence. While morphologically diverse, Solanaceae species such as potato, tomato, pepper, and eggplant share not only genes but also gene order thereby permitting highly informative comparative genomic analyses. Results In this study, we report on analysis 89.9 Mb of potato genomic sequence representing 10.2% of the genome generated through end sequencing of a potato bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clone library (87 Mb and sequencing of 22 potato BAC clones (2.9 Mb. The GC content of potato is very similar to Solanum lycopersicon (tomato and other dicotyledonous species yet distinct from the monocotyledonous grass species, Oryza sativa. Parallel analyses of repetitive sequences in potato and tomato revealed substantial differences in their abundance, 34.2% in potato versus 46.3% in tomato, which is consistent with the increased genome size per haploid genome of these two Solanum species. Specific classes and types of repetitive sequences were also differentially represented between these two species including a telomeric-related repetitive sequence, ribosomal DNA, and a number of unclassified repetitive sequences. Comparative analyses between tomato and potato at the gene level revealed a high level of conservation of gene content, genic feature, and gene order although discordances in synteny were observed. Conclusion Genomic level analyses of potato and tomato confirm that gene sequence and gene order are conserved between these solanaceous species and that

  11. Thermal environment analysis and energy conservation research of rural residence in cold regions of China based on BIM platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Xin, L. S.; Tan, Y. T.

    2017-06-01

    In order to study the issue of rural residential energy consumption in cold regions of China, modeled an architecture prototype based on BIM platform according to the affecting factors of rural residential thermal environment, and imported the virtual model which contains building information into energy analysis tools and chose the appropriate building orientation. By analyzing the energy consumption of the residential buildings with different enclosure structure forms, we designed the optimal energy-saving residence form. There is a certain application value of this method for researching the energy consumption and energy-saving design for the rural residence in cold regions of China.

  12. Meta-analysis of global transcriptomics reveals conserved genetic pathways of Quercetin and Tannic acid mediated longevity in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin ePietsch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has highlighted that the polyphenols Quercetin and Tannic acid are capable of extending the lifespan of C. elegans. To gain a deep understanding of the underlying molecular genetics, we analyzed the global transcriptional patterns of nematodes exposed to Quercetin or Tannic acid concentrations that are non-effective (in lifespan extension, lifespan extending or toxic. By means of an intricate meta-analysis it was possible to compare the transcriptomes of polyphenol exposure to recently published data sets derived from i longevity mutants or ii infection. This detailed comparative in silico analysis facilitated the identification of compound specific and overlapping transcriptional profiles and allowed the formulation of mechanistic models of Quercetin and Tannic acid mediated longevity. Lifespan extension due to Quercetin was predominantly driven by the metabolome, TGF-beta signaling, Insulin-like signaling and the p38 MAPK pathway and Tannic acid’s impact involved, in part, the amino acid metabolism and was modulated by the TGF-beta and the p38 MAPK pathways. DAF-12, which integrates TGF-beta and Insulin-like downstream signaling, therefore seems to be a crucial regulator for both polyphenols.

  13. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Frans J; van der Bilt, Willem G M; van Hinsberg, Arjen; de Knegt, Bart; van der Heide, Martijn; Leneman, Hans; Verburg, René

    2017-03-01

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by determining the potential consequences of different nature policy scenarios in the Netherlands. Methodologically, we employ a mixed monetary and non-monetary evaluation method known as multi-criteria cost-benefit analysis (MCCBA). We evaluate four new future directions of Dutch nature policy that address four dominant stakeholder demands: biodiversity conservation, the provision of ecosystem services, recreational potential as well as economic gains. To balance compact presentation of evaluation outcomes on the one hand and information richness of results on the other, we distinguish between two impact indicator sets: three "headline" and ten "elaborate" indicators. Using these indicators we discuss the quantitative assessment of the four nature policy scenarios by comparing them to two other scenarios, reflecting the 2010 stand-still baseline situation (2010) as well as a reference policy (Trend). In total, we evaluate six scenarios; four present new directions and two reflect existing or recently (2010) halted practices. Our findings first of all show that even in an urbanized country like the Netherlands, with its intensive competition among land use functions, serious gains in national and international biodiversity are possible. Second, we find that it is doubtful whether stimulating the provision of regulating ecosystem services in a country which applies intensive and profitable agricultural techniques is beneficial. Other countries or areas that are less suitable for intensive agricultural practices may be more logical for this. Finally we demonstrate that increasing urban recreational green space - a common challenge for many urban areas - can only be achieved at

  14. Analysis of the spatial-temporal change and impact factors of the vegetation index in Yulin of China: the effect of forest conservation and grain for green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Luan, J.; Lin, M.; Huang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1999, China began the Grain for Green program to conserve the forest in the north of China. After 17 years, the vegetation in the north has changed. Vegetation index is an important method to study the regional vegetation change. This study is based on MODIS/Terra NDVI remote sensing data, and analyzes the spatial-temporal changes and the impact factors of the NDVI in August from 2000 to 2016 at pixel scale in Yulin City of Shaanxi Province in China. The results showed that, on about 96.44% of the region in the Yulin city, vegetation index increased, and the area with increasing NDVI between 0-0.02/a accounts for 93.63% of Yulin city. The area with significant increasing trend accounts for 80.72%. The complex linear regression analysis showed that, the meteorological factors play a positive role in the growth and evolution of vegetation, and human activities also make the vegetation index become more uniform. The area, where the human activities restrain the growth and evolution of the vegetation, is 45.04% of the Yulin area. It is mainly distributed in Fugu County which located in the north of Yulin, and most areas of southern and western parts of Yulin. The area where human activities promote the increase of the vegetation index, accounted for 54.96% of the Yulin area, which indicated that on more than half of the region, human activities have played a positive role in the growth of vegetation. In these areas, the effect of forest conservation, and grain for green (i.e. returning farmland to forests, and returning pasturage to natural grassland) is better.

  15. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  16. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Transcriptome analysis during somatic embryogenesis of the tropical monocot Elaeis guineensis: evidence for conserved gene functions in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Chun; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Tregear, James W; Tranbarger, Timothy John

    2009-05-01

    With the aim of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis (SE) in oil palm, we examined transcriptome changes that occur when embryogenic suspension cells are initiated to develop somatic embryos. Two reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from oil palm embryogenic cell suspensions: one in which embryo development was blocked by the presence of the synthetic auxin analogue 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D: ) in the medium (proliferation library); and another in which cells were stimulated to form embryos by the removal of 2,4-D: from the medium (initiation library). A total of 1867 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) consisting of 1567 potential unigenes were assembled from the two libraries. Functional annotation indicated that 928 of the ESTs correspond to proteins that have either no similarity to sequences in public databases or are of unknown function. Gene Ontology (GO) terms assigned to the two EST populations give clues to the underlying molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components involved in the initiation of embryo development. Macroarrays were used for transcript profiling the ESTs during SE. Hierarchical cluster analysis of differential transcript accumulation revealed 4 distinct profiles containing a total of 192 statistically significant developmentally regulated transcripts. Similarities and differences between the global results obtained with in vitro systems from dicots, monocots and gymnosperms will be discussed.

  18. A comparative analysis of modal motions for the gyroscopic and non-gyroscopic two degree-of-freedom conservative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Dong; An, Hua-Zhen; Qian, Ying-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Melnik, Roderick V. N.

    2016-12-01

    The synchronous in-unison motions in vibrational mechanics and the non-synchronous out-of-unison motions are the most frequently found periodic motions in every fields of science and everywhere in the universe. In contrast to the in-unison normal modes, the out-of-unison complex modes feature a π/2 phase difference. By the complex mode analysis we classify the out-of-unison planar motion into two types, gyroscopic motions and elliptic motions. It is found that the gyroscopic and elliptic motions have different characteristics for a two degree-of-freedom (2DOF) system. The gyroscopic motion involves two distinct frequencies with, respectively, two corresponding complex modes. However, the elliptic motion the nonlinear non-gyroscopic 2DOF system with repeated frequencies involves only single frequency with corresponding two complex modes. The study of the differences and similarities of the gyroscopic and elliptic modes sheds new light on the in-depth mechanism of the planar motions in the universe and the man-made engineering systems.

  19. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Li, Long; Hou, Dan; Ma, Yanjun; Liu, Jun; Bai, Qingsong; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS)-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis . In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis , and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKC C , MIKC ∗ , Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis . Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15 , an AP1 -like gene, in Arabidopsis , and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis . Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis .

  20. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Harmonic technology compared with conventional techniques in mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery with lymphadenectomy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Clymer, Jeffrey W; Ferko, Nicole C; Patel, Leena; Soleas, Ireena M; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However, the meta-analysis did not include studies of BCS patients and focused on a subset of surgical complications. The objective of this study was to compare Harmonic technology and conventional techniques for a range of clinical outcomes and complications in both mastectomy and BCS patients, including axillary lymph node dissection. A comprehensive literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing Harmonic technology and conventional methods in breast cancer surgery. Outcome measures included blood loss, drainage volume, total complications, seroma, necrosis, wound infections, ecchymosis, hematoma, hospital length of stay, and operating time. Risk of bias was analyzed for all studies. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models for mean differences of continuous variables and a fixed-effects model for risk ratios of dichotomous variables. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Across surgery types, compared to conventional techniques, Harmonic technology reduced total complications by 52% (P=0.002), seroma by 46% (Pmastectomy patients with lymph node dissection, Harmonic technology showed significant reductions in complications in the BCS study subgroup. In this meta-analysis of both mastectomy and BCS procedures, the use of Harmonic technology reduced the risk of most complications by about half across breast cancer surgery patients. These benefits may be due to superior hemostatic capabilities of Harmonic technology and better dissection, particularly lymph node dissection. Reduction in complications and other resource outcomes may engender lower downstream health care costs.

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Harmonic technology compared with conventional techniques in mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery with lymphadenectomy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Clymer, Jeffrey W; Ferko, Nicole C; Patel, Leena; Soleas, Ireena M; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Background Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However, the meta-analysis did not include studies of BCS patients and focused on a subset of surgical complications. The objective of this study was to compare Harmonic technology and conventional techniques for a range of clinical outcomes and complications in both mastectomy and BCS patients, including axillary lymph node dissection. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing Harmonic technology and conventional methods in breast cancer surgery. Outcome measures included blood loss, drainage volume, total complications, seroma, necrosis, wound infections, ecchymosis, hematoma, hospital length of stay, and operating time. Risk of bias was analyzed for all studies. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models for mean differences of continuous variables and a fixed-effects model for risk ratios of dichotomous variables. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Across surgery types, compared to conventional techniques, Harmonic technology reduced total complications by 52% (P=0.002), seroma by 46% (P<0.0001), necrosis by 49% (P=0.04), postoperative chest wall drainage by 46% (P=0.0005), blood loss by 38% (P=0.0005), and length of stay by 22% (P=0.007). Although benefits generally appeared greatest in mastectomy patients with lymph node dissection, Harmonic technology showed significant reductions in complications in the BCS study subgroup. Conclusion In this meta-analysis of both mastectomy and BCS procedures, the use of Harmonic technology reduced the risk of most complications by about half across breast cancer surgery patients. These benefits may be due to superior hemostatic capabilities of Harmonic

  3. Expression analysis of an evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factor, Sfrs10, in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Krishna Priya Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population. Hypoxic stress created in the micro-environment of the photoreceptors is thought to be the underlying cause that results in the pathophysiology of AMD. However, association of AMD with alternative splicing mediated gene regulation is not well explored. Alternative Splicing is one of the primary mechanisms in humans by which fewer protein coding genes are able to generate a vast proteome. Here, we investigated the expression of a known stress response gene and an alternative splicing factor called Serine-Arginine rich splicing factor 10 (Sfrs10. Sfrs10 is a member of the serine-arginine (SR rich protein family and is 100% identical at the amino acid level in most mammals. Immunoblot analysis on retinal extracts from mouse, rat, and chicken showed a single immunoreactive band. Further, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse, rat and chicken retinae showed pan-retinal expression. However, SFRS10 was not detected in normal human retina but was observed as distinct nuclear speckles in AMD retinae. This is in agreement with previous reports that show Sfrs10 to be a stress response gene, which is upregulated under hypoxia. The difference in the expression of Sfrs10 between humans and lower mammals and the upregulation of SFRS10 in AMD is further reflected in the divergence of the promoter sequence between these species. Finally, SFRS10+ speckles were independent of the SC35+ SR protein speckles or the HSF1+ stress granules. In all, our data suggests that SFRS10 is upregulated and forms distinct stress-induced speckles and might be involved in AS of stress response genes in AMD.

  4. High-throughput SHAPE analysis reveals structures in HIV-1 genomic RNA strongly conserved across distinct biological states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    application of this technology will make possible newly informative analysis of any RNA in a cellular transcriptome.

  5. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  6. Paradoxes in Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    David Pearce

    2005-01-01

    Biodiversity is important for human wellbeing, but it is declining. Measures to conserve biodiversity are essential but may be a waste of effort if several paradoxes are not addressed. The highest levels of diversity are in nations least able to practise effective conservation. The flow of funds to international biodiversity conservation appears trivial when compared to the scale of biodiversity loss. International agreements may not actually protect or conserve more than what would have been...

  7. A meta-analysis of long-term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.; Corbeels, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Rufino, M.C.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation agriculture involves reduced tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations to enhance soil fertility and to supply food from a dwindling land resource. Recently, conservation agriculture has been promoted in Southern Africa, mainly for maize-based farming systems. However, maize

  8. A new measurement of sequence conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding sequence conservation is important for the study of sequence evolution and for the identification of functional regions of the genome. Current studies often measure sequence conservation based on every position in contiguous regions. Therefore, a large number of functional regions that contain conserved segments separated by relatively long divergent segments are ignored. Our goal in this paper is to define a new measurement of sequence conservation such that both contiguously conserved regions and discontiguously conserved regions can be detected based on this new measurement. Here and in the following, conserved regions are those regions that share similarity higher than a pre-specified similarity threshold with their homologous regions in other species. That is, conserved regions are good candidates of functional regions and may not be always functional. Moreover, conserved regions may contain long and divergent segments. Results To identify both discontiguously and contiguously conserved regions, we proposed a new measurement of sequence conservation, which measures sequence similarity based only on the conserved segments within the regions. By defining conserved segments using the local alignment tool CHAOS, under the new measurement, we analyzed the conservation of 1642 experimentally verified human functional non-coding regions in the mouse genome. We found that the conservation in at least 11% of these functional regions could be missed by the current conservation analysis methods. We also found that 72% of the mouse homologous regions identified based on the new measurement are more similar to the human functional sequences than the aligned mouse sequences from the UCSC genome browser. We further compared BLAST and discontiguous MegaBLAST with our method. We found that our method picks up many more conserved segments than BLAST and discontiguous MegaBLAST in these regions. Conclusions It is critical to

  9. Conservation Action Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  10. Breast-conserving surgery with or without radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ: a meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Paola G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether Radiation therapy (RT should follow breast conserving surgery in women with ductal carcinoma in situ from breast cancer (DCIS with objective of decreased mortality, invasive or non invasive recurrence, distant metastases and contralateral breast cancer rates. We have done a meta-analysis of these results to give a more balanced view of the total evidence and to increase statistical precision. Methods A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed comparing RT treatment for DCIS of breast cancer to observation. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, Cochrane Library databases, Trial registers, bibliographic databases, and recent issues of relevant journals were searched. Relevant reports were reviewed by two reviewers independently and the references from these reports were searched for additional trials, using guidelines set by QUOROM statement criteria. Results The reviewers identified four large RCTs, yielding 3665 patients. Pooled results from this four randomized trials of adjuvant radiotherapy showed a significant reduction of invasive and DCIS ipsilateral breast cancer with odds ratio (OR of 0.40 (95% CI 0.33 – 0.60, p Conclusion The conclusion from our meta-analysis is that the addition of radiation therapy to lumpectomy results in an approximately 60% reduction in breast cancer recurrence, no benefit for survival or distant metastases compared to excision alone. Patients with high-grade DCIS lesions and positive margins benefited most from the addition of radiation therapy. It is not yet clear which patients can be successfully treated with lumpectomy alone; until further prospective studies answer this question, radiation should be recommended after lumpectomy for all patients without contraindications.

  11. Determinant factors of residential consumption and perception of energy conservation: Time-series analysis by large-scale questionnaire in Suita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kishita, Yusuke; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined determinant factors associated with the residential consumption and perception of savings of electricity and city gas; this was based on data collected from a large-scale questionnaire sent to households in Suita, Osaka Prefecture, Japan, in two different years: 2009 and 2013. We applied an ordered logit model to determine the overall trend of the determinant factors, and then we performed a more detailed analysis in order to understand the reasons why the determinant factors changed between the two periods. Results from the ordered logit model reveal that electricity and gas consumption was primarily determined by such factors as household income, number of family members, the number of home appliances, and the perceptions of energy savings; there was not much difference between the two years, although in 2013, household income did not affect the perception of energy savings. Detailed analysis demonstrated that households with high energy consumption and those with moderate consumption are becoming polarized and that there was a growing gap between consumption behavior and the perception of conservation. The implications derived from the analyses provide an essential insight into the design of a municipal policy to induce lifestyle changes for an energy-saving society. - Highlights: • Questionnaire was conducted to households in two years for time-series analysis. • We analyzed residential energy consumption and perception of savings in households. • Determinant factors for consumption and perception of savings were identified. • Households being wasteful of energy are also found willing to cut consumption. • Policy intervention could affect consumption pattern and perception of savings.

  12. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  13. Iodothyronine deiodinase gene analysis of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas reveals possible conservation of thyroid hormone feedback regulation mechanism in mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-07-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinase catalyzes the initiation and termination of thyroid hormones (THs) effects, and plays a central role in the regulation of thyroid hormone level in vertebrates. In non-chordate invertebrates, only one deiodinase has been identified in the scallop Chlamys farreri. Here, two deiodinases were cloned in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ( CgDx and CgDy). The characteristic in-frame TGA codons and selenocysteine insertion sequence elements in the oyster deiodinase cDNAs supported the activity of them. Furthermore, seven orthologs of deiodinases were found by a tblastn search in the mollusk Lottia gigantea and the annelid Capitella teleta. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the deiodinase gene originated from an common ancestor and a clade-specific gene duplication occurred independently during the differentiation of the mollusk, annelid, and vertebrate lineages. The distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns implied functional divergence of the two deiodinases. The expression of CgDx and CgDy was influenced by L-thyroxine T4, and putative thyroid hormone responsive elements were found in their promoters, which suggested that the oyster deiodinases were feedback regulated by TH. Epinephrine stimulated the expression level of CgDx and CgDy, suggesting an interaction effect between different hormones. This study provides the first evidence for the existence of a conserved TH feedback regulation mechanism in mollusks, providing insights into TH evolution.

  14. Expression analysis of Egr-1 ortholog in metamorphic brain of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.): Possible evolutionary conservation of roles of Egr in eye development in vertebrates and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Uchiyama, Hironobu; Sasaki, Tetsuhiko; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ono, Masato

    2016-09-16

    Specific genes quickly transcribed after extracellular stimuli without de novo protein synthesis are known as immediate early genes (IEGs) and are thought to contribute to learning and memory processes in the mature nervous system of vertebrates. A recent study revealed that the homolog of Early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1), which is one of the best-characterized vertebrate IEGs, shared similar properties as a neural activity-dependent gene in the adult brain of insects. With regard to the roles of vertebrate Egr-1 in neural development, the contribution to the development and growth of visual systems has been reported. However, in insects, the expression dynamics of the Egr-1 homologous gene during neural development remains poorly understood. Our expression analysis demonstrated that AmEgr, a honeybee homolog of Egr-1, was transiently upregulated in the developing brain during the early to mid pupal stages. In situ hybridization and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry revealed that AmEgr was mainly expressed in post-mitotic cells in optic lobes, the primary visual center of the insect brain. These findings suggest the evolutionarily conserved role of Egr homologs in the development of visual systems in vertebrates and insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microsecond Dynamics and Network Analysis of the HIV-1 SOSIP Env Trimer Reveal Collective Behavior and Conserved Microdomains of the Glycan Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmin, Thomas; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Kwong, Peter D

    2017-10-03

    The trimeric HIV-1-envelope (Env) spike is one of the most glycosylated protein complexes known, with roughly half its mass comprising host-derived N-linked glycan. Here we use molecular dynamics to provide insight into its structural dynamics and into how both protomer and glycan movements coordinate to shield the Env protein surface. A 2-μs molecular dynamics simulation of a fully glycosylated atomistic model of the HIV-1 SOSIP Env trimer revealed a spectrum of protomer-scissoring and trimer-opening movements. Network analysis showed that highly conserved glycans combined with protomer scissoring to restrict access to the binding site of the CD4 receptor. The network property of betweenness centrality appeared to identify whether glycans spread to restrict access or cluster to maintain the high-mannose character of the shield. We also observed stable microdomains comprising patches of glycan, with neutralizing antibodies generally binding at the interface between glycan microdomains. Overall, our results provide a microsecond-based understanding of the Env glycan shield. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Sijtsma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by determining the potential consequences of different nature policy scenarios in the Netherlands. Methodologically, we employ a mixed monetary and non-monetary evaluation method known as multi-criteria cost-benefit analysis (MCCBA. We evaluate four new future directions of Dutch nature policy that address four dominant stakeholder demands: biodiversity conservation, the provision of ecosystem services, recreational potential as well as economic gains. To balance compact presentation of evaluation outcomes on the one hand and information richness of results on the other, we distinguish between two impact indicator sets: three “headline” and ten “elaborate” indicators. Using these indicators we discuss the quantitative assessment of the four nature policy scenarios by comparing them to two other scenarios, reflecting the 2010 stand-still baseline situation (2010 as well as a reference policy (Trend. In total, we evaluate six scenarios; four present new directions and two reflect existing or recently (2010 halted practices. Our findings first of all show that even in an urbanized country like the Netherlands, with its intensive competition among land use functions, serious gains in national and international biodiversity are possible. Second, we find that it is doubtful whether stimulating the provision of regulating ecosystem services in a country which applies intensive and profitable agricultural techniques is beneficial. Other countries or areas that are less suitable for intensive agricultural practices may be more logical for this. Finally we demonstrate that increasing urban recreational green space − a common challenge for many urban areas

  17. Mutational analysis of photosystem I of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: the role of four conserved aromatic residues in the j-helix of PsaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xu

    Full Text Available Photosystem I is the light-driven plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase in the photosynthetic electron transfer of cyanobacteria and plants. Two histidyl residues in the symmetric transmembrane helices A-j and B-j provide ligands for the P700 chlorophyll molecules of the reaction center of photosystem I. To determine the role of conserved aromatic residues adjacent to the histidyl molecule in the helix of B-j, we generated six site-directed mutants of the psaB gene in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Three mutant strains with W645C, W643C/A644I and S641C/V642I substitutions could grow photoautotrophically and showed no obvious reduction in the photosystem I activity. Kinetics of P700 re-reduction by plastocyanin remained unaltered in these mutants. In contrast, the strains with H651C/L652M, F649C/G650I and F647C substitutions could not grow under photoautotrophic conditions because those mutants had low photosystem I activity, possibly due to low levels of proteins. A procedure to select spontaneous revertants from the mutants that are incapable to photoautotrophic growth resulted in three revertants that were used in this study. The molecular analysis of the spontaneous revertants suggested that an aromatic residue at F647 and a small residue at G650 may be necessary for maintaining the structural integrity of photosystem I. The (P700⁺-P700 steady-state absorption difference spectrum of the revertant F647Y has a ∼5 nm narrower peak than the recovered wild-type, suggesting that additional hydroxyl group of this revertant may participate in the interaction with the special pair while the photosystem I complexes of the F649C/G650T and H651Q mutants closely resemble the wild-type spectrum. The results presented here demonstrate that the highly conserved residues W645, W643 and F649 are not critical for maintaining the integrity and in mediating electron transport from plastocyanin to photosystem I. Our data suggest that an aromatic residue is

  18. Effectiveness of conservative interventions including exercise, manual therapy and medical management in adults with shoulder impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuri, Ruedi; Sattelmayer, Martin; Elsig, Simone; Kolly, Chloé; Tal, Amir; Taeymans, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions for pain, function and range of motion in adults with shoulder impingement. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Data sources Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase and PEDro were searched from inception to January 2017. Study selection criteria Randomised controlled trials including participants with shoulder impingement and evaluating at least one conservative intervention against sham or other treatments. Results For pain, exercise was superior to non-exercise control interventions (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.94, 95% CI −1.69 to −0.19). Specific exercises were superior to generic exercises (SMD −0.65, 95% CI −0.99 to −0.32). Corticosteroid injections were superior to no treatment (SMD −0.65, 95% CI −1.04 to −0.26), and ultrasound guided injections were superior to non-guided injections (SMD −0.51, 95% CI −0.89 to −0.13). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) had a small to moderate SMD of −0.29 (95% CI −0.53 to −0.05) compared with placebo. Manual therapy was superior to placebo (SMD −0.35, 95% CI −0.69 to −0.01). When combined with exercise, manual therapy was superior to exercise alone, but only at the shortest follow-up (SMD −0.32, 95% CI −0.62 to −0.01). Laser was superior to sham laser (SMD −0.88, 95% CI −1.48 to −0.27). Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) was superior to sham (−0.39, 95% CI −0.78 to –0.01) and tape was superior to sham (−0.64, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.12), with small to moderate SMDs. Conclusion Although there was only very low quality evidence, exercise should be considered for patients with shoulder impingement symptoms and tape, ECSWT, laser or manual therapy might be added. NSAIDS and corticosteroids are superior to placebo, but it is unclear how these treatments compare to exercise. PMID:28630217

  19. Low-protein diet for conservative management of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-04-01

    Recent data pose the question whether conservative management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by means of a low-protein diet can be a safe and effective means to avoid or defer transition to dialysis therapy without causing protein-energy wasting or cachexia. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the controlled clinical trials with adequate participants in each trial, providing rigorous contemporary evidence of the impact of a low-protein diet in the management of uraemia and its complications in patients with CKD. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and other sources for controlled trials on CKD to compare clinical management of CKD patients under various levels of dietary protein intake or to compare restricted protein intake with other interventions. Studies with similar patients, interventions, and outcomes were included in the meta-analyses. We identified 16 controlled trials of low-protein diet in CKD that met the stringent qualification criteria including having 30 or more participants. Compared with diets with protein intake of >0.8 g/kg/day, diets with restricted protein intake (disease, and a trend towards lower rates of all-cause death. In addition, very-low-protein diets (protein intake kidney function and reduction in the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Safety and adherence to a low-protein diet was not inferior to a normal protein diet, and there was no difference in the rate of malnutrition or protein-energy wasting. In this pooled analysis of moderate-size controlled trials, a low-protein diet appears to enhance the conservative management of non-dialysis-dependent CKD and may be considered as a potential option for CKD patients who wish to avoid or defer dialysis initiation and to slow down the progression of CKD, while the risk of protein-energy wasting and cachexia remains minimal. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia

  20. Integrated conservation of cultural built heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Bizzarro, Francesca

    1996-01-01

    This paper will focus on integrated conservation of cultural built heritage starting from the analysis of related European policies in an economic perspective. Integrated conservation of cultural built heritage allows either a city or country to undertake socieconomic and cultural promotion and to

  1. Incorporating geodiversity into conservation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Patrick J; Pressey, Robert L; Hunter, Malcolm L; Schloss, Carrie A; Buttrick, Steven C; Heller, Nicole E; Tirpak, John M; Faith, Daniel P; Cross, Molly S; Shaffer, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    In a rapidly changing climate, conservation practitioners could better use geodiversity in a broad range of conservation decisions. We explored selected avenues through which this integration might improve decision making and organized them within the adaptive management cycle of assessment, planning, implementation, and monitoring. Geodiversity is seldom referenced in predominant environmental law and policy. With most natural resource agencies mandated to conserve certain categories of species, agency personnel are challenged to find ways to practically implement new directives aimed at coping with climate change while retaining their species-centered mandate. Ecoregions and ecological classifications provide clear mechanisms to consider geodiversity in plans or decisions, the inclusion of which will help foster the resilience of conservation to climate change. Methods for biodiversity assessment, such as gap analysis, climate change vulnerability analysis, and ecological process modeling, can readily accommodate inclusion of a geophysical component. We adapted others' approaches for characterizing landscapes along a continuum of climate change vulnerability for the biota they support from resistant, to resilient, to susceptible, and to sensitive and then summarized options for integrating geodiversity into planning in each landscape type. In landscapes that are relatively resistant to climate change, options exist to fully represent geodiversity while ensuring that dynamic ecological processes can change over time. In more susceptible landscapes, strategies aiming to maintain or restore ecosystem resilience and connectivity are paramount. Implementing actions on the ground requires understanding of geophysical constraints on species and an increasingly nimble approach to establishing management and restoration goals. Because decisions that are implemented today will be revisited and amended into the future, increasingly sophisticated forms of monitoring and

  2. Metabolic flux ratio analysis and multi-objective optimization revealed a globally conserved and coordinated metabolic response of E. coli to paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tie; Rui, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Ximing; Yi, Yin; Wen, Han; Zheng, Haoran; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2013-01-27

    The ability of a microorganism to adapt to changes in the environment, such as in nutrient or oxygen availability, is essential for its competitive fitness and survival. The cellular objective and the strategy of the metabolic response to an extreme environment are therefore of tremendous interest and, thus, have been increasingly explored. However, the cellular objective of the complex regulatory structure of the metabolic changes has not yet been fully elucidated and more details regarding the quantitative behaviour of the metabolic flux redistribution are required to understand the systems-wide biological significance of this response. In this study, the intracellular metabolic flux ratios involved in the central carbon metabolism were determined by fractional (13)C-labeling and metabolic flux ratio analysis (MetaFoR) of the wild-type E. coli strain JM101 at an oxidative environment in a chemostat. We observed a significant increase in the flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malic enzyme (MEZ) and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT). We applied an ε-constraint based multi-objective optimization to investigate the trade-off relationships between the biomass yield and the generation of reductive power using the in silico iJR904 genome-scale model of E. coli K-12. The theoretical metabolic redistribution supports that the trans-hydrogenase pathway should not play a direct role in the defence mounted by E. coli against oxidative stress. The agreement between the measured ratio and the theoretical redistribution established the significance of NADPH synthesis as the goal of the metabolic reprogramming that occurs in response to oxidative stress. Our work presents a framework that combines metabolic flux ratio analysis and multi-objective optimization to investigate the metabolic trade-offs that occur under varied environmental conditions. Our results led to the proposal that the metabolic response of E

  3. Cavity Shaving plus Lumpectomy versus Lumpectomy Alone for Patients with Breast Cancer Undergoing Breast-Conserving Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    Full Text Available The margin status is a well-established prognostic predictor for patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS. Recent data suggested that cavity shaving in addition to lumpectomy might be a promising approach for improving the clinical outcomes. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety between cavity shaving plus lumpectomy and lumpectomy alone with a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for studies comparing cavity shaving with lumpectomy before June 10, 2016. Both comparative studies and self-control studies were included. A random-effects model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for positive margin rate, reoperation rate, recurrence rate, and weighted mean difference (WMD for excised tissue volume. Twenty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The cavity shaving group had a significantly lower positive margin rate than the BCS-alone group (16.4% vs. 31.9%; OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.32-0.53, P < 0.05. Cavity shaving was associated with a significantly decreased rate of reoperation (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.30-0.59, P < 0.05. The overall locoregional rate was low for cavity shaving and BCS-alone (3% vs. 4%. Cavity shaving had no significant effect on the risk of locoregional recurrence (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.32-2.35; P = 0.78. The excised tissue volume did not differ substantially between cavity shaving and BCS alone (WMD = -23.88, 95% CI -55.20 to 7.44, P = 0.14. For patients undergoing BCS, additional cavity shaving was an effective method to decrease the positive margin rate and avoid reoperation. The addition of cavity shaving did not appear to have excessive excised tissue volume compared with partial mastectomy alone.

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Harmonic technology compared with conventional techniques in mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery with lymphadenectomy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hang Cheng,1 Jeffrey W Clymer,1 Nicole C Ferko,2 Leena Patel,2 Ireena M Soleas,2 Chris G Cameron,2 Piet Hinoul1 1Ethicon Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2Cornerstone Research Group, Burlington, ON, Canada Background: Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However, the meta-analysis did not include studies of BCS patients and focused on a subset of surgical complications. The objective of this study was to compare Harmonic technology and conventional techniques for a range of clinical outcomes and complications in both mastectomy and BCS patients, including axillary lymph node dissection.Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing Harmonic technology and conventional methods in breast cancer surgery. Outcome measures included blood loss, drainage volume, total complications, seroma, necrosis, wound infections, ecchymosis, hematoma, hospital length of stay, and operating time. Risk of bias was analyzed for all studies. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models for mean differences of continuous variables and a fixed-effects model for risk ratios of dichotomous variables.Results: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Across surgery types, compared to conventional techniques, Harmonic technology reduced total complications by 52% (P=0.002, seroma by 46% (P<0.0001, necrosis by 49% (P=0.04, postoperative chest wall drainage by 46% (P=0.0005, blood loss by 38% (P=0.0005, and length of stay by 22% (P=0.007. Although benefits generally appeared greatest in mastectomy patients with lymph node dissection, ­Harmonic technology showed significant reductions in complications in the BCS study subgroup.Conclusion: In this meta-analysis of both mastectomy and

  5. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of...

  6. Energy Conservation and Passive Solar Techniques in Campus Renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probasco, Jack; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of a building from an energy conservation and passive solar potential has three aspects: building envelope, landscaping, and room utilization. Typical conservation and solar control modifications are listed. (Author/MLF)

  7. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  8. Patient-reported Outcomes After Conservative or Surgical Management of Recurrent and Chronic Complaints of Diverticulitis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeweg, C.S.; Berg, R.; Staal, J.B.; Broek, R.P.G ten; Goor, H. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with diverticulitis develop recurrences and chronic abdominal symptoms. Recurrent diverticulitis is seldom complicated, which has led to a conservative treatment approach. However, some studies suggest that surgical intervention reduces recurrence and chronic abdominal

  9. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  11. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  12. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  13. Functional analysis of the conserved transcriptional regulator CfWor1 in Cladosporium fulvum reveals diverse roles in the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okmen, Bilal; Collemare, Jérôme; Griffiths, Scott; van der Burgt, Ate; Cox, Russell; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2014-04-01

    Fungal Wor1-like proteins are conserved transcriptional regulators that are reported to regulate the virulence of several plant pathogenic fungi by affecting the expression of virulence genes. Here, we report the functional analysis of CfWor1, the homologue of Wor1 in Cladosporium fulvum. Δcfwor1 mutants produce sclerotium-like structures and rough hyphae, which are covered with a black extracellular matrix. These mutants do not sporulate and are no longer virulent on tomato. A CE.CfWor1 transformant that constitutively expresses CfWor1 produces fewer spores with altered morphology and is also reduced in virulence. RNA-seq and RT-qrtPCR analyses suggest that reduced virulence of Δcfwor1 mutants is due to global downregulation of transcription, translation and mitochondrial respiratory chain. The reduced virulence of the CE.CfWor1 transformant is likely due to downregulation of effector genes. Complementation of a non-virulent Δfosge1 (Wor1-homologue) mutant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with CfWor1 restored expression of the SIX effector genes in this fungus, but not its virulence. Chimeric proteins of CfWor1/FoSge1 also only partially restored defects of the Δfosge1 mutant, suggesting that these transcriptional regulators have functionally diverged. Altogether, our results suggest that CfWor1 primarily regulates development of C. fulvum, which indirectly affects the expression of a subset of virulence genes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Analysis from the French DRG-based information system (PMSI) of conservative surgical treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding in 2008-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, H; Villefranque, V; Panel, P

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the conservative surgical treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding from the Medicalized Information System Program (PMSI). The diagnosis codes were selected from 10th version of the international classification disease. A transversal and longitudinal descriptive analysis was performed from hospital stays, patient's characteristics, medical procedures between 2008-2010. Nineteen thousand six hundred and seventy-nine patients were admitted in hospital (public or private) for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial ablation increased by 16,7%, 10.2% for first generation technique (G1) and 63.5% for second generation techniques (G2). G2 were used in 15% of indications. The median age was respectively 45.2±6.4 years old versus 45.8±4.9 years old for G2. The median length of hospital stay was 1.6 ±1with 69% of patients in ambulatory care. The likelihood to have a hysterectomy in the 3 years follow-up was higher after G1 than G2 treatments (P=0.0034) for the patients above 40 years old. In longitudinal study, defined only by endometrial hyperplasia, 11,532 patients were included and only 8.2% had been treated by G2. In spite of the international guidelines since 2008, 85% of patients treated with first generation surgical technique. The failure rate defined by a re-ablation or a hysterectomy is higher after G1. This result must be discussed in relationship with cost effective aspects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Margin Index as a Method for Predicting Residual Disease After Breast-Conserving Surgery in a European Cancer Center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2011-06-03

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) × 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  16. Analysis of margin index as a method for predicting residual disease after breast-conserving surgery in a European cancer center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) x 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  17. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

    2013-05-07

    The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives.

  18. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, Edward T; Fitzsimons, James A; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner. (letter)

  19. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouborg, N. Joop; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Bijlsma, Kuke; Hedrick, Phil W.

    Over the past twenty years conservation genetics has progressed from being mainly a theory-based field of population biology to a full-grown empirical discipline. Technological developments in molecular genetics have led to extensive use of neutral molecular markers such as microsatellites in

  20. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  1. Conservation Farming and yields: Response to spatial and temporal effects in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Gatere, Lydiah

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes research on conservation farming/conservation agriculture in Zambia. A discussion of methods, hypotheses, and analysis are provided. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  2. Archives: Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 24 of 24 ... Archives: Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home > Archives: Madagascar Conservation & Development. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  3. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  4. Biodiversity Conservation in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Squires

    2014-01-01

    Asian's remarkable economic growth brought many benefits but also fuelled threats to its ecosystems and biodiversity. Economic growth brings biodiversity threats but also conservation opportunities. Continued biodiversity loss is inevitable, but the types, areas and rates of biodiversity loss are not. Prioritising biodiversity conservation, tempered by what is tractable, remains a high priority. Policy and market distortions and failures significantly underprice biodiversity, undermine ecosys...

  5. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  6. Conservation of Beclardia macrostachya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    emphasis need to be placed on conservation and also protection of plants from poaching. Effective management of ... The conservation of any taxon requires information about the ecogeographic structure of the target taxon and such ... The main aspects considered for understanding the biology of this orchid were the study.

  7. Conservation in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  8. Conservation: Threatened by Luxury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J

    2016-06-20

    When animals are traded in lucrative international luxury markets, individuals really do matter to conservation. Identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make some species especially vulnerable to this kind of threat helps set guidelines for more effective conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Home Energy Conservation Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, V. William; And Others

    This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

  11. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  12. Method for Systematic Assessment of Chemical Changes in Molecular Scaffolds with Conserved Topology and Application to the Analysis of Scaffold-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Zhang, Bijun; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Sets of scaffolds with conserved molecular topology are abundant among drugs and bioactive compounds. Core structure topology is one of the determinants of biological activity. Heteroatom replacements and/or bond order variation render topologically equivalent scaffolds chemically distinct and also contribute to differences in the biological activity of compounds containing these scaffolds. Relationships between core structure topology, chemical modifications, and observed activity profiles are difficult to analyze. A computational method is introduced to consistently assess chemical transformations that distinguish scaffolds with conserved topology. The methodology is applied to quantify chemical differences in conserved topological environments and systematically relate chemical changes in topologically equivalent scaffolds to associated activity profiles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Analysis of the ecological conservation behavior of farmers in payment for ecosystem service programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas using social psychology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Sun, Pingsheng; Zhao, Fazhu; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong

    2016-04-15

    Studies on the ecological conservation behavior of farmers usually focus on individual and socio-economic characteristics without consideration of the underlying psychological constructs, such as farmers' intention and perceptions. This study uses the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a typical social psychology construct, to analyze the factors affecting the intention and behavior of farmers for conserving the ecological achievements from payment for ecosystem service (PES) programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas. Questionnaires based on TPB were administered to 1004 farmers from the Grain to Green Program area in the Loess Plateau, China, with the resulting dataset used to identify the underlying factors determining farmers' intention and behavior based on the structural equation model. The results show that the farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements were explained well by TPB. The farmers'behavior was significantly positively affected by their intention toward conserving ecological achievements, and their intention was significantly influenced by their attitude (positive or negative value of performance), the subjective norm (social pressure in engaging behavior), and perceived behavioral control (perceptions of their ability). The farmers' degree of support for PES programs and their recognition of environmental effects were the factors that most influenced the farmers' attitude. Pressure from neighbors was the most potent driver of the subjective norm. Meanwhile, perceptions of their ability to perform the behavior were the most potent factors affecting intention and it was mostly driven by the farmers' feelings toward environmental improvement and perceived ability (time and labor) to participate in ecological conservation. The drivers of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control can be used by policy makers to direct farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements in fragile

  14. Conserved superenergy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazkoz, Ruth; Senovilla, Jose M M; Vera, Rauel

    2003-01-01

    We exploit once again the analogy between the energy-momentum tensor and the so-called 'superenergy' tensors in order to build conserved currents in the presence of Killing vectors. First of all, we derive the divergence-free property of the gravitational superenergy currents under very general circumstances, even if the superenergy tensor is not divergence-free itself. The associated conserved quantities are explicitly computed for the Reissner-Nordstroem and Schwarzschild solutions. The remaining cases, when the above currents are not conserved, lead to the possibility of an interchange of some superenergy quantities between the gravitational and other physical fields in such a manner that the total, mixed, current may be conserved. Actually, this possibility has been recently proved to hold for the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system of field equations. By using an adequate family of known exact solutions, we present explicit and completely non-obvious examples of such mixed conserved currents

  15. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  16. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Primary structure and promoter analysis of leghemoglobin genes of the stem-nodulated tropical legume Sesbania rostrata: conserved coding sequences, cis-elements and trans-acting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, B A; Welters, P; Hoffmann, H J

    1988-01-01

    The primary structure of a leghemoglobin (lb) gene from the stem-nodulated, tropical legume Sesbania rostrata and two lb gene promoter regions was analysed. The S. rostrata lb gene structure and Lb amino acid composition were found to be highly conserved with previously described lb genes and Lb ...

  18. Planning nature in urbanized countries : An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Frans; van der Bilt, W.; van Hinsberg, A.; de Knegt, B.; Van der Heide, Martijn; Leneman, Hans; Verburg, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by

  19. Planning nature in urbanized countries : An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F; van der Bilt, WGM; van Hinsberg, A; de Knegt, B; van der Heide, M; Leneman, H; Verburg, R.W.

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by

  20. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Frans J.; Bilt, van der Willem G.M.; Hinsberg, van Arjen; Knegt, de Bart; Heide, van der Martijn; Leneman, Hans; Verburg, René

    2017-01-01

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by

  1. Conservation of targeting but divergence in function and quality control of peroxisomal ABC transporters: an analysis using cross-kingdom expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xuebin; de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Schutte-Lensink, Nellie; Ofman, Rob; Wanders, Ronald J.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Baker, Alison; Kemp, Stephan; Theodoulou, Frederica L.

    2011-01-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) subfamily D transporters are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms and are known to play essential roles in mammals and plants; however, their number, organization and physiological contexts differ. Via cross-kingdom expression experiments, we have explored the conservation of

  2. Sequence analysis, identification of evolutionary conserved motifs and expression analysis of murine tcof1 provide further evidence for a potential function for the gene and its human homologue, TCOF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J; Hovanes, K; Shiang, R; Dixon, M J

    1997-05-01

    The gene mutated in Treacher Collins syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder of facial development, has recently been cloned. While the function of the predicted protein, Treacle, is unknown, it has been shown to share a number of features with the highly phosphorylated nucleolar phosphoproteins, which play a role in nucleolar-cytoplasmic transport. In the current study, the murine homologue of the Treacher Collins syndrome gene has been isolated and shown to encode a low complexity, serine/alanine-rich protein of 133 kDa. Interspecies comparison indicates that the proteins display 61.5% identity, with the level of conservation being greatest in the regions of acidic/basic amino acid repeats and nuclear localization signals. These features are shared with the nucleolar phosphoproteins. Confirmation that the gene isolated in the current study is orthologous with the Treacher Collins syndrome gene was provided by the demonstration that it mapped to central mouse chromosome 18 in a conserved syntenic region with human chromosome 5q21-q33. Expression analysis in the mouse indicated that the gene was expressed in a wide variety of embryonic and adult tissues. Peak levels of expression in the developing embryo were observed at the edges of the neural folds immediately prior to fusion, and also in the developing branchial arches at the times of critical morphogenetic events. These observations support a role for the gene in the development of the craniofacial complex and provide further evidence that the gene encodes a protein which may be involved in nucleolar-cytoplasmic transport.

  3. Framing conservation on private lands: conserving oak in Oregon's Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; John C. Bliss

    2009-01-01

    Conserving threatened habitats on private lands requires policies that advance the interests of landowners and natural resource professionals alike. Through qualitative analysis of individual and focus-group interviews, we compared how family forest owners and natural resource professionals frame conservation of threatened habitat: the oak woodlands and savanna in...

  4. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...... into the process of commodification of nature in order to examine the institutional, economic, and social conditions that enable destinations to benefit from conservation through tourism. Using examples from conservation-based tourism projects in Tanzania, the paper makes a critical examination...

  5. Climate Change and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEDIG, F. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conserving forest genetic resources and, indeed, preventing species extinctions will be complicated by the expected changes in climate projected for the next century and beyond. This paper uses case examples from rare spruces (Picea sp. from North America to discuss the interplay of conservation, genetics, and climate change. New models show how climate change will affect these spruces, making it necessary to relocate them if they are to survive, a tool known as assisted migration or, preferably, assisted colonization. The paper concludes with some speculation on the broader implications of climate change, and the relevance of conservation to preserving the necessary ecological services provided by forests.

  6. Making conservation research more relevant for conservation practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, W.F.; Koster, H.; Grooten, M.; Anderson, A.B.; Zuidema, P.A.; Zwick, S.; Zagt, R.J.; Lynam, A.J.; Linkie, M.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation scientists and practitioners share many of the same goals. Yet in a majority of cases, we argue, research conducted by academic conservation scientists actually makes surprisingly few direct contributions to environmental conservation. We illustrate how researchers can increase the

  7. How conserved are the conserved 16S-rRNA regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 16S rRNA gene has been used as master key for studying prokaryotic diversity in almost every environment. Despite the claim of several researchers to have the best universal primers, the reality is that no primer has been demonstrated to be truly universal. This suggests that conserved regions of the gene may not be as conserved as expected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conservation degree of the so-called conserved regions flanking the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Data contained in SILVA database (release 123 were used for the study. Primers reported as matches of each conserved region were assembled to form contigs; sequences sizing 12 nucleotides (12-mers were extracted from these contigs and searched into the entire set of SILVA sequences. Frequency analysis shown that extreme regions, 1 and 10, registered the lowest frequencies. 12-mer frequencies revealed segments of contigs that were not as conserved as expected (≤90%. Fragments corresponding to the primer contigs 3, 4, 5b and 6a were recovered from all sequences in SILVA database. Nucleotide frequency analysis in each consensus demonstrated that only a small fraction of these so-called conserved regions is truly conserved in non-redundant sequences. It could be concluded that conserved regions of the 16S rRNA gene exhibit considerable variation that has to be considered when using this gene as biomarker.

  8. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  9. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  10. Monitoring for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D; Williams, Byron K

    2006-12-01

    Human-mediated environmental changes have resulted in appropriate concern for the conservation of ecological systems and have led to the development of many ecological monitoring programs worldwide. Many programs that are identified with the purpose of 'surveillance' represent an inefficient use of conservation funds and effort. Here, we revisit the 1964 paper by Platt and argue that his recommendations about the conduct of science are equally relevant to the conduct of ecological monitoring programs. In particular, we argue that monitoring should not be viewed as a stand-alone activity, but instead as a component of a larger process of either conservation-oriented science or management. Corresponding changes in monitoring focus and design would lead to substantial increases in the efficiency and usefulness of monitoring results in conservation.

  11. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Conservation of wading birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  13. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  14. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States... concerning the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) coordination responsibilities. DATES..., Director, Ecological Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation...

  15. Analysis of compliance and irregularity between Management Conservation and Director Plans: a case study of Birds Natural Park in the city of Rio das Ostras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiane Conceição de Oliveira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presente work, the Director Plan of Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the Management Plan of a municipal Conservation Unit (CU named Birds Natural Park were investigated aiming at detecting possible territorial management conflicts, as well as pointing out potential of using these two regulations as tools for improving life quality and for developing sustainable local strategies. The study allowed for the inference of the need to review not only the Director Plans of mediumsized cities, but also the Managements Plans of the Conservation Units (CUs. Furthermore, Director Plans must be consistent in terms of articles and objectives, detailing sustainable projects for CUs by means of action plans, chronograms for the implementation of ecological corridors, and use and occupation of CUs buffer zone criteria.

  16. Selected radiotherapeutic planning and dosimetry for conservative treatment of early breast cancer. Evaluation and analysis for the dose distribution maps on phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogoh, Etsuyo

    1997-01-01

    It is important for radiotherapy in breast conservative treatment to equalize dose distribution for a conserved breast, as well as to reduce radiation dose for the ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast. To obtain the optimal method of radiotherapy, I carried out an experimental study using an original hand-made phantom which was made from Mix-Dp and cork. In these experiments, I evaluated relative dose using the film dosimetry method and absolute dose using TLD, with three methods as a function of wedge filter angle; opposed pair method, non-opposed pair method, and half-field block method. As a result, we concluded that a non-opposed pair method with a 15-degree wedge filter seems to be optimal for the 4MV-Xray Linac in our institute. (author)

  17. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  18. Comparative and genetic analysis of the four sequenced Paenibacillus polymyxa genomes reveals a diverse metabolism and conservation of genes relevant to plant-growth promotion and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Alexander W; Heinrichs, David E; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2014-10-03

    Members of the genus Paenibacillus are important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that can serve as bio-reactors. Paenibacillus polymyxa promotes the growth of a variety of economically important crops. Our lab recently completed the genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa CR1. As of January 2014, four P. polymyxa genomes have been completely sequenced but no comparative genomic analyses have been reported. Here we report the comparative and genetic analyses of four sequenced P. polymyxa genomes, which revealed a significantly conserved core genome. Complex metabolic pathways and regulatory networks were highly conserved and allow P. polymyxa to rapidly respond to dynamic environmental cues. Genes responsible for phytohormone synthesis, phosphate solubilization, iron acquisition, transcriptional regulation, σ-factors, stress responses, transporters and biomass degradation were well conserved, indicating an intimate association with plant hosts and the rhizosphere niche. In addition, genes responsible for antimicrobial resistance and non-ribosomal peptide/polyketide synthesis are present in both the core and accessory genome of each strain. Comparative analyses also reveal variations in the accessory genome, including large plasmids present in strains M1 and SC2. Furthermore, a considerable number of strain-specific genes and genomic islands are irregularly distributed throughout each genome. Although a variety of plant-growth promoting traits are encoded by all strains, only P. polymyxa CR1 encodes the unique nitrogen fixation cluster found in other Paenibacillus sp. Our study revealed that genomic loci relevant to host interaction and ecological fitness are highly conserved within the P. polymyxa genomes analysed, despite variations in the accessory genome. This work suggets that plant-growth promotion by P. polymyxa is mediated largely through phytohormone production, increased nutrient availability and bio-control mechanisms. This study provides an in

  19. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Jochen BW; Tautz, Diethard; Trillmich, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships w...

  20. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws and exact solutions of the time-fractional generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Elaheh; Reza Hejazi, S.

    2018-02-01

    In the present paper, Lie point symmetries of the time-fractional generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV (HS-cKdV) system based on the Riemann-Liouville derivative are obtained. Using the derived Lie point symmetries, we obtain similarity reductions and conservation laws of the considered system. Finally, some analytic solutions are furnished by means of the invariant subspace method in the Caputo sense.

  1. Analysis of the Basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea reveals conservation of the core meiotic expression program over half a billion years of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Burns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coprinopsis cinerea (also known as Coprinus cinereus is a multicellular basidiomycete mushroom particularly suited to the study of meiosis due to its synchronous meiotic development and prolonged prophase. We examined the 15-hour meiotic transcriptional program of C. cinerea, encompassing time points prior to haploid nuclear fusion though tetrad formation, using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. As with other organisms, a large proportion (∼20% of genes are differentially regulated during this developmental process, with successive waves of transcription apparent in nine transcriptional clusters, including one enriched for meiotic functions. C. cinerea and the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe diverged ∼500-900 million years ago, permitting a comparison of transcriptional programs across a broad evolutionary time scale. Previous studies of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe compared genes that were induced upon entry into meiosis; inclusion of C. cinerea data indicates that meiotic genes are more conserved in their patterns of induction across species than genes not known to be meiotic. In addition, we found that meiotic genes are significantly more conserved in their transcript profiles than genes not known to be meiotic, which indicates a remarkable conservation of the meiotic process across evolutionarily distant organisms. Overall, meiotic function genes are more conserved in both induction and transcript profile than genes not known to be meiotic. However, of 50 meiotic function genes that were co-induced in all three species, 41 transcript profiles were well-correlated in at least two of the three species, but only a single gene (rad50 exhibited coordinated induction and well-correlated transcript profiles in all three species, indicating that co-induction does not necessarily predict correlated expression or vice versa. Differences may reflect differences in meiotic mechanisms or new roles for paralogs

  2. Comparative analysis of the ATRX promoter and 5' regulatory region reveals conserved regulatory elements which are linked to roles in neurodevelopment, alpha-globin regulation and testicular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argentaro Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATRX is a tightly-regulated multifunctional protein with crucial roles in mammalian development. Mutations in the ATRX gene cause ATR-X syndrome, an X-linked recessive developmental disorder resulting in severe mental retardation and mild alpha-thalassemia with facial, skeletal and genital abnormalities. Although ubiquitously expressed the clinical features of the syndrome indicate that ATRX is not likely to be a global regulator of gene expression but involved in regulating specific target genes. The regulation of ATRX expression is not well understood and this is reflected by the current lack of identified upstream regulators. The availability of genomic data from a range of species and the very highly conserved 5' regulatory regions of the ATRX gene has allowed us to investigate putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in evolutionarily conserved regions of the mammalian ATRX promoter. Results We identified 12 highly conserved TFBSs of key gene regulators involved in biologically relevant processes such as neural and testis development and alpha-globin regulation. Conclusions Our results reveal potentially important regulatory elements in the ATRX gene which may lead to the identification of upstream regulators of ATRX and aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie ATR-X syndrome.

  3. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Ashesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514 and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425 accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in

  4. Tissue-specific DNA methylation is conserved across human, mouse, and rat, and driven by primary sequence conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Sears, Renee L; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Bo; Li, Daofeng; Rockweiler, Nicole B; Jang, Hyo Sik; Choudhary, Mayank N K; Lee, Hyung Joo; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Arand, Jason; Tabers, Brianne; Gu, C Charles; Cicero, Theodore J; Wang, Ting

    2017-09-12

    Uncovering mechanisms of epigenome evolution is an essential step towards understanding the evolution of different cellular phenotypes. While studies have confirmed DNA methylation as a conserved epigenetic mechanism in mammalian development, little is known about the conservation of tissue-specific genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Using a comparative epigenomics approach, we identified and compared the tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns of rat against those of mouse and human across three shared tissue types. We confirmed that tissue-specific differentially methylated regions are strongly associated with tissue-specific regulatory elements. Comparisons between species revealed that at a minimum 11-37% of tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns are conserved, a phenomenon that we define as epigenetic conservation. Conserved DNA methylation is accompanied by conservation of other epigenetic marks including histone modifications. Although a significant amount of locus-specific methylation is epigenetically conserved, the majority of tissue-specific DNA methylation is not conserved across the species and tissue types that we investigated. Examination of the genetic underpinning of epigenetic conservation suggests that primary sequence conservation is a driving force behind epigenetic conservation. In contrast, evolutionary dynamics of tissue-specific DNA methylation are best explained by the maintenance or turnover of binding sites for important transcription factors. Our study extends the limited literature of comparative epigenomics and suggests a new paradigm for epigenetic conservation without genetic conservation through analysis of transcription factor binding sites.

  5. Model of Conservation on Sagara Anakan Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sugandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread decline in agricultural land and the impact on production decline caused extensive forest activities to meet the needs of the population. Activities that cause less environmental quality offset environmental balance changes. These changes due to deforestation, erosion, degraded land and natural resource degradation are exploited so that the function of ecological, economic and social life. Damaged ecosystems resulting in erosion, landslides in the watershed affect the sedimentation in Sagara Anakan sea. Silting, resulting in narrowing of fishing activities, tourism, sports, and services decreased crossings. Because of the problem and the purpose of this study proposed and analyzed a few questions: 1 How does the socio-economic impact of farmers in conserving the environment of Sagara Anakan ?, 2 How do people form of conservation and coastal of Sagara Anakan ?, 3 How model of integrated conservation in the watershed and coastal of Sagara Anakan ? and 4 What role do the people in the watershed and coastal on Sagara Anakan conservation ?. Study site covers an area of flow and Ci Ci Tanduy Beureum and Sagara Tillers waters. Activities of the population in the process of land affected when in Sagara tillers. The method used was a survey with a sample divided by the watershed upstream, downstream and coastal tengahm. Using statistical analysis techniques and geography, so that part of the watershed characteristics can be imaged. Shallowing Sagara Anakan, physically was affected by the physical condition of the easily eroded and accelerated by human activities. The activities of farmer on the watershed have done conservation unless doing reforestation, whereas the farmer on the swamp and coastal areas are not doing conservation. Different physical circumstances, the conservation of watersheds and coastal forms differ. Socio-economic condition of farmer affect the conservation. The farmer could not reforestation conservation form, as the

  6. Multi-Season Regional Analysis of Multi-Species Occupancy: Implications for Bird Conservation in Agricultural Lands in East-Central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goijman, Andrea Paula; Conroy, Michael J; Bernardos, Jaime Nicolás; Zaccagnini, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Rapid expansion and intensification of agriculture create challenges for the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In Argentina, the total row crop planted area has increased in recent decades with the expansion of soybean cultivation, homogenizing the landscape. In 2003 we started the first long-term, large-scale bird monitoring program in agroecosystems of central Argentina, in portions of the Pampas and Espinal ecoregions. Using data from this program, we evaluated the effect of land use and cover extent on birds between 2003-2012, accounting for imperfect detection probabilities using a Bayesian hierarchical, multi-species and multi-season occupancy model. We tested predictions that species diversity is positively related to habitat heterogeneity, which in intensified agroecosystems is thought to be mediated by food availability; thus the extent of land use and cover is predicted to affect foraging guilds differently. We also infer about ecosystem services provisioning and inform management recommendations for conservation of birds. Overall our results support the predictions. Although many species within each guild responded differently to land use and native forest cover, we identified generalities for most trophic guilds. For example, granivorous gleaners, ground insectivores and omnivores responded negatively to high proportions of soybean, while insectivore gleaners and aerial foragers seemed more tolerant. Habitat heterogeneity would likely benefit most species in an intensified agroecosystem, and can be achieved with a diversity of crops, pastures, and natural areas within the landscape. Although most studied species are insectivores, potentially beneficial for pest control, some guilds such as ground insectivores are poorly represented, suggesting that agricultural intensification reduces ecological functions, which may be recovered through management. Continuation of the bird monitoring program will allow us to continue to

  7. Multi-Season Regional Analysis of Multi-Species Occupancy: Implications for Bird Conservation in Agricultural Lands in East-Central Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Paula Goijman

    Full Text Available Rapid expansion and intensification of agriculture create challenges for the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In Argentina, the total row crop planted area has increased in recent decades with the expansion of soybean cultivation, homogenizing the landscape. In 2003 we started the first long-term, large-scale bird monitoring program in agroecosystems of central Argentina, in portions of the Pampas and Espinal ecoregions. Using data from this program, we evaluated the effect of land use and cover extent on birds between 2003-2012, accounting for imperfect detection probabilities using a Bayesian hierarchical, multi-species and multi-season occupancy model. We tested predictions that species diversity is positively related to habitat heterogeneity, which in intensified agroecosystems is thought to be mediated by food availability; thus the extent of land use and cover is predicted to affect foraging guilds differently. We also infer about ecosystem services provisioning and inform management recommendations for conservation of birds. Overall our results support the predictions. Although many species within each guild responded differently to land use and native forest cover, we identified generalities for most trophic guilds. For example, granivorous gleaners, ground insectivores and omnivores responded negatively to high proportions of soybean, while insectivore gleaners and aerial foragers seemed more tolerant. Habitat heterogeneity would likely benefit most species in an intensified agroecosystem, and can be achieved with a diversity of crops, pastures, and natural areas within the landscape. Although most studied species are insectivores, potentially beneficial for pest control, some guilds such as ground insectivores are poorly represented, suggesting that agricultural intensification reduces ecological functions, which may be recovered through management. Continuation of the bird monitoring program will allow

  8. Analysis of the EIAV Rev-responsive element (RRE reveals a conserved RNA motif required for high affinity Rev binding in both HIV-1 and EIAV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A cis-acting RNA regulatory element, the Rev-responsive element (RRE, has essential roles in replication of lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and equine infection anemia virus (EIAV. The RRE binds the viral trans-acting regulatory protein, Rev, to mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport of incompletely spliced mRNAs encoding viral structural genes and genomic RNA. Because of its potential as a clinical target, RRE-Rev interactions have been well studied in HIV-1; however, detailed molecular structures of Rev-RRE complexes in other lentiviruses are still lacking. In this study, we investigate the secondary structure of the EIAV RRE and interrogate regulatory protein-RNA interactions in EIAV Rev-RRE complexes. Computational prediction and detailed chemical probing and footprinting experiments were used to determine the RNA secondary structure of EIAV RRE-1, a 555 nt region that provides RRE function in vivo. Chemical probing experiments confirmed the presence of several predicted loop and stem-loop structures, which are conserved among 140 EIAV sequence variants. Footprinting experiments revealed that Rev binding induces significant structural rearrangement in two conserved domains characterized by stable stem-loop structures. Rev binding region-1 (RBR-1 corresponds to a genetically-defined Rev binding region that overlaps exon 1 of the EIAV rev gene and contains an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE. RBR-2, characterized for the first time in this study, is required for high affinity binding of EIAV Rev to the RRE. RBR-2 contains an RNA structural motif that is also found within the high affinity Rev binding site in HIV-1 (stem-loop IIB, and within or near mapped RRE regions of four additional lentiviruses. The powerful integration of computational and experimental approaches in this study has generated a validated RNA secondary structure for the EIAV RRE and provided provocative evidence that high affinity Rev binding sites of

  9. Pollution prevention and energy conservation: Understanding the interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional view holds that pollution prevention is good for energy conservation and vice versa. Analysis of pollution prevention and energy conservation activities indicates, however, that interactions and synergies between environmental and energy factors can mean that pollution prevention can be energy intensive and, conversely, that energy conservation can lead to increased pollution. Full cost accounting, taking into account all media, must be performed before precise pollution prevention-energy conservation interrelationships can be characterized and quantified. Use of a pollution prevention-energy conservation matrix can further this understanding

  10. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  11. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  12. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  13. A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T; Game, Edward T; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    An opportunity represents an advantageous combination of circumstances that allows goals to be achieved. We reviewed the nature of opportunity and how it manifests in different subsystems (e.g., biophysical, social, political, economic) as conceptualized in other bodies of literature, including behavior, adoption, entrepreneur, public policy, and resilience literature. We then developed a multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. We identified 3 types of conservation opportunity: potential, actors remove barriers to problem solving by identifying the capabilities within the system that can be manipulated to create support for conservation action; traction, actors identify windows of opportunity that arise from exogenous shocks, events, or changes that remove barriers to solving problems; and existing, everything is in place for conservation action (i.e., no barriers exist) and an actor takes advantage of the existing circumstances to solve problems. Different leverage points characterize each type of opportunity. Thus, unique stages of opportunity identification or creation and exploitation exist: characterizing the system and defining problems; identifying potential solutions; assessing the feasibility of solutions; identifying or creating opportunities; and taking advantage of opportunities. These stages can be undertaken independently or as part of a situational analysis and typically comprise the first stage, but they can also be conducted iteratively throughout a conservation planning process. Four types of entrepreneur can be identified (business, policy, social, and conservation), each possessing attributes that enable them to identify or create opportunities and take advantage of them. We examined how different types of conservation opportunity manifest in a social-ecological system (the Great Barrier Reef) and how they can be taken advantage of. Our multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity strengthens and

  14. Oncological results of oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery: Long term follow-up of a large series at a single institution: A matched-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, F; Hubner, G; Rotmensz, N; Bagnardi, V; Loschi, P; Maisonneuve, P; Venturino, M; Orecchia, R; Galimberti, V; Veronesi, P; Rietjens, M

    2016-01-01

    Oncoplastic surgery is a well-established discipline that combines conserving treatment for breast cancer with immediate plastic reconstruction. Although widely practiced, the oncologic outcomes of this combined approach are reported only in small series. The aim of the present paper is to assess the safety of oncoplastic surgery for invasive primary breast cancer. We compared 454 consecutive patients who underwent an oncoplastic approach between 2000 and 2008 for primary invasive breast tumors (study group) with twice the number of patients who received conservation alone in the same interval time (control group). Disease free survival and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to assess differences between groups. The median follow-up was 7.2 years. The overall survival is similar within the two groups, being 91.4% and 91.3% at 10-yr in the study group and in the control group respectively. The disease free survival is slightly lower in the oncoplastic group (69 vs.73.1% at 10-yr). The difference is not statistically significant. We have compared a large series of primary breast cancer patients that have undergone oncoplastic surgery (454) with a control group (908) and they were followed for a prolonged period of time. It provides the best available evidence to suggest that oncoplastic surgery is a safe and reliable treatment option for the managing of invasive breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of radiation dermatitis using objective analysis for patients with breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy: influence of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Kobayashi, Kana; Tsubokura, Takuji; Kodani, Naohiro; Aibe, Norihiro; Ikeno, Hiroyasu; Nishimura, Takuya

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of patient factors on radiation dermatitis for patients with breast cancer who underwent postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. The study population comprised 87 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by 50 Gy/25 fractions (median) of radiotherapy with or without boost radiation (10 Gy/5 fractions). We examined their treated and contralateral breast skin color by use of an objective analyzer, and expressed findings as L, a, b ratios by dividing by pre-RT values. Next, we examined correlation between patient factors (age, height, body weight, and body mass index, BMI) and change of L and a values by use of correlation coefficients. Radiation therapy caused changes in a and L ratios (p darkening) decreased by 10 % and reached a minimum value between completion of radiotherapy and 1 month after treatment. Although, age and height did not affect Δ value, body weight and BMI correlated significantly with Δa value (p = 0.0012 and 0.0017) not with ΔL value. Body weight and BMI predict degree of radiation dermatitis, and more reddish dermatitis was observed for heavier patients than for their lighter counterparts.

  16. CONSERVATION AND THE CLASSROOM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE MUSEUM COURSE. The McGregor Museum offered a 'Bring Conservation to the Classroom' course for teachers of all subjects at all levels at the Teachers' Centre in March 1985. As the Museum is both a Cultural and Natural History museum the course included both these aspects of the environment. The aims of the ...

  17. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  18. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  19. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  20. Beyond conservation agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and

  1. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    Ankarana. Nous illustrons chacun des centres d'endémisme avec une espèce symbolique et rapportons des aspects de son histoire naturelle et culturelle ainsi que de sa conservation. INTRODUCTION. Madagascar has a surface of 587,040 km2 ...

  2. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  3. Conservation Is Job One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzai, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The University of Michigan, winner of a federal award for its campus energy conservation, has developed a building automation system that uses direct-digital-control technology to manage energy use. The project, undertaken in partnership with an energy management company, has saved over $10 million since its inception, and includes a revolving…

  4. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  5. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  6. Analysis of different management systems for water and soil conservation in experimental plots of "macauba" (Acrocomia aculeata) in Araponga (MG, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Lúcio-Correa, João; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, the conservation of water resources and agricultural soil are key environmental and economic aspects to mantain land services and the quality of life people in rural and urban communities. The macaw - Acrocomia aculeata) (Jacq.) Lodd. (Ex Martius) - is a Brazilian native oleaginous palm, whose potential has been highlighted in the scientific community due to its high economic potential and its recent advances in crop farming. This study aims to quantify the runoff in macaw plantation, comparing different techniques of crop management for a period of one year (from September 2012 to August 2013). The data from this study were collected in the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) located in the municipality of Araponga, MG, Brazil. The seedlings took place in February 2009, in holes, spaced 5X5 in an area of 1.7 ha (680 plants) with a slope of 25%. Rainfall was monitored through three pluviometers with expose area of 162.86 cm² whereas the impact of different management systems on runoff was measured by using 10 plots of 63 m² each: 3 treatments with three repetitions plus the control plot. Each plot presented four macaw plants. The treatment one (T1), was formed by macaw plants without using any soil conservation technique; the treatment two (T2) consisted of macaws with a contour cord with 40 cm wide by 30 cm deep, located between the plantation lines; for the treatment three (T3) beans were planted forming vegetation strips; the control (T0) was represented by a portion without macaws plants, with spontaneous vegetation growing throughout the plot, which was not used any soil conservation technique. T2 presented the lowest values of runoff during the twelve months and at the same time, the greatest requirements of initial rainfall for runoff generation. In contrast, T3 showed the highest volumes of runoff for the study period, with a small reduction with the exception of January and February 2013, when the bean plants were well

  7. [Comparative analysis of the professional activity in patients with discopathy of the lumbar spine receiving only conservative therapy or operative therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Krzysztof R

    2007-01-01

    Pain syndromes of the lower spine are considered as a serious economical problem throughout the world. They are one of the main reasons of limitation or total disability to work. Social expenses connected with treatment costs are accompanied by deterioration of the patient's financial situation and his family. Evaluation of the professional activity can be a valuable index of treatment efficiency evaluation. The purpose of this study was to comparably evaluate of the professional activity of the patients with lumbar discopathy receiving only conservative treatment as well as operated patients. 619 patients aged between 18 and 65 years with discopathy at L4-L5, L5-S 1 levels have been enrolled into the study. In analyzed group 327 patients received only a conservative therapy whereas 292 patients undergone an operative procedure. Evaluation of the degree of the disability to professional activity caused by the disease of the intervertebral disc of the lumbar backbone has been performed based on the following scales: Low-Back Outcome Score (L-BOS) and Functional-Economic Outcome Rating Scale (F-EORS). Ability to work of the patients receiving conservative therapy was approx. 3.1 (according to F-EORS) what can be defined as ,,work in older profession within limited range". Level of ability to work within subsequent evaluated periods did not tend to change significantly. Ability to hire the operated patients was approx. 2.8 what means "able to work but not in previous profession". In both analyzed groups the highest hiring level (approx. 63%) referred to young patients and it was significantly higher than in patient at the mid age (approx. 47%) and in older patients (approx. 33%). Disease of the intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine significantly reduced ability to professional work. Hiring ratio shows the strongest correlation with functional status, level of the payment satisfaction and level of the patients' depression. Ratio of return to the professional work is

  8. Computational analysis of perturbations in the post-fusion Dengue virus envelope protein highlights known epitopes and conserved residues in the Zika virus [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic transformation of the Zika virus (ZIKV from a relatively unknown virus to a pathogen generating global-wide panic has exposed the dearth of detailed knowledge about this virus. Decades of research in the related Dengue virus (DENV, finally culminating in a vaccine registered for use in endemic regions (CYD-TDV in three countries, provides key insights in developing strategies for tackling ZIKV, which has caused global panic to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Dengue virus (DENV, a member of the family Flaviviridae, the causal agent of the self-limiting Dengue fever and the potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, has been a scourge in tropical countries for many centuries. The recently solved structure of mature ZIKV (PDB ID:5IRE has provided key insights into the structure of the envelope (E and membrane (M proteins, the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The previously established MEPP methodology compares two conformations of the same protein and identifies residues with significant spatial and electrostatic perturbations. In the current work, MEPP analyzed the pre-and post-fusion DENV type 2 envelope (E protein, and identified several known epitopes (His317, Tyr299, Glu26, Arg188, etc. (MEPPitope. These residues are overwhelmingly conserved in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes, and also enumerates residue pairs that undergo significant polarity reversal. Characterization of α-helices in E-proteins show that α1 is not conserved in the sequence space of ZIKV and DENV. Furthermore, perturbation of α1 in the post-fusion DENV structure includes a known epitope Asp215, a residue absent in the pre-fusion α1. A cationic β-sheet in the GAG-binding domain that is stereochemically equivalent in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes is also highlighted due to a residue pair (Arg286-Arg288 that has a significant electrostatic polarity reversal upon fusion. Finally, two highly conserved residues (Thr32 and Thr40, with

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Conservative Interventions for Nonspecific Chronic Spinal Pain: Physical, Behavioral/Psychologically Informed, or Combined? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Mary; Purtill, Helen; Kennedy, Norelee; Conneely, Mairead; Hurley, John; O'Sullivan, Peter; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2016-07-01

    Nonspecific chronic spinal pain (NSCSP) is highly disabling. Current conservative rehabilitation commonly includes physical and behavioral interventions, or a combination of these approaches. Physical interventions aim to enhance physical capacity by using methods such as exercise, manual therapy, and ergonomics. Behavioral/psychologically informed interventions aim to enhance behaviors, cognitions, or mood by using methods such as relaxation and cognitive behavioral therapy. Combined interventions aim to target physical and also behavioral/psychological factors contributing to patients' pain by using methods such as multidisciplinary pain management programs. Because it remains unclear whether any of these approaches are superior, this review aimed to assess the comparative effectiveness of physical, behavioral/psychologically informed, and combined interventions on pain and disability in patients with NSCSP. Ten electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including participants reporting NSCSP. Studies were required to have an "active" conservative treatment control group for comparison. Studies were not eligible if the interventions were from the same domain (eg, if the study compared 2 physical interventions). Study quality was assessed used the Cochrane Back Review Group risk of bias criteria. The treatment effects of physical, behavioral/psychologically informed, and combined interventions were assessed using meta-analyses. Twenty-four studies were included. No clinically significant differences were found for pain and disability between physical, behavioral/psychologically informed, and combined interventions. The simple categorization of interventions into physical, behavioral/psychologically informed, and combined could be considered a limitation of this review, because these interventions may not be easily differentiated to allow accurate comparisons to be made. Further work should consider investigating whether tailoring

  10. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba F Alzan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  11. Perception of stress level, trunk appearance, body function and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated conservatively: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna; Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2013-09-01

    In the presented study, we aimed to assess changes over time in the perception of trunk deformity, body function, stress level and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated conservatively with a Cheneau brace, taking the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQ) criteria of evaluation into consideration. The study design was comprised of three questionnaire assessments, with the second and the third evaluation taking place 6 and 12 months after the beginning of the study, respectively. Thirty-six females treated conservatively were asked to fill in the TAPS, SRS-22 and BSSQ forms. In regards to TAPS, the results differed between the 1st and the 2nd assessment in Figure 2 only (p = 0.013). The difference between the 1st and the 3rd evaluation concerned Figure 3 and the total score (p = 0.011 and p = 0.005, respectively). The SRS-22 and BSSQ results of study participants did not differ significantly between the 1st and the 2nd, between the 2nd and the 3rd and between the 1st and the 3rd evaluations. The study indicated that the assessment of girls with AIS concerning body function and mental health did not deteriorate in the course of orthosis treatment. Furthermore, they showed improvement in perceptions particularly in regards to trunk shape. We pointed out that the negative perceptions of mental health, self-image and low level of activity held by females with AIS coexisted with severe emotional distress. Moreover, factors that improved functioning or subjective physical appearance ratings in particular, such as level of activity, were indicated.

  12. Analysis of tomato plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene family suggests a mycorrhiza-mediated regulatory mechanism conserved in diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junli; Liu, Jianjian; Chen, Aiqun; Ji, Minjie; Chen, Jiadong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Mian; Qu, Hongye; Xu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In plants, the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (HA) is considered to play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and respoding to environment stresses. Multiple paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of HA have been identified and characterized in several model plants, while limited information of the HA gene family is available to date for tomato. Here, we describe the molecular and expression features of eight HA-encoding genes (SlHA1-8) from tomato. All these genes are interrupted by multiple introns with conserved positions. SlHA1, 2, and 4 were widely expressed in all tissues, while SlHA5, 6, and 7 were almost only expressed in flowers. SlHA8, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal or nutrient-/salt-stress growth conditions, was strongly activated in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal-colonized roots. Extreme lack of SlHA8 expression in M161, a mutant defective to AM fungal colonization, provided genetic evidence towards the dependence of its expression on AM symbiosis. A 1521-bp SlHA8 promoter could direct the GUS reporter expression specifically in colonized cells of transgenic tobacco, soybean, and rice mycorrhizal roots. Promoter deletion assay revealed a 223-bp promoter fragment of SlHA8 containing a variant of AM-specific cis-element MYCS (vMYCS) sufficient to confer the AM-induced activity. Targeted deletion of this motif in the corresponding promoter region causes complete abolishment of GUS staining in mycorrhizal roots. Together, these results lend cogent evidence towards the evolutionary conservation of a potential regulatory mechanism mediating the activation of AM-responsive HA genes in diverse mycorrhizal plant species.

  13. Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of a Novel Class of Shikimate Dehydrogenases: Evidence for a Conserved Catalytic Mechanism in the Shikimate Dehydrogenase Family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, James; Lee, John; Hu, Shi; Senisterra, Guillermo; Christendat, Dinesh (Toronto)

    2011-10-27

    Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate. This reaction represents the fourth step of the shikimate pathway, the essential route for the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, bacteria, and apicomplexan parasites. The absence of this pathway in animals makes it an attractive target for herbicides and antimicrobials. At least four functionally distinct enzyme classes, AroE, YdiB, SDH-like (SdhL), and AroE-like1 (Ael1), utilize shikimate as a substrate in vitro and form the SDH family. Crystal structures have been determined for AroE, YdiB, and SdhL. In this study, we have determined the first representative crystal structure of an Ael1 enzyme. We demonstrate that Ael1 shares a similar overall structure with the other members of the SDH family. This high level of structural conservation extends to the active sites of the enzymes. In particular, an ionizable active site lysine and aspartate are present in all SDH homologues. Two distinct biochemical roles have been reported for this Lys-Asp pair: as binding residues in YdiB and as a catalytic dyad in AroE and SdhL. Here, we establish that the residues function as a catalytic dyad in Ael1 and, interestingly, in at least one YdiB homologue. The conservation of three-dimensional fold, active site architecture, and catalytic mechanism among members of the SDH family will facilitate the design of drugs targeting the shikimate pathway.

  14. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  15. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Geomorphological characterization of conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Cecchin, Marco; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Masin, Roberta

    2017-04-01

    characterise the surface morphology. For each of derived Digital Elevation Model, seven morphometric indexes, such as slope, curvature, flow direction, contributing area, roughness, and connectivity was calculated. We showed then the variations of the morphology in the areas converted to the conservation agriculture, and, consequently, a possible modification of processes such as erosion and runoff. The results suggested that the agricultural surfaces interested by no-tillage practices are different from those tilled with conventional systems. The topography is rougher, with chaotic flow directions, and more concave areas, thus resulting in potential water storages, mitigating the intensity of soil erosion and runoff processes. On the other hand, the topography of traditional tillage area is more regular and smooth, with flow directions that tend to follow the same direction on the surface. These results are a novelty in the Earth Science and Agronomy: we demonstrated and quantified, from the geomorphological point of view, the potential role of conservative agriculture in mitigating, not only land degradation phenomena, but also the distribution of pollutants, and rainfall-runoff processes. References Prosdocimi, M., Tarolli, P., Cerdà, A. (2016). Mulching practice for reducing soil water erosion: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 161, 191-203. Prosdocimi, M., Burguet, M., Di Prima, S., Sofia, G., Terol, E, Rodrigo Comino J., Cerdà, A., Tarolli, P. (2017). Rainfall simulation and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry for the analysis of soil water erosion in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of the Total Environment, 574, 204-215. Tarolli, P., Sofia G. (2016). Human topographic signatures and derived geomorphic processes across landscapes, Geomorphology, 255, 140-161.

  17. Conserving what, where and how? Cost-efficient measures to conserve biodiversity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Højgård; Strange, Niels; Anthon, Signe

    2016-01-01

    terrestrial species in Denmark we apply systematic conservation planning techniques to identify how to protect biodiversity at the lowest cost to society. The results suggest that conservation actions in forest should be given a higher priority. Thus, three to four times the number of forest species...... are protected per million € compared with species living in open land natural areas. Furthermore, a gap analysis finds the current designation of Natura 2000 and other protected areas is skewed toward open land natural areas, and insufficient to meet the conservation targets on forest species....

  18. Strategic conservation planning for the Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Drew, C. Ashton

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team (ENCSEVA) is a partnership among local federal agencies and programs with a mission to apply Strategic Habitat Conservation to accomplish priority landscape-level conservation within its geographic region. ENCSEVA seeks to further landscape-scale conservation through collaboration with local partners. To accomplish this mission, ENCSEVA is developing a comprehensive Strategic Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan) to provide guidance for its members, partners, and collaborators by establishing mutual conservation goals, objectives, strategies, and metrics to gauge the success of conservation efforts. Identifying common goals allows the ENCSEVA team to develop strategies that leverage joint resources and are more likely to achieve desired impacts across the landscape. The Plan will also provide an approach for ENCSEVA to meet applied research needs (identify knowledge gaps), foster adaptive management principles, identify conservation priorities, prioritize threats (including potential impacts of climate change), and identify the required capacity to implement strategies to create more resilient landscapes. ENCSEVA seeks to support the overarching goals of the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) and to provide scientific and technical support for conservation at landscape scales as well as inform the management of natural resources in response to shifts in climate, habitat fragmentation and loss, and other landscape-level challenges (South Atlantic LCC 2012). The ENCSEVA ecoregion encompasses the northern third of the SALCC geography and offers a unique opportunity to apply landscape conservation at multiple scales through the guidance of local conservation and natural resource management efforts and by reporting metrics that reflect the effectiveness of those efforts (Figure 1). The Environmental Decision Analysis Team, housed within the North Carolina Cooperative

  19. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  20. The conservation attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1960-01-01

    Forsaking his inheritance and its assurance of a comfortable existence, Guatama Buddha adopted the life of a pauper to seek the intellectual joys of pure contemplation. Under a mulberry tree, it is said, he propounded a 12-point program of ethical conduct stressing the development of a disinterested outlook in each individual. Temples, ritual, and idols he considered distractions from the basic need. He felt that there was a basic need for the development of an attitude.The Brahmins as well as the lower castes recognized the merits of the system suggested by Buddha, but they molded his teachings into an accessory to existing rituals and dogma. They soon forgot that Guatama wanted no idols and no temples. They forgot his admonition that an attitude was the thing that really counted. Despite his expressed wish, today Buddha in stone, in bronze, and in gold ponders these things in thousands of temples and hears the prayers of millions who still seek the truths of an ethical life.Today, conservation has its temples. The temples of conservation include hundreds of irrigation reservoirs; it has prayer-sticks in miles of contour plow furrows, and the Buddha of a drop-inlet structure looks down on a conservation pool in myriad detention dams.Conservation is well established today in the minds of the American public. It seems appropriate to analyze at this time just what it is that is established in the public mind. In what ways have we, too, substituted the temples, the ritual, and the idols for an attitude?

  1. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Emma Marie

    2013-01-01

    New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM) has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor...

  2. Analysis of Conservative Tracer Tests in the Bullfrog, Tram, and Prow Pass Tuffs, 1996 to 1998, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Amjad; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Tucci, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for transport of radionuclides in ground water from the proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted among three boreholes, known as the C-hole Complex, and values for transport (or flow) porosity, storage (or matrix) porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and the extent of matrix diffusion were obtained. The C-holes are completed in a sequence of Miocene tuffaceous rock, consisting of nonwelded to densely welded ash-flow tuff with intervals of ash-fall tuff and volcaniclastic rocks, covered by Quaternary alluvium. The lower part of the tuffaceous-rock sequence includes the Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram Tuffs of the Crater Flat Group. The rocks are pervaded by tectonic and cooling fractures. Paleozoic limestone and dolomite underlie the tuffaceous rocks. Four radially convergent and one partially recirculating conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted at the C-hole Complex from 1996 to 1998 to establish values for flow porosity, storage porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and extent of matrix diffusion in the Bullfrog and Tram Tuffs and the Prow Pass Tuff. Tracer tests included (1) injection of iodide into the combined Bullfrog-Tram interval; (2) injection of 2,6 difluorobenzoic acid into the Lower Bullfrog interval; (3) injection of 3-carbamoyl-2-pyridone into the Lower Bullfrog interval; and (4) injection of iodide and 2,4,5 trifluorobenzoic acid, followed by 2,3,4,5 tetrafluorobenzoic acid, into the Prow Pass Tuff. All tracer tests were analyzed by the Moench single- and dual-porosity analytical solutions to the advection-dispersion equation or by superposition of these solutions. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to corroborate tracer solution results, to obtain optimal parameter values from the solutions, and to quantify parameter uncertainty resulting from analyzing two of the three radially convergent conservative tracer tests

  3. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jochen Bw; Tautz, Diethard; Trillmich, Fritz

    2007-09-15

    Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL). Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 +/- 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki), the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus) as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in conservation policy for an organism that already is

  4. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Jochen BW

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL, being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL. In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL. Results Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 ± 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Conclusion Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki, the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in

  5. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  6. Minimally Invasive Approach for Spleen-Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy: a Comparative Analysis of Postoperative Complication Between Splenic Vessel Conserving and Warshaw's Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lip Seng; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Woo Jung

    2016-08-01

    Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with Warshaw's technique (WT) was reported to have higher spleen-related complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative complication between the splenic vessel-conserving technique (SVC) and the WT when they were performed by the minimally invasive approach. From January 2006 to June 2015, data of the patients who had laparoscopic or robotic-assisted spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for benign or borderline malignant tumors were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into SVC and the WT group for comparison. Of the 89 patients who had the spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, 63 were SVC, whereas 26 were WT. The CT scans showed that patients who had WT were found to have higher rate of splenic infarction (P < 0.001) and had significantly higher rate of collateral vessel formation at 1 year (P < 0.001). All the splenic infarctions were low grade and asymptomatic which resolved spontaneously. None of the patients with collateral formation experienced gastrointestinal bleeding. The postoperative complication of SVC and WT did not differ significantly. SVC and WT were found to have comparable outcome. Both techniques can be used to achieve higher spleen-preserving rate.

  7. Bayesian phylogeny analysis of vertebrate serpins illustrates evolutionary conservation of the intron and indels based six groups classification system from lampreys for ∼500 MY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The serpin superfamily is characterized by proteins that fold into a conserved tertiary structure and exploits a sophisticated and irreversible suicide-mechanism of inhibition. Vertebrate serpins are classified into six groups (V1–V6, based on three independent biological features—genomic organization, diagnostic amino acid sites and rare indels. However, this classification system was based on the limited number of mammalian genomes available. In this study, several non-mammalian genomes are used to validate this classification system using the powerful Bayesian phylogenetic method. This method supports the intron and indel based vertebrate classification and proves that serpins have been maintained from lampreys to humans for about 500 MY. Lampreys have fewer than 10 serpins, which expand into 36 serpins in humans. The two expanding groups V1 and V2 have SERPINB1/SERPINB6 and SERPINA8/SERPIND1 as the ancestral serpins, respectively. Large clusters of serpins are formed by local duplications of these serpins in tetrapod genomes. Interestingly, the ancestral HCII/SERPIND1 locus (nested within PIK4CA possesses group V4 serpin (A2APL1, homolog of α2-AP/SERPINF2 of lampreys; hence, pointing to the fact that group V4 might have originated from group V2. Additionally in this study, details of the phylogenetic history and genomic characteristics of vertebrate serpins are revisited.

  8. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  9. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña

    2011-01-01

    [EN] In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populatio...

  10. What Works in Conservation 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, David; Altringham, John D; Ashpole, Joscelyne E.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Berthinussen, Anna; Child, Matthew F.; Dänhardt, Juliana; Dicks, Lynn; Dicks, Lynn V.; Ermgassen, Erasmus K.H.J. zu; Hugh,; Hutchison, James; James, Katy; Jönsson, Annelie; Key, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 648 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. Chapters cover the practical global conservation of amphibians, bats and birds, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasives. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness ...

  11. European Conservation Agriculture Federation Website

    OpenAIRE

    European Conservation Agriculture Federation

    1999-01-01

    Metadata only record This resource is the website for the European Conservation Agriculture Federation (ECAF), a federation of fifteen national associations dedicated to the promotion of soil conservation practices through government policy, the transfer of knowledge regarding these practices, and the development of production systems which embody these practices. The website provides access to information on projects, presentations, and articles relating to Conservation Agriculture.

  12. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  13. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  14. Conserved features of complexes of TATA-box binding proteins with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanegina, Olga; Aksianov, Evgeniy; Alexeevski, Andrei V; Karyagina, Anna; Spirin, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    A comparative analysis of all available structures of complexes of TATA-box binding proteins (TBPs) with DNA is performed. Conserved features of DNA-protein interaction are described, including nine amino acid residues that form conserved hydrogen bonds, 13 residues participating in formation of two conserved hydrophobic clusters at DNA-protein interface, and four conserved water-mediated contacts. Partial symmetry of conserved contacts reflects quasi-symmetry of TBP structure.

  15. Operative and Oncologic Outcomes in 9861 Patients with Operable Breast Cancer: Single-Institution Analysis of Breast Conservation with Oncoplastic Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacey A; Lyons, Genevieve R; Kuerer, Henry M; Bassett, Roland L; Oates, Scott; Thompson, Alastair; Caudle, Abigail S; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Lucci, Anthony; DeSnyder, Sarah M; Babiera, Gildy; Yi, Min; Baumann, Donald P; Clemens, Mark W; Garvey, Patrick B; Hunt, Kelly K; Hwang, Rosa F

    2016-10-01

    Oncoplastic reconstruction is an approach that enables patients with locally advanced or adversely located tumors to undergo breast conserving surgery (BCS). The objectives were to identify the use of BCS with oncoplastic reconstruction (BCS + R) and determine the operative and oncologic outcomes compared with other breast surgical procedures for breast cancer. This retrospective cohort study interrogated a single institution's prospectively maintained databases to identify patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer between 2007 and 2014. Surgeries were categorized as BCS, BCS + R, total mastectomy (TM), or TM with immediate reconstruction (TM + R). Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and postoperative complications were analyzed. There were 10,607 operations performed for 9861 patients. Median follow-up was 3.4 years (range, 0-9.1 years). The use of BCS + R had a nearly fourfold increase in the percentage of all breast cancer surgeries during the study period; 75 % of patients who underwent BCS + R had a T1 or T2 tumor. There was no difference in the use of BCS + R compared with BCS for any quadrant of the breast except the lower outer quadrant (11.1 vs. 6.8 %; p < .0001). BCS + R had a lower rate of seroma formation (13.4 vs. 18 %; p = .002) and positive or close margins compared with BCS (5.8 vs. 8.3 %; p = .04). There was no difference in overall survival or recurrence-free survival when comparing BCS and BCS + R. Patients undergoing BCS + R are not disadvantaged in terms of complications and short-term (3-year) outcomes compared with BCS patients or patients who underwent TM.

  16. Re-irradiation after salvage mastectomy for local recurrence after a conservative treatment: a retrospective analysis of twenty patients (Nancy: 1988-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadot, S.; Marchal, C.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Peiffert, D.; Bey, P.; Verhaeghe, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. - To retrospectively assess the efficacy of post-mastectomy re-irradiation for local relapse of breast cancer. Patients and methods. - Twenty patients, initially treated by conservative surgery and radiotherapy (50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks) were treated from 1998 to 2001 for a local relapse by salvage mastectomy and re-irradiation (either electron or photon beams). Mean age was 53 years (31-71). Reasons for re-irradiation were that the local relapses were inflammatory (4 pts), multifocal (5 pts), cutaneous (5 pts), involved the nipple (3 pts) or because the surgical margins (either muscle or skin) were involved (3 pts). The median dose of re-irradiation was 45 Gy (33-65) in 15 fractions over 33 days. Mean follow-up was 48 months (5-97). Results. - Fifteen patients remained free of a second local recurrence and 10 were still alive, without metastasis. Neither the dose of re-irradiation nor the irradiated surfaces were prognostic factors of local control (P = 0.877 and P = 0.424). Five patients developed radiation-induced pneumonitis without functional respiratory impairment. The incidence of pneumonitis seemed to be related to the biological dose of re-irradiation (P = 0.037). Other late complications occurred such as pigmentation changes (12 pts), telangiectasia (8 pts), chondritis (2 pts), parietal fibrosis (7 pts), rib fractures (4 pts), severe pain (11 pts) and lymphedema (2 pts). The increase in biological equivalent dose was highly statistically linked with the occurrence of disabling pain (P = 0.0123). Conclusion. - Parietal re-irradiation achieves good and lasting local control with an acceptable rate of acute complications but with a risk of disabling late sequelae such as severe pain. (author)

  17. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    liberals, on how to accommodate the different demands of various ethnic and religious groups and at the same time sustain a minimum of social cohesion and justice. One voice is missing and that is a conservative perspective. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a modern conservative analysis...... of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  18. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  19. Crane reproductive physiology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some unique features of crane reproduction, management, and conservation are described. Because cranes are sexually monomorphic, sexing is difficult and must be accomplished using behavior, laparoscopy, cloacal examination, genetic techniques, or fecal steroid analysis. Although husbandry techniques for cranes are similar to those used with other nondomestic birds, a number of basic characteristics, such as extreme aggressiveness, imprinting by the crane chick on man, a delayed molt in the immature crane, delayed sexual maturity, and infertility, pose special problems for the propagator. Artificial insemination is a practical solution to crane infertility. Vigorous captive management and propagation efforts must become increasingly important if several endangered crane species are to survive the continuing decline in wild populations. The ultimate goal is the restoration of suitable habitat and sustainable native populations.

  20. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  1. Conservation and renewable energy resource directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Directory facilitates quick access to DOE offices responsible for conservation and renewable energy activities. Because several offices in DOE may have responsibility for various phases of a technology or service (i.e., research, development, demonstration, commercialization, information, education, etc.) the Directory lists the key contacts from the various phases by category. The Directory is organized in five main categories plus an index and relevant appendices. The categories are: revewable energy technologies (thermal and electric solar, wind energy systems, small scale hydroelectric, biomass, ocean systems); complementary technologies (appropriate technology, advanced engine design, cogeneration, energy storage, total energy systems); conservation technologies (buildings and community systems, transportation, industrial and agricultural energy conservation, state and local programs); environment; and support services (information, outreach, education, small business support, basic research, data and analysis, publication, films, Solar Energy Research Institute, regional offices laboratories, and information centers).

  2. Digital technology and the conservation of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Koen; van der Wal, René; Adams, William M

    2015-11-01

    Digital technology is changing nature conservation in increasingly profound ways. We describe this impact and its significance through the concept of 'digital conservation', which we found to comprise five pivotal dimensions: data on nature, data on people, data integration and analysis, communication and experience, and participatory governance. Examining digital innovation in nature conservation and addressing how its development, implementation and diffusion may be steered, we warn against hypes, techno-fix thinking, good news narratives and unverified assumptions. We identify a need for rigorous evaluation, more comprehensive consideration of social exclusion, frameworks for regulation and increased multi-sector as well as multi-discipline awareness and cooperation. Along the way, digital technology may best be reconceptualised by conservationists from something that is either good or bad, to a dual-faced force in need of guidance.

  3. Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisan, Antoine; Tingley, Reid; Baumgartner, John B; Naujokaitis-Lewis, Ilona; Sutcliffe, Patricia R; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Regan, Tracey J; Brotons, Lluis; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mantyka-Pringle, Chrystal; Martin, Tara G; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Maggini, Ramona; Setterfield, Samantha A; Elith, Jane; Schwartz, Mark W; Wintle, Brendan A; Broennimann, Olivier; Austin, Mike; Ferrier, Simon; Kearney, Michael R; Possingham, Hugh P; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2013-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly proposed to support conservation decision making. However, evidence of SDMs supporting solutions for on-ground conservation problems is still scarce in the scientific literature. Here, we show that successful examples exist but are still largely hidden in the grey literature, and thus less accessible for analysis and learning. Furthermore, the decision framework within which SDMs are used is rarely made explicit. Using case studies from biological invasions, identification of critical habitats, reserve selection and translocation of endangered species, we propose that SDMs may be tailored to suit a range of decision-making contexts when used within a structured and transparent decision-making process. To construct appropriate SDMs to more effectively guide conservation actions, modellers need to better understand the decision process, and decision makers need to provide feedback to modellers regarding the actual use of SDMs to support conservation decisions. This could be facilitated by individuals or institutions playing the role of 'translators' between modellers and decision makers. We encourage species distribution modellers to get involved in real decision-making processes that will benefit from their technical input; this strategy has the potential to better bridge theory and practice, and contribute to improve both scientific knowledge and conservation outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  4. Conservative therapy of breast cancer in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Marie-Frances; Allison, Roger; Tripcony, Lee

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery has been an accepted alternative to mastectomy in Europe and North America for many years. In Australia, however, the history of breast conservation for early invasive breast cancer is much shorter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of breast conservation in a state-wide Australian radiotherapy service. Methods and Materials: Between January 1982 and December 1989, 512 patients were treated with primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. This analysis is based on a review of these patients, all of whom had Stage I or II breast cancer. Results: With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of overall survival was 84% and disease-free survival was 80%. There have been 22 isolated local recurrences in the breast. The time to an isolated breast recurrence ranged from 12 to 83 months (median, 26 months). The 5-year actuarial rate of an isolated breast recurrence was 4%. The recurrence rate was higher for patients with involved margins (15% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Local recurrence was also more likely in the presence of extensive ductal carcinoma insitu (DCIS), as opposed to no extensive DCIS (10% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results affirm that primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery in Queensland, has been given with a low rate of local recurrence, comparable to that obtained in other centers

  5. Conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Teresa; Di Salvo, Martino Luigi; Angelaccio, Sebastiana; Pascarella, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Water molecules occurring in the interior of protein structures often are endowed with key structural and functional roles. We report the results of a systematic analysis of conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases (SHMTs). SHMTs are an important group of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydropteroylglutamate to glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydropteroylglutamate. The approach utilized in this study relies on two programs, ProACT2 and WatCH. The first software is able to categorize water molecules in a protein crystallographic structure as buried, positioned in clefts or at the surface. The other program finds, in a set of superposed homologous proteins, water molecules that occur approximately in equivalent position in each of the considered structures. These groups of molecules are referred to as 'clusters' and represent structurally conserved water molecules. Several conserved clusters of buried or cleft water molecules were found in the set of 11 bacterial SHMTs we took into account for this work. The majority of these clusters were not described previously. Possible structural and functional roles for the conserved water molecules are envisaged. This work provides a map of the conserved water molecules helpful for deciphering SHMT mechanism and for rational design of molecular engineering experiments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Implementation of Quality Management System for Historical Building Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are twofold. Firstly, to identify the implementation of ISO 9001 procedures being used as references for conservation works and the development of Quality Management System (QMS guidelines. Data were solicited from three (3 conservation areas. The analysis involved of descriptive approach and statistical methods. The findings revealed that QMS is not structurally established, implemented and enforced as part of conservation practice in Malaysia. From the findings, the authors hope to give clear perception to the reader on current preservation practice and the existence of QMS with reference to ISO 9001 for future conservation mechanism.

  7. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  8. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  9. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  10. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Marie Payne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor object condition. 3D laser scanning, PTM, and CT scanning are investigated. Case studies are explored to investigate their current role in cultural heritage. The appropriateness of this role and whether it should be expanded is addressed by analysing advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, their feasibility, and risks caused to object preservation and accessibility. The results indicate that the technologies present some advantages over standard digital photography; PTM in particular is found to be an extremely useful, affordable technique. A more established role within conservation, especially for condition assessments, could be worthwhile. Use of the imaging techniques to create models for exhibition can also be advantageous; however, care must be taken to ensure that such models are used to enhance accessibility to original objects and not to replace them.

  11. Conservation laws for perturbed solitons in optical metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Biswas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The conservation laws for the dynamics of soliton propagation through optical metamaterials are derived by the aid of Lie symmetry analysis. The proposed model will be studied with two forms of nonlinearity. They are Kerr law and parabolic law. Keywords: Conservation laws, Lie symmetry, Optical metamaterials

  12. Essais de conservation des viandes sechees « kilichi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizopus sp. The organoleptic analysis for the conservation revealed no significant difference compared with samples. However, the wetting properties of the samples in the refrigerator and / or alternating temperature (12°C and 24°C) does not achieve conservation « Kilichi » for several weeks under these conditions.

  13. Early Childhood Education in Neoliberal, Religiously Conservative Times in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Naciye; Eren Deniz, Ebru

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an analysis and discussion of the impacts of neoliberal, religiously conservative educational policies on early childhood education (ECE) in Turkey. After an introduction, the article is presented in four sections. The first section provides an overview of neoliberal, religiously conservative policies in the Turkish…

  14. Monitoring and conservation of the Critically Endangered Alaotran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, our observations and analysis suggest that the protection provided by the local community to H. alaotrensis in Andreba is contributing to the conservation of this Critically Endangered species. This highlights the need to continue working on engaging the local communities in the conservation of the marshes at Lac ...

  15. Conservation narratives and contested protected areas in Zambia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation narratives and contested protected areas in Zambia: a political ecological analysis. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... This paper uses a political ecological perspective to examine the link between environmental conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia's protected ...

  16. The Impact of Nature Experience on Willingness to Support Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaradic, Patricia A.; Pergams, Oliver R. W.; Kareiva, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that willingness to financially support conservation depends on one's experience with nature. In order to test this hypothesis, we used a novel time-lagged correlation analysis to look at times series data concerning nature participation, and evaluate its relationship with future conservation support (measured as contributions to conservation NGOs). Our results suggest that the type and timing of nature experience may determine future conservation investment. Time spent hiking or backpacking is correlated with increased conservation contributions 11–12 years later. On the other hand, contributions are negatively correlated with past time spent on activities such as public lands visitation or fishing. Our results suggest that each hiker or backpacker translates to $200–$300 annually in future NGO contributions. We project that the recent decline in popularity of hiking and backpacking will negatively impact conservation NGO contributions from approximately 2010–2011 through at least 2018. PMID:19809511

  17. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of

  18. Early invasive vs conservative treatment strategies in women and men with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, Michelle; Boden, William E.; Braunwald, Eugene; Cannon, Christopher P.; Clayton, Tim C.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Lagerqvist, Bo; McCullough, Peter A.; Murphy, Sabina A.; Spacek, Rudolf; Swahn, Eva; Wallentin, Lars; Windhausen, Fons; Sabatine, Marc S.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although an invasive strategy is frequently used in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS), data from some trials suggest that this strategy may not benefit women. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized trials to compare the effects of an

  19. Energy conservation analysis using Fuzzy logic considering technical and environmental aspects; Analise da conservacao de energia utilizando logica fuzzy considerando aspectos tecnicos e o meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil; Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Guardia, Eduardo Crestana [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica; Reis, Alexandre de Souza Rodrigues dos; Pinto, Luiz Fernando do Monte [Furnas Centrais Eletricas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the results obtained in the Project of Research and Development of Furnas Centrais Eletricas, which was accomplished with the partnership of the Fundacao de Pesquisa e Assessoramento a Industria - FUPAI. This project analyzed technically and economically the pollution caused in the electric net by the use, in growing scale, of nonlinear loads, such as: compact fluorescent lamps, microwave ovens, VHS systems, DVD, sound systems, etc. It was also analyzed the environmental impact caused by these lamps due to the presence of the mercury; and as complement to the traditional theory of economical analysis, a tool of economical analysis was developed using the theory of fuzzy sets for the uncertainty variables or of difficult quantification. (author)

  20. Structural analysis of natural killer cell receptor protein 1 (NKR-P1) extracellular domains suggests a conserved long loop region involved in ligand specificity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Žofie; Kopecký, V.; Pazderka, T.; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Rozbeský, Daniel; Vaněk, Ondřej; Bezouška, K.; Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2011), s. 1353-1370 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA AV ČR KJB101120805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cladogram * differential scanning calorimetry * FTIR * molecular dynamics * raman spectroscopy * RMSF * thermal dynamics * topology * two-dimensional correlation analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.797, year: 2011