Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena
We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…
Hagger, Martin; Chan, Dervin K. C.; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.
Objective Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs fr...
Colquitt, J A; LePine, J A; Noe, R A
This article meta-analytically summarizes the literature on training motivation, its antecedents, and its relationships with training outcomes such as declarative knowledge, skill acquisition, and transfer. Significant predictors of training motivation and outcomes included individual characteristics (e.g., locus of control, conscientiousness, anxiety, age, cognitive ability, self-efficacy, valence, job involvement) and situational characteristics (e.g., climate). Moreover, training motivation explained incremental variance in training outcomes beyond the effects of cognitive ability. Meta-analytic path analyses further showed that the effects of personality, climate, and age on training outcomes were only partially mediated by self-efficacy, valence, and job involvement. These findings are discussed in terms of their practical significance and their implications for an integrative theory of training motivation.
Lent, Robert W; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Miller, Matthew J; Cusick, Megan E; Penn, Lee T; Truong, Nancy N
We tested the interest and choice portion of social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in the context of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Data from 143 studies (including 196 independent samples) conducted over a 30-year period (1983 through 2013) were subjected to meta-analytic path analyses. The interest/choice model was found to fit the data well over all samples as well as within samples composed primarily of women and men and racial/ethnic minority and majority persons. The model also accounted for large portions of the variance in interests and choice goals within each path analysis. Despite the general predictive utility of SCCT across gender and racial/ethnic groups, we did find that several parameter estimates differed by group. We present both the group similarities and differences and consider their implications for future research, intervention, and theory refinement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Hagger, Martin S; Chan, Derwin K C; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D
Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs from social cognitive theories is important to test nomological validity, account for mediation effects, and evaluate unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. We illustrate our points by conducting new analyses of two meta-analyses of a popular theory applied to health behaviors, the theory of planned behavior. We conducted meta-analytic path analyses of the theory in two behavioral contexts (alcohol and dietary behaviors) using data from the primary studies included in the original meta-analyses augmented to include intercorrelations among constructs and relations with past behavior missing from the original analysis. Findings supported the nomological validity of the theory and its hypotheses for both behaviors, confirmed important model processes through mediation analysis, demonstrated the attenuating effect of past behavior on theory relations, and provided estimates of the unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. Our analysis illustrates the importance of conducting a simultaneous test of theory-stipulated effects in meta-analyses of social cognitive theories applied to health behavior. We recommend researchers adopt this analytic procedure when synthesizing evidence across primary tests of social cognitive theories in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prato, Carlo Giacomo
objective judgments for effective route choice set generation. Initially, path generation techniques are implemented within a synthetic network to generate possible subjective choice sets considered by travelers. Next, “true model estimates” and “postulated predicted routes” are assumed from the simulation...... of a route choice model. Then, objective choice sets are applied for model estimation and results are compared to the “true model estimates”. Last, predictions from the simulation of models estimated with objective choice sets are compared to the “postulated predicted routes”. Meta-analysis allows...
Aydin, Ayhan; Sarier, Yilmaz; Uysal, Sengul
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gender on the organizational commitment of teachers. In this respect, the levels of organizational commitment were also investigated with organizational commitment. Fifteen master and doctorate theses done between 2005-2009 were analyzed using meta analysis. At the end of the research study,…
Bartoş, Sebastian E; Berger, Israel; Hegarty, Peter
Sexual prejudice is an important threat to the physical and mental well-being of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Therefore, we reviewed the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce such prejudice. A study-space analysis was performed on published and unpublished papers from all over the world to identify well-studied and underexplored issues. Most studies were conducted with North American undergraduates and were educational in nature. Dissertations were often innovative and well designed but were rarely published. We then performed meta-analyses on sets of comparable studies. Education, contact with gay people, and combining contact with education had a medium-size effect on several measures of sexual prejudice. The manipulation of social norms was effective in reducing antigay behavior. Other promising interventions, such as the use of entertainment media to promote tolerance, need further investigation. More research is also needed on populations other than American students, particularly groups who may have higher levels of sexual prejudice.
Bárbara G. Amado
Full Text Available The credibility of a testimony is a crucial component of judicial decision-making. Checklists of testimony credibility criteria are extensively used by forensic psychologists to assess the credibility of a testimony, and in many countries they are admitted as valid scientific evidence in a court of law. These checklists are based on the Undeutsch hypothesis asserting that statements derived from the memory of real-life experiences differ significantly in content and quality from fabricated or fictitious accounts. Notwithstanding, there is considerable controversy regarding the degree to which these checklists comply with the legal standards for scientific evidence to be admitted in a court of law (e.g., Daubert standards. In several countries, these checklists are not admitted as valid evidence in court, particularly in view of the inconsistent results reported in the scientific literature. Bearing in mind these issues, a meta-analysis was designed to test the Undeutsch hypothesis using the CBCA Checklist of criteria to discern between memories of self-experienced real-life events and fabricated or fictitious accounts. As the original hypothesis was formulated for populations of children, only quantitative studies with samples of children were considered for this study. In line with the Undeutsch hypothesis, the results showed a significant positive effect size that is generalizable to the total CBCA score, δ = 0.79. Moreover, a significant positive effect size was observed in each and all of the credibility criteria. In conclusion, the results corroborated the validity of the Undeutsch hypothesis and the CBCA criteria for discriminating between the memory of real self-experienced events and false or invented accounts. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for forensic practice. Con frecuencia, la evaluación de la fiabilidad de un testimonio se lleva a cabo mediante el uso de sistemas categoriales de análisis de contenido
Michael M. Mackay
Full Text Available This article offers a correlation matrix of meta-analytic estimates between various employee job attitudes (i.e., Employee engagement, job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment and indicators of employee effectiveness (i.e., Focal performance, contextual performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism. The meta-analytic correlations in the matrix are based on over 1100 individual studies representing over 340,000 employees. Data was collected worldwide via employee self-report surveys. Structural path analyses based on the matrix, and the interpretation of the data, can be found in “Investigating the incremental validity of employee engagement in the prediction of employee effectiveness: a meta-analytic path analysis” (Mackay et al., 2016 . Keywords: Meta-analysis, Job attitudes, Job performance, Employee, Engagement, Employee effectiveness
Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta... motivation : A meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research. Journal of Applied Psychology , 85, 678-707. Cooper, H. (2003). Editorial...error management training: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology , 93, 59-69. Klein, H. J., Noe, R. A., & Wang, C. W. (2006). Motivation to
Full Text Available Alterations of social cognition and dysfunctional interpersonal expectations are thought to play an important role in the etiology of depression and have, thus, become a key target of psychotherapeutic interventions. The underlying neurobiology, however, remains elusive. Based upon the idea of a close link between affective and introspective processes relevant for social interactions and alterations thereof in states of depression, we used a meta-analytically informed network analysis to investigate resting-state functional connectivity in an introspective socio-affective (ISA network in individuals with and without depression. Results of our analysis demonstrate significant differences between the groups with depressed individuals showing hyperconnectivity of the ISA network. These findings demonstrate that neurofunctional alterations exist in individuals with depression in a neural network relevant for introspection and socio-affective processing, which may contribute to the interpersonal difficulties that are linked to depressive symptomatology.
Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin
Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.
Full Text Available Meta-analyses are studies that bring together data or results from multiple independent studies to produce new and over-arching findings. Current data curation systems only partially support meta-analytic research. Some important meta-analytic tasks, such as the selection of relevant studies for review and the integration of research datasets or findings, are not well supported in current data curation systems. To design tools and services that more fully support meta-analyses, we need a better understanding of meta-analytic research. This includes an understanding of both the practices of researchers who perform the analyses and the characteristics of the individual studies that are brought together. In this study, we make an initial contribution to filling this gap by developing a conceptual framework linking meta-analyses with data paths represented in published articles selected for the analysis. The framework focuses on key variables that represent primary/secondary datasets or derived socio-ecological data, contexts of use, and the data transformations that are applied. We introduce the notion of using variables and their relevant information (e.g., metadata and variable relationships as a type of currency to facilitate synthesis of findings across individual studies and leverage larger bodies of relevant source data produced in small science research. Handling variables in this manner provides an equalizing factor between data from otherwise disparate data-producing communities. We conclude with implications for exploring data integration and synthesis issues as well as system development.
Wang, Lin; Liu, Silvia; Ding, Ying; Yuan, Shin-Sheng; Ho, Yen-Yi; Tseng, George C
Although coexpression analysis via pair-wise expression correlation is popularly used to elucidate gene-gene interactions at the whole-genome scale, many complicated multi-gene regulations require more advanced detection methods. Liquid association (LA) is a powerful tool to detect the dynamic correlation of two gene variables depending on the expression level of a third variable (LA scouting gene). LA detection from single transcriptomic study, however, is often unstable and not generalizable due to cohort bias, biological variation and limited sample size. With the rapid development of microarray and NGS technology, LA analysis combining multiple gene expression studies can provide more accurate and stable results. In this article, we proposed two meta-analytic approaches for LA analysis (MetaLA and MetaMLA) to combine multiple transcriptomic studies. To compensate demanding computing, we also proposed a two-step fast screening algorithm for more efficient genome-wide screening: bootstrap filtering and sign filtering. We applied the methods to five Saccharomyces cerevisiae datasets related to environmental changes. The fast screening algorithm reduced 98% of running time. When compared with single study analysis, MetaLA and MetaMLA provided stronger detection signal and more consistent and stable results. The top triplets are highly enriched in fundamental biological processes related to environmental changes. Our method can help biologists understand underlying regulatory mechanisms under different environmental exposure or disease states. A MetaLA R package, data and code for this article are available at http://tsenglab.biostat.pitt.edu/software.htm. email@example.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Vast increases in the external costs of transport in the late twentieth century have caused national and international governmental bodies to worry about the sustainability of their transport systems. In this thesis we use meta-analysis as a research method to study various topics in transport economics that are relevant for sustainable transport policymaking. Meta-analysis is a research methodology that is based on the quantitative summarisation of a body of previously documented empirical evidence. In several fields of economic, meta-analysis has become a well-accepted research tool. Despite the appeal of the meta-analytical approach, there are methodological difficulties that need to be acknowledged. We study a specific methodological problem which is common in meta-analysis in economics, viz., within-study dependence caused by multiple sampling techniques. By means of Monte Carlo analysis we investigate the effect of such dependence on the performance of various multivariate estimators. In the applied part of the thesis we use and develop meta-analytical techniques to study the empirical variation in indicators of the price sensitivity of demand for aviation transport, the price sensitivity of demand for gasoline, the efficiency of urban public transport and the valuation of the external costs of noise from rail transport. We focus on the estimation of mean values for these indicators and on the identification of the impact of conditioning factors.
Wolfe, Lee M.
The analytical procedure of path analysis is described in terms of its use in nonexperimental settings in the social sciences. The description assumes a moderate statistical background on the part of the reader. (JKS)
Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Cheung, Shu Fai
Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) combines the techniques of meta-analysis and structural equation modeling for the purpose of synthesizing correlation or covariance matrices and fitting structural equation models on the pooled correlation or covariance matrix. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models can be defined in MASEM.…
Nei, Darin; Snyder, Lori Anderson; Litwiller, Brett J
Because the health care field is expected to be the fastest growing job field until 2020, an urgent need to focus on nurse retention exists. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between predictors of turnover (i.e., personal characteristics, role states, job characteristics, group/leader relations, organizational/environmental perceptions, attitudinal reactions) and turnover cognitions and intentions, as well as actual turnover among nurses, in an effort to determine the strongest predictors of voluntary turnover. Meta-analysis was used to determine best estimates of the effect of predictors on turnover based on 106 primary studies of employed nurses. Meta-analyzed correlations were subjected to path analysis to establish the structural relationships among the study variables. Supportive and communicative leadership, network centrality, and organizational commitment are the strongest predictors of voluntary turnover based on meta-analytic correlations. Additional variables that relate to nurse turnover intentions include job strain, role tension, work-family conflict, job control, job complexity, rewards/recognition, and team cohesion. The findings suggest that some factors, such as salary, are relatively less important in prediction of turnover. Administrators concerned about nurse turnover may more effectively direct resources toward altering certain job characteristics and work conditions in the effort to reduce voluntary turnover among nurses.
Follmer, D. Jake
This article presents a meta-analytic review of the relation between executive function and reading comprehension. Results (N = 6,673) supported a moderate positive association between executive function and reading comprehension (r = 0.36). Moderator analyses suggested that correlations between executive function and reading comprehension did not…
Murphey, W.M.; Schleter, J.C.
One can define the safeguards system for nuclear material as the set of all protective actions taken to prevent or to deter attempts to divert nuclear material to unauthorized use. Maintenance of effective safeguards requires a program for routine assessment of plant safeguards systems in terms of their capabilities to satisfy safeguards aims. Plant internal control systems provide capabilities for detection of unprevented diversion and can provide assurance that diversion has not occurred. A procedure called Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) enables routine assessment of the capabilities of internal control systems in this regard and identification of safeguards problem areas in a plant. A framework for safeguards system design is also provided which will allow flexibility to accommodate individual plant circumstances while maintaining acceptable diversion detection capability. The steps of the procedure are described and the practicality of the analytical method is shown by referring to a demonstration test for a high throughput process where plant personnel were major participants. The boundary conditions for the demonstration case are given, along with some conclusions about the general procedure. (U.S.)
Uhlmann, Virginie; Haubold, Carsten; Hamprecht, Fred A; Unser, Michael
We introduce a formulation for the general task of finding diverse shortest paths between two end-points. Our approach is not linked to a specific biological problem and can be applied to a large variety of images thanks to its generic implementation as a user-friendly ImageJ/Fiji plugin. It relies on the introduction of additional layers in a Viterbi path graph, which requires slight modifications to the standard Viterbi algorithm rules. This layered graph construction allows for the specification of various constraints imposing diversity between solutions. The software allows obtaining a collection of diverse shortest paths under some user-defined constraints through a convenient and user-friendly interface. It can be used alone or be integrated into larger image analysis pipelines. http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms/diversepathsj. email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Shadish, William R.; Lecy, Jesse D.
This article looks at the impact of meta-analysis and then explores why meta-analysis was developed at the time and by the scholars it did in the social sciences in the 1970s. For the first problem, impact, it examines the impact of meta-analysis using citation network analysis. The impact is seen in the sciences, arts and humanities, and on such…
Shadish, William R; Lecy, Jesse D
This article looks at the impact of meta-analysis and then explores why meta-analysis was developed at the time and by the scholars it did in the social sciences in the 1970s. For the first problem, impact, it examines the impact of meta-analysis using citation network analysis. The impact is seen in the sciences, arts and humanities, and on such contemporaneous developments as multilevel modeling, medical statistics, qualitative methods, program evaluation, and single-case design. Using a constrained snowball sample of citations, we highlight key articles that are either most highly cited or most central to the systematic review network. Then, the article examines why meta-analysis came to be in the 1970s in the social sciences through the work of Gene Glass, Robert Rosenthal, and Frank Schmidt, each of whom developed similar theories of meta-analysis at about the same time. The article ends by explaining how Simonton's chance configuration theory and Campbell's evolutionary epistemology can illuminate why meta-analysis occurred with these scholars when it did and not in medical sciences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This book explains how to employ MASEM, the combination of meta-analysis (MA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). It shows how by using MASEM, a single model can be tested to explain the relationships between a set of variables in several studies. This book gives an introduction to MASEM, with a focus on the state of the art approach: the two stage approach of Cheung and Cheung & Chan. Both, the fixed and the random approach to MASEM are illustrated with two applications to real data. All steps that have to be taken to perform the analyses are discussed extensively. All data and syntax files are available online, so that readers can imitate all analyses. By using SEM for meta-analysis, this book shows how to benefit from all available information from all available studies, even if few or none of the studies report about all relationships that feature in the full model of interest.
Goodwin, K.E.; Schleter, J.C.; Maltese, M.D.K.
Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a safeguards evaluation tool which is used to determine the vulnerability of the Material Control and Material Accounting (MC and MA) Subsystems to the threat of theft of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) by a knowledgeable Insider. The DPA team should consist of two individuals who have technical backgrounds. The implementation of DPA is divided into five basic steps: Information and Data Gathering, Process Characterization, Analysis of Diversion Paths, Results and Findings, and Documentation
Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M
The current investigation represents the first meta-analysis of the depressive realism literature. A search of this literature revealed 75 relevant studies representing 7305 participants from across the US and Canada, as well as from England, Spain, and Israel. Results generally indicated a small overall depressive realism effect (Cohen's d=-.07). Overall, however, both dysphoric/depressed individuals (d=.14) and nondysphoric/nondepressed individuals evidenced a substantial positive bias (d=.29), with this bias being larger in nondysphoric/nondepressed individuals. Examination of potential moderator variables indicated that studies lacking an objective standard of reality (d=-.15 versus -.03, for studies possessing such a standard) and that utilize self-report measures to measure symptoms of depression (d=.16 versus -.04, for studies which utilize structured interviews) were more likely to find depressive realism effects. Methodological paradigm was also found to influence whether results consistent with depressive realism were found (d's ranged from -.09 to .14). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nohe, Christoph; Hertel, Guido
Based on social exchange theory, we examined and contrasted attitudinal mediators (affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction) and relational mediators (trust in leader, leader-member exchange; LMX) of the positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Hypotheses were tested using meta-analytic path models with correlations from published meta-analyses (761 samples with 227,419 individuals overall). When testing single-mediator models, results supported our expectations that each of the mediators explained the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. When testing a multi-mediator model, LMX was the strongest mediator. When testing a model with a latent attitudinal mechanism and a latent relational mechanism, the relational mechanism was the stronger mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. Our findings help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB.
Nakao, A.; Grundule, R.; Gushchyn, K.; El Gebaly, A.; Higgy, R.; Tsvetkov, I.; Mandl, W.
In the International Atomic Energy Agency, acquisition path analysis (APA) is indispensable to safeguards implementation. It is an integral part of both State evaluation process and the development of State level safeguards approaches, all performed through ongoing collaborative analysis of all available safeguards relevant information by State evaluation groups (SEG) with participation of other contributors, as required. To perform comprehensive State evaluation, to develop and revise State-level safeguards approaches, and to prepare annual implementation plans, the SEG in its collaborative analysis follows accepted safeguards methodology and guidance. In particular, the guide ''Performing Acquisition Path Analysis for the Development of a State-level Safeguards Approach for a State with a CSA'' is used. This guide identifies four major steps of the APA process: 1. Consolidating information about the State's past, present and planned nuclear fuel cycle-related capabilities and infrastructure; 2. Identifying and visually presenting technically plausible acquisition paths for the State; 3. Assessing acquisition path steps (State's technical capabilities and possible actions) along the identified acquisition paths; and 4. Assessing the time needed to accomplish each identified technically plausible acquisition path for the State. The paper reports on SEG members' and other contributors' experience with APA when following the above steps, including the identification of plausible acquisition pathways, estimation of time frames for all identified steps and determination of the time needed to accomplish each acquisition path. The difficulties that the SEG encountered during the process of performing the APA are also addressed. Feedback in the form of practical suggestions for improving the clarity of the acquisition path step assessment forms and a proposal for software support are also included. (author)
Mallikarjun, Sreekanth; Sieburth, Rebecca McNeill
Aspartame (APM) is the most commonly used artificial sweetener and flavor enhancer in the world. There is a rise in concern that APM is carcinogenic due to a variation in the findings of the previous APM carcinogenic bioassays. This article conducts a meta-analytic review of all previous APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents that were conducted before 31 December 2012. The search yielded 10 original APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents. The aggregate effect sizes suggest that APM consumption has no significant carcinogenic effect in rodents.
Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.
W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.
Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Wetterslev, Jorn; Winkel, Per
BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance when assessing meta-analysis results are being insufficiently demonstrated by traditional 95% confidence intervals and P-values. Assessment of intervention effects in systematic reviews with meta-analysis deserves greater rigour. METHODS......: Methodologies for assessing statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in systematic reviews were considered. Balancing simplicity and comprehensiveness, an operational procedure was developed, based mainly on The Cochrane Collaboration methodology and the Grading of Recommendations...... Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: We propose an eight-step procedure for better validation of meta-analytic results in systematic reviews (1) Obtain the 95% confidence intervals and the P-values from both fixed-effect and random-effects meta-analyses and report the most...
Hampton, Justin; Strand, Paul S.
The present study utilized meta-analytic procedures to estimate the diagnostic validity of instruments used to screen young children, ages 1.5-5 years, for autism. Five scales met inclusion criteria, and data from 18 studies contributed the meta-analysis. Results revealed that 4 of 5 scales met criteria for "good" validity, including two…
Sala, Giovanni; Tatlidil, K Semir; Gobet, Fernand
As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess. Video game training is another activity that has been claimed by many researchers to foster a broad range of cognitive abilities such as visual processing, attention, spatial ability, and cognitive control. We tested these claims with three random-effects meta-analytic models. The first meta-analysis (k = 310) examined the correlation between video game skill and cognitive ability. The second meta-analysis (k = 315) dealt with the differences between video game players and nonplayers in cognitive ability. The third meta-analysis (k = 359) investigated the effects of video game training on participants' cognitive ability. Small or null overall effect sizes were found in all three models. These outcomes show that overall cognitive ability and video game skill are only weakly related. Importantly, we found no evidence of a causal relationship between playing video games and enhanced cognitive ability. Video game training thus represents no exception to the general difficulty of obtaining far transfer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Akin, J.E.; Pardue, R.M.
The finite element method has become a common analysis procedure for the creep analysis of structures. The most recent programs are designed to handle a general class of material properties and are able to calculate elastic, plastic, and creep components of strain under general loading histories. The constant stress approach is too crude a model to accurately represent the actual behaviour of the stress for large time steps. The true path of a point in the effective stress-effective strain (sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c)) plane is often one in which the slope is rapidly changing. Thus the stress level quickly moves away from the initial stress level and then gradually approaches the final one. The result is that the assumed constant stress level quickly becomes inaccurate. What is required is a better method of approximation of the true path in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. The method described here is called the path function approach because it employs an assumed function to estimate the motion of points in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. (Auth.)
Sened, Haran; Lavidor, Michal; Lazarus, Gal; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Ickes, William
Empathic accuracy (EA; Ickes & Hodges, 2013) is the extent to which people accurately perceive their peers' thoughts, feelings, and other inner mental states. EA has particularly interested researchers in the context of romantic couples. Reviews of the literature suggest a possible link between romantic partners' EA and their relationship satisfaction (Ickes & Simpson, 2001; Sillars & Scott, 1983). To assess the magnitude of this association and examine possible moderators, we performed a meta-analytic review of 21 studies (total N = 2,739 participants) that examined the association between EA and satisfaction. We limited our review to studies measuring EA using the dyadic interaction paradigm (Ickes, Stinson, Bissonnette, & Garcia, 1990). We found a small but significant association between the two (r = .134, p .1). The association was also stronger in relationships of moderate length, suggesting that EA may be more meaningful when relationships are consolidating but before they become stable. Gender and procedural variations on the dyadic interaction paradigm did not moderate the association, and there was no difference depending on whether the association was between EA and perceivers' or targets' satisfaction (i.e., actor or partner effects). We discuss the implications of these findings and offer recommendations for future EA studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Audet, Patrick [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie St., Ottawa, Ont. K1N 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Charest, Christiane [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie St., Ottawa, Ont. K1N 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
We conducted a literature survey and correlated heavy metal (HM) uptake and plant growth factors from published data to estimate the effectiveness of phytoextraction. The indicators of the actual plant HM uptake showed positive correlations with soil-HM concentrations, while the relative plant HM uptake showed negative correlations. Plant growth was negatively correlated with both the plant and soil-HM concentrations. These significant relationships were found for the majority of HM tested (e.g. Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Fe) with a few exceptions (e.g. Ni, Co, and Mn). After fitting the correlation coefficients, the highest proportion of variance among the studies was mainly due to the experimental parameters or the plant species. When the metabolic costs of HM uptake are taken into account, the phytoextraction appears to be less effective beyond critical HM concentrations. Despite these constraints, it is emphasized that HM phytoextraction can play an important role in bioremediation. - This meta-analytical approach has revealed a compromise between growth and HM uptake when plants are subjected to toxic soil-HM levels.
Audet, Patrick; Charest, Christiane
We conducted a literature survey and correlated heavy metal (HM) uptake and plant growth factors from published data to estimate the effectiveness of phytoextraction. The indicators of the actual plant HM uptake showed positive correlations with soil-HM concentrations, while the relative plant HM uptake showed negative correlations. Plant growth was negatively correlated with both the plant and soil-HM concentrations. These significant relationships were found for the majority of HM tested (e.g. Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Fe) with a few exceptions (e.g. Ni, Co, and Mn). After fitting the correlation coefficients, the highest proportion of variance among the studies was mainly due to the experimental parameters or the plant species. When the metabolic costs of HM uptake are taken into account, the phytoextraction appears to be less effective beyond critical HM concentrations. Despite these constraints, it is emphasized that HM phytoextraction can play an important role in bioremediation. - This meta-analytical approach has revealed a compromise between growth and HM uptake when plants are subjected to toxic soil-HM levels
Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B; Layton, J Bradley
The quality and quantity of individuals' social relationships has been linked not only to mental health but also to both morbidity and mortality. This meta-analytic review was conducted to determine the extent to which social relationships influence risk for mortality, which aspects of social relationships are most highly predictive, and which factors may moderate the risk. Data were extracted on several participant characteristics, including cause of mortality, initial health status, and pre-existing health conditions, as well as on study characteristics, including length of follow-up and type of assessment of social relationships. Across 148 studies (308,849 participants), the random effects weighted average effect size was OR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.59), indicating a 50% increased likelihood of survival for participants with stronger social relationships. This finding remained consistent across age, sex, initial health status, cause of death, and follow-up period. Significant differences were found across the type of social measurement evaluated (psocial relationships on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Gao, S.; Assink, M.; Cipriani, A.; Lin, K.
Rejection sensitivity is a personality disposition characterized by oversensitivity to social rejection. Using a three-level meta-analytic model, 75 studies were reviewed that examined associations between rejection sensitivity and five mental health outcomes: depression, anxiety, loneliness,
Maltese, M.D.K.; Goodwin, K.E.; Schleter, J.C.
Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a procedure for analyzing internal controls of a facility in order to identify vulnerabilities to successful diversion of material by an adversary. The internal covert threat is addressed but the results are also applicable to the external overt threat. The diversion paths are identified. Complexity parameters include records alteration or falsification, multiple removals of sub-threshold quantities, collusion, and access authorization of the individual. Indicators, or data elements and information of significance to detection of unprevented theft, are identified by means of DPA. Indicator sensitivity is developed in terms of the threshold quantity, the elapsed time between removal and indication and the degree of localization of facility area and personnel given by the indicator. Evaluation of facility internal controls in light of these sensitivities defines the capability of interrupting identified adversary action sequences related to acquisition of material at fixed sites associated with the identified potential vulnerabilities. Corrective measures can, in many cases, also be prescribed for management consideration and action. DPA theory and concepts have been developing over the last several years, and initial field testing proved both the feasibility and practicality of the procedure. Follow-on implementation testing verified the ability of facility personnel to perform DPA
Cemalcilar, Zeynep; Secinti, Ekin; Sumer, Nebi
Work values act as guiding principles for individuals' work-related behavior. Economic self-sufficiency is an important predictor for psychological well-being in adulthood. Longitudinal research has demonstrated work values to be an important predictor of economic behavior, and consequently of self-sufficiency. Socialization theories designate parents an important role in the socialization of their children to cultural values. Yet, extant literature is limited in demonstrating the role families play on how youth develop agentic pathways and seek self-sufficiency in transition to adulthood. This study presents a meta-analytic review investigating the intergenerational transmission of work values, which is frequently assessed in terms of parent-child value similarities. Thirty studies from 11 countries (N = 19,987; Median child age = 18.15) were included in the analyses. The results revealed a significant effect of parents on their children's work values. Both mothers' and fathers' work values, and their parenting behavior were significantly associated with their children's work values. Yet, similarity of father-child work values decreased as child age increased. Our findings suggest a moderate effect, suggesting the influence of general socio-cultural context, such as generational differences and peer influences, in addition to those of parents on youth's value acquisition. Our systematic review also revealed that, despite its theoretical and practical importance, social science literature is scarce in comprehensive and comparative empirical studies that investigate parent-child work value similarity. We discuss the implications of our findings for labor market and policy makers.
Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian
Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.
Sherman, Allen C; Merluzzi, Thomas V; Pustejovsky, James E; Park, Crystal L; George, Login; Fitchett, George; Jim, Heather SL; Munoz, Alexis R; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Snyder, Mallory A; Salsman, John M
Background Religion and spirituality (R/S) play an important role in the daily lives of many cancer patients. There has been great interest in determining whether R/S factors are related to clinically-relevant health outcomes. This meta-analytic review examined associations between dimensions of R/S and social health (e.g., social roles and relationships). Methods A systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases was conducted, and data were extracted by four pairs of investigators. Bivariate associations between specific R/S dimensions and social health outcomes were examined in a meta-analysis using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach. Results A total of 78 independent samples encompassing 14,277 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Social health was significantly associated with overall R/S (Fisher z effect size = .20, Pcancer. Further research is needed to examine the temporal nature of these associations and the mechanisms that underlie them. PMID:26258730
Santi, D; De Vincentis, S; Magnani, E; Spaggiari, G
Considering the widespread use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), DNA methylation of specific genes involved in spermatogenesis achieves increasingly clinical relevance, representing a possible explanation of increased incidence of syndromes related to genomic imprinting in medically assisted pregnancies. Several trials suggested a relationship between male sub-fertility and sperm DNA methylation, although its weight on seminal parameters alteration is still a matter of debate. To evaluate whether aberrant sperm DNA methylation of imprinted genes is associated with impaired sperm parameters. Meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials evaluating imprinted genes sperm DNA methylation comparing men with idiopathic infertility to fertile controls. Twenty-four studies were included, allowing a meta-analytic evaluation for H19, MEST, SNRPN, and LINE-1. When a high heterogeneity of the results was demonstrated, the random effect model was used. H19 methylation levels resulted significantly lower in 879 infertile compared with 562 fertile men (7.53%, 95% CI: 5.14-9.93%, p male infertility is associated with altered sperm methylation at H19, MEST, and SNRPN. Although its role in infertility remains unclear, sperm DNA methylation could be associated with the epigenetic risk in ART. In this setting, before proposing this analysis in clinical practice, an accurate identification of the most representative genes and a cost-effectiveness evaluation should be assessed in ad hoc prospective studies. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Full Text Available By studying the key event paths of probabilistic event structure graphs (PESGs, a key event path analysis approach for integrated system models is proposed. According to translation rules concluded from integrated system architecture descriptions, the corresponding PESGs are constructed from the colored Petri Net (CPN models. Then the definitions of cycle event paths, sequence event paths, and key event paths are given. Whereafter based on the statistic results after the simulation of CPN models, key event paths are found out by the sensitive analysis approach. This approach focuses on the logic structures of CPN models, which is reliable and could be the basis of structured analysis for discrete event systems. An example of radar model is given to characterize the application of this approach, and the results are worthy of trust.
Strauss, Clara; Hale, Lucy; Stobie, Blake
Accommodation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms by family members is common. This paper presents a systematic meta-analytic review on family accommodation and OCD symptom severity. Fourteen studies investigating the relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptoms were selected. The medium effect size of the relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was significant (r = .35; 95% CI: .23 to .47), based on a Hunter-Schmidt random effects model with a total of 849 participants. Although there was some evidence of publication bias, Rosenthal's fail-safe N suggested that 596 studies with zero effect would be needed to reduce the mean effect size to non-significant. Findings are discussed in the context of the limitations of the studies, and in particular the reliance on cross-sectional designs which impede causal conclusions. Future research to evaluate a family accommodation intervention in a randomized controlled design and using mediation analysis to explore change mechanisms is called for. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guttormsen, Linn Stokke; Kefalianos, Elaina; Næss, Kari-Anne B
This article presents a meta-analytic review of differences in communication attitudes between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). To be included in this review, the studies had to include a group of CWS and CWNS between the ages of 3-18 years and a measurement of communication attitudes. The journal articles were identified by using the key words stutter*, speech disfluenc*, fluency disorder*, and stammer* cross-referenced to awareness*, reaction*, attitude*, KiddyCAT, CAT, A-19 Scale, PASS and OASES. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. The results showed that CWS exhibit more negative communication attitudes than CWNS from the preschool years. The differences between the groups increased with age, but were not influenced by gender. The results indicate that negative communication attitudes can be an effect of stuttering. Key issues requiring further investigation are whether communication attitudes differ as a function of age at stuttering onset and whether communication attitudes influence the development of stuttering. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (a) summarise empirical findings with regard to the relationship between communication attitudes and childhood stuttering; (b) describe the different instruments used to measure communication attitudes; (c) discuss the relationship between communication attitudes, age and gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Schuh, Sebastian C; Jetten, Jolanda; van Dick, Rolf
We provide a meta-analytical review examining two decades of work on the relationship between individuals' social identifications and health in organizations (102 effect sizes, k = 58, N = 19,799). Results reveal a mean-weighted positive association between organizational identification and health ( r = .21, T = .14). Analysis identified a positive relationship for both workgroup ( r = .21) and organizational identification ( r = .21), and in studies using longitudinal/experimental ( r = .13) and cross-sectional designs ( r = .22). The relationship is stronger (a) for indicators of the presence of well-being ( r = .27) than absence of stress ( r = .18), (b) for psychological ( r = .23) than physical health ( r = .16), (c) to the extent that identification is shared among group members, and (d) as the proportion of female participants in a sample decreases. Overall, results indicate that social identifications in organizations are positively associated with health but that there is also substantial variation in effect size strength. We discuss implications for theory and practice and outline a roadmap for future research.
Sarah R Braun
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous investigations, the question whether all bona fide treatments of depression are equally efficacious in adults has not been sufficiently answered. METHOD: We applied two different meta-analytical techniques (conventional meta-analysis and mixed treatment comparisons. Overall, 53 studies with 3,965 patients, which directly compared two or more bona fide psychotherapies in a randomized trial, were included. Meta-analyses were conducted regarding five different types of outcome measures. Additionally, the influence of possible moderators was examined. RESULTS: Direct comparisons of cognitive behavior therapy, behavior activation therapy, psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and supportive therapies versus all other respective treatments indicated that at the end of treatment all treatments but supportive therapies were equally efficacious whereas there was some evidence that supportive therapies were somewhat less efficacious than all other treatments according to patient self-ratings and clinical significance. At follow-up no significant differences were present. Age, gender, comorbid mental disorders, and length of therapy session were found to moderate efficacy. Cognitive behavior therapy was superior in studies where therapy sessions lasted 90 minutes or longer, behavior activation therapy was more efficacious when therapy sessions lasted less than 90 minutes. Mixed treatment comparisons indicated no statistically significant differences in treatment efficacy but some interesting trends. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that there might be differential effects of bona fide psychotherapies which should be examined in detail.
Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A; Gómez-Urquiza, Jose L; Ortega-Campos, Elena M; Cañadas, Gustavo R; Albendín-García, Luis; De la Fuente-Solana, Emilia I
To determine the prevalence of high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low personal accomplishment in nursing professionals in oncology services. A meta-analytical study was performed. The search was carried out in March 2017 in Pubmed, CINAHL, Scopus, Scielo, Proquest, CUIDEN, and LILACS databases. Studies using Maslach Burnout Inventory for the assessment of burnout were included. The total sample of oncology nurses was n = 9959. The total number of included studies was n = 17, with n = 21 samples for the meta-analysis of emotional exhaustion and n = 18 for depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion and of depersonalization was 30% (95% CI = 26%-33%) and 15% (95% CI = 9%-23%), respectively, and that of low personal performance was 35% (95% CI = 27%-43%). The are many oncology nurses with emotional exhaustion and low levels of personal accomplishment. The presence and the risk of burnout among these staff members are considerable. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Viktor Anatolyevich Koksharov
Full Text Available The authors consider the economic motivations when individuals choose an educational path. This line of research is relevant from both, the point of view of science — research of economic behavior of an individual, and the point of view of practice — allows to increase efficiency of investments in a human capital. The authors have developed the economic and mathematical model of choice of optimum educational paths by individuals. The model is realized in the software and approved on real data on more than 5,5 thousand students. For the analysis of the importance of rational economic expectations when an educational path has to be chosen, the paths chosen by students is compared and the educational paths optimum from the point of view of economic rationality are calculated. The analysis of the results has showed that mainly, the choice of educational paths happens according to the economic motivations. On the considered selection, 66 % of prospective students have chosen an optimum path from the point of view of economic preferences. The most significant factor providing development of optimum educational paths is an expectation of higher income upon completion of education — 22 % of all educational paths, and a possibility of cost-cutting of educating or state-subsidized education — 12 %. In our opinion, one of the most important practical results of the research of optimum educational path is the need to consider expectations of students and prospective student when developing a state policy of investment in human capital.
Farahmand, Farahnaz K.; Duffy, Sophia N.; Tailor, Megha A.; Dubois, David L.; Lyon, Aaron L.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Zarlinski, Jennifer C.; Masini, Olivia; Zander, Keith J.; Nathanson, Alison M.
A meta-analytic review of 33 studies and 41 independent samples was conducted of the effectiveness of community-based mental health and behavioral programs for low-income urban youth. Findings indicated positive effects, with an overall mean effect of 0.25 at post-test. While this is comparable to previous meta-analytic intervention research with…
Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…
Anderson, C.A.; Shibuya, A.; Ihori, N.; Swing, E.L.; Bushman, B.J.; Sakamoto, A.; Rothstein, H.R.; Saleem, M.; Barlett, C.P.
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive
Huo, Zhiguang; Ding, Ying; Liu, Silvia; Oesterreich, Steffi; Tseng, George
Disease phenotyping by omics data has become a popular approach that potentially can lead to better personalized treatment. Identifying disease subtypes via unsupervised machine learning is the first step towards this goal. In this paper, we extend a sparse K -means method towards a meta-analytic framework to identify novel disease subtypes when expression profiles of multiple cohorts are available. The lasso regularization and meta-analysis identify a unique set of gene features for subtype characterization. An additional pattern matching reward function guarantees consistent subtype signatures across studies. The method was evaluated by simulations and leukemia and breast cancer data sets. The identified disease subtypes from meta-analysis were characterized with improved accuracy and stability compared to single study analysis. The breast cancer model was applied to an independent METABRIC dataset and generated improved survival difference between subtypes. These results provide a basis for diagnosis and development of targeted treatments for disease subgroups.
Montoya, R Matthew; Kershaw, Christine; Prosser, Julie L
We present a meta-analysis that investigated the relation between self-reported interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Our synthesis focused on (a) identifying the behaviors related to attraction; (b) evaluating the efficacy of models of the relation between attraction and behavior; (c) testing the impact of several moderators, including evaluative threat salience, cognitive appraisal salience, and the sex composition of the social interaction; and (d) investigating the degree of agreement between the meta-analytic findings and an ethnographic analysis. Using a multilevel modeling approach, an analysis of 309 effect sizes (N = 5,422) revealed a significant association (z = .20) between self-reported attraction and enacted behavior. Key findings include: (a) that the specific behaviors associated with attraction (e.g., eye contact, smiling, laughter, mimicry) are those behaviors research has linked to the development of trust/rapport; (b) direct behaviors (e.g., physical proximity, talking to), compared with indirect behaviors (e.g., eye contact, smiling, mimicry), were more strongly related to self-reported attraction; and (c) evaluative threat salience (e.g., fear of rejection) reduced the magnitude of the relation between direct behavior and affective attraction. Moreover, an ethnographic analysis revealed consistency between the behaviors identified by the meta-analysis and those behaviors identified by ethnographers as predictive of attraction. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of the relation between attraction and behavior, for the behavioral expressions of emotions, and for how attraction is measured and conceptualized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens
In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking…
Dragutinovic, N. Brookhuis, K.A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Marchau, V.A.W.J.
In this study, a meta-analytic approach was used to analyse effects of Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) on driving behaviour reported in seven driving simulator studies. The effects of ACC on three consistent outcome measures, namely, driving speed, headway and driver workload have been analysed. The
Cole, M.S.; Walter, F.; Bedeian, A.G.; O'Boyle, E.H.
Drawing on 50 unique samples (from 37 studies), the authors used meta-analytical techniques to assess the extent to which job burnout and employee engagement are independent and useful constructs. The authors found that (a) dimension-level correlations between burnout and engagement are high, (b)
Porath-Waller, Amy J.; Beasley, Erin; Beirness, Douglas J.
This investigation used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based prevention programming in reducing cannabis use among youth aged 12 to 19. It summarized the results from 15 studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 1999 and identified features that influenced program effectiveness. The results from the set of…
Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan
This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and the…
Diener, Marc J.; Geenen, Rinie; Koelen, Jurrijn A.; Aarts, Floor; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Hinnen, Chris
Theoretical considerations and empirical results suggest that attachment quality is relevant to obesity. This study used meta-analytic methods to systematically examine the empirical, peer-reviewed evidence regarding the relationship between attachment quality and body mass index (BMI) in separate
de Haan, A.M.; Boon, A.E.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Hoeve, M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.
A large proportion (28% up to 75%) of the treatments in youth mental health care results in premature termination (dropout). It is important to gain knowledge of the determinants of dropout because it can have very severe consequences. The aim of our meta-analytic review was to provide an overview
Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used as a statistical framework to test complex models in behavioral and social sciences. When the number of publications increases, there is a need to systematically synthesize them. Methodology of synthesizing findings in the context of SEM is known as meta-analytic SEM (MASEM). Although correlation…
Mihov, K.M.; Denzler, M.; Förster, J.
In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the
Prof. Dr. Jo J.M.A Hermanns; Prof. Dr. Ruben R.G. Fukkink; dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer
Background. A number of parenting programs, aimed at improving parenting competencies,have recently been adapted or designed with the use of online technologies. Although webbased services have been claimed to hold promise for parent support, a meta-analytic review of online parenting interventions
Nieuwboer, C.C.; Fukkink, R.G.; Hermanns, J.M.A.
Background: A number of parenting programs, aimed at improving parenting competencies, have recently been adapted or designed with the use of online technologies. Although web-based services have been claimed to hold promise for parent support, a meta-analytic review of online parenting
Swider, Brian W.; Zimmerman, Ryan D.
We quantitatively summarized the relationship between Five-Factor Model personality traits, job burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment), and absenteeism, turnover, and job performance. All five of the Five-Factor Model personality traits had multiple true score correlations of 0.57 with emotional…
Taniarza, Natya; Adiwijaya; Maharani, Warih
k-Path centrality is deemed as one of the effective methods to be applied in centrality measurement in which the influential node is estimated as the node that is being passed by information path frequently. Regarding this, k-Path centrality has been employed in the analysis of this paper specifically by adapting random-algorithm approach in order to: (1) determine the influential user’s ranking in a social media Twitter; and (2) ascertain the influence of parameter α in the numeration of k-Path centrality. According to the analysis, the findings showed that the method of k-Path centrality with random-algorithm approach can be used to determine user’s ranking which influences in the dissemination of information in Twitter. Furthermore, the findings also showed that parameter α influenced the duration and the ranking results: the less the α value, the longer the duration, yet the ranking results were more stable.
Riedel, Michael C; Yanes, Julio A; Ray, Kimberly L; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Sutherland, Matthew T; Laird, Angela R
Meta-analytic techniques for mining the neuroimaging literature continue to exert an impact on our conceptualization of functional brain networks contributing to human emotion and cognition. Traditional theories regarding the neurobiological substrates contributing to affective processing are shifting from regional- towards more network-based heuristic frameworks. To elucidate differential brain network involvement linked to distinct aspects of emotion processing, we applied an emergent meta-analytic clustering approach to the extensive body of affective neuroimaging results archived in the BrainMap database. Specifically, we performed hierarchical clustering on the modeled activation maps from 1,747 experiments in the affective processing domain, resulting in five meta-analytic groupings of experiments demonstrating whole-brain recruitment. Behavioral inference analyses conducted for each of these groupings suggested dissociable networks supporting: (1) visual perception within primary and associative visual cortices, (2) auditory perception within primary auditory cortices, (3) attention to emotionally salient information within insular, anterior cingulate, and subcortical regions, (4) appraisal and prediction of emotional events within medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, and (5) induction of emotional responses within amygdala and fusiform gyri. These meta-analytic outcomes are consistent with a contemporary psychological model of affective processing in which emotionally salient information from perceived stimuli are integrated with previous experiences to engender a subjective affective response. This study highlights the utility of using emergent meta-analytic methods to inform and extend psychological theories and suggests that emotions are manifest as the eventual consequence of interactions between large-scale brain networks. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A new method of path integral analysis in the framework of a power series technique is presented. The method is based on the operator expansion of an exponential. A regular procedure to calculate the correction terms is found. (orig.)
An overview of the recent development work that has been done on acquisition path analysis, implementation of the methodologies within the Department of Safeguards, lessons learned and future areas for development will be provided. (author)
Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; McMahon, Tierney P; Chacko, Thomas P
Emotion regulation has been examined extensively with regard to important outcomes, including psychological and physical health. However, the literature includes many different emotion regulation strategies but little examination of how they relate to one another, making it difficult to interpret and synthesize findings. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the underlying structure of common emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, behavioral avoidance, distraction, experiential avoidance, expressive suppression, mindfulness, problem solving, reappraisal, rumination, worry), and to evaluate this structure in light of theoretical models of emotion regulation. We also examined how distress tolerance-an important emotion regulation ability -relates to strategy use. We conducted meta-analyses estimating the correlations between emotion regulation strategies (based on 331 samples and 670 effect sizes), as well as between distress tolerance and strategies. The resulting meta-analytic correlation matrix was submitted to confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. None of the confirmatory models, based on prior theory, was an acceptable fit to the data. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that 3 underlying factors best characterized these data. Two factors-labeled Disengagement and Aversive Cognitive Perseveration-emerged as strongly correlated but distinct factors, with the latter consisting of putatively maladaptive strategies. The third factor, Adaptive Engagement, was a less unified factor and weakly related to the other 2 factors. Distress tolerance was most closely associated with low levels of repetitive negative thought and experiential avoidance, and high levels of acceptance and mindfulness. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and applications to emotion regulation assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Safari, Reza; Van der Linden, Marietta L; Mercer, Tom H
Although exercise training has been advocated as a nonpharmacological treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) related fatigue, no consensus exists regarding its effectiveness. To address this, we collated meta-analytic reviews that explored the effectiveness of exercise training for the treatment of MS-related fatigue. We searched five online databases for relevant reviews, published since 2005, and identified 172 records. Five reviews were retained for systematic extraction of information and evidence quality analysis. Although our review synthesis indicated that exercise training interventions have a moderate effect on fatigue reduction in people with MS, no clear insight was obtained regarding the relative effectiveness of specific types or modes of exercise intervention. Moreover, Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation revealed that the overall quality of evidence emanating from these five reviews was 'very low'.
Poos, Jackie M; Jiskoot, Lize C; Papma, Janne M; van Swieten, John C; van den Berg, Esther
A meta-analysis of the extent, nature and pattern of memory performance in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Multiple observational studies have challenged the relative sparing of memory in bvFTD as stated in the current diagnostic criteria. We performed a meta-analytic review covering the period 1967 to February 2017 of case-control studies on episodic memory in bvFTD versus control participants (16 studies, 383 patients, 603 control participants), and patients with bvFTD versus those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (20 studies, 452 bvFTD, 874 AD). Differences between both verbal and non-verbal working memory, episodic memory learning and recall, and recognition memory were examined. Data were extracted from the papers and combined into a common metric measure of effect, Hedges' d. Patients with bvFTD show large deficits in memory performance compared to controls (Hedges' d -1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.23, -0.95]), but perform significantly better than patients with AD (Hedges' d 0.85; 95% CI [0.69, 1.03]). Learning and recall tests differentiate best between patients with bvFTD and AD (p<.01). There is 37-62% overlap in test scores between the two groups. This study points to memory disorders in patients with bvFTD, with performance at an intermediate level between controls and patients with AD. This indicates that, instead of being an exclusion criterion for bvFTD diagnosis, memory deficits should be regarded as a potential integral part of the clinical spectrum. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1-13).
Brost, Randolph; Little, Charles Q.; peter-stein, natacha; Wade, James Rokwel
A previous report assesses our progress to date on the Eyes On the Ground project, and reviews lessons learned . In this report, we address the implications of those lessons in defining the most productive path forward for the remainder of the project. We propose two main concepts: Interactive Diagnosis and Model-Driven Assistance. Among these, the Model-Driven Assistance concept appears the most promising. The Model-Driven Assistance concept is based on an approximate but useful model of a facility, which provides a unified representation for storing, viewing, and analyzing data that is known about the facility. This representation provides value to both inspectors and IAEA headquarters, and facilitates communication between the two. The concept further includes a lightweight, portable field tool to aid the inspector in executing a variety of inspection tasks, including capture of images and 3-d scan data. We develop a detailed description of this concept, including its system components, functionality, and example use cases. The envisioned tool would provide value by reducing inspector cognitive load, streamlining inspection tasks, and facilitating communication between the inspector and teams at IAEA headquarters. We conclude by enumerating the top implementation priorities to pursue in the remaining limited time of the project. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited.
XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia
The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmersâ€™ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...
Pascoe, Elizabeth A.; Richman, Laura Smart
Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which…
Report: Multiscale Path Metrics for the Analysis of Discrete Geometric Structures The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those...Analysis of Discrete Geometric Structures Report Term: 0-Other Email: email@example.com Distribution Statement: 1-Approved for public release
Gamborg, Michael Orland; Boje Jensen, Gorm; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.
it works through other risk factors. In this paper, the dynamic path analysis model is presented as a tool to analyze these dynamic mechanisms in life-course epidemiology. A key feature of dynamic path analysis is its ability to decompose the total effect of a risk factor into a direct effect (not mediated...... by other variables) and indirect effects (mediated through other variables). This is illustrated by examining the associations between repeated measurements of body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the risk of CHD in a sample of Danish men between 1976 and 2006. The effect of baseline...... BMI on the risk of CHD is decomposed into a direct effect and indirect effects going through later BMI, concurrent SBP, or later SBP. In conclusion, dynamic path analysis is a flexible tool that by the decomposition of effects can be used to increase the understanding of mechanisms that underlie...
Kulik, James A.; Fletcher, J. D.
This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems. The median effect of intelligent tutoring in the 50 evaluations was to raise test scores 0.66 standard deviations over conventional levels, or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in…
Blanken, Irene; van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel
Moral licensing refers to the effect that when people initially behave in a moral way, they are later more likely to display behaviors that are immoral, unethical, or otherwise problematic. We provide a state-of-the-art overview of moral licensing by conducting a meta-analysis of 91 studies (7,397
Blanken, I.; van de Ven, N.; Zeelenberg, M.
Moral licensing refers to the effect that when people initially behave in a moral way, they are later more likely to display behaviors that are immoral, unethical, or otherwise problematic. We provide a state-of-the-art overview of moral licensing by conducting a meta-analysis of 91 studies (7,397
Santini, Fernando de Oliveira; Ladeira, Wagner Junior; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; da Silva Costa, Gustavo
This paper discusses the results of a meta-analysis performed to identify key antecedent and consequent constructs of satisfaction in higher education. We offer an integrated model to achieve a better understanding of satisfaction in the context of higher education. To accomplish this objective, we identified 83 studies that were valid and…
Lazowski, Rory A.; Hulleman, Chris S.
This meta-analysis provides an extensive and organized summary of intervention studies in education that are grounded in motivation theory. We identified 74 published and unpublished papers that experimentally manipulated an independent variable and measured an authentic educational outcome within an ecologically valid educational context. Our…
Holling, Heinz; Bohning, Walailuck; Bohning, Dankmar
Meta-analysis of diagnostic studies experience the common problem that different studies might not be comparable since they have been using a different cut-off value for the continuous or ordered categorical diagnostic test value defining different regions for which the diagnostic test is defined to be positive. Hence specificities and…
Eerde, van W.
This meta-analysis contains the correlations of 121 studies examining the relation between procrastination and personality variables, motives, affect, and performance. The largest negative effect sizes were found in relation to conscientiousness and self-efficacy, and the largest positive relation
Kumkale, G. Tarcan; Albarracín, Dolores
A meta-analysis of the available judgment and memory data on the sleeper effect in persuasion is presented. According to this effect, when people receive a communication associated with a discounting cue, such as a noncredible source, they are less persuaded immediately after exposure than they are later in time. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that recipients of discounting cues were more persuaded over time when the message arguments and the cue had a strong initial impact. In addition, the increase in persuasion was stronger when recipients of discounting cues had higher ability or motivation to think about the message and received the discounting cue after the message. These results are discussed in light of classic and contemporary models of attitudes and persuasion. PMID:14717653
Blanken, Irene; van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel
Moral licensing refers to the effect that when people initially behave in a moral way, they are later more likely to display behaviors that are immoral, unethical, or otherwise problematic. We provide a state-of-the-art overview of moral licensing by conducting a meta-analysis of 91 studies (7,397 participants) that compare a licensing condition with a control condition. Based on this analysis, the magnitude of the moral licensing effect is estimated to be a Cohen's d of 0.31. We tested potential moderators and found that published studies tend to have larger moral licensing effects than unpublished studies. We found no empirical evidence for other moderators that were theorized to be of importance. The effect size estimate implies that studies require many more participants to draw solid conclusions about moral licensing and its possible moderators. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Aßfalg, André; Bernstein, Daniel M; Hockley, William
Judgments can depend on the activity directly preceding them. An example is the revelation effect whereby participants are more likely to claim that a stimulus is familiar after a preceding task, such as solving an anagram, than without a preceding task. We test conflicting predictions of four revelation-effect hypotheses in a meta-analysis of 26 years of revelation-effect research. The hypotheses' predictions refer to three subject areas: (1) the basis of judgments that are subject to the revelation effect (recollection vs. familiarity vs. fluency), (2) the degree of similarity between the task and test item, and (3) the difficulty of the preceding task. We use a hierarchical multivariate meta-analysis to account for dependent effect sizes and variance in experimental procedures. We test the revelation-effect hypotheses with a model selection procedure, where each model corresponds to a prediction of a revelation-effect hypothesis. We further quantify the amount of evidence for one model compared to another with Bayes factors. The results of this analysis suggest that none of the extant revelation-effect hypotheses can fully account for the data. The general vagueness of revelation-effect hypotheses and the scarcity of data were the major limiting factors in our analyses, emphasizing the need for formalized theories and further research into the puzzling revelation effect.
AIMS: This meta-analysis sought to identify which subgroups of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) benefited from evidence-based supported employment. METHODS: We used meta-analysis to pool the samples from 4 randomized controlled trials comparing the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment to well-regarded vocational approaches using stepwise models and brokered services. Meta-analysis was used to determine the magnitude of effects for IPS\\/control group differences within specific client subgroups (defined by 2 work history, 7 sociodemographic, and 8 clinical variables) on 3 competitive employment outcomes (obtaining a job, total weeks worked, and job tenure). RESULTS: The findings strongly favored IPS, with large effect sizes across all outcomes: 0.96 for job acquisition, 0.79 for total weeks worked, and 0.74 for job tenure. Overall, 90 (77%) of the 117 effect sizes calculated for the 39 subgroups exceeded 0.70, and all 117 favored IPS. CONCLUSIONS: IPS produces better competitive employment outcomes for persons with SMI than alternative vocational programs regardless of background demographic, clinical, and employment characteristics.
Andersson, G; Lyttkens, L
Meta-analysis is a technique of combining results from different trials in order to obtain estimates of effects across studies. Meta-analysis has, as yet, rarely been used in audiological research. The aim of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis on psychological treatment of tinnitus. The outcomes of 18 studies, including a total of 24 samples and up to 700 subjects, were included and coded. Included were studies on cognitive/cognitive-behavioural treatment, relaxation, hypnosis, biofeedback, educational sessions and problem-solving. Effect sizes for perceived tinnitus loudness, annoyance, negative affect (e.g. depression) and sleep problems were calculated for randomized controlled studies, pre-post-treatment design studies and follow-up results. Results showed strong to moderate effects on tinnitus annoyance for controlled studies (d = 0.86), pre-post designs (d = 0.5) and at follow-up (d = 0.48). Results on tinnitus loudness were weaker and disappeared at follow-up. Lower effect sizes were also obtained for measures of negative affect and sleep problems. Exploratory analyses revealed that cognitive-behavioural treatments were more effective on ratings of annoyance in the controlled studies. It is concluded that psychological treatment for tinnitus is effective, but that aspects such as depression and sleep problems may need to be targeted in future studies.
Bushman, Brad J
Hostile people tend to view the world as a hostile place. Although there are individual differences in hostile world-views, situational factors can also play a role. For example, scenes of violence in the mass media might influence people to view the world as a hostile place. This meta-analysis aggregates, for the first time, all studies that have investigated the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (e.g., perceiving the ambiguous actions by others as aggressive actions). This meta-analysis included 37 independent studies involving 10,410 participants. The results showed a "small" to "moderate" sized average correlation between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (r + = .20, 95%CI = .14, .26). Significant correlations were found in experimental, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, indicating a triangulation of evidence. Effects were not correlated with participant gender. Effects were also stable over time. However, the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals was positively related to age, perhaps because violent media can have cumulative effects over time. There was no evidence of publication bias. The findings from this meta-analysis are consistent with the General Aggression Model (e.g., Anderson, & Bushman, 2002; Annual Review of Psychology 53:27-51). These results compliment those from previous meta-analyses showing that violent media can increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior. These findings also have practical significance, because people who view the world in a hostile manner are more likely to behave aggressively themselves. Aggr. Behav. 42:605-613, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gomez, R.; Corr, P. J.
We report a meta-analysis of up to 40 data sets that examined the personality dimensions in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and the integrated Five-Factor Model (IFFM) in relation to ADHD symptom domains of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI). The IFFM incorporated the dimensions of other personality models (in particular, those of Eysenck, Tellegen, and Cloninger, as well as the FFM). Major findings were: (1) IA and HI were both associated with low conscientious inhibition/consci...
A meta-analysis of 26 studies indicated that automatic semantic priming can occur without association. Priming did not vary substantially with differences in variables that affect automatic versus strategic processing, such as time spent processing the prime and target, relationship proportion, and task (except that average effects were smaller in the naming task). Although category coordinates were investigated in the majority of studies, synonyms, antonyms, and script relations also demonstrated priming; functional relations showed greater priming, and essential and perceptual relations showed less. The average effect size for semantic priming was smaller than that for associative priming, suggesting that there is an "associative boost" from adding an associative relationship to a semantic one. The implications of these findings for the modularity thesis and for models of semantic priming are discussed.
Sockol, Laura E.; Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.
This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of a wide range of preventive interventions designed to reduce the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms or decrease the prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes. A systematic review identified 37 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in which an intervention was compared to a control condition. Differences between treatment and control conditions in the level of depressive symptoms and prevalence of depressive episodes by 6 months postpartum were assessed in separate analyses. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower at post-treatment in intervention conditions, with an overall effect size in the small range after exclusion of outliers (Hedges' g = 0.18). There was a 27% reduction in the prevalence of depressive episodes in intervention conditions by 6 months postpartum after removal of outliers and correction for publication bias. Later timing of the postpartum assessment was associated with smaller differences between intervention and control conditions in both analyses. Among studies that assessed depressive symptoms using the EPDS, higher levels of depressive symptoms at pre-treatment were associated with smaller differences in depressive symptoms by 6 months postpartum. These findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent postpartum depression effectively reduce levels of postpartum depressive symptoms and decrease risk for postpartum depressive episodes. PMID:24211712
Saddichha, Sahoo; Schuetz, Christian
Depressive disorder and suicide have been associated with impulsivity in several studies. This paper aimed to review measures of trait impulsivity in remitted depressive disorder. We used keywords "impulsivity and depression"; "impulsivity and depressive disorder" to narrow down our search on Medline, EMBASE and Psychinfo to include those studies that had reported impulsivity scores using validated and reliable assessment measures in remitted depressive disorder. We searched all English language studies from 1990 to December 2012 with 9 reports meeting the inclusion criteria for depression, which were then reviewed by the two reviewers independently. We generated weighted mean differences (WMDs) for depression from the pooled data using RevManager 5.1 from Cochrane analysis. The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) 11 was the instrument commonly used in depression. 9 studies met inclusion criteria in depression, which yielded a WMD of 10.12 on BIS 11 total scores. There is a strong association of impulsivity and depression, which persists even in remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gomez, Rapson; Corr, Philip J
We report a meta-analysis of up to 40 data sets that examined the personality dimensions in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and the integrated Five-Factor Model (IFFM) in relation to ADHD symptom domains of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI). The IFFM incorporated the dimensions of other personality models (in particular, those of Eysenck, Tellegen, and Cloninger, as well as the FFM). Major findings were: (1) IA and HI were both associated with low conscientious inhibition/conscientiousness, and low agreeable inhibition/agreeableness, and with high negative emotionality/neuroticism; (2) conscientious inhibition and conscientiousness were more strongly related to IA than HI; (3) agreeable inhibition and agreeableness were more strongly related to HI than IA; and (4) the association of conscientious inhibition and conscientiousness with HI was moderated by age group and source from where participants were recruited (associations were stronger in children than adults, and clinical samples than community samples). These findings are discussed in relation to single and multiple pathway theories, underlying factors and processes for the personality-ADHD link, and clinical implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ma, Lawrence K; Tunney, Richard J; Ferguson, Eamonn
Theoretical models suggest that gratitude is linked to increased prosociality. To date, however, there is a lack of a comprehensive quantitative synthesis of results to support this claim. In this review we aimed to (a) examine the overall strength of the association between gratitude and prosociality, and (b) identify the theoretical and methodological variables that moderate this link. We identified 252 effect sizes from 91 studies across 65 papers-(Total N = 18,342 participants). The present meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant, and moderate positive correlation between gratitude and prosociality (r = .374). This association was significantly larger among studies that assessed reciprocal outcomes relative to nonreciprocal outcomes, and in particular among studies that examined direct -compared with indirect -reciprocity. Studies that examined gratitude as an affective state reported significantly larger effect size studies assessing gratitude as a trait . Studies that examined benefit-triggered gratitude (in response to other's kindness) had a stronger effect that generalized gratitude that focuses on the appreciation of what is valued and cherished in life. Finally, studies that manipulated gratitude in vivo (e.g., economic games) had larger effect sizes compared with those based on recalled incidents when the person felt grateful. We describe the theoretical and practical significance of the results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Spruit, Anouk; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; van der Stouwe, Trudy; Stams, Geert-Jan
Participation in sports activities is very popular among adolescents, and is frequently encouraged among youth. Many psychosocial health benefits in youth are attributed to sports participation, but to what extent this positive influence holds for juvenile delinquency is still not clear on both the theoretical and empirical level. There is much controversy on whether sports participation should be perceived as a protective or a risk factor for the development of juvenile delinquency. A multilevel meta-analysis of 51 published and unpublished studies, with 48 independent samples containing 431 effect sizes and N = 132,366 adolescents, was conducted to examine the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency and possible moderating factors of this association. The results showed that there is no overall significant association between sports participation and juvenile delinquency, indicating that adolescent athletes are neither more nor less delinquent than non-athletes. Some study, sample and sports characteristics significantly moderated the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency. However, this moderating influence was modest. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of sports to prevent juvenile delinquency are discussed.
Full Text Available In order to increase waste recycling, many studies have been conducted to understand factors that may influence waste recycling behaviour. However, these studies have focused on household contexts rather than other waste generation contexts. As a result, this paper seeks to provide a detailed analysis of previous studies on workplace waste recycling behaviour. Drawing from different databases, 51 relevant studies on workplace waste recycling attitudes and behaviour were meta-analysed. Findings showed that the highest percentage of the existing studies were conducted in the USA, focused on a single waste stream, were often conducted within academic contexts, adopted (or modified an existing theoretical framework and were based on questionnaires which elicited self-reported behaviour. Some of the factors identified include demographics, situational variables, past behaviour, incentives, prompts and/or information, attitudes and identity. The findings highlighted the scale of challenges confronting waste management practitioners in understanding the factors that may affect waste recycling behaviour due to the complexity and heterogeneity of human behaviours. However, the results from the reviewed studies in this research suggest that a combination of different factors may be required to influence workplace waste recycling behaviour. This may provide effective incentives to develop a framework that may assist waste management stakeholders when addressing workplace waste management.
Moatt, Joshua P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Walling, Craig A
Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in the amount of food or particular nutrients eaten, is the most consistent environmental manipulation to extend lifespan and protect against age related diseases. Current evolutionary theory explains this effect as a shift in the resolution of the trade-off between lifespan and reproduction. However, recent studies have questioned the role of reproduction in mediating the effect of DR on longevity and no study has quantitatively investigated the effect of DR on reproduction across species. Here we report a comprehensive comparative meta-analysis of the effect of DR on reproduction. In general, DR reduced reproduction across taxa, but several factors moderated this effect. The effect of DR on reproduction was greater in well-studied model species (yeast, nematode worms, fruit flies and rodents) than non-model species. This mirrors recent results for longevity and, for reproduction, seems to result from a faster rate of decline with decreasing resources in model species. Our results also suggested that not all reproductive traits are affected equally by DR. High and moderate cost reproductive traits suffered a significant reduction with DR, but low cost traits, such as ejaculate production, did not. Although the effect of DR on reproduction was stronger in females than males, this sex difference reduced to near zero when accounting for other co-factors such as the costliness of the reproductive trait. Thus, sex differences in the effect of DR on longevity may be due to a failure to expose males to as complete a range of the costs of reproduction as females. We suggest that to better understand the generality of the effect of DR, future studies should attempt to address the cause of the apparent model species bias and ensure that individuals are exposed to as many of the costs of reproduction as possible. Furthermore, our meta-analytic approach reveals a general shortage of DR studies that record reproduction, particularly in
Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi
Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender
Rock permeability has been actively investigated over the past several decades by the geosciences community. However, its accurate estimation still presents significant technical challenges, especially in spatially complex rocks. In this letter, we apply critical path analysis (CPA) to estimate perm...
Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient analysis.
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Kremer, Kurt
Polymer material properties are strongly affected by entanglement effects. For long polymer chains and composite materials, they are expected to be at the origin of many technically important phenomena, such as shear thinning or the Mullins effect, which microscopically can be related to topological constraints between chains. Starting from fully equilibrated highly entangled polymer melts, we investigate the effect of isochoric elongation on the entanglement structure and force distribution of such systems. Theoretically, the related viscoelastic response usually is discussed in terms of the tube model. We relate stress relaxation in the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes to a primitive path analysis (PPA) and show that tension forces both along the original paths and along primitive paths, that is, the backbone of the tube, in the stretching direction correspond to each other. Unlike homogeneous relaxation along the chain contour, the PPA reveals a so far not observed long-lived clustering of topological constraints along the chains in the deformed state.
Albert, Jeffrey M; Cho, Jang Ik; Liu, Yiying; Nelson, Suchitra
Causal mediation analysis seeks to decompose the effect of a treatment or exposure among multiple possible paths and provide casually interpretable path-specific effect estimates. Recent advances have extended causal mediation analysis to situations with a sequence of mediators or multiple contemporaneous mediators. However, available methods still have limitations, and computational and other challenges remain. The present paper provides an extended causal mediation and path analysis methodology. The new method, implemented in the new R package, gmediation (described in a companion paper), accommodates both a sequence (two stages) of mediators and multiple mediators at each stage, and allows for multiple types of outcomes following generalized linear models. The methodology can also handle unsaturated models and clustered data. Addressing other practical issues, we provide new guidelines for the choice of a decomposition, and for the choice of a reference group multiplier for the reduction of Monte Carlo error in mediation formula computations. The new method is applied to data from a cohort study to illuminate the contribution of alternative biological and behavioral paths in the effect of socioeconomic status on dental caries in adolescence.
Chang, H. L.; Kwon, E. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The coarse acquisition path analysis does not claim to be complete, but it identifies plausible acquisition paths detailed enough to show that the acquisition path analysis can provide reasonable insights regarding the safeguardability assessment, and demonstrates the availability of safeguards tools and measures, although not complete, required for the implementation of effective and efficient safeguards, including the coverage of the nuclear energy system (NES) by multiple intrinsic features and extrinsic measures. It also identifies strengths, weaknesses and gaps of a system in the area of proliferation resistance in a generally understandable form. The acquisition path analysis demonstrates that all acceptance limits for the safeguardability, in principle, are met although the acceptance limit for the efficiency of the IAEA safeguards can be answered only at the end of the Safeguards-by-Design process, including interaction with IAEA operations. However, procedures for destructive assay (DA) for the verification by the IAEA are not defined. Target values for non-destructive assay (NDA) for this type of nuclear material are also not defined. Therefore, there is a need to finish demonstrations of NDA measurements on novel material types and material flows. The acquisition path analysis also shows some concerns that need to be assured in the system design process: e. g., the ID number of all storage containers in all storage positions can be read or checked without moving the storage container, transfer of TRU fuel and heel/scrap (product stream) should be strictly separated from transfer routes for waste, to make the transfer of TRU fuel and heel/scrap into waste container impossible, etc.
Goodwin, K.E.; Schleter, J.C.; Maltese, M.D.K.
Volume 2 of the Handbook is divided into two parts, the workpaper documentation and the summary documentation. The former sets forth, in terms of the hypothetical process, the analysis guidelines, the information gathered, the characterization of the process, the specific diversion paths related to the process, and, finally, the results and findings of the Diversion Path Analysis (DPA). The summary documentation, made up of portions of sections already prepared for the workpapers, is a concise statement of results and recommendations for management use. Most of the details available in the workpapers are not used, or are held to a minimum, in this report. Also, some rearrangement of the excerpted sections has been made in order to permit rapid comprehension by a manager having only limited time to devote to study and review of the analysis
Zhang, Jian; Li, Chong; Jiang, Tianzi
Granger causality analysis, as a time series analysis technique derived from econometrics, has been applied in an ever-increasing number of publications in the field of neuroscience, including fMRI, EEG/MEG, and fNIRS. The present study mainly focuses on the validity of "signed path coefficient Granger causality," a Granger-causality-derived analysis method that has been adopted by many fMRI researches in the last few years. This method generally estimates the causality effect among the time series by an order-1 autoregression, and defines a positive or negative coefficient as an "excitatory" or "inhibitory" influence. In the current work we conducted a series of computations from resting-state fMRI data and simulation experiments to illustrate the signed path coefficient method was flawed and untenable, due to the fact that the autoregressive coefficients were not always consistent with the real causal relationships and this would inevitablely lead to erroneous conclusions. Overall our findings suggested that the applicability of this kind of causality analysis was rather limited, hence researchers should be more cautious in applying the signed path coefficient Granger causality to fMRI data to avoid misinterpretation.
We use path analysis to identify causal relationships between different performance measures in each of the four perspectives defined in the balanced scorecard and examine the influence of time lag on relationships between perspectives. We analyze performance data from a real high-tech company. Our results point to a direct relationship between leading measures in the learning and growth perspective and lagging measures in the financial perspective. Our findings also support the existence of ...
Full Text Available Adrián Montesano,1 María Angeles López-González,2 Luis Angel Saúl,2 Guillem Feixas1 1Department of Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatments, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Department of Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatments, Faculty of Psychology, National Distance Education University, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Recent research has highlighted the role of implicative dilemmas in a variety of clinical conditions. These dilemmas are a type of cognitive conflict, in which different aspects of the self are countered in such a way that a desired change in a personal dimension (eg, symptom improvement may be hindered by the need of personal coherence in another dimension. The aim of this study was to summarize, using a meta-analytical approach, the evidence relating to the presence and the level of this conflict, as well as its relationship with well-being, in various clinical samples. A systematic review using multiple electronic databases found that out of 37 articles assessed for eligibility, nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Random effects model was applied when computing mean effect sizes and testing for heterogeneity level. Statistically significant associations were observed between the clinical status and the presence of dilemmas, as well as level of conflict across several clinical conditions. Likewise, the level of conflict was associated with symptom severity. Results highlighted the clinical relevance and the transdiagnostic nature of implicative dilemmas. Keywords: implicative dilemmas, cognitive conflicts, intrapersonal conflicts, meta-analysis
Scalco, Andrea; Noventa, Stefano; Sartori, Riccardo; Ceschi, Andrea
During the last decade, the purchase of organic food within a sustainable consumption context has gained momentum. Consequently, the amount of research in the field has increased, leading in some cases to discrepancies regarding both methods and results. The present review examines those works that applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework in order to understand and predict consumers' motivation to buy organic food. A meta-analysis has been conducted to assess the strength of the relationships between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention, as well as between intention and behavior. Results confirm the major role played by individual attitude in shaping buying intention, followed by subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Intention-behavior shows a large effect size, few studies however explicitly reported such an association. Furthermore, starting from a pooled correlation matrix, a meta-analytic structural equation model has been applied to jointly evaluate the strength of the relationships among the factors of the original model. Results suggest the robustness of the TPB model. In addition, mediation analysis indicates a potential direct effect from subjective norms to individual attitude in the present context. Finally, some issues regarding methodological aspects of the application of the TPB within the context of organic food are discussed for further research developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Darmofal, D.L.; Haimes, R.
Several techniques for the numerical integration of particle paths in steady and unsteady vector (velocity) fields are analyzed. Most of the analysis applies to unsteady vector fields, however, some results apply to steady vector field integration. Multistep, multistage, and some hybrid schemes are considered. It is shown that due to initialization errors, many unsteady particle path integration schemes are limited to third-order accuracy in time. Multistage schemes require at least three times more internal data storage than multistep schemes of equal order. However, for timesteps within the stability bounds, multistage schemes are generally more accurate. A linearized analysis shows that the stability of these integration algorithms are determined by the eigenvalues of the local velocity tensor. Thus, the accuracy and stability of the methods are interpreted with concepts typically used in critical point theory. This paper shows how integration schemes can lead to erroneous classification of critical points when the timestep is finite and fixed. For steady velocity fields, we demonstrate that timesteps outside of the relative stability region can lead to similar integration errors. From this analysis, guidelines for accurate timestep sizing are suggested for both steady and unsteady flows. In particular, using simulation data for the unsteady flow around a tapered cylinder, we show that accurate particle path integration requires timesteps which are at most on the order of the physical timescale of the flow
Fields, S J; Livshits, G; Sirotta, L; Merlob, P
The present study tested whether various sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and medical/physiological factors act in a direct or indirect manner on the risk of prematurity using path analysis on a sample of Israeli births. The path model shows that medical complications, primarily toxemia, chorioammionitis, and a previous low birth weight delivery directly and significantly act on the risk of prematurity as do low maternal pregnancy weight gain and ethnicity. Other medical complications, including chronic hypertension, preclampsia, and placental abruption, although significantly correlated with prematurity, act indirectly on prematurity through toxemia. The model further shows that the commonly accepted sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral risk factors act by modifying the development of medical complications that lead to prematurity as opposed to having a direct effect on premature delivery. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Butts, Marcus M; Casper, Wendy J; Yang, Tae Seok
This meta-analysis examines relationships between work-family support policies, which are policies that provide support for dependent care responsibilities, and employee outcomes by developing a conceptual model detailing the psychological mechanisms through which policy availability and use relate to work attitudes. Bivariate results indicated that availability and use of work-family support policies had modest positive relationships with job satisfaction, affective commitment, and intentions to stay. Further, tests of differences in effect sizes showed that policy availability was more strongly related to job satisfaction, affective commitment, and intentions to stay than was policy use. Subsequent meta-analytic structural equation modeling results indicated that policy availability and use had modest effects on work attitudes, which were partially mediated by family-supportive organization perceptions and work-to-family conflict, respectively. Additionally, number of policies and sample characteristics (percent women, percent married-cohabiting, percent with dependents) moderated the effects of policy availability and use on outcomes. Implications of these findings and directions for future research on work-family support policies are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Ventura, Joseph; Wood, Rachel C; Jimenez, Amy M; Hellemann, Gerhard S
In schizophrenia patients, one of the most commonly studied deficits of social cognition is emotion processing (EP), which has documented links to facial recognition (FR). But, how are deficits in facial recognition linked to emotion processing deficits? Can neurocognitive and symptom correlates of FR and EP help differentiate the unique contribution of FR to the domain of social cognition? A meta-analysis of 102 studies (combined n=4826) in schizophrenia patients was conducted to determine the magnitude and pattern of relationships between facial recognition, emotion processing, neurocognition, and type of symptom. Meta-analytic results indicated that facial recognition and emotion processing are strongly interrelated (r=.51). In addition, the relationship between FR and EP through voice prosody (r=.58) is as strong as the relationship between FR and EP based on facial stimuli (r=.53). Further, the relationship between emotion recognition, neurocognition, and symptoms is independent of the emotion processing modality - facial stimuli and voice prosody. The association between FR and EP that occurs through voice prosody suggests that FR is a fundamental cognitive process. The observed links between FR and EP might be due to bottom-up associations between neurocognition and EP, and not simply because most emotion recognition tasks use visual facial stimuli. In addition, links with symptoms, especially negative symptoms and disorganization, suggest possible symptom mechanisms that contribute to FR and EP deficits. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fedewa, Alicia L; Ahn, Soyeon; Reese, Robert J; Suarez, Marietta M; Macquoid, Ahjane; Davis, Matthew C; Prout, H Thompson
The present study is a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to investigate the efficacy of psychotherapy for children's mental health outcomes. In particular, this study focuses on potential moderating variables-study design, treatment, client, and therapist characteristics-that may influence therapeutic outcomes for youth but have not been thoroughly accounted for in prior meta-analytic studies. An electronic search of relevant databases resulted in 190 unpublished and published studies that met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Effect sizes differed by study design. Pre-post-test designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.02| to |-0.76| while treatment versus control group comparison designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.14| to |-2.39|. Changes in youth outcomes larger than 20% were found, irrespective of study design, for outcomes focused on psychosomatization (29% reduction), school attendance (25% increase), and stress (48% reduction). The magnitude of changes after psychotherapy ranged from 6% (externalizing problems) to 48% (stress). Several moderator variables significantly influenced psychotherapy treatment effect sizes, including frequency and length of treatment as well as treatment format. However, results did not support the superiority of a single type of intervention for most outcomes. Implications for therapy with school-aged youth and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferguson, Christopher J
Social scientists continue to debate the impact of spanking and corporal punishment (CP) on negative child outcomes including externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and cognitive performance. Previous meta-analytic reviews have mixed long- and short-term studies and relied on bivariate r, which may inflate effect sizes. The current meta-analysis focused on longitudinal studies, and compared effects using bivariate r and better controlled partial r coefficients controlling for time-1 outcome variables. Consistent with previous findings, results based on bivariate r found small but non-trivial long-term relationships between spanking/CP use and negative outcomes. Spanking and CP correlated .14 and .18 respectively with externalizing problems, .12 and .21 with internalizing problems and -.09 and -.18 with cognitive performance. However, when better controlled partial r coefficients (pr) were examined, results were statistically significant but trivial (at or below pr = .10) for externalizing (.07 for spanking, .08 for CP) and internalizing behaviors (.10 for spanking, insufficient studies for CP) and near the threshold of trivial for cognitive performance (-.11 for CP, insufficient studies for spanking). It is concluded that the impact of spanking and CP on the negative outcomes evaluated here (externalizing, internalizing behaviors and low cognitive performance) are minimal. It is advised that psychologists take a more nuanced approach in discussing the effects of spanking/CP with the general public, consistent with the size as well as the significance of their longitudinal associations with adverse outcomes.
Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim
Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.
Sedikides, Constantine; Gaertner, Lowell; Vevea, Jack L
C. Sedikides, L. Gaertner, and Y. Toguchi (2003) reported findings favoring the universality of self-enhancement. S. J. Heine (2005) challenged the authors' research on evidential and logical grounds. In response, the authors carried out 2 meta-analytic investigations. The results backed the C. Sedikides et al. (2003) theory and findings. Both Westerners and Easterners self-enhanced tactically. Westerners self-enhanced on attributes relevant to the cultural ideal of individualism, whereas Easterners self-enhanced on attributes relevant to the cultural ideal of collectivism (in both cases, because of the personal importance of the ideal). Self-enhancement motivation is universal, although its manifestations are strategically sensitive to cultural context. The authors respond to other aspects of Heine's critique by discussing why researchers should empirically validate the comparison dimension (individualistic vs. collectivistic) and defending why the better-than-average effect is a valid measure of self-enhancement.
Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C
This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Colquitt, J A; Conlon, D E; Wesson, M J; Porter, C O; Ng, K Y
The field of organizational justice continues to be marked by several important research questions, including the size of relationships among justice dimensions, the relative importance of different justice criteria, and the unique effects of justice dimensions on key outcomes. To address such questions, the authors conducted a meta-analytic review of 183 justice studies. The results suggest that although different justice dimensions are moderately to highly related, they contribute incremental variance explained in fairness perceptions. The results also illustrate the overall and unique relationships among distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and several organizational outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, evaluation of authority, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal, performance). These findings are reviewed in terms of their implications for future research on organizational justice.
Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica
This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…
Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.
This meta-analytic study focused on the quantitative integration and synthesis of the accumulated pedagogical research in undergraduate statistics education literature. These accumulated research studies compared the academic achievement of students who had been instructed using one of the various forms of small-group learning methods to those who…
Hartnell, Chad A.; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo
We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial…
Chan, Darius K-S.; Lam, Chun Bun; Chow, Suk Yee; Cheung, Shu Fai
This study was designed to examine the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace. Using a meta-analytic approach, we analyzed findings from 49 primary studies, with a total sample size of 89,382, to obtain estimates of the population mean effect size of the association between sexual harassment and…
Özdas, Faysal; Batdi, Veli
This thematic-based meta-analytic study aims to examine the effect of creativity on the academic success and learning retention scores of students. In the context of this aim, 18 out of 225 studies regarding creativity that were carried out between 2001 and 2011 have been obtained from certain national and international databases. The studies…
McDougall, Dennis; Ornelles, Cecily; Mersberg, Kawika; Amona, Kekama
In this meta-analytic review, we critically evaluate procedures and outcomes from nine intervention studies in which students used tactile-cued self-monitoring in educational settings. Findings suggest that most tactile-cued self-monitoring interventions have moderate to strong effects, have emerged only recently, and have not yet achieved the…
Savelsbergh, E.R.; Prins, G.T.; Rietbergen, C.; Fechner, S.; Vaessen, B.E.; Draijer, J.M.; Bakker, A.
Many teaching approaches have been tried to improve student attitudes and achievement in science and mathematics education. Achievement effects have been synthesized, but a systematic overview of attitude effects is missing. This study provides a meta analytic review based on 56 publications
Yonker, Julie E.; Schnabelrauch, Chelsea A.; DeHaan, Laura G.
The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the association between spirituality and religiosity (S/R) and psychological outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults. The outcome measures of risk behavior, depression, well-being, self-esteem, and personality were examined with respect to the influence of S/R across 75 independent…
Fritzell, Anni; Meer, Klaas Van Der
The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met
Kunanitthaworn, Natchaya; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Paiboonsithiwong, Salilthip; Songtrijuck, Natchaphon; Kuntawong, Pimolpun; Wedding, Danny
This study identified and investigated the relationship between demographics, mental health problems, positive personality traits and perceived social support and motivation in medical education (MME) among first year medical students. One hundred-thirty eight first year medical students completed the Academic Motivation Scale, Outcome Inventory, Strength Based Inventory, and Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support. Path analysis was conducted to identify relationships between the variables of interest and each type of motivation, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation. The mean age of the sample was 18.86 ± 0.74 and 60% of the subjects were female. Path analysis showed that extrinsic motivation was positively associated with being female, personal choice for studying medicine, and grade point average at high school. Intrinsic motivation was correlated with perceived family support, personal choice for studying medicine and the positive attribute of determination. Amotivation was related to being male, personal choice, and depression. While both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation were correlated, they were uncorrelated with amotivation. All variables accounted for 18, 13, and 45% of variance of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, respectively. Each type of motivation has different but related predictors. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation can be promoted, whereas amotivation represents an exclusive issue, one related more to depression, that needs to be reduced to not interfere with academic achievement and quality of life of medical students.
Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)); Meer, Klaas Van Der (Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (BG))
The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met
path problem requires finding a single shortest-path between given vertices s and t; ... Bridge in 1735, [5 – 10]. This problem led to the .... their advancements from new design paradigms, data structures ..... .
Brown, Lawrence D
Path dependence, a model first advanced to explain puzzles in the diffusion of technology, has lately won allegiance among analysts of the politics of public policy, including health care policy. Though the central premise of the model--that past events and decisions shape options for innovation in the present and future--is indisputable (indeed path dependence is, so to speak, too shallow to be false), the approach, at least as applied to health policy, suffers from ambiguities that undercut its claims to illuminate policy projects such as managed care, on which this article focuses. Because path dependence adds little more than marginal value to familiar images of the politics of policy--incrementalism, for one--analysts might do well to put it on the back burner and pursue instead "thick descriptions" that help them to distinguish different degrees of openness to exogenous change among diverse policy arenas.
Diana M.E. Torta
Full Text Available Anatomical, morphological and histological data have consistently shown that the cingulate cortex can be divided into four main regions. However, less is known about parcellations of the cingulate cortex when involved in active tasks. Here, we aimed at comparing how the pattern of clusterization of the cingulate cortex changes across different levels of task complexity. We parcellated the cingulate cortex using the results of a meta-analytic study and of three experimental studies. The experimental studies, which included two active tasks and a resting state protocol, were used to control the results obtained with the meta-analytic parcellation. We explored the meta-analytic parcellation by applying a meta-analytic clustering (MaC to papers retrieved from the BrainMap database. The MaC is a meta-analytic connectivity driven parcellation technique recently developed by our group which allowed us to parcellate the cingulate cortex on the basis of its pattern of co-activations during active tasks. The MaC results indicated that the cingulate cortex can be parcellated into three clusters. These clusters covered different percentages of the cingulate parenchyma and had a different density of foci, with the first cluster being more densely connected. The control experiments showed different clusterization results, suggesting that the co-activations of the cingulate cortex are highly dependent on the task that is tested. Our results highlight the importance of the cingulate cortex as a hub, which modifies its pattern of co-activations depending on the task requests and on the level of task complexity. The neurobiological meaning of these results is discussed.
Kurij Kazimir V.
Full Text Available Critical Path Method (CPM technique has become widely recognized as valuable tool for the planning and scheduling large construction projects. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical method for finding the Critical Path in the precedence network diagram where the duration of each activity is represented by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. This Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM uses a defuzzification formula for trapezoidal fuzzy number and applies it on the total float (slack time for each activity in the fuzzy precedence network to find the critical path. The method presented in this paper is very effective in determining the critical activities and finding the critical paths.
Steel, Piers; Taras, Vasyl; Uggerslev, Krista; Bosco, Frank
Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual's salary. At a national level, we used mean-based meta-analysis to construct a comprehensive cultural and SWB database. Results show some reversals from the individual level, particularly masculinity's facet of achievement orientation. In all, the happy nation has low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance, but is high in femininity and individualism, and these effects are interrelated but still partially independent from political and economic institutions. In short, culture matters for individual and national well-being.
Salsman, John M.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Jim, Heather S.L.; Munoz, Alexis R.; Merluzzi, Thomas V.; George, Login; Park, Crystal L.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Sherman, Allen C.; Snyder, Mallory A.; Fitchett, George
Purpose Religion and spirituality (R/S) are patient-centered factors and often resources for managing the emotional sequelae of the cancer experience. Studies investigating the relationship between R/S (e.g., beliefs, experiences, coping) and mental health (e.g., depression, anxiety, well-being) in cancer have used very heterogeneous measures, with correspondingly inconsistent results. A meaningful synthesis of these findings has been lacking; thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the research on R/S and mental health. Methods Four electronic databases were systematically reviewed and 2,073 abstracts met initial selection criteria. Reviewer pairs applied standardized coding schemes to extract correlational indices of the relationship between R/S and mental health. A total of 617 effect sizes from 148 eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analytic generalized estimating equations; subgroup analyses were performed to examine moderators of effects. Results The estimated mean correlation (Fisher z) was 0.19 (95% CI 0.16–0.23), which varied as a function of R/S dimension: affective, z=0.38 (95% CI 0.33-0.43); behavioral, z=0.03 (95% CI -0.02-0.08); cognitive, z=0.10 (95% CI 0.06-0.14); and ‘other,’ z=0.08 (95% CI 0.03-0.13). Aggregate, study-level demographic and clinical factors were not predictive of the relationship between R/S and mental health. There was little indication of publication or reporting biases. Conclusions The relationship between R/S and mental health is generally a positive one. The strength of that relationship is modest and varies as a function of R/S dimensions and mental health domains assessed. Identification of optimal R/S measures and more sophisticated methodological approaches are needed to advance research. PMID:26258536
Joseph, Dana L; Jin, Jing; Newman, Daniel A; O'Boyle, Ernest H
Recent empirical reviews have claimed a surprisingly strong relationship between job performance and self-reported emotional intelligence (also commonly called trait EI or mixed EI), suggesting self-reported/mixed EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance (e.g., ρ = .47; Joseph & Newman, 2010b). Results further suggest mixed EI can robustly predict job performance beyond cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits (Joseph & Newman, 2010b; O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). These criterion-related validity results are problematic, given the paucity of evidence and the questionable construct validity of mixed EI measures themselves. In the current research, we update and reevaluate existing evidence for mixed EI, in light of prior work regarding the content of mixed EI measures. Results of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that (a) the content of mixed EI measures strongly overlaps with a set of well-known psychological constructs (i.e., ability EI, self-efficacy, and self-rated performance, in addition to Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and general mental ability; multiple R = .79), (b) an updated estimate of the meta-analytic correlation between mixed EI and supervisor-rated job performance is ρ = .29, and (c) the mixed EI-job performance relationship becomes nil (β = -.02) after controlling for the set of covariates listed above. Findings help to establish the construct validity of mixed EI measures and further support an intuitive theoretical explanation for the uncommonly high association between mixed EI and job performance--mixed EI instruments assess a combination of ability EI and self-perceptions, in addition to personality and cognitive ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Gronau, Quentin Frederik; Duizer, Monique; Bakker, Marjan; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
Publication bias and questionable research practices have long been known to corrupt the published record. One method to assess the extent of this corruption is to examine the meta-analytic collection of significant p values, the so-called p -curve (Simonsohn, Nelson, & Simmons, 2014a). Inspired by statistical research on false-discovery rates, we propose a Bayesian mixture model analysis of the p -curve. Our mixture model assumes that significant p values arise either from the null-hypothesis H ₀ (when their distribution is uniform) or from the alternative hypothesis H1 (when their distribution is accounted for by a simple parametric model). The mixture model estimates the proportion of significant results that originate from H ₀, but it also estimates the probability that each specific p value originates from H ₀. We apply our model to 2 examples. The first concerns the set of 587 significant p values for all t tests published in the 2007 volumes of Psychonomic Bulletin & Review and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition; the mixture model reveals that p values higher than about .005 are more likely to stem from H ₀ than from H ₁. The second example concerns 159 significant p values from studies on social priming and 130 from yoked control studies. The results from the yoked controls confirm the findings from the first example, whereas the results from the social priming studies are difficult to interpret because they are sensitive to the prior specification. To maximize accessibility, we provide a web application that allows researchers to apply the mixture model to any set of significant p values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sanne P. A. Rasing
Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents is therefore imperative. We conducted a meta-analytic review of the effects of school-based and community-based prevention programs that are based on cognitive behavioral therapy with the primary goal preventing depression, anxiety, or both in high risk adolescents. Articles were obtained by searching databases and hand searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. The selection process yielded 32 articles in the meta-analyses. One article reported on two studies and three articles reported on both depression and anxiety. This resulted in a total of 36 studies, 23 on depression and 13 on anxiety. For depression prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, meta-analysis showed a small effect of prevention programs directly after the intervention, but no effect at 3–6 months and at 12 months follow-up. For anxiety prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, no short-term effect was found, nor at 12 months follow-up. Three to six months after the preventive intervention, symptoms of anxiety were significantly decreased. Although effects on depression and anxiety symptoms were small and temporary, current findings cautiously suggest that depression and anxiety prevention programs based on CBT might have small effects on mental health of adolescents. However, it also indicates that there is still much to be gained for prevention programs. Current findings and possibilities for future research are discussed in order to further
Hodges, Monica; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Lanktree, Cheryl; Gilbert, Alicia; Kletzka, Nicole Taylor
Multiple trauma exposures during childhood are associated with a range of psychological symptoms later in life. In this study, we examined whether the total number of different types of trauma experienced by children (cumulative trauma) is associated with the complexity of their subsequent symptomatology, where complexity is defined as the number of different symptom clusters simultaneously elevated into the clinical range. Children's symptoms in six different trauma-related areas (e.g., depression, anger, posttraumatic stress) were reported both by child clients and their caretakers in a clinical sample of 318 children. Path analysis revealed that accumulated exposure to multiple different trauma types predicts symptom complexity as reported by both children and their caretakers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to identify the direct and indirect effects of feijoa fruits (Acca sellowiana traitson pulp weight, in order to use these traits in indirect genotypes selection. Fruits of five feijoa plants were collected in Rio Grande do Sul, in the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Six traits were evaluated: diameter, length, total weight, pulp weight, peel thickness and number of seeds per fruit. In the path analysis, with or without ridge regression, pulp weight was considered as the basic variable, and the other traits were considered as explanatory variables. Total weight and fruit diameter had high direct effect, and are the main traits associated with pulp weight. These traits may serve as criteria for indirect selection to increase feijoa pulp weight, since they are easy to be measured.
Rattan, R.K.; Phung, C.V.; Singhal, S.K.; Deb, D.L.; Singh, A.K.
Influence of soil properties on labile zinc, as measured by diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and zinc-65, and self-diffusion coefficients of zinc was assessed on 22 surface soil samples varying widely in their characteristics following linear regression and path coefficient analysis techniques. DTPA extractable zinc could be predicted from organic carbon status and pH of the soil with a highly significant coefficient of determination (R 2 =0.84 ** ). Ninety seven per cent variation in isotopically exchangeable zinc was explained by pH, clay content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil. The self-diffusion coefficients (DaZn and DpZn) and buffer power of zinc exhibited exponential relationship with soil properties, pH being the most dominant one. Soil properties like organic matter, clay content etc. exhibited indirect effects on zinc diffusion rates via pH only. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs
Full Text Available For more than four decades, researchers have examined theoretically and empirically the relationship between internationalization and firm performance. While existing studies have provided important contributions, the stream of research still lacks consistency due to ambiguous findings on the internationalization-firm performance relationship. Moreover, previous research has often been limited to developed countries. The present study focuses on the emerging Chindia countries and determines the direction and the strength of the internationalization-firm performance relationship. Additionally, we have identified moderators of the relationship. Drawing on 21 studies, based on 9026 firms, we utilize a meta-analytic review to assess our hypotheses. Our results show that there is a significant and positive internationalization-firm performance relationship in Chindia countries. The effect of internationalization in India and China does not significantly differ. Moreover, we find that the effect of internationalization is significantly stronger in the United States as compared to the Chindia countries. The time period of data collection did not play an important role as a moderator. The present study contributes to the International Business literature by examining how and to which extent internationalization influences firm performance and offers implications for theory and practice as well as recommendations for future research.
Angie, Amanda D; Connelly, Shane; Waples, Ethan P; Kligyte, Vykinta
During the past three decades, researchers interested in emotions and cognition have attempted to understand the relationship that affect and emotions have with cognitive outcomes such as judgement and decision-making. Recent research has revealed the importance of examining more discrete emotions, showing that same-valence emotions (e.g., anger and fear) differentially impact judgement and decision-making outcomes. Narrative reviews of the literature (Lerner & Tiedens, 2006 ; Pham, 2007 ) have identified some under-researched topics, but provide a limited synthesis of findings. The purpose of this study was to review the research examining the influence of discrete emotions on judgement and decision-making outcomes and provide an assessment of the observed effects using a meta-analytic approach. Results, overall, show that discrete emotions have moderate to large effects on judgement and decision-making outcomes. However, moderator analyses revealed differential effects for study-design characteristics and emotion-manipulation characteristics by emotion type. Implications are discussed.
Lee, Eun-Suk; Park, Tae-Youn; Koo, Bonjin
Organizational identification has been argued to have a unique value in explaining individual attitudes and behaviors in organizations, as it involves the essential definition of entities (i.e., individual and organizational identities). This review seeks meta-analytic evidence of the argument by examining how this identity-relevant construct functions in the nexus of attitudinal/behavioral constructs. The findings show that, first, organizational identification is significantly associated with key attitudes (job involvement, job satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment) and behaviors (in-role performance and extra-role performance) in organizations. Second, in the classic psychological model of attitude-behavior relations (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), organizational identification is positioned as a basis from which general sets of those attitudes and behaviors are engendered; organizational identification has a direct effect on general behavior above and beyond the effect of general attitude. Third, the effects of organizational identification are moderated by national culture, a higher-level social context wherein the organization is embedded, such that the effects are stronger in a collectivistic culture than in an individualistic culture. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Greer, Lindred L; de Jong, Bart A; Schouten, Maartje E; Dannals, Jennifer E
Hierarchy has the potential to both benefit and harm team effectiveness. In this article, we meta-analytically investigate different explanations for why and when hierarchy helps or hurts team effectiveness, drawing on results from 54 prior studies (N = 13,914 teams). Our findings show that, on net, hierarchy negatively impacts team effectiveness (performance: ρ = -.08; viability: ρ = -.11), and that this effect is mediated by increased conflict-enabling states. Additionally, we show that the negative relationship between hierarchy and team performance is exacerbated by aspects of the team structure (i.e., membership instability, skill differentiation) and the hierarchy itself (i.e., mutability), which make hierarchical teams prone to conflict. The predictions regarding the positive effect of hierarchy on team performance as mediated by coordination-enabling processes, and the moderating roles of several aspects of team tasks (i.e., interdependence, complexity) and the hierarchy (i.e., form) were not supported, with the exception that task ambiguity enhanced the positive effects of hierarchy. Given that our findings largely support dysfunctional views on hierarchy, future research is needed to understand when and why hierarchy may be more likely to live up to its purported functional benefits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Dore, Marina Pereira; Farias, Cássia; Hamacher, Cláudia
The exploration and production of oil and gas reserves often result to drill cutting accumulations on the seafloor adjacent to drill locations. In this study, the detection of drilling influence on marine sediments was performed by meta-analytical comparison between data from pre- and post-drilling surveys undertaken in offshore Campos Basin, southeast of Brazil. Besides this overall appraisal on the geochemical variables, a multivariate assessment, considering only the post-drilling data, was performed. Among the variables, fines content, carbonates, total organic carbon, barium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, only barium, copper, and hydrocarbons were related to drilling impacts. In relation to the point of discharge, relative elevated levels in the post-drilling campaigns were observed preferentially up to 500 m in the northeast and southwest directions, associated to the Brazil Current-predominant direction. Other distributed concentrations in the surroundings seem to indicate the dilution and dispersion of drilling waste promoted by meteoceanographic factors.
Kvaale, Erlend P; Haslam, Nick; Gottdiener, William H
Reducing stigma is crucial for facilitating recovery from psychological problems. Viewing these problems biomedically may reduce the tendency to blame affected persons, but critics have cautioned that it could also increase other facets of stigma. We report on the first meta-analytic review of the effects of biogenetic explanations on stigma. A comprehensive search yielded 28 eligible experimental studies. Four separate meta-analyses (Ns=1207-3469) assessed the effects of biogenetic explanations on blame, perceived dangerousness, social distance, and prognostic pessimism. We found that biogenetic explanations reduce blame (Hedges g=-0.324) but induce pessimism (Hedges g=0.263). We also found that biogenetic explanations increase endorsement of the stereotype that people with psychological problems are dangerous (Hedges g=0.198), although this result could reflect publication bias. Finally, we found that biogenetic explanations do not typically affect social distance. Promoting biogenetic explanations to alleviate blame may induce pessimism and set the stage for self-fulfilling prophecies that could hamper recovery from psychological problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L; Meehan, Jeffrey C; Rhatigan, Deborah L; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Keen, Stefanie M
The present investigation employed meta-analytic procedures to quantitatively evaluate the empirical evidence on the relationship between drug abuse and aggression between intimate partners. Data from 96 studies yielding 547 effect sizes indicated that increases in drug use and drug-related problems were significantly associated with increases in aggression between intimate partners (d= .27). Cocaine emerged as the illicit substance with the strongest relationship to psychological, physical, and sexual aggression (ds= .39 to .62). Marijuana was also identified as having a significant association with partner aggression. Results showed comparable effect sizes for men and women, regardless of the sex of the drug user and/or perpetrator of partner aggression, with female reports of aggression having yielded larger effect sizes than male reports. Moderator analyses revealed that relative to other groups, married or cohabiting couples and Black participants evidenced significantly stronger effect sizes. The findings are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms linking drugs to partner aggression, and implications for future research are discussed in terms of focusing on conducting studies that assess the interaction of context and temporal sequencing of drugs and partner aggression.
Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B; Baker, Mark; Harris, Tyler; Stephenson, David
Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality. In this meta-analytic review, our objective is to establish the overall and relative magnitude of social isolation and loneliness and to examine possible moderators. We conducted a literature search of studies (January 1980 to February 2014) using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and Google Scholar. The included studies provided quantitative data on mortality as affected by loneliness, social isolation, or living alone. Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively. We found no differences between measures of objective and subjective social isolation. Results remain consistent across gender, length of follow-up, and world region, but initial health status has an influence on the findings. Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years. Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.
Viñas-Guasch, Nestor; Wu, Yan Jing
The putamen is a subcortical structure that forms part of the dorsal striatum of basal ganglia, and has traditionally been associated with reinforcement learning and motor control, including speech articulation. However, recent studies have shown involvement of the left putamen in other language functions such as bilingual language processing (Abutalebi et al. 2012) and production, with some authors arguing for functional segregation of anterior and posterior putamen (Oberhuber et al. 2013). A further step in exploring the role of putamen in language would involve identifying the network of coactivations of not only the left, but also the right putamen, given the involvement of right hemisphere in high order language functions (Vigneau et al. 2011). Here, a meta-analytic connectivity modeling technique was used to determine the patterns of coactivation of anterior and bilateral putamen in the language domain. Based on previous evidence, we hypothesized that left putamen coactivations would include brain regions directly associated with language processing, whereas right putamen coactivations would encompass regions involved in broader semantic processes, such as memory and visual imagery. The results showed that left anterior putamen coactivated with clusters predominantly in left hemisphere, encompassing regions directly associated with language processing, a left posterior putamen network spanning both hemispheres, and cerebellum. In right hemisphere, coactivations were in both hemispheres, in regions associated with visual and orthographic processing. These results confirm the differential involvement of right and left putamen in different language components, thus highlighting the need for further research into the role of putamen in language.
Two of the key tasks facing the language-learning infant lie at the level of phonology: establishing which sounds are contrastive in the native inventory, and determining what their possible syllabic positions and permissible combinations (phonotactics) are. In 2002-2003, two theoretical proposals, one bearing on how infants can learn sounds (Maye, Werker, & Gerken, 2002) and the other on phonotactics (Chambers, Onishi, & Fisher, 2003), were put forward on the pages of Cognition, each supported by two laboratory experiments, wherein a group of infants was briefly exposed to a set of pseudo-words, and plausible phonological generalizations were tested subsequently. These two papers have received considerable attention from the general scientific community, and inspired a flurry of follow-up work. In the context of questions regarding the replicability of psychological science, the present work uses a meta-analytic approach to appraise extant empirical evidence for infant phonological learning in the laboratory. It is found that neither seminal finding (on learning sounds and learning phonotactics) holds up when close methodological replications are integrated, although less close methodological replications do provide some evidence in favor of the sound learning strand of work. Implications for authors and readers of this literature are drawn out. It would be desirable that additional mechanisms for phonological learning be explored, and that future infant laboratory work employ paradigms that rely on constrained and unambiguous links between experimental exposure and measured infant behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Cuijpers, Pim; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne; Mahtani, Kamal R; Vellinga, Akke; Vicens, Caterina; López-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; García-Campayo, Javier
Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people worldwide. Meta-analyses of MBIs have become popular, but little is known about their efficacy in primary care. Our aim was to investigate the application and efficacy of MBIs that address primary care patients. We performed a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials addressing the effect of MBIs in adult patients recruited from primary care settings. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and Cochrane guidelines were followed. Effect sizes were calculated with the Hedges g in random effects models. The meta-analyses were based on 6 trials having a total of 553 patients. The overall effect size of MBI compared with a control condition for improving general health was moderate (g = 0.48; P = .002), with moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 59; P .05). Although the number of randomized controlled trials applying MBIs in primary care is still limited, our results suggest that these interventions are promising for the mental health and quality of life of primary care patients. We discuss innovative approaches for implementing MBIs, such as complex intervention and stepped care. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Simpson, David M; Leonhardt, Nathan D; Hawkins, Alan J
Despite recent policy initiatives and substantial federal funding of individually oriented relationship education programs for youth, there have been no meta-analytic reviews of this growing field. This meta-analytic study draws on 17 control-group studies and 13 one-group/pre-post studies to evaluate the effectiveness of relationship education programs on adolescents' and emerging adults' relationship knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Overall, control-group studies produced a medium effect (d = .36); one-group/pre-post studies also produced a medium effect (d = .47). However, the lack of studies with long-term follow-ups of relationship behaviors in the young adult years is a serious weakness in the field, limiting what we can say about the value of these programs for helping youth achieve their aspirations for healthy romantic relationships and stable marriages.
Zhu, Zhen-xin; Zhang, Cheng-qi; Tang, Fang; Song, Xin-hong; Xue, Fu-zhong
To evaluate the relationship between lifestyle habits and the components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Based on the routine health check-up system in a certain Center for Health Management of Shandong Province, a longitudinal surveillance health check-up cohort from 2005 to 2010 was set up. There were 13 225 urban workers in Jinan included in the analysis. The content of the survey included demographic information, medical history, lifestyle habits, body mass index (BMI) and the level of blood pressure, fasting blood-glucose, and blood lipid, etc. The distribution of BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood-glucose, blood lipid and lifestyle habits between MS patients and non-MS population was compared, latent variables were extracted by exploratory factor analysis to determine the structure model, and then a partial least squares path model was constructed between lifestyle habits and the components of MS. Participants'age was (46.62 ± 12.16) years old. The overall prevalence of the MS was 22.43% (2967/13 225), 26.49% (2535/9570) in males and 11.82% (432/3655) in females. The prevalence of the MS was statistically different between males and females (χ(2) = 327.08, P alcohol consumption has statistical difference (χ(2) = 374.22, P smoking status was statistically significant (χ(2) = 115.86, P smoking was 59.72% (1772/2967), 6.24% (185/2967), 34.04% (1010/2967) respectively, while in non-MS population was 70.03% (7184/10 258), 5.35% (549/10 258), 24.61% (2525/10 258) respectively. Both lifestyle habits and the components of MS were attributable to only one latent variable. After adjustment for age and gender, the path coefficient between the latent component of lifestyle habits and the latent component of MS was 0.22 with statistical significance (t = 6.46, P Unhealthy lifestyle habits are closely related to MS. Meat diet, excessive drinking and smoking are risk factors for MS.
Cabrera-Perona, V; Buunk, A P; Terol-Cantero, M C; Quiles-Marcos, Y; Martín-Aragón, M
In addition to coping strategies, social comparison may play a role in illness adjustment. However, little is known about the role of contrast and identification in social comparison in adaptation to fibromyalgia. To evaluate through a path analysis in a sample of fibromyalgia patients, the association between identification and contrast in social comparison, catastrophising and specific health outcomes (fibromyalgia illness impact and psychological distress). 131 Spanish fibromyalgia outpatients (mean age: 50.15, SD = 11.1) filled out a questionnaire. We present a model that explained 33% of the variance in catastrophising by direct effects of more use of upward contrast and downward identification. In addition, 35% of fibromyalgia illness impact variance was explained by less upward identification, more upward contrast and more catastrophising and 42% of the variance in psychological distress by a direct effect of more use of upward contrast together with higher fibromyalgia illness impact. We suggest that intervention programmes with chronic pain and fibromyalgia patients should focus on enhancing the use of upward identification in social comparison, and on minimising the use of upward contrast and downward identification in social comparison.
the acceptable minimum MSE value of 6dB for good signal propagation. Keywords: macrocellular areas ... itate high-speed data communications in ad- dition to voice calls. ... On the basis of the mobile radio environment, path loss predic-.
Full Text Available A new vibration model is built by introducing the head-cover vibration transfer path based on a previous analysis of the vertical vibration model for hydropower station units and powerhouses. This research focuses on disturbance- and parameter-related transfer paths in a practical situation. In a complex situation, the application of the stochastic perturbation method is expanded using an algebra synthesis method the Hadamard product, and theoretical analyses, and numerical simulations of transfer paths in the new vibration model are carried out through the expanded perturbation method. The path transfer force, the path transmissibility, and the path disturbance ranges in the frequency domain are provided. The results indicate that the methods proposed in this study can efficiently reduce the disturbance range and can accurately analyze the transfer paths of hydraulic-source vertical vibration in hydropower stations.
Chaplin, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia
Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences, and moderators of differences, in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant, but very small, gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = −.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = −.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = −.20) and adolescence (g = −.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = −.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children’s healthy and maladaptive development. PMID:23231534
Chaplin, Tara M; Aldao, Amelia
Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences and moderators of differences in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant but very small gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = -.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = -.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = -.20) and adolescence (g = -.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = -.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children's healthy and maladaptive development. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Pan, Steven C; Rickard, Timothy C
Attempting recall of information from memory, as occurs when taking a practice test, is one of the most potent training techniques known to learning science. However, does testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts? In the present article, we report the findings of the first comprehensive meta-analytic review into that question. Our review encompassed 192 transfer effect sizes extracted from 122 experiments and 67 published and unpublished articles (N = 10,382) that together comprise more than 40 years of research. A random-effects model revealed that testing can yield transferrable learning as measured relative to a nontesting reexposure control condition (d = 0.40, 95% CI [0.31, 0.50]). That transfer of learning is greatest across test formats, to application and inference questions, to problems involving medical diagnoses, and to mediator and related word cues; it is weakest to rearranged stimulus-response items, to untested materials seen during initial study, and to problems involving worked examples. Moderator analyses further indicated that response congruency and elaborated retrieval practice, as well as initial test performance, strongly influence the likelihood of positive transfer. In two assessments for publication bias using PET-PEESE and various selection methods, the moderator effect sizes were minimally affected. However, the intercept predictions were substantially reduced, often indicating no positive transfer when none of the aforementioned moderators are present. Overall, our results motivate a three-factor framework for transfer of test-enhanced learning and have practical implications for the effective use of practice testing in educational and other training contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles
The authors report a systematic meta-analytic review of the relationships among 3 of the most widely studied measures of children's phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rime awareness, and verbal short-term memory) and children's word reading skills. The review included both extreme group studies and correlational studies with unselected samples (235 studies were included, and 995 effect sizes were calculated). Results from extreme group comparisons indicated that children with dyslexia show a large deficit on phonemic awareness in relation to typically developing children of the same age (pooled effect size estimate: -1.37) and children matched on reading level (pooled effect size estimate: -0.57). There were significantly smaller group deficits on both rime awareness and verbal short-term memory (pooled effect size estimates: rime skills in relation to age-matched controls, -0.93, and reading-level controls, -0.37; verbal short-term memory skills in relation to age-matched controls, -0.71, and reading-level controls, -0.09). Analyses of studies of unselected samples showed that phonemic awareness was the strongest correlate of individual differences in word reading ability and that this effect remained reliable after controlling for variations in both verbal short-term memory and rime awareness. These findings support the pivotal role of phonemic awareness as a predictor of individual differences in reading development. We discuss whether such a relationship is a causal one and the implications of research in this area for current approaches to the teaching of reading and interventions for children with reading difficulties.
Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang
This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…
Deng, Kaiwen; Tao, Yeqin; Tang, Wenhan; He, Fuyuan; Liu, Wenlong; Shi, Jilian; Yang, Yantao; Zhou, Yiqun; Chang, Xiaorong
With human placed in the whole nature, by following the biologic evolution path, the property of channel structure for "imprinting template" in meridian and zang-fu was explored with supramolecular chemistry. In the history of biologic evolution, each molecule in "molecule society" gradually developed into various highly-ordered supramolecular bodies based on self-identification, self-assembly, self-organization, self-replicating of"imprinting template", and thereby the original biochemical system was established, and finally evolved into human. In the forming process of supramolecular bodies, the channel structure of"imprinting template" in guest supramolecular bodies would be kept by host supramolecular bodies, and communicate with the outside to exchange materials, energy, information, otherwise life phenomenon could not continue, for which it was the chemical nature of biolo-gical supramolecular bodies for body to develop meridian. Therefore, the human was a gigantic and complicated supramolecules body in biological nature, and possessed the supramolecules "imprinting template" at each stage of evolution, for which the meridians were formed. When meridians converged, acupoints appeared; when acupointsconverged, zang-fu appeared. With the promotion of the blood from heart, according to"imprinting template", the guest supramolecular bodies and host meridian produced qi -analysis, which was the qi -phenomenon of guest in meridian. It presented as zang-fu image of physiology and pathology as well as action regularities of medication and acupuncture tolerance, by which current various meridian viewpoints could be explained and propose the hypothesis of meridian supramolecular bodies. The meridian and its phenomenon was decide by its "imprinting template" of supramolecular bodies and self-reaction regularities, which abided through the living nature. This was the substance for meridian biology.
Full Text Available This research studied the phenotypic correlation coefficients between three Sorghum species, namely forage sorghum S. bicolor Moench. (c. NS-Džin, Sudan grass S. sudanense L. (c. Zora and interspecies hybrid S. bicolor x S. sudanense (c. Siloking. The analyses were performed on plant material samples taken from the first cutting, when plants were in the beginning phase of tasseling. The following morphologic traits were studied: plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem leaf weight and mean stem weight. Additionally, their direct and indirect effect on dependent variable green biomass yield was analyzed, for which path coefficients were calculated. This method enables more quality and full insight into relations existing among the studied traits, more precise establishment of cause-effect connections among them, as well as to separate direct from indirect effects of any particular trait on dependent variable, being biomass yield in this case. The analysis of phenotypic coefficients revealed differences in direct and indirect effect of certain traits on dependent variable. Sudan grass had the highest stem (2.281 m and most leaves per plant (7.917. Forage sorghum had the largest leaf weight per plant (49.05 g, while interspecies hybrid had the highest mean stem weight (80.798 g. Variations of these morphologic traits among species were found to be significant and very significant. Morphologic traits - stem height and weight significantly affected sorghum green biomass yield. Leaf number and leaf portion in total biomass were negatively correlated with yield. Cultivars differed significantly regarding morphologic and productive traits. Sudan grass had the lowest green biomass yield, while forage sorghum and interspecies hybrid had significant yield increase.
Salsman, John M; Pustejovsky, James E; Jim, Heather S L; Munoz, Alexis R; Merluzzi, Thomas V; George, Login; Park, Crystal L; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Sherman, Allen C; Snyder, Mallory A; Fitchett, George
Religion and spirituality (R/S) are patient-centered factors and often are resources for managing the emotional sequelae of the cancer experience. Studies investigating the correlation between R/S (eg, beliefs, experiences, coping) and mental health (eg, depression, anxiety, well being) in cancer have used very heterogeneous measures and have produced correspondingly inconsistent results. A meaningful synthesis of these findings has been lacking; thus, the objective of this review was to conduct a meta-analysis of the research on R/S and mental health. Four electronic databases were systematically reviewed, and 2073 abstracts met initial selection criteria. Reviewer pairs applied standardized coding schemes to extract indices of the correlation between R/S and mental health. In total, 617 effect sizes from 148 eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analytic generalized estimating equations, and subgroup analyses were performed to examine moderators of effects. The estimated mean correlation (Fisher z) was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.23), which varied as a function of R/S dimensions: affective R/S (z = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.33-0.43), behavioral R/S (z = 0.03; 95% CI, -0.02-0.08), cognitive R/S (z = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.06-0.14), and 'other' R/S (z = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.03-0.13). Aggregate, study-level demographic and clinical factors were not predictive of the relation between R/S and mental health. There was little indication of publication or reporting biases. The correlation between R/S and mental health generally was positive. The strength of that correlation was modest and varied as a function of the R/S dimensions and mental health domains assessed. The identification of optimal R/S measures and more sophisticated methodological approaches are needed to advance research. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Ortega-Arranz, Hector; Gonzalez-Escribano, Arturo
Many applications in different domains need to calculate the shortest-path between two points in a graph. In this paper we describe this shortest path problem in detail, starting with the classic Dijkstra's algorithm and moving to more advanced solutions that are currently applied to road network routing, including the use of heuristics and precomputation techniques. Since several of these improvements involve subtle changes to the search space, it may be difficult to appreciate their benefits in terms of time or space requirements. To make methods more comprehensive and to facilitate their co
Dec 12, 2011 ... Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient ...
A.G. Holder; J.F. Sturm; S. Zhang (Shuzhong)
textabstractIn this paper we consider properties of the central path and the analytic center of the optimal face in the context of parametric linear programming. We first show that if the right-hand side vector of a standard linear program is perturbed, then the analytic center of the optimal face
Hartog, den F.T.H.; Balm, M.; Jong, de C.M.; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.
A new OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways (RG). It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and to draw evolutionary paths for the mid-to-long term. It is concluded that set-top boxes and broadband modems
Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Chen, Jian-biao; Ren, Jian-ying
By using the geometrical optics and physical optics method, the models of wedge plate interference optical path, Michelson interferometer and Mach Zehnder interferometer thus three different active interference pattern are built. The optical path difference (OPD) launched by different interference patterns, fringe spacing and contrast expression have been derived. The results show that far field interference peak intensity of the wedge plate interference is small, so the detection distance is limited, Michelson interferometer with low contrast affects the performance of detection system, Mach Zehnder interferometer has greater advantages in peak intensity, the variable range of interference fringe spacing and contrast ratio. The results of this study are useful for the theoretical research and practical application of laser active interference detection.
Minh, David D. L.; Adib, Artur B.
We apply path integrals to study nonequilibrium work theorems in the context of Brownian dynamics, deriving in particular the equations of motion governing the most typical and most dominant trajectories. For the analytically soluble cases of a moving harmonic potential and a harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent natural frequency, we find such trajectories, evaluate the work-weighted propagators, and validate Jarzynski’s equality.
Gallant, Bryan M.
This thesis explores the deployment of a free electron laser (FEL) weapon system in a shipboard vibration environment. A concept solid model of a shipboard FEL is developed and used as a basis for a finite element model which is subjected to vibration simulation in MATLAB. Vibration input is obtained from ship shock trials data and wave excited motion data from ship motion simulation software. Emphasis is placed on the motion of electron beam path components of the FEL and the feasibility of ...
Kang, S. K.; Shin, Y. C.
The key benefit to the common use of the critical function approach for safety and mission functions is that monitoring methods expected to be used by operaotrs during emergency condition are used continuously during normal operation. For each critical safety function there exists two or more success paths. Information Processing System monitors the availability, operation state and performance of the critical function success paths. In this paper, We have studied System Function Analysis(SFA) for the design of Success Path Alarm(SPA) for applying in KNGR. In here, we thought that SFA will help the design of SPA. The SFA can be applicable to the design of SPA according to NUREG-0711, also can induce the algorithm for alarm of system, train and flow path. We present a method of system function analysis for designing Success Path Alarm
The technical program and contract model as well as project management system and preliminary design defined in the early stage of nuclear power project are the key condition impact on the quality, schedule and cost of the nuclear power project. This paper, taking the CPR1000 coastal nuclear power station as an example, analyzes the critical path in the early stage of nuclear power project for five fields, i.e. licensing, design and procurement, site preparation, tender of construction contracts and construction preparation, and organization. (authors)
Calkins, Monica E; Iacono, William G; Ones, Deniz S
Several forms of eye movement dysfunction (EMD) are regarded as promising candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Discrepancies in individual study results have led to inconsistent conclusions regarding particular aspects of EMD in relatives of schizophrenia patients. To quantitatively evaluate and compare the candidacy of smooth pursuit, saccade and fixation deficits in first-degree biological relatives, we conducted a set of meta-analytic investigations. Among 18 measures of EMD, memory-guided saccade accuracy and error rate, global smooth pursuit dysfunction, intrusive saccades during fixation, antisaccade error rate and smooth pursuit closed-loop gain emerged as best differentiating relatives from controls (standardized mean differences ranged from .46 to .66), with no significant differences among these measures. Anticipatory saccades, but no other smooth pursuit component measures were also increased in relatives. Visually-guided reflexive saccades were largely normal. Moderator analyses examining design characteristics revealed few variables affecting the magnitude of the meta-analytically observed effects. Moderate effect sizes of relatives v. controls in selective aspects of EMD supports their endophenotype potential. Future work should focus on facilitating endophenotype utility through attention to heterogeneity of EMD performance, relationships among forms of EMD, and application in molecular genetics studies.
Blumenthal, J A
Courts and legislatures have begun to develop the "reasonable woman standard" (RWS) as a criterion for deciding sexual harassment trials. This standard rests on assumptions of a "wide divergence" between the perceptions of men and women when viewing social-sexual behavior that may be considered harassing. Narrative reviews of the literature on such perceptions have suggested that these assumptions are only minimally supported. To test these assumptions quantitatively, a meta-analytic review was conducted that assessed the size, stability, and moderators of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment. The effect of the actor's status relative to the target also was evaluated meta-analytically, as one alternative to the importance of gender effects. Results supported the claims of narrative reviews for a relatively small gender effect, and draw attention to the status effect. In discussing legal implications of the present findings, earlier claims are echoed suggesting caution in establishing the reasonable woman standard, and one alternative to the RWS, the "reasonable victim standard," is discussed.
Nobuoki, Eshima; Minoru, Tabata; Geng, Zhi; Department of Medical Information Analysis, Faculty of Medicine, Oita Medical University; Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University; Department of Probability and Statistics, Peking University
This paper discusses path analysis of categorical variables with logistic regression models. The total, direct and indirect effects in fully recursive causal systems are considered by using model parameters. These effects can be explained in terms of log odds ratios, uncertainty differences, and an inner product of explanatory variables and a response variable. A study on food choice of alligators as a numerical exampleis reanalysed to illustrate the present approach.
Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in . Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP
Griffel, Benjamin; Zia, Mohammad K; Fridman, Vladamir; Saponieri, Cesare; Semmlow, John L
Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the acoustic approach, a noninvasive and cost-effective method, would greatly improve the outcome of CAD patients. To detect CAD, we analyze diastolic sounds for possible CAD murmurs. We observed diastolic sounds to exhibit 1/f structure and developed a new method, path length entropy (PLE) and a scaled version (SPLE), to characterize this structure to improve CAD detection. We compare SPLE results to Hurst exponent, Sample entropy and Multiscale entropy for distinguishing between normal and CAD patients. SPLE achieved a sensitivity-specificity of 80%-81%, the best of the tested methods. However, PLE and SPLE are not sufficient to prove nonlinearity, and evaluation using surrogate data suggests that our cardiovascular sound recordings do not contain significant nonlinear properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steel, Piers; Taras, Vasyl; Uggerslev, Krista; Bosco, Frank
Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual’s salary. At a national level, we used mean-based meta-analysis to construct a comprehensive cultural and SWB database. Results show some reversals from the individual level, particularly masculinity’s facet of achievement orientation. In all, the happy nation has low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance, but is high in femininity and individualism, and these effects are interrelated but still partially independent from political and economic institutions. In short, culture matters for individual and national well-being. PMID:28770649
Full Text Available Achieving sustainability in sports events requires effective management, political leadership, and ensuring that all stakeholders adhere to a sustainable philosophy. In order to stage a mega-event, tremendous infrastructure and construction are required with significant consumption of private and public resources. Multiple stakeholder groups are recognized as key entities responsible for an efficient trigger of a mega-event. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of Korean sport literature with regard to CSR practices (ES-linked of different stakeholder groups and examine through a meta-analytic methodology their impact on the “images” of these groups. The CMA program was utilized as the main analysis tool to calculate the effect sizes from the selected empirical studies. The results indicated that CSR performance of governmental organizations had the highest effect size level on their own image (brand identity as perceived by visitors and participants. Among the stakeholder groups, effect size levels of their CSR performances were followed by those of corporate sponsors and professional teams. It was found that stakeholder groups are pressured to maintain a balance between financial performance, consumer well-being, and brand identity to bring in external investment.
Bogusch, Leah M; O'Brien, William H
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have improved psychological outcomes for multiple chronic health conditions, including diabetes. A meta-analytic review of the literature was conducted on all located studies (n = 14) investigating MBIs that targeted diabetes-related distress (DRD) and diabetes-related outcomes among people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. PsychInfo, PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for MBIs that were designed to improve DRD and other secondary outcomes, including quality of life and measures of metabolic control. A meta-analysis of these outcomes uncovered small-to-moderate effect sizes for intervention studies measuring pretreatment to posttreatment changes in DRD and metabolic control among treatment group participants. However, the pretreatment to follow-up comparisons for DRD and metabolic control were small and unreliable. For control groups, all pre-treatment to post-treatment and pre-treatment to follow-up comparisons were unreliable for all outcomes. A moderate effect size for treatment-control comparisons was found for intervention studies measuring quality of life outcomes at posttreatment, but not at follow-up comparisons. All other effect sizes for treatment-control comparisons were unreliable. Limitations and implications for MBIs among individuals with diabetes are discussed.
Ferguson, Christopher John
Video game violence has become a highly politicized issue for scientists and the general public. There is continuing concern that playing violent video games may increase the risk of aggression in players. Less often discussed is the possibility that playing violent video games may promote certain positive developments, particularly related to visuospatial cognition. The objective of the current article was to conduct a meta-analytic review of studies that examine the impact of violent video games on both aggressive behavior and visuospatial cognition in order to understand the full impact of such games. A detailed literature search was used to identify peer-reviewed articles addressing violent video game effects. Effect sizes r (a common measure of effect size based on the correlational coefficient) were calculated for all included studies. Effect sizes were adjusted for observed publication bias. Results indicated that publication bias was a problem for studies of both aggressive behavior and visuospatial cognition. Once corrected for publication bias, studies of video game violence provided no support for the hypothesis that violent video game playing is associated with higher aggression. However playing violent video games remained related to higher visuospatial cognition (r (x) = 0.36). Results from the current analysis did not support the conclusion that violent video game playing leads to aggressive behavior. However, violent video game playing was associated with higher visuospatial cognition. It may be advisable to reframe the violent video game debate in reference to potential costs and benefits of this medium.
Nahrgang, Jennifer D; Morgeson, Frederick P; Hofmann, David A
In this article, we develop and meta-analytically test the relationship between job demands and resources and burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes in the workplace. In a meta-analysis of 203 independent samples (N = 186,440), we found support for a health impairment process and for a motivational process as mechanisms through which job demands and resources relate to safety outcomes. In particular, we found that job demands such as risks and hazards and complexity impair employees' health and positively relate to burnout. Likewise, we found support for job resources such as knowledge, autonomy, and a supportive environment motivating employees and positively relating to engagement. Job demands were found to hinder an employee with a negative relationship to engagement, whereas job resources were found to negatively relate to burnout. Finally, we found that burnout was negatively related to working safely but that engagement motivated employees and was positively related to working safely. Across industries, risks and hazards was the most consistent job demand and a supportive environment was the most consistent job resource in terms of explaining variance in burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. The type of job demand that explained the most variance differed by industry, whereas a supportive environment remained consistent in explaining the most variance in all industries.
Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Young Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Solar array deployment analysis is conducted considering the path-dependent nonlinear behavior of tape spring hinge. Such hinges offer many advantages over rigid hinges; they are self-deployable, self-locking, lightweight, and simple. However, they show strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to rotation angle, making deployment analysis difficult. To accurately consider the characteristics of tape spring hinges for deployment analysis, a path-dependent path identification (PI) method for tracing the previous path of the moment is introduced. To analyze the deployment motion, the governing equation for solar array deployment is derived within the framework of Kane's dynamic equation for three deployable solar panels. The numerical solution is compared with the Recurdyn's multi-body dynamics analysis solution using experimentally measured moment-rotation profiles. Solar array deployment analysis is conducted by considering and not considering the path-dependent PI method. This simulation example shows that the proposed path-dependent PI method is very effective for accurately predicting the deployment motion.
Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gou, Xiaolong [School of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
A direct path flux analysis (PFA) method for kinetic mechanism reduction is proposed and validated by using high temperature ignition, perfect stirred reactors, and steady and unsteady flame propagations of n-heptane and n-decane/air mixtures. The formation and consumption fluxes of each species at multiple reaction path generations are analyzed and used to identify the important reaction pathways and the associated species. The formation and consumption path fluxes used in this method retain flux conservation information and are used to define the path indexes for the first and the second generation reaction paths related to a targeted species. Based on the indexes of each reaction path for the first and second generations, different sized reduced chemical mechanisms which contain different number of species are generated. The reduced mechanisms of n-heptane and n-decane obtained by using the present method are compared to those generated by the direct relation graph (DRG) method. The reaction path analysis for n-decane is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the present method. The comparisons of the ignition delay times, flame propagation speeds, flame structures, and unsteady spherical flame propagation processes showed that with either the same or significantly less number of species, the reduced mechanisms generated by the present PFA are more accurate than that of DRG in a broad range of initial pressures and temperatures. The method is also integrated with the dynamic multi-timescale method and a further increase of computation efficiency is achieved. (author)
Full Text Available A strategy of cooperative path planning for a master-slave multiple robot system is presented in this paper. The path planning method is based on motion constraints between the end-effectors of cooperative robots. Cooperation motions have been classified into three types by relative motions between end-effectors of master and slave robots, which is concurrent cooperation, coupled synchronous cooperation and combined synchronous cooperation. Based on this classification, position /orientation constraints and joint velocity constraints are explored in-depth here. In order to validate the path planning method and the theoretical developments in motion constraints analysis, representative experiments based on two industrial robots, Motoman VA1400 and HP20, are provided at the end of the paper. The experimental results have proved both the effectiveness of the path planning method and the correctness of the constraints analysis.
Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)
For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.
Crawford, Eean R; Lepine, Jeffery A; Rich, Bruce Louis
We refine and extend the job demands-resources model with theory regarding appraisal of stressors to account for inconsistencies in relationships between demands and engagement, and we test the revised theory using meta-analytic structural modeling. Results indicate support for the refined and updated theory. First, demands and burnout were positively associated, whereas resources and burnout were negatively associated. Second, whereas relationships among resources and engagement were consistently positive, relationships among demands and engagement were highly dependent on the nature of the demand. Demands that employees tend to appraise as hindrances were negatively associated with engagement, and demands that employees tend to appraise as challenges were positively associated with engagement. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Hartnell, Chad A; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo
We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial performance). The paper also tests theoretical suppositions undergirding the CVF by investigating the framework's nomological validity and proposed internal structure (i.e., interrelationships among culture types). Results based on data from 84 empirical studies with 94 independent samples indicate that clan, adhocracy, and market cultures are differentially and positively associated with the effectiveness criteria, though not always as hypothesized. The findings provide mixed support for the CVF's nomological validity and fail to support aspects of the CVF's proposed internal structure. We propose an alternative theoretical approach to the CVF and delineate directions for future research.
Menting, Ankie T A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
The present meta-analytic review examined effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training (IYPT) regarding disruptive and prosocial child behavior, and aimed to explain variability in intervention outcomes. Fifty studies, in which an intervention group receiving the IYPT was compared to a comparison group immediately after intervention, were included in the analyses. Results showed that the IYPT is an effective intervention. Positive effects for distinct outcomes and distinct informants were found, including a mean effect size of d=.27 concerning disruptive child behavior across informants. For parental report, treatment studies were associated with larger effects (d=.50) than indicated (d=.20) and selective (d=.13) prevention studies. Furthermore, initial severity of child behavior revealed to be the strongest predictor of intervention effects, with larger effects for studies including more severe cases. Findings indicate that the IYPT is successful in improving child behavior in a diverse range of families, and that the parent program may be considered well-established. © 2013.
Jasinski, Lindsey J; Berry, David T R; Shandera, Anni L; Clark, Jessica A
Twenty-four studies utilizing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span subtest--either the Reliable Digit Span (RDS) or Age-Corrected Scaled Score (DS-ACSS) variant--for malingering detection were meta-analytically reviewed to evaluate their effectiveness in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction. RDS and DS-ACSS effectively discriminated between honest responders and dissimulators, with average weighted effect sizes of 1.34 and 1.08, respectively. No significant differences were found between RDS and DS-ACSS. Similarly, no differences were found between the Digit Span subtest from the WAIS or Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Strong specificity and moderate sensitivity were observed, and optimal cutting scores are recommended.
Mordukhovich, Boris S
Convex optimization has an increasing impact on many areas of mathematics, applied sciences, and practical applications. It is now being taught at many universities and being used by researchers of different fields. As convex analysis is the mathematical foundation for convex optimization, having deep knowledge of convex analysis helps students and researchers apply its tools more effectively. The main goal of this book is to provide an easy access to the most fundamental parts of convex analysis and its applications to optimization. Modern techniques of variational analysis are employed to cl
Glenn, Catherine R; Kleiman, Evan M; Cha, Christine B; Deming, Charlene A; Franklin, Joseph C; Nock, Matthew K
The field is in need of novel and transdiagnostic risk factors for suicide. The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides a framework that may help advance research on suicidal behavior. We conducted a meta-analytic review of existing prospective risk and protective factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (ideation, attempts, and deaths) that fall within one of the five RDoC domains or relate to a prominent suicide theory. Predictors were selected from a database of 4,082 prospective risk and protective factors for suicide outcomes. A total of 460 predictors met inclusion criteria for this meta-analytic review and most examined risk (vs. protective) factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The overall effect of risk factors was statistically significant, but relatively small, in predicting suicide ideation (weighted mean odds ratio: wOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.59-1.87), suicide attempt (wOR = 1.66 [1.57-1.76), and suicide death (wOR = 1.41 [1.24-1.60]). Across all suicide outcomes, most risk factors related to the Negative Valence Systems domain, although effect sizes were of similar magnitude across RDoC domains. This study demonstrated that the RDoC framework provides a novel and promising approach to suicide research; however, relatively few studies of suicidal behavior fit within this framework. Future studies must go beyond the "usual suspects" of suicide risk factors (e.g., mental disorders, sociodemographics) to understand the processes that combine to lead to this deadly outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
von Kleist, Max; Schütte, Christof; Zhang, Wei
The transition mechanism of jump processes between two different subsets in state space reveals important dynamical information of the processes and therefore has attracted considerable attention in the past years. In this paper, we study the first passage path ensemble of both discrete-time and continuous-time jump processes on a finite state space. The main approach is to divide each first passage path into nonreactive and reactive segments and to study them separately. The analysis can be applied to jump processes which are non-ergodic, as well as continuous-time jump processes where the waiting time distributions are non-exponential. In the particular case that the jump processes are both Markovian and ergodic, our analysis elucidates the relations between the study of the first passage paths and the study of the transition paths in transition path theory. We provide algorithms to numerically compute statistics of the first passage path ensemble. The computational complexity of these algorithms scales with the complexity of solving a linear system, for which efficient methods are available. Several examples demonstrate the wide applicability of the derived results across research areas.
Shimokawa, Kenichi; Lambert, Michael J.; Smart, David W.
Objective: Outcome research has documented worsening among a minority of the patient population (5% to 10%). In this study, we conducted a meta-analytic and mega-analytic review of a psychotherapy quality assurance system intended to enhance outcomes in patients at risk of treatment failure. Method: Original data from six major studies conducted…
Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of
Kangas, Maria; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Montgomery, Guy H.
Reports an error in "Cancer-related fatigue: A systematic and meta-analytic review of non-pharmacological therapies for cancer patients" by Maria Kangas, Dana H. Bovbjerg and Guy H. Montgomery (Psychological Bulletin, 2008[Sep], Vol 134, 700-741). The URL to the Supplemental Materials for the article is listed incorrectly in two places in the…
Burns, Matthew K.; Kanive, Rebecca; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Parker, David C.
Meta-analytic research is an effective method for synthesizing existing research and for informing practice and policy. Hattie (2009) suggested that meta-analytic procedures could be employed to existing meta-analyses to create a mega-analysis. The current mega-analysis examined a sample of 47 meta-analyses according to the "School…
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 51 - 59 ... Yield being a quantitative trait has complex inheritance, which is ... Analysis for seed yield and yield components in Ethiopian coriander. 53 ..... The financial assistance of Canadian.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of the 2-year iroboapp research project that aims at devising path planning algorithms for large grid maps with much faster execution times while tolerating very small slacks with respect to the optimal path. We investigated both exact and heuristic methods. We contributed with the design, analysis, evaluation, implementation and experimentation of several algorithms for grid map path planning for both exact and heuristic methods. We also designed an innovative algorithm called relaxed A-star that has linear complexity with relaxed constraints, which provides near-optimal solutions with an extremely reduced execution time as compared to A-star. We evaluated the performance of the different algorithms and concluded that relaxed A-star is the best path planner as it provides a good trade-off among all the metrics, but we noticed that heuristic methods have good features that can be exploited to improve the solution of the relaxed exact method. This led us to design new hybrid algorithms that combine our relaxed A-star with heuristic methods which improve the solution quality of relaxed A-star at the cost of slightly higher execution time, while remaining much faster than A* for large-scale problems. Finally, we demonstrate how to integrate the relaxed A-star algorithm in the robot operating system as a global path planner and show that it outperforms its default path planner with an execution time 38% faster on average.
Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes
Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.
Full Text Available Establishing how a series of potentially important genes might relate to each other is relevant to understand the origin and evolution of illnesses, such as cancer. High‑throughput biological experiments have played a critical role in providing information in this regard. A special challenge, however, is that of trying to conciliate information from separate microarray experiments to build a potential genetic signaling path. This work proposes a two-step analysis pipeline, based on optimization, to approach meta-analysis aiming to build a proxy for a genetic signaling path.
Full Text Available Military transport path selection directly affects the transport speed, efficiency, and safety. To a certain degree, the results of the path selection determine success or failure of the war situation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model based on DEA (data envelopment analysis and multiobjective fuzzy decision-making for path selection. The path decision set is established according to a search algorithm based on overlapping section punishment. Considering the influence of various fuzzy factors, the model of optimal path is constructed based on DEA and multitarget fuzzy decision-making theory, where travel time, transport risk, quick response capability, and transport cost constitute the evaluation target set. A reasonable path set can be calculated and sorted according to the comprehensive scores of the paths. The numerical results show that the model and the related algorithms are effective for path selection of military transport.
Costa, Jessé C; Schleicher, Jörg
Path-integral imaging forms an image with no knowledge of the velocity model by summing over the migrated images obtained for a set of migration velocity models. Double path-integral imaging migration extracts the stationary velocities, i.e. those velocities at which common-image gathers align horizontally, as a byproduct. An application of the technique to a real data set demonstrates that quantitative information about the time migration velocity model can be determined by double path-integral migration velocity analysis. Migrated images using interpolations with different regularizations of the extracted velocities prove the high quality of the resulting time-migration velocity information. The so-obtained velocity model can then be used as a starting model for subsequent velocity analysis tools like migration tomography or other tomographic methods
Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcela de Freitas; Salles-Costa, Rosana
To investigate the direct and indirect associations between psychological and physical intimate partner violence and the occurrence of common mental disorders (CMD) and how they relate to the occurrence of household food insecurity (HFI). This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Intimate partner violence was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and HFI was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. The propositional analytical model was based on a review of the literature and was tested using path analysis. Duque de Caxias, Greater Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (April-December 2010). Women (n 849) who had been in a relationship in the 12 months preceding the interview. Both psychological and physical violence were found to be major risk factors of HFI. Psychological violence was associated with HFI indirectly via physical violence and CMD, and directly by an unidentified path. The effects of physical violence seemed to be manifested exclusively through CMD. Most of the variables in the propositional model related to socio-economic position, demographic characteristics, degree of women's social support and partner alcohol misuse were retained in the 'final' model, indicating that these factors contribute significantly to the increased likelihood of HFI. The results reinforce the importance of considering domestic violence and other psychosocial aspects of family life when implementing interventions designed to reduce/eradicate HFI.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the path analysis of recording system innovation factorsaffecting adoption of goat farmers. This study was conducted from January to February 2014 inPringapus District, Semarang Regency by using survey method. For determining the location, this studyused purposive sampling method. The amount of respondents were determined by quota samplingmethod. Total respondents randomly chosed were 146 farmers. The data were descriptively andquantitatively analyzed by using path analysis of statistical package for the social science (SPSS 16.Independent variables in this study were internal factor, motivation, innovation characteristics,information source, and dependent variable was adoption. Analysis of linear regression showed thatthere was no significant effect of internal factor on adoption, so that it was important to use the trimmingmethod in path analysis. The result of path analysis showed that the influence of motivation, innovationcharacteristics and information source on adoption were 0.168; 0.720 and 0.09, respectively. Innovationcharacteristics were the greatest effect on adoption. In conclusion, by improving innovationcharacteristics of respondent through motivation and information source may significantly increase theadoption of recording system in goat farmers.
Sugden, Nicole A; Marquis, Alexandra R
Infants show facility for discriminating between individual faces within hours of birth. Over the first year of life, infants' face discrimination shows continued improvement with familiar face types, such as own-race faces, but not with unfamiliar face types, like other-race faces. The goal of this meta-analytic review is to provide an effect size for infants' face discrimination ability overall, with own-race faces, and with other-race faces within the first year of life, how this differs with age, and how it is influenced by task methodology. Inclusion criteria were (a) infant participants aged 0 to 12 months, (b) completing a human own- or other-race face discrimination task, (c) with discrimination being determined by infant looking. Our analysis included 30 works (165 samples, 1,926 participants participated in 2,623 tasks). The effect size for infants' face discrimination was small, 6.53% greater than chance (i.e., equal looking to the novel and familiar). There was a significant difference in discrimination by race, overall (own-race, 8.18%; other-race, 3.18%) and between ages (own-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 7.32%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 9.17%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 7.68%; other-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 6.12%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 3.70%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 2.79%). Multilevel linear (mixed-effects) models were used to predict face discrimination; infants' capacity to discriminate faces is sensitive to face characteristics including race, gender, and emotion as well as the methods used, including task timing, coding method, and visual angle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hiller, Rachel M; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Fearon, Pasco; Lobo, Sarah; McKinnon, Anna; Fraser, Abigail; Halligan, Sarah L
Understanding the natural course of child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has significant implications for the identification of, and intervention for, at-risk youth. We used a meta-analytic approach to examine longitudinal changes in youth PTSD prevalence and symptoms over the first 12 months posttrauma. We conducted a systematic review to identify longitudinal studies of PTSD in young people (5-18 years old), excluding treatment trials. The search yielded 27 peer-reviewed studies and one unpublished dataset for analysis of pooled prevalence estimates, relative prevalence reduction and standardised mean symptom change. Key moderators were also explored, including age, proportion of boys in the sample, initial prevalence of PTSD and PTSD measurement type. Analyses demonstrated moderate declines in PTSD prevalence and symptom severity over the first 3-6 months posttrauma. From 1 to 6 months posttrauma, the prevalence of PTSD reduced by approximately 50%. Symptoms also showed moderate decline, particularly across the first 3 months posttrauma. There was little evidence of further change in prevalence or symptom severity after 6 months, suggesting that it is unlikely a child would lose a PTSD diagnosis without intervention beyond this point. The current findings provide key information about the likelihood of posttrauma recovery in the absence of intervention and have important implications for our understanding of child and adolescent PTSD. Results are discussed with reference to the timing of PTSD screening and the potential role of early interventions. Findings particularly highlight the importance of future research to develop our understanding of what factors prevent the action of normal recovery from the 'acute' posttrauma period. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Paulo Eduardo França Padilha
Full Text Available Vibro-acoustic Transfer Path Analysis (TPA is a tool to evaluate the contribution of different energy propagation paths between a source and a receiver, linked to each other by a number of connections. TPA is typically used to quantify and rank the relative importance of these paths in a given frequency band, determining the most significant one to the receiver. Basically, two quantities have to be determined for TPA: the operational forces at each transfer path and the Frequency Response Functions (FRF of these paths. The FRF are obtained either experimentally or analytically, and the influence of the mechanical impedance of the source can be taken into account or not. The operational forces can be directly obtained from measurements using force transducers or indirectly estimated from auxiliary response measurements. Two methods to obtain the operational forces indirectly – the Complex Stiffness Method (CSM and the Matrix Inversion Method (MIM – associated with two possible configurations to determine the FRF – including and excluding the source impedance – are presented and discussed in this paper. The effect of weak and strong coupling among the paths is also commented considering the techniques previously presented. The main conclusion is that, with the source removed, CSM gives more accurate results. On the other hand, with the source present, MIM is preferable. In the latter case, CSM should be used only if there is a high impedance mismatch between the source and the receiver. Both methods are not affected by a higher or lower degree of coupling among the transfer paths.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of canonical pathways through enrichment of differentially expressed genes in a given pathway is a widely used method for interpreting gene lists generated from high-throughput experimental studies. However, most algorithms treat pathways as sets of genes, disregarding any inter- and intra-pathway connectivity information, and do not provide insights beyond identifying lists of pathways. Results We developed an algorithm (PathNet that utilizes the connectivity information in canonical pathway descriptions to help identify study-relevant pathways and characterize non-obvious dependencies and connections among pathways using gene expression data. PathNet considers both the differential expression of genes and their pathway neighbors to strengthen the evidence that a pathway is implicated in the biological conditions characterizing the experiment. As an adjunct to this analysis, PathNet uses the connectivity of the differentially expressed genes among all pathways to score pathway contextual associations and statistically identify biological relations among pathways. In this study, we used PathNet to identify biologically relevant results in two Alzheimer’s disease microarray datasets, and compared its performance with existing methods. Importantly, PathNet identified de-regulation of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway as an important component in Alzheimer’s disease progression, despite the absence of this pathway in the standard enrichment analyses. Conclusions PathNet is a novel method for identifying enrichment and association between canonical pathways in the context of gene expression data. It takes into account topological information present in pathways to reveal biological information. PathNet is available as an R workspace image from http://www.bhsai.org/downloads/pathnet/.
Sales-Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul
method, suitable for separation and purification of thermally unstable materials whose design and analysis can be efficiently performed through reliable model-based techniques. This paper presents a generalized model for short-path evaporation and highlights its development, implementation and solution...
Liu, Feng; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.
The purpose of this research was to design and test a model of classroom technology integration in the context of K-12 schools. The proposed multilevel path analysis model includes teacher, contextual, and school related variables on a teacher's use of technology and confidence and comfort using technology as mediators of classroom technology…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-service primary school teachers' mathematics teaching anxiety and their self-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics teaching through path analysis. There were a total of 250 pre-service primary school teachers involved in this study. Of the total, 202 were female and 48 were…
van Zeist, W.-J.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.
The PyFrag program (released as PyFrag2007.01) is a "wrap-around" for the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package and facilitates the extension of the fragment analysis method implemented in ADF along an entire potential energy surface. The purpose is to make analyses of reaction paths and other
Full Text Available In this paper, we compare six known linear distributed average consensus algorithms on a sensor network in terms of convergence time (and therefore, in terms of the number of transmissions required. The selected network topologies for the analysis (comparison are the cycle and the path. Specifically, in the present paper, we compute closed-form expressions for the convergence time of four known deterministic algorithms and closed-form bounds for the convergence time of two known randomized algorithms on cycles and paths. Moreover, we also compute a closed-form expression for the convergence time of the fastest deterministic algorithm considered on grids.
Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land
We describe graph-based analysis methods for identifying and analyzing cross-subsystem interaction risks from subsystem connectivity information. By discovering external and remote influences that would be otherwise unexpected, these methods can support better communication among subsystem designers at points of potential conflict and to support design of more dependable and diagnosable systems. These methods identify hazard causes that can impact vulnerable functions or entities if propagated across interaction paths from the hazard source to the vulnerable target. The analysis can also assess combined impacts of And-Or trees of disabling influences. The analysis can use ratings of hazards and vulnerabilities to calculate cumulative measures of the severity and importance. Identification of cross-subsystem hazard-vulnerability pairs and propagation paths across subsystems will increase coverage of hazard and risk analysis and can indicate risk control and protection strategies.
Chang, Luye; Connelly, Brian S; Geeza, Alexis A
Though most personality researchers now recognize that ratings of the Big Five are not orthogonal, the field has been divided about whether these trait intercorrelations are substantive (i.e., driven by higher order factors) or artifactual (i.e., driven by correlated measurement error). We used a meta-analytic multitrait-multirater study to estimate trait correlations after common method variance was controlled. Our results indicated that common method variance substantially inflates trait correlations, and, once controlled, correlations among the Big Five became relatively modest. We then evaluated whether two different theories of higher order factors could account for the pattern of Big Five trait correlations. Our results did not support Rushton and colleagues' (Rushton & Irwing, 2008; Rushton et al., 2009) proposed general factor of personality, but Digman's (1997) α and β metatraits (relabeled by DeYoung, Peterson, and Higgins (2002) as Stability and Plasticity, respectively) produced viable fit. However, our models showed considerable overlap between Stability and Emotional Stability and between Plasticity and Extraversion, raising the question of whether these metatraits are redundant with their dominant Big Five traits. This pattern of findings was robust when we included only studies whose observers were intimately acquainted with targets. Our results underscore the importance of using a multirater approach to studying personality and the need to separate the causes and outcomes of higher order metatraits from those of the Big Five. We discussed the implications of these findings for the array of research fields in which personality is studied.
Wang, Lamei; Mesman, Judi
In the last 30 years, China has undergone one of the largest rural-to-urban migrations in human history, with many children left behind because of parental migration. We present a meta-analytic review of empirical studies on Chinese children's rural-to-urban migration and on rural children left behind because of parental migration. We examine how these events relate to children's emotional, social, and academic developmental outcomes. We include publications in English and in Chinese to uncover and quantify a part of the research literature that has been inaccessible to most Western scholars in the field of child and family studies. Overall, both migrant children and children left behind by migrant parents in China show significantly less favorable functioning across domains than other Chinese children. It appears that, similar to processes found in other parts of the world, the experience of economic and acculturation stress as well as disrupted parent-child relations constitute a risk for nonoptimal child functioning in the Chinese context. Further, we found evidence for publication bias against studies showing less favorable development for migrant children and children left behind. We discuss the results in terms of challenges to Chinese society and to future empirical research on Chinese family life. © The Author(s) 2015.
Yang, Liu-Qin; Caughlin, David E; Gazica, Michele W; Truxillo, Donald M; Spector, Paul E
This meta-analytic study summarizes relations between workplace mistreatment climate-MC (specific to incivility, aggression, and bullying) and potential outcomes. We define MC as individual or shared perceptions of organizational policies, procedures, and practices that deter interpersonal mistreatment. We located 35 studies reporting results with individual perceptions of MC (psychological MC) that yielded 36 independent samples comprising 91,950 employees. Through our meta-analyses, we found significant mean correlations between psychological MC and employee and organizational outcomes including mistreatment reduction effort (motivation and performance), mistreatment exposure, strains, and job attitudes. Moderator analyses revealed that the psychological MC-outcome relations were generally stronger for perceived civility climate than for perceived aggression-inhibition climate, and content contamination of existing climate scales accentuated the magnitude of the relations between psychological MC and some outcomes (mistreatment exposure and employee strains). Further, the magnitudes of the psychological MC-outcome relations were generally comparable across studies using dominant (i.e., most commonly used) and other climate scales, but for some focal relations, magnitudes varied with respect to cross-sectional versus prospective designs. The 4 studies that assessed MC at the unit-level had results largely consistent with those at the employee level.
Winer, E. Samuel; Salem, Taban
Cognitive theories of depression and anxiety have traditionally emphasized the role of attentional biases in the processing of negative information. The dot-probe task has been widely used to study this phenomenon. Recent findings suggest that biased processing of positive information might also be an important aspect of developing psychopathological symptoms. However, despite some evidence suggesting persons with symptoms of depression and anxiety may avoid positive information, many dot-probe studies have produced null findings. The present review used conventional and novel meta-analytic methods to evaluate dot-probe attentional biases away from positive information and, for comparison, toward negative information, in depressed and anxious individuals. Results indicated that avoidance of positive information is a real effect exhibiting substantial evidential value among persons experiencing psychopathology, with individuals evidencing primary symptoms of depression clearly demonstrating this effect. Different theoretical explanations for these findings are evaluated, including those positing threat-processing structures, even-handedness, self-regulation, and reward devaluation, with the novel theory of reward devaluation emphasized and expanded. These novel findings and theory suggest that avoidance of prospective reward helps to explain the cause and sustainability of depressed states. Suggestions for future research and methodological advances are discussed. PMID:26619211
Casillas, Katherine L; Fauchier, Angèle; Derkash, Bridget T; Garrido, Edward F
In recent years there has been an increase in the popularity of home visitation programs as a means of addressing risk factors for child maltreatment. The evidence supporting the effectiveness of these programs from several meta-analyses, however, is mixed. One potential explanation for this inconsistency explored in the current study involves the manner in which these programs were implemented. In the current study we reviewed 156 studies associated with 9 different home visitation program models targeted to caregivers of children between the ages of 0 and 5. Meta-analytic techniques were used to determine the impact of 18 implementation factors (e.g., staff selection, training, supervision, fidelity monitoring, etc.) and four study characteristics (publication type, target population, study design, comparison group) in predicting program outcomes. Results from analyses revealed that several implementation factors, including training, supervision, and fidelity monitoring, had a significant effect on program outcomes, particularly child maltreatment outcomes. Study characteristics, including the program's target population and the comparison group employed, also had a significant effect on program outcomes. Implications of the study's results for those interested in implementing home visitation programs are discussed. A careful consideration and monitoring of program implementation is advised as a means of achieving optimal study results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patros, Connor H G; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E; Hudec, Kristen L
Impulsive behavior is a core DSM-5 diagnostic feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is associated with several pejorative outcomes. Impulsivity is multidimensional, consisting of two sub-constructs: rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity (i.e., choice-impulsivity). While previous research has extensively examined the presence and implications of rapid-response impulsivity in children with ADHD, reviews of choice-impulsive behavior have been both sparse and relatively circumscribed. This review used meta-analytic methods to comprehensively examine between-group differences in choice-impulsivity among children and adolescents with and without ADHD. Twenty-eight tasks (from 26 studies), consisting of 4320 total children (ADHD=2360, TD=1,960), provided sufficient information to compute an overall between-group effect size for choice-impulsivity performance. Results revealed a medium-magnitude between-group effect size (g=.47), suggesting that children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited moderately increased impulsive decision-making compared to TD children and adolescents. Further, relative to the TD group, children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited similar patterns of impulsive decision-making across delay discounting and delay of gratification tasks. However, the use of single-informant diagnostic procedures relative to multiple informants yielded larger between-group effects, and a similar pattern was observed across samples that excluded females relative to samples that included females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
In a series of meta-analyses with the second generation of Holocaust survivors, no evidence for secondary traumatization was found (Van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Sagi-Schwartz, 2003). With regard to third generation traumatization, various reports suggest the presence of intergenerational transmission of trauma. Some scholars argue that intergenerational transmission of trauma might skip a generation. Therefore, we focus in this study on the transmission of trauma to the third generation offspring (the grandchildren) of the first generation's traumatic Holocaust experiences (referred to as "tertiary traumatization"), and we present a narrative review of the pertinent studies. Meta-analytic results of 13 non-clinical samples involving 1012 participants showed no evidence for tertiary traumatization in Holocaust survivor families. Our previous meta-analytic study on secondary traumatization and the present one on third generation's psychological consequences of the Holocaust indicate a remarkable resilience of profoundly traumatized survivors in their (grand-)parental roles.
Nickerson, Amanda B.; Aloe, Ariel M.; Werth, Jilynn M.
This meta-analysis synthesized results about the association between empathy and defending in bullying. A total of 20 studies were included, with 22 effect sizes from 6 studies that separated findings by the defender's gender, and 31 effect sizes from 18 studies that provided effects for the total sample were included in the analysis. The weighted…
Shaked, Michal; Yirmiya, Nurit
In this paper, we summarize some of our findings from a series of three meta-analyses and discuss their implications for autism research. In the first meta-analysis, we examined studies addressing the theory of mind hypothesis in autism. This analysis revealed that theory of mind disabilities are not unique to autism, although what may be unique…
Montoya, Amanda K; Hayes, Andrew F
Researchers interested in testing mediation often use designs where participants are measured on a dependent variable Y and a mediator M in both of 2 different circumstances. The dominant approach to assessing mediation in such a design, proposed by Judd, Kenny, and McClelland (2001), relies on a series of hypothesis tests about components of the mediation model and is not based on an estimate of or formal inference about the indirect effect. In this article we recast Judd et al.'s approach in the path-analytic framework that is now commonly used in between-participant mediation analysis. By so doing, it is apparent how to estimate the indirect effect of a within-participant manipulation on some outcome through a mediator as the product of paths of influence. This path-analytic approach eliminates the need for discrete hypothesis tests about components of the model to support a claim of mediation, as Judd et al.'s method requires, because it relies only on an inference about the product of paths-the indirect effect. We generalize methods of inference for the indirect effect widely used in between-participant designs to this within-participant version of mediation analysis, including bootstrap confidence intervals and Monte Carlo confidence intervals. Using this path-analytic approach, we extend the method to models with multiple mediators operating in parallel and serially and discuss the comparison of indirect effects in these more complex models. We offer macros and code for SPSS, SAS, and Mplus that conduct these analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
.... To this end, we conducted a conceptual review of the work experience literature, developed a framework for measuring different facets of work experience, and conducted a meta-analysis to examine...
Hongxin Zhao; Yadong Luo; Taewon Suh
Entry mode choice is a critical ingredient of international entry strategies, and has been voluminously examined in the field. The findings, however, are very mixed, especially with respect to transaction-cost-related factors in determining the ownership-based entry mode choice. This study conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the literature and empirically generalize more conclusive findings. Based on the 106 effect sizes of 38 empirical studies, the meta-analysis shows that ...
Marlena León Mendoza; Carlos Ortega Maldonado
A meta-analysis of the relationship between employee job satisfaction and customer satisfaction was conducted. This analysis produced statistically significant correlation for this relationship. Results suggest that the service context is a moderator of the employee job satisfaction – customer satisfaction relationship in a way that in personal services this correlation is stronger than in non-personal services. Some implications for future research are presented
Szuhany, Kristin L.; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W.
Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1,111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three e...
Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a meta-analytic literature review Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a meta-analytic literature review
Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder caused by a dysfunction of central nervous system sensitization. This syndrome is characterized by widespread pain and diffuse tenderness, but often also presents fatigue, sleep disturbances, and a whole range of symptoms such as morning stiffness, decreased physical function and dyscognition. FM is usually treated with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The non-pharmacological interventions include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, physiotherapy, acupuncture and patient education programs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of CBT and compare it with other non-pharmacological treatments, we performed a review of the meta-analytic literature. We evaluated the methodological quality of publications found by following the recommendations of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data showed that CBT does not provide better results than other non-pharmacological treatments on outcomes of pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance and quality of life, at either a short or long-term evaluation. On the contrary, CBT seems to be more effective on symptoms of depression for a short period, whereas it considerably improves the pain self-management and reduces the number of visits to the doctor. The data currently available indicate that cost-effectiveness studies could help us to understand whether the reduction in the number of visits to the doctor could balance the cost of CBT to the health public system.Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder caused by a dysfunction of central nervous system sensitization. This syndrome is characterized by widespread pain and diffuse tenderness, but often also presents fatigue, sleep disturbances, and a whole range of symptoms such as morning stiffness, decreased physical function and dyscognition. FM is usually treated with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The nonpharmacological interventions include
Full Text Available Millimeter-wave (Mm-w is the trend of communication development in the future; users who carry mobile communication equipment could be blocked by others in a crowded population environment. Based on Shooting and Bouncing Ray (SBR method and setting up different orientation receivers (RX, population density, and people fabric property at 28 GHz and 38 GHz, simulating experimental scene similar to station square by Wireless Insite software, we use least square method to do linear-regression analysis for path loss and build path loss model. The result shows that the path loss index has a certain change in the different frequency, orientation receivers, population density, and people fabric. The path loss index of RouteC1 and RouteA2 has an obvious change in the central transmitter (TX. Each route shadow fading obeys Gaussian distribution whose mean is 0. This paper’s result has a theoretical guiding for designing the communication system in a crowded population environment.
Zwirglmaier, Kilian; Straub, Daniel; Groth, Katrina M.
reIn the last decade, Bayesian networks (BNs) have been identified as a powerful tool for human reliability analysis (HRA), with multiple advantages over traditional HRA methods. In this paper we illustrate how BNs can be used to include additional, qualitative causal paths to provide traceability. The proposed framework provides the foundation to resolve several needs frequently expressed by the HRA community. First, the developed extended BN structure reflects the causal paths found in cognitive psychology literature, thereby addressing the need for causal traceability and strong scientific basis in HRA. Secondly, the use of node reduction algorithms allows the BN to be condensed to a level of detail at which quantification is as straightforward as the techniques used in existing HRA. We illustrate the framework by developing a BN version of the critical data misperceived crew failure mode in the IDHEAS HRA method, which is currently under development at the US NRC . We illustrate how the model could be quantified with a combination of expert-probabilities and information from operator performance databases such as SACADA. This paper lays the foundations necessary to expand the cognitive and quantitative foundations of HRA. - Highlights: • A framework for building traceable BNs for HRA, based on cognitive causal paths. • A qualitative BN structure, directly showing these causal paths is developed. • Node reduction algorithms are used for making the BN structure quantifiable. • BN quantified through expert estimates and observed data (Bayesian updating). • The framework is illustrated for a crew failure mode of IDHEAS.
Cairncross, Molly; Miller, Carlin J
Mindfulness-based therapies (MBTs) have been shown to be efficacious in treating internally focused psychological disorders (e.g., depression); however, it is still unclear whether MBTs provide improved functioning and symptom relief for individuals with externalizing disorders, including ADHD. To clarify the literature on the effectiveness of MBTs in treating ADHD and to guide future research, an effect-size analysis was conducted. A systematic review of studies published in PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar was completed from the earliest available date until December 2014. A total of 10 studies were included in the analysis of inattention and the overall effect size was d = -.66. A total of nine studies were included in the analysis of hyperactivity/impulsivity and the overall effect was calculated at d = -.53. Results of this study highlight the possible benefits of MBTs in reducing symptoms of ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Rotundo, M; Nguyen, D H; Sackett, P R
Research on gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment informs an ongoing legal debate regarding the use of a reasonable person standard instead of a reasonable woman standard to evaluate sexual harassment claims. The authors report a meta-analysis of 62 studies of gender differences in harassment perceptions. An earlier quantitative review combined all types of social-sexual behaviors for a single meta-analysis; the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the female-male difference varies by type of behavior. An overall standardized mean difference of 0.30 was found, suggesting that women perceive a broader range of social-sexual behaviors as harassing. However, the meta-analysis also found that the female-male difference was larger for behaviors that involve hostile work environment harassment, derogatory attitudes toward women, dating pressure, or physical sexual contact than sexual propositions or sexual coercion.
Gamborg, Michael; Andersen, Per Kragh; Baker, Jennifer L
body size, and thereby the total effect, of size and changes in size on later outcomes. Using data on childhood body size and adult systolic blood pressure from a sample of 1,284 Danish men born between 1936 and 1970, the authors compared results from path analysis with results from 3 standard...... regression methods. Path analysis produced easily interpretable results, and compared with standard regression methods it produced a noteworthy gain in statistical power. The effect of change in relative body size on adult blood pressure was more pronounced after age 11 years than in earlier childhood....... These results suggest that increases in body size prior to age 11 years are less harmful to adult blood pressure than increases occurring after this age....
The FORTRAN IV computer program, DPA Computer Program 1 (DPACP-1), is used to assemble and tabulate the data for Specific Diversion Paths (SDPs) identified when performing a Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) in accord with the methodology given in Volume 1. The program requires 255498 bytes exclusive of the operating system. The data assembled and tabulated by DPACP-1 are used by the DPA team to assist in analyzing vulnerabilities, in a plant's material control and material accounting subsystems, to diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by a knowledgable insider. Based on this analysis, the DPA team can identify, and propose to plant management, modifications to the plant's safeguards system that would eliminate, or reduce the severity of, the identified vulnerabilities. The data are also used by plant supervision when investigating a potential diversion
Abel, Simon; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte
Maximum perennial ryegrass seed production potential is substantially greater than harvested yields with harvested yields representing only 20% of calculated potential. Similar to wheat, maize and other agriculturally important crops, seed yield is highly dependent on a number of interacting seed...... yield components. This research was performed to apply and describe path analysis of perennial ryegrass seed yield components in relation to harvested seed yields. Utilising extensive yield components which included subdividing reproductive inflorescences into five size categories, path analysis...... was undertaken assuming a unidirectional causal-admissible relationship between seed yield components and harvested seed yield in six commercial seed production fields. Both spikelets per inflorescence and florets per spikelet had a significant (p seed yield; however, total...
J R Managbanag
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of genes that modulate longevity is a major focus of aging-related research and an area of intense public interest. In addition to facilitating an improved understanding of the basic mechanisms of aging, such genes represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention in multiple age-associated diseases, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. To date, however, targeted efforts at identifying longevity-associated genes have been limited by a lack of predictive power, and useful algorithms for candidate gene-identification have also been lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have utilized a shortest-path network analysis to identify novel genes that modulate longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on a set of previously reported genes associated with increased life span, we applied a shortest-path network algorithm to a pre-existing protein-protein interaction dataset in order to construct a shortest-path longevity network. To validate this network, the replicative aging potential of 88 single-gene deletion strains corresponding to predicted components of the shortest-path longevity network was determined. Here we report that the single-gene deletion strains identified by our shortest-path longevity analysis are significantly enriched for mutations conferring either increased or decreased replicative life span, relative to a randomly selected set of 564 single-gene deletion strains or to the current data set available for the entire haploid deletion collection. Further, we report the identification of previously unknown longevity genes, several of which function in a conserved longevity pathway believed to mediate life span extension in response to dietary restriction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates that shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity and represents the first application of
Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Kostova, Tatiana; van Essen, M.; Kunst, Vincent; Spadafora, E.
This paper presents the most comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the literature on cultural distance and firm internationalization to date. We analyze the effects of cultural distance on key strategic decisions throughout the entire process of internationalization. For the preinvestment stage,
Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian
The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within-subjects...
Beugelsdijk, S.; Kostova, T.; Kunst, Vincent E; Spadafora, Ettore; van Essen, M.
This paper presents the most comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the literature on cultural distance and firm internationalization to date. We analyze the effects of cultural distance on key strategic decisions throughout the entire process of internationalization. For the preinvestment stage,
Gubbels, J.; van der Stouwe, T.; Spruit, A.; Stams, G.J.J.M.
Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear. The current multilevel meta-analysis of 12 studies, including 94 effect sizes and N = 5949 juveniles, was conducted to examine the relation
Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Casey, Carolyn M.; Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Baran, Jennifer
A meta-analysis was conducted on school-based interventions to reduce obesity in children. Sixty-six (k = 66, N = 31,059) comparisons from 40 published studies from 1997 through 2008 were included in analyses. Results indicated a significant effect for school-based interventions with an overall weighted effect size of r = 0.05. Several moderating…
Goh, Swee C.; Elliott, Catherine; Quon, Tony K.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a meta-analysis of a subset of published empirical research papers that measure learning capability and link it to organizational performance. It also seeks to examine both financial and non-financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: In a search of published research on learning capability…
Hasson, Ramzi; Fine, Jodene Goldenring
Objective: Gender differences among children with ADHD are not well understood. The continuous performance test (CPT) is the most frequently used direct measure of inattention and impulsivity. This meta-analysis compared CPT performance between boys and girls with and without ADHD. Method: All peer-reviewed ADHD studies published between 1980 and…
Cuijpers, P.; Vogelzangs, N.; Twisk, J.; Kleiboer, A.M.; Li, J.; Penninx, B.W.
Background It is not well-established whether excess mortality associated with depression is higher in men than in women. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies in which depression was measured at baseline, where mortality rates were reported at follow-up, and in which separate
Engelmann, Katharina; Neuhaus, Birgit J.; Fischer, Frank
Scientific reasoning skills are not just for researchers, they are also increasingly relevant for making informed decisions in our everyday lives. How can these skills be facilitated? The current state of research on supporting scientific reasoning includes intervention studies but lacks an integrated analysis of the approaches to foster…
Rummel, Amy; Feinberg, Richard
Employed meta-analysis to determine existence of the detrimental effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Results showed that within strictly defined parameters the phenomenon concerning the detrimental effects of reward described in Deci's Cognitive Evaluation Theory did exist. (Author/NB)
Schmitt, Michael T.; Branscombe, Nyla R.; Postmes, Tom; Garcia, Amber
In 2 meta-analyses, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being and tested a number of moderators of that relationship. In Meta-Analysis 1 (328 independent effect sizes, N = 144,246), we examined correlational data measuring both perceived
Bornstein, Robert F.
A meta-analysis of 97 studies published since 1950 that assessed sex differences in scores on objective and projective dependency tests indicated that women consistently obtained higher dependency scores on objective tests, and men obtained higher scores on projective tests. Findings are discussed in terms of sex role socialization. (SLD)
Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P K; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K
While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations.
Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S.
A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment…
Burnette, Jeni L.; O'Boyle, Ernest H.; VanEpps, Eric M.; Pollack, Jeffrey M.; Finkel, Eli J.
This review builds on self-control theory (Carver & Scheier, 1998) to develop a theoretical framework for investigating associations of implicit theories with self-regulation. This framework conceptualizes self-regulation in terms of 3 crucial processes: goal setting, goal operating, and goal monitoring. In this meta-analysis, we included…
Kalandadze, Tamar; Norbury, Courtenay; Naerland, Terje; Naess, Kari-Anne B.
We present a meta-analysis of studies that compare figurative language comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and in typically developing controls who were matched based on chronological age or/and language ability. A total of 41 studies and 45 independent effect sizes were included based on predetermined inclusion criteria.…
Full Text Available While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759 on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1 medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2 small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1 interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2 the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations.
Fong, Carlton J.; Davis, Coreen W.; Kim, Yughi; Kim, Young Won; Marriott, Lauren; Kim, SooYeon
This meta-analysis examined the relationship between psychosocial factors and community college student success. Informed by college persistence models and motivational theory, we statistically integrated past research on five psychosocial categories (motivation, self-perceptions, attributions, self-regulation, and anxiety), examining their…
Previous meta-analyses indicate that the overall encoding effect of note-taking is positive but modest. This meta-analysis of 57 note-taking versus no note-taking comparison studies explored what limits the encoding effect by examining the moderating influence of seven variables: intervention, schooling level, presentation mode and length, test…
Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Heavey, Angela L; Holwerda, Jacob A; Hausknecht, John P
Given growing interest in collective turnover (i.e., employee turnover at unit and organizational levels), the authors propose an organizing framework for its antecedents and consequences and test it using meta-analysis. Based on analysis of 694 effect sizes drawn from 82 studies, results generally support expected relationships across the 6 categories of collective turnover antecedents, with somewhat stronger and more consistent results for 2 categories: human resource management inducements/investments and job embeddedness signals. Turnover was negatively related to numerous performance outcomes, more strongly so for proximal rather than distal outcomes. Several theoretically grounded moderators help to explain average effect-size heterogeneity for both antecedents and consequences of turnover. Relationships generally did not vary according to turnover type (e.g., total or voluntary), although the relative absence of collective-level involuntary turnover studies is noted and remains an important avenue for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Kim, Boram; Jee, Sooin; Lee, Joungwha; An, Sunghee; Lee, Sang Min
This study is a meta-analysis of 19 relevant studies, with 95,434 participants, investigating the relationships between various types of social support and 3 dimensions of student burnout. The overall results indicate that social support is negatively correlated with student burnout. Specifically, school or teacher supports have the strongest negative relationship to student burnout. Social supports from parents and from peers also have a significant negative relationship with student burnout. Among the 3 dimensions of student burnout, inefficacy was more strongly related to social support than emotional exhaustion or cynicism. The results of a moderation analysis suggest that the type of schools (secondary school and postsecondary school) affected the relationships between the overall social support and student burnout. We discuss the implications to ameliorate student burnout. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Huang, Jason L; Ryan, Ann Marie; Zabel, Keith L; Palmer, Ashley
We examined emotional stability, ambition (an aspect of extraversion), and openness as predictors of adaptive performance at work, based on the evolutionary relevance of these traits to human adaptation to novel environments. A meta-analysis on 71 independent samples (N = 7,535) demonstrated that emotional stability and ambition are both related to overall adaptive performance. Openness, however, does not contribute to the prediction of adaptive performance. Analysis of predictor importance suggests that ambition is the most important predictor for proactive forms of adaptive performance, whereas emotional stability is the most important predictor for reactive forms of adaptive performance. Job level (managers vs. employees) moderates the effects of personality traits: Ambition and emotional stability exert stronger effects on adaptive performance for managers as compared to employees. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Steblay, Nancy; Dysart, Jennifer; Fulero, Solomon; Lindsay, R C
Meta-analysis is used to compare identification accuracy rates in showups and lineups. Eight papers were located, providing 12 tests of the hypothesis and including 3013 participants. Results indicate that showups generate lower choosing rates than lineups. In target present conditions, showups and lineups yield approximately equal hit rates, and in target absent conditions, showups produce a significantly higher level of correct rejections. False identification rates are approximately equal in showups and lineups when lineup foil choices are excluded from analysis. Dangerous false identifications are more numerous for showups when an innocent suspect resembles the perpetrator. Function of lineup foils, assessment strategies for false identifications, and the potential impact of biases in lineup practice are suggested as additional considerations in evaluation of showup versus lineup efficacy.
It remains unclear whether and to what extent the default network subregions involved in episodic memory (EM) and semantic memory (SM) processes overlap or are separated from one another. This study addresses this issue through a controlled meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies involving healthy participants. Various EM and SM task paradigms differ widely in the extent of default network involvement. Therefore, the issue at hand cannot be properly addressed without some control for this factor. In this regard, this study employs a two-stage analysis: a preliminary meta-analysis to select EM and SM task paradigms that recruit relatively extensive default network regions and a main analysis to compare the selected task paradigms. Based on a within-EM comparison, the default network contributed more to recollection/familiarity effects than to old/new effects, and based on a within-SM comparison, it contributed more to word/pseudoword effects than to semantic/phonological effects. According to a direct comparison of recollection/familiarity and word/pseudoword effects, each involving a range of default network regions, there were more overlaps than separations in default network subregions involved in these two effects. More specifically, overlaps included the bilateral posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, and left anteromedial prefrontal regions, whereas separations included only the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal cortex region, which was unique to recollection/familiarity effects. These results indicate that EM and SM retrieval processes involving strong memory signals recruit extensive and largely overlapping default network regions and differ mainly in distinct contributions of hippocampus and parahippocampal regions to EM retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stansfeld, Stephen; Candy, Bridget
To clarify the associations between psychosocial work stressors and mental ill health, a meta-analysis of psychosocial work stressors and common mental disorders was undertaken using longitudinal studies identified through a systematic literature review. The review used a standardized search strategy and strict inclusion and quality criteria in seven databases in 1994-2005. Papers were identified from 24,939 citations covering social determinants of health, 50 relevant papers were identified, 38 fulfilled inclusion criteria, and 11 were suitable for a meta-analysis. The Comprehensive Meta-analysis Programme was used for decision authority, decision latitude, psychological demands, and work social support, components of the job-strain and iso-strain models, and the combination of effort and reward that makes up the effort-reward imbalance model and job insecurity. Cochran's Q statistic assessed the heterogeneity of the results, and the I2 statistic determined any inconsistency between studies. Job strain, low decision latitude, low social support, high psychological demands, effort-reward imbalance, and high job insecurity predicted common mental disorders despite the heterogeneity for psychological demands and social support among men. The strongest effects were found for job strain and effort-reward imbalance. This meta-analysis provides robust consistent evidence that (combinations of) high demands and low decision latitude and (combinations of) high efforts and low rewards are prospective risk factors for common mental disorders and suggests that the psychosocial work environment is important for mental health. The associations are not merely explained by response bias. The impact of work stressors on common mental disorders differs for women and men.
Ferguson, Chris; Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal; Markey, Patrick
Parents and policy makers are often concerned that sexy media (media depicting or discussing sexual encounters) may promote sexual behavior in young viewers. There has been some debate among scholars regarding whether such media promote sexual behaviors. It remains unclear to what extent sexy media is a risk factor for increased sexual behavior among youth. The current study employed a meta-analysis of 22 correlational and longitudinal studies of sexy media effects on teen sexual behavior (n ...
Bednarek, Paweł; Rządkowski, Jan
The numerical equilibrium path analysis of the material with random rheological properties by using standard procedures and specialist computer programs was not successful. The proper solution for the analysed heuristic model of the material was obtained on the base of chaos theory elements and neural networks. The paper deals with mathematical reasons of used computer programs and also are elaborated the properties of the attractor used in analysis. There are presented results of conducted numerical analysis both in a numerical and in graphical form for the used procedures.
Full Text Available Background. Understanding the functions of different brain areas has represented a major endeavor of neurosciences. Historically, brain functions have been associated with specific cortical brain areas; however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest cognitive functions are associated to networks rather than to areas. Objectives. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Brodmann area (BA 37 (posterior, inferior, and temporal/fusiform gyrus in relation to (1 language and (2 visual processing. Methods. Two meta-analyses were initially conducted (first level analysis. The first one was intended to assess the language network in which BA37 is involved. The second one was intended to assess the visual perception network. A third meta-analysis (second level analysis was then performed to assess contrasts and convergence between the two cognitive domains (language and visual perception. The DataBase of Brainmap was used. Results. Our results support the role of BA37 in language but by means of a distinct network from the network that supports its second most important function: visual perception. Conclusion. It was concluded that left BA37 is a common node of two distinct networks—visual recognition (perception and semantic language functions.
Flores, Rodolfo J; Uribe, Kevin P; Swalve, Natashia; O'Dell, Laura E
This report reflects a meta-analysis that systematically reviewed the literature on intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of nicotine in female and male rats. The goal was to determine if sex differences in nicotine IVSA exist, estimate the magnitude of the effect, and identify potential moderators of the relationship between sex differences and nicotine consumption. Extensive search procedures identified 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria of employing both female and male rats in nicotine IVSA procedures. The meta-analysis was conducted on effect size values that were calculated from mean total intake or nicotine deliveries using the Hedges' unbiased g u statistic. A random effects analysis revealed that overall females self-administered more nicotine than males (weighted g u =0.18, 95% CI [0.003, 0.34]). Subsequent moderator variable analyses revealed that certain procedural conditions influenced the magnitude of sex differences in nicotine IVSA. Specifically, higher reinforcement requirements (>FR1) and extended-access sessions (23h) were associated with greater nicotine IVSA in females versus males. Females also displayed higher nicotine intake than males when the experiment included a light cue that signaled nicotine delivery. Sex differences were not influenced by the diurnal phase of testing, dose of nicotine, or prior operant training. Overall, the results revealed that female rats display higher levels of nicotine IVSA than males, suggesting that the strong reinforcing effects of nicotine promote tobacco use in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berryman, Carolyn; Stanton, Tasha R; Bowering, K Jane; Tabor, Abby; McFarlane, Alexander; Moseley, G Lorimer
A widely held belief within the clinical community is that chronic pain is associated with cognitive impairment, despite the absence of a definitive systematic review or meta-analysis on the topic. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to establish the current evidence concerning the difference in executive function between people with chronic pain and healthy controls. Six databases were searched for citations related to executive function and chronic pain from inception to June 24, 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility and extracted relevant data according to the Cochrane Collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twenty five studies were included in the review and twenty two studies in the meta-analysis. A small to moderate impairment in executive function performance was found in people with chronic pain across cognitive components, although all studies had a high risk of bias. The current evidence suggests impairment of executive function in people with chronic pain, however, important caveats exist. First, executive function involves many cognitive components and there is no standard test for it. Second, moderators of executive function, such as medication and sleep, were seldom controlled for in studies of executive function performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neguț, Alexandra; Matu, Silviu-Andrei; Sava, Florin Alin; David, Daniel
Virtual reality-based assessment is a new paradigm for neuropsychological evaluation, that might provide an ecological assessment, compared to paper-and-pencil or computerized neuropsychological assessment. Previous research has focused on the use of virtual reality in neuropsychological assessment, but no meta-analysis focused on the sensitivity of virtual reality-based measures of cognitive processes in measuring cognitive processes in various populations. We found eighteen studies that compared the cognitive performance between clinical and healthy controls on virtual reality measures. Based on a random effects model, the results indicated a large effect size in favor of healthy controls (g = .95). For executive functions, memory and visuospatial analysis, subgroup analysis revealed moderate to large effect sizes, with superior performance in the case of healthy controls. Participants' mean age, type of clinical condition, type of exploration within virtual reality environments, and the presence of distractors were significant moderators. Our findings support the sensitivity of virtual reality-based measures in detecting cognitive impairment. They highlight the possibility of using virtual reality measures for neuropsychological assessment in research applications, as well as in clinical practice.
Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica
Understanding the functions of different brain areas has represented a major endeavor of neurosciences. Historically, brain functions have been associated with specific cortical brain areas; however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest cognitive functions are associated to networks rather than to areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Brodmann area (BA) 37 (posterior, inferior, and temporal/fusiform gyrus) in relation to (1) language and (2) visual processing. Two meta-analyses were initially conducted (first level analysis). The first one was intended to assess the language network in which BA37 is involved. The second one was intended to assess the visual perception network. A third meta-analysis (second level analysis) was then performed to assess contrasts and convergence between the two cognitive domains (language and visual perception). The DataBase of Brainmap was used. Our results support the role of BA37 in language but by means of a distinct network from the network that supports its second most important function: visual perception. It was concluded that left BA37 is a common node of two distinct networks-visual recognition (perception) and semantic language functions.
Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Hauschild, L; Vale, M M; Lovatto, P A
A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with performance, productive indices, and organ weights in broilers. Ninety-eight papers published between 1980 and 2009 were used, totaling 1,401 diets and 37,371 animals. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The mycotoxin presence in diets reduced (P mycotoxins with the greatest effect on feed intake and bird growth, reducing (P mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination for equations to estimate mycotoxin effect on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in young poultry. The residual analysis revealed that 65% of the variation in weight gain was explained by feed intake. The variation in weight gain of challenged broilers in relation to nonchallenged broilers was also influenced by ingestion of nutrients such as protein and methionine. Mortality was 8.8 and 2.8 times greater (P Mycotoxins also increased (P Mycotoxins influenced broiler performance, productive indices, and organ weights. However, the magnitude of the effects varied with type and concentration of mycotoxin, animal age, and nutritional factors.
Schwartz, Yannick; Varoquaux, Gaël; Pallier, Christophe; Pinel, Philippe; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Thirion, Bertrand
Typical cohorts in brain imaging studies are not large enough for systematic testing of all the information contained in the images. To build testable working hypotheses, investigators thus rely on analysis of previous work, sometimes formalized in a so-called meta-analysis. In brain imaging, this approach underlies the specification of regions of interest (ROIs) that are usually selected on the basis of the coordinates of previously detected effects. In this paper, we propose to use a database of images, rather than coordinates, and frame the problem as transfer learning: learning a discriminant model on a reference task to apply it to a different but related new task. To facilitate statistical analysis of small cohorts, we use a sparse discriminant model that selects predictive voxels on the reference task and thus provides a principled procedure to define ROIs. The benefits of our approach are twofold. First it uses the reference database for prediction, i.e., to provide potential biomarkers in a clinical setting. Second it increases statistical power on the new task. We demonstrate on a set of 18 pairs of functional MRI experimental conditions that our approach gives good prediction. In addition, on a specific transfer situation involving different scanners at different locations, we show that voxel selection based on transfer learning leads to higher detection power on small cohorts.
Szuhany, Kristin L; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W
Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three exercise paradigms: (1) a single session of exercise, (2) a session of exercise following a program of regular exercise, and (3) resting BDNF levels following a program of regular exercise. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Results demonstrated a moderate effect size for increases in BDNF following a single session of exercise (Hedges' g = 0.46, p exercise intensified the effect of a session of exercise on BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.59, p = 0.02). Finally, results indicated a small effect of regular exercise on resting BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.27, p = 0.005). When analyzing results across paradigms, sex significantly moderated the effect of exercise on BDNF levels, such that studies with more women showed less BDNF change resulting from exercise. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans, but indicates that the magnitude of these effects may be lower in females relative to males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bailey, Christopher H
The trace mineral chromium has been extensively researched over the years in its role in glucose metabolism. Dietary supplement companies have attempted to make claims that chromium may be able to treat or prevent diabetes. Previous meta-analyses/systematic reviews have indicated that chromium supplementation results in a significant lowering of fasting glucose in diabetics but not in nondiabetics. A meta-analysis was conducted using an alternative measure of effect size, d(ppc2) in order to account for changes in the control group as well as the chromium group. The literature search included MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and previously published article reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Included studies were randomized, placebo-controlled trials in the English language with subjects that were nonpregnant adults, both with and without diabetes. Sixteen studies with 809 participants (440 diabetics and 369 nondiabetics) were included in the analysis. Screening for publication bias indicated symmetry of the data. Tests of heterogeneity indicated the use of a fixed-effect model (I² = 0 %). The analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of chromium supplementation in diabetics or nondiabetics, with a weighted average effect size of 0.02 (SE = 0.07), p = 0.787, CI 95 % = -0.12 to 0.16. Chromium supplementation appears to provide no benefits to populations where chromium deficiency is unlikely.
A method for noise analysis called ''STP (signal transmission path) analysis'' is presentd as a tool to identify noise sources and their propagation paths in multivariate random proceses. Basic idea of the analysis is to identify, via time series analysis, effective network for the signal power transmission among variables in the system and to make use of its information to the noise analysis. In the present paper, we accomplish this through two steps of signal processings; first, we estimate, using noise power contribution analysis, variables which have large contribution to the power spectrum of interest, and then evaluate the STPs for each pair of variables to identify STPs which play significant role for the generated noise to transmit to the variable under evaluation. The latter part of the analysis is executed through comparison of partial coherence function and newly introduced partial noise power contribution function. This paper presents the procedure of the STP analysis and demonstrates, using simulation data as well as Borssele PWR noise data, its effectiveness for investigation of noise generation and propagation mechanisms. (author)
Kurtz, Matthew M.; Richardson, Christi L.
A wealth of evidence has revealed that deficits in social cognitive skills (including facial affect recognition (FAR), social cue perception, Theory of Mind (ToM), and attributional style) are evident in schizophrenia and are linked to a variety of domains of functional outcome. In light of these associations, a growing number of studies have attempted to ameliorate these deficits as a means of improving outcome in the disorder through the use of structured behavioral training. This study used quantitative methods of meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of behavioral training programs designed to improve social cognitive function. A total of 19 studies consisting of 692 clients were aggregated from relevant databases. Outcome measures were organized according to whether they were social cognitive tests proximal to the intervention or whether they represented measures of treatment generalization (symptoms, observer-rated community, and institutional function). With respect to social cognitive measures, weighted effect-size analysis revealed that there were moderate-large effects of social cognitive training procedures on FAR (identification, d = 0.71 and discrimination, d = 1.01) and small-moderate effects of training on ToM (d = 0.46), while effects on social cue perception and attributional style were not significant. For measures of generalization, weighted effect-size analysis revealed that there were moderate-large effect on total symptoms (d = 0.68) and observer-rated community and institutional function (d = 0.78). Effects of social cognitive training programs on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were nonsignificant. Moderating variables and implications for future research and treatment development are discussed. PMID:21525166
Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas
-cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining......Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110...
Giannì, Costanza; Prosperini, Luca; Jonsdottir, Johanna; Cattaneo, Davide
To determine whether there are demographic, clinical, and instrumental variables useful to detect fall status of patients with multiple sclerosis. PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Eligible studies were identified by two independent investigators. Only studies having a clear distinction between fallers and non-fallers were included and meta-analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and standard mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and pooled using fixed effect models. Among 115 screened articles, 15 fulfilled criteria for meta-analyses, with a total of 2425 patients included. Proportion of fallers may vary from 30% to 63% in a time frame from 1 to 12 months. No significant publication bias was found, even though 12/15 studies relied on retrospective reports of falls, thus introducing recall biases. Risk factors for falls varied across studies, owing to heterogeneity of populations included and clinical instruments used. The meta-analytic approach found that, compared with non-fallers, fallers had longer disease duration (SMD = 0.14, p = 0.02), progressive course of disease (OR = 2.02, p < 0.0001), assistive device for walking (OR = 3.16, p < 0.0001), greater overall disability level (SMD = 0.74, p < 0.0001), slower walking speed (SMD = 0.45, p = 0.0005), and worse performances in balance tests (Berg Balance Scale: SMD = -0.48, p = 0.002; Timed up-and-go test, SMD = 0.31, p = 0.04), and force-platform measures (postural sway) with eyes opened (SMD = 0.71, p = 0.006) and closed (SMD = 0.83, p = 0.01), respectively. Elucidations regarding risk factors for accidental falls in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMs) are provided here, with worse disability score, progressive course, use of walking aid, and poorer performances in static and dynamic balance tests strongly associated with fall status. © The Author(s) 2014.
Colquitt, Jason A; Scott, Brent A; Rodell, Jessica B; Long, David M; Zapata, Cindy P; Conlon, Donald E; Wesson, Michael J
Although a flurry of meta-analyses summarized the justice literature at the turn of the millennium, interest in the topic has surged in the decade since. In particular, the past decade has witnessed the rise of social exchange theory as the dominant lens for examining reactions to justice, and the emergence of affect as a complementary lens for understanding such reactions. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to test direct, mediating, and moderating hypotheses that were inspired by those 2 perspectives, to gauge their adequacy as theoretical guides for justice research. Drawing on a review of 493 independent samples, our findings revealed a number of insights that were not included in prior meta-analyses. With respect to social exchange theory, our results revealed that the significant relationships between justice and both task performance and citizenship behavior were mediated by indicators of social exchange quality (trust, organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, and leader-member exchange), though such mediation was not apparent for counterproductive behavior. The strength of those relationships did not vary according to whether the focus of the justice matched the target of the performance behavior, contrary to popular assumptions in the literature, or according to whether justice was referenced to a specific event or a more general entity. With respect to affect, our results showed that justice-performance relationships were mediated by positive and negative affect, with the relevant affect dimension varying across justice and performance variables. Our discussion of these findings focuses on the merit in integrating the social exchange and affect lenses in future research.
Tolan, Patrick H.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael S.; Lovegrove, Peter; Nichols, Emily
Objectives To conduct a meta-analytic review of selective and indicated mentoring interventions for effects for youth at risk on delinquency and key associated outcomes (aggression, drug use, academic functioning). We also undertook the first systematic evaluation of intervention implementation features and organization and tested for effects of theorized key processes of mentor program effects. Methods Campbell Collaboration review inclusion criteria and procedures were used to search and evaluate the literature. Criteria included a sample defined as at-risk for delinquency due to individual behavior such as aggression or conduct problems or environmental characteristics such as residence in high-crime community. Studies were required to be random assignment or strong quasi-experimental design. Of 163 identified studies published 1970 - 2011, 46 met criteria for inclusion. Results Mean effects sizes were significant and positive for each outcome category (ranging form d =.11 for Academic Achievement to d = .29 for Aggression). Heterogeneity in effect sizes was noted for all four outcomes. Stronger effects resulted when mentor motivation was professional development but not by other implementation features. Significant improvements in effects were found when advocacy and emotional support mentoring processes were emphasized. Conclusions This popular approach has significant impact on delinquency and associated outcomes for youth at-risk for delinquency. While evidencing some features may relate to effects, the body of literature is remarkably lacking in details about specific program features and procedures. This persistent state of limited reporting seriously impedes understanding about how mentoring is beneficial and ability to maximize its utility. PMID:25386111
Woodin, Erica M
This meta-analysis of 64 studies (5,071 couples) used a metacoding system to categorize observed couple conflict behaviors into categories differing in terms of valence (positive to negative) and intensity (high to low) and resulting in five behavioral categories: hostility, distress, withdrawal, problem solving, and intimacy. Aggregate effect sizes indicated that women were somewhat more likely to display hostility, distress, and intimacy during conflict, whereas men were somewhat more likely to display withdrawal and problem solving. Gender differences were of a small magnitude. For both men and women, hostility was robustly associated with lower relationship satisfaction (medium effect), distress and withdrawal were somewhat associated (small effect), and intimacy and problem solving were both closely associated with relationship satisfaction (medium effect). Effect sizes were moderated in several cases by study characteristics including year of publication, developmental period of the sample, recruitment design, duration of observed conflict, method used to induce conflict, and type of coding system used. Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that high-intensity conflict behaviors of both a positive and negative nature are important correlates of relationship satisfaction and underscore the relatively small gender differences in many conflict behaviors. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Audet, Patrick [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Charest, Christiane [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: email@example.com
In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress.
Audet, Patrick; Charest, Christiane
In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress
Rutherford, Bret R; Mori, Shoko; Sneed, Joel R; Pimontel, Monique A; Roose, Steven P
It is unknown to what degree spontaneous improvement accounts for the large placebo response observed in antidepressant trials for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study was to estimate the spontaneous improvement observed in treatment-seeking individuals with acute MDD by determining the symptom change in depressed patients assigned to wait-list controls in psychotherapy studies. The databases PubMed and PsycINFO were searched to identify randomized, prospective studies randomizing outpatients to psychotherapy or a wait-list control condition for the treatment of acute MDD. Standardized effect sizes calculated from each identified study were aggregated in a meta-analysis to obtain a summary statistic for the change in depression scores during participation in a wait-list control. Ten trials enrolling 340 participants in wait-list control conditions were identified. The estimated effect size for the change in depression scores during wait-list control was 0.505 (95% CI 0.271-0.739, p Depression. Depressed patients acutely experience improvement even without treatment, but spontaneous improvement is unlikely to account for the magnitude of placebo response typically observed in antidepressant trials. These findings must be interpreted in light of the small number wait-list control participants available for analysis as well as certain methodological heterogeneity in the psychotherapy studies analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Vargas, Cristina; De la Fuente, Emilia I; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A
Although past research has highlighted the possibility of a direct relationship between the age of nursing professionals and burnout syndrome, results have been far from conclusive. The aim of this study was to conduct a wider analysis of the influence of age on the three dimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in nurses. We performed a meta-analysis of 51 publications extracted from health sciences and psychology databases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were 47 reports of information on emotional exhaustion in 50 samples, 39 reports on depersonalization for 42 samples, and 31 reports on personal accomplishment in 34 samples. The mean effect sizes indicated that younger age was a significant factor in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization of nurses, although it was somewhat less influential in the dimension of personal accomplishment. Because of heterogeneity in the effect sizes, moderating variables that might explain the association between age and burnout were also analyzed. Gender, marital status, and study characteristics moderated the relationship between age and burnout and may be crucial for the identification of high-risk groups. More research is needed on other variables for which there were only a small number of studies. Identification of burnout risk factors will facilitate establishment of burnout prevention programs for nurses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Laura Alcaide MUÑOZ
Full Text Available The economic crisis has highlighted the need to pay close attention to the disclosure of financial information by public administration institutions; this is an element contributing to the control, accountability and responsibility and thus to achieving greater financial stability and sustainability. Although the disclosure of public financial information has traditionally been linked with financial variables, previous researches in this respect have been somewhat inconsistent in their findings, and conclusive evidence has yet to be provided regarding these factors and their influence on the level of disclosure. The present meta-analysis tries to reveal the existence of a statistically significant association between certain financial variables and the disclosure of public financial information, although the strength and sign of this association will depend on the context under analysis. The results obtained indicate that, depending on the context in which public managers are operating, they may have different attitudes toward the disclosure of public financial information; the medium employed for the dissemination and public indebtedness are also significant factors to this disclosure. Therefore, results reveal a variable degree of predisposition among public managers to adopt policies aimed at increasing the disclosure of public financial information.
Esteban, Raquel; Barrutia, Oihana; Artetxe, Unai; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio
Photosynthetic pigment composition has been a major study target in plant ecophysiology during the last three decades. Although more than 2000 papers have been published, a comprehensive evaluation of the responses of photosynthetic pigment composition to environmental conditions is not yet available. After an extensive survey, we compiled data from 525 papers including 809 species (subkingdom Viridiplantae) in which pigment composition was described. A meta-analysis was then conducted to assess the ranges of photosynthetic pigment content. Calculated frequency distributions of pigments were compared with those expected from the theoretical pigment composition. Responses to environmental factors were also analysed. The results revealed that lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) were highly responsive to the environment, emphasizing the high phenotypic plasticity of VAZ, whereas neoxanthin was very stable. The present meta-analysis supports the existence of relatively narrow limits for pigment ratios and also supports the presence of a pool of free 'unbound' VAZ. Results from this study provide highly reliable ranges of photosynthetic pigment contents as a framework for future research on plant pigments. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.
Hamilton, Jada G; Lobel, Marci; Moyer, Anne
Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results of studies on emotional consequences of predictive genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations conferring increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Studies assessing anxiety or cancer-specific distress before and after provision of test results (k = 20) were analyzed using a random-effects model. Moderator variables included country of data collection and personal cancer history of study participants. Standardized mean gain effect sizes were calculated for mutation carriers, noncarriers, and those with inconclusive results over short (0-4 weeks), moderate (5-24 weeks), or long (25-52 weeks) periods of time after testing. Distress among carriers increased shortly after receiving results and returned to pretesting levels over time. Distress among noncarriers and those with inconclusive results decreased over time. Some distress patterns differed in studies conducted outside the United States and for individuals with varying cancer histories. Results underscore the importance of time; changes in distress observed shortly after test-result disclosure frequently differed from the pattern of distress seen subsequently. Although emotional consequences of this testing appear minimal, it remains possible that testing may affect cognitive and behavioral outcomes, which have rarely been examined through meta-analysis. Testing may also affect understudied subgroups differently.
Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K
Many studies have examined the accuracy of predictions of future memory performance solicited through judgments of learning (JOLs). Among the most robust findings in this literature is that delaying predictions serves to substantially increase the relative accuracy of JOLs compared with soliciting JOLs immediately after study, a finding termed the delayed JOL effect. The meta-analyses reported in the current study examined the predominant theoretical accounts as well as potential moderators of the delayed JOL effect. The first meta-analysis examined the relative accuracy of delayed compared with immediate JOLs across 4,554 participants (112 effect sizes) through gamma correlations between JOLs and memory accuracy. Those data showed that delaying JOLs leads to robust benefits to relative accuracy (g = 0.93). The second meta-analysis examined memory performance for delayed compared with immediate JOLs across 3,807 participants (98 effect sizes). Those data showed that delayed JOLs result in a modest but reliable benefit for memory performance relative to immediate JOLs (g = 0.08). Findings from these meta-analyses are well accommodated by theories suggesting that delayed JOL accuracy reflects access to more diagnostic information from long-term memory rather than being a by-product of a retrieval opportunity. However, these data also suggest that theories proposing that the delayed JOL effect results from a memorial benefit or the match between the cues available for JOLs and those available at test may also provide viable explanatory mechanisms necessary for a comprehensive account.
Tignor, Stefanie M; Colvin, C Randall
Despite decades of empirical research, conclusions regarding the adaptiveness of dispositional guilt and shame are mixed. We use meta-analysis to summarize the empirical literature and clarify these ambiguities. Specifically, we evaluate how guilt and shame are uniquely related to pro-social orientation and, in doing so, highlight the substantial yet under-acknowledged impact of researchers' methodological choices. A series of meta-analyses was conducted investigating the relationship between dispositional guilt (or shame) and pro-social orientation. Two main methodological moderators of interest were tested: test format (scenario vs. checklist) and statistical analysis (semi-partial vs. zero-order correlations). Among studies employing zero-order correlations, dispositional guilt was positively correlated with pro-social orientation (k = 63, Mr = .13, p guilt studies only, with scenario measures producing significantly stronger effects. Semi-partial correlations resulted in significantly stronger effects among guilt and shame studies. Although dispositional guilt and shame are differentially related to pro-social orientation, such relationships depend largely on the methodological choices of the researcher, particularly in the case of guilt. Implications for the study of these traits are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. PMID:26199218
Myers, Taryn A; Crowther, Janis H
The relationship between social comparison and body dissatisfaction was examined using meta-analysis. Several demographic and methodological variables were examined as potential moderators. Data from 156 studies (189 effect sizes) showed that social comparison was related to higher levels of body dissatisfaction. The effect for social comparison and body dissatisfaction was stronger for women than men and inversely related to age. This effect was stronger when social comparison was directly measured rather than inferred. No differences emerged for the presence of eating psychopathology, study design, or object of comparison. Results confirm theory and research suggesting that comparing oneself unfavorably to another on the basis of appearance may lead to dissatisfaction with one's own appearance. Moderator variables refine our understanding of the social comparison-body dissatisfaction relationship. These constructs and their relationship should be explored further in future studies. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although sex difference in the mean level of depressive symptoms has been well established, the sex difference in genetic and environmental influences on adolescent depressive symptoms is unclear. The current study conducted a meta-analysis of twin studies on sex differences in self- and parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally for boys and girls, accounting for 46% of variation, but shared environmental factors had stronger impacts on adolescent girls’ versus boys’ depressive symptoms (13% versus 1% of the variance. For parent-reports, genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally, with separate estimates of 34%, 35%, and 31%. The implications of sex difference in genetic and environmental etiologies of depressive symptoms are discussed.
Singer, Vivian; Strasser, Kathernie
Many studies of school achievement find a significant association between reading and arithmetic achievement. The magnitude of the association varies widely across the studies, but the sources of this variation have not been identified. The purpose of this paper is to examine the magnitude and determinants of the relation between arithmetic and reading performance during elementary and middle school years. We meta-analyzed 210 correlations between math and reading measures, coming from 68 independent samples (the overall sample size was 58923 participants). The meta-analysis yielded an average correlation of 0.55 between math and reading measures. Among the moderators tested, only transparency of orthography and use of timed or untimed tests were significant in explaining the size of the correlation, with the largest correlations observed between timed measures of arithmetic and reading and between math and reading in opaque orthographies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Deci, E L; Koestner, R; Ryan, R M
A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
vanDellen, Michelle R; Campbell, W Keith; Hoyle, Rick H; Bradfield, Erin K
Much research has identified how people react to receiving threatening information about the self. The purpose of this article is to discuss such experiences in the context of a model of state self-esteem regulation. The authors propose that people engage in one of three regulatory responses to threat: compensation, resistance, and breaking. They conduct a meta-analysis aimed to examine when people engage in each of these three responses to threat and how trait self-esteem affects the selection and success of selecting each regulatory response. Furthermore, the authors test six theoretical models that might explain why responses to ego threat vary across level of trait self-esteem. The models for differences between people with low and high trait self-esteem that fit the data best suggest that (a) self-esteem serves as a resource and (b) there is a self-verification motivation.
DuBois, David L; Holloway, Bruce E; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris
We used meta-analysis to review 55 evaluations of the effects of mentoring programs on youth. Overall, findings provide evidence of only a modest or small benefit of program participation for the average youth. Program effects are enhanced significantly, however, when greater numbers of both theory-based and empirically based "best practices" are utilized and when strong relationships are formed between mentors and youth. Youth from backgrounds of environmental risk and disadvantage appear most likely to benefit from participation in mentoring programs. Outcomes for youth at-risk due to personal vulnerabilities have varied substantially in relation to program characteristics, with a noteworthy potential evident for poorly implemented programs to actually have an adverse effect on such youth. Recommendations include greater adherence to guidelines for the design and implementation of effective mentoring programs as well as more in-depth assessment of relationship and contextual factors in the evaluation of programs.
Ferguson, Chris; Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal; Markey, Patrick
Parents and policy makers are often concerned that sexy media (media depicting or discussing sexual encounters) may promote sexual behavior in young viewers. There has been some debate among scholars regarding whether such media promote sexual behaviors. It remains unclear to what extent sexy media...... is a risk factor for increased sexual behavior among youth. The current study employed a meta-analysis of 22 correlational and longitudinal studies of sexy media effects on teen sexual behavior (n = 22,172). Moderator analyses examined methodological and science culture issues such as citation bias. Results...... indicated the presence only of very weak effects. General media use did not correlate with sexual behaviors (r = 0.005), and sexy media use correlated only weakly with sexual behaviors (r = 0.082) once other factors had been controlled. Higher effects were seen for studies with citation bias, and lower...
Schmitt, Michael T; Branscombe, Nyla R; Postmes, Tom; Garcia, Amber
In 2 meta-analyses, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being and tested a number of moderators of that relationship. In Meta-Analysis 1 (328 independent effect sizes, N = 144,246), we examined correlational data measuring both perceived discrimination and psychological well-being (e.g., self-esteem, depression, anxiety, psychological distress, life satisfaction). Using a random-effects model, the mean weighted effect size was significantly negative, indicating harm (r = -.23). Effect sizes were larger for disadvantaged groups (r = -.24) compared to advantaged groups (r = -.10), larger for children compared to adults, larger for perceptions of personal discrimination compared to group discrimination, and weaker for racism and sexism compared to other stigmas. The negative relationship was significant across different operationalizations of well-being but was somewhat weaker for positive outcomes (e.g., self-esteem, positive affect) than for negative outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, negative affect). Importantly, the effect size was significantly negative even in longitudinal studies that controlled for prior levels of well-being (r = -.15). In Meta-Analysis 2 (54 independent effect sizes, N = 2,640), we examined experimental data from studies manipulating perceptions of discrimination and measuring well-being. We found that the effect of discrimination on well-being was significantly negative for studies that manipulated general perceptions of discrimination (d = -.25), but effects did not differ from 0 when attributions to discrimination for a specific negative event were compared to personal attributions (d = .06). Overall, results support the idea that the pervasiveness of perceived discrimination is fundamental to its harmful effects on psychological well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Bárbara G. Amado
Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.
McPhail, Ian V; Hermann, Chantal A; Nunes, Kevin L
Emotional congruence with children is an exaggerated affective and cognitive affiliation with children that is posited to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of sexual offending against children. The current meta-analysis examined the relationship between emotional congruence with children and sexual offending against children, sexual recidivism, and change following sexual offender treatment. A systematic literature review of online academic databases, conference proceedings, governmental agency websites, and article, book chapter, and book reference lists was performed. Thirty studies on emotional congruence with children in sexual offenders against children (SOC) were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. Extrafamilial SOC-especially those with male victims--evidenced higher emotional congruence with children than most non--SOC comparison groups and intrafamilial SOC. In contrast, intrafamilial SOC evidenced less emotional congruence with children than many of the non-SOC comparison groups. Higher levels of emotional congruence with children were associated with moderately higher rates of sexual recidivism. The association between emotional congruence with children and sexual recidivism was significantly stronger in extrafamilial SOC samples (d = 0.58, 95% CI [0.31, 0.85]) compared with intrafamilial SOC samples (d = -0.15, 95% CI [-0.58, 0.27]). Similarly, emotional congruence with children showed a significant reduction from pre- to posttreatment for extrafamilial SOC (d = 0.41, 95% CI [0.33, 0.85]), but not for intrafamilial SOC (d = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.10, 0.22]). Emotional congruence with children is a characteristic of extrafamilial SOC, is moderately predictive of sexual recidivism, and is potentially amenable through treatment efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans explores the environment using a combination of different movement patterns, which include straight movement, reversal, and turns. We propose to quantify C. elegans movement behavior using a computer vision approach based on run-length encoding of step-length data. In this approach, the path of C. elegans is encoded as a string of characters, where each character represents a path segment of a specific type of movement. With these encoded string data, we perform k-means cluster analysis to distinguish movement behaviors resulting from different genotypes and food availability. We found that shallow and sharp turns are the most critical factors in distinguishing the differences among the movement behaviors. To validate our approach, we examined the movement behavior of tph-1 mutants that lack an enzyme responsible for serotonin biosynthesis. A k-means cluster analysis with the path string-encoded data showed that tph-1 movement behavior on food is similar to that of wild-type animals off food. We suggest that this run-length encoding approach is applicable to trajectory data in animal or human mobility data.
The present study tested a path diagram regarding the contribution of morphological awareness (MA) to early literacy acquisition among Chinese-speaking second graders ([Formula: see text]). Three facets of MA were addressed, namely derivational awareness, compound awareness and compound structure awareness. The model aimed to test a theory of causal order among measures of MA and literacy outcomes. Drawing upon multivariate path analysis, direct and indirect effects of MA were analyzed to identify their role in literacy performance among young children. Results revealed that all three facets of MA made significant contributions to lexical inference ability. In addition, compound awareness showed a unique and significant contribution to vocabulary knowledge. It was also observed that lexical inference ability had a mediating effect predictive of both vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Moreover, vocabulary knowledge mediated the effect of MA on reading comprehension. However, no significant contribution of MA to reading comprehension was found after controlling for lexical inference ability and vocabulary knowledge.
Chang, Qingsong; Chan, Chee Hon; Yip, Paul S F
Social relationships play an important role in mental health as well as suicidal ideation in later life. In contrast with the other well-established risk factors, despite an increasing number of related studies, no meta-analyses focusing on social relationships and late-life suicidal ideation have been published. Synthesis of data across the studies using different measurements of social relationships would allow for comparison of the effects on late-life suicidal ideation that have not been studied before. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis on the studies published between January 1, 2000 and November 31, 2016 extracted from 7 medical and social science databases. 31 studies with 83 estimates of Odds Ratios ("ORs") on the associations between social relationships and late-life suicidal ideation were identified to compute effect sizes using a random-effect model. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to evaluate their heterogeneity and bias. Moderator analyses were further conducted to determine moderating factors of the associations. Eventually, across the 31 studies (203,152 participants), the overall random effect size was OR = 1.57(95% CI [1.40, 1.76]), indicating a 57% likelihood increase of suicidal ideation for elderly participants with discordant social relationships. The functional measures (OR = 1.77; 95%CI [1.48, 2.10]) of social relationships, however, were more predictive than structural measures (OR = 1.37; 95%CI [1.25, 1.51]). Among all the measures of social relationships, elderly mistreatment (OR = 2.31; 95%CI [1.81, 2.94]) had the strongest effect size, followed by perceived loneliness (OR = 2.24; 95%CI [1.73, 2.90]) and poorly perceived social support (OR = 1.59; 95% CI [1.37, 1.83]). The associations between social relationships and late-life suicidal ideation were moderated by country income levels, social-cultural context, study types, and various measurements of social relationships. More importantly, our study is the
Massey, Maria; O'Cass, Aron; Otahal, Petr
Interest in the consumption of organic food has steadily risen over the past two decades. Yet after considerable research addressing a range of issues related to organic food consumption no research systematically examines which factors explain consumers' perceptions and purchase of organics. Through a meta-analysis we examine factors underpinning the purchase of organic food using a sample of 124,353 consumers reported in 150 manuscripts over the period from 1991 to 2016. The results demonstrate that credence attributes of organic food are valued more than search and experience attributes. This shows that the market is guided by the perceived benefits of organic over conventionally grown food. These findings do not diminish the importance of search and experience attributes, but suggest that credence attributes have a prominent role in consumer organic food purchases. From the perspective of organic producers and sellers an understanding of consumer perceptions, set within search, experience and credence attributes, has the potential to offer a unique selling proposition and point of differentiation in the market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Sander, David
Despite an initial focus on negative threatening stimuli, researchers have more recently expanded the investigation of attentional biases toward positive rewarding stimuli. The present meta-analysis systematically compared attentional bias for positive compared with neutral visual stimuli across 243 studies (N = 9,120 healthy participants) that used different types of attentional paradigms and positive stimuli. Factors were tested that, as postulated by several attentional models derived from theories of emotion, might modulate this bias. Overall, results showed a significant, albeit modest (Hedges' g = .258), attentional bias for positive as compared with neutral stimuli. Moderator analyses revealed that the magnitude of this attentional bias varied as a function of arousal and that this bias was significantly larger when the emotional stimulus was relevant to specific concerns (e.g., hunger) of the participants compared with other positive stimuli that were less relevant to the participants' concerns. Moreover, the moderator analyses showed that attentional bias for positive stimuli was larger in paradigms that measure early, rather than late, attentional processing, suggesting that attentional bias for positive stimuli occurs rapidly and involuntarily. Implications for theories of emotion and attention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kofler, Michael J; Rapport, Mark D; Alderson, R Matt
Most classroom observation studies have documented significant deficiencies in the classroom attention of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to their typically developing peers. The magnitude of these differences, however, varies considerably and may be influenced by contextual, sampling, diagnostic, and observational differences. Meta-analysis of 23 between-group classroom observation studies using weighted regression, publication bias, goodness of fit, best case, and original metric analyses. Across studies, a large effect size (ES = .73) was found prior to consideration of potential moderators. Weighted regression, best case, and original metric estimation indicate that this effect may be an underestimation of the classroom visual attention deficits of children with ADHD. Several methodological factors-classroom environment, sample characteristics, diagnostic procedures, and observational coding schema-differentially affect observed rates of classroom attentive behavior for children with ADHD and typically developing children. After accounting for these factors, children with ADHD were on-task approximately 75% of the time compared to 88% for their classroom peers (ES = 1.40). Children with ADHD were also more variable in their attentive behavior across studies. The present study confirmed that children with ADHD exhibit deficient and more variable visual attending to required stimuli in classroom settings and provided an aggregate estimation of the magnitude of these deficits at the group level. It also demonstrated the impact of situational, sampling, diagnostic, and observational variables on observed rates of on-task behavior.
Mihailova, Stella; Jobson, Laura
The study investigated several associations between depression and intrusive negative autobiographical memories. A systematic literature search identified 23 eligible studies (N = 2,582), which provided 59 effect sizes. Separate meta-analyses indicated that depression was moderately, positively associated with intrusive memory frequency, memory distress, maladaptive memory appraisals, memory avoidance, and memory rumination. Intrusive memory vividness was not significantly associated with depression. There were insufficient data to examine the relationship between depression and memory vantage perspective. Between-study heterogeneity was high for intrusive memory frequency and memory avoidance, and the percentage of females in studies significantly moderated the relationship between these variables and depression. An additional exploratory meta-analysis (3 studies; N = 257) indicated that intrusive memories were experienced more frequently by those with posttraumatic stress disorder than those with depression. Overall, the findings suggest that intrusive memories warrant clinical attention as they may contribute to the maintenance of depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sylvestre, Audette; Bussières, Ève-Line; Bouchard, Caroline
Research data show that exposure to abuse and neglect has detrimental effects on a child's language development. In this meta-analysis, we analyze studies (k = 23), to compare the language skills (receptive language, expressive language, pragmatics) of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect with the language skills of children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect and to examine whether age or type of maltreatment moderate the relationship between maltreatment and language skills. Results confirm that the language skills of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect are delayed when compared to children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect. Compared to older children, young children seem particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. No significant differences were demonstrated concerning the type of maltreatment suffered by the child. These findings support the necessity of early detection of language problems in abused and neglected children as well as early intervention in order to implement interventions that will positively stimulate their development. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha
This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Zongchang; He, Ying; Wang, Dong; Tang, Jingsong; Chen, Xiaogang
Childhood trauma has long-term sequelae on health status and contributes to numbers of somatic and mental disorders in later life. Findings from experimental studies in animals suggest that telomere erosion may be a mediator of this relationship. However, results from human studies are heterogeneous. To address these inconsistencies, we performed a meta-analysis regarding the association between childhood trauma and telomere length in adulthood. Articles were identified by systematically searching the Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science databases. Twenty four studies, which include twenty six sample sets and 30,919 participants, met the inclusion criteria for meta-analyses. This meta-analyses revealed that individuals experienced childhood trauma have accelerated telomere erosion in adulthood, with a small effect size (r = -0.05, 95% CI = -0.08-0.03, p childhood trauma revealed a trend in difference between groups (Q = 5.24, p = 0.07). Analyses for individual trauma types revealed a significant association between childhood separation and telomere erosion (r = -0.09, p childhood trauma and accelerated telomere erosion in adulthood, and further revealed that different trauma types have various impacts on telomere. Additional research on the mechanism that links the individual types of childhood trauma with telomere is needed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jia, Xiaojun; Jackson, Todd
In this meta-analysis, we evaluated overall strengths of relation between beliefs about pain, health, or illness and problems in functioning (i.e., functional impairment, affective distress, pain severity) in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis samples as well as moderators of these associations. In sum, 111 samples (N = 17,365 patients) met inclusion criteria. On average, highly significant, medium effect sizes were observed for associations between beliefs and problems in functioning but heterogeneity was also inflated. Effect sizes were not affected by arthritis subtype, gender, or age. However, pain belief content emerged as a significant moderator, with larger effect sizes for studies in which personal incapacity or ineffectiveness in controlling pain was a content theme of belief indices (i.e., pain catastrophizing, helplessness, self-efficacy) compared to those examining locus of control and fear/threat/harm beliefs. Furthermore, analyses of longitudinal study subsets supported the status of pain beliefs risk factors for later problems in functioning in these groups.
Full Text Available Motor vehicle accident (MVA victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD. With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization.
Travagin, Gabriele; Margola, Davide; Revenson, Tracey A
This meta-analysis evaluated the effects of the expressive writing intervention (EW; Pennebaker & Beall, 1986) among adolescents. Twenty-one independent studies that assessed the efficacy of expressive writing on youth samples aged 10-18 ears were collected and analyzed. Results indicated an overall mean g-effect size that was positive in direction but relatively small (0.127), as well as significant g-effect sizes ranging from 0.107 to 0.246 for the outcome domains of Emotional Distress, Problem Behavior, Social Adjustment, and School Participation. Few significant effects were found within specific outcome domains for putative moderator variables that included characteristics of the participants, intervention instructions, or research design. Studies involving adolescents with high levels of emotional problems at baseline reported larger effects on school performance. Studies that implemented a higher dosage intervention (i.e., greater number and, to some extent, greater spacing of sessions) reported larger effects on somatic complaints. Overall, the findings suggest that expressive writing tends to produce small yet significant improvements on adolescents' well-being. The findings highlight the importance of modifying the traditional expressive writing protocol to enhance its efficacy and reduce potential detrimental effects. At this stage of research the evidence on expressive writing as a viable intervention for adolescents is promising but not decisive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Landy, Justin F; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
The role of emotion in moral judgment is currently a topic of much debate in moral psychology. One specific claim made by many researchers is that irrelevant feelings of disgust can amplify the severity of moral condemnation. Numerous researchers have found this effect, but there have also been several published failures to replicate it. Clarifying this issue would inform important theoretical debates among rival accounts of moral judgment. We meta-analyzed all available studies--published and unpublished--in which incidental disgust was manipulated prior to or concurrent with a moral judgment task (k = 50). We found evidence for a small amplification effect of disgust (d = 0.11), which is strongest for gustatory/olfactory modes of disgust induction. However, there is also some suggestion of publication bias in this literature, and when this is accounted for, the effect disappears entirely (d = -0.01). Moreover, prevalent confounds mean that the effect size that we estimate is best interpreted as an upper bound on the size of the amplification effect. On the basis of the results of this meta-analysis, we argue against strong claims about the causal role of affect in moral judgment and suggest a need for new, more rigorous research on this topic. © The Author(s) 2015.
Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Guariglia, Cecilia; Giannini, Anna Maria
Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization. PMID:25954183
Yoneoka, Daisuke; Henmi, Masayuki
Recently, the number of clinical prediction models sharing the same regression task has increased in the medical literature. However, evidence synthesis methodologies that use the results of these regression models have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in meta-analysis settings where only regression coefficients are available. One of the difficulties lies in the differences between the categorization schemes of continuous covariates across different studies. In general, categorization methods using cutoff values are study specific across available models, even if they focus on the same covariates of interest. Differences in the categorization of covariates could lead to serious bias in the estimated regression coefficients and thus in subsequent syntheses. To tackle this issue, we developed synthesis methods for linear regression models with different categorization schemes of covariates. A 2-step approach to aggregate the regression coefficient estimates is proposed. The first step is to estimate the joint distribution of covariates by introducing a latent sampling distribution, which uses one set of individual participant data to estimate the marginal distribution of covariates with categorization. The second step is to use a nonlinear mixed-effects model with correction terms for the bias due to categorization to estimate the overall regression coefficients. Especially in terms of precision, numerical simulations show that our approach outperforms conventional methods, which only use studies with common covariates or ignore the differences between categorization schemes. The method developed in this study is also applied to a series of WHO epidemiologic studies on white blood cell counts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Steblay, N; Dysart, J; Fulero, S; Lindsay, R C
Most police lineups use a simultaneous presentation technique in which eyewitnesses view all lineup members at the same time. Lindsay and Wells (R. C. L. Lindsay & G. L. Wells, 1985) devised an alternative procedure, the sequential lineup, in which witnesses view one lineup member at a time and decide whether or not that person is the perpetrator prior to viewing the next lineup member. The present work uses the technique of meta-analysis to compare the accuracy rates of these presentation styles. Twenty-three papers were located (9 published and 14 unpublished), providing 30 tests of the hypothesis and including 4,145 participants. Results showed that identification of perpetrators from target-present lineups occurs at a higher rate from simultaneous than from sequential lineups. However, this difference largely disappears when moderator variables approximating real world conditions are considered. Also, correct rejection rates were significantly higher for sequential than simultaneous lineups and this difference is maintained or increased by greater approximation to real world conditions. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Feng Zhaozhong; Wang Shuguang; Szantoi, Zoltan; Chen Shuai; Wang Xiaoke
A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O 3 ) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O 3 -caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O 3 ] on vegetation. - EDU effectively protect plants against ambient ozone.
Park, Joanne L; Hudec, Kristen L; Johnston, Charlotte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists throughout the lifespan, and there are known impairments associated with adult ADHD. Understanding ADHD-related impairments in the parenting domain is particularly important given that the children of adults with ADHD also are likely to have ADHD, and there is potential for parenting to alter the developmental outcomes of these children. The present study quantitatively synthesizes evidence regarding the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors. Across 32 studies, this meta-analysis found that parental ADHD symptoms accounted for 2.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% of the variance of harsh, lax, and positive parenting, respectively. Greater parental ADHD symptoms were associated with less positive and more harsh and lax parenting behaviors. Variables, such as the proportion of children in the sample diagnosed with ADHD, child gender, and method/rater variance, moderated the strength of these relations. Results also suggest more similarities than differences in the associations between parenting behaviors and the two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Overall, parental ADHD symptoms are significantly associated with parenting behaviors with effect sizes similar to the associations found between other parental psychopathologies and parenting, although the associations remain relatively small. The paper concludes with comments regarding remaining gaps in the literature that warrant further research and the clinical implications of the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, X T; Rao, Li-Lin; Zheng, Hongming
We hypothesize that framing effects (risk-averse in the positive frame and risk-seeking in the negative frame) are likely to occur when ambiguous social contexts result in ambiguous or ambivalent risk preferences, leading the decision-maker to search for more subtle cues, such as verbal framing. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined framing effects in both unambiguous homogeneous group and more ambiguous heterogeneous group contexts. We began by conducting a meta-analysis and identified three regions of interest: the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left anterior cingulate (ACC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the left amygdala. Our own fMRI data were collected while the participants made choices between a sure option and a gamble framed in terms of the number of lives to either save or die. The framing effect was evident in a heterogeneous context with a mixture of kin and strangers, but disappeared in a homogeneous group of either all kin-members or all strangers. The fMRI results revealed a greater activation in the right middle/inferior frontal gyrus under the negative than the positive framing, and less ACC/vmPFC deactivation under positive framing in the heterogamous/ambiguous context. The activation of the amygdala was correlated with greater risk-seeking preference in homogeneous kinship contexts.
Sterkowicz-Przybycien, Katarzyna; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela
Studies on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes have a long history, but there are no published reviews on the somatotype of artistic gymnasts. Practitioners and professional coaches can gain guidance from improved understanding of the ideal body constitution and the impact of high-intensity training since preadolescence on body build. The present review is designed to provide this information. Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, Medline, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate were searched in January 2017. All studies on the body composition of male artistic gymnasts were included. We identified 19 studies assessing somatotype in male gymnasts. We found high heterogeneity of somatotype components between younger gymnasts (≤ 18 years) and older gymnasts (> 18 years) (1.6±0.3 -5.4±0.8 - 3.0±0.6 vs. 1.8±0.4 -5.9±0.6 -2.2±0.4). Four different somatotypes resulted from the literature analysis, and ectomorphic mesomorph was the prevalent somatotype in both younger and older athletes. The main result showed a significant difference in ectomorphy (lower in older gymnasts than in younger gymnasts). Proper interpretation of the literature data may inform future research and enable professional coaches to longitudinally monitor gymnasts' somatotype components during growth and in talent identification. More research is needed to better understand the most suitable somatotype variations related to the different apparatuses used in artistic gymnastics.
Boeckle, Markus; Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Pieh, Christoph
Somatoform disorders (SD) are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on neuroimaging studies of SD. Ten out of 686 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Five neuronal areas differ between patients with SD and healthy controls namely the premotor and supplementary motor cortexes, the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the posterior cingulate cortex. These areas seem to have a particular importance for the occurrence of SD. Out of the ten studies two did not contribute to any of the clusters. Our results seem to largely overlap with the circuit network model of somatosensory amplification for SD. It is conceivable that functional disorders, independent of the clinical impression, show similar neurobiological processes. While overlaps do occur it is necessary to understand single functional somatic syndromes and their aetiology for future research, terminology, and treatment guidelines.
Ferguson, Christopher J; Nielsen, Rune K L; Markey, Patrick M
Parents and policy makers are often concerned that sexy media (media depicting or discussing sexual encounters) may promote sexual behavior in young viewers. There has been some debate among scholars regarding whether such media promote sexual behaviors. It remains unclear to what extent sexy media is a risk factor for increased sexual behavior among youth. The current study employed a meta-analysis of 22 correlational and longitudinal studies of sexy media effects on teen sexual behavior (n = 22,172). Moderator analyses examined methodological and science culture issues such as citation bias. Results indicated the presence only of very weak effects. General media use did not correlate with sexual behaviors (r = 0.005), and sexy media use correlated only weakly with sexual behaviors (r = 0.082) once other factors had been controlled. Higher effects were seen for studies with citation bias, and lower effects when family environment is controlled. The impact of media on teen sexuality was minimal with effect sizes near to zero.
Full Text Available Somatoform disorders (SD are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on neuroimaging studies of SD. Ten out of 686 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Five neuronal areas differ between patients with SD and healthy controls namely the premotor and supplementary motor cortexes, the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the posterior cingulate cortex. These areas seem to have a particular importance for the occurrence of SD. Out of the ten studies two did not contribute to any of the clusters. Our results seem to largely overlap with the circuit network model of somatosensory amplification for SD. It is conceivable that functional disorders, independent of the clinical impression, show similar neurobiological processes. While overlaps do occur it is necessary to understand single functional somatic syndromes and their aetiology for future research, terminology, and treatment guidelines.
Audet, Patrick [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Charest, Christiane [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com
To estimate dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation, we conducted a literature survey and correlated HM uptake and relative plant growth parameters from published data. After estimating AM feedback responses for these parameters at low and high soil-HM concentration intervals, we determined that the roles of AM symbiosis are characterized by (1) an increased HM phytoextraction via mycorrhizospheric 'Enhanced Uptake' at low soil-HM concentrations, and (2) a reduced HM bioavailability via AM fungal 'Metal-Binding' processes at high soil-HM levels, hence resulting in increased plant biomass and enhanced plant tolerance through HM stress-avoidance. We present two conceptual models which illustrate the important compromise between plant growth, plant HM uptake and HM tolerance, and further emphasize the importance of AM symbiosis in buffering the soil environment for plants under such stress conditions. - This meta-analysis has revealed a transition role of the AM symbiosis in phytoremediation shifting from 'Enhanced Uptake' to 'Metal-Binding' beyond critical soil-HM levels.
Gallagher, Kristel M; Updegraff, John A
Message framing has been an important focus in health communication research, yet prior meta-analyses found limited support for using framing to increase persuasiveness of health messages. This meta-analysis distinguished the outcomes used to assess the persuasive impact of framed messages (attitudes, intentions, or behavior). One hundred eighty-nine effect sizes were identified from 94 peer-reviewed, published studies which compared the persuasive impact of gain- and loss-framed messages. Gain-framed messages were more likely than loss-framed messages to encourage prevention behaviors (r = 0.083, p = 0.002), particularly for skin cancer prevention, smoking cessation, and physical activity. No effect of framing was found when persuasion was assessed by attitudes/intentions or among studies encouraging detection. Gain-framed messages appear to be more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting prevention behaviors. Research should examine the contexts in which loss-framed messages are most effective, and the processes that mediate the effects of framing on behavior.
Audet, Patrick; Charest, Christiane
To estimate dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation, we conducted a literature survey and correlated HM uptake and relative plant growth parameters from published data. After estimating AM feedback responses for these parameters at low and high soil-HM concentration intervals, we determined that the roles of AM symbiosis are characterized by (1) an increased HM phytoextraction via mycorrhizospheric 'Enhanced Uptake' at low soil-HM concentrations, and (2) a reduced HM bioavailability via AM fungal 'Metal-Binding' processes at high soil-HM levels, hence resulting in increased plant biomass and enhanced plant tolerance through HM stress-avoidance. We present two conceptual models which illustrate the important compromise between plant growth, plant HM uptake and HM tolerance, and further emphasize the importance of AM symbiosis in buffering the soil environment for plants under such stress conditions. - This meta-analysis has revealed a transition role of the AM symbiosis in phytoremediation shifting from 'Enhanced Uptake' to 'Metal-Binding' beyond critical soil-HM levels
Maldini, Carla; Druce, Katie; Basu, Neil; LaValley, Michael P; Mahr, Alfred
Surveys of Behçet's disease (BD) have shown substantial geographic variations in prevalence, but some of these differences may result from methodological inconsistencies. This meta-analysis explored the effect of geographic location and study methodology on the prevalence of BD. We systematically searched the literature in electronic databases and by handsearching to identify population-based prevalence surveys of BD. Studies were eligible if they provided an original population-based prevalence estimate for BD with the number of prevalent cases identified in the study area. Pooled prevalence proportions across all studies were computed by using random effects models based on a Poisson normal distribution. Pre-defined subgroup analyses and meta-regression were used to investigate the effect of covariates on the prevalence proportions. We included 45 reports published from 1974 to 2015 and covering worldwide areas. The pooled estimates of prevalence proportions (expressed as cases/100 000 inhabitants) were 10.3 (95% CI 6.1, 17.7) for all studies and 119.8 (59.8, 239.9) for Turkey, 31.8 (12.9, 78.4) for the Middle East, 4.5 (2.2, 9.4) for Asia and 3.3 (2.1, 5.2) for Europe. Subgroup analyses showed a strikingly greater prevalence for studies with a sample survey design than a census design [82.5 (95% CI 47.3, 143.9) vs 3.6 (2.6, 5.1)]. Metaregression identified study design as an independent covariate significantly affecting BD prevalence proportions. Differences in BD prevalence proportions likely reflect a combination of true geographic variation and methodological artefacts. In particular, use of a sample or census study design may strongly affect the estimated prevalence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Beard, Courtney; Sawyer, Alice T; Hofmann, Stefan G
Attention bias modification (ABM) protocols aim to modify attentional biases underlying many forms of pathology. Our objective was to conduct an effect size analysis of ABM across a wide range of samples and psychological problems. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycInfo, and author searches to identify randomized studies that examined the effects of ABM on attention and subjective experiences. We identified 37 studies (41 experiments) totaling 2,135 participants who were randomized to training toward neutral, positive, threat, or appetitive stimuli or to a control condition. The effect size estimate for changes in attentional bias was large for the neutral versus threat comparisons (g=1.06), neutral versus appetitive (g=1.41), and neutral versus control comparisons (g=0.80), and small for positive versus control (g=0.24). The effects of ABM on attention bias were moderated by stimulus type (words vs. pictures) and sample characteristics (healthy vs. high symptomatology). Effect sizes of ABM on subjective experiences ranged from 0.03 to 0.60 for postchallenge outcomes, -0.31 to 0.51 for posttreatment, and were moderated by number of training sessions, stimulus type, and stimulus orientation (top/bottom vs. left/right). Fail-safe N calculations suggested that the effect size estimates were robust for the training effects on attentional biases, but not for the effect on subjective experiences. ABM studies using threat stimuli produced significant effects on attention bias across comparison conditions, whereas appetitive stimuli produced changes in attention only when comparing appetitive versus neutral conditions. ABM has a moderate and robust effect on attention bias when using threat stimuli. Further studies are needed to determine whether these effects are also robust when using appetitive stimuli and for affecting subjective experiences. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
van Zoonen, Kim; Buntrock, Claudia; Ebert, David Daniel; Smit, Filip; Reynolds, Charles F; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim
Depressive disorders are highly prevalent, have a detrimental impact on the quality of life of patients and their relatives and are associated with increased mortality rates, high levels of service use and substantial economic costs. Current treatments are estimated to only reduce about one-third of the disease burden of depressive disorders. Prevention may be an alternative strategy to further reduce the disease burden of depression. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of preventive interventions in participants with no diagnosed depression at baseline on the incidence of diagnosed depressive disorders at follow-up. We identified 32 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found that the relative risk of developing a depressive disorder was incidence rate ratio = 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.91), indicating a 21% decrease in incidence in prevention groups in comparison with control groups. Heterogeneity was low (I(2) = 24%). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one new case of depressive disorder was 20. Sensitivity analyses revealed no differences between type of prevention (e.g. selective, indicated or universal) nor between type of intervention (e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy or other). However, data on NNT did show differences. Prevention of depression seems feasible and may, in addition to treatment, be an effective way to delay or prevent the onset of depressive disorders. Preventing or delaying these disorders may contribute to the further reduction of the disease burden and the economic costs associated with depressive disorders.
Jessica M Alleva
Full Text Available Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image.The inclusion criteria were that (a the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image, (b a control group was used, (c participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy.The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846. Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38, a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37, and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72. However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated.The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions.
Vuvan, Dominique T; Nunes-Silva, Marilia; Peretz, Isabelle
A major theme driving research in congenital amusia is related to the modularity of this musical disorder, with two possible sources of the amusic pitch perception deficit. The first possibility is that the amusic deficit is due to a broad disorder of acoustic pitch processing that has the effect of disrupting downstream musical pitch processing, and the second is that amusia is specific to a musical pitch processing module. To interrogate these hypotheses, we performed a meta-analysis on two types of effect sizes contained within 42 studies in the amusia literature: the performance gap between amusics and controls on tasks of pitch discrimination, broadly defined, and the correlation between specifically acoustic pitch perception and musical pitch perception. To augment the correlation database, we also calculated this correlation using data from 106 participants tested by our own research group. We found strong evidence for the acoustic account of amusia. The magnitude of the performance gap was moderated by the size of pitch change, but not by whether the stimuli were composed of tones or speech. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between an individual's acoustic and musical pitch perception. However, individual cases show a double dissociation between acoustic and musical processing, which suggests that although most amusic cases are probably explainable by an acoustic deficit, there is heterogeneity within the disorder. Finally, we found that tonal language fluency does not influence the performance gap between amusics and controls, and that there was no evidence that amusics fare worse with pitch direction tasks than pitch discrimination tasks. These results constitute a quantitative review of the current literature of congenital amusia, and suggest several new directions for research, including the experimental induction of amusic behaviour through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the systematic exploration of the developmental
Watanabe, Yukari; Watanabe, Takamitsu
Head injury is considered as a potential risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, several recent studies have suggested that head injury is not a cause, but a consequence of latent ALS. We aimed to evaluate such a possibility of reverse causation with meta-analyses considering time lags between the incidence of head injuries and the occurrence of ALS. We searched Medline and Web of Science for case-control, cross-sectional, or cohort studies that quantitatively investigated the head-injury-related risk of ALS and were published until 1 December 2016. After selecting appropriate publications based on PRISMA statement, we performed random-effects meta-analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sixteen of 825 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The association between head injuries and ALS was statistically significant when the meta-analysis included all the 16 studies (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.21-1.74). However, in the meta-analyses considering the time lags between the experience of head injuries and diagnosis of ALS, the association was weaker (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.46, time lag ≥ 1 year) or not significant (e.g. OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.84-1.59, time lag ≥ 3 years). Although it did not deny associations between head injuries and ALS, the current study suggests a possibility that such a head-injury-oriented risk of ALS has been somewhat overestimated. For more accurate evaluation, it would be necessary to conduct more epidemiological studies that consider the time lags between the occurrence of head injuries and the diagnosis of ALS.
Wulff, Dirk U; Mergenthaler-Canseco, Max; Hertwig, Ralph
People can learn about the probabilistic consequences of their actions in two ways: One is by consulting descriptions of an action's consequences and probabilities (e.g., reading up on a medication's side effects). The other is by personally experiencing the probabilistic consequences of an action (e.g., beta testing software). In principle, people taking each route can reach analogous states of knowledge and consequently make analogous decisions. In the last dozen years, however, research has demonstrated systematic discrepancies between description- and experienced-based choices. This description-experience gap has been attributed to factors including reliance on a small set of experience, the impact of recency, and different weighting of probability information in the two decision types. In this meta-analysis focusing on studies using the sampling paradigm of decisions from experience, we evaluated these and other determinants of the decision-experience gap by reference to more than 70,000 choices made by more than 6,000 participants. We found, first, a robust description-experience gap but also a key moderator, namely, problem structure. Second, the largest determinant of the gap was reliance on small samples and the associated sampling error: free to terminate search, individuals explored too little to experience all possible outcomes. Third, the gap persisted when sampling error was basically eliminated, suggesting other determinants. Fourth, the occurrence of recency was contingent on decision makers' autonomy to terminate search, consistent with the notion of optional stopping. Finally, we found indications of different probability weighting in decisions from experience versus decisions from description when the problem structure involved a risky and a safe option. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Irani, Farzin; Barbone, Jordan Mark; Beausoleil, Janet; Gerald, Lynn
Asthma is a chronic disease with significant health burden and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities related to diagnosis and treatment. Asthma primarily affects the lungs, but can impact brain function through direct and indirect mechanisms. Some studies have suggested that asthma negatively impacts cognition, while others have failed to identify asthma-related cognitive compromise. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognition in individuals with asthma compared to that in healthy controls. We also examined the impact of some key potential moderators. Data on cognitive outcome measures and sociodemographic, illness-related, and study-related variables were extracted from studies reporting cognitive test performance in individuals with asthma compared to that in controls. There was no evidence of publication bias. A random-effects model examining differences in task performance between 2017 individuals with asthma and 2131 healthy controls showed significant effects in the small to medium range. Cognitive deficits associated with asthma were global, with strongest effects on broader measures involving academic achievement and executive functioning, but with additional impact on processing speed, global intellect, attention, visuospatial functioning, language, learning, and memory. Severity of asthma was a key moderator, with greatest cognitive deficits associated with severe asthma. Cognitive burden was also greatest in asthma patients who were younger, males, from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and from racial/ethnic minorities. Effects were independent of type of population (child versus adult), type of study (norm-referenced versus control-referenced), or reported use of oral or inhaled corticosteroid medications. There is cognitive burden associated with asthma, particularly among vulnerable groups with severe asthma. This could be due to increased risk of intermittent cerebral hypoxia in severe asthma. The clinical need to assess cognition in
Carey, Kate B.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Garey, Lorra; Elliott, Jennifer C.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective When college students violate campus alcohol policies, they typically receive disciplinary sanctions that include alcohol education or counseling. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of these “mandated interventions” to prevent future alcohol misuse. Methods Studies were included if they evaluated an individual- or group-level intervention, sampled students mandated to an alcohol program, used a pretest-posttest design, and assessed alcohol use as an outcome. Thirty-one studies with 68 separate interventions (N = 8,621 participants; 35% women; 85% White) were coded by independent raters with respect to sample, design, methodological features, and intervention content; the raters also calculated weighted mean effect sizes, using random-effects models. A priori predictors were examined to explain variability in effect sizes. Results In the five studies that used assessment-only control groups, mandated students reported significantly less drinking relative to controls (between-group contrasts), d+ ranged from 0.13-0.20 for quantity and intoxication outcomes. In the 31 studies that provided within-group contrasts, significant effects were observed for all outcomes in the short-term (i.e., ≤ 3 months post-intervention), with d+ ranging from 0.14-0.27; however, fewer significant effects appeared at longer follow-ups. Four commercially-available intervention protocols (i.e., BASICS, e-CHUG, Alcohol 101, and Alcohol Skills Training Program) were associated with risk reduction. Conclusions Providing mandated interventions to students who violate campus alcohol policies is an effective short-term risk reduction strategy. Continued research is needed to maintain initial gains, identify the most useful intervention components, and determine the cost-effectiveness of delivery modes. PMID:27100126
Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Relyea, Rick A; Tejedo, Miguel; Torralva, Mar
Many studies have assessed the impact of different pollutants on amphibians across a variety of experimental venues (laboratory, mesocosm, and enclosure conditions). Past reviews, using vote-counting methods, have described pollution as one of the major threats faced by amphibians. However, vote-counting methods lack strong statistical power, do not permit one to determine the magnitudes of effects, and do not compare responses among predefined groups. To address these challenges, we conducted a meta-analysis of experimental studies that measured the effects of different chemical pollutants (nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds, pesticides, road deicers, heavy metals, and other wastewater contaminants) at environmentally relevant concentrations on amphibian survival, mass, time to hatching, time to metamorphosis, and frequency of abnormalities. The overall effect size of pollutant exposure was a medium decrease in amphibian survival and mass and a large increase in abnormality frequency. This translates to a 14.3% decrease in survival, a 7.5% decrease in mass, and a 535% increase in abnormality frequency across all studies. In contrast, we found no overall effect of pollutants on time to hatching and time to metamorphosis. We also found that effect sizes differed among experimental venues and among types of pollutants, but we only detected weak differences among amphibian families. These results suggest that variation in sensitivity to contaminants is generally independent of phylogeny. Some publication bias (i.e., selective reporting) was detected, but only for mass and the interaction effect size among stressors. We conclude that the overall impact of pollution on amphibians is moderately to largely negative. This implies that pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations pose an important threat to amphibians and may play a role in their present global decline.
Edwards, Janet P; Kelly, Elizabeth J; Lin, Yongtao; Lenders, Taryn; Ghali, William A; Graham, Andrew J
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are thought to provide the most accurate estimation of "true" treatment effect. The relative quality of effect estimates derived from nonrandomized studies (nRCTs) remains unclear, particularly in surgery, where the obstacles to performing high-quality RCTs are compounded. We performed a meta-analysis of effect estimates of RCTs comparing surgical procedures for breast cancer relative to those of corresponding nRCTs. English-language RCTs of breast cancer treatment in human patients published from 2003 to 2008 were identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. We identified nRCTs using the National Library of Medicine's "related articles" function and reference lists. Two reviewers conducted all steps of study selection. We included studies comparing 2 surgical arms for the treatment of breast cancer. Information on treatment efficacy estimates, expressed as relative risk (RR) for outcomes of interest in both the RCTs and nRCTs was extracted. We identified 12 RCTs representing 10 topic/outcome combinations with comparable nRCTs. On visual inspection, 4 of 10 outcomes showed substantial differences in summary RR. The pooled RR estimates for RCTs versus nRCTs differed more than 2-fold in 2 of 10 outcomes and failed to demonstrate consistency of statistical differences in 3 of 10 cases. A statistically significant difference, as assessed by the z score, was not detected for any of the outcomes. Randomized controlled trials comparing surgical procedures for breast cancer may demonstrate clinically relevant differences in effect estimates in 20%-40% of cases relative to those generated by nRCTs, depending on which metric is used.
Burke, Anne L J; Mathias, Jane L; Denson, Linley A
Chronic pain (CP; >3 months) is a common condition that is associated with significant psychological problems. Many people with CP do not fit into discrete diagnostic categories, limiting the applicability of research that is specific to a particular pain diagnosis. This meta-analysis synthesized the large extant literature from a general CP, rather than diagnosis-specific, perspective to systematically identify and compare the psychological problems most commonly associated with CP. Four databases were searched from inception to December 2013 (PsychINFO, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, and PubMed) for studies comparing the psychological functioning of adults with CP to healthy controls. Data from 110 studies were meta-analysed and Cohen's d effect sizes calculated. The CP group reported experiencing significant problems in a range of psychological domains (depression, anxiety, somatization, anger/hostility, self-efficacy, self-esteem and general emotional functioning), with the largest effects observed for pain anxiety/concern and somatization; followed by anxiety and self-efficacy; and then depression, anger/hostility, self-esteem and general emotional functioning. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that individuals with CP are more likely to experience physically focussed psychological problems than other psychological problems and that, unlike self-efficacy, fear of pain is intrinsically tied to the CP experience. This challenges the prevailing view that, for individuals with CP, problems with depression are either equal to, or greater than, problems with anxiety, thereby providing important information to guide therapeutic targets. Positive clinical implications: This is the first time that the CP literature has been synthesized from a general perspective to examine psychological functioning in the presence of CP and provide practical recommendations for assessment and therapy. Individuals with CP were most likely to experience psychological problems
Wolf Fredric M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. Methods We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD, stratified incidence rate differences (IRD, and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR. We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. Results For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04. IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11, while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90. For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09. IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03, while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74. In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99. Conclusions Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the
Guevara, James P; Berlin, Jesse A; Wolf, Fredric M
Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER) visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD), stratified incidence rate differences (IRD), and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR). We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04). IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11), while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90). For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09). IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03), while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74). In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99). Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the clinical interpretability of the findings. Incidence rate
Roy, Tapan Kumar; Singh, Brijesh P
Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women's age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at increased risks of unwanted births- older women
Tapan Kumar Roy
Full Text Available Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh.The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births.The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women's age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births.Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at increased risks of unwanted
Sulistyo, A.; Purwantoro; Sari, K. P.
Selection is a routine activity in plant breeding programs that must be done by plant breeders in obtaining superior plant genotypes. The use of appropriate selection criteria will determine the effectiveness of selection activities. The purpose of this study was to analysis the inheritable agronomic traits that contribute to soybean yield. A total of 91 soybean lines were planted in Muneng Experimental Station, Probolinggo District, East Java Province, Indonesia in 2016. All soybean lines were arranged in randomized complete block design with two replicates. Correlation analysis, path analysis and heritability estimation were performed on days to flowering, days to maturing, plant height, number of branches, number of fertile nodes, number of filled pods, weight of 100 seeds, and yield to determine selection criteria on soybean breeding program. The results showed that the heritability value of almost all agronomic traits observed is high except for the number of fertile nodes with low heritability. The result of correlation analysis shows that days to flowering, plant height and number of fertile nodes have positive correlation with seed yield per plot (0.056, 0.444, and 0.100, respectively). In addition, path analysis showed that plant height and number of fertile nodes have highest positive direct effect on soybean yield. Based on this result, plant height can be selected as one of selection criteria in soybean breeding program to obtain high yielding soybean variety.
Full Text Available Biped climbing robots are considered good assistants and (or substitutes for human workers carrying out high-rise truss-associated routine tasks. Flexible locomotion on three-dimensional complex trusses is a fundamental skill for these robots. In particular, the capability to transit from one structural member to another is paramount for switching objects to be climbed upon. In this paper, we study member-to-member transition and its utility in global path searching for biped climbing robots. To compute operational regions for transition, hierarchical inspection of safety, reachability, and accessibility of grips is taken into account. A novel global path rapid determination approach is subsequently proposed based on the transition analysis. This scheme is efficient for finding feasible routes with respect to the overall structural environment, which also benefits the subsequent grip and motion planning. Simulations are conducted with Climbot, our self-developed biped climbing robot, to verify the efficiency of the presented method. Results show that our proposed method is able to accurately determine the operational region for transition within tens of milliseconds and can obtain global paths within seconds in general.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Once a new genome is sequenced, one of the important questions is to determine the presence and absence of biological pathways. Analysis of biological pathways in a genome is a complicated task since a number of biological entities are involved in pathways and biological pathways in different organisms are not identical. Computational pathway identification and analysis thus involves a number of computational tools and databases and typically done in comparison with pathways in other organisms. This computational requirement is much beyond the capability of biologists, so information systems for reconstructing, annotating, and analyzing biological pathways are much needed. We introduce a new comparative pathway analysis workbench, ComPath, which integrates various resources and computational tools using an interactive spreadsheet-style web interface for reliable pathway analyses. Results ComPath allows users to compare biological pathways in multiple genomes using a spreadsheet style web interface where various sequence-based analysis can be performed either to compare enzymes (e.g. sequence clustering and pathways (e.g. pathway hole identification, to search a genome for de novo prediction of enzymes, or to annotate a genome in comparison with reference genomes of choice. To fill in pathway holes or make de novo enzyme predictions, multiple computational methods such as FASTA, Whole-HMM, CSR-HMM (a method of our own introduced in this paper, and PDB-domain search are integrated in ComPath. Our experiments show that FASTA and CSR-HMM search methods generally outperform Whole-HMM and PDB-domain search methods in terms of sensitivity, but FASTA search performs poorly in terms of specificity, detecting more false positive as E-value cutoff increases. Overall, CSR-HMM search method performs best in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. Gene neighborhood and pathway neighborhood (global network visualization tools can be used
Satake, H.; Ikeda, K.; Kowa, H.; Hoshiba, T.; Watanabe, E.
In recent years, noninvasive, nonstaining, and nondestructive quantitative cell measurement techniques have become increasingly important in the medical field. These cell measurement techniques enable the quantitative analysis of living cells, and are therefore applied to various cell identification processes, such as those determining the passage number limit during cell culturing in regenerative medicine. To enable cell measurement, we developed a quantitative microscopic phase imaging system based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that measures the optical path length difference distribution without phase unwrapping using optical phase locking. The applicability of our phase imaging system was demonstrated by successful identification of breast cancer cells amongst normal cells. However, the cell identification method using this phase imaging system exhibited a false identification rate of approximately 7%. In this study, we implemented a polarimetric imaging system by introducing a polarimetric module to one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer of our conventional phase imaging system. This module was comprised of a quarter wave plate and a rotational polarizer on the illumination side of the sample, and a linear polarizer on the optical detector side. In addition, we developed correction methods for the measurement errors of the optical path length and birefringence phase differences that arose through the influence of elements other than cells, such as the Petri dish. As the Petri dish holding the fluid specimens was transparent, it did not affect the amplitude information; however, the optical path length and birefringence phase differences were affected. Therefore, we proposed correction of the optical path length and birefringence phase for the influence of elements other than cells, as a prerequisite for obtaining highly precise phase and polarimetric images.
Listner, Clemens; Canty, Morton J.; Niemeyer, Irmgard; Rezniczek, Arnold; Stein, Gotthard
In the past, the IAEA has planned its activities mainly based on the presence of nuclear material. However, resources should be spent where they are needed most. Therefore, a new risk model was developed to change the inspection system to a comprehensive, objective‑driven approach where the State is considered as a whole, the so called State‑level concept (SLC). Acquisition path analysis (APA) is a key element of the State‑level concept. By considering the State’s nuclear profile, the APA generates a list of acquisition paths ranked by their attractiveness for the State. Currently, this process is mainly based on expert judgment. However, the IAEA’s requirements state that APA must be objective, reproducible, transparent, standardized, documented and as a result non‑discriminatory. A formal approach fulfilling the requirements was set up by the authors in the past . This methodology is based on a three step approach. The process starts in the first step with the parametrization of the network. In the second step, the network is analyzed in order find all acquisition paths for a State. Finally, game theory is used in the third step to model the decisions made by the IAEA and the State. In this paper, an advanced methodology will be presented. Improvements were made in the interface definition between the three stages. Also, the general network model was updated and the automatic visualization of acquisition paths was accomplished. Furthermore, a prototype implementation will be shown. The advanced methodology was applied to two test non‑nuclear weapon States under comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA. Both States hold complex fuel cycles with only small technical differences. However,only one State is supposed to have the additional protocol (AP) in force. The example will show how the presence of the AP influences the detection probabilities of illegal behavior. As a consequence, these examples also indicate where to best focus
Acri, Antonio; Offner, Guenter; Nijman, Eugene; Rejlek, Jan
Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) development of modern commercial vehicles. In order to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission, exact knowledge of all vehicle noise sources and their acoustic behavior is required. Transfer path analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. Transmission paths from different sources to target points of interest and their contributions can be analyzed by applying TPA. This technique is applied on test measurements, which can only be available on prototypes, at the end of the designing process. In order to overcome the limits of TPA, a numerical transfer path analysis methodology based on the substructuring of a multibody system is proposed in this paper. Being based on numerical simulation, this methodology can be performed starting from the first steps of the designing process. The main target of the proposed methodology is to get information of noise sources contributions of a dynamic system considering the possibility to have multiple forces contemporary acting on the system. The contributions of these forces are investigated with particular focus on distribute or moving forces. In this paper, the mathematical basics of the proposed methodology and its advantages in comparison with TPA will be discussed. Then, a dynamic system is investigated with a combination of two methods. Being based on the dynamic substructuring (DS) of the investigated model, the methodology proposed requires the evaluation of the contact forces at interfaces, which are computed with a flexible multi-body dynamic (FMBD) simulation. Then, the structure-borne noise paths are computed with the wave based method (WBM). As an example application a 4-cylinder engine is investigated and the proposed methodology is applied on the
to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments......We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path...
Daniel D. Goering
Full Text Available The distinctiveness between work engagement and burnout has long been an issue of debate. To address this issue, we use a recently developed technique by Yu et al. (2016 to specify and test a meta-analytic structural equation model (MASEM which accounts for the non-independence between engagement and burnout as well as the simultaneous effects of all relationships in our model, based on job demands-resources (JD-R theory. We also estimate the degree of variability of these relationships across subpopulations. We report the findings as a distribution of effect size estimates—each estimate in the distribution representing the true effect size for a potential subpopulation—around the mean average estimate for each relationship in the model. Based on the findings, we conclude that overall burnout and engagement display empirically distinct relationships within the JD-R model (i.e., they are not antipodal, particularly in terms of antecedents. Perhaps most interestingly, rather than a polar opposite pattern of relationships, challenge demands have a similarly positive relationship to both burnout (ß = 0.35, SD = 0.10 and engagement (ß = 0.35, SD = 0.08, suggesting that challenge demands simultaneously lead—in equal force—to both engagement and burnout. In addition, the distributions of effect sizes are nearly identical for both relationships, indicating that this holds true for nearly all subpopulations. As expected, hindrance demands have a positive relationship with burnout (ß = 0.31, SD = 0.10 and have a relatively weak, negative relationship on average to engagement (ß = −0.07, SD = 0.07; work resources have a negative relationship with burnout (ß = −0.15, SD = 0.06 and are positively related to engagement, but in absolute terms they are a stronger predictor of engagement (ß = 0.33, SD = 0.05. In terms of outcomes, burnout and engagement predict a variety of behavioral and attitudinal outcomes
Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Merten, Sonja; Schindler, Christian; Ali, Said M; Nyambedha, Erick O; Lapika, Bruno; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G
Controlling cholera remains a significant challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. In areas where access to safe water and sanitation are limited, oral cholera vaccine (OCV) can save lives. Establishment of a global stockpile for OCV reflects increasing priority for use of cholera vaccines in endemic settings. Community acceptance of vaccines, however, is critical and sociocultural features of acceptance require attention for effective implementation. This study identifies and compares sociocultural determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance across populations in Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Western Kenya and Zanzibar. Cross-sectional studies were conducted using similar but locally-adapted semistructured interviews among 1095 respondents in three African settings. Logistic regression models identified sociocultural determinants of OCV acceptance from these studies in endemic areas of Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC), Western Kenya (W-Kenya) and Zanzibar. Meta-analytic techniques highlighted common and distinctive determinants in the three settings. Anticipated OCV acceptance was high in all settings. More than 93% of community respondents overall indicated interest in a no-cost vaccine. Higher anticipated acceptance was observed in areas with less access to public health facilities. In all settings awareness of cholera prevention methods (safe food consumption and garbage disposal) and relating ingestion to cholera causation were associated with greater acceptance. Higher age, larger households, lack of education, social vulnerability and knowledge of oral rehydration solution for self-treatment were negatively associated with anticipated OCV acceptance. Setting-specific determinants of acceptance included reporting a reliable income (W-Kenya and Zanzibar, not SE-DRC). In SE-DRC, intention to purchase an OCV appeared unrelated to ability to pay. Rural residents were less likely than urban counterparts to accept an OCV in W-Kenya, but more
The FORTRAN IV computer program, DPA Computer Program 2 (DPACP-2) is used to produce tables and statistics on modifications identified when performing a Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) in accord with the methodology given in Volume 1. The program requires 259088 bytes exclusive of the operating system. The data assembled and tabulated by DPACP-2 assist the DPA team in analyzing and evaluating modifications to the plant's safeguards system that would eliminate, or reduce the severity of, vulnerabilities identified by means of the DPA. These vulnerabilities relate to the capability of the plant's material control and material accounting subsystems to indicate diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by a knowledgeable insider
A.S.M. Mahbubur Rahman Khan
Full Text Available Genetic variability, heritability and path coefficient analysis were studied in 21 genotypes of snake gourd. The phenotypic coefficient of variations was found slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variations for all characters studied, indicating that the apparent variation is not only genetic but also influenced by the growing environment in the expression of the traits. The genotypic coefficient of variation was high for the fruit yield, number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. High heritability coupled with high-to-moderate genetic advance was estimated for all characters studied. Correlation studies revealed that the fruit yield had a significant, positive correlation with the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. Importantly, more than 90% of the genotypic total variation was contributed by the characters included in the path analysis. The highest, direct, positive effect was recorded for the number of fruits per vine. The divergence value for cluster analysis indicated that the genotypes from clusters II and III had the highest inter-cluster distance and were expected to provide high heterosis in hybridization and to show wide variability in genetic architecture. The selection of high yielding genotypes should give emphasis to the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight.
Noeryanti, N.; Suryowati, K.; Setyawan, Y.; Aulia, R. R.
Students' academic achievement cannot be separated from the influence of two factors namely internal and external factors. The first factors of the student (internal factors) consist of intelligence (X1), health (X2), interest (X3), and motivation of students (X4). The external factors consist of family environment (X5), school environment (X6), and society environment (X7). The objects of this research are eighth grade students of the school year 2016/2017 at SMPN 1 Jiwan Madiun sampled by using simple random sampling. Primary data are obtained by distributing questionnaires. The method used in this study is binary logistic regression analysis that aims to identify internal and external factors that affect student’s achievement and how the trends of them. Path Analysis was used to determine the factors that influence directly, indirectly or totally on student’s achievement. Based on the results of binary logistic regression, variables that affect student’s achievement are interest and motivation. And based on the results obtained by path analysis, factors that have a direct impact on student’s achievement are students’ interest (59%) and students’ motivation (27%). While the factors that have indirect influences on students’ achievement, are family environment (97%) and school environment (37).
Bada Algom, O; Fabry, C; Leroy, P L; Hornick, J-L
Kouri (Bos taurus) is a breed aboriginal from Lake Chad and threatened with extinction. This study aimed to compare milk fatty acid profiles measured on Kouri cows and on high-yielding dairy cattle in Europe and elsewhere as reported by meta-analytical data (22 experimentations). Milk samples were collected from 14 Kouri dairy cows in dry season (March to June) and fatty acids (FA) were determined by gas chromatography. Overall, 32 FA have been identified. Kouri showed lower values (P pastures by Kouri cows.
María Jesús Barroso-Méndez
Full Text Available Partnerships between businesses and non-governmental organizations (NGOs have become widely adopted mechanisms for collaboration in addressing complex social issues, the aim being to take advantage of the two types of organizational rationale to generate mutual value. Many such alliances have proved to be unsuccessful, however. To assist managers improve the likelihood of success of their collaborative relationships, the authors propose a success model of business-NGO partnering processes based on Relationship Marketing Theory. They also analyse the theoretical bases of the model's hypotheses through a meta-analytical study of the existing literature.
Konopack James F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been established as an important determinant of quality of life, particularly among older adults. Previous research has suggested that physical activity’s influence on quality of life perceptions is mediated by changes in self-efficacy and health status. In the same vein, spirituality may be a salient quality of life determinant for many individuals. Methods In the current study, we used path analysis to test a model in which physical activity, spirituality, and social support were hypothesized to influence global quality of life in paths mediated by self-efficacy and health status. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 215 adults (male, n = 51; female, n = 164 over the age of 50 (M age = 66.55 years. Results The analysis resulted in a model that provided acceptable fit to the data (χ2 = 33.10, df = 16, p Conclusions These results support previous findings of an efficacy-mediated relationship between physical activity and quality of life, with the exception that self-efficacy in the current study was moderately associated with physical health status (.38 but not mental health status. Our results further suggest that spirituality may influence health and well-being via a similar, efficacy-mediated path, with strongest effects on mental health status. These results suggest that those who are more spiritual and physically active report greater quality of life, and the effects of these factors on quality of life may be partially mediated by perceptions of self-efficacy.
Baek, Jieun; Choi, Yosoon
Most algorithms for least-cost path analysis usually calculate the slope gradient between the source cell and the adjacent cells to reflect the weights for terrain slope into the calculation of travel costs. However, these algorithms have limitations that they cannot analyze the least-cost path between two cells when obstacle cells with very high or low terrain elevation exist between the source cell and the target cell. This study presents a new algorithm for least-cost path analysis by correcting digital elevation models of natural landscapes to find possible paths satisfying the constraint of maximum or minimum slope gradient. The new algorithm calculates the slope gradient between the center cell and non-adjacent cells using the concept of extended move-sets. If the algorithm finds possible paths between the center cell and non-adjacent cells with satisfying the constraint of slope condition, terrain elevation of obstacle cells existing between two cells is corrected from the digital elevation model. After calculating the cumulative travel costs to the destination by reflecting the weight of the difference between the original and corrected elevations, the algorithm analyzes the least-cost path. The results of applying the proposed algorithm to the synthetic data sets and the real-world data sets provide proof that the new algorithm can provide more accurate least-cost paths than other conventional algorithms implemented in commercial GIS software such as ArcGIS.
Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Kalatpour, Omid; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Mohhamadfam, Iraj
Unsafe behavior is closely related to occupational accidents. Work pressure is one the main factors affecting employees' behavior. The aim of the present study was to provide a path analysis model for explaining how work pressure affects safety behavior. Using a self-administered questionnaire, six variables supposed to affect safety employees' behavior were measured. The path analysis model was constructed based on several hypotheses. The goodness of fit of the model was assessed using both absolute and comparative fit indices. Work pressure was determined not to influence safety behavior directly. However, it negatively influenced other variables. Group attitude and personal attitude toward safety were the main factors mediating the effect of work pressure on safety behavior. Among the variables investigated in the present study, group attitude, personal attitude and work pressure had the strongest effects on safety behavior. Managers should consider that in order to improve employees' safety behavior, work pressure should be reduced to a reasonable level, and concurrently a supportive environment, which ensures a positive group attitude toward safety, should be provided. Replication of the study is recommended.
Lopes, K V; Teodoro, P E; Silva, F A; Silva, M T; Fernandes, R L; Rodrigues, T C; Faria, T C; Corrêa, A M
Estimating genetic parameters in plant breeding allows us to know the population potential for selecting and designing strategies that can maximize the achievement of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of a population of 20 cowpea genotypes by estimating genetic parameters and path analysis among the traits to guide the selection strategies. The trial was conducted in randomized block design with four replications. Its morphophysiological components, components of green grain production and dry grain yield were estimated from genetic use and correlations between the traits. Phenotypic correlations were deployed through path analysis into direct and indirect effects of morphophysiological traits and yield components on dry grain yield. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the genotypes for most the traits, indicating the presence of genetic variability in the population and the possibility of practicing selection. The population presents the potential for future genetic breeding studies and is highly promising for the selection of traits dry grain yield, the number of grains per pod, and hundred grains mass. A number of grains per green pod is the main determinant trait of dry grain yield that is also influenced by the cultivar cycle and that the selection for the dry grain yield can be made indirectly by selecting the green pod mass and green pod length.
Full Text Available This paper presents a single-domain boundary element method (SDBEM for linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis in the 2D anisotropic bimaterial. In this formulation, the displacement integral equation is collocated on the uncracked boundary only, and the traction integral equation is collocated on one side of the crack surface only. The complete fundamental solution (Green's function for anisotropic bi-materials was also derived and implemented into the boundary integral formulation so the discretization along the interface can be avoided except for the interfacial crack part. A special crack-tip element was introduced to capture exactly the crack-tip behavior. A computer program with the FORTRAN code has been developed to effectively calculate the stress intensity factors, crack initiation angle, and propagation path of an anisotropic bi-material. This SDBEM program has been verified having a good accuracy with the previous researches. In addition, a rock of type (1/(2 disk specimen with a central crack was made to conduct the Brazilian test under diametrical loading. The result shows that the numerical analysis can predict relatively well the direction of crack initiation and the path of crack propagation.
van Lew, Baldur; Botha, Charl P.; Milles, Julien R.; Vrooman, Henri A.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.
The cohort size required in epidemiological imaging genetics studies often mandates the pooling of data from multiple hospitals. Patient data, however, is subject to strict privacy protection regimes, and physical data storage may be legally restricted to a hospital network. To enable biomarker discovery, fast data access and interactive data exploration must be combined with high-performance computing resources, while respecting privacy regulations. We present a system using fast and inherently secure light-paths to access distributed data, thereby obviating the need for a central data repository. A secure private cloud computing framework facilitates interactive, computationally intensive exploration of this geographically distributed, privacy sensitive data. As a proof of concept, MRI brain imaging data hosted at two remote sites were processed in response to a user command at a third site. The system was able to automatically start virtual machines, run a selected processing pipeline and write results to a user accessible database, while keeping data locally stored in the hospitals. Individual tasks took approximately 50% longer compared to a locally hosted blade server but the cloud infrastructure reduced the total elapsed time by a factor of 40 using 70 virtual machines in the cloud. We demonstrated that the combination light-path and private cloud is a viable means of building an analysis infrastructure for secure data analysis. The system requires further work in the areas of error handling, load balancing and secure support of multiple users.
Full Text Available Objectives: Among the Korean elderly (those 65 years of age and older, the suicide rate is 80.3/100 000 people, which is ten times higher than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development average. Because South Korea is rapidly becoming an aging population, this high elderly suicidal rate will only get worse. Although the size of the elderly suicide problem is quite large, previous research in South Korea has surveyed restricted areas and not the entire country. Even though the factors that affect elderly suicide are complicated, there has been little research into these influencing factors. Thus, this research uses the national survey data (Community Health Survey that was obtained in 2009. Additionally, we analyze factors affecting elderly suicidal ideation and attempts as well as the paths of these effects. Methods: Community Health Survey data obtained by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009 was used for this study. We additionally examined the factors that affect suicide with chi-squared tests, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation test, and path analysis. Results: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are the only factors that directly affect suicidal attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors have indirect effects on suicidal attempts. Conclusions: Depression has the strongest influence on suicidal ideation and attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts mostly through depressive symptoms. In addition, there is a path that suggests that demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts not through depression symptoms but only through suicidal ideation. This means that the elderly who do not have depression symptoms attempt suicide according to their own situations and characteristics.
Fujita, Takaaki; Nagayama, Hirofumi; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae
Previous reports indicated that various dysfunctions caused by stroke affect the level of independence in dressing. These dysfunctions can be hierarchical, and these effects on dressing performance can be complicated in stroke patients. However, there are no published reports focusing on the hierarchical structure of the relationships between the activities of daily living and balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the hierarchical and causal relationships between dressing performance and these dysfunctions in stroke patients. This retrospective study included 104 first-time stroke patients. The causal relationship between the dressing performance and age, time post stroke, balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits were examined using path analysis. A hypothetical path model was created based on previous studies, and the goodness of fit between the data and model were verified. A modified path model was created that achieved an almost perfect fit to the data. Balance function and abdominal muscle strength have direct effects on dressing performance, with standardized direct effect estimates of 0.78 and 0.15, respectively. Age, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, and strength of abdominal muscle and knee extension on the unaffected side have indirect effects on dressing by influencing balance function. Our results suggest that dressing performance depends strongly on balance function, and it is mainly influenced by the motor function of the affected lower limb.
Full Text Available Previous reports indicated that various dysfunctions caused by stroke affect the level of independence in dressing. These dysfunctions can be hierarchical, and these effects on dressing performance can be complicated in stroke patients. However, there are no published reports focusing on the hierarchical structure of the relationships between the activities of daily living and balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the hierarchical and causal relationships between dressing performance and these dysfunctions in stroke patients. This retrospective study included 104 first-time stroke patients. The causal relationship between the dressing performance and age, time post stroke, balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits were examined using path analysis. A hypothetical path model was created based on previous studies, and the goodness of fit between the data and model were verified. A modified path model was created that achieved an almost perfect fit to the data. Balance function and abdominal muscle strength have direct effects on dressing performance, with standardized direct effect estimates of 0.78 and 0.15, respectively. Age, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, and strength of abdominal muscle and knee extension on the unaffected side have indirect effects on dressing by influencing balance function. Our results suggest that dressing performance depends strongly on balance function, and it is mainly influenced by the motor function of the affected lower limb.
Bachmann, Michael; Bachmann, Brittany A
Context The lifelong, negative consequences of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) for individuals and their families are well established. Objective To demonstrate the importance of including ACE information in child maltreatment education curricula using path analysis. Design Survey data examined the impact of child maltreatment education programs and knowledge about ACEs on medical practitioners’ reporting habits and ability to detect maltreatment. A path diagram distinguished between the direct impact of education programs on outcome measures and the indirect effect that is mediated through knowledge of ACEs. Main Outcome Measures Medical practitioners’ ability to detect child maltreatment and their number of referrals to Child Protective Services (CPS). Results The optimized path diagram (χ2SB(3) = 3.9, p = 0.27; RMSEA-SB = 0.017; R2 = 0.21, where SB is Satorra-Bentler coefficient and RMSEA is root-mean-square error of approximation) revealed the mediating variable “knowledge about ACEs” as the strongest structural effect (SB-β = 0.34) on the number of CPS referrals. It was almost twice as high as the second strongest effect of formal education programs (SB-β = 0.19). For workplace training programs, the total effect when including knowledge of ACEs was almost double as strong as the direct effect alone. Even when previous child maltreatment education was controlled for, practitioners familiar with the consequences of ACEs were significantly more likely to recognize and to report abuse to CPS. Conclusion This study documented the importance of specialized training programs on ACEs, and the essential role ACE knowledge plays in the effectiveness of provider education programs. PMID:29616910
Bachmann, Michael; Bachmann, Brittany A
The lifelong, negative consequences of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) for individuals and their families are well established. To demonstrate the importance of including ACE information in child maltreatment education curricula using path analysis. Survey data examined the impact of child maltreatment education programs and knowledge about ACEs on medical practitioners' reporting habits and ability to detect maltreatment. A path diagram distinguished between the direct impact of education programs on outcome measures and the indirect effect that is mediated through knowledge of ACEs. Medical practitioners' ability to detect child maltreatment and their number of referrals to Child Protective Services (CPS). The optimized path diagram (χ 2 SB(3) = 3.9, p = 0.27; RMSEA-SB = 0.017; R 2 = 0.21, where SB is Satorra-Bentler coefficient and RMSEA is root-mean-square error of approximation) revealed the mediating variable "knowledge about ACEs" as the strongest structural effect (SB-β = 0.34) on the number of CPS referrals. It was almost twice as high as the second strongest effect of formal education programs (SB-β = 0.19). For workplace training programs, the total effect when including knowledge of ACEs was almost double as strong as the direct effect alone. Even when previous child maltreatment education was controlled for, practitioners familiar with the consequences of ACEs were significantly more likely to recognize and to report abuse to CPS. This study documented the importance of specialized training programs on ACEs, and the essential role ACE knowledge plays in the effectiveness of provider education programs.
Briere, John; Godbout, Natacha; Dias, Colin
Although trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) both have been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, the underlying basis for this relationship is not clear. In a sample of 357 trauma-exposed individuals from the general population, younger participant age, cumulative trauma exposure, and all three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PTSD clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) were correlated with clinical levels of suicidality. However, logistic regression analysis indicated that when all PTSD clusters were considered simultaneously, only hyperarousal continued to be predictive. A path analysis confirmed that posttraumatic hyperarousal (but not other components of PTSD) fully mediated the relationship between extent of trauma exposure and degree of suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
K U Bidwe
Full Text Available A study entitled “Decomposition analysis of buffalo production in Buldana District was undertaken to ascertain the technological changes in term of breeding, feeding, housing, milking and calf management practices of buffalo. The path coefficient analysis of this study clearly demonstrated that daily milk production in buffaloes was influenced substantially by a single factor i.e management index. A combination of all the management practices in the form of overall management status on the rearing were responsible to influence the daily milk yield. However, rearing of good potential animals, feeding of sufficient amounts of dry and green fodder with required amount of concentrates to fulfill the nutritional requirements could favour the milk production in buffaloes. All these factors exhibited positive direct effect on milk production. The indirect effects were also found in positive direction, resulting a positive significant correlation for these factors. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 103-104
da Conceicao Do Carmo Montes, Frederico; Gernaey, Krist V.; Sin, Gürkan
into consideration the effects of temperature, acidity, and the choice of the catalyst. Parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis were conducted on the kinetic model parameters using experimental data available in the literature. Finally, one factor at a time sensitivity analysis in the form of deviations......The pharmaceutical industry faces several challenges and barriers when implementing new or improving current pharmaceutical processes, such as competition from generic drug manufacturers and stricter regulations from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine agency. The demand...... for efficient and reliable models to simulate and design/improve pharmaceutical processes is therefore increasing. For the case of ibuprofen, a well-known anti-inflammatory drug, the existing models do not include its complete synthesis path, usually referring only to one out of aset of different reactions...
Anusic, Ivana; Schimmack, Ulrich
The stability of individual differences is a fundamental issue in personality psychology. Although accumulating evidence suggests that many psychological attributes are both stable and change over time, existing research rarely takes advantage of theoretical models that capture both stability and change. In this article, we present the Meta-Analytic Stability and Change model (MASC), a novel meta-analytic model for synthesizing data from longitudinal studies. MASC is based on trait-state models that can separate influences of stable and changing factors from unreliable variance (Kenny & Zautra, 1995). We used MASC to evaluate the extent to which personality traits, life satisfaction, affect, and self-esteem are influenced by these different factors. The results showed that the majority of reliable variance in personality traits is attributable to stable influences (83%). Changing factors had a greater influence on reliable variance in life satisfaction, self-esteem, and affect than in personality (42%-56% vs. 17%). In addition, changing influences on well-being were more stable than changing influences on personality traits, suggesting that different changing factors contribute to personality and well-being. Measures of affect were less reliable than measures of the other 3 constructs, reflecting influences of transient factors, such as mood on affective judgments. After accounting for differences in reliability, stability of affect did not differ from other well-being variables. Consistent with previous research, we found that stability of individual differences increases with age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bigler, Erin D; Farrer, Thomas J; Pertab, Jon L; James, Kelly; Petrie, Jo Ann; Hedges, Dawson W
In 2009 Pertab, James, and Bigler published a critique of two prior meta-analyses by Binder, Rohling, and Larrabee (1997) and Frencham, Fox, and Maybery (2005) that showed small effect size difference at least 3 months post-injury in individuals who had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The Binder et al. and Frencham et al. meta-analyses have been widely cited as showing no lasting effect of mTBI. In their critique Pertab et al. (2009) point out many limitations of these two prior meta-analyses, demonstrating that depending on how inclusion/exclusion criteria were defined different meta-analytic findings occur, some supporting the persistence of neuropsychological impairments beyond 3 months. Rohling et al. (2011) have now critiqued Pertab et al. (2009). Herein we respond to the Rolling et al. (2011) critique reaffirming the original findings of Pertab et al. (2009), providing additional details concerning the flaws in prior meta-analytic mTBI studies and the effects on neuropsychological performance.
Hong, Jingke; Shen, Qiping; Xue, Fan
The construction industry in China exerts significant environmental impacts and uses considerable resources because of rapid urbanization. This study conducted a structural path analysis (SPA) based on the multi-regional input–output table to quantify environmental impact transmission in the entire supply chain. Results indicated that the direct resource input (the first stage) along with on-site construction (the zeroth stage) consumed the highest amount of energy in the supply chain and accounted for approximately 50% of total energy consumption. Regional analysis showed that energy consumption in the construction industry at the provincial level was self-sufficient. Sectoral analysis demonstrated that the direct inputs from the sectors of “manufacture of non-metallic mineral products” and “smelting and pressing of metals” generated the most important energy flows, whereas the sectors of “production and distribution of electric power and heat power” and “extraction of petroleum and natural gas” significantly but indirectly influenced energy use. Sensitivity analysis exhibited that the system boundary of SPA could be narrowed down into the first two upstream stages that contained nearly 50% of energy flow information or expanded toward the first five upstream stages that represented 80% of total energy consumption. - Highlights: •We designed an optimized algorithm for multi-regional SPA. •We extracted energy-intensive paths throughout the upstream supply chain. •We explored self-sufficiency characteristic for provincial construction industries. •We identified energy-intensive sectors hidden in higher-order supply chain. •We developed an effective strategy for narrowing down the system boundary of SPA.
Abe, T; Kobayashi, E; Okubo, Y; Suwazono, Y; Kido, T; Shaikh, Z A; Nogawa, K
In order to identify some causal relations among various urinary indices of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction, such as glucose, total protein, amino nitrogen, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m), metallothionein (MT), and cadmium (Cd), we applied path analysis method to previous epidemiological studies targeting the residents of the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. We obtained a diagram-termed path model, representing some causal relations among the above urinary indices. It shows that urinary Cd is located at the beginning point in the diagram, and Cd-induced renal dysfunction develops in the following order: Cd exposure-->increase of beta 2-m and/or MT excretion-->increase of amino-N and/or total protein excretion-->increase of glucose excretion. It was proved mathematically, that in the case of both males and females, increased excretions of beta 2-m and/or MT were the most sensitive urinary indices of the early stage of chronic Cd-induced renal dysfunction.
Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the number of measurements necessary to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits, study the relationships between them and their direct and indirect effects on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids. The characteristics skin and pulp color, fruit weight, suture, equatorial and polar diameters, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids were evaluated in 39 cultivars of peach and 3 cultivars of nectarine from the orchard of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The repeatability coefficient was estimated by ANOVA and CPCOR. Phenotypic correlation coefficients (rf were estimated and, after the multicollinearity diagnostics, they were unfolded to direct and indirect effects of the explanatory variables on the response variable using path analysis. There was agreement on the magnitude of repeatability coefficients obtained by the two methods; however, they varied among the 14 characteristics. The highest correlations were found between FW, SD, ED and PD. Seven fruits are sufficient to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of peach with a correlation coefficient of 90%. The characteristics considered in the path diagrams (b* skin, hº skin, b* pulp, hº pulp, ED, PD, FIR, SS, SS/AT and TC are not the main determinants of the ascorbic acid. The yellow hue of the pulp (hº pulp has the potential to be used in indirect selection for total carotenoids.
Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G
Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.
Bühlmayer, Lucia; Birrer, Daniel; Röthlin, Philipp; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars
Mindfulness as a present-oriented form of mental training affects cognitive processes and is increasingly considered meaningful for sport psychological training approaches. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of mindfulness practice on physiological and psychological performance surrogates or on performance outcomes in sports. The aim of the present meta-analytical review was to examine the effects of mindfulness practice or mindfulness-based interventions on physiological and psychological performance surrogates and on performance outcomes in sports in athletes over 15 years of age. A structured literature search was conducted in six electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus). The following search terms were used with Boolean conjunction: (mindful* OR meditat* OR yoga) AND (sport* OR train* OR exercis* OR intervent* OR perform* OR capacity OR skill*) AND (health* OR adult* OR athlete*). Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies that compared mindfulness practice techniques as an intervention with an inactive control or a control that followed another psychological training program in healthy sportive participants were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality [Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro)] scales were independently assessed by two researchers. A third independent researcher was consulted to achieve final consensus in case of disagreement between both researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated as weighted Hedges' g and served as the main outcomes in comparing mindfulness practice versus control. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects inverse-variance model. Nine trials of fair study quality (mean PEDro score 5.4, standard deviation 1.1) with 290 healthy sportive participants (athletics, cyclists, dart throwers, hammer throwers, hockey players, hurdlers, judo fighters, rugby players, middle-distance runners, long
Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.
Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.
Santos, Emerson Alves Dos; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Branco, Marcia Christina da Silva; Santos, Ivanildes Conceição Dos; Ahnert, Dario; Baligar, Virupax C; Valle, Raúl René
Drought is worldwide considered one of the most limiting factors of Theobroma cacao production, which can be intensified by global climate changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phenotypic correlation among morphological characteristics of cacao progenies submitted to irrigation and drought conditions and their partitions into direct and indirect effects. Path analysis with phenotypic plasticity index was used as criteria for estimation of basic and explanatory variables. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a randomized block 21 x 2 factorial arrangement [21 cacao progenies obtained from complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and drought)] and six replications. In general, drought conditions influenced biomass production in most progenies, causing significant reductions in total leaf area, leaf number, leaf biomass, fine-roots length (diameter cacao progenies drought tolerant.
Jeane de Oliveira Moura
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.
Erneida Coelho de Araújo
Full Text Available The quality of yellow passion fruit seed is determined by fruit storage and the duration of this period. Two orthree harvest dates can thereby be defined to obtain maximum quality. This study aimed to obtain estimates of phenotype,genotype and residual correlation coefficients and evaluate the direct and indirect effects (path analysis of genotype correlationsin seed extracted from fruits stored for 7, 14 and 21 days at cooled (8 ºC and at environment temperature (25 ºC. Thevariables accelerated aging and moisture content explained the higher germination percentage in the refrigerated environment.However, in natural conditions, the variables dry matter and electric conductivity influenced seed germination percentagestrongly, evidencing that the indirect effects of accelerated aging, electric conductivity and weight reduction had the greatestinfluence on dry matter.
Hong, Yong-Rock; Holcomb, Derek; Ballard, Michael; Schwartz, Laurel
Winds of change have been blowing in the U.S. healthcare system since passage of the Affordable Care Act. Examining differences between individuals covered by different types of insurance is essential if healthcare executives are to develop new strategies in response to the emerging health insurance market. In this study, we used multigroup path analysis models to examine the moderating effects of health insurance on direct and indirect associations with general health status, satisfaction with received care, financial burden, and perceived value of the healthcare system. Data were obtained from the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and analyzed according to the types of insurance: private, public, and military. With the satisfactory fit of the model (χ = 2,532.644, df = 96, p spending.
Onyper, Serge V; Thacher, Pamela V; Gilbert, Jack W; Gradess, Samuel G
Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between class start times, sleep, circadian preference, and academic performance in college-aged adults. Consistent with observations in middle and high school students, college students with later class start times slept longer, experienced less daytime sleepiness, and were less likely to miss class. Chronotype was an important moderator of sleep schedules and daytime functioning; those with morning preference went to bed and woke up earlier and functioned better throughout the day. The benefits of taking later classes did not extend to academic performance, however; grades were somewhat lower in students with predominantly late class schedules. Furthermore, students taking later classes were at greater risk for increased alcohol consumption, and among all the factors affecting academic performance, alcohol misuse exerted the strongest effect. Thus, these results indicate that later class start times in college, while allowing for more sleep, also increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse, ultimately impeding academic success.
Huang, Mingqiang; Li, Jinheng
Since the reform and opening policy, the construction of rural area in China has become more and more important. The idea of establishing green villages needs to be accepted and recognized by the public. The hot summer and cold winter zone combines two contradictory weather conditions that is cold winter and hot summer. So the living conditions are limited. In response to this climate, residents extensively use electric heaters or air conditioning to adjust the indoor temperature, resulting in energy waste and environmental pollution. In order to improve the living conditions of residents, rural area energy conservation has been put on the agenda. Based on the present situation and energy consumption analysis of the rural buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone, this article puts forward several energy saving paths from government, construction technology and so on
Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.
White, Evan J; Kraines, Morganne A; Tucker, Raymond P; Wingate, LaRicka R; Wells, Tony T; Grant, DeMond M
The current study documents the relationship between suicide ideation, grit and gratitude, and rumination subtypes of brooding and reflection. The relationship between rumination and suicide ideation has been well documented and previous research has demonstrated that grit and gratitude are protective factors against suicide. We hypothesized that both subtypes of rumination would have an indirect effect on suicide ideation through levels of grit and gratitude. Results of a conditional indirect effects path analysis indicated that brooding was indirectly related to suicide ideation through gratitude. Brooding interacted with grit such that it only predicted suicide ideation at low levels of grit. Reflection interacted with gratitude to predict levels of grit. Results suggest that brooding may impact suicide risk and resilience through its effect on gratitude, indicating important cognitive-behavioral targets for suicide prevention strategies. These results extend the literature about the relationship between well known risk factors for suicide and protective factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stolc, Viktor; Li, Lei; Wang, Xiangfeng
As the international efforts to sequence the rice genome are completed, an immediate challenge and opportunity is to comprehensively and accurately define all transcription units in the rice genome. Here we describe a strategy of using high-density oligonucleotide tiling-path microarrays to map...... transcription of the japonica rice genome. In a pilot experiment to test this approach, one array representing the reverse strand of the last 11.2 Mb sequence of chromosome 10 was analyzed in detail based on a mathematical model developed in this study. Analysis of the array data detected 77% of the reference...... gene models in a mixture of four RNA populations. Moreover, significant transcriptional activities were found in many of the previously annotated intergenic regions. These preliminary results demonstrate the utility of genome tiling microarrays in evaluating annotated rice gene models...
Full Text Available Self-medication is a behavior in which one tries to solve his/her health condition or problem without professional help. With regard to mortality and severe complications of diabetes, inappropriate self- medication can have severe consequences but proper planning can control this behavior to improve the patient′s health. In this study, the effect of each factor on self-medication in patients with diabetes is determined using path analysis technique. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Kermanshah diabetes center. The number of patients with diabetes interviewed were 500. Each patient′s score of self-medication were determined according to a questionnaire, with a higher score showing greater self-medication. Demographic information and scores of trust to doctors, medical expenses, others′ recommendations and busy work environment as predictor variables were measured and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Based on the questionnaire scores, two patients (0.4% largely, 191 (38.7% moderately and 300 (60.9% slightly were on self-medication. The variable; mistrust of doctors only directly, variables; age, the duration of diabetes and family history of heart disease only indirectly and variables; busy work environment, medical expenses, others′ recommendations and family history of hypertension directly and indirectly were related to self-medication. The results of this study showed that more than 60% of patients with diabetes had low self-medication, which represents the success of education principles and methods. Extracting causal relationships among the complexity of factors influencing a disease requires powerful statistical tools such as path analysis.
Li Huanan; Mu Hailin; Zhang Ming; Li Nan
With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO 2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO 2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO 2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China. - Highlights: → We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions. → Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. → These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. → Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO 2 emission is different. → Improving technology level is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China.
Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira; Alavi Majd, Hamid
Given that several factors involved in the incidence or exacerbation of developmental disorders in children, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between some of the risk factors affecting mothers' health and development in children using path analysis. The present cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 750 mothers and their children in health centers in Tehran, Iran in 2014 enrolled through multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using a demographic and personal information questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, Beck's depression Inventory, Spielberger' anxiety inventory, the WHO domestic violence questionnaire and an ages & stages questionnaire for assessing children's development. Data were analyzed using SPSS.19 (Chicago, IL, USA) and Lisrel 8.8. Developmental delay was observed in 12.1% of the children. The mean stress score was 23.94±8.62 in the mothers, 50.7% of whom showed mild to severe depression, 84.2% moderate to severe anxiety and 35.3% had been subjected to domestic violence. The path analysis showed that children's development was affected directly by perceived stress (β=-0.09) and depression (β=-0.17) and indirectly by domestic violence (β=-0.05278) and anxiety (β=-0.0357). Of all the variables examined, depression had the biggest influence on development in the children (β=-0.17). The proposed model showed a good fit (GFI=1, RMSEA=0.034). Children's development was influenced indirectly by domestic violence and anxiety and directly by perceived stress and depression in mothers. It is thus suggested that more concern and attention be paid to women's mental health and the domestic violence they experience.
Moghaddam Hosseini, Vahideh; Asadi, Zahra Sadat; Akaberi, Arash; Hashemian, Masoumeh
Intimate partner violence against women is a widespread phenomenon that is the cause of many deleterious health and social consequences. This study examines the impact of some risk factors on partner violence in the eastern region of Iran, using path analysis. The study used a population-based cross sectional study design. In this study, 251 married women who were referred to the health centers were selected through a proportionally stratified and randomized sampling method. Domestic violence was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale and the socio-demographic variable was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling was used for evaluating the overall path analysis and the direct and indirect p-value was estimated by Bootstrap method. AMOS and SPSS software were used to analyze data. The prevalence of overall violence was 78.1%, with 37.8% and 0.8% of women reporting minor and severe violence, respectively, and 39.8% reporting both severe and minor forms of violence. Psychological violence was the most common type of violence reported (66.5%). The model showed that husbands' drug abuse and women's higher level of education compared to their husbands were the first and second most important factors that significantly and directly influenced the violence. The women's attitude, however, had the least effect on the violence. The findings indicated that higher educated women and women with addicted husbands were more likely to experience violence. Treating the drug abuse disorders, especially mental disorders, using behavioral couple's therapy, as well as modifying certain traditional and cultural biases against women's empowerment are suggested.
Mashayekhi, Mohammad Jalali; Behdinan, Kamran
The increasing demand to minimize undesired vibration and noise levels in several high-tech industries has generated a renewed interest in vibration transfer path analysis. Analyzing vibration transfer paths within a system is of crucial importance in designing an effective vibration isolation strategy. Most of the existing vibration transfer path analysis techniques are empirical which are suitable for diagnosis and troubleshooting purpose. The lack of an analytical transfer path analysis to be used in the design stage is the main motivation behind this research. In this paper an analytical transfer path analysis based on the four-pole theory is proposed for multi-energy-domain systems. Bond graph modeling technique which is an effective approach to model multi-energy-domain systems is used to develop the system model. In this paper an electro-mechanical system is used as a benchmark example to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. An algorithm to obtain the equivalent four-pole representation of a dynamical systems based on the corresponding bond graph model is also presented in this paper.
Often, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification to integrate evidence across multiple studies to conclude whether particular hazards exist. However, quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application o...
Chang Anne M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apart from promoting physical recovery and assisting in activities of daily living, a major challenge in stroke rehabilitation is to minimize psychosocial morbidity and to promote the reintegration of stroke survivors into their family and community. The identification of key factors influencing long-term outcome are essential in developing more effective rehabilitation measures for reducing stroke-related morbidity. The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model of predictors of participation restriction which included the direct and indirect effects between psychosocial outcomes, physical outcome, and socio-demographic variables at 12 months after stroke. Methods Data were collected from 188 stroke survivors at 12 months following their discharge from one of the two rehabilitation hospitals in Hong Kong. The settings included patients' homes and residential care facilities. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesized model of participation restriction at 12 months. Results The path coefficients show functional ability having the largest direct effect on participation restriction (β = 0.51. The results also show that more depressive symptoms (β = -0.27, low state self-esteem (β = 0.20, female gender (β = 0.13, older age (β = -0.11 and living in a residential care facility (β = -0.12 have a direct effect on participation restriction. The explanatory variables accounted for 71% of the variance in explaining participation restriction at 12 months. Conclusion Identification of stroke survivors at risk of high levels of participation restriction, depressive symptoms and low self-esteem will assist health professionals to devise appropriate rehabilitation interventions that target improving both physical and psychosocial functioning.
Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu
This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.
Lawrence, Michael A; Leib, Daniel J; Ostrowski, Stephanie J; Carlson, Lara A
Lawrence, MA, Leib, DJ, Ostrowski, SJ, and Carlson, LA. Nonlinear analysis of an unstable bench press bar path and muscle activation. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1206-1211, 2017-Unstable resistance exercises are typically performed to improve the ability of stabilizing muscles to maintain joint integrity under a load. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an unstable load (as provided by a flexible barbell and a load suspended by elastic bands) on the bar path, the primary musculature, and stabilizing musculature while bench pressing using nonlinear analyses. Fifteen resistance-trained men (age 24.2 ± 2.7 years, mass 84.1 ± 12.0 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, 9.9 ± 3.4 years of lifting experience, and bench press 1 repetition maximum (RM) 107.5 ± 25.9 kg) volunteered for this study. Subjects pressed 2 sets of 5 repetitions in both stable (total load 75% 1RM) and unstable (total load 60% 1RM) conditions using a standard barbell and a flexible Earthquake bar, respectively. Surface electromyography was used to detect muscle activity of primary movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps) and bar stabilizing musculature (latissimus dorsi, middle and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and upper trapezius). During the unstable condition, the bar moved in more ways and was less predictable in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions. However, the muscle activation patterns of all muscles were more constrained with the unstable barbell. These findings suggest that the unstable condition was more challenging to control, but subjects controlled the instability by contracting their muscles in a more stable pattern or "staying tight" throughout the exercise.
Shaffer, C.; Leonard, M.
Leak-path factors (LPFs) were calculated for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) located in the Plutonium Facility, Building 41 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 55. In the unlikely event of an accidental fire powerful enough to fail a container holding actinides, the subsequent release of oxides, modeled as PuO 2 aerosols, from the facility and into the surrounding environment was predicted. A 1-h nondestructive assay (NDA) laboratory fire accident was simulated with the MELCOR severe accident analysis code. Fire-driven air movement along with wind-driven air infiltration transported a portion of these actinides from the building. This fraction is referred to as the leak-path factor. The potential effect of smoke aerosol on the transport of the actinides was investigated to verify the validity of neglecting the smoke as conservative. The input model for the NMSF consisted of a system of control volumes, flow pathways, and surfaces sufficient to model the thermal-hydraulic conditions within the facility and the aerosol transport data necessary to simulate the transport of PuO 2 particles. The thermal-hydraulic, heat-transfer, and aerosol-transport models are solved simultaneously with data being exchanged between models. A MELCOR input model was designed such that it would reproduce the salient features of the fire per the corresponding CFAST calculation. Air infiltration into and out of the facility would be affected strongly by wind-driven differential pressures across the building. Therefore, differential pressures were applied to each side of the building according to guidance found in the ASHRAE handbook using a standard-velocity head equation with a leading multiplier to account for the orientation of the wind with the building. The model for the transport of aerosols considered all applicable transport processes, but the deposition within the building clearly was dominated by gravitational settling
Full Text Available In this work we present a topological map building and localization system for mobile robots based on global appearance of visual information. We include a comparison and analysis of global-appearance techniques applied to wide-angle scenes in retrieval tasks. Next, we define multiscale analysis, which permits improving the association between images and extracting topological distances. Then, a topological map-building algorithm is proposed. At first, the algorithm has information only of some isolated positions of the navigation area in the form of nodes. Each node is composed of a collection of images that covers the complete field of view from a certain position. The algorithm solves the node retrieval and estimates their spatial arrangement. With these aims, it uses the visual information captured along some routes that cover the navigation area. As a result, the algorithm builds a graph that reflects the distribution and adjacency relations between nodes (map. After the map building, we also propose a route path estimation system. This algorithm takes advantage of the multiscale analysis. The accuracy in the pose estimation is not reduced to the nodes locations but also to intermediate positions between them. The algorithms have been tested using two different databases captured in real indoor environments under dynamic conditions.
Full Text Available Introduction: Among the collection of natural resources in the world, soil is considered as one of the most important components of the environment. Protect and improve the properties of this precious resource, requires a comprehensive and coordinated action that only through a deep understanding of quantitative (not only recognition of the quality the origin, distribution and functionality in a natural ecosystem is possible. Many researchers believe that due to the quick reactions of soil organisms to environmental changes, soil biological survey to estimate soil quality is more important than the chemical and physical properties. For this reason, in many studies the nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration indices are regarded. The aim of the present study were to study the direct and indirect effects of soil physicochemical characteristics on the most important biological indicators (nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration, which has not been carefully considered up to now. This research is the first study to provide evidence to the future planning and management of soil sciences. Materials and Methods: For this, a limitation of 20 ha area of Experimental Forest Station of Tarbiat Modares University was considered. Fifty five soil samples, from the top 15 cm of soil, were taken, from which bulk density, texture, organic C, total N, cation exchange capacity (CEC, nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration were determined at the laboratory. The data stored in Excel as a database. To determine the relationship between biological indices and soil physicochemical characteristics, correlation analysis and factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA were employed. To investigate all direct and indirect relationships between biological indices and different soil characteristics, path analysis (path analysis was used. Results and Discussion: Results showed significant positive relations between biological indices
Kelly, D; Reidsema, C; Lee, M
Load paths can be mapped from vector plots of 'pointing stress vectors'. They define a path along which a component of load remains constant as it traverses the solution domain. In this paper the theory for the paths is first defined. Properties of the plots that enable a designer to interpret the structural behavior from the contours are then identified. Because stress is a second order tensor defined on an orthogonal set of axes, the vector plots define separate paths for load transfer in each direction of the set of axes. An algorithm is therefore presented that combines the vectors to define a topology to carry the loads. The algorithm is shown to straighten the paths reducing bending moments and removing stress concentration. Application to a bolted joint, a racing car body and a yacht hull demonstrate the usefulness of the plots.
Choi, Daejeong; Oh, In-Sue; Colbert, Amy E
We examined the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and three forms of organizational commitment (affective, normative, and continuance commitment) and their variability across individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Meta-analytic results based on 55 independent samples from 50 studies (N = 18,262) revealed that (a) all FFM traits had positive relationships with affective commitment; (b) all FFM traits had positive relationships with normative commitment; and (c) Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience had negative relationships with continuance commitment. In particular, Agreeableness was found to be the trait most strongly related to both affective and normative commitment. The results also showed that Agreeableness had stronger relationships with affective and normative commitment in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures. We provide theoretical and practical implications of these findings for personality, job attitudes, and employee selection and retention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Dudley, Nicole M; Orvis, Karin A; Lebiecki, Justin E; Cortina, José M
Researchers of broad and narrow traits have debated whether narrow traits are important to consider in the prediction of job performance. Because personality-performance relationship meta-analyses have focused almost exclusively on the Big Five, the predictive power of narrow traits has not been adequately examined. In this study, the authors address this question by meta-analytically examining the degree to which the narrow traits of conscientiousness predict above and beyond global conscientiousness. Results suggest that narrow traits do incrementally predict performance above and beyond global conscientiousness, yet the degree to which they contribute depends on the particular performance criterion and occupation in question. Overall, the results of this study suggest that there are benefits to considering the narrow traits of conscientiousness in the prediction of performance. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Todd, E Michelle; Watts, Logan L; Mulhearn, Tyler J; Torrence, Brett S; Turner, Megan R; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D
Despite the growing body of literature on training in the responsible conduct of research, few studies have examined the effectiveness of delivery formats used in ethics courses (i.e., face-to-face, online, hybrid). The present effort sought to address this gap in the literature through a meta-analytic review of 66 empirical studies, representing 106 ethics courses and 10,069 participants. The frequency and effectiveness of 67 instructional and process-based content areas were also assessed for each delivery format. Process-based contents were best delivered face-to-face, whereas contents delivered online were most effective when restricted to compliance-based instructional contents. Overall, hybrid courses were found to be most effective, suggesting that ethics courses are best delivered using a blend of formats and content areas. Implications and recommendations for future development of ethics education courses in the sciences are discussed.
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Mügge, Dirk O
Whether video game play affects social behavior is a topic of debate. Many argue that aggression and helping are affected by video game play, whereas this stance is disputed by others. The present research provides a meta-analytical test of the idea that depending on their content, video games do affect social outcomes. Data from 98 independent studies with 36,965 participants revealed that for both violent video games and prosocial video games, there was a significant association with social outcomes. Whereas violent video games increase aggression and aggression-related variables and decrease prosocial outcomes, prosocial video games have the opposite effects. These effects were reliable across experimental, correlational, and longitudinal studies, indicating that video game exposure causally affects social outcomes and that there are both short- and long-term effects.
Full Text Available Non-destructive ultrasound inspection of metallic structures is a perpetual high-interest area of research because of its well-known benefits in industrial applications, especially from an economic point of view, where detection and localisation of defects in their most initial stages can help maintain high production capabilities for any enterprise. This paper is aimed at providing further validation regarding a new technique for detecting and localising defects in metals, the Matched Filter-based Dual Symmetric Path Inspection (MF-DSPI. This validation consists in demonstrating the consistency of the useful ultrasound echoes, within the framework of the MF-DSPI. A description of the MF-DSPI method and the related work of the authors with it are presented in this paper, along with an experimental setup used to obtain the data with which the useful echo consistency was studied. The four proposed methods are: signal envelope analysis, L2-norm criterion, correlation coefficient criterion and sliding bounding rectangle analysis. The aim of this paper is to verify the useful echo consistency (with the help of these four approaches, as the MF-DSPI method strongly relies on this feature. The results and their implications are discussed in the latter portion of this study.
Min, Deulle; Cho, Eunhee
Hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes are common diseases; however, the effects of health behavior and body mass index (BMI) on their incidence and relationship are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among health behaviors, BMI, HTN, and type 2 diabetes.This study was a secondary data analysis using Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging data between 2010 and 2014 (third and fifth). The sample consisted of 3481 people aged 45 years or older. Path analysis was conducted using the generalized structural equation modeling of STATA 13.1 that enabled analyzing the types of binary variables and logit links.There were 129 underweight, 1714 normal, and 1638 overweight and obese individuals. In underweight and normal groups who had regular meals (B = 0.670, P diabetes increased with age (B = 0.051, P = .005) and smoking (B = 1.539, P = .001). However, the incidence of type 2 diabetes was lower (B = -1.077, P = .036) for those who had regular meals. In the normal and overweight groups, BMI decreased with age (B = -0.033, P diabetes increased with age (B = 0.046, P diabetes. Smoking has a direct effect on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Thus, the importance of maintaining an ideal BMI and smoking cessation are highlighted.
Ge, Dandan; Sun, Long; Zhou, Chengchao; Qian, Yangyang; Zhang, Li; Medina, Alexis
Suicide is a global public health problem that has a significant negative influence on individuals, families and the society. The objective of this study is to explore the risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among the elderly in Shandong Province, China. A total of 3313 participants (60+) of Shandong Province, China were included in this study. Suicidal ideation was assessed by using questions from the NCS (National Comorbidity Survey). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors associated with suicidal ideation. Path analysis was conducted to test the direct and indirect association between factors and suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among the seniors in Shandong, China was 4.2%. Depression had the strongest direct (β=0.303, p-valuesuicidal ideation. Social support (β=-0.040, p-valuesuicidal ideation. Depression was a mediator between life satisfaction, economic status, social support and suicidal ideation. The data used in this study was cross-sectional, and the relationship between identified factors and suicidal ideation cannot be interpreted as cause-effect. Depression was the strongest influencing factor of suicidal ideation among the elderly, followed by life satisfaction, economic status. Active intervention measures focusing on the depression screening and treatment both in urban and rural communities should be taken to prevent suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reports an error in "Racial Bias in Mock Juror Decision-Making: A Meta-Analytic Review of Defendant Treatment" by Tara L. Mitchell, Ryann M. Haw, Jeffrey E. Pfeifer and Christian A. Meissner ( Law and Human Behavior , 2005[Dec], Vol 29, 621-637). In the article, all of the numbers in Appendix A were correct, but the signs were reversed for z' in a number of studies, which are listed. Also, in Appendix B, some values were incorrect, some signs were reversed, and some values were missing. The corrected appendix is included. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-00971-001.) Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants, exists in jury decision-making, with Black defendants being treated more harshly by jurors than White defendants. The empirical research, however, is inconsistent--some studies show racial bias while others do not. Two previous meta-analyses have found conflicting results regarding the existence of racial bias in juror decision-making (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1315-1344; Sweeney & Haney, 1992, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 179-195). This research takes a meta-analytic approach to further investigate the inconsistencies within the empirical literature on racial bias in juror decision-making by defining racial bias as disparate treatment of racial out-groups (rather than focusing upon the minority group alone). Our results suggest that a small, yet significant, effect of racial bias in decision-making is present across studies, but that the effect becomes more pronounced when certain moderators are considered. The state of the research will be discussed in light of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kirikkanat, Berke; Soyer, Makbule Kali
The major purpose of this study was to create a path analysis model of academic success in a group of university students, which included the variables of academic confidence and psychological capital with a mediator variable--academic coping. 400 undergraduates from Marmara University and Istanbul Commerce University who were in sophomore, junior…
Full Text Available Nowadays, the issues of sustainable development are of great interest and importance, as countries, organisations, institutions worldwide are still searching for the right solutions leading to human well-being and life quality in a society socially acceptable, economically viable and environmentally sustainable, in an integrated vision between states and generations. Due to the difficulties of measuring such a complex, multi-dimensioned concept, one of the main questions refers to necessity and the possibility of determining countriesâ€™ progress towards sustainable development. In this respect, there are a very large number of initiatives and efforts to develop the appropriÂ¬ate indicators; yet, there is no one agreed method. In this generous context of analysis, the paper aims to offer some answers regarding Romaniaâ€™s progress towards sustainable development, based on a comparative analysis within the European Union, using data provided by three of the most widely used indicators for measuring sustainable development: Human Development Index, Environmental Performance Index and Ecological Footprint. The research methodology uses the comparative analysis and synthesis of data, followed by a dissemination of the results in order to express a personal opinion on the topic. The research results are far from being optimistic, highlighting a serious gap between Romania and the other member states in terms of progress towards sustainable development. Therefore, they call for immediate action and increased efforts, so that European Unionâ€™s objectives of real cohesion and of becoming one of the global leaders in supporting sustainable development can be reached. The merit of this study is its contribution with an original research to the efforts of assessing Romaniaâ€™s progress on the path to sustainable development, which may be particularly important for both researchers and policy makers. Due to some limitations induced by
Full Text Available As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction materials focuses more on their physical or chemical characteristics than on their promotion. Without effective promotion, their benefits cannot be fully appreciated and realized. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the promotion of dry-mix mortars, one of the green materials. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, through a case study, the potential of reducing carbon emission is verified. Then a path analysis is conducted to verify the validity and predictability of the samples based on the technology acceptance model (TAM in this study. According to the findings of this research, to ensure better promotion results and wider application of dry-mix mortar, it is suggested that more systematic efforts be invested in promoting the usefulness and benefits of dry-mix mortar. The model developed in this study can provide helpful references for future research and promotion of other green materials.
Huang, Chung-Fah; Chen, Jung-Lu
As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction materials focuses more on their physical or chemical characteristics than on their promotion. Without effective promotion, their benefits cannot be fully appreciated and realized. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the promotion of dry-mix mortars, one of the green materials. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, through a case study, the potential of reducing carbon emission is verified. Then a path analysis is conducted to verify the validity and predictability of the samples based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) in this study. According to the findings of this research, to ensure better promotion results and wider application of dry-mix mortar, it is suggested that more systematic efforts be invested in promoting the usefulness and benefits of dry-mix mortar. The model developed in this study can provide helpful references for future research and promotion of other green materials.
van den Berg, Pauline; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the role of social networks in spatial-choice and travel behavior. It has been acknowledged that social activities and the travel for these activities can emerge from individuals' social networks and that social activities are responsible for an important portion of travel demand. The influence of information and communication technologies (ICT's) is also important in this respect. The purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of characteristics of egos and ego-alter relationships on the frequency of social interaction by different communication modes, using multilevel path analysis. The analyses are based on social network data collected in 2008 in the Eindhoven region in the Netherlands among 116 respondents. The results indicate a complementary relationship between contact frequencies by different modes. The contact frequencies of the different modes, especially face-to-face and telephone, can also be largely explained by the ego's personal characteristics and the type of relationship and the distance between ego and alter.
Ye, Fang; Ao, Deng; Feng, Yao; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jie; Huntington, Dale; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Yan
The present study aimed to explore the inter-relationships among maternal death, household economic status after the event, and potential influencing factors. We conducted a prospective cohort study of households that had experienced maternal death (n = 195) and those that experienced childbirth without maternal death (n = 384) in rural China. All the households were interviewed after the event occurred and were followed up 12 months later. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship model, utilizing income and expenditure per capita in the following year after the event as the main outcome variables, maternal death as the predictor, and direct costs, the amount of money offset by positive and negative coping strategies, whether the husband remarried, and whether the newborn was alive as the mediators. In the following year after the event, the path analysis revealed a direct effect from maternal death to lower income per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.43, p = 0.041) and to lower expenditure per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.51, peconomy. The results provided evidence for better understanding the mechanism of how this event affects a household economy and provided a reference for social welfare policies to target the most vulnerable households that have suffered from maternal deaths.
Perlman, Dana; Brighton, Renee; Patterson, Christopher; Moxham, Lorna; Taylor, Ellie K; Sumskis, Susan; Heffernan, Tim
The concept of stigma and the stigmatizing behaviours of health-care professionals can have a profound influence on people with mental illness. A key construct that has been identified as influencing our behaviours is self-determination. As such, in the present study, we attempted to examine the connection and influence of motivational measures on the stigmatization of preregistration nurses. Data were collected once using three surveys that measured the motivational responses and stigmatizing behaviours of preregistration nurses after an approved mental health clinical placement. Using a path analysis, the results indicated that psychological needs significantly influenced preregistration nurses' self-determination towards work. In addition, self-determination was a significant influence on the stigmatization behaviours of preregistration nurses. The results of the present study provide initial empirical evidence that supports the importance of professional self-determination and the potential connection of quality care, as illustrated with the low stigmatizing behaviours of preregistration nurses who are more self-determined towards their work/career. Because of the significant results of the present study, it is recommended that future research is needed that uses self-determination theory as a lens to understand the application and importance within the field of nurse education. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Character association and path analysis were performed for black seed cultivars using a split-plots design based on RCBD with three replications. Three cultivars (‘Varzaneh’, ‘Semirom’ and ‘Mobarakeh’ were studied under three levels of irrigation (normal irrigation, irrigation with drought stress before and after flowering. Under normal and abnormal irrigations the relation of seed yield and three characters biological yield, number of capsule per plant and thousand seed weight were high, positive significantly (p≤0.01; the relation between yield and number of sub branch was positive significantly (p≤0.05. In terms of abnormal irrigation there was a positive significant correlation between essence percent and yield (p≤0.05. Under normal irrigation the most direct effect of traits on yield was obtained from biological yield (0.778 followed the number of capsules per plant (0.245. The most indirect effect of traits on yield was obtained from biological yield through thousand seed weight (0.576 followed stem diameter through biological yield (0.468. Under water deficiency conditions the most direct effect of traits on yield was obtained from biological yield (0.811 followed the number of capsules per plant (0.231. The most indirect effect of traits on yield was obtained from biological yield through thousand seed weight (0.562.
Couto, A M; Teodoro, P E; Trugilho, P F
Path analysis has been used for establishing selection criteria in genetic breeding programs for several crops. However, it has not been used in eucalyptus breeding programs yet. In the present study, we aimed to identify the wood technology traits that could be used as the criteria for direct and indirect selection of eucalyptus genotypes with high energy density of wood. Twenty-four eucalyptus clones were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five replications. The following traits were assessed: basic wood density, total extractives, lignin content, ash content, nitrogen content, carbon content, hydrogen content, sulfur content, oxygen content, higher calorific power, holocellulose, and energy density. After verifying the variability of all evaluated traits among the clones, a two-dimensional correlation network was used to determine the phenotypic patterns among them. The obtained coefficient of determination (0.94) presented a higher magnitude in relation to the effect of the residual variable, and it served as an excellent model for explaining the genetic effects related to the variations observed in the energy density of wood in all eucalyptus clones. However, for future studies, we recommend evaluating other traits, especially the morphological traits, because of the greater ease in their measurement. Selecting clones with high basic density is the most promising strategy for eucalyptus breeding programs that aim to increase the energy density of wood because of its high heritability and magnitude of the cause-and-effect relationship with this trait.
Zhang Caibo; Wu Zhangdong; Xu Wei; Rong Tingzhao; Cao Moju
In order to discover and utilize the valuable resources from spaceflight mutagenesis maize offspring effectively, cross combinations derived from the offspring of three different maize inbred lines induced by space flight were made to investigate the yield and related agronomic traits under different environmental conditions. Correlation and path analysis indicated that the factors affecting the yield of combinations varied with different mutagenic materials and environmental effects with larger effect coming from environment. Therefore, different selection strategies should be chosen for different induced maize. For the 08-641 mutagenic material, the 100-kernel weight should be first considered to select while taking into account the number of rows per ear and kernels per row. For the RP125 mutagenic material, the kernels per row should be first selected, and then to select the 100-kernels weight and the number of rows per ear traits. For 18-599 mutagenic material, the 100-seed weight should be first selected, then the plant height, ear diameter, ear height, kernels rate and other traits should be selected in different environments. Combined with field resistance, plant types and other traits, excellent maize inbred lines with high yield potential from space mutagenesis offspring were selected. Thus study has obtained some breeding materials useful for further breeding purpose, and provide a reference method as how to use the spaceflight induced materials for for maize breeding. (authors)
Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick
The Mandaeans are a small religious community originating from Iraq and Iran who are facing the possibility of cultural extinction within the next few generations. This study aimed to examine the relationships between life experiences, psychopathology and fear of cultural extinction in Mandaean refugees. A survey was conducted of 315 adult Iraqi Mandaean refugees living in Australia. Past traumatic experiences and current resettlement difficulties were assessed. Mental health outcomes were also examined, including measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Fear of cultural extinction was measured by items developed in consultation with the Mandaean community. A path analysis was employed to investigate the relationship between trauma, living difficulties, PTSD, depression, and fear of cultural extinction. Results indicated that trauma and living difficulties impacted indirectly on fear of cultural extinction, while PTSD (and not depression) directly predicted levels of anxiety about the Mandaean culture ceasing to exist. The current findings indicate that past trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress contribute to fear of cultural extinction. Exposure to human rights violations enacted on the basis of religion has significant mental health consequences that extend beyond PTSD. The relationship between perception of threat, PTSD, and fear of cultural extinction is considered in the context of cognitive models of traumatic stress. Government immigration policy must prioritize the reunification of small, endangered groups to sustain cultural traditions. Treatment interventions implemented with cultural groups facing extinction should take into consideration anxiety about loss of culture.
Stochastic stability is a popular solution concept for stochastic learning dynamics in games. However, a critical limitation of this solution concept is its inability to distinguish between different learning rules that lead to the same steady-state behavior. We address this limitation for the first time and develop a framework for the comparative analysis of stochastic learning dynamics with different update rules but same steady-state behavior. We present the framework in the context of two learning dynamics: Log-Linear Learning (LLL) and Metropolis Learning (ML). Although both of these dynamics have the same stochastically stable states, LLL and ML correspond to different behavioral models for decision making. Moreover, we demonstrate through an example setup of sensor coverage game that for each of these dynamics, the paths to stochastically stable states exhibit distinctive behaviors. Therefore, we propose multiple criteria to analyze and quantify the differences in the short and medium run behavior of stochastic learning dynamics. We derive and compare upper bounds on the expected hitting time to the set of Nash equilibria for both LLL and ML. For the medium to long-run behavior, we identify a set of tools from the theory of perturbed Markov chains that result in a hierarchical decomposition of the state space into collections of states called cycles. We compare LLL and ML based on the proposed criteria and develop invaluable insights into the comparative behavior of the two dynamics.
Dempere-Marco, Laura; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Yang, Guang-Zhong
The study of eye movements provides useful insight into the cognitive processes underlying visual search tasks. The analysis of the dynamics of eye movements has often been approached from a purely spatial perspective. In many cases, however, it may not be possible to define meaningful or consistent dynamics without considering the features underlying the scan paths. In this paper, the definition of the feature space has been attempted through the concept of visual similarity and non-linear low dimensional embedding, which defines a mapping from the image space into a low dimensional feature manifold that preserves the intrinsic similarity of image patterns. This has enabled the definition of perceptually meaningful features without the use of domain specific knowledge. Based on this, this paper introduces a new concept called Feature Space Transient Fixation Moments (TFM). The approach presented tackles the problem of feature space representation of visual search through the use of TFM. We demonstrate the practical values of this concept for characterizing the dynamics of eye movements in goal directed visual search tasks. We also illustrate how this model can be used to elucidate the fundamental steps involved in skilled search tasks through the evolution of transient fixation moments.
Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.
Yu Shiwei; Zhu Kejun; Zhang Xian
Highlights: ► The effect mechanism of China’s energy demand is investigated detailedly. ► A hybrid algorithm PSO–GA optimal energy demands estimating model for China. ► China’s energy demand will reach 4.48 billion tce in 2015. ► The proposed method forecast shows its superiority compared with others. - Abstract: Energy demand projection is fundamental to rational energy planning formulation. The present study investigates the direct and indirect effects of five factors, namely GDP, population, proportion of industrial, proportion of urban population and coal percentage of total energy consumption on China’s energy demand, implementing a path-coefficient analysis. On this basis, a hybrid algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm optimal Energy Demand Estimating (PSO–GA EDE) model, is proposed for China. The coefficients of the three forms of the model (linear, exponential and quadratic model) are optimized by proposed PSO–GA. To obtain a combinational prediction of three forms, a departure coefficient method is applied to get the combinational weights. The results show that the China’s energy demand will be 4.48 billion tce in 2015. Furthermore; the proposed method forecast shows its superiority compared with other single optimization method such as GA, PSO or ACO and multiple linear regressions.
Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Oladosu, Yusuff; Kashiani, Pedram
Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield. Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Krzeminska, D.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Debieche, T.H.; Cervi, F.; Marc, V.; Malet, J.P.
The unsaturated zone largely controls groundwater recharge by buffering precipitation while at the same time providing preferential flow paths for infiltration. The importance of preferential flow on landslide hydrology is recognised in the literature; however, its monitoring and quantification
Shi Liangmin; Ma Limin; Fan Kai
Study on the critical paths for the schedule control of nuclear power projects has been performed for reactor M310, based on the experiences from Daya Bay project and Ling Ao project. The study shows that the critical paths for the nuclear power project are from NI civil work, NI erection, commissioning of single systems directly serving the CFT to the joint-test. For NI civil work, the critical path is the main civil work of the reactor building, pre-stressing, handover of rooms for important areas, and key CW-erection interfaces; there are four critical paths for NI erection; For startup, two stages can be identified: commissioning of 16 single systems directly serving the CFT and joint-test. (authors)
Loehlin, John C
This fourth edition introduces multiple-latent variable models by utilizing path diagrams to explain the underlying relationships in the models. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers in the areas of social, educational, clinical, ind
Full Text Available Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA, a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive
Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP; head length (CC; head height (AC; body height (A1; and body width (L1. For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios. These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly.
Bhattacharya, Indrajit; Ramachandran, Anandhi
Healthcare information technology (HIT) applications are being ubiquitously adopted globally and have been indicated to have effects on certain dimensions of recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals. Retention of healthcare professionals is affected by their job satisfaction (JS), commitment to the organization and intention to stay (ITS) that are interlinked with each other and influenced by many factors related to job, personal, organization, etc. The objectives of the current study were to determine if HIT was one among the factors and, if so, propose a probable retention model that incorporates implementation and use of HIT as a strategy. This was a cross-sectional survey study covering 20 hospitals from urban areas of India. The sample (n = 586) consisted of doctors, nurses, paramedics and hospital administrators. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire. Factors affecting job satisfaction were determined. Technology acceptance by the healthcare professionals was also determined. Interactions between the factors were predicted using a path analysis model. The overall satisfaction rate of the respondents was 51 %. Based on factor analysis method, 10 factors were identified for JS and 9 factors for ITS. Availability and use of information technology was one factor that affected JS. The need for implementing technology influenced ITS through work environment and career growth. Also, the study indicated that nearly 70 % of the respondents had awareness of HIT, but only 40 % used them. The importance of providing training for HIT applications was stressed by many respondents. The results are in agreement with literature studies exploring job satisfaction and retention among healthcare professionals. Our study documented a relatively medium level of job satisfaction among the healthcare professionals in the urban area. Information technology was found to be one among the factors that can plausibly influence their job satisfaction and
Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming
Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a
Fussell, J.B.; Henry, E.B.; Marshall, N.H.
1 - Description of problem or function: From a description of the Boolean failure logic of a system, called a fault tree, and control parameters specifying the minimal cut set length to be obtained MOCUS determines the system failure modes, or minimal cut sets, and the system success modes, or minimal path sets. 2 - Method of solution: MOCUS uses direct resolution of the fault tree into the cut and path sets. The algorithm used starts with the main failure of interest, the top event, and proceeds to basic independent component failures, called primary events, to resolve the fault tree to obtain the minimal sets. A key point of the algorithm is that an and gate alone always increases the number of path sets; an or gate alone always increases the number of cut sets and increases the size of path sets. Other types of logic gates must be described in terms of and and or logic gates. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Output from MOCUS can include minimal cut and path sets for up to 20 gates
Chapman, Derek S; Uggerslev, Krista L; Carroll, Sarah A; Piasentin, Kelly A; Jones, David A
Attracting high-performing applicants is a critical component of personnel selection and overall organizational success. In this study, the authors meta-analyzed 667 coefficients from 71 studies examining relationships between various predictors with job-organization attraction, job pursuit intentions, acceptance intentions, and job choice. The moderating effects of applicant gender, race, and applicant versus nonapplicant status were also examined. Results showed that applicant attraction outcomes were predicted by job-organization characteristics, recruiter behaviors, perceptions of the recruiting process, perceived fit, and hiring expectancies, but not recruiter demographics or perceived alternatives. Path analyses showed that applicant attitudes and intentions mediated the predictor-job choice relationships. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for recruiting theory, research, and practice. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Ramzan, A.; Nawab, N. N.; Tariq, M. S.; Ikram, S.; Ahad, A.
A study was undertaken to find out the estimates of genetic variability, genetic parameters and character association among different flower traits between three gladiolus cultivars viz: Sancerre, Fado and Advanced Red. The experiment was repeated three times by using RCBD (Randomized complete block design) at Department of Horticulture, PMAS-UAAR, Rawalpindi. The highest genotypic coefficient variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient variation (PCV) magnitude was observed for spike length (16.00) and number of florets per spike (14.84) followed by number of leaves (10.00). Among the traits studied the highest heritability estimates was recorded in spike length (99.5 percent) followed by number of florets/spike (99.6 percent) and lowest in plant height (98.2 percent). The genetic advance as percent of mean was ranged from 2.8 percent to 24.75 percent. Genetic advance was highest for floret breadth (24.75 percent) and lowest for plant height (2.8 percent). High heritability combined with high genetic advance was noticed for number of florets per spike, spike length and floret breadth indicating additive gene action which suggested that improvement of these traits would be effective for further selection of superior genotypes. Plant height and number of florets per spike showed highly positive and significant association with spike length, number of leaves, leaf area, floret length and floret breadth while, spike length registered positive and significant correlation with number of leaves and floret breadth. The path coefficient analysis based on spike length, as responsible variable exposed that all of the traits exerted direct positive effect except leaf area and floret length. Spike length imparted maximum positive direct effect on the number of florets per spike. Hence, spike length and number of florets per spike may be considered for further improvement. However, Floret length and floret breadth may also be considered as a criterion for selection. (author)
M. Mahdi Akhgar
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The most important indicator of population growth is fertility. Fertil-ity is influenced by selection of individual, social, economic, demographic, cultural and bio-logical factors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting fertility (num-ber of live births. Materials & Methods: This was a cross- sectional study of the correlation matrix, which is based on a sample of 500 households in the two-stage random sampling method. First, a question-naire was adjusted and then was provided to interviewers for recording some demographics information and birthrate. To examine the relationship between these variables and fertility model, the most important influential variables on fertility were selected based on the theo-retical model and using socio-economic and demographic variables influencing on fertility. The data were then analyzed by the path analysis using LISREL software. Results: Mean±SD of parity in 500 married women was 2.18±0.904 in Hamadan city. Among the variables, couple education (total effect -0.421 and the number of unwanted pregnancy (total effect 0.27 had the highest effect on fertility, respectively; while husband’s marriage age (total effect -0.00365 had the lowest effects on parity. Conclusion: This study shows that high education is a deterrent factor to live births and also shows that the rise of live births is unwanted among families. Also, it can be concluded from the findings of this study that culture of trend towards early marriage and childbearing which are associated with the promotion of education for women and men can significantly increase the pregnancy order to prevent the lack of active and aging population. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 122-128
Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad
In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases. Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis. This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki's physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire). A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress. According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff.
Cruz J, R.L.
The task of contemporary archaeology is extended every day; new techniques and new instruments have been incorporating to those tools which the archaeologist has in order to achieve a better approach to his study object. The archaeology had been exploring in the physical chemical sciences with the purpose to obtain information beyond the traditional methodologies and so obtaining more and best data. The sudden advance in the knowledge of the basic particles which make up the matter can be applied to these archaeological studies too. Archaeology takes part of the new possibilities which nuclear physics offers in the study of materials such as ceramics, clays, metal alloys, native metals and practically some lithological source. In Latin America the neutron activation analysis was used first for the characterization and determination of the ceramics origin. Some regions have been better studied from the point of view of obsidian exploitation and consumption, such is the case of El Tajin and Oaxaca region in Mexico. (Author)
Full Text Available In this paper we propose an experimental study model S3P2 of a fast fully dynamic programming algorithm design technique in finite directed graphs with few distinct nonnegative real edge weights. The Bellman-Ford’s approach for shortest path problems has come out in various implementations. In this paper the approach once again is re-investigated with adjacency matrix selection in associate least running time. The model tests proposed algorithm against arbitrarily but positive valued weighted digraphs introducing notion of Prograph that speeds up finding the shortest path over previous implementations. Our experiments have established abstract results with the intention that the proposed algorithm can consistently dominate other existing algorithms for Single Source Shortest Path Problems. A comparison study is also shown among Dijkstra’s algorithm, Bellman-Ford algorithm, and our algorithm.
Ste-Marie, Diane M; Carter, Michael J; Law, Barbi; Vertes, Kelly; Smith, Victoria
Research has shown learning advantages for self-controlled practice contexts relative to yoked (i.e., experimenter-imposed) contexts; yet, explanations for this phenomenon remain relatively untested. We examined, via path analysis, whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are important constructs for explaining self-controlled learning benefits. The path model was created using theory-based and empirically supported relationships to examine causal links between these psychological constructs and physical performance. We hypothesised that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation would have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled compared to yoked conditions. Participants learned double-mini trampoline progressions, and measures of physical performance, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were collected over two practice days and a delayed retention day. The self-controlled group (M = 2.04, SD = .98) completed significantly more skill progressions in retention than their yoked counterparts (M = 1.3, SD = .65). The path model displayed adequate fit, and similar significant path coefficients were found for both groups wherein each variable was predominantly predicted by its preceding time point (e.g., self-efficacy time 1 predicts self-efficacy time 2). Interestingly, the model was not moderated by group; thus, failing to support the hypothesis that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled relative to yoked conditions.
Pelkey, Ramona K.
Gender, ethnicity, family economic status, reading score, mathematics score, and number of science semesters successfully completed were examined for their contributory role to a student's science score on a high-stakes, high school exit examination. Path analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to quantify each variable's influence on science score. Gender, ethnicity, and family economic status were found to be moderators while reading proved to mediate within the model. The path model was created using a calibration sample and cross-validated using a hold-out validation sample. Bootstrapping was used to verify the goodness of fit of the model. A predictive equation explained 66% (R2 = .66) of the variance in observed TAKS science score.
Duipmans, L.; Struiksma, R.E.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Nauta, B.; Vliet, F.E. van
N-path filters exploiting switched-series-R-C networks can realize high-Q blocking-tolerant band-pass filters. Moreover, their center frequency is flexibly programmable by a digital clock. Unfortunately, the time variant nature of these circuits also results in unwanted signal folding. This paper
Pan, Wen-Fu; Tu, Shih-Chun; Chien, Mei-Ying
This research aims to apply a depth sensor to create a human-body-sensing context for outdoor learning paths; it is conducted by incorporating both quasi-experiment and survey to compare students' cognitive learning outcome within the context and understand students' attitudes toward the context created. The result of ANCOVA indicates that the…
Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy
The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…
Nourian Ghadikolaee, P.; Rezvani, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.
In a quest for promoting sustainable modes of mobility, we have revisited how feasible and suitable is it for people to walk or cycle to their destinations in a neighbourhood. We propose a few accessibility measures based on an 'Easiest Path' algorithm that provides also actual temporal distance
Lance, K. Kim; Renda, Guido; Cojazzi, Giacomo G. M.
Within its State Level Concept (SLC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) envisions a State Level Approach (SLA) for safeguards implementation that considers, inter alia, a State’s nuclear and nuclear-related activities and capabilities as a whole when developing an annual implementation plan. Based on the assessed nuclear fuel cycle and related capabilities of a State, Acquisition Path Analysis (APA) identifies, characterizes, and prioritizes plausible routes for acquiring weapons-usable material to aid in safeguards implementation planning. A review of proposed APA methods and historical evidence indicates that assessments of pathway completion time can be fraught with uncertainty and subject to bias, potentially undermining safeguards effectiveness and efficiency. Based on considerations of theory and evidence, a number of methodological insights are identified to support consistent implementation and ongoing APA development. The use of algorithms to support APA and SLA processes in lieu of human judgement is a contentious issue requiring an evidence- based assessment and is also briefly discussed. This paper captures concepts derived primarily from open sources of information, including publications, presentations, and workshops on on-going APA development by the IAEA and various Member States Support Programs (MSSP) as well as relevant work found in the open literature. While implementation of the SLA has begun for a number of States, these SLAs are being updated and developed for other States. In light of these ongoing developments, the topics covered here should be considered a snapshot in time that does not reflect finished products and does not necessarily reflect official views.
Chen, C.; Schneps, M.; Masyn, K.; Thomson, J.
Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension whil...
Jeon, Hye Sung; Lee, Jin Won; Yang, Jeong Sam [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
The On-machine measurement (OMM), which measures a work piece during or after the machining process in the machining center, has the advantage of measuring the work piece directly within the work space without moving it. However, the path generation procedure used to determine the measuring sequence and variables for the complex features of a target work piece has the limitation of requiring time-consuming tasks to generate the measuring points and mostly relies on the proficiency of the on-site engineer. In this study, we propose a touch-probe path generation method using similarity analysis between the feature vectors of three-dimensional (3-D) shapes for the OMM. For the similarity analysis between a new 3-D model and existing 3-D models, we extracted the feature vectors from models that can describe the characteristics of a geometric shape model; then, we applied those feature vectors to a geometric histogram that displays a probability distribution obtained by the similarity analysis algorithm. In addition, we developed a computer-aided inspection planning system that corrects non-applied measuring points that are caused by minute geometry differences between the two models and generates the final touch-probe path.
Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos
Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.
Sobolewski, Stanley John
The Percentage of Enrollment in Physics (PEP) at the secondary level nationally has been approximately 20% for the past few decades. For a more scientifically literate citizenry as well as specialists to continue scientific research and development, it is desirable that more students enroll in physics. Some of the predictor variables for physics enrollment and physics achievement that have been identified previously includes a community's socioeconomic status, the availability of physics, the sex of the student, the curriculum, as well as teacher and student data. This study isolated and identified predictor variables for PEP of secondary schools in New York. Data gathered by the State Education Department for the 1990-1991 school year was used. The source of this data included surveys completed by teachers and administrators on student characteristics and school facilities. A data analysis similar to that done by Bryant (1974) was conducted to determine if the relationships between a set of predictor variables related to physics enrollment had changed in the past 20 years. Variables which were isolated included: community, facilities, teacher experience, number of type of science courses, school size and school science facilities. When these variables were isolated, latent variable path diagrams were proposed and verified by the Linear Structural Relations computer modeling program (LISREL). These diagrams differed from those developed by Bryant in that there were more manifest variables used which included achievement scores in the form of Regents exam results. Two criterion variables were used, percentage of students enrolled in physics (PEP) and percent of students enrolled passing the Regents physics exam (PPP). The first model treated school and community level variables as exogenous while the second model treated only the community level variables as exogenous. The goodness of fit indices for the models was 0.77 for the first model and 0.83 for the second
Bagli, Stefano; Geneletti, Davide; Orsi, Francesco
Least-cost path analysis (LCPA) allows designers to find the 'cheapest' way to connect two locations within a cost surface, which can be computed by combining multiple criteria, and therefore by accounting for different issues (environmental impact, economic investment, etc.). This procedure can be easily implemented with modern Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies, and consequently it has been widely employed to support planning and design of different types of linear infrastructures, ranging from roads to pipelines. This paper presents an approach based on the integration of multicriteria evaluation (MCE) and LCPA to identify the most suitable route for a 132 kV power line. Criteria such as cost, visibility, population density, and ecosystem naturalness were used for the analysis. Firstly, spatial MCE and LCPA were combined to generate cost surfaces, and to identify alternative paths. Subsequently, MCE was used to compare the alternatives, and rank them according to their overall suitability. Finally, a sensitivity analysis allowed the stability of the results to be tested and the most critical factors of the evaluation to be detected. The study found that small changes in the location of the power line start and end points can result in significantly different paths, and consequently impact levels. This suggested that planners should always consider alternative potential locations of terminals in order to identify the best path. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of different weight scenarios may help making the model adaptable to varying environmental and social contexts. The approach was tested on a real-world case study in north-eastern Italy.
Leppanen, Jenni; Sedgewick, Felicity; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate
This meta-analytic review examines the theory of mind profiles in both patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and autistic individuals. The studies examining theory of mind were divided into the following categories: emotional theory of mind, understanding simple social situations, understanding complex social interactions, and implicit social attribution. All included studies investigated differences between healthy control (HCs) individuals and people with AN or autistic people. Differences in theory of mind profile between people with AN and autistic people were explored by conducting moderator analyses. People with AN and autistic people showed a similar theory of mind profile, but autistic individuals showed greater difficulties, particularly in emotional theory of mind. Although both people with AN and autistic people have significant difficulties in all aspects of theory of mind relative to the HCs, some differences in the underlying profile may be present. However, due to relative paucity of theory of mind research among people with AN, further research is still needed before firm conclusion can be drawn. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I
The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Humphrey, Stephen E; Nahrgang, Jennifer D; Morgeson, Frederick P
The authors developed and meta-analytically examined hypotheses designed to test and extend work design theory by integrating motivational, social, and work context characteristics. Results from a summary of 259 studies and 219,625 participants showed that 14 work characteristics explained, on average, 43% of the variance in the 19 worker attitudes and behaviors examined. For example, motivational characteristics explained 25% of the variance in subjective performance, 2% in turnover perceptions, 34% in job satisfaction, 24% in organizational commitment, and 26% in role perception outcomes. Beyond motivational characteristics, social characteristics explained incremental variances of 9% of the variance in subjective performance, 24% in turnover intentions, 17% in job satisfaction, 40% in organizational commitment, and 18% in role perception outcomes. Finally, beyond both motivational and social characteristics, work context characteristics explained incremental variances of 4% in job satisfaction and 16% in stress. The results of this study suggest numerous opportunities for the continued development of work design theory and practice. (c) 2007 APA.
Melchior, P.; Jallouli-Khlif, R.; Metoui, B.
This paper presents the main results of the application of fractional approach in path planning and path tracking. A new robust path planning design for mobile robot was studied in dynamic environment. The normalized attractive force applied to the robot is based on a fictitious fractional attractive potential. This method allows to obtain robust path planning despite robot mass variation. The danger level of each obstacles is characterized by the fractional order of the repulsive potential of the obstacles. Under these conditions, the robot dynamic behavior was studied by analyzing its X - Y path planning with dynamic target or dynamic obstacles. The case of simultaneously mobile obstacles and target is also considered. The influence of the robot mass variation is studied and the robustness analysis of the obtained path shows the robustness improvement due to the non integer order properties. Pre shaping approach is used to reduce system vibration in motion control. Desired systems inputs are altered so that the system finishes the requested move without residual vibration. This technique, developed by N.C. Singer and W.P.Seering, is used for flexible structure control, particularly in the aerospace field. In a previous work, this method was extended for explicit fractional derivative systems and applied to second generation CRONE control, the robustness was also studied. CRONE (the French acronym of C ommande Robuste d'Ordre Non Entier ) control system design is a frequency-domain based methodology using complex fractional integration.
Jones, Adam C; Robinson, W David; Seedall, Ryan B
In a study of 142 couples, we gathered survey data to show how sexual communication influences sexual and relationship satisfaction as well as sexual and orgasm frequency. In two dyadic data path analyses, we observed the significant paths of influence that sexual communication has on sexual and relationship satisfaction, as well as sexual and orgasm frequency. Our findings revealed greater amounts of sexual communication were associated with increased orgasm frequency in women and greater relationship and sexual satisfaction in both sexes. We also observed important differences in the associations of sexual communication and general communication on satisfaction levels. With these analyses, we expand the current literature to broaden our understanding of the role that sexual communication plays in committed relationships. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Abildgren, Rasmus; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Bomel, Pierre
that with the proposed approach it is possible to estimate the hardware implementation effort. This approach, part of our light design space exploration concept, is implemented in our framework ‘‘Design-Trotter'' and offers a new type of tool that can help designers and managers to reduce the time-to-market factor......This paper presents a metric-based approach for estimating the hardware implementation effort (in terms of time) for an application in relation to the number of linear-independent paths of its algorithms. We exploit the relation between the number of edges and linear-independent paths...... in an algorithm and the corresponding implementation effort. We propose an adaptation of the concept of cyclomatic complexity, complemented with a correction function to take designers' learning curve and experience into account. Our experimental results, composed of a training and a validation phase, show...
Full Text Available The application of automated vehicles in logistics can efficiently reduce the cost of logistics and reduce the potential risks in the last mile. Considering the path restriction in the initial stage of the application of automated vehicles in logistics, the conventional model for a vehicle routing problem (VRP is modified. Thus, the automated vehicle routing problem with time windows (AVRPTW model considering path interruption is established. Additionally, an improved particle swarm optimisation (PSO algorithm is designed to solve this problem. Finally, a case study is undertaken to test the validity of the model and the algorithm. Four automated vehicles are designated to execute all delivery tasks required by 25 stores. Capacities of all of the automated vehicles are almost fully utilised. It is of considerable significance for the promotion of automated vehicles in last-mile situations to develop such research into real problems arising in the initial period.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.
LI Jing; YIN Yan-sheng; LIU Ying-cai; MA Lai-peng
Al2O3-TiC-4%Co(volume fraction) composites(ATC) with high toughness (7.8±0.8 MPa·m1/2) and strength (782±60 MPa) were fabricated. In comparison with Al2O3-TiC composites(AT), the fracture toughness was significantly improved by 60%. The crack paths, generated by Vickers indentation on the polished surfaces of both composites, were analyzed from a fractal point of view to distinguish the possible toughening mechanisms involved. Quantitative evaluation of indentation cracks indicates that the crack deflection plays a more effective role. Cracks of the ATC composites show higher deflection angles and more deflections along the path. ATC composites present higher fractal dimension (D=1.07) than AT composites (D=1.02), which is directly related to the higher fracture toughness. A significant relationship between crack path and toughness is evident: the more irregular the geometry of the crack, the higher the fracture toughness.
Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M
This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Vasconcelos, A G; Almeida, R M; Nobre, F F
This paper introduces an approach that includes non-quantitative factors for the selection and assessment of multivariate complex models in health. A goodness-of-fit based methodology combined with fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making approach is proposed for model selection. Models were obtained using the Path Analysis (PA) methodology in order to explain the interrelationship between health determinants and the post-neonatal component of infant mortality in 59 municipalities of Brazil in the year 1991. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were used as exogenous variables, and environmental, health service and agglomeration as endogenous variables. Five PA models were developed and accepted by statistical criteria of goodness-of fit. These models were then submitted to a group of experts, seeking to characterize their preferences, according to predefined criteria that tried to evaluate model relevance and plausibility. Fuzzy set techniques were used to rank the alternative models according to the number of times a model was superior to ("dominated") the others. The best-ranked model explained above 90% of the endogenous variables variation, and showed the favorable influences of income and education levels on post-neonatal mortality. It also showed the unfavorable effect on mortality of fast population growth, through precarious dwelling conditions and decreased access to sanitation. It was possible to aggregate expert opinions in model evaluation. The proposed procedure for model selection allowed the inclusion of subjective information in a clear and systematic manner.
So, Mirai; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Hashimoto, Sora; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Furukawa, Toshi A; McCrone, Paul
Depression is a major cause of disability worldwide, and computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (CCBT) is expected to be a more augmentative and efficient treatment. According to previous meta-analyses of CCBT, there is a need for a meta-analytic revaluation of the short-term effectiveness of this therapy and for an evaluation of its long-term effects, functional improvement and dropout. Five databases were used (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CiNii). We included all RCTs with proper concealment and blinding of outcome assessment for the clinical effectiveness of CCBT in adults (aged 18 and over) with depression. Using Cohen's method, the standard mean difference (SMD) for the overall pooled effects across the included studies was estimated with a random effect model. The main outcome measure and the relative risk of dropout were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen trials met the inclusion criteria, and sixteen comparisons from these were used for the largest meta-analysis ever. All research used appropriate random sequence generation and Intention-to-Treat analyses (ITT), and employed self-reported measures as the primary outcome. For the sixteen comparisons (2807 participants) comparing CCBT and control conditions, the pooled SMD was -0.48 [95% IC -0.63 to -0.33], suggesting similar effect to the past reviews. Also, there was no significant clinical effect at long follow-up and no improvement of function found. Furthermore, a significantly higher drop-out rate was found for CCBT than for controls. When including studies without BDI as a rating scale and with only modern imputation as sensitivity analysis, the pooled SMD remained significant despite the reduction from a moderate to a small effect. Significant publication bias was found in a funnel plot and on two tests (Begg's p = 0.09; Egger's p = 0.01). Using a trim and fill analysis, the SMD was -0.32 [95% CI -0.49 to -0.16]. Despite a short-term reduction in depression at post-treatment, the
Dao, Hassan; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Al-Khateeb, Khalid A S
Statistical analysis of rain fade duration is crucial information for system engineer to design and plan a fade mitigation technique (FMT) for the satellite communication system. An investigation is carried out based on data measured of one year period in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from satellite path of MEASAT3. This paper presents statistical analysis of measured fade duration on high elevation angle (77.4°) in Ku-band compared to three prediction models of fade duration. It is found that none of the models could predict measured fade duration distribution accurately
Mimura, Kazushi; Kawamura, Masaki; Okada, Masato
An exact solution of the transient dynamics of an associative memory model storing an infinite number of limit cycles with l finite steps is shown by means of the path-integral analysis. Assuming the Maxwell construction ansatz, we have succeeded in deriving the stationary state equations of the order parameters from the macroscopic recursive equations with respect to the finite-step sequence processing model which has retarded self-interactions. We have also derived the stationary state equations by means of the signal-to-noise analysis (SCSNA). The signal-to-noise analysis must assume that crosstalk noise of an input to spins obeys a Gaussian distribution. On the other hand, the path-integral method does not require such a Gaussian approximation of crosstalk noise. We have found that both the signal-to-noise analysis and the path-integral analysis give completely the same result with respect to the stationary state in the case where the dynamics is deterministic, when we assume the Maxwell construction ansatz. We have shown the dependence of the storage capacity (α c ) on the number of patterns per one limit cycle (l). At l = 1, the storage capacity is α c = 0.138 as in the Hopfield model. The storage capacity monotonically increases with the number of steps, and converges to α c = 0.269 at l ≅ 10. The original properties of the finite-step sequence processing model appear as long as the number of steps of the limit cycle has order l = O(1)
This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences.
Jackson, Dan; Kirkbride, James; Croudace, Tim; Morgan, Craig; Boydell, Jane; Errazuriz, Antonia; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B
A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England investigated the variation in the rates of psychotic disorders. However, some of the questions of interest, and the data collected to answer these, could not be adequately addressed using established meta-analysis techniques. We developed a novel statistical method, which makes combined use of fractional polynomials and meta-regression. This was used to quantify the evidence of gender differences and a secondary peak onset in women, where the outcome of interest is the incidence of schizophrenia. Statistically significant and epidemiologically important effects were obtained using our methods. Our analysis is based on data from four studies that provide 50 incidence rates, stratified by age and gender. We describe several variations of our method, in particular those that might be used where more data is available, and provide guidance for assessing the model fit. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
High-speed rails are an attractive alternative to other forms of intercity transportation. It is a fast, cost-efficient and environmentally friendly solution, which is being developed in various countries across the world. However, in order to be successful, high-speed rails need to transport...... trains. Unfortunately, the prediction of vibrations in nearby structures is difficult, as wave propagation from the vibration source to the structure is a complex phenomenon. The behaviour of the structure is highly dependent on the path along which the vibrations travel between their source...
Wang, Aubrey H.; Firmender, Janine M.; Power, Joshua R.; Byrnes, James P.
Research Findings: The early childhood years are critical in developing early mathematics skills, but the opportunities one has to learn mathematics tend to be limited, preventing the development of significant mathematics learning. By conducting a meta-analysis of 29 experimental and quasi-experimental studies that have been published since 2000,…
IJzendoorn, van M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.
This meta-analysis on 33 studies, including more than 2,000 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications, presents distributions of AAI classifications in samples of nonclinical fathers and mothers, in adolescents, in samples from different cultures, and in clinical groups. Fathers, adolescents,
Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil
The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…
Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.
Depression is common in chronic illness, albeit prevalence can be highly variable. This variability may be a function of symptom overlap between depression and chronic illness. Using Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) as an exemplar, this meta-analysis explored whether the proportion of overlapping s...
Fischer, Peter; Krueger, Joachim I.; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Kastenmuller, Andreas; Frey, Dieter; Heene, Moritz; Wicher, Magdalena; Kainbacher, Martina
Research on bystander intervention has produced a great number of studies showing that the presence of other people in a critical situation reduces the likelihood that an individual will help. As the last systematic review of bystander research was published in 1981 and was not a quantitative meta-analysis in the modern sense, the present…
This study reports a meta-analysis that synthesizes the empirical research on the role of language aptitude in second language grammar acquisition. A total of 33 study reports were identified including 17 predictive studies that investigated the correlations between aptitude and ultimate L2 attainment and 16 interactional studies that examined the…
van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Poelhuis, Caroline W. Klein
This meta-analysis of 62 studies (N=17,767 adopted children) examined whether the cognitive development of adopted children differed from that of (a) children who remained in institutional care or in the birth family and (b) their current (environmental) nonadopted siblings or peers. Adopted children scored higher on IQ tests than their nonadopted…
McAllister, Shelece; Duncan, Stephen F.; Hawkins, Alan J.
This meta-analysis examines the efficacy of self-directed marriage and relationship education (MRE) programs on relationship quality and communication skills. Programs combining traditional face-to-face learning with self-directed elements are also examined, and traditional programs' effectiveness is included as a comparison point. Sixteen studies…
Wypych, Marek; Matuszewski, Jacek; Dragan, Wojciech Ł
Procrastination - an irrational delay of intended actions despite expecting to be worse off - is a complex and non-homogenous phenomenon. Previous studies have found a number of correlates of procrastination, some of which seem to be particularly important. Impulsivity is closely connected to procrastination on behavioral, genetic, and neuronal levels. Difficulties in emotion regulation have also been shown to be strongly related to procrastination. Procrastination can also be considered as a motivation-based problem. To try to disentangle the connections of impulsivity, emotion regulation, and motivation to procrastination we collected data from over 600 subjects using multiple questionnaires (PPS - Pure Procrastination Scale; UPPSP - Impulsive Behavior Scale, ERQ - Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and MDT - Motivational Diagnostic Test). Structural equation modeling was performed to test several possible relationships between the measured variables. The effects of student status and age have also been investigated. The final path model was a directional model based on six explanatory variables and accounted for 70% of the variance in procrastination. Path analysis revealed that the strongest contributions to procrastination came from lack of value, delay discounting, and lack of perseverance, suggesting the involvement of motivation and impulsivity. The model also revealed the moderating role of expressive suppression between several aspects of impulsivity and procrastination. Close inspection of the paths' weights suggests that there may be two partly competing strategies for dealing with impulsivity and negative emotions: either to suppress emotions and impulsive reactions or to react impulsively, discarding previous plans, and to procrastinate. Path invariance analysis showed the significant moderating roles of student status and age. Both in non-students and high-age groups, the path leading from suppression to procrastination was insignificant. This suggests
Hitchman, Sean M; Mather, Martha E; Smith, Joseph M; Fencl, Jane S
Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers. Creation of lake-like habitats upstream of low-head dams is a well-documented major impact of dams. Alterations downstream of low head dams also have important consequences, but these downstream dam effects are more challenging to detect. In a multidisciplinary field study at five dammed and five undammed sites within the Neosho River basin, KS, we tested hypotheses about two types of habitat sampling (transect and mosaic) and two types of statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and path analysis). We used fish as our example of biodiversity alteration. Our research provided three insights that can aid environmental professionals who seek to conserve and restore fish biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems threatened by human modifications. First, a mosaic approach identified habitat alterations below low-head dams (e.g. increased proportion of riffles) that were not detected using the more commonly-used transect sampling approach. Second, the habitat mosaic approach illustrated how low-head dams reduced natural variation in stream habitat. Third, path analysis, a statistical approach that tests indirect effects, showed how dams, habitat, and fish biodiversity interact. Specifically, path analysis revealed that low-head dams increased the proportion of riffle habitat below dams, and, as a result, indirectly increased fish species richness. Furthermore, the pool habitat that was created above low-head dams dramatically decreased fish species richness
Hitchman, Sean M.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Fencl, Jane S.
Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers. Creation of lake-like habitats upstream of low-head dams is a well-documented major impact of dams. Alterations downstream of low head dams also have important consequences, but these downstream dam effects are more challenging to detect. In a multidisciplinary field study at five dammed and five undammed sites within the Neosho River basin, KS, we tested hypotheses about two types of habitat sampling (transect and mosaic) and two types of statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and path analysis). We used fish as our example of biodiversity alteration. Our research provided three insights that can aid environmental professionals who seek to conserve and restore fish biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems threatened by human modifications. First, a mosaic approach identified habitat alterations below low-head dams (e.g. increased proportion of riffles) that were not detected using the more commonly-used transect sampling approach. Second, the habitat mosaic approach illustrated how low-head dams reduced natural variation in stream habitat. Third, path analysis, a statistical approach that tests indirect effects, showed how dams, habitat, and fish biodiversity interact. Specifically, path analysis revealed that low-head dams increased the proportion of riffle habitat below dams, and, as a result, indirectly increased fish species richness. Furthermore, the pool habitat that was created above low-head dams dramatically decreased fish species
Lafosse, Jose M; Mitchell, Sandra M; Corboy, John R; Filley, Christopher M
The primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have impaired acquisition rather than a retrieval deficit. Verbal memory impairment in MS was examined in 53 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 31 healthy controls (HC), and in a meta-analysis of studies that examined memory functioning in MS with list-learning tasks. The MS group demonstrated significantly lower acquisition and delayed recall performance than the HC group, and the meta-analysis revealed that the largest effect sizes were obtained for acquisition measures relative to delayed recall and recognition. Our data argue against a retrieval deficit as the sole explanation for verbal memory impairment in MS, and make a consistent case for the position that deficient acquisition contributes to the memory dysfunction of MS patients. Deficient acquisition may result from demyelination in relevant white matter tracts that reduces encoding efficiency as a result of impaired speed of information processing.
Pinquart, Martin; Sörensen, Silvia
The present meta-analysis integrates the results from 168 empirical studies on differences between caregiving spouses, adult children, and children-in-law. Spouses differ from children and children-in-law significantly with regard to sociodemographic variables; also, they provide more support but report fewer care recipient behavior problems. Spouse caregivers report more depression symptoms, greater financial and physical burden, and lower levels of psychological well-being. Higher levels of...
In this paper, explicit Model Predictive Control(MPC) is employed for automated lane-keeping systems. MPC has been regarded as the key to handle such constrained systems. However, the massive computational complexity of MPC, which employs online optimization, has been a major drawback that limits the range of its target application to relatively small and/or slow problems. Explicit MPC can reduce this computational burden using a multi-parametric quadratic programming technique(mp-QP). The control objective is to derive an optimal front steering wheel angle at each sampling time so that autonomous vehicles travel along desired paths, including straight, circular, and clothoid parts, at high entry speeds. In terms of the design of the proposed controller, a method of choosing weighting matrices in an optimization problem and the range of horizons for path-following control are described through simulations. For the verification of the proposed controller, simulation results obtained using other control methods such as MPC, Linear-Quadratic Regulator(LQR), and driver model are employed, and CarSim, which reflects the features of a vehicle more realistically than MATLAB/Simulink, is used for reliable demonstration. PMID:29534080
Lee, Junho; Chang, Hyuk-Jun
In this paper, explicit Model Predictive Control(MPC) is employed for automated lane-keeping systems. MPC has been regarded as the key to handle such constrained systems. However, the massive computational complexity of MPC, which employs online optimization, has been a major drawback that limits the range of its target application to relatively small and/or slow problems. Explicit MPC can reduce this computational burden using a multi-parametric quadratic programming technique(mp-QP). The control objective is to derive an optimal front steering wheel angle at each sampling time so that autonomous vehicles travel along desired paths, including straight, circular, and clothoid parts, at high entry speeds. In terms of the design of the proposed controller, a method of choosing weighting matrices in an optimization problem and the range of horizons for path-following control are described through simulations. For the verification of the proposed controller, simulation results obtained using other control methods such as MPC, Linear-Quadratic Regulator(LQR), and driver model are employed, and CarSim, which reflects the features of a vehicle more realistically than MATLAB/Simulink, is used for reliable demonstration.
Yu, Xi; Li, Ce; Gao, Xueqin; Liu, Furong; Lin, Ping
To explore the relationship between the medication environment and the unsafe medication behavior of nurses and to analyze its influence path. Unsafe medication behavior is the direct cause of medication error. The organizational environment is the foundation of and plays a guiding role in work behavior. Whether the medication environment correlates with the unsafe medication behavior of nurses remains unclear. This study used a correlative design with self-administered questionnaires, and the SHEL model, an acronym of its elements of software, hardware, environment, and liveware, was used as the framework for the medication environment. A survey was conducted among 1012 clinical nurses from five tertiary hospitals in China using the nurse unsafe medication behavior scale (NUMBS) and the nurses' perceptions of the medication environment scale (NPMES). Data were collected from January to February 2017. Path analyses were used to examine the hypothesized model. The medication environment correlated negatively with unsafe medication behavior (r=-0.48, pbehavior. Software, hardware and the environment indirectly influenced unsafe medication behavior, and nurses' personal factors played a mediating role in the relationships of unsafe medication behavior with software, hardware, and the environment. The unsafe medication behavior of nurses should be further improved. The medication environment was a predictor of unsafe medication behavior. Care managers should actively improve the medication environment to reduce the incidence of unsafe medication behaviors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making. Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject’s own, i.e. internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e. circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision making to clarify experimental–operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using MKDA, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.
Madsen, Mogens Ove
Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...
Tallandini, Maria Anna; Zanchettin, Liviana; Gronchi, Giorgio; Morsan, Valentina
Does a genetic link and/or a child's age influence a parent's willingness to talk to a child about how they were conceived? The presence/absence of a biological link and the child's age clearly influences the disclosure process. The research published to date has yielded diverse findings on autologous and donor assisted reproductive technology (ART) parents' disclosure of the conception method to their children and on the ages at which the children are informed, if told. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search of MEDLINE and PUBMED was run for English-language studies published from January 1996 through January 2015. A total of 26 studies were included in the systematic review, 19 of which were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 2814 parent responses were included in the systematic review. Two authors independently assessed the studies for review inclusion. Selection criteria were: peer-reviewed studies, quantitative studies only, research conducted after the birth of ART-conceived children, number of parent responses on disclosure status reported in terms of Told, Plan to tell, Uncertain, Plan to not tell. Thirty-two (32) study-level effect size statistics were included in the meta-analysis. Three authors independently assessed the risk of bias. Among parents who responded, 23% of the total number of parent responses indicated that they had already Told; 44% were Planning to tell; 13% were Uncertain and 20% were Planning to not tell their children about their ART conception. Meta-analysis gave no statistically significant differences between autologous and donor ART in the children ≥10 years was quite limited; and lastly, most of the data examined were not collected longitudinally. The high number of non-disclosing parents treated by donor ART points to an underestimation of the medical risks for the offspring (the presence of genetic illnesses, inadvertent consanguinity) and suggests that these children's rights may not be given