WorldWideScience

Sample records for meta-analysis selected meta-analysis

  1. Longitudinal Meta-analysis

    Hox, J.J.; Maas, C.J.M.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of meta-analysis is to integrate the research results of a number of studies on a specific topic. Characteristic for meta-analysis is that in general only the summary statistics of the studies are used and not the original data. When the published research results to be integrated

  2. Meta-analysis with R

    Schwarzer, Guido; Rücker, Gerta

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to performing meta-analysis using the statistical software R. It is intended for quantitative researchers and students in the medical and social sciences who wish to learn how to perform meta-analysis with R. As such, the book introduces the key concepts and models used in meta-analysis. It also includes chapters on the following advanced topics: publication bias and small study effects; missing data; multivariate meta-analysis, network meta-analysis; and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies.  .

  3. a meta-analysis

    Chrissa G. Tsiara

    2018-03-13

    Mar 13, 2018 ... a meta-analysis of case–control studies was conducted. Univariate and ...... recent hepatitis C virus: potential benefit for ribavirin use in. HCV/HIV ... C/G polymorphism in breast pathologies and in HIV-infected patients.

  4. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Langfelder, Peter; Mischel, Paul S; Horvath, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when) hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data). Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis) and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility) in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1) Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2) finding methylation markers related to age, and (3) finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1). However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than) a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2). The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques applied to

  5. When Is Hub Gene Selection Better than Standard Meta-Analysis?

    Langfelder, Peter; Mischel, Paul S.; Horvath, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when) hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data). Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis) and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility) in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1) Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2) finding methylation markers related to age, and (3) finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1). However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than) a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2). The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques applied to

  6. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Peter Langfelder

    Full Text Available Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data. Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1 Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2 finding methylation markers related to age, and (3 finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1. However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2. The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques

  7. Selective parathyroid venous sampling in primary hyperparathyroidism: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Ibraheem, Kareem; Toraih, Eman A; Haddad, Antoine B; Farag, Mahmoud; Randolph, Gregory W; Kandil, Emad

    2018-05-14

    Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy requires accurate preoperative localization techniques. There is considerable controversy about the effectiveness of selective parathyroid venous sampling (sPVS) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of sPVS as a preoperative localization modality in PHPT. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of sPVS for PHPT were electronically searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register databases. Two independent authors reviewed the studies, and revised quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy study tool was used for the quality assessment. Study heterogeneity and pooled estimates were calculated. Two hundred and two unique studies were identified. Of those, 12 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of sPVS were 74%, 41%, and 1.55, respectively. The area-under-the-receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.684, indicating an average discriminatory ability of sPVS. On comparison between sPVS and noninvasive imaging modalities, sensitivity, PLR, and positive posttest probability were significantly higher in sPVS compared to noninvasive imaging modalities. Interestingly, super-selective venous sampling had the highest sensitivity, accuracy, and positive posttest probability compared to other parathyroid venous sampling techniques. This is the first meta-analysis to examine the accuracy of sPVS in PHPT. sPVS had higher pooled sensitivity when compared to noninvasive modalities in revision parathyroid surgery. However, the invasiveness of this technique does not favor its routine use for preoperative localization. Super-selective venous sampling was the most accurate among all other parathyroid venous sampling techniques. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Hydropower externalities: a meta analysis

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to

  9. Causal Meta-Analysis : Methodology and Applications

    Bax, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a statistical method to summarize research data from multiple studies in a quantitative manner. This dissertation addresses a number of methodological topics in causal meta-analysis and reports the development and validation of meta-analysis software. In the first (methodological)

  10. Geographically selective assortment of cycles in pandemics: meta-analysis of data collected by Chizhevsky.

    Gumarova, L; Cornélissen, G; Hillman, D; Halberg, F

    2013-10-01

    In the incidence patterns of cholera, diphtheria and croup during the past when they were of epidemic proportions, we document a set of cycles (periods), one of which was reported and discussed by A. L. Chizhevsky in the same data with emphasis on the mirroring in human disease of the ~11-year sunspot cycle. The data in this study are based on Chizhevsky’s book The Terrestrial Echo of Solar Storms and on records from the World Health Organization. For meta-analysis, we used the extended linear and nonlinear cosinor. We found a geographically selective assortment of various cycles characterizing the epidemiology of infections, which is the documented novel topic of this paper, complementing the earlier finding in the 21st century or shortly before, of a geographically selective assortment of cycles characterizing human sudden cardiac death. Solar effects, if any, interact with geophysical processes in contributing to this assortment.

  11. Trade-off between growth and immune function : a meta-analysis of selection experiments

    van der Most, Peter; de Jong, Berber; Parmentier, Henk K.; Verhulst, Simon

    P>1. Evidence suggests that developing and maintaining an effective immune system may be costly and that an organism has to make a trade-off between immune function and other fitness-enhancing traits. To test for a trade-off between growth and immune function we carried out a meta-analysis of data

  12. Meta-Analysis of Selected Maternal and Fetal Factors for Perinatal ...

    BACKGROUND: In several developing countries, achieving Millennium Development Goal 4 is still off track. Multiple maternal and fetal risk factors were inconsistently attributed to the high perinatal mortality in developing countries. However, there was no meta-analysis that assessed the pooled effect of these factors on ...

  13. Meta-analysis in epidemiology | Yach | South African Medical Journal

    Meta-analysis is the structured and systematic qualitative and quantitative integration of the results of several independent studies (Le. the epidemiology of results). As in any epidemiological study, a meta-analysis needs to start with clearly stated aims and objectives. Attention needs to be paid to selection bias in selecting ...

  14. Meta-analysis in microbiology

    N Pabalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.

  15. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries – a meta-analysis

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78....../116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella......Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews...

  16. OHBM 2017: Practical intensity based meta-analysis

    Maumet, Camille

    2017-01-01

    "Practical intensity-based meta-analysis" slides from my talk in the OHBM 2017 educational talk on Neuroimaging meta-analysis.http://www.humanbrainmapping.org/files/2017/ED Courses/Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis.pdf

  17. Meta-Analysis in Stata Using Gllamm

    Bagos, Pantelis G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several user-written programs for performing meta-analysis in Stata (Stata Statistical Software: College Station, TX: Stata Corp LP). These include metan, metareg, mvmeta, and glst. However, there are several cases for which these programs do not suffice. For instance, there is no software for performing univariate meta-analysis with…

  18. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  19. Statistical Power in Meta-Analysis

    Liu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Statistical power is important in a meta-analysis study, although few studies have examined the performance of simulated power in meta-analysis. The purpose of this study is to inform researchers about statistical power estimation on two sample mean difference test under different situations: (1) the discrepancy between the analytical power and…

  20. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  1. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...

  2. Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS

    Arthur, Winfried; Huffcutt, Allen I; Arthur, Winfred

    2001-01-01

    Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS reviews the meta-analysis statistical procedure and shows the reader how to conduct one using SAS. It presents and illustrates the use of the PROC MEANS procedure in SAS to perform the data computations called for by the two most commonly used meta-analytic procedures, the Hunter & Schmidt and Glassian approaches. This book serves as both an operational guide and user's manual by describing and explaining the meta-analysis procedures and then presenting the appropriate SAS program code for computing the pertinent statistics. The practical, step-by-step instru

  3. Physical Readiness Training: A Meta-Analysis

    Vickers, Jr, Ross R

    2007-01-01

    .... This meta-analysis of available PRT studies (k = 3) indicated that (a) Fitness gains in the PRT program were equal to the gains in traditional fitness programs, and (b) the injury rate (i.e., hazard ratio...

  4. Exercise and Bone Density: Meta-Analysis

    Kelley, George A; Sharpe-Kelley, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    .... Since no meta-analysis had existed using individual patient data (IPD) to examine the effects of exercise on BMD, our second two-year period of funding was devoted to examining the feasibility...

  5. Multivariate Methods for Meta-Analysis of Genetic Association Studies.

    Dimou, Niki L; Pantavou, Katerina G; Braliou, Georgia G; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2018-01-01

    Multivariate meta-analysis of genetic association studies and genome-wide association studies has received a remarkable attention as it improves the precision of the analysis. Here, we review, summarize and present in a unified framework methods for multivariate meta-analysis of genetic association studies and genome-wide association studies. Starting with the statistical methods used for robust analysis and genetic model selection, we present in brief univariate methods for meta-analysis and we then scrutinize multivariate methodologies. Multivariate models of meta-analysis for a single gene-disease association studies, including models for haplotype association studies, multiple linked polymorphisms and multiple outcomes are discussed. The popular Mendelian randomization approach and special cases of meta-analysis addressing issues such as the assumption of the mode of inheritance, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and gene-environment interactions are also presented. All available methods are enriched with practical applications and methodologies that could be developed in the future are discussed. Links for all available software implementing multivariate meta-analysis methods are also provided.

  6. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries - A meta-analysis.

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Sekwati-Monang, Bonno; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Atter, Amy; Ackah, Nina Bernice; Mbugua, Samuel; Asagbra, Agnes; Abdelgadir, Warda; Nakavuma, Jesca; Jakobsen, Mogens; Fang, Weihuan

    2017-05-16

    Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015. One hundred and sixteen publications that dealt with food microbiology were reviewed for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78/116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently reported organisms in those studies. Although the data were highly heterogeneous, a striking feature is high prevalence of the major pathogens in RTE foods, almost as high as in raw foods. E. coli averaged at 37.6% in raw foods and 31.6% in RTE foods. The corresponding prevalence for Salmonella was 19.9% vs 21.7%; S. aureus, 27.8% vs 25.1% and L. monocytogenes, 19.5% vs 6.7%. The average prevalence of foodborne pathogens in these countries was 34.2% (29.0-39.3%). Differences in food types as well as non-uniform protocols for sampling and identification might have contributed to high heterogeneity (I 2 >97%) although some high prevalence data could be factual with extensive varieties of raw and RTE foods

  7. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  8. Mass meta-analysis in Talairach space

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2004-01-01

    We provide a method for mass meta-analysis in a neuroinformatics database containing stereotaxic Talairach coordinates from neuroimaging experiments. Database labels are used to group the individual experiments, e.g., according to cognitive function, and the consistent pattern of the experiments...... of experiments, and the distances to the null hypotheses are used to sort the voxels across groups of experiments. This allows for mass meta-analysis, with the construction of a list with the most prominent associations between brain areas and group labels. Furthermore, the method can be used for functional...

  9. Dyadic Interracial Interactions: A Meta-Analysis

    Toosi, Negin R.; Babbitt, Laura G.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined over 40 years of research on interracial interactions by exploring 4 types of outcomes: explicit attitudes toward interaction partners, participants' self-reports of their own emotional state, nonverbal or observed behavior, and objective measures of performance. Data were collected from 108 samples (N = 12,463)…

  10. Meta-analysis in clinical trials revisited.

    DerSimonian, Rebecca; Laird, Nan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we revisit a 1986 article we published in this Journal, Meta-Analysis in Clinical Trials, where we introduced a random-effects model to summarize the evidence about treatment efficacy from a number of related clinical trials. Because of its simplicity and ease of implementation, our approach has been widely used (with more than 12,000 citations to date) and the "DerSimonian and Laird method" is now often referred to as the 'standard approach' or a 'popular' method for meta-analysis in medical and clinical research. The method is especially useful for providing an overall effect estimate and for characterizing the heterogeneity of effects across a series of studies. Here, we review the background that led to the original 1986 article, briefly describe the random-effects approach for meta-analysis, explore its use in various settings and trends over time and recommend a refinement to the method using a robust variance estimator for testing overall effect. We conclude with a discussion of repurposing the method for Big Data meta-analysis and Genome Wide Association Studies for studying the importance of genetic variants in complex diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A Bayesian Nonparametric Meta-Analysis Model

    Karabatsos, George; Talbott, Elizabeth; Walker, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    In a meta-analysis, it is important to specify a model that adequately describes the effect-size distribution of the underlying population of studies. The conventional normal fixed-effect and normal random-effects models assume a normal effect-size population distribution, conditionally on parameters and covariates. For estimating the mean overall…

  12. Wind power externalities: A meta-analysis

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative meta-analysis of the non-market valuation literature on the external effects associated with wind power production. A data set of 60 observations drawn from 32 studies is constructed. The relative economic values of different types of externalities as well

  13. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  14. Curcuminoids Lower Plasma Leptin Concentrations: A Meta-analysis.

    Atkin, Stephen L; Katsiki, Niki; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol that has been suggested to improve several metabolic diseases. Leptin is an adipokine involved in metabolic status and appetite, with marked crosstalk with other systems. Available data suggest that curcumin may affect leptin levels; therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken on all randomized controlled trials of curcumin studies that included the measurement of leptin. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation, and Egger's weighted regression tests assessed the presence of publication bias. Four eligible articles comprising five treatment arms were selected for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in plasma leptin concentrations following curcumin treatment (standardized mean difference: -0.69, 95% confidence interval: -1.16, -0.23, p = 0.003; I 2  = 76.53%). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis showed that curcumin supplementation is associated with a decrease in leptin levels that may be regarded as a potential mechanism for the metabolic effects of curcumin. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  16. Effect of the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites: a meta-analysis

    Shao-hui TANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP, Chinese Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, and Wan Fang Digital Journal Full-text Database were retrieved to collect clinical randomized controlled trials of hepatic cirrhosis with ascites treated by selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists. Meta analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0. Results Nine randomized controlled trials including 1884 patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that: 1 The selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists were associated with a significant reduction in body weight compared with placebo (WMD=–1.98kg, 95%CI:–3.24-–0.72kg, P=0.002. Treatment with selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists was associated with an improvement of low serum sodium concentration compared to placebo (WMD=3.74mmol/L, 95%CI: 0.91-6.58mmol/L, P=0.01. The percentage of patients with worsening ascites was higher in the group of patients treated with placebo (RR=0.51, 95%CI: 0.34-0.77, P=0.001. 2 The amplitude of increased urine volume was obviously higher in selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group than in placebo group (WMD=1437.65ml, 95%CI: 649.01-2226.30ml, P=0.0004. The difference of serum creatinine in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group was not statistically significant compared with the control group (WMD=–3.49μmol/L, 95%CI: –12.54¬5.56μmol/L, P=0.45. 3 There was no statistical significance between the two groups in the heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and mortality (P>0.05. The rate of other adverse reactions was higher in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group compared with that of placebo group (P=0.003. Conclusion

  17. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    Roda, G; Narula, N; Pinotti, R

    2017-01-01

    and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies reporting on extension of ulcerative colitis to determine frequency of disease extension in patients with limited ulcerative colitis at diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies on disease extension of ulcerative colitis...... (UC) and predictors of disease progression. RESULTS: Overall, 41 studies were eligible for systematic review but only 30 for meta-analysis. The overall pooled frequency of UC extension was 22.8% with colonic extension being 17.8% at 5 years and 31% at 10 years. Extension was 17.8% (95% CI 11...... in patients from North America (37.8%) than from Europe (19.6%) (Pmeta-analysis, approximately one quarter of patients with limited UC extend over time with most extension occurring during the first 10 years. Rate of extension depends on age at diagnosis and geographic origin...

  18. Multivariate Meta-Analysis Using Individual Participant Data

    Riley, R. D.; Price, M. J.; Jackson, D.; Wardle, M.; Gueyffier, F.; Wang, J.; Staessen, J. A.; White, I. R.

    2015-01-01

    When combining results across related studies, a multivariate meta-analysis allows the joint synthesis of correlated effect estimates from multiple outcomes. Joint synthesis can improve efficiency over separate univariate syntheses, may reduce selective outcome reporting biases, and enables joint inferences across the outcomes. A common issue is…

  19. Multivariate meta-analysis: Potential and promise

    Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day ‘Multivariate meta-analysis’ event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21268052

  20. Meta-analysis: Problems with Russian Publications.

    Verbitskaya, E V

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a powerful tool to identify Evidence Based medical technologies (interventions) for use in every day practice. Meta-analysis uses statistical approaches to combine results from multiple studies in an effort to increase power (over individual studies), improve estimates of the size of the effect and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. Meta-analysis is a quantitative, formal study design used to systematically assess previous research studies to derive conclusions from this research. Meta-analysis may provide more precise estimate of the effect of treatment or risk factor for a disease, or other outcomes, than any individual study contributing to the pooled analysis.We have quite a substantial number of Russian medical publications, but not so many Meta-Analyses published in Russian. Russian publications are cited in English language papers not so often. A total of 90% of clinical studies included in published Meta-Analyses incorporate only English language papers. International studies or papers with Russian co-authors are published in English language. The main question is: what is the problem with inclusion of Russian medical publications in Meta-Analysis? The main reasons for this are the following: 1) It is difficult to find Russian papers, difficult to work with them and to work with Russian journals:a. There are single Russian Biomedical Journals, which are translated into English and are included in databases (PubMed, Scopus and other), despite the fact that all of them have English language abstracts.b. The majority the meta-analyses authors use in their work different citation management software such as the Mendeley, Reference Manager, ProCite, EndNote, and others. These citation management systems allow scientists to organize their own literature databases with internet searches and have adds-on for the Office programs what makes process of literature citation very convenient. The Internet sites of the majority of

  1. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study.

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided

  2. Meta-analysis of age and skill effects on recalling chess positions and selecting the best move.

    Moxley, Jerad H; Charness, Neil

    2013-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted of studies that measured the effects of both age and skill in chess on the tasks of selecting the best move for chess positions (the best move task) as well as recalling chess game positions (the recall task). Despite a small sample of studies, we demonstrated that there are age and skill effects on both tasks: age being negatively associated with performance on both tasks and skill being positively associated with performance on both tasks. On the best move task, we found that skill was the dominant effect, while on the recall task, skill and age were approximately equally strong effects. We also found that skill was best measured by the best move task. In the case of the best move task, this result is consistent with the argument that it accurately replicates expert performance (Ericsson & Smith, 1991). Results for the recall task argue that this task captures effects related to skill, but also effects likely due to a general aging process. Implications for our understanding of aging in skilled domains are also discussed.

  3. Rapid Onset of the Effects of Combined Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Electroacupuncture on Primary Depression: A Meta-Analysis.

    Zhang, Yue; Qu, Shan-shan; Zhang, Ji-ping; Sun, Ya-ling; Liu, Wei-lu; Xie, Ling; Huang, Yong; Chen, Jun-qi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and electroacupuncture therapies for the early treatment of primary depression. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were analyzed to compare therapy combining SSRIs and electroacupuncture to SSRI therapy alone. The RCTs were identified by searching, among others, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chongqing VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, WANFANG DATA, and the Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database. Scores from Self-Rated Depression Scale (SDS), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Side Effect Rating Scale (SERS), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were analyzed and coded by two independent investigators and used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of treatment. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Six RCTs were analyzed. The meta-analysis revealed that the combined therapy of SSRIs and electroacupuncture were associated with superior scores on the HAMD, SDS, and SERS measures compared with SSRIs alone after 1-4 weeks of treatment: HAMD scores, mean difference (MD)(1 week), 2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI](1 week), 1.47-3.16, p(1 week)electroacupuncture therapies is more efficient than treatments with SSRIs alone and leads to a better and earlier control of depressive symptoms.

  4. The Strength and Drivers of Bird-Mediated Selection on Fruit Crop Size: A Meta-Analysis

    Facundo X. Palacio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In seed-dispersal mutualisms, the number of fruit a plant displays is a key trait, as it acts as a signal for seed dispersers that entails fruit removal and exportation of reproductive units (fruit crop size hypothesis. Although this hypothesis has gained general acceptance, forces driving the shape and strength of natural selection exerted by birds on fruit crop size remains an unresolved matter. Here, we propose that ecological filters promoting high functional equivalence of interacting partners (similar functional roles translate into similar selection pressures on fruit crop size, enhancing selection strength on this trait. We performed a meta-analysis on 50 seed-dispersal systems to test the hypothesis that frugivorous birds exert positive selection pressure on fruit crop size, and to assess whether different factors expected to act as filters (fruit diameter, fruit type, fruiting season length, bird functional groups, and latitude influence phenotypic selection regimes on this trait. Birds promote larger fruit crop sizes as a general pattern in nature. Short fruiting seasons and a high proportion of species belonging to the same functional group showed higher selection strength on fruit crop size. Also, selection strength on fruit crop size increased for large-fruited species and toward the tropics. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit crop size represents a conspicuous signal advertising the amount of reward to visually driven interacting partners, and that both plant and bird traits, as well as environmental factors, drive selection strength on fruit display traits. Furthermore, our results suggest that the relationship among forces impinged by phenology and frugivore functional roles may be key to understand their evolutionary stability.

  5. Online Open Neuroimaging Mass Meta-Analysis with a Wiki

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...... allows for mass meta-analysis, e.g., meta-analysis across multiple brain regions and multiple mental disorders providing an overview of important relationships and their uncertainties in a collaborative environment....

  6. Global meta-analysis of transcriptomics studies.

    José Caldas

    Full Text Available Transcriptomics meta-analysis aims at re-using existing data to derive novel biological hypotheses, and is motivated by the public availability of a large number of independent studies. Current methods are based on breaking down studies into multiple comparisons between phenotypes (e.g. disease vs. healthy, based on the studies' experimental designs, followed by computing the overlap between the resulting differential expression signatures. While useful, in this methodology each study yields multiple independent phenotype comparisons, and connections are established not between studies, but rather between subsets of the studies corresponding to phenotype comparisons. We propose a rank-based statistical meta-analysis framework that establishes global connections between transcriptomics studies without breaking down studies into sets of phenotype comparisons. By using a rank product method, our framework extracts global features from each study, corresponding to genes that are consistently among the most expressed or differentially expressed genes in that study. Those features are then statistically modelled via a term-frequency inverse-document frequency (TF-IDF model, which is then used for connecting studies. Our framework is fast and parameter-free; when applied to large collections of Homo sapiens and Streptococcus pneumoniae transcriptomics studies, it performs better than similarity-based approaches in retrieving related studies, using a Medical Subject Headings gold standard. Finally, we highlight via case studies how the framework can be used to derive novel biological hypotheses regarding related studies and the genes that drive those connections. Our proposed statistical framework shows that it is possible to perform a meta-analysis of transcriptomics studies with arbitrary experimental designs by deriving global expression features rather than decomposing studies into multiple phenotype comparisons.

  7. Meta-analysis a structural equation modeling approach

    Cheung, Mike W-L

    2015-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to conducting meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis are two powerful statistical methods in the educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. They are often treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. This book presents a unified framework on analyzing meta-analytic data within the SEM framework, and illustrates how to conduct meta-analysis using the metaSEM package in the R statistical environment. Meta-Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach begins by introducing the impo

  8. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Lo, B; Prosberg, M V; Gluud, L L

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Disability Index (IBD-DI) has recently been developed for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To assess the severity of disability and associated factors using the IBD-DI, and review the validity of the IBD-DI as a tool. ...... review and meta-analysis found a significant association between disease activity, treatment received and disability; although significant heterogeneity was found. The IBD-DI is reliable and valid, but further studies are needed to measure its interpretability....

  10. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...... and manual searches, gathered information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Home Page, and obtained unpublished information on trial design and outcome measures from authors and pharmaceutical companies. Meta-analyses were performed and results presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...

  11. Stroop effects in Alzheimer's disease: selective attention speed of processing, or color-naming? A meta-analysis.

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Tewari, Anita; Shakuf, Vered; Van Lieshout, Pascal H H M

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention, an essential part of daily activity, is often impaired in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Usually, it is measured by the color-word Stroop test. However, there is no universal agreement whether performance on the Stroop task changes significantly in AD patients; or if so, whether an increase in Stroop effects reflects a decrease in selective attention, a slowing in generalized speed of processing (SOP), or is the result of degraded color-vision. The current study investigated the impact of AD on Stroop performance and its potential sources in a meta-analysis and mathematical modeling of 18 studies, comparing 637 AD patients with 977 healthy age-matched participants. We found a significant increase in Stroop effects for AD patients, across studies. This AD-related change was associated with a slowing in SOP. However, after correcting for a bias in the distribution of latencies, SOP could only explain a moderate portion of the total variance (25%). Moreover, we found strong evidence for an AD-related increase in the latency difference between naming the font-color and reading color-neutral stimuli (r2 = 0.98). This increase in the dimensional imbalance between color-naming and word-reading was found to explain a significant portion of the AD-related increase in Stroop effects (r2 = 0.87), hinting on a possible sensory source. In conclusion, our analysis highlights the importance of controlling for sensory degradation and SOP when testing cognitive performance and, specifically, selective attention in AD patients. We also suggest possible measures and tools to better test for selective attention in AD.

  12. Topical antibiotics as a major contextual hazard toward bacteremia within selective digestive decontamination studies: a meta-analysis.

    Hurley, James C

    2014-12-31

    Among methods for preventing pneumonia and possibly also bacteremia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, Selective Digestive Decontamination (SDD) appears most effective within randomized concurrent controlled trials (RCCT's) although more recent trials have been cluster randomized. However, of the SDD components, whether protocolized parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis (PPAP) is required, and whether the topical antibiotic actually presents a contextual hazard, remain unresolved. The objective here is to compare the bacteremia rates and patterns of isolates in SDD-RCCT's versus the broader evidence base. Bacteremia incidence proportion data were extracted from component (control and intervention) groups decanted from studies investigating antibiotic (SDD) or non-antibiotic methods of VAP prevention and summarized using random effects meta-analysis of study and group level data. A reference category of groups derived from purely observational studies without any prevention method under study provided a benchmark incidence. Within SDD RCCTs, the mean bacteremia incidence among concurrent component groups not exposed to PPAP (27 control; 17.1%; 13.1-22.1% and 12 intervention groups; 16.2%; 9.1-27.3%) is double that of the benchmark bacteremia incidence derived from 39 benchmark groups (8.3; 6.8-10.2%) and also 20 control groups from studies of non-antibiotic methods (7.1%; 4.8 - 10.5). There is a selective increase in coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) but not in Pseudomonas aeruginosa among bacteremia isolates within control groups of SDD-RCCT's versus benchmark groups with data available. The topical antibiotic component of SDD presents a major contextual hazard toward bacteremia against which the PPAP component partially mitigates.

  13. Prevalence rates of six selected infectious diseases among African migrants and refugees: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Chernet, A; Utzinger, J; Sydow, V; Probst-Hensch, N; Paris, D H; Labhardt, N D; Neumayr, A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among migrants/refugees of African origin and to provide policy makers and health care professionals with evidence-based information. We pursued a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of six selected infectious diseases (i.e., syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infections, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) among migrants/refugees of African origin. Three electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science) were searched without language restrictions. Relevant data were extracted and random-effects meta-analyses conducted. Only adjusted estimates were analyzed to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. The results were stratified by geographical region. Ninety-six studies were included. The evidence was of low quality due to the small numbers of countries, infectious diseases, and participants included. African migrants/refugees had median (with 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) prevalence for syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infection, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C of 6.0% [95% CI: 2.0-7.0%], 13.0% [95% CI: 9.5-14.5%], 14.0% [95% CI: 13.0-17.0%], 15.0% [95% CI: 10.5-21.0%], 10.0% [95% CI: 6.0-14.0%], and 3.0% [95% CI: 1.0-4.0%], respectively. We found high heterogeneity regardless of the disease (I 2 ; minimum 97.5%, maximum 99.7%). The relatively high prevalence of some infectious diseases among African migrants/refugees warrants for systematic screening. The large heterogeneity of the available published data does not allow for stratifying such screening programs according to the geographical origin of African migrants/refugees.

  14. Hydropower externalities: A meta-analysis

    Mattmann, Matteo; Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to quantify and explain the economic values for positive and negative hydropower externalities. Different meta-regression model specifications are used to test the robustness of significant determinants of non-market values, including different types of hydropower impacts. The explanatory and predictive power of the estimated models is relatively high. Whilst controlling for sample and study characteristics, we find significant evidence for public aversion towards deteriorations of landscape, vegetation and wildlife caused by hydropower projects. There is however only weak evidence of willingness to pay for mitigating these effects. The main positive externality of hydropower generation, the avoidance of greenhouse gas emission, positively influences welfare estimates when combined with the share of hydropower in national energy production. Sensitivity to scope is detected, but not linked to specific externalities or non-market valuation methods. - Highlights: • A global meta-analysis of valuation studies of hydropower externalities is presented. • Positive and negative externalities are distinguished. • Welfare losses due to environmental deteriorations outweigh gains of GHG reductions. • There is only weak evidence of public WTP for mitigating negative externalities. • The non-market values of hydropower externalities are sensitive to scope.

  15. Comparative efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in older adults: a network meta-analysis.

    Thorlund, Kristian; Druyts, Eric; Wu, Ping; Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Keohane, Denis; Mills, Edward

    2015-05-01

    To establish the comparative efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in older adults using the network meta-analysis approach. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Individuals aged 60 and older. Data on partial response (defined as at least 50% reduction in depression score from baseline) and safety (dizziness, vertigo, syncope, falls, loss of consciousness) were extracted. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed on the efficacy and safety outcomes, and relative risks (RRs) with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were produced. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, duloxetine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and sertraline were represented. Reporting on partial response and dizziness was sufficient to conduct a network meta-analysis. Reporting on other outcomes was sparse. For partial response, sertraline (RR=1.28), paroxetine (RR=1.48), and duloxetine (RR=1.62) were significantly better than placebo. The remaining interventions yielded RRs lower than 1.20. For dizziness, duloxetine (RR=3.18) and venlafaxine (RR=2.94) were statistically significantly worse than placebo. Compared with placebo, sertraline had the lowest RR for dizziness (1.14) and fluoxetine the second lowest (1.31). Citalopram, escitalopram, and paroxetine all had RRs between 1.4 and 1.7. There was clear evidence of the effectiveness of sertraline, paroxetine, and duloxetine. There also appears to be a hierarchy of safety associated with the different antidepressants, although there appears to be a dearth of reporting of safety outcomes. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Occurrence of Phlebitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Chang, Wen P; Peng, Yu X

    Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are commonly used in clinical practice. However, varying degrees of phlebitis often occur in patients receiving intravenous injections. The relevant literature suggests that phlebitis occurrence is highly associated with the catheter gauge, insertion site, and catheterization duration. Nevertheless, no meta-analysis has been performed on the influence of these three factors on the occurrence of phlebitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether any significant differences exist in the occurrence of phlebitis between catheters of 20 gauge or smaller and those larger than 20 gauge, between catheters inserted in the antecubital fossa and those inserted in other locations on the upper limbs, or between catheters inserted for more than 96 hours and those inserted for 96 hours or less. Using a systematic approach, we searched for literature published between 2006 and 2017 in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, ProQuest, and Cochrane Library databases. We used Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2 to perform our meta-analysis. After the screening and review processes, we identified 17 studies that met our selection conditions. Among these studies, 14 contained complete data for meta-analysis. These studies involved 4,343 patients and 5,846 PVCs. Regarding the overall effect size in the meta-analysis, the results of the forest plot comparing catheters of 20 gauge or smaller and those larger than 20 gauge presented a risk ratio (RR) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.67, 1.17], p = .380), indicating no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of phlebitis between catheters of the aforementioned gauges. The results of the forest plot comparing catheters inserted in the antecubital fossa and those inserted in other locations on the upper limbs presented an RR of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [0.82, 1.34], p = .696), indicating no statistically significant difference in

  17. Meta-Analysis of Comparing Personal and Environmental Factors Effective in Addiction Relapse (Iran, 2004 -2012

    s Safari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This As a meta-analysis, this study aimed to integrate different studies and investigate the impact of individual and environmental factors on the reappearance of addiction in quitted people. Method: This study is a meta-analysis which uses Hunter and Schmidt approach. For this purpose, 28 out of 42 studies enjoying acceptable methodologies were selected, upon which the meta-analysis was conducted. A meta-analysis checklist was the research instrument. Using summary of the study results, the researcher manually calculated effect size and interpreted it based on the meta-analysis approach and Cohen’s table. Findings: Results revealed that the effect size of environmental factors on addiction relapse was 0.64 while it was obtained 0.41 for individual factors on addiction relapse. Conclusion: According to Cohen’s table, the effect sizes are evaluated as moderate and high for individual factors and environmental factors on addiction relapse, respectively.

  18. What Are the Environmental Determinants of Phenotypic Selection? A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies.

    Caruso, Christina M; Martin, Ryan A; Sletvold, Nina; Morrissey, Michael B; Wade, Michael J; Augustine, Kate E; Carlson, Stephanie M; MacColl, Andrew D C; Siepielski, Adam M; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2017-09-01

    Although many selection estimates have been published, the environmental factors that cause selection to vary in space and time have rarely been identified. One way to identify these factors is by experimentally manipulating the environment and measuring selection in each treatment. We compiled and analyzed selection estimates from experimental studies. First, we tested whether the effect of manipulating the environment on selection gradients depends on taxon, trait type, or fitness component. We found that the effect of manipulating the environment was larger when selection was measured on life-history traits or via survival. Second, we tested two predictions about the environmental factors that cause variation in selection. We found support for the prediction that variation in selection is more likely to be caused by environmental factors that have a large effect on mean fitness but not for the prediction that variation is more likely to be caused by biotic factors. Third, we compared selection gradients from experimental and observational studies. We found that selection varied more among treatments in experimental studies than among spatial and temporal replicates in observational studies, suggesting that experimental studies can detect relationships between environmental factors and selection that would not be apparent in observational studies.

  19. The influence of menu labeling on calories selected or consumed: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Sinclair, Susan E; Cooper, Marcia; Mansfield, Elizabeth D

    2014-09-01

    Recent menu labeling initiatives in North America involve posting the calorie content of standard menu items, sometimes with other nutrients of public health concern, with or without contextual information (such as the recommended daily caloric intake for an average adult) or interpretive information (such as traffic light symbols). It is not clear whether this is an effective method to convey nutrition information to consumers wanting to make more-informed food choices. Of particular concern are those consumers who may be limited in their food and health literacy skills to make informed food choices to meet their dietary needs or goals. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether the provision of menu-based nutrition information affects the selection and consumption of calories in restaurants and other foodservice establishments. A secondary objective was to determine whether the format of the nutrition information (informative vs contextual or interpretive) influences calorie selection or consumption. Several bibliographic databases were searched for experimental or quasiexperimental studies that tested the effect of providing nutrition information in a restaurant or other foodservice setting on calories selected or consumed. Studies that recruited generally healthy, noninstitutionalized adolescents or adults were included. When two or more studies reported similar outcomes and sufficient data were available, meta-analysis was performed. Menu labeling with calories alone did not have the intended effect of decreasing calories selected or consumed (-31 kcal [P=0.35] and -13 kcal [P=0.61], respectively). The addition of contextual or interpretive nutrition information on menus appeared to assist consumers in the selection and consumption of fewer calories (-67 kcal [P=0.008] and -81 kcal [P=0.007], respectively). Sex influenced the effect of menu labeling on selection and consumption of calories, with women using the information to select and

  20. Recent adaptive events in human brain revealed by meta-analysis of positively selected genes.

    Yue Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of positively-selected genes can help us understand how human evolved, especially the evolution of highly developed cognitive functions. However, previous works have reached conflicting conclusions regarding whether human neuronal genes are over-represented among genes under positive selection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We divided positively-selected genes into four groups according to the identification approaches, compiling a comprehensive list from 27 previous studies. We showed that genes that are highly expressed in the central nervous system are enriched in recent positive selection events in human history identified by intra-species genomic scan, especially in brain regions related to cognitive functions. This pattern holds when different datasets, parameters and analysis pipelines were used. Functional category enrichment analysis supported these findings, showing that synapse-related functions are enriched in genes under recent positive selection. In contrast, immune-related functions, for instance, are enriched in genes under ancient positive selection revealed by inter-species coding region comparison. We further demonstrated that most of these patterns still hold even after controlling for genomic characteristics that might bias genome-wide identification of positively-selected genes including gene length, gene density, GC composition, and intensity of negative selection. CONCLUSION: Our rigorous analysis resolved previous conflicting conclusions and revealed recent adaptation of human brain functions.

  1. Systematic reviews with meta-analysis: Why, when, and how?

    Crocetti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this

  2. Meta-analysis in a nutshell: Techniques and general findings

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the technique and main findings of meta-analysis to the reader, who is unfamiliar with the field and has the usual objections. A meta-analysis is a quantitative survey of a literature reporting estimates of the same parameter. The funnel showing...

  3. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  4. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis

    Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.; Schuurmans, J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and

  5. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis.

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Schuurmans, J.; Oppen, van P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic

  6. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis.

    Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.; Schuurmans, J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and

  7. Teaching meta-analysis using MetaLight

    Thomas James

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of primary studies. It is often used in systematic reviews and is increasingly a method and topic that appears in student dissertations. MetaLight is a freely available software application that runs simple meta-analyses and contains specific functionality to facilitate the teaching and learning of meta-analysis. While there are many courses and resources for meta-analysis available and numerous software applications to run meta-analyses, there are few pieces of software which are aimed specifically at helping those teaching and learning meta-analysis. Valuable teaching time can be spent learning the mechanics of a new software application, rather than on the principles and practices of meta-analysis. Findings We discuss ways in which the MetaLight tool can be used to present some of the main issues involved in undertaking and interpreting a meta-analysis. Conclusions While there are many software tools available for conducting meta-analysis, in the context of a teaching programme such software can require expenditure both in terms of money and in terms of the time it takes to learn how to use it. MetaLight was developed specifically as a tool to facilitate the teaching and learning of meta-analysis and we have presented here some of the ways it might be used in a training situation.

  8. META-ANALYSIS: THE WAY FORWARD IN MEDICAL DISCOVERY

    data, and (6) report the results. Define the Research Question. A meta-analysis begins with a question. Common questions addressed in meta-analyses are whether one. META-ANALYSIS: THE WAY FORWARD IN MEDICAL DISCOVERY. Akinyemi J.O. MSc (Medical Statistics), B Tech (Comp. Sc.) Correspondence:.

  9. Exploring Regional Variation in Roost Selection by Bats: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

    François Fabianek

    Full Text Available Tree diameter, tree height and canopy closure have been described by previous meta-analyses as being important characteristics in roost selection by cavity-roosting bats. However, size and direction of effects for these characteristics varied greatly among studies, also referred to as heterogeneity. Potential sources of heterogeneity have not been investigated in previous meta-analyses, which are explored by correlating additional covariates (moderator variables. We tested whether effect sizes from 34 studies were consistent enough to reject the null hypothesis that trees selected by bats did not significantly differ in their characteristics from randomly selected trees. We also examined whether heterogeneity in tree diameter effect sizes was correlated to moderator variables such as sex, bat species, habitat type, elevation and mean summer temperature.We used Hedges' g standardized mean difference as the effect size for the most common characteristics that were encountered in the literature. We estimated heterogeneity indices, potential publication bias, and spatial autocorrelation of our meta-data. We relied upon meta-regression and multi-model inference approaches to evaluate the effects of moderator variables on heterogeneity in tree diameter effect sizes.Tree diameter, tree height, snag density, elevation, and canopy closure were significant characteristics of roost selection by cavity-roosting bats. Size and direction of effects varied greatly among studies with respect to distance to water, tree density, slope, and bark remaining on trunks. Inclusion of mean summer temperature and sex in meta-regressions further explained heterogeneity in tree diameter effect sizes.Regional differences in roost selection for tree diameter were related to mean summer temperature. Large diameter trees play a central role in roost selection by bats, especially in colder regions, where they are likely to provide a warm and stable microclimate for reproductive

  10. Network meta-analysis: an introduction for pharmacists.

    Xu, Yina; Amiche, Mohamed Amine; Tadrous, Mina

    2018-05-21

    Network meta-analysis is a new tool used to summarize and compare studies for multiple interventions, irrespective of whether these interventions have been directly evaluated against each other. Network meta-analysis is quickly becoming the standard in conducting therapeutic reviews and clinical guideline development. However, little guidance is available to help pharmacists review network meta-analysis studies in their practice. Major institutions such as the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit have endorsed utilizing network meta-analysis to establish therapeutic evidence and inform decision making. Our objective is to introduce this novel technique to pharmacy practitioners, and highlight key assumptions behind network meta-analysis studies.

  11. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  12. Automatic imitation: A meta-analysis.

    Cracco, Emiel; Bardi, Lara; Desmet, Charlotte; Genschow, Oliver; Rigoni, Davide; De Coster, Lize; Radkova, Ina; Deschrijver, Eliane; Brass, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    Automatic imitation is the finding that movement execution is facilitated by compatible and impeded by incompatible observed movements. In the past 15 years, automatic imitation has been studied to understand the relation between perception and action in social interaction. Although research on this topic started in cognitive science, interest quickly spread to related disciplines such as social psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience. However, important theoretical questions have remained unanswered. Therefore, in the present meta-analysis, we evaluated seven key questions on automatic imitation. The results, based on 161 studies containing 226 experiments, revealed an overall effect size of g z = 0.95, 95% CI [0.88, 1.02]. Moderator analyses identified automatic imitation as a flexible, largely automatic process that is driven by movement and effector compatibility, but is also influenced by spatial compatibility. Automatic imitation was found to be stronger for forced choice tasks than for simple response tasks, for human agents than for nonhuman agents, and for goalless actions than for goal-directed actions. However, it was not modulated by more subtle factors such as animacy beliefs, motion profiles, or visual perspective. Finally, there was no evidence for a relation between automatic imitation and either empathy or autism. Among other things, these findings point toward actor-imitator similarity as a crucial modulator of automatic imitation and challenge the view that imitative tendencies are an indicator of social functioning. The current meta-analysis has important theoretical implications and sheds light on longstanding controversies in the literature on automatic imitation and related domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  14. An overview of meta-analysis for clinicians.

    Lee, Young Ho

    2018-03-01

    The number of medical studies being published is increasing exponentially, and clinicians must routinely process large amounts of new information. Moreover, the results of individual studies are often insufficient to provide confident answers, as their results are not consistently reproducible. A meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of different studies on the same topic and it may resolve conflicts among studies. Meta-analysis is being used increasingly and plays an important role in medical research. This review introduces the basic concepts, steps, advantages, and caveats of meta-analysis, to help clinicians understand it in clinical practice and research. A major advantage of a meta-analysis is that it produces a precise estimate of the effect size, with considerably increased statistical power, which is important when the power of the primary study is limited because of a small sample size. A meta-analysis may yield conclusive results when individual studies are inconclusive. Furthermore, meta-analyses investigate the source of variation and different effects among subgroups. In summary, a meta-analysis is an objective, quantitative method that provides less biased estimates on a specific topic. Understanding how to conduct a meta-analysis aids clinicians in the process of making clinical decisions.

  15. GWAMA: software for genome-wide association meta-analysis

    Mägi Reedik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent success of genome-wide association studies in identifying novel loci contributing effects to complex human traits, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, much of the genetic component of variation in these phenotypes remains unexplained. One way to improving power to detect further novel loci is through meta-analysis of studies from the same population, increasing the sample size over any individual study. Although statistical software analysis packages incorporate routines for meta-analysis, they are ill equipped to meet the challenges of the scale and complexity of data generated in genome-wide association studies. Results We have developed flexible, open-source software for the meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. The software incorporates a variety of error trapping facilities, and provides a range of meta-analysis summary statistics. The software is distributed with scripts that allow simple formatting of files containing the results of each association study and generate graphical summaries of genome-wide meta-analysis results. Conclusions The GWAMA (Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis software has been developed to perform meta-analysis of summary statistics generated from genome-wide association studies of dichotomous phenotypes or quantitative traits. Software with source files, documentation and example data files are freely available online at http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/GWAMA.

  16. An overview of meta-analysis for clinicians

    Lee, Young Ho

    2018-01-01

    The number of medical studies being published is increasing exponentially, and clinicians must routinely process large amounts of new information. Moreover, the results of individual studies are often insufficient to provide confident answers, as their results are not consistently reproducible. A meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of different studies on the same topic and it may resolve conflicts among studies. Meta-analysis is being used increasingly and plays an important role in medical research. This review introduces the basic concepts, steps, advantages, and caveats of meta-analysis, to help clinicians understand it in clinical practice and research. A major advantage of a meta-analysis is that it produces a precise estimate of the effect size, with considerably increased statistical power, which is important when the power of the primary study is limited because of a small sample size. A meta-analysis may yield conclusive results when individual studies are inconclusive. Furthermore, meta-analyses investigate the source of variation and different effects among subgroups. In summary, a meta-analysis is an objective, quantitative method that provides less biased estimates on a specific topic. Understanding how to conduct a meta-analysis aids clinicians in the process of making clinical decisions. PMID:29277096

  17. Comparative efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in treating major depressive disorder: a protocol for network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Jia, Yongliang; Zhu, Hongmei; Leung, Siu-Wai

    2016-06-07

    There have been inconsistent findings from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews on the efficacies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as the first-line treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Besides inconsistencies among randomised controlled trials (RCTs), their risks of bias and evidence grading have seldom been evaluated in meta-analysis. This study aims to compare the efficacy of SSRIs by conducting a Bayesian network meta-analysis, which will be the most comprehensive evaluation of evidence to resolve the inconsistency among previous studies. SSRIs including citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline and vilazodone have been selected. Systematic database searching and screening will be conducted for the RCTs on drug treatment of patients with MDD according to pre-specified search strategies and selection criteria. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, the US Food and Drug Administration Website, ClinicalTrial.gov and WHO Clinical Trials will be searched. Outcome data including Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) from eligible RCTs will be extracted. The outcomes will be analysed as ORs and mean differences under a random-effects model. A Bayesian network meta-analysis will be conducted with WinBUGS software, to compare the efficacies of SSRIs. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed to explain the study heterogeneity and evaluate the robustness of the results. Meta-regression analysis will be conducted to determine the possible factors affecting the efficacy outcomes. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool will be used to assess the RCT quality, and the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation will be used to assess the strength of evidence from the meta-analysis. No ethical approval is required because this study includes neither

  18. Ischiofemoral impingement syndrome: a meta-analysis

    Singer, Adam D.; Subhawong, Ty K.; Jose, Jean; Tresley, Jonathan; Clifford, Paul D. [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Miami, FL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this article are to review the imaging characteristics of ischiofemoral impingement (IFI), summarize measurement thresholds for radiologic diagnosis based on a meta-analysis of the literature and raise awareness among radiologists and clinicians of this entity. A PubMed search restricted to the English language containing the keywords ''ischiofemoral impingement'' and ''quadratus femoris MRI'' was performed, and citations in these articles were also used to identify a total of 27 studies discussing ischiofemoral impingement. After excluding case reports and non-representative studies, there were five remaining articles including 193 hip MRIs of IFI in 154 subjects (133 female, 21 male) and 135 asymptomatic control hip MRIs from 74 subjects (55 female, 19 male). Additionally, we performed a retrospective database search of pelvic and hip MRI reports from our institution including the terms ''quadratus femoris'' or ''ischiofemoral impingement'' from a 9-year period and 24 hip MRIs from 21 patients (18 female, 3 male) with IFI with 5 asymptomatic contralateral control hip MRIs identified. In all, 217 hip MRIs of IFI and 140 control cases were included. A meta-analysis of these hip MRIs was conducted to determine optimal thresholds of the ischiofemoral space (IFS) and quadratus femoris space (QFS) for identifying IFI. Cases of IFI showed significantly smaller IFS and QFS compared to controls (14.91 ± 4.8 versus 26.01 ± 7.98 and 9.57 ± 3.7 versus 15.97 ± 6.07, measured in mm, respectively, p < 0.0001 for both). Pooled analysis revealed that for IFS, using a cutoff of ≤15 mm yielded a sensitivity of 76.9 %, specificity of 81.0 % and overall accuracy of 78.3 %. For QFS, a cutoff of ≤ 10.0 mm resulted in 78.7 % sensitivity, 74.1 % specificity and 77.1 % overall accuracy. IFI is a potential cause of hip pain that can be accurately diagnosed with MRI in conjunction with

  19. Meniscal allograft transplantation: a meta-analysis

    De Bruycker Manolito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This meta-analysis evaluates the mid- to long-term survival outcome of MAT (meniscal allograft transplantation. Potential prognosticators, with particular focus on chondral status and age of the patient at the time of transplantation, were also analysed. Study design: Meta-analysis. Methods: An online database search was performed using following search string: “meniscal allograft transplantation” and “outcome”. A total of 65 articles were analysed for a total of 3157 performed MAT with a mean follow-up of 5.4 years. Subjective and clinical data was analysed. Results: The subjective and objective results of 2977 patients (3157 allografts were analysed; 70% were male, 30% were female. Thirty-eight percent received an isolated MAT. All other patients underwent at least one concomitant procedure. Lysholm, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores were analysed. All scores showed a good patient satisfaction at long-term follow-up. The mean overall survival rate was 80.9%. Complication rates were comparable to standard meniscal repair surgery. There was a degenerative evolution in osteoarthritis with at least one grade in 1760 radiographically analysed patients. Concomitant procedures seem to have no effect on the outcome. Age at transplantation is a negative prognosticator. The body mass index (BMI of the patient shows a slightly negative correlation with the outcome of MAT. Conclusions: MAT is a viable solution for the younger patient with chronic pain in the meniscectomised knee joint. The complications are not severe and comparable to meniscal repair. The overall failure rate at final follow-up is acceptable and the allograft heals well in most cases, but MAT cannot be seen as a definitive solution for post-meniscectomy pain. The correct approach to the chronic painful total meniscectomised knee joint thus requires consideration of all

  20. Time-lapse culture with morphokinetic embryo selection improves pregnancy and live birth chances and reduces early pregnancy loss: a meta-analysis.

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Nilselid, Anna-Maria; Montag, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Embryo evaluation and selection is fundamental in clinical IVF. Time-lapse follow-up of embryo development comprises undisturbed culture and the application of the visual information to support embryo evaluation. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was carried out to study whether time-lapse monitoring with the prospective use of a morphokinetic algorithm for selection of embryos improves overall clinical outcome (pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, stillbirth and live birth rate) compared with embryo selection based on single time-point morphology in IVF cycles. The meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials (n = 1637) showed that the application of time-lapse monitoring was associated with a significantly higher ongoing clinical pregnancy rate (51.0% versus 39.9%), with a pooled odds ratio of 1.542 (P loss (15.3% versus 21.3%; OR: 0.662; P = 0.019) and a significantly increased live birth rate (44.2% versus 31.3%; OR 1.668; P = 0.009). Difference in stillbirth was not significant between groups (4.7% versus 2.4%). Quality of the evidence was moderate to low owing to inconsistencies across the studies. Selective application and variability were also limitations. Although time-lapse is shown to significantly improve overall clinical outcome, further high-quality evidence is needed before universal conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Moyer's method of mixed dentition analysis: a meta-analysis ...

    The applicability of tables derived from the data Moyer used to other ethnic groups has ... This implies that Moyer's method of prediction may have population variations. ... Key Words: meta-analysis, mixed dentition analysis, Moyer's method

  2. A Meta-Analysis of the Relations among Training Criteria

    Alliger, George

    1998-01-01

    .... Meta-analysis results among criteria using this framework include the finding of substantial reliabilities across training criteria and reasonable convergence among subdivisions of criteria within a larger level...

  3. Meta-analysis: Coeliac disease and hypertransaminasaemia.

    Sainsbury, A; Sanders, D S; Ford, A C

    2011-07-01

    There may be a positive association between coeliac disease and serum hypertransaminasaemia but evidence is conflicting. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of coeliac disease in adults presenting with cryptogenic serum hypertransaminasaemia and the prevalence of hypertransaminasaemia in patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to August 2010. Case series and case-control studies recruiting adults with either cryptogenic hypertransaminasaemia that applied serological tests for coeliac disease and/or distal duodenal biopsy to participants or newly diagnosed biopsy-proven coeliac disease that assessed serum transaminases were eligible. The pooled prevalence of coeliac disease in individuals presenting with abnormal serum transaminases and the pooled prevalence of hypertransaminasaemia in newly diagnosed coeliac disease were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Eleven eligible studies were identified. Pooled prevalences of positive coeliac serology and biopsy-proven coeliac disease in cryptogenic hypertransaminasaemia were 6% (95% CI 3% to 10%) and 4% (95% CI 1% to 7%) respectively. Pooled prevalence of abnormal serum transaminases in newly diagnosed coeliac disease was 27% (95% CI 13% to 44%). Exclusion of gluten led to normalisation of serum transaminase levels in 63% to 90% of patients within 1 year. Undetected coeliac disease is a potential cause for cryptogenic hypertransaminasaemia in 3% to 4% of cases. More than 20% of individuals with newly diagnosed coeliac disease may have abnormal serum transaminases and these normalise on a gluten-free diet in the majority of cases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The Neural Correlates of Moral Thinking: A Meta-Analysis

    Douglas J. Bryant; Wang F; Kelley Deardeuff; Emily Zoccoli; Chang S. Nam

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate current research that aims to map the neural correlates of two typical conditions of moral judgment: right-wrong moral judgments and decision-making in moral dilemmas. Utilizing the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method, we conducted a meta-analysis using neuroimaging data obtained from twenty-one previous studies that measured responses in one or the other of these conditions. We found that across the studies (n = 400), distinct neural circuit...

  5. Methodology Series Module 6: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis.

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the "highest level of evidence" for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies - sometimes with contradictory conclusions - on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist.

  6. Robotic thyroidectomy versus endoscopic thyroidectomy: a meta-analysis

    Lin Shuang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To conduct a meta-analysis to determine the relative merits of robotic thyroidectomy (RT and endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET. Methods A literature search was performed to identify comparative studies reporting peri-operative outcomes for RT and ET. Pooled odds ratios (ORs and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence interval (95% CI were calculated using either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Results Six studies matched the selection criteria, which reported on 2048 subjects, of whom 978 underwent RT and 1070 underwent ET. Comparing the outcomes of RT with ET, this meta-analysis indicated that RT was associated with more complications (WMD = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.94 and greater amount of drainage fluid (WMD = 17.10, 95% CI 5.69 to 28.51. Meanwhile, operating time (WMD = 1.50, 95% CI −39.59 to 42.58, conversion (WMD = 0.63, 95% CI 0.07 to 6.17, post-operative hospital stay (WMD = −0.05; 95% CI −0.18 to 0.08, and the number of lymph nodes harvested (WMD = 0.62, 95% CI −0.29 to 1.53 were similar for both procedures. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis indicated that RT is associated with an increased risk of complications and a greater amount of drainage fluid. Therefore, RT does not appear to have any advantage over ET. Further studies are required to confirm these results.

  7. Economic effectiveness of disease management programs: a meta-analysis.

    Krause, David S

    2005-04-01

    The economic effectiveness of disease management programs, which are designed to improve the clinical and economic outcomes for chronically ill individuals, has been evaluated extensively. A literature search was performed with MEDLINE and other published sources for the period covering January 1995 to September 2003. The search was limited to empirical articles that measured the direct economic outcomes for asthma, diabetes, and heart disease management programs. Of the 360 articles and presentations evaluated, only 67 met the selection criteria for meta-analysis, which included 32,041 subjects. Although some studies contained multiple measurements of direct economic outcomes, only one average effect size per study was included in the meta-analysis. Based on the studies included in the research, a meta-analysis provided a statistically significant answer to the question of whether disease management programs are economically effective. The magnitude of the observed average effect size for equally weighted studies was 0.311 (95% CI = 0.272-0.350). Statistically significant differences of effect sizes by study design, disease type and intensity of disease management program interventions were not found after a moderating variable, disease severity, was taken into consideration. The results suggest that disease management programs are more effective economically with severely ill enrollees and that chronic disease program interventions are most effective when coordinated with the overall level of disease severity. The findings can be generalized, which may assist health care policy makers and practitioners in addressing the issue of providing economically effective care for the growing number of individuals with chronic illness.

  8. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    Eshetie, Setegn; Tarekegn, Fentahun; Moges, Feleke; Amsalu, Anteneh; Birhan, Wubet; Huruy, Kahsay

    2016-11-21

    The burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern worldwide; however the overall epidemiology of multidrug resistant strains is neither coordinated nor harmonized, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcos aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia at large. PubMed, Google Scholar, and lancet databases were searched and a total of 20 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Six authors have independently extracts data on the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analysis was achieved by using Open meta-analyst (version 3.13) and Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3) softwares. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern were pooled by using the forest plot, table and figure with 95% CI. The pooled prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32.5% (95% CI, 24.1 to 40.9%). Moreover, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be highly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and amoxicillin, with a pooled resistance ratio of 99.1, 98.1, 97.2 and 97.1%, respectively. On the other hand, comparably low levels of resistance ratio were noted to vancomycin, 5.3%. The overall burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considerably high, besides these strains showed extreme resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. In principle, appropriate use of antibiotics, applying safety precautions are the key to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular.

  9. The Flynn Effect: A Meta-analysis

    Trahan, Lisa; Stuebing, Karla K.; Hiscock, Merril K.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    The “Flynn effect” refers to the observed rise in IQ scores over time, resulting in norms obsolescence. Although the Flynn effect is widely accepted, most approaches to estimating it have relied upon “scorecard” approaches that make estimates of its magnitude and error of measurement controversial and prevent determination of factors that moderate the Flynn effect across different IQ tests. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the magnitude of the Flynn effect with a higher degree of precision, to determine the error of measurement, and to assess the impact of several moderator variables on the mean effect size. Across 285 studies (N = 14,031) since 1951 with administrations of two intelligence tests with different normative bases, the meta-analytic mean was 2.31, 95% CI [1.99, 2.64], standard score points per decade. The mean effect size for 53 comparisons (N = 3,951) (excluding three atypical studies that inflate the estimates) involving modern (since 1972) Stanford-Binet and Wechsler IQ tests (2.93, 95% CI [2.3, 3.5], IQ points per decade) was comparable to previous estimates of about 3 points per decade, but not consistent with the hypothesis that the Flynn effect is diminishing. For modern tests, study sample (larger increases for validation research samples vs. test standardization samples) and order of administration explained unique variance in the Flynn effect, but age and ability level were not significant moderators. These results supported previous estimates of the Flynn effect and its robustness across different age groups, measures, samples, and levels of performance. PMID:24979188

  10. Depression and risk of fracture and bone loss: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Wu, Q; Liu, B; Tonmoy, S

    2018-03-12

    This meta-analysis pooled results from 23 qualifying individual cohort studies and found that depression was significantly associated with an increased risk of fractures and bone loss. The association between depression and risk of fracture remains controversial. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the effect of depression on the risk of osteoporotic fractures and bone loss. We searched databases and reviewed citations in relevant articles for eligible cohort studies. Two investigators independently conducted study selection, appraisal, and data abstraction through the use of a standardized protocol. Random effect models were used for meta-analysis. Cochrane Q and I 2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Funnel plots and rank correlation tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Twenty-three studies were included for meta-analysis. In studies that reported hazard ratio (HR) as the outcome (nine studies [n = 309,862]), depression was associated with 26% increase in fracture risk (HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.10-1.43, p meta-analysis having modified inclusion criteria and in different subgroup analyses as well. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the meta-analysis; however, no significant publication bias was detected. Depression is associated with a significant increased risk in fracture and bone loss. Effective prevention may decrease such risk.

  11. Network meta-analysis-highly attractive but more methodological research is needed

    Singh Sonal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Network meta-analysis, in the context of a systematic review, is a meta-analysis in which multiple treatments (that is, three or more are being compared using both direct comparisons of interventions within randomized controlled trials and indirect comparisons across trials based on a common comparator. To ensure validity of findings from network meta-analyses, the systematic review must be designed rigorously and conducted carefully. Aspects of designing and conducting a systematic review for network meta-analysis include defining the review question, specifying eligibility criteria, searching for and selecting studies, assessing risk of bias and quality of evidence, conducting a network meta-analysis, interpreting and reporting findings. This commentary summarizes the methodologic challenges and research opportunities for network meta-analysis relevant to each aspect of the systematic review process based on discussions at a network meta-analysis methodology meeting we hosted in May 2010 at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Since this commentary reflects the discussion at that meeting, it is not intended to provide an overview of the field.

  12. Diagnostic value of urodynamic bladder outlet obstruction to select patients for transurethral surgery of the prostate: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Myong Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the diagnostic value of urodynamic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO in the selection of patients for transurethral surgery of the prostate.We systematically searched online PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from January 1989 to June 2014.A total of 19 articles met the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. The eligible studies included a total of 2321 patients with a median number of 92 patients per study (range: 12-437. Of the 19 studies, 15 conducted conventional transurethral prostatectomy (TURP, and 7 used other or multiple modalities. In urodynamic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO positive patients, the pooled mean difference (MD was significant for better improvement of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS (pooled MD, 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-5.24; p < 0.01; studies, 16; participants, 1726, quality of life score (QoL (pooled MD, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.14-1.02; p = 0.010; studies, 9; participants, 1052, maximal flow rate (Qmax (pooled MD, 3.86; 95% CI, 2.17-5.54; p < 0.01; studies, 17; participants, 1852, and post-void residual volume (PVR (pooled MD, 32.46; 95% CI, 23.34-41.58; p < 0.01; studies, 10; participants, 1219 compared with that in non-BOO patients. Some comparisons showed between-study heterogeneity despite the strict selection criteria of the included studies. However, there was no clear evidence of publication bias in this meta-analysis.Our meta-analysis results showed a significant association between urodynamic BOO and better improvements in all treatment outcome parameters. Preoperative UDS may add insight into postoperative outcomes after surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  13. Meta-analysis in plant pathology: synthesizing research results.

    Rosenberg, M S; Garrett, K A; Su, Z; Bowden, R L

    2004-09-01

    ABSTRACT Meta-analysis is a set of statistical procedures for synthesizing research results from a number of different studies. An estimate of a statistical effect, such as the difference in disease severity for plants with or without a management treatment, is collected from each study along with a measure of the variance of the estimate of the effect. Combining results from different studies will generally result in increased statistical power so that it is easier to detect small effects. Combining results from different studies may also make it possible to compare the size of the effect as a function of other predictor variables such as geographic region or pathogen species. We present a review of the basic methodology for meta-analysis. We also present an example of meta-analysis of the relationship between disease severity and yield loss for foliar wheat diseases, based on data collected from a decade of fungicide and nematicide test results.

  14. Formalizing the definition of meta-analysis in Molecular Ecology.

    ArchMiller, Althea A; Bauer, Eric F; Koch, Rebecca E; Wijayawardena, Bhagya K; Anil, Ammu; Kottwitz, Jack J; Munsterman, Amelia S; Wilson, Alan E

    2015-08-01

    Meta-analysis, the statistical synthesis of pertinent literature to develop evidence-based conclusions, is relatively new to the field of molecular ecology, with the first meta-analysis published in the journal Molecular Ecology in 2003 (Slate & Phua 2003). The goal of this article is to formalize the definition of meta-analysis for the authors, editors, reviewers and readers of Molecular Ecology by completing a review of the meta-analyses previously published in this journal. We also provide a brief overview of the many components required for meta-analysis with a more specific discussion of the issues related to the field of molecular ecology, including the use and statistical considerations of Wright's FST and its related analogues as effect sizes in meta-analysis. We performed a literature review to identify articles published as 'meta-analyses' in Molecular Ecology, which were then evaluated by at least two reviewers. We specifically targeted Molecular Ecology publications because as a flagship journal in this field, meta-analyses published in Molecular Ecology have the potential to set the standard for meta-analyses in other journals. We found that while many of these reviewed articles were strong meta-analyses, others failed to follow standard meta-analytical techniques. One of these unsatisfactory meta-analyses was in fact a secondary analysis. Other studies attempted meta-analyses but lacked the fundamental statistics that are considered necessary for an effective and powerful meta-analysis. By drawing attention to the inconsistency of studies labelled as meta-analyses, we emphasize the importance of understanding the components of traditional meta-analyses to fully embrace the strengths of quantitative data synthesis in the field of molecular ecology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Using structural equation modeling for network meta-analysis.

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Wu, Yun-Chun

    2017-07-14

    Network meta-analysis overcomes the limitations of traditional pair-wise meta-analysis by incorporating all available evidence into a general statistical framework for simultaneous comparisons of several treatments. Currently, network meta-analyses are undertaken either within the Bayesian hierarchical linear models or frequentist generalized linear mixed models. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a statistical method originally developed for modeling causal relations among observed and latent variables. As random effect is explicitly modeled as a latent variable in SEM, it is very flexible for analysts to specify complex random effect structure and to make linear and nonlinear constraints on parameters. The aim of this article is to show how to undertake a network meta-analysis within the statistical framework of SEM. We used an example dataset to demonstrate the standard fixed and random effect network meta-analysis models can be easily implemented in SEM. It contains results of 26 studies that directly compared three treatment groups A, B and C for prevention of first bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis. We also showed that a new approach to network meta-analysis based on the technique of unrestricted weighted least squares (UWLS) method can also be undertaken using SEM. For both the fixed and random effect network meta-analysis, SEM yielded similar coefficients and confidence intervals to those reported in the previous literature. The point estimates of two UWLS models were identical to those in the fixed effect model but the confidence intervals were greater. This is consistent with results from the traditional pairwise meta-analyses. Comparing to UWLS model with common variance adjusted factor, UWLS model with unique variance adjusted factor has greater confidence intervals when the heterogeneity was larger in the pairwise comparison. The UWLS model with unique variance adjusted factor reflects the difference in heterogeneity within each comparison

  16. Occupational and environmental scleroderma. Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Rubio-Rivas, Manuel; Moreno, Rafael; Corbella, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains unknown; however, several occupational and environmental factors have been implicated. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis of all studies published on SSc associated with occupational and environmental exposure. The review was undertaken by means of MEDLINE and SCOPUS from 1960 to 2014 and using the terms: "systemic," "scleroderma," or "systemic sclerosis/chemically induced" [MesH]. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for the qualifying assessment. The inverse variance-weighted method was performed. The meta-analysis of silica exposure included 15 case-control studies [overall OR 2.81 (95%CI 1.86-4.23; p < 0.001)] and 4 cohort studies [overall RR 17.52 (95%CI 5.98-51.37; p < 0.001)]; the meta-analysis of solvents exposure included 13 case-control studies (overall OR 2.00 [95%CI 1.32-3.02; p = 0.001); the meta-analysis of breast implants exposure included 4 case-control studies (overall OR 1.68 (95%CI 1.65-1.71; p < 0.001)) and 6 cohort studies (overall RR 2.13 (95%CI 0.86-5.27; p = 0.10)); the meta-analysis of epoxy resins exposure included 4 case-control studies (overall OR 2.97 (95%CI 2.31-3.83; p < 0.001)), the meta-analysis of pesticides exposure included 3 case-control studies (overall OR 1.02 (95%CI 0.78-1.32; p = 0.90)) and, finally, the meta-analysis of welding fumes exposure included 4 studies (overall OR 1.29 (95%CI 0.44-3.74; p = 0.64)). Not enough studies citing risks related to hair dyes have been published to perform an accurate meta-analysis. Silica and solvents were the two most likely substances related to the pathogenesis of SSc. While silica is involved in particular jobs, solvents are widespread and more people are at risk of having incidental contact with them.

  17. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    Jørn Wetterslev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors. Methods We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. Results The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2 measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in

  18. A meta-analysis of cerebrovascular disease and hyperhomocysteinaemia

    Nielsen, G M; Tvedegaard, K C; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia has been identified as a risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular disease in several studies. To evaluate the evidence we performed a meta-analysis. We found 21 studies searching Medline from 1966-July 1999 using the key words homocysteine, homocystine and cerebrovascular...... was used. The reports on 8 cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies gave data on the mean and standard deviations of plasma or serum homocysteine for both cases and controls, and these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the 5 excluded studies all pointed to a positive relationship...

  19. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish....... The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared...

  20. A Meta-Analysis on Prehypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that there is an association between prehypertension and an increased risk of end-stage renal disease. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between prehypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD. This meta-analysis aimed to demonstrate the association between prehypertension and the incidence of CKD and identify the impacts of gender and ethnic differences.MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (from inception through March 2016 and article reference lists were searched for relevant studies regarding blood pressure and CKD. Blood pressure (BP measurements were classified as follows: optimal BP (less than 120/80 mmHg, prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mmHg and hypertension (over 140/90 mmHg. CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria. Two investigators independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of studies enrolled in this meta-analysis using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS. We performed the meta-analysis using Stata/SE 12.0 (StataCorp LP. The random-effect models were used in the heterogeneous analyses.After retrieving data from 4,537 potentially relevant articles, we identified 7 cohort studies including 261,264 subjects, according to the predefined selection criteria. Five studies were conducted in Mongolians from East Asia, and the other two studies were performed in Indo-Europeans from Austria and Iran. The participants ranged in age from 20 to 89 years, and the proportion of females ranged from 27.2% to 63.8%. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 11 years. Compared with the optimal BP values, prehypertension showed an increased risk of CKD (pooled RR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.13-1.44; P = 0.000; I2 = 77.9%. In the sex-stratified analysis, we found a similar trend in women (pooled RR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01-1.63; P = 0.039; I2 = 76.1% but not in men. This effect was observed only in Mongolians from East Asia (pooled RR = 1.37; 95

  1. Meta-Analysis of Correlations Among Usability Measures

    Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Effie Lai Chong, Law

    2007-01-01

    are generally low: effectiveness measures (e.g., errors) and efficiency measures (e.g., time) has a correlation of .247 ± .059 (Pearson's product-moment correlation with 95% confidence interval), efficiency and satisfaction (e.g., preference) one of .196 ± .064, and effectiveness and satisfaction one of .164......Understanding the relation between usability measures seems crucial to deepen our conception of usability and to select the right measures for usability studies. We present a meta-analysis of correlations among usability measures calculated from the raw data of 73 studies. Correlations...... ± .062. Changes in task complexity do not influence these correlations, but use of more complex measures attenuates them. Standard questionnaires for measuring satisfaction appear more reliable than homegrown ones. Measures of users' perceptions of phenomena are generally not correlated with objective...

  2. Physical Activity and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analysis.

    Jackson, William M; Davis, Nicholas; Sands, Stephen A; Whittington, Robert A; Sun, Lena S

    2016-10-01

    Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target. To estimate the effect of a structured regular exercise program on neuropsychological domains of executive function in children ages 7 to 12. We performed a systematic review of English and non-English articles using Cochrane Library, EBSCO CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, PSYCInfo, Pubmed, and Web of Science, including all years allowed by each individual search engine. The search string used was "(exercise OR phys*) AND (cognit* OR executive) AND (child* OR preadolesc*)." The authors of the studies selected for review were contacted for any unpublished data. Randomized controlled trials, which enrolled children between the ages of 7 and 12, with randomization to either normal activity or a structured physical activity intervention consisting of scheduled aerobic exercise, at least once per week, for a period of at least 1 month. Eligible studies must have included a neuropsychological battery of tests that measured at least 1 executive function both before and after the intervention was completed. Two independent reviewers examined the screened studies in detail for potential inclusion. The results of the individual examinations were compared; if any discrepancies were present, a third party analyzed the study to determine if it should be included in the meta-analysis. A total of 18 studies were identified by abstract as candidates for

  3. Digital Simulation-Based Training: A Meta-Analysis

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Quesada-Pallarès, Carla; Knogler, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how design characteristics in digital simulation-based learning environments moderate self-efficacy and transfer of learning. Drawing on social cognitive theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the meta-analysis psychometrically cumulated k?=?15 studies of 25 years of research with a total sample size of…

  4. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis

    Muth, Anne; Hönekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large…

  5. Does College Teach Critical Thinking? A Meta-Analysis

    Huber, Christopher R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Educators view critical thinking as an essential skill, yet it remains unclear how effectively it is being taught in college. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on gains in critical thinking skills and attitudinal dispositions over various time frames in college. The results suggest that both critical thinking skills and dispositions improve…

  6. Tutoring Adolescents in Literacy: A Meta-Analysis

    Jun, Seung Won; Ramirez, Gloria; Cumming, Alister

    2010-01-01

    What does research reveal about tutoring adolescents in literacy? We conducted a meta-analysis, identifying 152 published studies, of which 12 met rigorous inclusion criteria. We analyzed the 12 studies for the effects of tutoring according to the type, focus, and amount of tutoring; the number, age, and language background of students; and the…

  7. Meta-analysis of landscape conservation plan evaluations

    Michaela Foster; M. Nils Peterson; Frederick Cubbage; Gerard McMahon

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies evaluating the quality and content of many types of plans have grown in recent decades. Natural resource conservation plans have been included in some of these plan evaluation studies; however, no meta-analysis of natural resource planning literature has been conducted. This focus is needed because natural resource conservation planning differs...

  8. Financial liberalization and economic growth : A meta-analysis

    Bumann, Silke; Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    This study provides a systematic analysis of the empirical literature on the relationship between financial liberalization and economic growth by conducting a meta-analysis, based on 441 t-statistics reported in 60 empirical studies. We focus on explaining the heterogeneity of results in our sample

  9. Contemporary management of frontal sinus mucoceles: a meta-analysis.

    Courson, Andy M; Stankiewicz, James A; Lal, Devyani

    2014-02-01

    To analyze trends in the surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles through meta-analysis. Meta-analysis and case series. A systematic literature review on surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles was conducted. Studies were divided into historical (1975-2001) and contemporary (2002-2012) groups. A meta-analysis of these studies was performed. The historical and contemporary cohorts were compared (surgical approach, recurrence, and complications). To study evolution in surgical management, a senior surgeon's experience over 28 years was analyzed separately. Thirty-one studies were included for meta-analysis. The historical cohort included 425 mucoceles from 11 studies. The contemporary cohort included 542 mucoceles from 20 studies. More endoscopic techniques were used in the contemporary versus historical cohort (53.9% vs. 24.7%; P = contemporary). In the historical cohort, higher recurrence was noted in the external group (P = 0.03). Results from endoscopic and open approaches are comparable. Although endoscopic techniques are being increasingly adopted, comparison with our series shows that more cases could potentially be treated endoscopically. Frequent use of open approaches may reflect efficacy, or perhaps lack of expertise and equipment required for endoscopic management. Most contemporary authors favor endoscopic management, limiting open approaches for specific indications (unfavorable anatomy, lateral disease, and scarring). N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Meta-analysis of genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing ...

    TAJAMUL HUSSAIN

    2018-06-12

    Jun 12, 2018 ... ity in COMT protein, thus impairing conversion of cate- chol oestrogens ... nale of the current meta-analysis is to address the ambi- guity in the .... disease association across the globe with this polymor- ..... Health Perspect. 117 ...

  11. Hypothyroidism and carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Shiri, Rahman

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the magnitude of the association between hypothyroidism and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Eighteen studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of the studies that did not control their estimates for any confounder showed an association between a thyroid disease (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) and CTS (N = 9,573, effect size [ES] = 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.68) and between hypothyroidism and CTS (N = 64,531, ES = 2.15 [95% CI, 1.64-2.83]). When a meta-analysis limited to the studies that controlled their estimates for some potential confounders, the association between a thyroid disease and CTS disappeared (N = 4,799, ES = 1.17 [95% CI, 0.71-1.92], I(2) = 0%), and the effect size for hypothyroidism largely attenuated (N = 71,133, ES = 1.44 [95% CI, 1.27-1.63], I(2) = 0%). Moreover, there was evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis found only a modest association between hypothyroidism and CTS. Confounding and publication bias may still account for part of the remaining excess risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [The meta-analysis of data from individual patients].

    Rovers, M.M.; Reitsma, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    - An IPD (Individual Participant Data) meta-analysis requires collecting original individual patient data and calculating an estimated effect based on these data.- The use of individual patient data has various advantages: the original data and the results of published analyses are verified,

  13. Meta-analysis of graduated driver licensing laws.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of GDL programs for reducing total, injury, and fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old by conducting a meta-analysis of GDL research since 2001 that evaluated the effectivenes...

  14. The Economic Value of Mangroves: A Meta-Analysis

    Marwa Salem; D. Evan Mercer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the mangrove ecosystem valuation literature through a meta-regression analysis. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first meta-analysis focusing solely on mangrove forests, whereas previous studies have included different types of wetlands. The number of studies included in the regression analysis is 44 for a total...

  15. How to do Meta-Analysis using HLM software

    Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step presentation of how to run a meta-analysis using HLM software. Because it's a variance known model, it is not run through the GUI, but batch mode. These slides show how to prepare the data and run the analysis.

  16. Moral development and recidivism: a meta-analysis

    van Vugt, E.; Gibbs, J.; Stams, G.J.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.; van der Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 19 studies (N = 15,992 offenders) showed a significant inverse relation between more mature moral development and recidivism. Moderator analyses revealed a larger effect size for moral cognition (r = .20) than for moral emotion (r = .11). Effect sizes for production measures (r =

  17. The Paradox of Intragroup Conflict: A Meta-Analysis

    de Wit, Frank R. C.; Greer, Lindred L.; Jehn, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the meta-analysis by De Dreu and Weingart (2003b) on the effects of intragroup conflict on group outcomes, more than 80 new empirical studies of conflict have been conducted, often investigating more complex, moderated relationships between conflict and group outcomes, as well as new types of intragroup conflict, such as process conflict. To…

  18. The Impact of Uncertainty on Investment. A Meta-Analysis

    Koetse, M.J. [Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Groot, Henri L.F. [Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Florax, R.J.G.M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we perform a meta-analysis on empirical estimates of the impact between investment and uncertainty. Since the outcomes of primary studies are largely incomparable with respect to the magnitude of the effect, our analysis focuses on the direction and statistical significance of the relationship. The standard approach in this situation is to estimate an ordered probit model on a categorical estimate, defined in terms of the direction of the effect. The estimates are transformed into marginal effects, in order to represent the changes in the probability of finding a negative significant, insignificant, and positive significant estimate. Although a meta-analysis generally does not allow for inferences on the correctness of model specifications in primary studies, our results give clear directions for model building in empirical investment research. For example, not including factor prices in investment models may seriously affect the model outcomes. Furthermore, we find that Q models produce more negative significant estimates than other models do, ceteris paribus. The outcome of a study is also affected by the type of data used in a primary study. Although it is clear that meta-analysis cannot always give decisive insights into the explanations for the variation in empirical outcomes, our meta-analysis shows that we can explain to a large extent why empirical estimates of the investment uncertainty relationship differ.

  19. Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Texts: A Meta Analysis

    Armagan, Fulya Öner; Keskin, Melike Özer; Akin, Beril Salman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the overall effectiveness of conceptual change texts (CCTs) on academic achievement and to find out if effectiveness was related to some characteristics of the study. It followed up a Meta-analysis research approach. 42 published and unpublished studies, published between 1995 and 2010, and 42 experiment…

  20. The Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Meta-Analysis

    Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; Schwarz, Marcus; Zimmermann, Doreen; Haarig, Frederik; Jaeger, Sonia; Kunze, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we give a comprehensive overview of the effects of meditation on psychological variables that can be extracted from empirical studies, concentrating on the effects of meditation on nonclinical groups of adult meditators. Mostly because of methodological problems, almost 3/4 of an initially identified 595 studies had to be…

  1. A Meta-Analysis: Acoustic Measurement of Roughness and Breathiness

    v. Latoszek, Ben Barsties; Maryn, Youri; Gerrits, Ellen; De Bodt, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last 5 decades, many acoustic measures have been created to measure roughness and breathiness. The aim of this study is to present a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients (r) between auditory-perceptual judgment of roughness and breathiness and various acoustic measures in both sustained vowels and continuous speech. Method:…

  2. Meta-Analysis: Application to Clinical Dentistry and Dental Education.

    Cohen, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    Meta-analysis is proposed as an effective alternative to conventional narrative review for extracting trends from research findings. This type of analysis is explained, advantages over more traditional review techniques are discussed, basic procedures and limitations are outlined, and potential applications in dental education and clinical…

  3. Creativity and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Gajda, Aleksandra; Karwowski, Maciej; Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a meta-analysis of 120 studies (total N = 52,578; 782 effects) examining the relationship between creativity and academic achievement in research conducted since the 1960s. Average correlation between creativity and academic achievement was r = 0.22, 95% CI [0.19, 0.24]. An analysis of moderators revealed that this…

  4. The Categorical Perception Deficit in Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis

    Noordenbos, Mark W.; Serniclaes, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception in dyslexia is characterized by a categorical perception (CP) deficit, demonstrated by weaker discrimination of acoustic differences between phonemic categories in conjunction with better discrimination of acoustic differences within phonemic categories. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that examined the reliability of the…

  5. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  6. Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2007-01-01

    Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

  7. Psychological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Cuijpers, P.; Sijbrandij, M.; Koole, S.L.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Berking, M.; Andersson, G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a near-doubling of the number of studies examining the effects of psychotherapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults. The present article integrates this new evidence with the older literature through a quantitative meta-analysis. A total of 41 studies (with 2132

  8. Why Is Family Firms' Internationalization Unique? : A Meta-Analysis

    Arregle, Jean-Luc; Duran, Patricio; Hitt, Michael A.; van Essen, M.

    Despite its importance, there is no clear understanding of the uniqueness of family firms' internationalization. This article sheds new light on this issue with a meta-analysis of 76 studies covering 41 countries. We show that the considerable study and cross-country differences in the relationship

  9. Drivers of Wetland Conversion: a Global Meta-Analysis

    van Asselen, S.; Verburg, P.H.; Vermaat, J.E.; Janse, J.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy Research

    Moyer, Christopher A.; Rounds, James; Hannum, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Massage therapy (MT) is an ancient form of treatment that is now gaining popularity as part of the complementary and alternative medical therapy movement. A meta-analysis was conducted of studies that used random assignment to test the effectiveness of MT. Mean effect sizes were calculated from 37 studies for 9 dependent variables. Single…

  11. A meta-analysis of electroconvulsive therapy efficacy in depression

    Kho, King Han; van Vreeswijk, Michiel Floris; Simpson, Steve; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2003-01-01

    Recently published controlled studies comparing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with other treatments for depression offer the opportunity to perform a meta-analysis of ECT in depression. Fifteen studies were identified which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these controlled trials, 20 effect

  12. The Relationship Between Parenting and Delinquency: A Meta-analysis

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; Laan, P.H. van der; Smeenk, W.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects

  13. The relationship between parenting and delinquency: A meta-analysis

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Attachment to Parents and Delinquency

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Dubas, Judith Semon; van der Laan, Peter H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the link between attachment to parents and delinquency, and the potential moderating effects of age and sex, 74 published and unpublished manuscripts (N = 55,537 participants) were subjected to a multilevel meta-analysis. A mean small to moderate effect size was found (r = 0.18). Poor attachment to parents was significantly linked…

  15. Lead and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Marcus, David K.; Fulton, Jessica J.; Clarke, Erin J.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the association between conduct problems and lead exposure. Nineteen studies on 8,561 children and adolescents were included. The average "r" across all 19 studies was 0.19 (p less than 0.001), which is considered a medium effect size. Studies that assessed lead exposure using hair element analysis yielded…

  16. A Meta-Analysis on Unconscious Thought Effects

    Strick, M.A.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Bos, M.W.; Sjoerdsma, A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Nordgren, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed on the unconscious thought effect (UTE). All available published and unpublished data on unconscious thought were included. Our aims were to provide a statistically robust estimate of the effect size of the UTE, to identify significant moderators, and to

  17. Updated Meta-Analysis of Learner Control within Educational Technology

    Karich, Abbey C.; Burns, Matthew K.; Maki, Kathrin E.

    2014-01-01

    Giving a student control over their learning has theoretical and intuitive appeal, but its effects are neither powerful nor consistent in the empirical literature base. This meta-analysis updated previous meta-analytic research by Niemiec, Sikorski, and Walberg by studying the overall effectiveness of providing learner control within educational…

  18. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  19. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food

  20. Comprehensive School Reform and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Hewes, Gina M.; Overman, Laura T.; Brown, Shelly

    2003-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviews research on the achievement effects of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models. There are limitations on the overall quantity and quality of the research base, but the overall effects of CSR appear promising. The combined quantity, quality, and statistical…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Advance-Organizer Studies.

    Stone, Carol Leth

    Long term studies of advance organizers (AO) were analyzed with Glass's meta-analysis technique. AO's were defined as bridges from reader's previous knowledge to what is to be learned. The results were compared with predictions from Ausubel's model of assimilative learning. The results of the study indicated that advance organizers were associated…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Advanced Organizer Studies.

    Stone, Carol Leth

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine reports yielding 112 studies were analyzed with Glass's meta-analysis technique, and results were compared with predictions from Ausubel's model of assimilative learning. Overall, advance organizers were shown to be associated with increased learning and retention of material to be learned. (Author)

  3. Macroeconomics of natural disasters : Meta-analysis and policy options

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); S. Lazzaroni (Sara)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe use the case of the impact of natural disasters to analyse strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 22 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and

  4. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Baseline Ohip-Edent Scores.

    Duale, J M J; Patel, Y A; Wu, J; Hyde, T P

    2018-03-01

    OHIP-EDENT is widely used in the literature to assess Oral-Health-Related-Quality-of-Life (OHRQoL) for edentulous patients. However the normal variance and mean of the baseline OHIP scores has not been reported. It would facilitate critical appraisal of studies if we had knowledge of the normal variation and mean of baseline OHIP-EDENT scores. An established figure for baseline OHIP-EDENT, obtained from a meta-analysis, would simplify comparisons of studies and quantify variations in initial OHRQoL of the trial participants. The aim of this study is to quantify a normal baseline value for pre-operative OHIP-EDENT scores by a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature. A systematic literature review was carried. 83 papers were identified that included OHIP-EDENT values. After screening and eligibility assessment, 7 papers were selected and included in the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis for the 7 papers by a random-effect model yielded a mean baseline OHIP-EDENT score of 28.63 with a 95% Confidence intervals from 21.93 to 35.34. A pre-operative baseline OHIP-EDENT has been established by meta-analysis of published papers. This will facilitate the comparison of the initial OHRQoL of one study population to that found elsewhere in the published literature. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. Association between Hypertension and Epistaxis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Min, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2017-12-01

    Objective Whether there is an association or a cause-and-effect relationship between epistaxis and hypertension is a subject of longstanding controversy. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the association between epistaxis and hypertension and to verify whether hypertension is an independent risk factor of epistaxis. Data Sources A comprehensive search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Review Methods The review was performed according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. Results We screened 2768 unique studies and selected 10 for this meta-analysis. Overall, the risk of epistaxis was significantly increased for patients with hypertension (odds ratio, 1.532 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.181-1.986]; number needed to treat, 14.9 [95% CI, 12.3-19.0]). Results of the Q test and I 2 statistics suggested considerable heterogeneity ([Formula: see text] = 0.038, I 2 = 49.3%). The sensitivity analysis was performed by excluding 1 study at a time, and it revealed no change in statistical significance. Conclusion Although this meta-analysis had some limitations, our study demonstrated that hypertension was significantly associated with the risk of epistaxis. However, since this association does not support a causal relationship between hypertension and epistaxis, further clinical trials with large patient populations will be required to determine the impact of hypertension on epistaxis.

  6. The potential for meta-analysis to support decision analysis in ecology.

    Mengersen, Kerrie; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian

    2015-06-01

    Meta-analysis and decision analysis are underpinned by well-developed methods that are commonly applied to a variety of problems and disciplines. While these two fields have been closely linked in some disciplines such as medicine, comparatively little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of linking them in ecology, despite reasonable expectations that benefits would be derived from doing so. Meta-analysis combines information from multiple studies to provide more accurate parameter estimates and to reduce the uncertainty surrounding them. Decision analysis involves selecting among alternative choices using statistical information that helps to shed light on the uncertainties involved. By linking meta-analysis to decision analysis, improved decisions can be made, with quantification of the costs and benefits of alternate decisions supported by a greater density of information. Here, we briefly review concepts of both meta-analysis and decision analysis, illustrating the natural linkage between them and the benefits from explicitly linking one to the other. We discuss some examples in which this linkage has been exploited in the medical arena and how improvements in precision and reduction of structural uncertainty inherent in a meta-analysis can provide substantive improvements to decision analysis outcomes by reducing uncertainty in expected loss and maximising information from across studies. We then argue that these significant benefits could be translated to ecology, in particular to the problem of making optimal ecological decisions in the face of uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Meta-analysis of the relationship of mycotoxins with biochemical and hematological parameters in broilers.

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Lovatto, P A

    2012-02-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with hematological and biochemical profiles in broilers. Ninety-eight articles published between 1980 and 2009 were used in the database, totaling 37,371 broilers. The information was selected from the Materials and Methods and Results sections in the selected articles and then tabulated in a database. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphic, correlation, and variance-covariance. Mycotoxins reduced (P Mycotoxins also altered (P effect was observed on the relationship between the concentration of aflatoxin in diets and the serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The total protein concentration in blood was 18% lower (P mycotoxin and without the additive. The meta-analysis performed in this study allowed us to address and quantify systematically the relationship of mycotoxins with alterations in hematologic and biochemical profiles in broilers.

  8. Impact of Instructional Decisions on the Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning in Chemistry through Meta-Analysis

    Apugliese, Andrew; Lewis, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analysis can provide a robust description of the impact of educational reforms and also offer an opportunity to explore the conditions where such reforms are more or less effective. This article describes a meta-analysis on the impact of cooperative learning on students' chemistry understanding. Modifiers in the meta-analysis are purposefully…

  9. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  10. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  11. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  12. Meta-Analysis of Creatine for Neuroprotection Against Parkinson's Disease.

    Attia; Ahmed, Hussien; Gadelkarim, Mohamed; Morsi, Mahmoud; Awad, Kamal; Elnenny, Mohamed; Ghanem, Esraa; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa; Negida, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Creatine is an antioxidant agent that showed neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Creatine was selected by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke as a possible disease modifying agent for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, many clinical trials evaluated the efficacy of creatine for patients with PD. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize evidence from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the efficacy of Creatine for patients with PD. We followed PRISMA statement guidelines during the preparation of this systematic review and meta-analysis. A computer literature search for PubMed, EBSCO, web of science and Ovid Midline was carried out. We included RCTs comparing creatine with placebo in terms of motor functions and quality of life. Outcomes of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), UPDRS I, UPDRS II, and UPDRS III were pooled as mean difference (MD) between two groups from baseline to the endpoint. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of the forest plot and measured by chi-square and I square tests. Three RCTs (n=1935) were included in this study. The overall effect did not favor either of the two groups in terms of: UPDRS total score (MD 1.07, 95% CI [3.38 to 1.25], UPDRS III (MD 0.62, 95% CI [2.27 to 1.02]), UPDRS II (MD 0.03, 95% CI [0.81 to 0.86], or UPDRS I (MD 0.03, 95% CI [0.33 to 0.28]). Current evidence does not support the use of creatine for neuroprotection against PD. Future well-designed, randomized controlled trials are needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. CrossFit Overview: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Claudino, João Gustavo; Gabbett, Tim J; Bourgeois, Frank; Souza, Helton de Sá; Miranda, Rafael Chagas; Mezêncio, Bruno; Soncin, Rafael; Cardoso Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bottaro, Martim; Hernandez, Arnaldo Jose; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2018-02-26

    CrossFit is recognized as one of the fastest growing high-intensity functional training modes in the world. However, scientific data regarding the practice of CrossFit is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the findings of scientific literature related to CrossFit via systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme/MedLine, and SciELO online databases were conducted for articles reporting the effects of CrossFit training. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The Oxford Levels of Evidence was used for all included articles, and only studies that investigated the effects of CrossFit as a training program were included in the meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes (ESs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. Thirty-one articles were included in the systematic review and four were included in the meta-analysis. However, only two studies had a high level of evidence at low risk of bias. Scientific literature related to CrossFit has reported on body composition, psycho-physiological parameters, musculoskeletal injury risk, life and health aspects, and psycho-social behavior. In the meta-analysis, significant results were not found for any variables. The current scientific literature related to CrossFit has few studies with high level of evidence at low risk of bias. However, preliminary data has suggested that CrossFit practice is associated with higher levels of sense of community, satisfaction, and motivation.

  14. Efficacy of metformin in the treatment of NIDDM. Meta-analysis

    Johansen, K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The results differ concerning randomized controlled trials of the effects of metformin on blood glucose regulation and body weight. To get a systematic overview, a meta-analysis of the efficacy of metformin was performed by comparing metformin with placebo and sulfonylurea. RESEARCH...... DESIGN AND METHODS: All randomized controlled trials published since 1957 were selected by searching the Current List of Medical Literature, Cumulated Index Medicus, Medline, and Embase, Meta-analysis was performed calculating weighted mean difference (WMD) of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated...

  15. Impact of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL on EFL: A Meta-Analysis

    Imtiaz Hassan Taj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL has emerged as a potential tool in the instruction of English as a foreign language (EFL. Meta-analysis of 13 studies published between year 2008 and 2015 was conducted. Four point criteria for the selection of studies for analysis is based on the year of publication, quasi-experimental design, pretest and posttest method and finally use of mobile device for intervention. Findings of the analysis suggest that MALL has fostered the EFL instruction. Overall effect size was (d = 0.8 which is considered a large effect size. Keywords: MALL, technology assisted language learning, EFL, vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary instruction, meta-analysis

  16. Meta-Analysis of Social Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Bora, Emre; Yener, Görsev G

    2017-07-01

    Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0.63) and facial emotion recognition ( d = 0.58). Among individual emotions, recognition of fear and sadness were particularly impaired. There were no significant between-group differences in recognition of disgust, happiness, and surprise. Social cognitive deficits were more severe in multidomain MCI. There is a need for longitudinal studies investigating the potential role of social cognitive impairment in predicting conversion to dementia.

  17. Efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram: a meta-analysis.

    Montgomery, Stuart; Hansen, Thomas; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical relevance of the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and citalopram by meta-analysis. Studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) with both escitalopram and citalopram treatment arms were identified. Adult patients had to meet DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The primary outcome measure was the treatment difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram, n=995; citalopram, n=1014). Escitalopram was significantly more effective than citalopram in overall treatment effect, with an estimated mean treatment difference of 1.7 points at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram. In this meta-analysis, the statistically significant superior efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram was shown to be clinically relevant.

  18. Immunotherapy in advanced melanoma: a network meta-analysis.

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Kang, Guhyun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various immunotherapeutic agents and chemotherapy for unresected or metastatic melanomas. We performed a network meta-analysis using a Bayesian statistical model to compare objective response rate (ORR) of various immunotherapies from 12 randomized controlled studies. The estimated ORRs of immunotherapy and chemotherapy were 0.224 and 0.108, respectively. The ORRs of immunotherapy in untreated and pretreated patients were 0.279 and 0.176, respectively. In network meta-analysis, the odds ratios for ORR of nivolumab (1 mg/kg)/ipilmumab (3 mg/kg), pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg and nivolumab 3 mg/kg were 8.54, 5.39 and 4.35, respectively, compared with chemotherapy alone. Our data showed that various immunotherapies had higher ORRs rather than chemotherapy alone.

  19. Dividend Policy and Corporate Value (A Meta-Analysis

    Tifani Titah Dwi Tyastari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the effect of dividend policy on corporate value, as well as to examine and analyze the variation of result study on corporate value in Indonesia.Dividend Signaling Model was the grand theory used to explain the effect of dividend policy on corporate value. This study used meta-analysis approach with the sample were 70 researches in Indonesia, both the published and unpublished in 2007-2015. The result of this study, meta-analysis strengthens the findings of the previous study which stated that the dividend policy could increase the corporate value. The differences of the previous studies were due to the presence of moderation effect from the measurement model of corporate value and dividend corporate.

  20. Road safety effects of roundabouts: A meta-analysis.

    Elvik, Rune

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of the road safety effects of converting junctions to roundabouts. 44 studies containing a total of 154 estimates of effect were included. Based on a meta-regression analysis, converting junctions to roundabouts is associated with a reduction of fatal accidents of about 65% and a reduction of injury accidents of about 40%. The mean effect on property-damage-only accidents is ambiguous. Summary estimates of effect are robust for fatal and injury accidents, but vary depending on the model of meta-analysis and the treatment of outlying data points for property-damage-only accidents. A trim-and-fill analysis suggests a weak tendency for publication bias, with modest influence on summary estimates of effect. It is concluded that roundabouts are very effective in reducing traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) on EFL: A Meta-Analysis

    Taj, Imtiaz Hassan; Sulan, Norrihan Binti; Sipra, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmad, Waqar

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) has emerged as a potential tool in the instruction of English as a foreign language (EFL). Meta-analysis of 13 studies published between year 2008 and 2015 was conducted. Four point criteria for the selection of studies for analysis is based on the year of publication, quasi-experimental design, pretest and…

  2. Testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A.

    2016-01-01

    of late effects related to hypogonadism. We performed a critical review of PubMed in January 2015 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Twelve publications were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Eleven studies evaluated the risk of TD...

  3. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution

    C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); J.C. Randall (Joshua); C. Lamina (Claudia); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); L. Qi (Lu); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); C.J. Willer (Cristen); B.M. Herrera (Blanca); A.U. Jackson (Anne); N. Lim (Noha); P. Scheet (Paul); N. Soranzo (Nicole); N. Amin (Najaf); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); J.C. Chambers (John); A. Drong (Alexander); J. Luan; H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S. Sanna (Serena); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); H.Z. Jing; P. Almgren (Peter); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); L. Cherkas (Lynn); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); C. Cooper (Charles); G. Crawford (Gabe); A. Doering (Angela); A. Dominiczak (Anna); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); S. Ebrahim (Shanil); P. Elliott (Paul); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Fischer (Guido); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grallert (Harald); C.J. Groves (Christopher); S.M. Grundy (Scott); C. Guiducci (Candace); D. Hadley (David); A. Hamsten (Anders); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); A. Hofman (Albert); R. Holle (Rolf); J.W. Holloway (John); T. Illig (Thomas); B. Isomaa (Bo); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); K. Jameson (Karen); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); F. Karpe (Fredrik); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.P. Morris (Andrew); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Nordström (Anna); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); F. Payne (Felicity); J. Peden (John); I. Prokopenko (Inga); F. Renström (Frida); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); K. Song (Kijoung); X. Yuan (Xin); H.M. Stringham (Heather); A.J. Swift (Amy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); M. Uda (Manuela); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); G.B. Walters (Bragi); M.N. Weedon (Michael); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); C. Zhang (Cuilin); M. Caulfield (Mark); F.S. Collins (Francis); G.D. Smith; I.N.M. Day (Ian); P.W. Franks (Paul); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A. Kong (Augustine); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); M. Laakso (Markku); E. Lakatta (Edward); V. Mooser (Vincent); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D.P. Strachan (David); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); D. Waterworth (Dawn); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Groop (Leif); D.J. Hunter (David); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); D. Schlessinger (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); I.E. Barroso (Inês); M.I. McCarthy (Mark)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTo identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the

  4. Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…

  5. School programs targeting stress management in children and adolescence: a meta-analysis

    Kraag, G.C; Zeegers, M.P.; Kok, G.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stress management or coping skills in school children. Methods Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The

  6. Core ADHD Symptom Improvement with Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Dickson, Ruth; Walton, Richard J.; Granger, Renee E.; van Wyk, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies comparing atomoxetine and methylphenidate to treat ADHD symptoms have been equivocal. This noninferiority meta-analysis compared core ADHD symptom response between atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children and adolescents. Method: Selection criteria included randomized, controlled design; duration 6 weeks; and…

  7. Understanding the physical attractiveness literature: Qualitative reviews versus meta-analysis.

    Feingold, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The target article is a qualitative review of selected findings in the physical attractiveness literature. This commentary explains why the meta-analytic approach, frequently used by other attractiveness reviewers, is preferable for drawing unbiased conclusions about the effects of attractiveness. The article's main contribution is affording a foundation for subsequent meta-analysis of the studies discussed in a subjective fashion.

  8. Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators

    Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.…

  9. Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Singh, Nikita; Reece, John

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to inform clinical practice of treatment strategies for adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). The efficacy of three empirically validated treatments was compared to determine the most effective treatment. These were: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)…

  10. Social Network Changes and Life Events across the Life Span: A Meta-Analysis

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Hanel, Martha; Wagner, Jenny; Neyer, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    For researchers and practitioners interested in social relationships, the question remains as to how large social networks typically are, and how their size and composition change across adulthood. On the basis of predictions of socioemotional selectivity theory and social convoy theory, we conducted a meta-analysis on age-related social network…

  11. Effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Ricci, Federico; Chiesi, Andrea; Bisio, Carlo; Panari, Chiara; Pelosi, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to verify the efficacy of occupational health and safety (OHS) training in terms of knowledge, attitude and beliefs, behavior and health. Design/methodology/approach: The authors included studies published in English (2007-2014) selected from ten databases. Eligibility criteria were studies concerned with the…

  12. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis.

    Grgic, Jozo

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic performance are well-established; however, recent findings are suggesting that caffeine ingestion might also enhance components of anaerobic performance. A commonly used test of anaerobic performance and power output is the 30-second Wingate test. Several studies explored the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance, with equivocal findings. To elucidate this topic, this paper aims to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance using meta-analytic statistical techniques. Following a search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscus ® , 16 studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria (pooled number of participants = 246). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) for peak power output and mean power output was performed. Study quality was assessed using the modified version of the PEDro checklist. Results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant difference (p = .005) between the placebo and caffeine trials on mean power output with SMD values of small magnitude (0.18; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.31; +3%). The meta-analysis performed for peak power output indicated a significant difference (p = .006) between the placebo and caffeine trials (SMD = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.47 [moderate magnitude]; +4%). The results from the PEDro checklist indicated that, in general, studies are of good and excellent methodological quality. This meta-analysis adds on to the current body of evidence showing that caffeine ingestion can also enhance components of anaerobic performance. The results presented herein may be helpful for developing more efficient evidence-based recommendations regarding caffeine supplementation.

  13. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra

    2015-02-15

    Studies have reported contradictory results on the role of keyboard or mouse use in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether computer use causes CTS. Literature searches were conducted in several databases until May 2014. Twelve studies qualified for a random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. In a meta-analysis of six studies (N=4964) that compared computer workers with the general population or other occupational populations, computer/typewriter use (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.90), computer/typewriter use ≥1 vs. computer/typewriter use ≥4 vs. computer/typewriter use (pooled OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.65), mouse use (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.43-2.61), frequent computer use (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.15-3.09), frequent mouse use (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.18-2.87) and with years of computer work (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.17 for long vs. short). There was no evidence of publication bias for both types of studies. Studies that compared computer workers with the general population or several occupational groups did not control their estimates for occupational risk factors. Thus, office workers with no or little computer use are a more appropriate comparison group than the general population or several occupational groups. This meta-analysis suggests that excessive computer use, particularly mouse usage might be a minor occupational risk factor for CTS. Further prospective studies among office workers with objectively assessed keyboard and mouse use, and CTS symptoms or signs confirmed by a nerve conduction study are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-analysis

    Muth, Anne; Honekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large heterogeneity that is unaccounted for. No clear differences were found for Mental Rotation. ASD samples showed a stronger local processing preference for...

  15. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H; Vermaat, Jan E; Janse, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability), mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors) are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification). Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have determined historic

  16. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis

    Mist, Scott; Firestone,Kari; Jones,Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Scott David Mist, Kari Firestone, Kim Dupree Jones Fibromyalgia Research and Treatment Group, School of Nursing, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events....

  17. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis

    Talamini, Francesca; Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Methods Education Source; PEP (WEB)—Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect—AllBooks Content (E...

  18. Induced abortion rate in Iran: a meta-analysis.

    Motaghi, Zahra; Poorolajal, Jalal; Keramat, Afsaneh; Shariati, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra

    2013-10-01

    About 44 million induced abortions take place worldwide annually, of which 50% are unsafe. The results of studies investigated the induced abortion rate in Iran are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the incidence rate of induced abortion in Iran. National and international electronic databases, as well as conference databases until July 2012 were searched. Reference lists of articles were screened and the studies' authors were contacted for additional unpublished studies. Cross-sectional studies addressing induced abortion in Iran were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome of interest was the induced abortion rate (the number of abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44 years in a year) or the ratio (the number of abortions per 100 live births in a year). The secondary outcome of interest was the prevalence of unintended pregnancies (the number of mistimed, unplanned, or unwanted pregnancies per total pregnancies). Data were analyzed using random effect models. Of 603 retrieved studies, using search strategy, 10 studies involving 102,394 participants were eventually included in the meta-analysis. The induced abortion rate and ratio were estimated as 8.9 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years (95% CI: 5.46, 12.33) and 5.34 per 100 live births (95% CI: 3.61, 7.07), respectively. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was estimated as 27.94 per 100 pregnant women (95% CI: 23.46, 32.42). The results of this meta-analysis helped a better understanding of the incidence of induced abortion in Iran compared to the other developing countries in Asia. However, additional sources of data on abortion other than medical records and survey studies are needed to estimate the true rate of unsafe abortion in Iran.

  19. Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis

    Havránek, Tomáš; Herman, Dominik; Irsova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systemati...

  20. Thyroid Cytology in India: Contemporary Review and Meta-analysis.

    Agarwal, Shipra; Jain, Deepali

    2017-11-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a screening test for triaging thyroid nodules, aiding in subsequent clinical management. However, the advantages have been overshadowed by the multiplicity of reporting systems and a wide range of nomenclature used. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was formulated in 2007, to give the world a uniform thyroid cytology reporting system, facilitating easy interpretation by the clinicians. Here, we review the status of thyroid FNAC in India in terms of various reporting systems used including a meta-analysis of the previously published data. An extensive literature search was performed using internet search engines. The reports with detailed classification system used in thyroid cytology were included. The meta-analysis of published data was compared with the implied risk of malignancy by TBSRTC. More than 50 studies were retrieved and evaluated. TBSRTC is currently the most widely used reporting system with different studies showing good efficacy and interobserver concordance. Ancillary techniques have, as of now, limited applicability and acceptability in thyroid cytology in India. Twenty-eight published articles met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. When compared with TBSRTC recommendations, the meta-analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for categories I and III. Thyroid FNAC is practiced all over India. TBSRTC has found widespread acceptance, with most institutions using this system for routine thyroid cytology reporting. However, reasons for a high malignancy risk for categories I and III need to be looked into. Various possible contributing factors are discussed in the review.

  1. Testicular cancer in twins: a meta-analysis.

    Neale, R E; Carrière, P; Murphy, M F G; Baade, P D

    2008-01-15

    In a meta-analysis of testicular cancer in twins, twins had a 30% increased risk (estimate 1.31, 95% CI 1.1-1.6), providing indirect support for the hypothesis that in utero hormone variations influence risk of testicular cancer. The summary-estimate for dizygotic twins was 1.3 (1.0-1.7) and for monozygotic or same sex twins 1.4 (1.2-1.8).

  2. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Feng, Yu-Liang; Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has recently drawn considerable attention as a method of investigating the association between the overall whole diet and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the results have yielded conflicting findings. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis to identify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 40 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The highest category of 'healthy' dietary pattern compared with the lowest category was apparently associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.75; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.83; Pcolorectal cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest category of a 'western-style' dietary pattern (OR=1.40; CI: 1.26-1.56; Pcolorectal cancer in the highest compared with the lowest category of 'alcohol-consumption' pattern (OR=1.44; CI: 1.13-1.82; P=0.003). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that a 'healthy' dietary pattern may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas 'western-style' and 'alcohol-consumption' patterns may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

  3. Dietary patterns and depression risk: A meta-analysis.

    Li, Ye; Lv, Mei-Rong; Wei, Yan-Jin; Sun, Ling; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Huai-Guo; Li, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Although some studies have reported potential associations of dietary patterns with depression risk, a consistent perspective hasn't been estimated to date. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the relation between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. A literature research was conducted searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to September 2016. In total, 21 studies from ten countries met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grain, fish, olive oil, low-fat dairy and antioxidants and low intakes of animal foods was apparently associated with a decreased risk of depression. A dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of red and/or processed meat, refined grains, sweets, high-fat dairy products, butter, potatoes and high-fat gravy, and low intakes of fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of depression. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that healthy pattern may decrease the risk of depression, whereas western-style may increase the risk of depression. However, more randomized controlled trails and cohort studies are urgently required to confirm this findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurological Soft Signs in Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis

    Chan, Raymond C. K.; Xu, Ting; Heinrichs, R. Walter; Yu, Yue; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are hypothesized as candidate endophenotypes for schizophrenia, but their prevalence and relations with clinical and demographic data are unknown. The authors undertook a quantification (meta-analysis) of the published literature on NSS in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. A systematic search was conducted for published articles reporting NSS and related data using standard measures in schizophrenia and healthy comparison groups. Method: A systematic search was conducted for published articles reporting data on the prevalence of NSS in schizophrenia using standard clinical rating scales and healthy comparison groups. Meta-analyses were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis software package. Effect sizes (Cohen d) indexing the difference between schizophrenic patients and the healthy controls were calculated on the basis of reported statistics. Potential moderator variables evaluated included age of patient samples, level of education, sample sex proportions, medication doses, and negative and positive symptoms. Results: A total of 33 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. A large and reliable group difference (Cohen d) indicated that, on average, a majority of patients (73%) perform outside the range of healthy subjects on aggregate NSS measures. Cognitive performance and positive and negative symptoms share 2%–10% of their variance with NSS. Conclusions: NSS occur in a majority of the schizophrenia patient population and are largely distinct from symptomatic and cognitive features of the illness. PMID:19377058

  5. Radiosurgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

    Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.; Li, Gordon; Sughrue, Michael E.; Redmond, Kristin; Rigamonti, Daniele; Parsa, Andrew T.; Chang, Steven; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Lim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data when Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was 36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.

  6. Memory and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

    Wallace, Anna; Bucks, Romola S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine episodic memory performance in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results from individual studies examining the impact of OSA on episodic memory performance. The performance of individuals with OSA was compared to healthy controls or normative data. Participants Forty-two studies were included, comprising 2,294 adults with untreated OSA and 1,364 healthy controls. Studies that recorded information about participants at baseline prior to treatment interventions were included in the analysis. Measurements Participants were assessed with tasks that included a measure of episodic memory: immediate recall, delayed recall, learning, and/or recognition memory. Results: The results of the meta-analyses provide evidence that individuals with OSA are significantly impaired when compared to healthy controls on verbal episodic memory (immediate recall, delayed recall, learning, and recognition) and visuo-spatial episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall), but not visual immediate recall or visuo-spatial learning. When patients were compared to norms, negative effects of OSA were found only in verbal immediate and delayed recall. Conclusions: This meta-analysis contributes to understanding of the nature of episodic memory deficits in individuals with OSA. Impairments to episodic memory are likely to affect the daily functioning of individuals with OSA. Citation Wallace A; Bucks RS. Memory and obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2013;36(2):203-220. PMID:23372268

  7. The paradox of intragroup conflict: a meta-analysis.

    de Wit, Frank R C; Greer, Lindred L; Jehn, Karen A

    2012-03-01

    Since the meta-analysis by De Dreu and Weingart (2003b) on the effects of intragroup conflict on group outcomes, more than 80 new empirical studies of conflict have been conducted, often investigating more complex, moderated relationships between conflict and group outcomes, as well as new types of intragroup conflict, such as process conflict. To explore the trends in this new body of literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of 116 empirical studies of intragroup conflict (n = 8,880 groups) and its relationship with group outcomes. To address the heterogeneity across the studies included in the meta-analysis, we also investigated a number of moderating variables. Stable negative relationships were found between relationship and process conflict and group outcomes. In contrast to the results of De Dreu and Weingart, we did not find a strong and negative association between task conflict and group performance. Analyses of main effects as well as moderator analyses revealed a more complex picture. Task conflict and group performance were more positively related among studies where the association between task and relationship conflict was relatively weak, in studies conducted among top management teams rather than non-top management teams, and in studies where performance was measured in terms of financial performance or decision quality rather than overall performance.

  8. A comparison of national guidelines for network meta-analysis.

    Laws, Andrew; Kendall, Robyn; Hawkins, Neil

    2014-07-01

    Within technology appraisals, it is necessary to compare the complete set of treatments that may be used in the patient group under consideration. Randomized controlled trials are a key source of evidence for these comparisons. The techniques of network meta-analysis allow the networks of trial evidence to be evaluated to obtain estimates of comparative efficacy between sets of treatments. These techniques may be the only source of estimates of comparative effectiveness if trials directly comparing the treatments of interest have not been conducted, and may provide useful additional evidence if both direct and indirect comparisons exist. We examined both published and draft guidelines from reimbursement and health technology appraisal bodies, and considered their recommendations using appropriate methodology for the conduct of indirect comparisons and the assessments of their validity. Guidelines from 33 countries were reviewed. Of these, guidelines from 9 countries-Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Scotland, Spain, South Africa, and the United Kingdom (England and Wales)-included detailed recommendations on the conduct of network meta-analysis. The recommendations were summarized. No two recommendations from the multiple national guidelines are mutually exclusive. It is possible to perform one network meta-analysis for submission to multiple national jurisdictions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Autogenic training: a meta-analysis of clinical outcome studies.

    Stetter, Friedhelm; Kupper, Sirko

    2002-03-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a self-relaxation procedure by which a psychophysiological determined relaxation response is elicited. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of AT. Seventy-three controlled outcome studies were found (published 1952-99). Sixty studies (35 randomized controlled trials [RCT]) qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Medium-to-large effect sizes (ES) occurred for pre-post comparisons of disease-specific AT-effects, with the RCTs showing larger ES. When AT was compared to real control conditions, medium ES were found. Comparisons of AT versus other psychological treatment mostly resulted in no effects or small negative ES. This pattern of results was stable at follow-up. Unspecific AT-effects (i.e., effects on mood, cognitive performance, quality of life, and physiological variables) tended to be even larger than main effects. Separate meta-analyses for different disorders revealed a significant reduction of the heterogeneity of ES. Positive effects (medium range) of AT and of AT versus control in the meta-analysis of at least 3 studies were found for tension headache/migraine, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension, coronary heart disease, asthma bronchiale, somatoform pain disorder (unspecified type), Raynaud's disease, anxiety disorders, mild-to-moderate depression/dysthymia, and functional sleep disorders.

  10. The role of prostatitis in prostate cancer: meta-analysis.

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical

  11. MTLRP genetic polymorphism (214C>A) was associated with Type 2 diabetes in Caucasian population: a meta-analysis

    Chen, Li-Li; Han, Song-Mei; Tang, Fei-Fei; Li, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported the relation between MTLRP genetic polymorphism and type 2 diabetes, however, the conclusion were conflicting. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to reveal this association. Methods Literature retrieval, selection and assessment, data extraction, and meta-analyses were performed according to the RevMan 5.0 guidelines. In the meta-analysis, we utilized random-effect model or fixed-effect model to pool the Odds ratio (OR) according to the tes...

  12. Sensitivity analysis for publication bias in meta-analysis of diagnostic studies for a continuous biomarker.

    Hattori, Satoshi; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2018-02-10

    Publication bias is one of the most important issues in meta-analysis. For standard meta-analyses to examine intervention effects, the funnel plot and the trim-and-fill method are simple and widely used techniques for assessing and adjusting for the influence of publication bias, respectively. However, their use may be subjective and can then produce misleading insights. To make a more objective inference for publication bias, various sensitivity analysis methods have been proposed, including the Copas selection model. For meta-analysis of diagnostic studies evaluating a continuous biomarker, the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve is a very useful method in the presence of heterogeneous cutoff values. To our best knowledge, no methods are available for evaluation of influence of publication bias on estimation of the sROC curve. In this paper, we introduce a Copas-type selection model for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies and propose a sensitivity analysis method for publication bias. Our method enables us to assess the influence of publication bias on the estimation of the sROC curve and then judge whether the result of the meta-analysis is sufficiently confident or should be interpreted with much caution. We illustrate our proposed method with real data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Association between depression and periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Araújo, Milena Moreira; Martins, Carolina Castro; Costa, Lidiane Cristina Machado; Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Faria, Rodrigo Lamounier Araújo Melo; Cunha, Fabiano Araújo; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the scientific evidence on the association between depression and periodontitis. An electronic search was conducted in three databases until October 2015 (PROSPERO-CRD42014006451). Hand searches and grey literature were also included. Search retrieved 423 potentially studies. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk bias through a modified version of Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis was performed for the presence/absence of periodontitis (dichotomic). Summary effect measures and odds ratio (OR) 95% CI were calculated. After selecting the studies, 15 were included in the systematic review (eight cross-sectional, six case-control and one cohort study). Six studies reported that depression was associated with periodontitis, whereas nine studies did not. The majority of studies had low risk of bias by methodological quality assessment. Meta-analysis of seven cross-sectional studies showed no significant association between depression and periodontitis (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.75-1.41). Findings from the present systematic review showed a great heterogeneity among the studies and the summary effect measure of the meta-analysis cannot affirm an association between depression and periodontitis. Future studies with different designs in distinct populations should be conducted to investigate this association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Visual artificial grammar learning in dyslexia: A meta-analysis.

    van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Boersma, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Rispens, Judith

    2017-11-01

    Literacy impairments in dyslexia have been hypothesized to be (partly) due to an implicit learning deficit. However, studies of implicit visual artificial grammar learning (AGL) have often yielded null results. The aim of this study is to weigh the evidence collected thus far by performing a meta-analysis of studies on implicit visual AGL in dyslexia. Thirteen studies were selected through a systematic literature search, representing data from 255 participants with dyslexia and 292 control participants (mean age range: 8.5-36.8 years old). If the 13 selected studies constitute a random sample, individuals with dyslexia perform worse on average than non-dyslexic individuals (average weighted effect size=0.46, 95% CI [0.14 … 0.77], p=0.008), with a larger effect in children than in adults (p=0.041; average weighted effect sizes 0.71 [sig.] versus 0.16 [non-sig.]). However, the presence of a publication bias indicates the existence of missing studies that may well null the effect. While the studies under investigation demonstrate that implicit visual AGL is impaired in dyslexia (more so in children than in adults, if in adults at all), the detected publication bias suggests that the effect might in fact be zero. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-10-12

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by "a posteriori" methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a "Healthy pattern" and a "Western pattern". The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, the "Carbohydrate pattern", which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western ( p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate ( p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

  16. Therapeutic intervention for internalized stigma of severe mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Tsang, Hector W H; Ching, S C; Tang, K H; Lam, H T; Law, Peggy Y Y; Wan, C N

    2016-05-01

    Internalized stigma can lead to pervasive negative effects among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although prevalence of internalized stigma is high, there is a dearth of interventions and meanwhile a lack of evidence as to their effectiveness. This study aims at unraveling the existence of different therapeutic interventions and the effectiveness internalized stigma reduction in people with SMI via a systematic review and meta-analysis. Five electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they (1) involved community or hospital based interventions on internalized stigma, (2) included participants who were given a diagnosis of SMI>50%, and (3) were empirical and quantitative in nature. Fourteen articles were selected for extensive review and five for meta-analysis. Nine studies showed significant decrease in internalized stigma and two showed sustainable effects. Meta-analysis showed that there was a small to moderate significant effect in therapeutic interventions (SMD=-0.43; p=0.003). Among the intervention elements, four studies suggested a favorable effect of psychoeducation. Meta-analysis showed that there was small to moderate significant effect (SMD=-0.40; p=0.001). Most internalized stigma reduction programs appear to be effective. This systematic review cannot make any recommendation on which intervention is more effective although psychoeducation seems most promising. More Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) on particular intervention components using standard outcome measures are recommended in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Periodontal disease and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Xian-Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association between periodontal disease (PD and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but this association is varied and even contradictory among studies. We performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and COPD. METHODS: PubMed and Embase database were searched up to January 10, 2012, for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and risk of COPD. Data from the studies selected were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. RESULTS: Fourteen observational studies (one nested case-control, eight case-control, and five cross-sectional involving 3,988 COPD patients were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, a significant association between PD and COPD was identified (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.48-2.91; P<0.001, with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroups analyses according to study design, ethnicity, assessment of PD/COPD, and adjusted/unadjusted odds ratios also revealed a significant association. Publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Based on current evidence, PD is a significant and independent risk factor of COPD. However, whether a causal relationships exists remains unclear. Morever, we suggest performing randomized controlled trails to explore whether periodontal interventions are beneficial in regulating COPD pathogenesis and progression.

  18. MRI diagnosis in meniscal tears: a Meta analysis

    Liu Xiaosheng; Xu Jianrong; Hua Jia; Wang Baisong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To perform a Meta-analysis to evaluate the overall diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspected meniscal tears. Methods: All the papers concerning the diagnosis of meniscal tears using MRI in both English and Chinese published from 1998 to 2004 had been searched and reviewed, and the studies with the arthroscopy as the gold standard were adopted as eligible. Statistical analysis was performed employing SAS 8.0. Heterogeneity of the included articles was tested, which was used to select proper effect model to calculate pooled weighted sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) analyses were performed for tears of both menisci. Finally, subgroup analysis on magnetic field strength was performed. Results: Totally 11 studies were met the inclusion criteria with a total of 1221 patients. The pooled indexes of diagnostic performance and SROC demonstrated a high discriminatory power for detecting tears of the medial and lateral menisci. The value of TPR * for medial and lateral menisci showed no significant difference (0.90, 0.86, respectively, Z=0.11, P>0.05). Subgroup analysis demonstrated no statistically significant difference on diagnostic performance for various magnetic field strength (P>0.05). Conclusion: MRI is a highly accurate diagnostic tool for detecting tears of the medial and lateral menisci. At present, there is no evidence to ascertain that higher magnetic field strength improves discriminatory power for meniscal tears. (authors)

  19. Abreaction for conversion disorder: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Poole, Norman A; Wuerz, Axel; Agrawal, Niruj

    2010-08-01

    The value of drug interviews in the treatment of conversion disorder is at present unknown. To review all the available papers published in English that report on the use of drug interviews for treating conversion/dissociative disorder. Databases (including EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) were searched from 1920 to 2009. Selected publications had to report on the use of drug interviews in people diagnosed with a conversion/dissociative disorder. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted. Predictors of a positive response were ascertained using meta-analytic techniques. Fifty-five papers meeting inclusion criteria were identified. No studies compared the intervention with a suitable control group. However, two studies reported high response rates when drug interview was used in individuals with treatment-resistant conversion disorder. In the meta-analysis, the use of suggestion and occurrence of emotional catharsis during the interview were positively associated with recovery. Combining two medications and comorbid psychiatric disorder were negatively associated with recovery. The evidence for effectiveness of drug interviews is of poor quality but it may be of benefit in the treatment of acute and treatment-resistant conversion disorder. A proactive approach during the interview, making suggestions the individual will respond, could influence outcome. Comorbid psychiatric disorder should be treated conventionally. Experimental studies to determine efficacy are required.

  20. A meta-analysis of executive components of working memory.

    Nee, Derek Evan; Brown, Joshua W; Askren, Mary K; Berman, Marc G; Demiralp, Emre; Krawitz, Adam; Jonides, John

    2013-02-01

    Working memory (WM) enables the online maintenance and manipulation of information and is central to intelligent cognitive functioning. Much research has investigated executive processes of WM in order to understand the operations that make WM "work." However, there is yet little consensus regarding how executive processes of WM are organized. Here, we used quantitative meta-analysis to summarize data from 36 experiments that examined executive processes of WM. Experiments were categorized into 4 component functions central to WM: protecting WM from external distraction (distractor resistance), preventing irrelevant memories from intruding into WM (intrusion resistance), shifting attention within WM (shifting), and updating the contents of WM (updating). Data were also sorted by content (verbal, spatial, object). Meta-analytic results suggested that rather than dissociating into distinct functions, 2 separate frontal regions were recruited across diverse executive demands. One region was located dorsally in the caudal superior frontal sulcus and was especially sensitive to spatial content. The other was located laterally in the midlateral prefrontal cortex and showed sensitivity to nonspatial content. We propose that dorsal-"where"/ventral-"what" frameworks that have been applied to WM maintenance also apply to executive processes of WM. Hence, WM can largely be simplified to a dual selection model.

  1. A resampling-based meta-analysis for detection of differential gene expression in breast cancer

    Gur-Dedeoglu, Bala; Konu, Ozlen; Kir, Serkan; Ozturk, Ahmet Rasit; Bozkurt, Betul; Ergul, Gulusan; Yulug, Isik G

    2008-01-01

    Accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer and classification of cancer subtypes has improved over the years with the development of well-established immunohistopathological criteria. More recently, diagnostic gene-sets at the mRNA expression level have been tested as better predictors of disease state. However, breast cancer is heterogeneous in nature; thus extraction of differentially expressed gene-sets that stably distinguish normal tissue from various pathologies poses challenges. Meta-analysis of high-throughput expression data using a collection of statistical methodologies leads to the identification of robust tumor gene expression signatures. A resampling-based meta-analysis strategy, which involves the use of resampling and application of distribution statistics in combination to assess the degree of significance in differential expression between sample classes, was developed. Two independent microarray datasets that contain normal breast, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) samples were used for the meta-analysis. Expression of the genes, selected from the gene list for classification of normal breast samples and breast tumors encompassing both the ILC and IDC subtypes were tested on 10 independent primary IDC samples and matched non-tumor controls by real-time qRT-PCR. Other existing breast cancer microarray datasets were used in support of the resampling-based meta-analysis. The two independent microarray studies were found to be comparable, although differing in their experimental methodologies (Pearson correlation coefficient, R = 0.9389 and R = 0.8465 for ductal and lobular samples, respectively). The resampling-based meta-analysis has led to the identification of a highly stable set of genes for classification of normal breast samples and breast tumors encompassing both the ILC and IDC subtypes. The expression results of the selected genes obtained through real-time qRT-PCR supported the meta-analysis results. The

  2. A resampling-based meta-analysis for detection of differential gene expression in breast cancer

    Ergul Gulusan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer and classification of cancer subtypes has improved over the years with the development of well-established immunohistopathological criteria. More recently, diagnostic gene-sets at the mRNA expression level have been tested as better predictors of disease state. However, breast cancer is heterogeneous in nature; thus extraction of differentially expressed gene-sets that stably distinguish normal tissue from various pathologies poses challenges. Meta-analysis of high-throughput expression data using a collection of statistical methodologies leads to the identification of robust tumor gene expression signatures. Methods A resampling-based meta-analysis strategy, which involves the use of resampling and application of distribution statistics in combination to assess the degree of significance in differential expression between sample classes, was developed. Two independent microarray datasets that contain normal breast, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC samples were used for the meta-analysis. Expression of the genes, selected from the gene list for classification of normal breast samples and breast tumors encompassing both the ILC and IDC subtypes were tested on 10 independent primary IDC samples and matched non-tumor controls by real-time qRT-PCR. Other existing breast cancer microarray datasets were used in support of the resampling-based meta-analysis. Results The two independent microarray studies were found to be comparable, although differing in their experimental methodologies (Pearson correlation coefficient, R = 0.9389 and R = 0.8465 for ductal and lobular samples, respectively. The resampling-based meta-analysis has led to the identification of a highly stable set of genes for classification of normal breast samples and breast tumors encompassing both the ILC and IDC subtypes. The expression results of the selected genes obtained through real

  3. a systematic review and meta-analysis

    analysis. ... Journal Home > Vol 27, No 2 (2017) > ... selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies. ... maternal height, residential area and socio- economic status were significant risk factors ...

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Bek, S; Bojesen, A B; Nielsen, J V

    2017-01-01

    B and TNF signalling pathways (including CTCN5, TEC, PTPRC, FCGR2A, NFKBIB, FCGR2A, IRAK3). Explorative prediction analyses found that biomarkers for clinical treatment selection are not yet available.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 13 June 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2017.26....

  5. Systematic review and a meta-analysis

    We systematically reviewed the available literature and meta-analyzed the data which was specialized in Down syndrome (DS) diagnosis with proteomic techniques. Pubmed, EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect searches for relevant articles published from inception until July 2010 were obtained and ten articles were selected.

  6. Visual Task Demands and the Auditory Mismatch Negativity: An Empirical Study and a Meta-Analysis.

    Wiens, Stefan; Szychowska, Malina; Nilsson, Mats E

    2016-01-01

    Because the auditory system is particularly useful in monitoring the environment, previous research has examined whether task-irrelevant, auditory distracters are processed even if subjects focus their attention on visual stimuli. This research suggests that attentionally demanding visual tasks decrease the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) to simultaneously presented auditory distractors. Because a recent behavioral study found that high visual perceptual load decreased detection sensitivity of simultaneous tones, we used a similar task (n = 28) to determine if high visual perceptual load would reduce the auditory MMN. Results suggested that perceptual load did not decrease the MMN. At face value, these nonsignificant findings may suggest that effects of perceptual load on the MMN are smaller than those of other demanding visual tasks. If so, effect sizes should differ systematically between the present and previous studies. We conducted a selective meta-analysis of published studies in which the MMN was derived from the EEG, the visual task demands were continuous and varied between high and low within the same task, and the task-irrelevant tones were presented in a typical oddball paradigm simultaneously with the visual stimuli. Because the meta-analysis suggested that the present (null) findings did not differ systematically from previous findings, the available evidence was combined. Results of this meta-analysis confirmed that demanding visual tasks reduce the MMN to auditory distracters. However, because the meta-analysis was based on small studies and because of the risk for publication biases, future studies should be preregistered with large samples (n > 150) to provide confirmatory evidence for the results of the present meta-analysis. These future studies should also use control conditions that reduce confounding effects of neural adaptation, and use load manipulations that are defined independently from their effects on the MMN.

  7. Association of sleep bruxism with ceramic restoration failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    de Souza Melo, Gilberto; Batistella, Elis Ângela; Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Simek Vega Gonçalves, Thais Marques; Mendes de Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia; Porporatti, André Luís; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic restorations are popular because of their excellent optical properties. However, failures are still a major concern, and dentists are confronted with the following question: is sleep bruxism (SB) associated with an increased frequency of ceramic restoration failures? The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether the presence of SB is associated with increased ceramic restoration failure. Observational studies and clinical trials that evaluated the short- and long-term survival rate of ceramic restorations in SB participants were selected. Sleep bruxism diagnostic criteria must have included at least 1 of the following: questionnaire, clinical evaluation, or polysomnography. Seven databases, in addition to 3 nonpeer-reviewed literature databases, were searched. The risk of bias was assessed by using the meta-analysis of statistics assessment and review instrument (MAStARI) checklist. Eight studies were included for qualitative synthesis, but only 5 for the meta-analysis. Three studies were categorized as moderate risk and 5 as high risk of bias. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity across studies were considered high. Increased hazard ratio (HR=7.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.50 to 23.95) and odds ratio (OR=2.52; 95% CI=1.24 to 5.12) were observed considering only anterior ceramic veneers. Nevertheless, limited data from the meta-analysis and from the restricted number of included studies suggested that differences in the overall odds of failure concerning SB and other types of ceramic restorations did not favor or disfavor any association (OR=1.10; 95% CI=0.43 to 2.8). The overall quality of evidence was considered very low according to the GRADE criteria. Within the limitations of this systematic review, the overall result from the meta-analysis did not favor any association between SB and increased odds of failure for ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  8. Visual Task Demands and the Auditory Mismatch Negativity: An Empirical Study and a Meta-Analysis

    Wiens, Stefan; Szychowska, Malina; Nilsson, Mats E.

    2016-01-01

    Because the auditory system is particularly useful in monitoring the environment, previous research has examined whether task-irrelevant, auditory distracters are processed even if subjects focus their attention on visual stimuli. This research suggests that attentionally demanding visual tasks decrease the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) to simultaneously presented auditory distractors. Because a recent behavioral study found that high visual perceptual load decreased detection sensitivity of simultaneous tones, we used a similar task (n = 28) to determine if high visual perceptual load would reduce the auditory MMN. Results suggested that perceptual load did not decrease the MMN. At face value, these nonsignificant findings may suggest that effects of perceptual load on the MMN are smaller than those of other demanding visual tasks. If so, effect sizes should differ systematically between the present and previous studies. We conducted a selective meta-analysis of published studies in which the MMN was derived from the EEG, the visual task demands were continuous and varied between high and low within the same task, and the task-irrelevant tones were presented in a typical oddball paradigm simultaneously with the visual stimuli. Because the meta-analysis suggested that the present (null) findings did not differ systematically from previous findings, the available evidence was combined. Results of this meta-analysis confirmed that demanding visual tasks reduce the MMN to auditory distracters. However, because the meta-analysis was based on small studies and because of the risk for publication biases, future studies should be preregistered with large samples (n > 150) to provide confirmatory evidence for the results of the present meta-analysis. These future studies should also use control conditions that reduce confounding effects of neural adaptation, and use load manipulations that are defined independently from their effects on the MMN. PMID:26741815

  9. Patterns of MHC-dependent mate selection in humans and non-human primates: a meta-analysis

    Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Abbate, J. L.; Huchard, E.; Havlíček, J.; Garamszegi, L. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2017), s. 668-688 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : major histocompatibility complex * sexual selection * inbreeding avoidance * mating preference * good genes * HLA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  10. Toxocariasis and epilepsy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Graziella Quattrocchi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stages of Toxocara canis (T. canis and less frequently Toxocara cati (T. cati. A relationship between toxocariasis and epilepsy has been hypothesized. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available data to evaluate the strength of association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity and to propose some guidelines for future surveys. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases, the database from the Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology of the University of Limoges (http://www-ient.unilim.fr/ and the reference lists of all relevant papers and books were screened up to October 2011. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of literature on toxocariasis (the exposure and epilepsy (the outcome. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and study quality and extracted data. A common odds ratio (OR was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis model of aggregated published data. RESULTS: Seven case-control studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 1867 participants (850 cases and 1017 controls. The percentage of seropositivity (presence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies was higher among people with epilepsy (PWE in all the included studies even if the association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity was statistically significant in only 4 studies, with crude ORs ranging 2.04-2.85. Another study bordered statistical significance, while in 2 of the included studies no significant association was found. A significant (p < 0.001 common OR of 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.50-2.44] was estimated. Similar results were found when meta-analysis was restricted to the studies considering an exclusively juvenile population and to surveys using Western Blot as confirmatory or diagnostic serological assay. CONCLUSION: Our results support the existence of a positive association between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and

  11. Pooling, meta-analysis, and the evaluation of drug safety

    Leizorovicz Alain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "integrated safety report" of the drug registration files submitted to health authorities usually summarizes the rates of adverse events observed for a new drug, placebo or active control drugs by pooling the safety data across the trials. Pooling consists of adding the numbers of events observed in a given treatment group across the trials and dividing the results by the total number of patients included in this group. Because it considers treatment groups rather than studies, pooling ignores validity of the comparisons and is subject to a particular kind of bias, termed "Simpson's paradox." In contrast, meta-analysis and other stratified analyses are less susceptible to bias. Methods We use a hypothetical, but not atypical, application to demonstrate that the results of a meta-analysis can differ greatly from those obtained by pooling the same data. In our hypothetical model, a new drug is compared to 1 a placebo in 4 relatively small trials in patients at high risk for a certain adverse event and 2 an active reference drug in 2 larger trials of patients at low risk for this event. Results Using meta-analysis, the relative risk of experiencing the adverse event with the new drug was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [1.02; 3.12] compared to placebo and 2.20 [0.76; 6.32] compared to active control. By pooling the data, the results were, respectively, 1.00 [0.59; 1.70] and 5.20 [2.07; 13.08]. Conclusions Because these findings could mislead health authorities and doctors, regulatory agencies should require meta-analyses or stratified analyses of safety data in drug registration files.

  12. Internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures: a meta-analysis.

    Regev, Eran; Shiff, Jacob S; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The degree of rigidity of internal fixation required for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures has long been at the center of debate in the literature. A statistical comparison between rigid fixation and monocortical fixation has been difficult because of multiple terms, definitions, and technical variations. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analysis tool to combine information from multiple studies and to compare complication rates for different fixation methods. An English language literature search was conducted for articles on mandibular angle fractures. Information was collected on four variables of interest: compression/noncompression technique, monocortical/bicortical screws, number of plates, and location of plates. Five outcome rates were analyzed: infection, reoperation, hardware removal, malunion, and nonunion. Meta-analyses were run using Comprehensive Meta Analysis, version 2.2.03. Twenty-four studies with relevant data on the variables and outcomes of interest met the inclusion criteria. Significantly higher rates of infection, reoperation, and hardware removal were found for compression compared with noncompression, two plates compared with one plate, and for plates located on both the inferior and superior borders as compared with superior or inferior only. There were also significantly higher infection rates for bicortical screws compared with monocortical screws and higher malunion rates for compression compared with noncompression plating techniques. The results of this meta-analysis found lower complication rates with the use of noncompression, monocortical, and single-plate fixation, supporting the trend toward a single, superiorly placed, monocortical miniplate for fixation of mandibular angle fractures.

  13. Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys.

    Pupovac, Vanja; Fanelli, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) and 30% (95% CI 17-46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time.

  14. A meta-analysis and review of holistic face processing.

    Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face recognition research, yet central questions related to holistic processing remain unanswered, and debates have thus far failed to reach a resolution despite accumulating empirical evidence. We argue that a considerable source of confusion in this literature stems from a methodological problem. Specifically, 2 measures of holistic processing based on the composite paradigm (complete design and partial design) are used in the literature, but they often lead to qualitatively different results. First, we present a comprehensive review of the work that directly compares the 2 designs, and which clearly favors the complete design over the partial design. Second, we report a meta-analysis of holistic face processing according to both designs and use this as further evidence for one design over the other. The meta-analysis effect size of holistic processing in the complete design is nearly 3 times that of the partial design. Effect sizes were not correlated between measures, consistent with the suggestion that they do not measure the same thing. Our meta-analysis also examines the correlation between conditions in the complete design of the composite task, and suggests that in an individual differences context, little is gained by including a misaligned baseline. Finally, we offer a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge about holistic processing based on evidence gathered from the measure we favor based on the 1st sections of our review-the complete design-and outline outstanding research questions in that new context. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Cardiovascular risk associated with celecoxib or etoricoxib: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials which adopted comparison with placebo or naproxen

    Vecchis, R. De; Baldi, C.; Biase, G. Di; Ariano, C.; Cioppa, C.; Giasi, A.; Valente, L.; Cantatrione, S.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The present meta-analysis attempted to assess whether an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile could be identified in the case of two COX2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs), namely celecoxib and etoricoxib. Based on the data from the literature, our meta-analysis aimed to assess the probability

  18. Rethinking Meta-Analysis: Applications for Air Pollution Data and Beyond

    Goodman, Julie E; Petito Boyce, Catherine; Sax, Sonja N; Beyer, Leslie A; Prueitt, Robyn L

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses offer a rigorous and transparent systematic framework for synthesizing data that can be used for a wide range of research areas, study designs, and data types. Both the outcome of meta-analyses and the meta-analysis process itself can yield useful insights for answering scientific questions and making policy decisions. Development of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards illustrates many potential applications of meta-analysis. These applications demonstrate the strengths and limitations of meta-analysis, issues that arise in various data realms, how meta-analysis design choices can influence interpretation of results, and how meta-analysis can be used to address bias and heterogeneity. Reviewing available data from a meta-analysis perspective can provide a useful framework and impetus for identifying and refining strategies for future research. Moreover, increased pervasiveness of a meta-analysis mindset—focusing on how the pieces of the research puzzle fit together—would benefit scientific research and data syntheses regardless of whether or not a quantitative meta-analysis is undertaken. While an individual meta-analysis can only synthesize studies addressing the same research question, the results of separate meta-analyses can be combined to address a question encompassing multiple data types. This observation applies to any scientific or policy area where information from a variety of disciplines must be considered to address a broader research question. PMID:25969128

  19. Effect of selective decontamination on antimicrobial resistance in intensive care units: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Daneman, Nick; Sarwar, Syed; Fowler, Robert A; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2013-04-01

    Many meta-analyses have shown reductions in infection rates and mortality associated with the use of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) or selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) in intensive care units (ICUs). These interventions have not been widely implemented because of concerns that their use could lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens. We aimed to assess the effect of SDD and SOD on antimicrobial resistance rates in patients in ICUs. We did a systematic review of the effect of SDD and SOD on the rates of colonisation or infection with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in patients who were critically ill. We searched for studies using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases, with no limits by language, date of publication, study design, or study quality. We included all studies of selective decontamination that involved prophylactic application of topical non-absorbable antimicrobials to the stomach or oropharynx of patients in ICUs, with or without additional systemic antimicrobials. We excluded studies of interventions that used only antiseptic or biocide agents such as chlorhexidine, unless antimicrobials were also included in the regimen. We used the Mantel-Haenszel model with random effects to calculate pooled odds ratios. We analysed 64 unique studies of SDD and SOD in ICUs, of which 47 were randomised controlled trials and 35 included data for the detection of antimicrobial resistance. When comparing data for patients in intervention groups (those who received SDD or SOD) versus data for those in control groups (who received no intervention), we identified no difference in the prevalence of colonisation or infection with Gram-positive antimicrobial-resistant pathogens of interest, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (odds ratio 1·46, 95% CI 0·90-2·37) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (0·63, 0·39-1·02). Among Gram-negative bacilli, we detected no difference in aminoglycoside-resistance (0

  20. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size...... from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can be reduced using Trial Sequential Analysis. Several empirical studies have demonstrated...

  1. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.

    Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management.

  2. A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and work attitudes

    Miao, Chao; Humphrey, Ronald; Qian, Shanshan

    2017-01-01

    Our meta-analysis of emotional intelligence (EI) demonstrates that: First, all three types of EI are significantly related with job satisfaction (ability EI: ρ ̂ = .08; self-report EI: ρ ̂ = .32; and mixed EI: ρ ̂ = .39). Second, both self-report EI and mixed EI exhibit modest yet statistically significant incremental validity (ΔR2 = .03 for self-report EI and ΔR2 = .06 for mixed EI) and large relative importance (31.3% for self-report EI and 42.8% for mixed EI) in the presence of cognitive a...

  3. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  4. Meta-Analysis of DNA Tumor-Viral Integration Site Selection Indicates a Role for Repeats, Gene Expression and Epigenetics

    Janet M. Doolittle-Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oncoviruses cause tremendous global cancer burden. For several DNA tumor viruses, human genome integration is consistently associated with cancer development. However, genomic features associated with tumor viral integration are poorly understood. We sought to define genomic determinants for 1897 loci prone to hosting human papillomavirus (HPV, hepatitis B virus (HBV or Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV. These were compared to HIV, whose enzyme-mediated integration is well understood. A comprehensive catalog of integration sites was constructed from the literature and experimentally-determined HPV integration sites. Features were scored in eight categories (genes, expression, open chromatin, histone modifications, methylation, protein binding, chromatin segmentation and repeats and compared to random loci. Random forest models determined loci classification and feature selection. HPV and HBV integrants were not fragile site associated. MCPyV preferred integration near sensory perception genes. Unique signatures of integration-associated predictive genomic features were detected. Importantly, repeats, actively-transcribed regions and histone modifications were common tumor viral integration signatures.

  5. Reliability of the Emergency Severity Index: Meta-analysis

    Amir Mirhaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although triage systems based on the Emergency Severity Index (ESI have many advantages in terms of simplicity and clarity, previous research has questioned their reliability in practice. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the reliability of ESI triage scales. Methods: This metaanalysis was performed in March 2014. Electronic research databases were searched and articles conforming to the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies were selected. Two researchers independently examined selected abstracts. Data were extracted in the following categories: version of scale (latest/older, participants (adult/paediatric, raters (nurse, physician or expert, method of reliability (intra/inter-rater, reliability statistics (weighted/unweighted kappa and the origin and publication year of the study. The effect size was obtained by the Z-transformation of reliability coefficients. Data were pooled with random-effects models and a meta-regression was performed based on the method of moments estimator. Results: A total of 19 studies from six countries were included in the analysis. The pooled coefficient for the ESI triage scales was substantial at 0.791 (95% confidence interval: 0.787‒0.795. Agreement was higher with the latest and adult versions of the scale and among expert raters, compared to agreement with older and paediatric versions of the scales and with other groups of raters, respectively. Conclusion: ESI triage scales showed an acceptable level of overall reliability. However, ESI scales require more development in order to see full agreement from all rater groups. Further studies concentrating on other aspects of reliability assessment are needed.

  6. Do compensation processes impair mental health? A meta-analysis.

    Elbers, Nieke A; Hulst, Liesbeth; Cuijpers, Pim; Akkermans, Arno J; Bruinvels, David J

    2013-05-01

    Victims who are involved in a compensation processes generally have more health complaints compared to victims who are not involved in a compensation process. Previous research regarding the effect of compensation processes has concentrated on the effect on physical health. This meta-analysis focuses on the effect of compensation processes on mental health. Prospective cohort studies addressing compensation and mental health after traffic accidents, occupational accidents or medical errors were identified using PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. Relevant studies published between January 1966 and 10 June 2011 were selected for inclusion. Ten studies were included. The first finding was that the compensation group already had higher mental health complaints at baseline compared to the non-compensation group (standardised mean difference (SMD)=-0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.66 to -0.10; p=.01). The second finding was that mental health between baseline and post measurement improved less in the compensation group compared to the non-compensation group (SMD=-0.35; 95% CI -0.70 to -0.01; p=.05). However, the quality of evidence was limited, mainly because of low quality study design and heterogeneity. Being involved in a compensation process is associated with higher mental health complaints but three-quarters of the difference appeared to be already present at baseline. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution because of the limited quality of evidence. The difference at baseline may be explained by a selection bias or more anger and blame about the accident in the compensation group. The difference between baseline and follow-up may be explained by secondary gain and secondary victimisation. Future research should involve assessment of exposure to compensation processes, should analyse and correct for baseline differences, and could examine the effect of time, compensation scheme design, and claim settlement on

  7. Thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease: A meta-analysis.

    Staniforth, Joy U L; Erdirimanne, Senarath; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing worldwide. Graves' disease is the most common hyperthyroid disease. Studies have suggested an increased risk of thyroid malignancy in Graves' disease: there has not yet been a meta-analysis to allow quantitative comparison. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease, and to gather information on the histological subtypes of carcinoma and the co-existence of thyroid nodules. Several databases and article reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria included appropriate diagnostic criteria for thyroid conditions and a diagnoses of carcinoma based on histology. 33 studies were selected, all reporting on surgically-resected specimens. The event rate of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease was 0.07 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.12). There was no data to allow comparison with patients without hyperthyroid diseases. There was no increase in the odds of developing carcinoma in Graves' disease compared to toxic multinodular goitre and toxic uninodular goitre. 88% of thyroid carcinomas in Graves' disease were papillary, with solitary papillary micro-carcinoma (diameter 10 mm or less) comprising 23% of all detected thyroid carcinomas. Patients with Graves' disease and co-existing thyroid nodules were almost 5 times more likely to be diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma than those without nodules. Thyroid malignancy in Graves' disease requiring surgical treatment should be considered as likely as in other hyperthyroid diseases needing surgical treatment. Clinicians should consider screening selected patients with Graves' disease for nodules whilst being aware of potentially over-diagnosing papillary micro-carcinoma. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Prostatitis in Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    Yunxia, Zhang; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Junjiang; Pumill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. Evidence Acquisition Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. Selection criteria: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. Evidence Synthesis In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62), and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98). Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29), compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45). Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990’s: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000’s: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010’s: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990’s: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000’s: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010’s: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90.CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical evidence that

  9. Association between highly active antiretroviral therapy and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Dimala, Christian Akem; Blencowe, Hannah

    2017-03-09

    The increasing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been associated with increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. However, the epidemiology of the association between HAART and CVD risk factors in SSA is sparse. We aim to assess the extent to which HAART is associated with selected cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome) in SSA. This will be a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between HAART and CVD risk factors retrieved from Medline, Embase, Popline, Africa-Wide Information, African Index Medicus and the Cochrane library databases. Studies will be screened for eligibility according to the selection criteria by two independent reviewers. Eligible studies will be assessed for the quality of their evidence and risk of bias using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies of the National Health Institute and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, with respect to the measured outcomes (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome). A data abstraction form will be produced on Epi info V.7 and data analysis done on STATA V.14 statistical software. Summary estimates of measures of effects for the association between HAART use and the outcomes will be derived. Random effects meta-analyses will be performed and I 2 statistic used to assess for heterogeneity between studies with respect to measured parameters. Qualitative synthesis will be used where data is insufficient to produce quantitative synthesis. The protocol has been reviewed by the Research Governance & Integrity Office of the Research Ethics Committee of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and confirmed as not requiring ethical approval. The findings of this study will be made widely available especially to national HIV/AIDS committees formulating

  10. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    Michael Rawson. Clark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified products to meet their own sustainability goals, they must have an understanding of the effectiveness of different certification systems. To understand the relative performance of three systems, we determined: (1 the criteria used to compare the Forest Stewardship Council, Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management, and Sustainable Forestry Initiative, (2 if consensus exists regarding their ability to achieve sustainability goals, and (3 what research gaps must be filled to improve our understanding of how forest certification systems affect sustainable forest management. We conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of 26 grey literature references (books, industry and nongovernmental organization publications and 9 primary literature references (articles in peer-reviewed academic journals that compared at least two of the aforementioned certification systems. The Forest Stewardship Council was the highest performer for ecological health and social sustainable forest management criteria. The Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management and Sustainable Forestry Initiative performed best under sustainable forest management criteria of forest productivity and economic longevity of a firm. Sixty-two percent of analyses were comparisons of the wording of certification system principles or criteria; 34% were surveys of foresters or consumers. An important caveat to these results is that only one comparison was based on

  11. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis.

    Talamini, Francesca; Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Education Source; PEP (WEB)-Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect-AllBooks Content (Elsevier API); SCOPUS (Elsevier API); SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO) and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory) that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory. We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08-.51), short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41-.73), and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33-.80). To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial), which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians' advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli. The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage.

  12. Treatment of unicameral bone cyst: systematic review and meta analysis.

    Kadhim, Muayad; Thacker, Mihir; Kadhim, Amjed; Holmes, Laurens

    2014-03-01

    Different treatment modalities have been utilized to treat unicameral bone cyst (UBC), but evidence has not been fully described to support one treatment over another and the optimal treatment is controversial. The aim of this quantitative systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of different UBC treatment modalities. We utilized Pubmed to isolate retrospective studies on patients with UBC who received any kind of treatment. The included studies needed to have a minimum sample size of 15 patients, and have provided data on radiographic healing outcome. Sixty-two articles were selected for the meta-analysis from a total of 463 articles. The cumulative sample size was 3,211 patients with 3,217 UBC, and male to female ratio was 2.2:1. The summary or pool estimate of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injection resulted in a healing rate of (77.4 %) that was comparable to bone marrow injection (77.9 %). A higher healing rate was observed with MPA injection when inner wall disruption was performed. The pool estimate of bone marrow with demineralized bone matrix injection was high (98.7 %). UBC healing rate after surgical curettage was comparable whether autograft or allograft was utilized (90 %). UBC treatment with flexible intramedullary nails without curettage provided almost 100% healing rate, while continuous decompression with cannulated screws provided 89 % healing rate. Conservative treatment indicated a healing rate of 64.2, 95 % CI (26.7-101.8). Active treatment for UBC provided variable healing rates and the outcomes were favorable relative to conservative treatment. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies and reporting bias, the interpretation of these findings should be handled with caution.

  13. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis

    Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Methods Education Source; PEP (WEB)—Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect—AllBooks Content (Elsevier API); SCOPUS (Elsevier API); SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO) and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory) that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory. Results We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08–.51), short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41–.73), and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33–.80). To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial), which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians’ advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli. Conclusions The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage. PMID:29049416

  14. The functional neuroanatomy of autobiographical memory: A meta-analysis

    Svoboda, Eva; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Levine, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) entails a complex set of operations, including episodic memory, self-reflection, emotion, visual imagery, attention, executive functions, and semantic processes. The heterogeneous nature of AM poses significant challenges in capturing its behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates. Investigators have recently turned their attention to the functional neuroanatomy of AM. We used the effect-location method of meta-analysis to analyze data from 24 functional imaging studies of AM. The results indicated a core neural network of left-lateralized regions, including the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal, medial and lateral temporal and retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortices, the temporoparietal junction and the cerebellum. Secondary and tertiary regions, less frequently reported in imaging studies of AM, are also identified. We examined the neural correlates of putative component processes in AM, including, executive functions, self-reflection, episodic remembering and visuospatial processing. We also separately analyzed the effect of select variables on the AM network across individual studies, including memory age, qualitative factors (personal significance, level of detail and vividness), semantic and emotional content, and the effect of reference conditions. We found that memory age effects on medial temporal lobe structures may be modulated by qualitative aspects of memory. Studies using rest as a control task masked process-specific components of the AM neural network. Our findings support a neural distinction between episodic and semantic memory in AM. Finally, emotional events produced a shift in lateralization of the AM network with activation observed in emotion-centered regions and deactivation (or lack of activation) observed in regions associated with cognitive processes. PMID:16806314

  15. Narcissism and Social Networking Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus

    2018-04-01

    The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter has given rise to speculations that the intensity of using these platforms is associated with narcissistic tendencies. However, recent research on this issue has been all but conclusive. We present a three-level, random effects meta-analysis including 289 effect sizes from 57 studies (total N = 25,631) on the association between trait narcissism and social networking behavior. The meta-analysis identified a small to moderate effect of ρ = .17 (τ = .11), 95% CI [.13, .21], for grandiose narcissism that replicated across different social networking platforms, respondent characteristics, and time. Moderator analyses revealed pronounced cultural differences, with stronger associations in power-distant cultures. Moreover, social networking behaviors geared toward self-presentation and the number of SNS friends exhibited stronger effects than usage durations. Overall, the study not only supported but also refined the notion of a relationship between engaging in social networking sites and narcissistic personality traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Meta-analysis of social cognition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Bora, Emre

    2017-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with executive dysfunction and behavioural impairment. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive deficits might also be a prominent feature of ALS. Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in social cognition including theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in ALS. In this meta-analysis of 15 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 389 patients with ALS and 471 healthy controls were compared. ALS was associated with significant impairments with medium effect sizes in ToM (d = .65) and facial emotion recognition (d = .69). Among individual emotions recognition of disgust and surprise were particularly impaired. Deficits in perspective taking (d = .73) aspects of ToM (ToM-PT) was more pronounced in comparison to decoding (d = .28) aspects of ToM (ToM-decoding). The severity of social cognitive impairment was similar to level of executive dysfunction and there was a significant relationship between social cognition and executive dysfunction. Deficits in social cognition are part of the cognitive phenotype of ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Symmetric or asymmetric oil prices? A meta-analysis approach

    Perdiguero-García, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of price asymmetries in the gasoline market is one of the most widely studied in energy economics. However, the great variation in the outcomes reported makes the drawing of any definitive conclusions difficult. Given this situation, a meta-analysis serves as an excellent tool to discover which characteristics of the various markets analyzed, and which specific features of these studies, might account for these differences. In adopting such an approach, this paper shows how the particular segment of the industry analyzed, the characteristics of the data, the years under review, the type of publication and the introduction of control variables might explain this heterogeneity in results. The paper concludes on these grounds that increased competition may significantly reduce the possibility of occurrence of asymmetric behavior. These results should be taken into consideration therefore in future studies of asymmetries in the oil industry. - Highlights: ► I study asymmetries in the price gasoline industry through a meta-analysis regression. ► The asymmetries are produced mainly in the retail market. ► The asymmetries are less frequent when we analyze recent cases. ► There may be some degree of publication bias. ► The level of competition may explain the patterns of asymmetry

  18. Multiple Sclerosis Increases Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Guixian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results. A significant association between MS and fracture risk was found. This result remained statistically significant when the adjusted RRs were combined. Subgroup analysis stratified by the site of fracture suggested significant associations between MS and tibia fracture risk, femur fracture risk, hip fracture risk, pelvis fracture risk, vertebrae fracture risk, and humerus fracture risk. In the subgroup analysis by gender, female MS patients had increased fracture risk. When stratified by history of drug use, use of antidepressants, hypnotics/anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and glucocorticoids increased the risk of fracture risk in MS patients. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with fracture risk.

  19. Transparent meta-analysis of prospective memory and aging.

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (ProM refers to our ability to become aware of a previously formed plan at the right time and place. After two decades of research on prospective memory and aging, narrative reviews and summaries have arrived at widely different conclusions. One view is that prospective memory shows large age declines, larger than age declines on retrospective memory (RetM. Another view is that prospective memory is an exception to age declines and remains invariant across the adult lifespan. The present meta-analysis of over twenty years of research settles this controversy. It shows that prospective memory declines with aging and that the magnitude of age decline varies by prospective memory subdomain (vigilance, prospective memory proper, habitual prospective memory as well as test setting (laboratory, natural. Moreover, this meta-analysis demonstrates that previous claims of no age declines in prospective memory are artifacts of methodological and conceptual issues afflicting prior research including widespread ceiling effects, low statistical power, age confounds, and failure to distinguish between various subdomains of prospective memory (e.g., vigilance and prospective memory proper.

  20. A meta-analysis of math performance in Turner syndrome.

    Baker, Joseph M; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-02-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between Turner syndrome and math learning disability have used a wide variation of tasks designed to test various aspects of mathematical competencies. Although these studies have revealed much about the math deficits common to Turner syndrome, their diversity makes comparisons between individual studies difficult. As a result, the consistency of outcomes among these diverse measures remains unknown. The overarching aim of this review is to provide a systematic meta-analysis of the differences in math and number performance between females with Turner syndrome and age-matched neurotypical peers. We provide a meta-analysis of behavioral performance in Turner syndrome relative to age-matched neurotypical populations on assessments of math and number aptitude. In total, 112 comparisons collected across 17 studies were included. Although 54% of all statistical comparisons in our analyses failed to reject the null hypothesis, our results indicate that meaningful group differences exist on all comparisons except those that do not require explicit calculation. Taken together, these results help elucidate our current understanding of math and number weaknesses in Turner syndrome, while highlighting specific topics that require further investigation. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Inflammation and sarcopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Bano, Giulia; Trevisan, Caterina; Carraro, Sara; Solmi, Marco; Luchini, Claudio; Stubbs, Brendon; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe; Veronese, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory cytokines have been shown to prompt muscle wasting, ultimately stimulating protein catabolism and suppressing muscle synthesis. However, the possible association between inflammatory parameters and sarcopenia is poorly understood. We therefore aimed to summarize the current evidence about this topic with a meta-analysis of studies reporting serum inflammatory parameters in patients with sarcopenia vs. people without sarcopenia (controls). An electronic PubMed and Scopus search through to 09/01/2016 and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies comparing serum levels of inflammatory cytokines between patients with sarcopenia and controls was made, calculating random-effects standardized mean differences (SMDs) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect size. Out of 1370 initial hits, 17 studies with a total of 11249 participants (3072 with sarcopenia and 8177 without) were meta-analyzed. Sarcopenic participants had significantly higher levels of CRP (SMD=0.51; 95%CI 0.26, 0.77; psarcopenia versus controls. Sarcopenic people did not have higher levels of TNF-α than controls (SMD=0.28; 95%CI -0.26, 0.83; p=0.31; I 2 =97%). In conclusion, sarcopenia seems to be associated with elevated serum CRP levels; future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayesian nonparametric meta-analysis using Polya tree mixture models.

    Branscum, Adam J; Hanson, Timothy E

    2008-09-01

    Summary. A common goal in meta-analysis is estimation of a single effect measure using data from several studies that are each designed to address the same scientific inquiry. Because studies are typically conducted in geographically disperse locations, recent developments in the statistical analysis of meta-analytic data involve the use of random effects models that account for study-to-study variability attributable to differences in environments, demographics, genetics, and other sources that lead to heterogeneity in populations. Stemming from asymptotic theory, study-specific summary statistics are modeled according to normal distributions with means representing latent true effect measures. A parametric approach subsequently models these latent measures using a normal distribution, which is strictly a convenient modeling assumption absent of theoretical justification. To eliminate the influence of overly restrictive parametric models on inferences, we consider a broader class of random effects distributions. We develop a novel hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric Polya tree mixture (PTM) model. We present methodology for testing the PTM versus a normal random effects model. These methods provide researchers a straightforward approach for conducting a sensitivity analysis of the normality assumption for random effects. An application involving meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies designed to characterize the association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer is presented, which together with results from simulated data highlight the performance of PTMs in the presence of nonnormality of effect measures in the source population.

  3. Validity of the alcohol purchase task: a meta-analysis.

    Kiselica, Andrew M; Webber, Troy A; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2016-05-01

    Behavioral economists assess alcohol consumption as a function of unit price. This method allows construction of demand curves and demand indices, which are thought to provide precise numerical estimates of risk for alcohol problems. One of the more commonly used behavioral economic measures is the Alcohol Purchase Task (APT). Although the APT has shown promise as a measure of risk for alcohol problems, the construct validity and incremental utility of the APT remain unclear. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the APT literature. Sixteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were gathered via searches of the PsycInfo, PubMed, Web of Science and EconLit research databases. Random-effects meta-analyses with inverse variance weighting were used to calculate summary effect sizes for each demand index-drinking outcome relationship. Moderation of these effects by drinking status (regular versus heavy drinkers) was examined. Additionally, tests of the incremental utility of the APT indices in predicting drinking problems above and beyond measuring alcohol consumption were performed. The APT indices were correlated in the expected directions with drinking outcomes, although many effects were small in size. These effects were typically not moderated by the drinking status of the samples. Additionally, the intensity metric demonstrated incremental utility in predicting alcohol use disorder symptoms beyond measuring drinking. The Alcohol Purchase Task appears to have good construct validity, but limited incremental utility in estimating risk for alcohol problems. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Acupuncture for Alcohol Use Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Na Young Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has produced mixed results regarding the effects of acupuncture on the treatment of alcohol use disorder in humans. Few studies have provided a comprehensive review or a systematic overview of the magnitude of the treatment effect of acupuncture on alcoholism. This study investigated the effects of acupuncture on alcohol-related symptoms and behaviors in patients with this disorder. The PubMed database was searched until 23 August 2016, and reference lists from review studies were also reviewed. Seventeen studies were identified for a full-text inspection, and seven (243 patients of these met our inclusion criteria. The outcomes assessed at the last posttreatment point and any available follow-up data were extracted from each of the studies. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that an acupuncture intervention had a stronger effect on reducing alcohol-related symptoms and behaviors than did the control intervention (g=0.67. A beneficial but weak effect of acupuncture treatment was also found in the follow-up data (g=0.29. Although our analysis showed a significant difference between acupuncture and the control intervention in patients with alcohol use disorder, this meta-analysis is limited by the small number of studies included. Thus, a larger cohort study is required to provide a firm conclusion.

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Two Decades of Sustainability Accounting Literature

    Murthy, Vijaya; Parisi, Cristiana

    extends upon the previous literature reviews, by extending the scope and the time frame. The paper seeks to make a particular contribution with an objective to consider the state of what is more often now described as ‘sustainability accounting research’ (SAR). In this paper we provide a general view......The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on sustainability accounting research (SAR), by performing a meta-analysis of literature and critiquing of SAR articles in selected accounting journals covering twenty years: the period 1993-2012 inclusive. We conduct a descriptive meta......-analysis of 473 SAR articles, published in ten top ranked managerial accounting journals providing a global perspective of the field. We use a method previously employed in various other fields, to select and classify the academic articles. Our findings show that SAR has been consistently developing...

  6. The genetic basis of the fitness costs of antimicrobial resistance: a meta-analysis approach

    Vogwill, Tom; MacLean, R. Craig

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance carries a fitness cost, expressed in terms of reduced competitive ability in the absence of antibiotics. This cost plays a key role in the dynamics of resistance by generating selection against resistance when bacteria encounter an antibiotic-free environment. Previous work has shown that the cost of resistance is highly variable, but the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Here, we use a meta-analysis of the published resistance literature to de...

  7. Prediction of electroconvulsive therapy response and remission in major depression : meta-analysis

    Diermen, van, Linda; Ameele, van den, Seline; Kamperman, Astrid M.; Sabbe, Bernard G.C.; Vermeulen, Tom; Schrijvers, Didier; Birkenhager, Tom K.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be the most effective treatment in severe major depression. The identification of reliable predictors of ECT response could contribute to a more targeted patient selection and consequently increased ECT response rates. Aims To investigate the predictive value of age, depression severity, psychotic and melancholic features for ECT response and remission in major depression. Method A meta-analysis was conducted according to t...

  8. Efficacy of escitalopram in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis versus placebo

    Baldwin, David S.; Asakura, Satoshi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Hayano, Taiji; Hagino, Atsushi; Reines, Elin; Larsen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Escitalopram is the most selective of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. We conducted a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies where escitalopram was used to treat patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Data from all randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled studies in SAD with escitalopram from both specialist settings and general practice were used. Patients met the DSM-IV criteria for SAD, ?18 years old, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) ?60. The prim...

  9. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Franco, Oscar H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies car...

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Creative Self-Efficacy and Different Creativity Measurements

    Haase, Jennifer; Hoff, Eva V.; Hanel, Paul H. P.; Innes-Ker, Åse

    2018-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the relations between creative self-efficacy (CSE) and creativity measures and hypothesized that self-assessed questionnaires would have a different relation to self-efficacy beliefs compared to other creativity tests. The meta-analysis synthesized 60 effect sizes from 41 papers (overall N = 17226). Taken as a…

  11. Child-Centered Play Therapy in the Schools: Review and Meta-Analysis

    Ray, Dee C.; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Balkin, Richard S.; Jayne, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review that examined 23 studies evaluating the effectiveness of child centered play therapy (CCPT) conducted in elementary schools. Meta-analysis results were explored using a random effects model for mean difference and mean gain effect size estimates. Results revealed statistically significant…

  12. Quality of Life in Autism across the Lifespan: A Meta-Analysis

    van Heijst, Barbara F. C.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with a known impact on quality of life. Yet the developmental trajectory of quality of life is not well understood. First, the effect of age on quality of life was studied with a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 10 studies (published between 2004 and 2012) with a combined sample size of…

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  14. Effectiveness of Mobile Devices on Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analysis

    Mahdi, Hassan Saleh

    2018-01-01

    Mobile devices are considered as the most widely used information and communication technologies. They have provided great advantages in language learning. This study reports a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of using mobile devices on vocabulary learning. A meta-analysis was conducted on research that compared the outcomes from students…

  15. Network meta-analysis-highly attractive but more methodological research is needed

    Li, Tianjing; Puhan, Milo A.; Vedula, Swaroop S.; Singh, Sonal; Dickersin, Kay; Cameron, Chris; Goodman, Steven N.; Mills, Edward; Musch, David; ter Riet, Gerben; Robinson, Karen; Schmid, Christopher; Song, Fujian; Thorlund, Kristian; Trikalinos, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Network meta-analysis, in the context of a systematic review, is a meta-analysis in which multiple treatments (that is, three or more) are being compared using both direct comparisons of interventions within randomized controlled trials and indirect comparisons across trials based on a common

  16. Meta-Analysis of Parent-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Nevill, Rose E.; Lecavalier, Luc; Stratis, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies of parent-mediated interventions in autism spectrum disorder have been published in the last 15 years. We reviewed 19 randomized clinical trials of parent-mediated interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 1 and 6 years and conducted a meta-analysis on their efficacy. Meta-analysis outcomes…

  17. Plasma exchange for renal vasculitis and idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis: a meta-analysis

    Walsh, Michael; Catapano, Fausta; Szpirt, Wladimir

    2011-01-01

    Plasma exchange may be effective adjunctive treatment for renal vasculitis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of plasma exchange for renal vasculitis.......Plasma exchange may be effective adjunctive treatment for renal vasculitis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of plasma exchange for renal vasculitis....

  18. A meta-analysis of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion

    Several systematic reviews have described health-promoting effects of serious games, but so far no meta-analysis has been reported. This paper presents a meta-analysis of 54 serious digital game studies for healthy lifestyle promotion, in which we investigated the overall effectiveness of serious di...

  19. The Use of Exogenous Melatonin in Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder: a Meta-analysis

    Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Smits, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To perform a meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in advancing sleep-wake rhythm in patients with delayed sleep phase disorder. Design: Meta analysis of papers indexed for PubMed, Embase, and the abstracts of sleep and chronobiologic societies

  20. Age, the psychological contract, and job attitudes : a meta-analysis

    Bal, P. Matthijs; de Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    Age, the psychological contract, and job attitudes: a meta-analysis P.M. Bal, A H. De Lange, P.G.W Jansen Er M.E G Van der Velde, Gedrag en Organisatie, volume 23, March 2010, nr 1, pp 44-72. The meta-analysis investigated the relations between age and psychological contracts It was expected that

  1. GetReal in network meta-analysis : a review of the methodology

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Debray, Thomas P A; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Trelle, Sven; Panayidou, Klea; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Shang, Aijing; Salanti, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Pairwise meta-analysis is an established statistical tool for synthesizing evidence from multiple trials, but it is informative only about the relative efficacy of two specific interventions. The usefulness of pairwise meta-analysis is thus limited in real-life medical practice, where many competing

  2. Life history of the Harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis; a global meta-analysis

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Hemerik, A.; Werf, van der W.; Jong, de P.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Data collected en used for a meta analysis on life history data of H. axyridis. And the resulting 20 best models for each life history characteristic. Published in the paper: Life history of the Harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis; a global meta-analysis.

  3. Evaluating the Quality of Evidence from a Network Meta-Analysis

    Salanti, Georgia; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Chaimani, Anna; Caldwell, Deborah M.; Higgins, Julian P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews that collate data about the relative effects of multiple interventions via network meta-analysis are highly informative for decision-making purposes. A network meta-analysis provides two types of findings for a specific outcome: the relative treatment effect for all pairwise comparisons, and a ranking of the treatments. It is important to consider the confidence with which these two types of results can enable clinicians, policy makers and patients to make informed decisions. We propose an approach to determining confidence in the output of a network meta-analysis. Our proposed approach is based on methodology developed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group for pairwise meta-analyses. The suggested framework for evaluating a network meta-analysis acknowledges (i) the key role of indirect comparisons (ii) the contributions of each piece of direct evidence to the network meta-analysis estimates of effect size; (iii) the importance of the transitivity assumption to the validity of network meta-analysis; and (iv) the possibility of disagreement between direct evidence and indirect evidence. We apply our proposed strategy to a systematic review comparing topical antibiotics without steroids for chronically discharging ears with underlying eardrum perforations. The proposed framework can be used to determine confidence in the results from a network meta-analysis. Judgements about evidence from a network meta-analysis can be different from those made about evidence from pairwise meta-analyses. PMID:24992266

  4. Quality of life in autism across the lifespan: A meta-analysis

    van Heijst, B.F.C.; Geurts, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with a known impact on quality of life. Yet the developmental trajectory of quality of life is not well understood. First, the effect of age on quality of life was studied with a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 10 studies (published between

  5. Multivariate meta-analysis: modelling the heterogeneity mixing apples and oranges; dangerous or delicious?

    L.R. Arends (Lidia)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMeta-analysis may be broadly defined as the quantitative review and synthesis of the results of related but independent studies. For the simple case where meta-analysis concerns only one outcome measure in each study, the statistical methods are well established now. However, in many

  6. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  7. REAL-TIME ENERGY INFORMATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: A META-ANALYSIS AND FORECAST

    The meta-analysis of literature and program results will shed light on potential causes of study-to-study variation in information feedback programs and trials. Outputs from the meta-analysis, such as price elasticity, will be used in NEMS to estimate the impact of a nation...

  8. A hierarchy of patient-reported outcome measures for meta-analysis of knee osteoarthritis trials

    Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Lund, Hans; Guyatt, GH

    2010-01-01

    Title A hierarchy of patient-reported outcome measures for meta-analysis of knee osteoarthritis trials: empirical evidence from a survey of high impact journals Objective To develop a prioritized list for extracting patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measuring pain and disability for meta-analyses ......Title A hierarchy of patient-reported outcome measures for meta-analysis of knee osteoarthritis trials: empirical evidence from a survey of high impact journals Objective To develop a prioritized list for extracting patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measuring pain and disability for meta...... composite disability scores. Conclusions As choosing the most favorable PROs from individual trials can overestimate the effect compared to a systematic approach, using a prioritized list as presented in this study is recommended to reduce reviewer's likelihood of biased selection of PROs in meta-analyses....

  9. Individual-based versus aggregate meta-analysis in multi-database studies of pregnancy outcomes

    Selmer, Randi; Haglund, Bengt; Furu, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Compare analyses of a pooled data set on the individual level with aggregate meta-analysis in a multi-database study. Methods: We reanalysed data on 2.3 million births in a Nordic register based cohort study. We compared estimated odds ratios (OR) for the effect of selective serotonin...... covariates in the pooled data set, and 1.53 (1.19–1.96) after country-optimized adjustment. Country-specific adjusted analyses at the substance level were not possible for RVOTO. Conclusion: Results of fixed effects meta-analysis and individual-based analyses of a pooled dataset were similar in this study...... reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and venlafaxine use in pregnancy on any cardiovascular birth defect and the rare outcome right ventricular outflow tract obstructions (RVOTO). Common covariates included maternal age, calendar year, birth order, maternal diabetes, and co-medication. Additional covariates were...

  10. Comparison of curative effect of 131I and antithyroid drugs in Graves' disease: a meta analysis.

    Yuan, Ju; Lu, Xiuqing; Yue, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Radioactive 131I is currently reported to be a potential effective intervention for Graves' Disease treatment in China. Whether 131I treatment was associated with effective outcome or reduced risk of side effects, reccurence rate remained unknown. Eligible studies were selected from Chinese VIP, Wangfang, CNKI databases using the keywords "Iodine" and "Graves Disease". Finally, 13 clinical trials met the inclusion criterion and were included this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 1355 patients diagnosed of Graves' Disease with regular anti-thyroid drugs oral administration and 1320 patients with 131I therapy. The results showed that there was significant symptom improvement with radioactive iodine intervention (Odd Ratio (OR)=4.50, 95% CI [3.55, 5.71], PGraves' Disease. Treatment with 131I was associated with better clinical outcome; it reduced side effects and reccurence rate but increased hypothyroidism in Graves' Disease.

  11. Energy consumption and economic growth—New evidence from meta analysis

    Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Tung; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The causal relationships between energy consumption and economic growth have given rise to much discussion but remain controversial. Alternative data sets based on different time spans, countries, energy policies and econometric approaches result in diverse outcomes. A meta analysis using a multinomial logit model with 174 samples governing the relationships between GDP and energy consumption is applied here to investigate the major factors that affect these controversial outcomes. The empirical results have demonstrated how the time spans, subject selections including GDP and energy consumption, econometric models, and tools for greenhouse gases emission reduction characteristics significantly affect these controversial outcomes. - Highlights: ► The controversial casual relationships between energy consumption and GDP are investigated. ► A meta analysis using a multinomial logit model is adopted. ► 74 studies governing the relationships between GDP and energy consumption was collected. ► The empirical results show how the probability of major factors affects such relationships.

  12. Sleep-deprivation effect on human performance: a meta-analysis approach

    Candice D. Griffith; Candice D. Griffith; Sankaran Mahadevan

    2006-05-01

    Human fatigue is hard to define since there is no direct measure of fatigue, much like stress. Instead fatigue must be inferred from measures that are affected by fatigue. One such measurable output affected by fatigue is reaction time. In this study the relationship of reaction time to sleep deprivation is studied. These variables were selected because reaction time and hours of sleep deprivation are straightforward characteristics of fatigue to begin the investigation of fatigue effects on performance. Meta-analysis, a widely used procedure in medical and psychological studies, is applied to the variety of fatigue literature collected from various fields in this study. Meta-analysis establishes a procedure for coding and analyzing information from various studies to compute an effect size. In this research the effect size reported is the difference between standardized means, and is found to be -0.6341, implying a strong relationship between sleep deprivation and performance degradation.

  13. A meta-analysis of aneurysm formation in laser assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA)

    Chen, Chen; Peng, Fei; Xu, Dahai; Cheng, Qinghua

    2009-08-01

    Laser assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA) is looked as a particularly promising non-suture method in future. However, aneurysm formation is one of the main reasons delay the clinical application of LAVA. Some scientists investigated the incidence of aneurysms in animal model. To systematically analyze the literature on reported incidence of aneurysm formation in LAVA therapy, we performed a meta-analysis comparing LAVA with conventional suture anastomosis (CSA) in animal model. Data were systematically retrieved and selected from PUBMED. In total, 23 studies were retrieved. 18 studies were excluded, and 5 studies involving 647 animals were included. Analysis suggested no statistically significant difference between LAVA and CSA (OR 1.24, 95%CI 0.66-2.32, P=0.51). Result of meta analysis shows that the technology of LAVA is very close to clinical application.

  14. Critical Thinking Development in Pharmacy Education: A Meta-Analysis

    Michael J Peeters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The investigators aimed to summarize prior studies of critical thinking development among pharmacy students, using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST, Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT, and Defining Issues Test (DIT. Methods: Independently, two investigators (KLZ, MJP systematically searched available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsychInfo, as well as pharmacy education conference abstracts in American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Their search terms were ‘pharmacy’, and [‘critical thinking’, ‘HSRT’, ‘CCTST’, and ‘DIT’]. Studies included were those that investigated pharmacy students, used one of the tests (CCTST, HSRT, DIT, and used a longitudinal design with test administration at two or more time-points for the same subjects (i.e., development. On review, the CCTST and HSRT seem more foundational to analytical/critical thinking, while the DIT appears to measure moral/complex thinking. Summarizing used meta-analysis with Cohen’s d and random-effects modelling. Results: Five studies involved thinking development with 10 separate cohorts for meta-analysis (8 cohorts for CCTST, 2 for DIT, and 0 for HSRT. At 5 institutions, 407 and 1148 students were included (CCTST and DIT, respectively. For the CCTST, the overall effect was 0.33 (0.19-0.47 95%CI with some heterogeneity among study cohorts (I2=52%. For the DIT, the overall effect was -0.23 (-0.83-0.37 95%CI with considerable heterogeneity between study cohorts (I2=95%. For the CCTST and DIT, some studies showed effect-sizes greater than 0.5. Meta-analysis of the HSRT could not be conducted (i.e., 0 studies found. Implications: While measuring different aspects of “critical thinking”, the CCTST and DIT showed responsiveness to change and appear to be promising measures of cognitive development. These tests should be used in further well-designed research studies that explore strategies for improving cognitive

  15. Evidence-based Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    Zaharia, Cătălin; Reiner, Melita; Schütz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) Framework has enjoyed enormous popularity in the field of applied psychology. NLP has been used in business, education, law, medicine and psychotherapy to identify people's patterns and alter their responses to stimuli, so they are better able to regulate their environment and themselves. NLP looks at achieving goals, creating stable relationships, eliminating barriers such as fears and phobias, building self-confidence, and self-esteem, and achieving peak performance. Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) encompasses NLP as framework and set of interventions in the treatment of individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. We aimed systematically to analyse the available data regarding the effectiveness of Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt). The present work is a meta-analysis of studies, observational or randomized controlled trials, for evaluating the efficacy of Neuro Linguistic Programming in individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. The databases searched to identify studies in English and German language: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library; PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge (include results also from Medline and the Web of Science); PsycINFO (including PsycARTICLES); Psyndex; Deutschsprachige Diplomarbeiten der Psychologie (database of theses in Psychology in German language), Social SciSearch; National library of health and two NLP-specific research databases: one from the NLP Community (http://www.nlp.de/cgi-bin/research/nlprdb.cgi?action=res_entries) and one from the NLP Group (http://www.nlpgrup.com/bilimselarastirmalar/bilimsel-arastirmalar-4.html#Zweig154). From a total number of 425 studies, 350 were removed and considered not relevant based on the title and abstract. Included, in the final analysis, are 12 studies with numbers of participants ranging between 12 and 115 subjects. The vast majority of studies were prospective observational. The actual paper represents the first

  16. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors

  17. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis.

    Fanning, Jason; Mullen, Sean P; McAuley, Edward

    2012-11-21

    Regular physical activity has established physical and mental health benefits; however, merely one quarter of the U.S. adult population meets national physical activity recommendations. In an effort to engage individuals who do not meet these guidelines, researchers have utilized popular emerging technologies, including mobile devices (ie, personal digital assistants [PDAs], mobile phones). This study is the first to synthesize current research focused on the use of mobile devices for increasing physical activity. To conduct a meta-analysis of research utilizing mobile devices to influence physical activity behavior. The aims of this review were to: (1) examine the efficacy of mobile devices in the physical activity setting, (2) explore and discuss implementation of device features across studies, and (3) make recommendations for future intervention development. We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) and identified publications through reference lists and requests to experts in the field of mobile health. Studies were included that provided original data and aimed to influence physical activity through dissemination or collection of intervention materials with a mobile device. Data were extracted to calculate effect sizes for individual studies, as were study descriptives. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software suite. Study quality was assessed using the quality of execution portion of the Guide to Community Preventative Services data extraction form. Four studies were of "good" quality and seven of "fair" quality. In total, 1351 individuals participated in 11 unique studies from which 18 effects were extracted and synthesized, yielding an overall weight mean effect size of g = 0.54 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.91, P = .01). Research utilizing mobile devices is gaining in popularity, and this study suggests that this platform is an effective means for influencing physical activity behavior. Our focus

  18. [Report quality evaluation of systematic review or Meta-analysis published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica].

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Dan-Dan; Cui, De-Hua; Liao, Xing; Guo, Hua

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the report quality of intervention-related systematic reviews or Meta-analysis published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, we searched CNKI and China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica webpages to collect intervention-related systematic reviews or Meta-analysis since the first issue of the magazine. A total of 40 systematic reviews or Meta-analysis reports were included, including one network Meta-analysis. According to the PRISMA statement published in 2009, the report quality of the systematic reviews or Meta-analysis was evaluated. According to the results, 3 had the low quality, 30 had the medium quality, and 7 had the high quality. The average score for all of items was 30 points (21-30.5 points for the medium quality). The 17 high-quality (31-40 points) report items were title, rationale, objectives, information sources, study selection, data collection process, data items, risk of bias in individual studies, summary measures, risk of bias across studies, study selection, study characteristics, risk of bias within studies, results of individual studies, synthesis of results, risk of bias across studies and funding; the 4 medium-quality (21-30.5 points) reporting items were eligibility criteria, search, limitations and conclusions; and the 6 low-quality (Materia Medica is medium, and it is necessary to improve the quality standard of the report. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. MR diffusion weighted imaging detecting cerebral infarction: a meta-analysis

    Yang Junle; Xu Min; Wang Peng; Zhang Qiujuan; Guo Youmin; Liu Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) in hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction by using Meta-analysis. Methods: Based on validity criteria for diagnostic research published by the Cochrane Methods Group on Screening and Diagnostic, studies in English and Chinese from 1997 to 2007 were selected from Medline, Cochrane, Springer, Ovid, Elsevier, LWW and CNKI( China National Knowledge Infrastructure). The characteristics of the included articles were appraised and extracted. Statistical analysis was performed with the software Meta-test 0.6 and Comprehensive meta-analysis 2.0. Heterogeneity of the included articles was tested, which was used to select proper effect model to calculate pooled weighted values of sensitivity and specificity and the corresponding 95% CI. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was performed and the area under the curve (Az) was calculated. Publication bias was analyzed by Funnel Plot in Comprehensive Meta- analysis 2.0. A sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: Twelve articles meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed for the value of DWI in hyperacute cerebral infarction. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio was 92%, 87%, 180.37 respectively, Az=0.9717. Novice is a main factor for total diagnostic effect (Q=4.34, P>0.05). Non-asymmetric funnel plot suggested the publication bias. Fifteen articles meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed for the value of DWI in both hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction (≤ 24 h). The pooled sensitivity, specificity diagnostic odds ratio was 92%, 91%, 623.62 respectively, Az=0.9659. Fixed effects model used in Meta-analysis for database suggested homogeneity (Q=2.70,P>0.05). Nonasymmetric funnel plot suggested the publication bias. Conclusions As a noninvasive method, diffusion-weighted imaging is valuable in detecting hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction. More support from multi-center prospective researches is

  20. [Effectiveness of acupuncture in postoperative ileus: a systematic review and Meta-analysis].

    Cheong, Kah Bik; Zhang, Jiping; Huang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    To conduct a systematic review and Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of acupuncture and common acupoint selection for postoperative ileus (POI). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acupuncture and non-acupuncture treatment were identified from the databases PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO (Academic Source Premier and MEDLINE), Ovid (including Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data. The data from eligible studies were extracted and a Meta-analysis performed using a fixed-effects model. Results were expressed as relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data, and 95% CI (confidence intervals) were calculated. Each trial was evaluated using the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) and STRICTA (STandards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture) guideline . The quality of the study was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Of the 69 studies screened, eight RCTs were included for review. Among these, four RCTs (with a total of 123 patients in the intervention groups and 124 patients in the control groups) met the criteria for Meta-analysis. The Meta-analysis results indicated that acupuncture combined with usual care showed a significantly higher total effective rate than the control condition (usual care) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01, 1.18; P = 0.02). Zusanli (ST 36) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) were the most common acupoints selected. However, the quality of the studies was generally low, as they did not emphasize the use of blinding. The results suggested that acupuncture might be effective in improving POI; however, a definite conclusion could not be drawn because of the low quality of trials. Further large-scale, high-quality randomized clinical trials are needed to validate these findings and to develop a standardized method of treatment. We hope that the present results will lead to improved research, resulting in better

  1. Meta-analysis of the relationship between psychosocial indexes with mental health

    Ayaub Faizy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The expansion of studies that done in the demand of effective factors such as social factors on mental health provides the ground work for the combination of these studies. So, this meta-analysis was implemented to determine the summary effect size of the relationship between social indexes and mental health measures Material and Methods: The method used in this study is a Meta-Analysis. To achieve above aim used of quantitative findings from 46 studies, that computed 77 effect sizes from these. The studies that were used in this study collected from databases such as magiran, noormags, Scientific Information Database and proceeding articles that published in the Seminars of college student’s Mental Health. After reviewing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the correlation effect sizes in selected studies were analyzed with the CMA2 software. In this study, were calculated both random and fixed models, that selected random model, according to the results of the heterogeneity analysis of the Q and I2 factors. Results: The results showed that the combinational effect size of the studies obtained 0.139, after eliminated 10 effect sizes. The combined effect size of studies was calculated low based on Cohen's criteria. Also, the results of heterogeneity analysis indicated that there are moderating variables in the studies. The evidence of this meta-analysis associated with prior theoretical and empirical foundations, indicates the relationship between social support and mental health. Conclusion: According to the results of this meta-analysis for successful mental health programs due to cultural and social issues will be necessary.

  2. The effect of early child care attendance on childhood asthma and wheezing: A meta-analysis.

    Swartz, Alicia; Collier, Tina; Young, Chelsea Anne; Cruz, Eddie; Bekmezian, Arpi; Coffman, Janet; Celedon, Juan; Alkon, Abbey; Cabana, Michael D

    2018-04-09

    Research evidence offers mixed results regarding the relationship between early child care attendance and childhood asthma and wheezing. A meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the current research evidence of the association between early child care attendance and the risk of childhood asthma and wheezing. Peer reviewed studies published from 1964-January 2017 were identified in MEDLINE, CINAL, and EMBASE using MeSH headings relevant to child care and asthma. Two investigators independently reviewed the selected articles from this search. All relevant articles that met our inclusion criteria were selected for further analysis. Data were extracted from studies that had sufficient data to analyze the odds of asthma or wheezing among children who attended child care. The meta-analysis of 32 studies found that (1) early child care attendance is protective against asthma in children 3-5 years of age but not for children with asthma 6 years of age or older. (2) Early child care attendance increases the risk of wheezing among children 2 years of age or younger, but not the risk of wheezing for children over 2 years of age. This meta-analysis shows that early child care attendance is not significantly associated with the risk of asthma or wheeze in children 6 years of age or older.

  3. Distinct Neural-Functional Effects of Treatments With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Electroconvulsive Therapy, and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Their Relations to Regional Brain Function in Major Depression: A Meta-analysis.

    Chau, David T; Fogelman, Phoebe; Nordanskog, Pia; Drevets, Wayne C; Hamilton, J Paul

    2017-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates of treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). Low sample size and methodological heterogeneity, however, undermine the generalizability of findings from individual studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify reliable neural changes resulting from different modes of treatment for MDD and compared them with each other and with reliable neural functional abnormalities observed in depressed versus control samples. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting changes in brain activity (e.g., as indexed by positron emission tomography) following treatments with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), or transcranial magnetic stimulation. Additionally, we examined the statistical reliability of overlap among thresholded meta-analytic SSRI, ECT, and transcranial magnetic stimulation maps as well as a map of abnormal neural function in MDD. Our meta-analysis revealed that 1) SSRIs decrease activity in the anterior insula, 2) ECT decreases activity in central nodes of the default mode network, 3) transcranial magnetic stimulation does not result in reliable neural changes, and 4) regional effects of these modes of treatment do not significantly overlap with each other or with regions showing reliable functional abnormality in MDD. SSRIs and ECT produce neurally distinct effects relative to each other and to the functional abnormalities implicated in depression. These treatments therefore may exert antidepressant effects by diminishing neural functions not implicated in depression but that nonetheless impact mood. We discuss how the distinct neural changes resulting from SSRIs and ECT can account for both treatment effects and side effects from these therapies as well as how to individualize these treatments. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proposed Sources of Coaching Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis.

    Myers, Nicholas D; Park, Sung Eun; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Seungmin; Sullivan, Philip J; Feltz, Deborah L

    2017-08-01

    Coaching efficacy refers to the extent to which a coach believes that he or she has the capacity to affect the learning and performance of his or her athletes. The purpose of the current study was to empirically synthesize findings across the extant literature to estimate relationships between the proposed sources of coaching efficacy and each of the dimensions of coaching efficacy. A literature search yielded 20 studies and 278 effect size estimates that met the inclusion criteria. The overall relationship between the proposed sources of coaching efficacy and each dimension of coaching efficacy was positive and ranged from small to medium in size. Coach gender and level coached moderated the overall relationship between the proposed sources of coaching efficacy and each of the dimensions of coaching efficacy. Results from this meta-analysis provided some evidence for both the utility of, and possible revisions to, the conceptual model of coaching efficacy.

  5. Processes that Inform Multicultural Supervision: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis.

    Tohidian, Nilou B; Quek, Karen Mui-Teng

    2017-10-01

    As the fields of counseling and psychotherapy have become more cognizant that individuals, couples, and families bring with them a myriad of diversity factors into therapy, multicultural competency has also become a crucial component in the development of clinicians during clinical supervision and training. We employed a qualitative meta-analysis to provide a detailed and comprehensive description of similar themes identified in primary qualitative studies that have investigated supervisory practices with an emphasis on diversity. Findings revealed six meta-categories, namely: (a) Supervisor's Multicultural Stances; (b) Supervisee's Multicultural Encounters; (c) Competency-Based Content in Supervision; (d) Processes Surrounding Multicultural Supervision; (e) Culturally Attuned Interventions; and (f) Multicultural Supervisory Alliance. Implications for practice are discussed. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  6. Religion and Completed Suicide: a Meta-Analysis.

    Wu, Andrew; Wang, Jing-Yu; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death around the world. How religion influences the risk of completed suicide in different settings across the world requires clarification in order to best inform suicide prevention strategies. A meta-analysis using search results from Pubmed and Web of Science databases was conducted following PRISMA protocol and using the keywords "religion" or "religious" or "religiosity" or "spiritual" or "spirituality" plus "suicide" or "suicidality" or "suicide attempt". Random and fixed effects models were used to generate pooled ORs and I2 values. Sub-analyses were conducted among the following categories: young age (Religion plays a protective role against suicide in a majority of settings where suicide research is conducted. However, this effect varies based on the cultural and religious context. Therefore, public health professionals need to strongly consider the current social and religious atmosphere of a given population when designing suicide prevention strategies.

  7. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis

    Mist SD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott David Mist, Kari Firestone, Kim Dupree Jones Fibromyalgia Research and Treatment Group, School of Nursing, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management. Keywords: fibromyalgia, exercise, complementary and alternative, efficacy, safety

  8. Moral development and recidivism: a meta-analysis.

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Gibbs, John; Stams, Geert Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan; van der Laan, Peter

    2011-12-01

    A meta-analysis of 19 studies (N = 15,992 offenders) showed a significant inverse relation between more mature moral development and recidivism. Moderator analyses revealed a larger effect size for moral cognition (r = .20) than for moral emotion (r = .11). Effect sizes for production measures (r = .57) were much larger than for recognition measures (r = .16) and unstructured (clinical) judgment (r = .10). Larger effect sizes were found for female delinquents (r = .32) than for male delinquents (r = .21). Only small differences in effect sizes were found between juvenile delinquents (r = .10) and adult delinquents (r = .16). Finally, self-report measures of recidivism revealed much larger effect sizes (r = .32) than official reports of recidivism (r = .09). The discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical meaning of the magnitude of the effect size for the relation between moral development and recidivism.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Middle School Science Engagement

    Aker, Leanna B.

    Researchers and educational practitioners have long been concerned with declines in science engagement reported by students as they transition into the middle school setting. Though the operationalization of engagement is still nascent, an emerging consensus on a three-faceted model of student engagement has recently emerged in the research literature (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Thus, a synthesis of existing primary research of early adolescents' science engagement under this emerging conceptualization was warranted. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that instructional methods, class characteristics and competence predictors had the strongest relationship with self-reported science engagement in early adolescence. These predictors also show the strongest relationship with affective and cognitive engagement sub-types. Though affective and cognitive engagement were well represented in primary studies, behavioral engagement was underrepresented in student self-reports.

  10. [Meta-analysis of pathological gambling 1997-2007].

    Muñoz-Molina, Yaromir

    2008-01-01

    Determining the prevalence of pathological gambling related to variables such as age and sex; furthermore, identifying the most current tools used for measuring it and the kind of gaming associated with this type of obsessive behavior. A meta-analysis of studies concerning pathological gambling published between 1997 and 2007 was carried out. Inclusion criteria for papers consisted of having a probabilistic sample, indicating the tool used for measuring it and presenting the prevalence rate. It was observed that pathological gambling affects men more than women; furthermore, there are differences amongst adults and adolescents related to this type of behaviour, the latter group having the higher prevalence rate. Video lottery terminals are the most frequently occurring type of game associated with pathological gambling. Pathological gambling deserves more attention by public health managers. Prevalence studies help to understand it better.

  11. Time perspective and environmental engagement: a meta-analysis.

    Milfont, Taciano L; Wilson, Jessie; Diniz, Pollyane

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues entail both a social conflict (private vs. public interests) and a temporal conflict (short- vs. long-term interests). This paper focuses on the role temporal concerns play in influencing environmental engagement by quantitatively integrating results of studies that assessed the associations between time perspective and proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors. The meta-analysis included a total of 19 independent samples and 6,301 participants from seven countries (Australia, Brazil, Germany, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, and the United States). Results showed that the associations between time perspective and proenvironmental behaviors were higher than those for proenvironmental attitudes. Supporting predictions, the associations between future time perspective and proenvironmental behaviors were strong and nontrivial compared to those for the combined past-present time perspective. The findings indicate that future time perspective seems to play an important role in influencing individuals' attitudes and behaviors towards the environment. Implications of the findings for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. Anticipated regret and health behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Brewer, Noel T; DeFrank, Jessica T; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2016-11-01

    Risk beliefs are central to most theories of health behavior, yet many unanswered questions remain about an increasingly studied risk construct, anticipated regret. The authors sought to better understand anticipated regret's role in motivating health behaviors. The authors systematically searched electronic databases for studies of anticipated regret and behavioral intentions or health behavior. They used random effects meta-analysis to synthesize effect sizes from 81 studies (n = 45,618). Anticipated regret was associated with both intentions (r+ = .50, p emotions and risk appraisals. Anticipated inaction regret has a stronger and more stable association with health behavior than previously thought. The field should give greater attention to understanding how anticipated regret differs from similar constructs, its role in health behavior theory, and its potential use in health behavior interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Identification accuracy of children versus adults: a meta-analysis.

    Pozzulo, J D; Lindsay, R C

    1998-10-01

    Identification accuracy of children and adults was examined in a meta-analysis. Preschoolers (M = 4 years) were less likely than adults to make correct identifications. Children over the age of 5 did not differ significantly from adults with regard to correct identification rate. Children of all ages examined were less likely than adults to correctly reject a target-absent lineup. Even adolescents (M = 12-13 years) did not reach an adult rate of correct rejection. Compared to simultaneous lineup presentation, sequential lineups increased the child-adult gap for correct rejections. Providing child witnesses with identification practice or training did not increase their correct rejection rates. Suggestions for children's inability to correctly reject target-absent lineups are discussed. Future directions for identification research are presented.

  14. Corellation Between Achievement Motivation and Entrepreneurial Leadership Quality: Meta Analysis

    Arman Hakim Nasution

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a meta analysis of the experimental and survey literature that has examined the effect of achievement motivation, as a part of the big five personality factors, and entrepreneurial leadership quality. This quantitative study review 20 studies based on independent samples (N = 6209. Summary analysis is provided to support the hypothesis in which the achievement motivation has a correlation with entrepreneurial leadership quality on a fairness procedural. Result indicates that the achievement motivation influences the quality of entrepreneurial leadership in a significant value (rc = 0.26. This finding is relevant to all stakeholders (educators, governments, and parents to make a better decision on the development of entrepreneurial leadership policies.

  15. Personality traits and personal values: a meta-analysis.

    Parks-Leduc, Laura; Feldman, Gilad; Bardi, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Prayer and health: review, meta-analysis, and research agenda.

    Masters, Kevin S; Spielmans, Glen I

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the empirical research on prayer and health and offers a research agenda to guide future studies. Though many people practice prayer and believe it affects their health, scientific evidence is limited. In keeping with a general increase in interest in spirituality and complementary and alternative treatments, prayer has garnered attention among a growing number of behavioral scientists. The effects of distant intercessory prayer are examined by meta-analysis and it is concluded that no discernable effects can be found. The literature regarding frequency of prayer, content of prayer, and prayer as a coping strategy is subsequently reviewed. Suggestions for future research include the conduct of experimental studies based on conceptual models that include precise operationally defined constructs, longitudinal investigations with proper measure of control variables, and increased use of ecological momentary assessment techniques.

  17. LncRNA expression and implication in osteosarcoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Wang Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying Wang,1,2,* Yuelong Huang,2,* Peng Xiang,3 Wei Tian2 1Department of Molecular Orthopaedics, Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, 2Department of Spinal Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, 3Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary bone tumor in children, adolescents, and older adults, typically presenting with poor survival outcomes. In recent years, ample evidence has shown that many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been aberrantly expressed in osteosarcoma, demonstrating their potential to serve as prognostic markers. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis on four lncRNAs (TUG1, UCA1, BCAR4, and HULC to systematically evaluate their prognostic value in osteosarcoma.Materials and methods: The eligible articles were systematically searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Elsevier ScienceDirect (up to September 22, 2017, and one meta-analysis concerning the association between lncRNA expression and the overall survival (OS of osteosarcoma patients was performed. Survival outcomes were analyzed by OS. Subgroup analyses were performed.Results: A total of 1,361 patients with osteosarcoma and 12 lncRNAs from 16 articles were included in the study. Of the listed lncRNAs, the high expression of 10 lncRNAs indicated worse survival outcomes, while only two lncRNAs were shown to positively affect patients’ OS.Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicated that the abnormally expressed lncRNAs might significantly affect the survival of osteosarcoma patients. Combined use of these lncRNAs may serve as potential novel biomarkers for the indication of clinical outcomes of osteosarcoma patients as well as the selection of adjuvant chemotherapy strategies for clinical treatment of this disease. Keywords: lncRNAs, osteosarcoma

  18. Breast implants and the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Noels, Eline C; Lapid, Oren; Lindeman, Jan H N; Bastiaannet, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of cosmetic breast augmentation and the incidence of breast cancer have been increasing worldwide. It has been hypothesized that the risk of breast cancer may be greater among patients who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the available literature on the risk of breast cancer among women with cosmetic breast implants. The study was designed as a meta-analysis of observational studies. A systematic search of the English literature (published by August 28, 2013) was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Eligible reports were those that included relative risk (RR; the increased or decreased risk of breast cancer associated with breast implants) or the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of the observed number of cases of breast cancer to the expected number of cases among patients that previously underwent cosmetic breast augmentation. Seventeen studies representing 7 cohorts were selected. Some of these were follow-up reports of previously published studies; in such cases, only the most recent reports were included in the meta-analysis. Summary SIR and RR rates and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects (SIR) or fixed-effects (RR) model. The overall SIR estimate was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56-0.85), and the overall RR, based on 4 studies, was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.56-0.71). Finding of this meta-analysis suggest that women who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation do not have an increased risk of breast cancer. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Albumin treatment regimen for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    Salerno, Francesco; Navickis, Roberta J; Wilkes, Mahlon M

    2015-11-25

    Recommended treatment for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome consists of albumin and vasoconstrictor. The optimal albumin dose remains poorly characterized. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the impact of albumin dose on treatment outcomes. Clinical studies of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome treatment with albumin and vasoconstrictor were sought. Search terms included: hepatorenal syndrome; albumin; vasoconstrictor; terlipressin; midodrine; octreotide; noradrenaline; and norepinephrine. A meta-analysis was performed of hepatorenal syndrome reversal and survival in relation to albumin dose. Nineteen clinical studies with 574 total patients were included, comprising 8 randomized controlled trials, 8 prospective studies and 3 retrospective studies. The pooled percentage of patients achieving hepatorenal syndrome reversal was 49.5% (95% confidence interval, 40.0-59.1%). Increments of 100 g in cumulative albumin dose were accompanied by significantly increased survival (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.31; p = 0.023). A non-significant increase of similar magnitude in hepatorenal syndrome reversal was also observed (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.37; p = 0.10). Expected survival rates at 30 days among patients receiving cumulative albumin doses of 200, 400 and 600 g were 43.2% (95% confidence interval, 36.4-51.3%), 51.4% (95% confidence interval, 46.3-57.1%) and 59.0% (95% confidence interval, 51.9-67.2), respectively. Neither survival nor hepatorenal syndrome reversal was significantly affected by vasoconstrictor dose or type, treatment duration, age, baseline serum creatinine, bilirubin or albumin, baseline mean arterial pressure, or study design, size or time period. This meta-analysis suggests a dose-response relationship between infused albumin and survival in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. The meta-analysis provides the best current evidence on the potential role of albumin dose selection in improving outcomes of

  20. Relapse rates after psychotherapy for depression - stable long-term effects? A meta-analysis.

    Steinert, Christiane; Hofmann, Mareike; Kruse, Johannes; Leichsenring, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder. Effective psychotherapeutic treatments for depression exist; however, data on their long-term effectiveness beyond a time span of two years is still scarce. Our aim was to perform a meta-analysis, investigating (a) overall rates of relapse more than two years after psychotherapy (meta-analysis 1), and (b) if psychotherapy has more enduring effects than non-psychotherapeutic comparison conditions (e.g. pharmacotherapy, treatment as usual), again beyond a time span of two years post-therapy (meta-analysis 2). We searched electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO and the COCHRANE Library. Main selection criteria were (i) RCT of psychotherapy with follow-up interval of more than 2 years, (ii) primary diagnosis of depression, assessed by observer ratings, (iii) report of relapse at follow-up. We identified 11 studies, 6 of which included a non-psychotherapeutic comparison condition. Together they comprised long-term data of 966 patients. Mean follow-up duration was 4.4 years. The overall relapse rate at long-term follow-up was 0.39 (95% CI 0.29, 0.50). Psychotherapy resulted in significantly less relapses (53.1% vs. 71.1%, OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.32, 0.82, p=0.005) than comparison treatments. This finding corresponded to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 5.55. Results can only be preliminary as data was sparse and studies differed methodologically. Heterogeneity in the first meta-analysis was high (I(2)=82%). Results indicated publication bias. The relapse rate more than two years after psychotherapy is relatively high, but significantly lower compared to non-psychotherapeutic treatments. Multiannual follow-ups should routinely be included in future psychotherapy RCTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Methadone Poisoning in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Iran

    Yasaman Allameh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Symptoms of methadone poisoning, as one of the most dangerous types of poisoning, are very serious in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe causes and clinical symptoms of methadone poisoning in children admitted to hospitals in Iran. Data Sources Relevant studies published in national and international journals before January 29, 2016 were identified by studying the available databases, including PubMed, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, MagIran, and Irandoc. Study Selection After excluding duplicate, irrelevant, and low-quality articles, relevant papers were entered into the meta-analysis. The prevalence, mean, and standard deviation of methadone poisoning symptoms in children were statistically analyzed, using Stata version 11, and causes of methadone poisoning were presented in tables. Data Extraction Studies with unknown sample sizes, abstracts without access to full text, articles with quality assessment scores below 15.5, and studies carried out on non-Iranian populations were excluded from the meta-analysis. Results During the initial advanced search, 1594 articles were identified. After quality assessment, 12 papers were found eligible for the final systematic review and meta-analysis, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The reported symptoms included drowsiness, vomiting, apnea, cyanosis, seizure, ataxia, and delirium. In the meta-analysis, prevalence of symptoms in referred patients was estimated at 44% (0.95% confidence interval, 0.288 to 0.609. The causes of poisoning in children included accidental feeding by parents, storage of drugs in inappropriate containers, parental addiction, and low educational level of parents. Conclusions It is important to keep methadone in a suitable container away from children. Also, it is essential to focus on educating parents on health issues of their children.

  2. Membranectomy in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Meta-Analysis.

    Sahyouni, Ronald; Mahboubi, Hossein; Tran, Peter; Roufail, John S; Chen, Jefferson W

    2017-08-01

    Initial management strategies of chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) are controversial and range from bedside twist-drill or burr-hole drainage to craniotomy with membranectomy (CWM). We aim to 1) perform a meta-analysis of the available data on the outcomes of CWM for treatment of cSDH in published English-language literature and 2) evaluate collective outcomes of CWM with respect to morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rates. A search of English-language literature performed in PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane databases using key words ("subdural hematoma" or "chronic subdural hematoma") and ("membrane" or "membranectomy") from inception to December 2016 was conducted. Studies reporting outcomes of CWM in cSDH were included. Mortality, morbidity, follow-up duration, and recurrence rate data were extracted and analyzed. Pooled estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for all outcomes using a random-effects model. Of 301 articles found, 17 articles containing 5369 patients met our eligibility criteria. Mean follow-up duration ranged from 1-30.8 months. Collective mean mortality and morbidity rates were 3.7% and 6.9%, respectively (95% CI 2-5.4% and 2.1-11.6%; P < 0.001 and P = 0.004). The collective mean recurrence rate was 7.6% (95% CI: 5%-10.2%; P < 0.001). Clinical data on outcomes of CWM in cSDH are limited to single institutional analyses, with considerable variation in recurrence rates and follow-up time. The rates we reported are comparable with the 5% mortality and 3%-12% morbidity rates and lower than the 10%-21% recurrence rate in the literature for burr holes or craniotomy without membranectomy. This meta-analysis provides an in-depth analysis of available data and reviews reported outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Surgeon Burnout Syndrome and Specialty Differences.

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Houk, Anna K; Pulcrano, Marisa; Shara, Nawar M; Kwagyan, John; Jackson, Patrick G; Sosin, Michael

    2018-02-27

    Surgeon burnout compromises the quality of life of physicians and the delivery of care to patients. Burnout rates and interpretation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) complicates the interpretation of surgeon burnout. The purpose of this study is to apply a standardized interpretation of severe surgeon burnout termed, "burnout syndrome" to analyze inherent variation within surgical specialties. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies reporting MBI data by surgical specialty. Data extraction was performed to isolate surgeon specific data. A meta-analysis was performed. A total of 16 cross-sectional studies were included in this meta-analysis, totaling 3581 subjects. A random effects model approximated burnout syndrome at 3.0% (95% CI: 2.0%-5.0%; I 2 = 78.1%). Subscale analysis of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment indicated subscale burnout in 30.0% (CI: 25.0%-36.0%; I 2 = 93.2%), 34.0% (CI: 25.0%-43.0%; I 2 = 96.9%), and 25.0% (CI: 18.0%-32.0%; I 2 = 96.5%) of surgeons, respectively. Significant differences (p burnout termed "burnout syndrome," although surgeon burnout may occur in up to 34% of surgeons, characterized by high burnout in 1 of 3 subscales. Surgical specialties have significantly different rates of burnout subscales. Future burnout studies should target the specialty-specific level to understand inherent differences in an effort to better understand methods of improving surgeon burnout. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Brown, Lori M.; Lusk, Sally L.

    2009-01-01

    Context Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from these programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Evidence acquisition Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Evidence synthesis Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21), fitness (0.57), lipids (0.13), anthropometric measures (0.08), work attendance (0.19), and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is more tentative given small sample sizes. Significant heterogeneity documents intervention effects varied across studies. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on V02max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, −0.2 on total cholesterol:HDL; and for diabetes risk, −12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. Conclusions These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity. PMID:19765506

  5. Turned versus anodised dental implants: a meta-analysis.

    Chrcanovic, B R; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the implant failure rates, marginal bone loss (MBL)and post-operative infection for patients being rehabilitated by turned versus anodised-surface implants, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in November 2015. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomised or not. Thirty-eight publications were included. The results suggest a risk ratio of 2·82 (95% CI 1·95-4·06, P implants, when compared to anodised-surface implants. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results when only the studies inserting implants in maxillae or mandibles were pooled. There were no statistically significant effects of turned implants on the MBL (mean difference-MD 0·02, 95%CI -0·16-0·20; P = 0·82) in comparison to anodised implants. The results of a meta-regression considering the follow-up period as a covariate suggested an increase of the MD with the increase in the follow-up time (MD increase 0·012 mm year(-1) ), however, without a statistical significance (P = 0·813). Due to lack of satisfactory information, meta-analysis for the outcome 'post-operative infection' was not performed. The results have to be interpreted with caution due to the presence of several confounding factors in the included studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Meta-analysis of workplace physical activity interventions.

    Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam R; Cooper, Pamela S; Brown, Lori M; Lusk, Sally L

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity levels. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from such programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21); fitness (0.57); lipids (0.13); anthropometric measures (0.08); work attendance (0.19); and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is less robust given small sample sizes. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on VO2max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, -0.2 on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein; and for diabetes risk, -12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity.

  7. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis.

    Rona, Roberto J; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-09-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food allergy. We summarized the information in 5 categories: self-reported symptoms, specific IgE positive, specific skin prick test positive, symptoms combined with sensitization, and food challenge studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for publications since 1990. The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared with objective measures. There was marked heterogeneity between studies regardless of type of assessment or food item considered, and in most analyses this persisted after age stratification. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. There is a marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of food allergy that could be a result of differences in study design or methodology, or differences between populations. We recommend that measurements be made by using standardized methods, if possible food challenge. We need to be cautious in estimates of prevalence based only on self-reported food allergy.

  8. Gardening is beneficial for health: A meta-analysis

    Masashi Soga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that gardening provides substantial human health benefits. However, no formal statistical assessment has been conducted to test this assertion. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of research examining the effects of gardening, including horticultural therapy, on health. We performed a literature search to collect studies that compared health outcomes in control (before participating in gardening or non-gardeners and treatment groups (after participating in gardening or gardeners in January 2016. The mean difference in health outcomes between the two groups was calculated for each study, and then the weighted effect size determined both across all and sets of subgroup studies. Twenty-two case studies (published after 2001 were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised 76 comparisons between control and treatment groups. Most studies came from the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Studies reported a wide range of health outcomes, such as reductions in depression, anxiety, and body mass index, as well as increases in life satisfaction, quality of life, and sense of community. Meta-analytic estimates showed a significant positive effect of gardening on the health outcomes both for all and sets of subgroup studies, whilst effect sizes differed among eight subgroups. Although Egger's test indicated the presence of publication bias, significant positive effects of gardening remained after adjusting for this using trim and fill analysis. This study has provided robust evidence for the positive effects of gardening on health. A regular dose of gardening can improve public health.

  9. Personality and Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis.

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Garramone, Federica; Baiano, Chiara; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Piscopo, Fausta; Raimo, Simona; Vitale, Carmine

    2018-04-01

    Personality changes are considered pre-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional studies revealed that PD patients were more introvert, apprehensive, and cautious than healthy subjects (HS), whereas other studies failed to disclose these behavioural traits. Some studies found mixed results concerning Novelty Seeking (NS) and Harm Avoidance (HA) profiles in PD patients. To better clarify the personality profile in PD we performed a meta-analysis on studies exploring such topic according to both Cloninger's Psychobiological Model (PM) and Big Five Model (BFM) METHODS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies evaluating the personality in PD patients compared with HS. The outcomes were the dimensions of the temperament and character of the PM and personality traits of BFM. Effect sizes from data reported in the primary studies were computed using Hedges'g unbiased approach. Heterogeneity among the studies and publication bias were assessed. Meta-regressions were conducted with age at evaluation, gender, schooling, and type of personality trait tools as moderators. As for PM, PD patients scored higher on HA and lower on NS than HS. No difference was found on Reward Dependence, Perseverance/Persistence and on character level. As for BFM, higher levels of Neuroticism, but lower levels of Openness and Extraversion were associated with PD. The personality profile in PD is characterized by high Neuroticism and HA, and by low Openness, Extraversion and NS. The personality profile delineated in the present study on PD patients seems to reflect the premorbid one and might contribute to development and persistence of affective disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gardening is beneficial for health: A meta-analysis.

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that gardening provides substantial human health benefits. However, no formal statistical assessment has been conducted to test this assertion. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of research examining the effects of gardening, including horticultural therapy, on health. We performed a literature search to collect studies that compared health outcomes in control (before participating in gardening or non-gardeners) and treatment groups (after participating in gardening or gardeners) in January 2016. The mean difference in health outcomes between the two groups was calculated for each study, and then the weighted effect size determined both across all and sets of subgroup studies. Twenty-two case studies (published after 2001) were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised 76 comparisons between control and treatment groups. Most studies came from the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Studies reported a wide range of health outcomes, such as reductions in depression, anxiety, and body mass index, as well as increases in life satisfaction, quality of life, and sense of community. Meta-analytic estimates showed a significant positive effect of gardening on the health outcomes both for all and sets of subgroup studies, whilst effect sizes differed among eight subgroups. Although Egger's test indicated the presence of publication bias, significant positive effects of gardening remained after adjusting for this using trim and fill analysis. This study has provided robust evidence for the positive effects of gardening on health. A regular dose of gardening can improve public health.

  11. Voxel-Based Morphometry ALE meta-analysis of Bipolar Disorder

    Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert

    2012-03-01

    A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.

  12. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Xingnaojing Treatment for Stroke

    Weijun Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Xingnaojing injection (XNJ is a well-known traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM for stroke. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of XNJ for stroke including ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Methods. An extensive search was performed within using eight databases up to November 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs on XNJ for treatment of stroke were collected. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Cochrane standards, and RevMan5.0 was used for meta-analysis. Results. This review included 13 RCTs and a total of 1,514 subjects. The overall methodological quality was poor. The meta-analysis showed that XNJ combined with conventional treatment was more effective for total efficacy, neurological deficit improvement, and reduction of TNF-α levels compared with those of conventional treatment alone. Three trials reported adverse events, of these one trial reported mild impairment of kidney and liver function, whereas the other two studies failed to report specific adverse events. Conclusion. Despite the limitations of this review, we suggest that XNJ in combination with conventional medicines might be beneficial for the treatment of stroke. Currently there are various methodological problems in the studies. Therefore, high-quality, large-scale RCTs are urgently needed.

  13. The TEACCH program for children and adults with autism: a meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Julio, Flávia M; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The intervention program for autism known as Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) is considered an emerging practice for autism. In the present study we used state-of-the-art meta-analytical procedures to examine the pooled clinical effects of TEACCH in a variety of outcomes. A total of 13 studies were selected for meta-analysis totaling 172 individuals with autism exposed to TEACCH. Standardized measures of perceptual, motor, adaptive, verbal and cognitive skills were identified as treatment outcomes. We used inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis supplemented with quality assessment, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, and heterogeneity and publication bias tests. The results suggested that TEACCH effects on perceptual, motor, verbal and cognitive skills were of small magnitude in the meta-analyzed studies. Effects over adaptive behavioral repertoires including communication, activities of daily living, and motor functioning were within the negligible to small range. There were moderate to large gains in social behavior and maladaptive behavior. The effects of the TEACCH program were not moderated by aspects of the intervention such as duration (total weeks), intensity (hours per week), and setting (home-based vs. center-based). While the present meta-analysis provided limited support for the TEACCH program as a comprehensive intervention, our results should be considered exploratory owing to the limited pool of studies available. © 2013.

  14. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Anxiety among North Korean Refugees: A Meta-Analysis.

    Taylor, Benjamin Eric; Chekaluk, Eugene; Bennett, Joanne

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis of studies investigating post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among North Korean refugees. Selected articles were published in English, and included measures of post-traumatic stress, and/or depression and anxiety. 10 studies were included in the depression meta-analysis, and 6 in the anxiety meta-analysis. A random-effects model revealed strong, significant associations between post-traumatic stress and depression, r=0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72), pstress, depression and anxiety were higher among adults and those with more than five years outside of North Korea. Depression appears to be an important treatment focus for North Korean refugees with post-traumatic stress.

  15. Iron deficiency anemia in Helicobacter pylori infection: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Li Yumin; Yang Kehu; Ma Bin; Guan Quanlin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Lijuan

    2010-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent in disadvantaged populations worldwide. The benefit of H. pylori eradiation for iron deficiency anemia has been extensively studied, but data are still equivocal. A search in The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, EBM Review databases, Science Citation Index Expanded, and CMB (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database) was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anti-H. pylori plus oral iron to oral iron alone for the iron deficiency patients in whom H. pylori was positive were selected for meta-analysis. Reviev Manager 5.0 software was used for the performance of meta-analysis. Sixteen randomized controlled trials totaling 956 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that the difference from baseline to endpoint of hemoglobin (Hb), serum iron (SI), and serum ferritin (SF) was statistically significantly different between anti-H. pylori treatment plus oral iron and oral iron alone (SMD, Hb 1.48; 95% CI, 0.96, 2.00; p infection could be effective in improving anemia and iron statue in IDA patients infected by H. pylori, particularly in patients with moderate or severe anemia.

  16. Premedication with dexmedetomidine in pediatric patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Ke Peng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Premedication is important in pediatric anesthesia. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the role of dexmedetomidine as a premedicant for pediatric patients. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials comparing dexmedetomidine premedication with midazolam or ketamine premedication or placebo in children. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, quality assessment and data extraction. The original data were pooled for the meta-analysis with Review Manager 5. The main parameters investigated included satisfactory separation from parents, satisfactory mask induction, postoperative rescue analgesia, emergence agitation and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thirteen randomized controlled trials involving 1190 patients were included. When compared with midazolam, premedication with dexmedetomidine resulted in an increase in satisfactory separation from parents (RD = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.30, p = 0.003 and a decrease in the use of postoperative rescue analgesia (RD = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.29 to -0.09, p = 0.0003. Children treated with dexmedetomidine had a lower heart rate before induction. The incidence of satisfactory mask induction, emergence agitation and PONV did not differ between the groups. Dexmedetomidine was superior in providing satisfactory intravenous cannulation compared to placebo. This meta-analysis suggests that dexmedetomidine is superior to midazolam premedication because it resulted in enhanced preoperative sedation and decreased postoperative pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the dosing schemes and long-term outcomes of dexmedetomidine premedication in pediatric anesthesia.

  17. Meta-analysis of adjunctive levetiracetam in refractory partial sei

    ZHANG Ying

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effects and tolerability of adjunctive levetiracetam (LEV in refractory partial seizures. Methods Relevant research articles about randomized controlled trials of adjunctive LEV in refractory partial seizures from January 1998 to December 2010 were retrieved from Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMbase, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI, VIP, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI database, China Biology Medicine (CBM. Two reviewers independently evaluated the quality of the included articles and abstracted the data. A Meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.0 software. Results According to the enrollment criteria, eleven prospective, randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 1192 in LEV group and 789 in placebo group were finally selected. The reduction in three endpoints (a 50% or greater reduction of partial seizure frequency per week, a 75% or greater reduction of partial seizure frequency per week and seizure free was significant in LEV group than placebo group. There was no significance between LEV group and placebo group in the withdrawl rate (1000 mg/d: OR = 1.180, 95%CI: 0.690-2.010, P = 0.540; 2000 mg/d: OR = 1.530, 95%CI: 0.770-3.030, P = 0.230; 3000 mg/d: OR = 1.000, 95% CI: 0.620-1.600, P = 1.000. The following adverse events were associated with LEV: somnolence (OR = 1.720, 95%CI: 1.280-2.310, P = 0.000, dizziness (OR = 1.490, 95%CI: 1.000-2.220, P = 0.050, asthenia (OR = 1.670, 95%CI: 1.140-2.240, P = 0.008, nasopharyngitis (OR = 1.120, 95% CI: 0.710-1.760, P = 0.630, psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities (OR = 2.120, 95% CI: 1.370-3.280, P = 0.000. Conclusion LEV is effective and well tolerated when added to existing therapy in patients with refractory partial seizures compared with control drugs. Further studies are needed to identify the effects of monotherapy of LEV in partial seizures.

  18. Longitudinal analysis of meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science.

    Zhu, Changtai; Jiang, Ting; Cao, Hao; Sun, Wenguang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    The meta-analysis is regarded as an important evidence for making scientific decision. The database of ISI Web of Science collected a great number of high quality literatures including meta-analysis literatures. However, it is significant to understand the general characteristics of meta-analysis literatures to outline the perspective of meta-analysis. In this present study, we summarized and clarified some features on these literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. We retrieved the meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science including SCI-E, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, CCR-E, and IC. The annual growth rate, literature category, language, funding, index citation, agencies and countries/territories of the meta-analysis literatures were analyzed, respectively. A total of 95,719 records, which account for 0.38% (99% CI: 0.38%-0.39%) of all literatures, were found in the database. From 1997 to 2012, the annual growth rate of meta-analysis literatures was 18.18%. The literatures involved in many categories, languages, fundings, citations, publication agencies, and countries/territories. Interestingly, the index citation frequencies of the meta-analysis were significantly higher than that of other type literatures such as multi-centre study, randomize controlled trial, cohort study, case control study, and cases report (Panalysis has been becoming more and more prominent in recent years. In future, in order to promote the validity of meta-analysis, the CONSORT and PRISMA standard should be continuously popularized in the field of evidence-based medicine.

  19. The Role of Serum High Mobility Group Box 1 and Interleukin-6 Levels in Acute Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Li, Nuo; Wang, Bao-Ming; Cai, Shuang; Liu, Peng-Liang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively investigate the correlation between high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in relation to acute pancreatitis. A highly regulated exploration of various electronic databases, supplemented by manual searching methods, was performed in an attempt to identify pertinent articles of a useful nature. Subsequently, high-quality cohort studies that were deemed to comply with the arduous inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for our meta-analysis. The extensive data analyses reported in our meta-analysis were conducted in connection with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0). A total of 395 studies (135 Chinese studies and 260 English studies) were initially retrieved. 27 of those studies were selected for our meta-analysis, comprising of 896 cases of mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), 700 cases of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) as well as 312 healthy controls. Pooled data suggested that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels of SAP and MAP patients were higher than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels of SAP patients exhibited significantly higher levels than in that of MAP patients. Based on the rigorous investigation of our meta-analysis, it was concluded that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels might be used as effective indicators for pancreatic lesions as well as the degree of inflammatory response, owing ultimately to the observations and data analyses, suggesting that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels share a close correlation with the severity of pancreatitis. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 616-624, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: I. Cardiovascular Drugs.

    de Vries, Max; Seppala, Lotta J; Daams, Joost G; van de Glind, Esther M M; Masud, Tahir; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2018-04-01

    Use of certain medications is recognized as a major and modifiable risk factor for falls. Although the literature on psychotropic drugs is compelling, the literature on cardiovascular drugs as potential fall-risk-increasing drugs is conflicting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the associations between cardiovascular medications and fall risk in older adults. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. Key search concepts were "fall," "aged," "causality," and "medication." Studies that investigated cardiovascular medications as risk factors for falls in participants ≥60 years old or participants with a mean age of 70 or older were included. A meta-analysis was performed using the generic inverse variance method, pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) separately. In total, 131 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Meta-analysis using adjusted ORs showed significant results (pooled OR [95% confidence interval]) for loop diuretics, OR 1.36 (1.17, 1.57), and beta-blocking agents, OR 0.88 (0.80, 0.97). Meta-analysis using unadjusted ORs showed significant results for digitalis, OR 1.60 (1.08, 2.36); digoxin, OR 2.06 (1.56, 2.74); and statins, OR 0.80 (0.65, 0.98). Most of the meta-analyses resulted in substantial heterogeneity that mostly did not disappear after stratification for population and setting. In a descriptive synthesis, consistent associations were not observed. Loop diuretics were significantly associated with increased fall risk, whereas beta-blockers were significantly associated with decreased fall risk. Digitalis and digoxin may increase the risk of falling, and statins may reduce it. For the majority of cardiovascular medication groups, outcomes were inconsistent. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that specific drug properties, such as selectivity of beta-blockers, may affect fall risk, and drug-disease interaction also may play

  1. MetaEasy: A Meta-Analysis Add-In for Microsoft Excel

    Evangelos Kontopantelis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a statistical methodology that combines or integrates the results ofseveral independent clinical trials considered by the analyst to be `combinable' (Huque1988. However, completeness and user-friendliness are uncommon both in specialisedmeta-analysis software packages and in mainstream statistical packages that have to relyon user-written commands. We implemented the meta-analysis methodology in an Mi-crosoft Excel add-in which is freely available and incorporates more meta-analysis models(including the iterative maximum likelihood and prole likelihood than are usually avail-able, while paying particular attention to the user-friendliness of the package.

  2. Rofecoxib for dysmenorrhoea: meta-analysis using individual patient data

    McQuay Henry J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual patient meta-analysis to determine the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose rofecoxib in primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods Individual patient information was available from three randomised, double blind, placebo and active controlled trials of rofecoxib. Data were combined through meta-analysis. Number-needed-to-treat (NNT for at least 50% pain relief and the proportion of patients who had taken rescue medication over 12 hours were calculated. Information was collected on adverse effects. Results For single-dose rofecoxib 50 mg compared with placebo, the NNTs (with 95% CI for at least 50% pain relief were 3.2 (2.4 to 4.5 at six, 3.1 (2.4 to 9.0 at eight, and 3.7 (2.8 to 5.6 at 12 hours. For naproxen sodium 550 mg they were 3.1 (2.4 to 4.4 at six, 3.0 (2.3 to 4.2 at eight, and 3.8 (2.7 to 6.1 at 12 hours. The proportion of patients who needed rescue medication within 12 hours was 27% with rofecoxib 50 mg, 29% with naproxen sodium 550 mg, and 50% with placebo. In the single-dose trial, the proportion of patients reporting any adverse effect was 8% (4/49 with rofecoxib 50 mg, 12% (6/49 with ibuprofen 400 mg, and 6% (3/49 with placebo. In the other two multiple dose trials, the proportion of patients reporting any adverse effect was 23% (42/179 with rofecoxib 50 mg, 24% (45/181 with naproxen sodium 550 mg, and 18% (33/178 with placebo. Conclusions Single dose rofecoxib 50 mg provided similar pain relief to naproxen sodium 550 mg over 12 hours. The duration of analgesia with rofecoxib 50 mg was similar to that of naproxen sodium 550 mg. Adverse effects were uncommon suggesting safety in short-term use of rofecoxib and naproxen sodium. Future research should include restriction on daily life and absence from work or school as outcomes.

  3. Metallothionein - immunohistochemical cancer biomarker: a meta-analysis.

    Jaromir Gumulec

    Full Text Available Metallothionein (MT has been extensively investigated as a molecular marker of various types of cancer. In spite of the fact that numerous reviews have been published in this field, no meta-analytical approach has been performed. Therefore, results of to-date immunohistochemistry-based studies were summarized using meta-analysis in this review. Web of science, PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL databases were searched (up to April 30, 2013 and the eligibility of individual studies and heterogeneity among the studies was assessed. Random and fixed effects model meta-analysis was employed depending on the heterogeneity, and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's tests. A total of 77 studies were included with 8,015 tissue samples (4,631 cases and 3,384 controls. A significantly positive association between MT staining and tumors (vs. healthy tissues was observed in head and neck (odds ratio, OR 9.95; 95% CI 5.82-17.03 and ovarian tumors (OR 7.83; 1.09-56.29, and a negative association was ascertained in liver tumors (OR 0.10; 0.03-0.30. No significant associations were identified in breast, colorectal, prostate, thyroid, stomach, bladder, kidney, gallbladder, and uterine cancers and in melanoma. While no associations were identified between MT and tumor staging, a positive association was identified with the tumor grade (OR 1.58; 1.08-2.30. In particular, strong associations were observed in breast, ovarian, uterine and prostate cancers. Borderline significant association of metastatic status and MT staining were determined (OR 1.59; 1.03-2.46, particularly in esophageal cancer. Additionally, a significant association between the patient prognosis and MT staining was also demonstrated (hazard ratio 2.04; 1.47-2.81. However, a high degree of inconsistence was observed in several tumor types, including colorectal, kidney and prostate cancer. Despite the ambiguity in some tumor types, conclusive results are provided in the tumors of

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography in Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Gianluca Coppola

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is likely to start as mild cognitive impairment (MCI several years before the its full-blown clinical manifestation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used to detect a loss in peripapillary retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL and a reduction in macular thickness and volume of people affected by MCI or AD. Here, we performed an aggregate meta-analysis combining results from different studies.Data sources were case-control studies published between January 2001 and August 2014 (identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases that examined the RNFL thickness by means of OCT in AD and MCI patients compared with cognitively healthy controls.11 studies were identified, including 380 patients with AD, 68 with MCI and 293 healthy controls (HC. The studies suggest that the mean RNFL thickness is reduced in MCI (weighted mean differences in μm, WMD = -13.39, 95% CI: -17.34 to -9.45, p = 0.031 and, even more so, in AD (WMD = -15.95, 95% CI: -21.65 to -10.21, p<0.0001 patients compared to HC. RNFL in the 4 quadrants were all significantly thinner in AD superior (superior WMD = -24.0, 95% CI: -34.9 to -13.1, p<0.0001; inferior WMD = -20.8, 95% CI: -32.0 to -9.7, p<0.0001; nasal WMD = -14.7, 95% CI: -23.9 to -5.5, p<0.0001; and temporal WMD = -10.7, 95% CI: -19.9 to -1.4, p<0.0001; the same significant reduction in quadrant RNFL was observed in MCI patients compared with HC (Inferior WMD = -20.22, 95% CI: -30.41 to -10.03, p = 0.0001; nasal WMD = -7.4, 95% CI: -10.08 to -4.7, p = 0.0000; and temporal WMD = -6.88, 95% CI: -12.62 to -1.13, p = 0.01, with the exception of superior quadrant (WMD = -19.45, 95% CI: -40.23 to 1.32, p = 0.06.Results from the meta-analysis support the important role of OCT for RNFL analysis in monitoring the progression of AD and in assessing the effectiveness of purported AD treatments.

  5. A systematic review-meta-analysis and meta-regression on the effect of selected competitive exclusion products on Salmonella spp. prevalence and concentration in broiler chickens.

    Kerr, Ashley K; Farrar, Ashley M; Waddell, Lisa A; Wilkins, Wendy; Wilhelm, Barbara J; Bucher, Oliver; Wills, Robert W; Bailey, R Hart; Varga, Csaba; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2013-08-01

    The effectiveness of various competitive exclusion (CE) products for reducing Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens was evaluated using systematic review-meta-analysis-meta-regression (SR-MA-MR). Relevance screening identified 201 relevant studies that were subjected to methodological assessment. Of these studies, 159 were suitable for data extraction, 66 were presented in a number of MAs and 130 were examined in a meta-regression (MR). Fourteen different CE products were identified, 9 of them commercial products, and the most common route of administration was oral gavage (63.7% of trials). Meta-analyses indicated that a number of CE products reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers, the most effective one being Preempt™ which was formerly known as CF-3. Five study characteristics (publication year, CE type, CE route, sample origin, and Salmonella serovar administered/recovered) and three methodological soundness characteristics (treatment assignment, intervention and laboratory methods description) were retained as statistically significant (pchicken source CE culture products in effectiveness. The administration of CE through spraying the chicks at the hatchery was determined to be just as effective as the oral gavage treatment, and more practical for farmers to administer. The results of this study could be useful in decision-making concerning the on-farm use of CE products in broiler chickens, and as inputs for risk assessments as the industry pushes for more antibiotic-free alternatives. Out of the various interventions to reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers on-farm, CE was the most studied; its inability to be licenced in certain countries and proof of consistent efficacy remains a barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Are You Interested? A Meta-Analysis of Relations between Vocational Interests and Employee Performance and Turnover

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H.; Roth, Philip L.; Putka, Dan J.; Lanivich, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    A common belief among researchers is that vocational interests have limited value for personnel selection. However, no comprehensive quantitative summaries of interests validity research have been conducted to substantiate claims for or against the use of interests. To help address this gap, we conducted a meta-analysis of relations between…

  7. He's Skilled, She's Lucky: A Meta-analysis of Observers' Attributions for Women's and Men's Successes and Failures.

    Swim, Janet K.; Sanna, Lawrence J.

    1996-01-01

    This meta-analysis builds on past qualitative reviews examining different attributions that observers give for other women's and men's successes and failures. Results suggest the greatest support for the argument that differences in expectations for women's and men's performances on masculine tasks influence the selection of stable or unstable…

  8. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Expressive-Language Outcomes among Late Talkers

    Fisher, Evelyn L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on predictors of outcomes among late talkers using systematic review and meta-analysis methods. We sought to answer the question: What factors predict preschool-age expressive-language outcomes among late-talking toddlers? Method: We entered carefully selected search terms into the…

  9. Molecular tools for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy

    de Ruiter, C. M.; van der Veer, C.; Leeflang, M. M. G.; Deborggraeve, S.; Lucas, C.; Adams, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular methods have been proposed as highly sensitive tools for the detection of Leishmania parasites in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these tools in a meta-analysis of the published literature. The selection criteria were original studies that

  10. Diet influenced tooth erosion prevalence in children and adolescents: Results of a meta-analysis and meta-regression

    Salas, M.M.; Nascimento, G.G.; Vargas-Ferreira, F.; Tarquinio, S.B.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Demarco, F.F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of diet in tooth erosion presence in children and adolescents by meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA: Two reviewers independently performed the selection process and the quality of studies was assessed. SOURCES: Studies

  11. Interventions for central serous chorioretinopathy: a network meta-analysis

    Salehi, Mahsa; Wenick, Adam S; Law, Hua Andrew; Evans, Jennifer R; Gehlbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    review authors independently selected studies and extracted data. We pooled data from all studies using a fixed-effect model. For interventions applied to the eye (i.e. not systemic interventions), we synthesized direct and indirect evidence in a network meta-analysis model. Main results We included 25 studies with 1098 participants (1098 eyes) and follow-up from 16 weeks to 12 years. Studies were conducted in Europe, North and South America, Middle East, and Asia. The trials were small (most trials enrolled fewer than 50 participants) and poorly reported; often it was unclear whether key aspects of the trial, such as allocation concealment, had been done. A substantial proportion of the trials were not masked. The studies considered a variety of treatments: anti-VEGF (ranibizumab, bevacizumab), PDT (full-dose, half-dose, 30%, low-fluence), laser treatment (argon, krypton and micropulse laser), beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, Helicobactor pylori treatment, and nutritional supplements (Icaps, lutein); there were only one or two trials contributing data for each comparison. We downgraded for risk of bias and imprecision for most analyses, reflecting study limitations and imprecise estimates. Network meta-analysis (as planned in our protocol) did not help to resolve this uncertainty due to a lack of trials, and problems with intransitivity, particularly with respect to acute or chronic CSC. Low quality evidence from two trials suggested little difference in the effect of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab or bevacizumab) or observation on change in visual acuity at six months in acute CSC (mean difference (MD) 0.01 LogMAR (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution), 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.02 to 0.03; 64 participants). CSC had resolved in all participants by six months. There were no significant adverse effects noted. Low quality evidence from one study (58 participants) suggested that half-dose PDT treatment of acute CSC probably results in a small

  12. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... of clinical signs including FMD lesions and fever, while the virological protection parameter was estimated based on the outcome of laboratory tests that were used to diagnose FMD infection. A meta-analysis relative risk was calculated per protection parameter. Results of the meta-analyses were examined using...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  13. Meta-Analysis inside and outside Particle Physics: Convergence Using the Path of Least Resistance?

    Jackson, Dan; Baker, Rose

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we explain how the method proposed by Hartung and Knapp provides a compromise between conventional meta-analysis methodology and "unconstrained averaging", as used by the Particle Data Group.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Questionnaire Response Rates in Military Samples

    Parrish, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    ...), use of advance notices, and use of follow-up reminders. Data were gathered for a meta-analysis of 73 previously published studies which utilized a survey or questionnaire to collect data from a military-only sample...

  15. Anxiety, depression, and perception of early parenting: A meta-analysis.

    Gerlsma, C.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Arrindell, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on perceived parental rearing practices in depressed and anxious patients by meta-analysis. The psychometric and validational properties of questionnaires measuring perceptions of parental rearing styles were investigated, and only studies using satisfactory measures were

  16. Maggot therapy for chronic ulcer: A retrospective cohort and a meta-analysis

    Chumpon Wilasrusmee

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Our evidence suggests that MWT is significantly better for wound healing and more cost-effective than CWT. An updated meta-analysis or large scale randomized controlled trial (RCT is required to confirm this effect.

  17. Fatal flaws in a recent meta-analysis on abortion and mental health.

    Steinberg, Julia R; Trussell, James; Hall, Kelli S; Guthrie, Kate

    2012-11-01

    Similar to other reviews within the last 4 years, a thorough review by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, published in December 2011, found that compared to delivery of an unintended pregnancy, abortion does not increase women's risk of mental health problems. In contrast, a meta-analysis published in September 2011 concluded that abortion increases women's risk of mental health problems by 81% and that 10% of mental health problems are attributable to abortions. Like others, we strongly question the quality of this meta-analysis and its conclusions. Here we detail seven errors of this meta-analysis and three significant shortcomings of the included studies because policy, practice and the public have been misinformed. These errors and shortcomings render the meta-analysis' conclusions invalid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic association of depression following myocardial infarction with mortality and cardiovascular events : A meta-analysis

    van Melle, JP; de Jonge, P; Spijkerman, TA; Tijssen, JGP; Ormel, J; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Brink, RHS; van den Berg, MP

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of depression following myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular prognosis. Methods: The authors performed a meta-analysis of references derived from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PSYCINFO (1975-2003) combined with crossreferencing without language restrictions. The

  19. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Weingart, L.R.

    2003-01-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, resultsrevealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and

  20. Inflammatory mediators in human epilepsy : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    de Vries, Evelien E.; van den Munckhof, Bart; Braun, Kees P J; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E.

    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that investigated inflammatory mediators in human epilepsy. Studies reporting on inflammatory mediators in serum,

  1. Comparing new treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis--a network meta-analysis.

    Loveman, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The treatment landscape for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a devastating lung disease, is changing. To investigate the effectiveness of treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis we undertook a systematic review, network meta-analysis and indirect comparison.

  2. Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis

    Loymans, Rik J. B.; Gemperli, Armin; Cohen, Judith; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Reddel, Helen K.; Jüni, Peter; ter Riet, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. Systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian statistics. Cochrane systematic reviews on chronic asthma, complemented by an updated search when appropriate.

  3. Effectiveness and feasibility of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    la Chapelle, C.F.; Veersema, S.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether hysteroscopic sterilization is feasible and effective in preventing pregnancy. Secondarily, to identify risk factors for failure of hysteroscopic sterilization. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Women undergoing hysteroscopic

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  5. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely correlated with leukemia: A meta-analysis

    Jun-Jie Ma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggested that serum ADPN levels may be inversely correlated with leukemia, and ADPN levels can be used as an effective biologic marker in early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of leukemia.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Local Climate Change Adaptation Actions ...

    Local governments are beginning to take steps to address the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and heat events. However, we do not have a clear understanding of what local governments are doing -- the extent to which they expect climate change to affect their community, the types of actions they have in place to address climate change, and the resources at their disposal for implementation. Several studies have been conducted by academics, non-governmental organizations, and public agencies to assess the status of local climate change adaptation. This project collates the findings from dozens of such studies to conduct a meta-analysis of local climate change adaptation actions. The studies will be characterized along several dimensions, including (a) methods used, (b) timing and geographic scope, (c) topics covered, (d) types of adaptation actions identified, (e) implementation status, and (f) public engagement and environmental justice dimensions considered. The poster presents the project's rationale and approach and some illustrative findings from early analyses. [Note: The document being reviewed is an abstract in which a poster is being proposed. The poster will enter clearance if the abstract is accepted] The purpose of this poster is to present the research framework and approaches I am developing for my ORISE postdoctoral project, and to get feedback on early analyses.

  7. Social cognition and the brain: a meta-analysis.

    Van Overwalle, Frank

    2009-03-01

    This meta-analysis explores the location and function of brain areas involved in social cognition, or the capacity to understand people's behavioral intentions, social beliefs, and personality traits. On the basis of over 200 fMRI studies, it tests alternative theoretical proposals that attempt to explain how several brain areas process information relevant for social cognition. The results suggest that inferring temporary states such as goals, intentions, and desires of other people-even when they are false and unjust from our own perspective--strongly engages the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). Inferring more enduring dispositions of others and the self, or interpersonal norms and scripts, engages the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), although temporal states can also activate the mPFC. Other candidate tasks reflecting general-purpose brain processes that may potentially subserve social cognition are briefly reviewed, such as sequence learning, causality detection, emotion processing, and executive functioning (action monitoring, attention, dual task monitoring, episodic memory retrieval), but none of them overlaps uniquely with the regions activated during social cognition. Hence, it appears that social cognition particularly engages the TPJ and mPFC regions. The available evidence is consistent with the role of a TPJ-related mirror system for inferring temporary goals and intentions at a relatively perceptual level of representation, and the mPFC as a module that integrates social information across time and allows reflection and representation of traits and norms, and presumably also of intentionality, at a more abstract cognitive level.

  8. Joint attention in Down syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    Hahn, Laura J; Loveall, Susan J; Savoy, Madison T; Neumann, Allie M; Ikuta, Toshikazu

    2018-07-01

    Some studies have indicated that joint attention may be a relative strength in Down syndrome (DS), but other studies have not. To conduct a meta-analysis of joint attention in DS to more conclusively determine if this is a relative strength or weakness when compared to children with typical development (TD), developmental disabilities (DD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Journal articles published before September 13, 2016, were identified by using the search terms "Down syndrome" and "joint attention" or "coordinating attention". Identified studies were reviewed and coded for inclusion criteria, descriptive information, and outcome variables. Eleven studies (553 participants) met inclusion criteria. Children with DS showed similar joint attention as TD children and higher joint attention than children with DD and ASD. Meta-regression revealed a significant association between age and joint attention effect sizes in the DS vs. TD contrast. Joint attention appears to not be a weakness for children with DS, but may be commensurate with developmental level. Joint attention may be a relative strength in comparison to other skills associated with the DS behavioral phenotype. Early interventions for children with DS may benefit from leveraging joint attention skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Osteosarcoma: A Meta-Analysis and Review of the Literature.

    Friebele, Jill C; Peck, Jeffrey; Pan, Xueliang; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Mayerson, Joel L

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, treatment advances and the addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have led to improved 5-year survival in patients with osteosarcoma. More recent literature suggests the overall prognosis remains highly variable, with little improvement since the introduction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tumor necrosis is an important predictor of patient prognosis. Necrosis of more than 90% correlates with overall survival (OS) approaching 75%. We reviewed the history of osteosarcoma treatment and survival and performed a meta-analysis of the 2000-2011 literature. Forty articles were included in the study. Five-year OS was 63% (95% confidence interval, 60%-66%) in studies that included patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic disease and 71% (95% confidence interval, 67%-76%) in studies that included only patients with nonmetastatic disease. Fifty percent of the patients in the studies of those with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma achieved 90% necrosis on histology. Five-year OS and number of patients achieving 90% necrosis are consistent with previous reports. Research is needed to improve treatment regimens and patient outcomes.

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  11. CD147 and glioma: a meta-analysis.

    Li, Hui; Xi, Zhouhuan; Dai, Xuejiao; Wu, Wenyue; Li, Yanwen; Liu, Yanting; Zhang, Hanwen

    2017-08-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the relationship between CD147 expression in tissues and the clinicopathological features of patients with glioma. We searched PubMed (1966-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), Cochrane Library (1996-2016), Web of Science (1945-2016), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1982-2016), and Wan Fang databases (1988-2016). Quality assessment of the literature was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, with Revman 5.3 and Stata 14.0 for analysis. In total, 1806 glioma patients from 19 studies were included, and patients with CD147 overexpression had poorer overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.211, P CD147 expression when comparing glioma tissues versus non-cancerous brain tissues (OR 20.42; 95% CI 13.94-29.91; P CD147 expression did not differ based on patient's age (young vs. old, P = 0.89) or gender (female vs. male, P = 0.57). CD147 expression may be a potential prognostic biomarker for poorer overall and relapse-free survival, and may affect the 5-year survival rate in glioma patients. CD147 expression is also closely correlated with poor clinical characteristics in glioma patients.

  12. A Meta-Analysis: Student Misbehaviors That Affect Classroom Management

    Gülay Dalgıç

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on student misbehaviors in classroom have focused on the identification of most frequent misbehaviors and individual practices used by the teachers. However there is still a significant gap about the demographic and other factors that affect teachers’ perceptions of misbehaviors in classrooms. This meta-analysis reviewed the literature in Turkey on student misbehaviors from the views of teachers and demographic factors in theses and published articles between 2000-2012. The sample included 3648 teachers gathered from 16 studies. The results highlight that task avoidance, constant talking with classmates, verbal hostility towards peers and teacher, indifference to study subject during classes, damaging school stuff, and coming late are the most frequent student misbehavior types reported by teachers. Results showed a small relation between perceived student misbehavior and teachers’ teaching field, teacher seniority, educational background of teachers, and number of students in classroom. Gender was not determined as a statistically significant variable in determining teachers’ perceptions of student misbehavior. Practical implications for future research and practices are discussed.

  13. CBT for children with depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    Arnberg, Alexandra; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of  ≤ 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d = 0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d = 1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.

  14. Response Inhibition and Internet Gaming Disorder: A Meta-analysis.

    Argyriou, Evangelia; Davison, Christopher B; Lee, Tayla T C

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has multiple negative effects in psychological functioning and health. This makes the identification of its underpinnings, such as response inhibition, essential for the development of relevant interventions that target these core features of the disorder resulting in more effective treatment. Several empirical studies have evaluated the relationship between response inhibition deficits and IGD using neurocognitive tasks, but provided mixed results. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies using three neurocognitive tasks, the Go/No Go, the Stroop, and the Stop-Signal tasks, to integrate existing research and estimate the magnitude of this relationship. We found a medium overall effect size (d=0.56, 95% CI [0.32, 0.80]) indicating that compared with healthy individuals, individuals with IGD are more likely to exhibit impaired response inhibition. This finding is in alignment with literature on inhibition and addictive and impulsive behaviors, as well as with neuroimaging research. Theoretical implications regarding the conceptualization of IGD as a clinical disorder, shared commonalities with externalizing psychopathology, and clinical implications for treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Affective empathy in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Lysaker, Paul H; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-08-01

    Affective empathy, or the emotional response one has to the experiences or emotional states of others, contributes to relationship-maintaining behaviors and is key in fostering social connections, yet no work has synthesized the body of literature for people with schizophrenia. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the extent to which those diagnosed with schizophrenia experience deficits in affective empathy. A literature search was conducted of studies examining empathy. Data were analyzed using a random effects meta-analytic model with Hedges' g standardized mean difference effect size. Individuals with schizophrenia exhibited significant, medium deficits in affective empathy (k=37). Measurement type moderated the affective empathy deficit such that performance-based measures showed larger schizophrenia group deficits than self-report measures. Consistent, significant deficits in affective empathy were found comparing people with schizophrenia to healthy controls, especially when using performance-based assessments. The medium effect suggests an important role for empathy in the realm of social cognitive research, and points to the need for further investigation of measurement techniques and associations with functional outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Affective mapping: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.

    Kirby, Lauren A J; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness. Resultant ALE maps were compared to determine areas of convergence between emotions, as well as to identify affect-specific networks. Five out of the seven emotions demonstrated consistent activation within the amygdala, whereas all emotions consistently activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, which has been implicated as an integration hub for affective and cognitive processes. These data provide the framework for models of affect-specific networks, as well as emotional processing hubs, which can be used for future studies of functional or effective connectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Maternal obesity and infant mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Meehan, Sean; Beck, Charles R; Mair-Jenkins, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Puleston, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Despite numerous studies reporting an elevated risk of infant mortality among women who are obese, the magnitude of the association is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the association between maternal overweight or obesity and infant mortality. Four health care databases and gray literature sources were searched and screened against the protocol eligibility criteria. Observational studies reporting on the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed. Twenty-four records were included from 783 screened. Obese mothers (BMI ≥30) had greater odds of having an infant death (odds ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.63; P obese (BMI >35) (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-2.56; P obese mothers and that this risk may increase with greater maternal BMI or weight; however, residual confounding may explain these findings. Given the rising prevalence of maternal obesity, additional high-quality epidemiologic studies to elucidate the actual influence of elevated maternal mass or weight on infant mortality are needed. If a causal link is determined and the biological basis explained, public health strategies to address the issue of maternal obesity will be needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. The Association Between Anxiety and Falls: A Meta-Analysis.

    Hallford, David John; Nicholson, Geoff; Sanders, Kerrie; McCabe, Marita P

    2017-09-01

    Falls occur frequently among older adults and can lead to a range of adverse and debilitating outcomes. Although symptoms of clinical anxiety have been implicated as risk factors for falls, there is no current consensus on the empirical association between anxiety and falls. The current study aimed to address this gap in the literature by conducting a quantitative, meta-analytic review of findings from previous studies. A systematic literature search of bibliographic databases was conducted, yielding 18 studies that fit the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A random-effects model of all 18 studies showed a significant overall odds ratio of 1.53 (95% CI 1.28-1.83, p anxiety were associated with a 53% increased likelihood of falls. A high amount of variance among effect sizes was observed. Only age was identified as a moderator of this relationship in a subgroup of the samples. Clinical anxiety is associated with falls, however, further research is required to elucidate the factors that might moderate or mediate this relationship, the casual pathways through which they are related, and the associations between different types of anxiety and falls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Environmental policy assessment and the usefulness of meta-analysis

    Button, K. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom); Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Incorporating environmental considerations fully into decision-making is a complex process. To develop improved assessment techniques and procedures it is important to understand these complexities. This paper sets out to explore the underlying nature of the issues involved and to develop a systematic schema which makes transparent the types of consideration which need to be incorporated in the assessment process and the forms of tradeoffs which are inevitable. It then proceeds to the more practical issue of looking at where better use could be made of the information that we already have. Environmental assessment is not new and a body of information and experience already exists. An important question is whether we are using the body of knowledge fully. The paper explores the areas in which meta-analysis could provide new insights in the assessment process by extracting more information from previous work but, in doing this, it also highlights areas where further primary research would yield the greatest return. 4 figs., 21 refs.

  1. Memory training interventions for older adults: a meta-analysis.

    Gross, Alden L; Parisi, Jeanine M; Spira, Adam P; Kueider, Alexandra M; Ko, Jean Y; Saczynski, Jane S; Samus, Quincy M; Rebok, George W

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of memory training research was conducted to characterize the effect of memory strategies on memory performance among cognitively intact, community-dwelling older adults, and to identify characteristics of individuals and of programs associated with improved memory. The review identified 402 publications, of which 35 studies met criteria for inclusion. The overall effect size estimate, representing the mean standardized difference in pre-post change between memory-trained and control groups, was 0.31 standard deviations (SD; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22, 0.39). The pre-post training effect for memory-trained interventions was 0.43 SD (95% CI: 0.29, 0.57) and the practice effect for control groups was 0.06 SD (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16). Among 10 distinct memory strategies identified in studies, meta-analytic methods revealed that training multiple strategies was associated with larger training gains (p=0.04), although this association did not reach statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Treatment gains among memory-trained individuals were not better after training in any particular strategy, or by the average age of participants, session length, or type of control condition. These findings can inform the design of future memory training programs for older adults.

  2. Obesity in pediatric ALL survivors: a meta-analysis.

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Saltzman, Edward; Must, Aviva; Roberts, Susan B; Parsons, Susan K

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies of survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have drawn heterogeneous conclusions regarding the prevalence of obesity and risk factors for developing obesity in pediatric ALL survivors. We sought to determine the prevalence of obesity in pediatric ALL survivors and examine risk factors for obesity through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A MEDLINE search was performed from its inception through 2013. Studies met the inclusion criteria if they (1) included at least 10 survivors of pediatric ALL; (2) assessed the prevalence or indicators of obesity; and (3) compared obesity among ALL survivors to a reference population or external control group. Extracted data included patient and treatment characteristics, study design, population used for comparison, and prevalence of obesity. Forty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Despite significant heterogeneity among the studies (I(2) = 96%), the mean BMI z score in 1742 pediatric ALL survivors was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.60-1.06), which corresponds to the 80th BMI percentile, indicating a significantly higher BMI in pediatric ALL survivors than the reference population. Subgroup analyses found a high prevalence of obesity in ALL survivors regardless of survivors' receipt of cranial irradiation, gender, or age at diagnosis. Obesity is prevalent in pediatric ALL survivors and is independent of patient- and treatment-related characteristics. Clinicians need to screen for obesity and its associated health conditions early in survivorship.

  3. Yttrium synovectomy: a meta-analysis of the literature

    Jones, G.

    1993-01-01

    Yttrium synovectomy for chronic synovitis of the knee enjoys widespread usage in Australia with approximately 400 patients receiving yttrium-90 in 1991. Despite abundant anecdotal evidence of its efficacy there is a paucity of controlled trials and those that have been done have produced conflicting results and have been of insufficient sample size. To critically and quantitatively evaluate the published English literature on comparative trials of yttrium-90 therapy for chronic synovitis of the knee, the technique of meta-analysis was utilised. The literature search was carried out using the MeSH terms of synovectomy and knee; and yttrium. This was augmented by referring to reviews, current textbooks and back-references. Outcome measures varied between trials but could be grouped as treatment success. The Peto modification of Mantel and Haenszl was used for statistical pooling of data yielding a pooled odds ratio (OR). The literature search revealed ten controlled trials of which two were excluded from further analysis. It was found that yttrium was superior to placebo (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.02-5.73) but it is recommended that this result should be interpreted with caution due to possible publication bias. It is concluded that there is insufficient evidence from comparative trials of yttrium in the English literature to show that yttrium synovectomy is convincingly superior to triamcinolone (OR 1.89, 95% CI 0.81-10.55) or other active modalities (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.72-1.52). 25 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Quality of life in eating disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hansen, Nina Beck; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinkby

    2014-09-30

    Eating disorders (EDs) comprise a variety of symptoms and have a profound impact on everyday life. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse published data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in EDs so as to compare the results to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and binge eating disorder (BED) and used the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a measure of HRQoL. Of the 102 citations identified, 85 abstracts were reviewed and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. AN patients were included in five studies (n=227), BN in four studies (n=216), EDNOS in two studies (n=166) and BED in four studies (n=148). We tested for between-study variation and significant differences between the diagnostic groups. The results confirmed a significantly lower level of HRQoL in all EDs compared to a population mean. It was not possible to establish any differences between the diagnostic groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Economic Value of Mangroves: A Meta-Analysis

    Marwa E. Salem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the mangrove ecosystem valuation literature through a meta-regression analysis. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first meta-analysis focusing solely on mangrove forests, whereas previous studies have included different types of wetlands. The number of studies included in the regression analysis is 44 for a total of 145 observations. We include several regressions with the objective of addressing outliers in the data as well as the possible correlations between observations of the same study. We also investigate possible interaction effects between type of service and GDP per capita. Our findings indicate that mangroves exhibit decreasing returns to scale, that GDP per capita has a positive effect on mangrove values and that using the replacement cost and contingent valuation methods produce higher estimates than do other methods. We also find that there are statistically significant interaction effects that influence the data. Finally, the results indicate that employing weighted regressions provide a better fit than others. However, in terms of forecast performance we find that all the estimated models performed similarly and were not able to conclude decisively that one outperforms the other.

  6. Toxoplasmosis and epilepsy--systematic review and meta analysis.

    Ngoungou, Edgard B; Bhalla, Devender; Nzoghe, Amandine; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important, widespread, parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, usually considered as asymptomatic, is now suspected to be a risk factor for various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to estimate the risk of epilepsy due to toxoplasmosis. A systematic literature search was conducted of several databases and journals to identify studies published in English or French, without date restriction, which looked at toxoplasmosis (as exposure) and epilepsy (as disease) and met certain other inclusion criteria. The search was based on keywords and suitable combinations in English and French. Fixed and random effects models were used to determine odds ratios, and statistical significance was set at 5.0%. Six studies were identified, with an estimated total of 2888 subjects, of whom 1280 had epilepsy (477 positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1608 did not (503 positive for toxoplasmosis). The common odds ratio (calculated) by random effects model was 2.25 (95% CI 1.27-3.9), p = 0.005. Despite the limited number of studies, and a lack of high-quality data, toxoplasmosis should continue to be regarded as an epilepsy risk factor. More and better studies are needed to determine the real impact of this parasite on the occurrence of epilepsy.

  7. Upward counterfactual thinking and depression: A meta-analysis.

    Broomhall, Anne Gene; Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W; Loi, Natasha M

    2017-07-01

    This meta-analysis examined the strength of association between upward counterfactual thinking and depressive symptoms. Forty-two effect sizes from a pooled sample of 13,168 respondents produced a weighted average effect size of r=.26, pdesign (cross-sectional versus longitudinal). Significant effect size heterogeneity was observed across sample types, methods of assessing upward counterfactual thinking, and types of depression scale. Significant positive effects were found in studies that employed samples of bereaved individuals, older adults, terminally ill patients, or university students, but not adolescent mothers or mixed samples. Both number-based and Likert-based upward counterfactual thinking assessments produced significant positive effects, with the latter generating a larger effect. All depression scales produced significant positive effects, except for the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. Research and theoretical implications are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of depression and the functional theory of upward counterfactual thinking, and important gaps in the extant research literature are identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Urban Climate Change Adaptation ...

    The concentration of people, infrastructure, and ecosystem services in urban areas make them prime sites for climate change adaptation. While advances have been made in developing frameworks for adaptation planning and identifying both real and potential barriers to action, empirical work evaluating urban adaptation planning processes has been relatively piecemeal. Existing assessments of current experience with urban adaptation provide necessarily broad generalizations based on the available peer-reviewed literature. This paper uses a meta-analysis of U.S. cities’ current experience with urban adaptation planning drawing from 54 sources that include peer-reviewed literature, government reports, white papers, and reports published by non-governmental organizations. The analysis specifically evaluates the institutional support structures being developed for urban climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that adaptation planning is driven by a desire to reduce vulnerability and often catalyzes new collaborations and coordination mechanisms in urban governance. As a result, building capacity for urban climate change adaptation planning requires a focus not only on city governments themselves but also on the complex horizontal and vertical networks that have arisen around such efforts. Existing adaptation planning often lacks attention to equity issues, social vulnerability, and the influence of non-climatic factors on vulnerability. Engaging city govern

  10. Demographic faultlines: a meta-analysis of the literature.

    Thatcher, Sherry M B; Patel, Pankaj C

    2011-11-01

    We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., k [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for advancing the study of faultlines. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in emotional perception: Meta analysis of divergent activation.

    Filkowski, Megan M; Olsen, Rachel M; Duda, Bryant; Wanger, Timothy J; Sabatinelli, Dean

    2017-02-15

    Behavioral and physiological sex differences in emotional reactivity are well documented, yet comparatively few neural differences have been identified. Here we apply quantitative activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis across functional brain imaging studies that each reported clusters of activity differentiating men and women as they participated in emotion-evoking tasks in the visual modality. This approach requires the experimental paradigm to be balanced across the sexes, and thus may provide greater clarity than previous efforts. Results across 56 emotion-eliciting studies (n=1907) reveal distinct activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal pole, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in men relative to women. Women show distinct activation in bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and regions of the dorsal midbrain including the periaqueductal gray/superior colliculus and locus coeruleus. While some clusters are consistent with prevailing perspectives on the foundations of sex differences in emotional reactivity, thalamic and brainstem regions have not previously been highlighted as sexually divergent. These data strongly support the need to include sex as a factor in functional brain imaging studies of emotion, and to extend our investigative focus beyond the cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are exotic herbivores better competitors? A meta-analysis.

    Radville, Laura; Gonda-King, Liahna; Gómez, Sara; Kaplan, Ian; Preisser, Evan L

    2014-01-01

    Competition plays an important role in structuring the community dynamics of phytophagous insects. As the number and impact of biological invasions increase, it has become increasingly important to determine whether competitive differences exist between native and exotic insects. We conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that native/ exotic status affects the outcome of herbivore competition. Specifically, we used data from 160 published studies to assess plant-mediated competition in phytophagous insects. For each pair of competing herbivores, we determined the native range and coevolutionary history of each herbivore and host plant. Plant-mediated competition occurred frequently, but neither native nor exotic insects were consistently better competitors. Spatial separation reduced competition in native insects but showed little effect on exotics. Temporal separation negatively impacted native insects but did not affect competition in exotics. Insects that coevolved with their host plant were more affected by interspecific competition than herbivores that lacked a coevolutionary history. Insects that have not coevolved with their host plant may be at a competitive advantage if they overcome plant defenses. As native/exotic status does not consistently predict outcomes of competitive interactions, plant-insect coevolutionary history should be considered in studies of competition.

  13. Association between tea consumption and osteoporosis: A meta-analysis.

    Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui

    2017-12-01

    Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords "tea and osteoporosis," without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I = 94%, P tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  14. MetaGenyo: a web tool for meta-analysis of genetic association studies.

    Martorell-Marugan, Jordi; Toro-Dominguez, Daniel; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Carmona-Saez, Pedro

    2017-12-16

    Genetic association studies (GAS) aims to evaluate the association between genetic variants and phenotypes. In the last few years, the number of this type of study has increased exponentially, but the results are not always reproducible due to experimental designs, low sample sizes and other methodological errors. In this field, meta-analysis techniques are becoming very popular tools to combine results across studies to increase statistical power and to resolve discrepancies in genetic association studies. A meta-analysis summarizes research findings, increases statistical power and enables the identification of genuine associations between genotypes and phenotypes. Meta-analysis techniques are increasingly used in GAS, but it is also increasing the amount of published meta-analysis containing different errors. Although there are several software packages that implement meta-analysis, none of them are specifically designed for genetic association studies and in most cases their use requires advanced programming or scripting expertise. We have developed MetaGenyo, a web tool for meta-analysis in GAS. MetaGenyo implements a complete and comprehensive workflow that can be executed in an easy-to-use environment without programming knowledge. MetaGenyo has been developed to guide users through the main steps of a GAS meta-analysis, covering Hardy-Weinberg test, statistical association for different genetic models, analysis of heterogeneity, testing for publication bias, subgroup analysis and robustness testing of the results. MetaGenyo is a useful tool to conduct comprehensive genetic association meta-analysis. The application is freely available at http://bioinfo.genyo.es/metagenyo/ .

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Antidepressants for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    Xie, Chen; Tang, Yurong; Wang, Yunfeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Yun; Jiang, Liuqin; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and The Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Article quality was evaluated by Jadad score. RevMan 5.0 and Stata 12.0 were used for the meta-analysis. Results Twelve randomized controlled trials were...

  16. Meta-Analyst: software for meta-analysis of binary, continuous and diagnostic data

    Schmid Christopher H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Results Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF. The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI or to the analytic modules. We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software. Conclusion We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.

  17. Two-stage meta-analysis of survival data from individual participants using percentile ratios

    Barrett, Jessica K; Farewell, Vern T; Siannis, Fotios; Tierney, Jayne; Higgins, Julian P T

    2012-01-01

    Methods for individual participant data meta-analysis of survival outcomes commonly focus on the hazard ratio as a measure of treatment effect. Recently, Siannis et al. (2010, Statistics in Medicine 29:3030–3045) proposed the use of percentile ratios as an alternative to hazard ratios. We describe a novel two-stage method for the meta-analysis of percentile ratios that avoids distributional assumptions at the study level. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22825835

  18. Prevalence of Depression among University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study

    Diana Sarokhani; Ali Delpisheh; Yousef Veisani; Mohamad Taher Sarokhani; Rohollah Esmaeli Manesh; Kourosh Sayehmiri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Depression is one of the four major diseases in the world and is the most common cause of disability from diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression among Iranian university students using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods. Keyword depression was searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MAGIran, Medlib, and SID. Data was analyzed using meta-analysis (random-effects model). Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using ...

  19. The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis

    Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemen...

  20. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Simmonds, M.; Llewellyn, A.; Owen, C. G.; Woolacott, N.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included ...

  1. Lack of efficacy of resveratrol on C-reactive protein and selected cardiovascular risk factors--Results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Wong, Nathan D; Muntner, Paul; Graham, Ian M; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Rizzo, Manfredi; Rysz, Jacek; Sperling, Laurence S; Lip, Gregory Y H; Banach, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that oral supplementation with resveratrol exerts cardioprotective effects, but evidence of the effects on C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels and other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors is inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on plasma CRP concentrations and selected predictors of CV risk. The search included PUBMED, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE (up to August 31, 2014) to identify RCTs investigating the effects of resveratrol supplementation on selected CV risk factors. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as summary statistics. Meta-analysis of data from 10 RCTs (11 treatment arms) did not support a significant effect of resveratrol supplementation in altering plasma CRP concentrations (WMD: -0.144 mg/L, 95% CI: -0.968-0.680, p = 0.731). Resveratrol supplementation was not found to alter plasma levels of total cholesterol (WMD: 1.49 mg/dL, 95% CI: -14.96-17.93, p = 0.859), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD: -0.31 mg/dL, 95% CI: -9.57-8.95, p = 0.948), triglycerides (WMD: 2.67 mg/dL, 95% CI: -28.34-33.67, p = 0.866), and glucose (WMD: 1.28 mg/dL, 95% CI: -5.28-7.84, p = 0.703). It also slightly reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (WMD: -4.18 mg/dL, 95% CI: -6.54 to -1.82, p = 0.001). Likewise, no significant effect was observed on systolic (WMD: 0.82 mmHg, 95% CI: -8.86-10.50, p = 0.868) and diastolic blood pressure (WMD: 1.72 mm Hg, 95% CI: -6.29-9.73, p=0.674). This meta-analysis of available RCTs does not suggest any benefit of resveratrol supplementation on CV risk factors. Larger, well-designed trials are necessary to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Migraine Headache and Ischemic Stroke Risk: An Updated Meta-analysis

    Spector, June T.; Kahn, Susan R.; Jones, Miranda R.; Jayakumar, Monisha; Dalal, Deepan; Nazarian, Saman

    2010-01-01

    Background Observational studies, including recent large cohort studies which were unavailable for prior meta-analysis, have suggested an association between migraine headache and ischemic stroke. We performed an updated meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the strength of association between migraine and ischemic stroke risk. Methods We systematically searched electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, through February 2009 for studies of human subjects in the English language. Study selection using a priori selection criteria, data extraction, and assessment of study quality were conducted independently by reviewer pairs using standardized forms. Results Twenty-one (60%) of 35 studies met the selection criteria, for a total of 622,381 participants (13 case-control, 8 cohort studies) included in the meta-analysis. The pooled adjusted odds ratio of ischemic stroke comparing migraineurs to non-migraineurs using a random effects model was 2.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91-2.76). The pooled adjusted effect estimates for studies that reported relative risks and hazard ratios, respectively, were 2.41 (95% CI, 1.81-3.20) and 1.52 (95% CI, 0.99-2.35). The overall pooled effect estimate was 2.04 (95% CI, 1.72-2.43). Results were robust to sensitivity analyses excluding lower quality studies. Conclusions Migraine is associated with increased ischemic stroke risk. These findings underscore the importance of identifying high-risk migraineurs with other modifiable stroke risk factors. Future studies of the effect of migraine treatment and modifiable risk factor reduction on stroke risk in migraineurs are warranted. PMID:20493462

  3. Determinants of investment behaviour. Methods and applications of meta-analysis

    Koetse, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analysis is gradually gaining ground in economics as a research method to objectively and quantitatively summarise a body of existing empirical evidence. This dissertation studies the performance of well-known meta-analytic models and presents two meta-analysis applications. Despite its many attractive features, meta-analysis faces several methodical difficulties, especially when applied in economic research. We investigate two specific methodical problems that any meta-analysis in economics will have to deal with, viz., systematic effect-size variation due to primary-study misspecifications, and random effect-size heterogeneity. Using Monte-Carlo analysis we investigate the effects of these methodical problems on the results of a meta-analysis, and study the small-sample properties of several well-known and often applied meta-estimators. The focus of the meta-analysis applications is on two topics that are relevant for understanding investment behaviour, viz., the impact of uncertainty on investment spending, and the potential for substitution of capital for energy in production processes. In the first application we aim to shed light on the direction of the relationship between investment and uncertainty, and to uncover which factors are empirically relevant for explaining the wide variety in study outcomes. In the second application our goal is to analyse the direction and magnitude of capital-energy substitution potential, and to analyse the empirical relevance of suggested sources of variation in elasticity estimates

  4. Meta-analysis for evidence synthesis in plant pathology: an overview.

    Madden, L V; Paul, P A

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis is the analysis of the results of multiple studies, which is typically performed in order to synthesize evidence from many possible sources in a formal probabilistic manner. In a simple sense, the outcome of each study becomes a single observation in the meta-analysis of all available studies. The methodology was developed originally in the social sciences by Smith, Glass, Rosenthal, Hunter, and Schmidt, based on earlier pioneering contributions in statistics by Fisher, Pearson, Yates, and Cochran, but this approach to research synthesis has now been embraced within many scientific disciplines. However, only a handful of articles have been published in plant pathology and related fields utilizing meta-analysis. After reviewing basic concepts and approaches, methods for estimating parameters and interpreting results are shown. The advantages of meta-analysis are presented in terms of prediction and risk analysis, and the high statistical power that can be achieved for detecting significant effects of treatments or significant relationships between variables. Based on power considerations, the fallacy of naïve counting of P values in a narrative review is demonstrated. Although there are many advantages to meta-analysis, results can be biased if the analysis is based on a nonrepresentative sample of study outcomes. Therefore, novel approaches for characterizing the upper bound on the bias are discussed, in order to show the robustness of meta-analysis to possible violation of assumptions.

  5. MADAM - An open source meta-analysis toolbox for R and Bioconductor

    Graber Armin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is a major theme in biomedical research. In the present paper we introduce a package for R and Bioconductor that provides useful tools for performing this type of work. One idea behind the development of MADAM was that many meta-analysis methods, which are available in R, are not able to use the capacities of parallel computing yet. In this first version, we implemented one meta-analysis method in such a parallel manner. Additionally, we provide tools for combining the results from a set of methods in an ensemble approach. Functionality for visualization of results is also provided. Results The presented package enables the carrying out of meta-analysis either by providing functions directly or by wrapping them to existing implementations. Overall, five different meta-analysis methods are now usable through MADAM, along with another three methods for combining the corresponding results. Visualizing the results is eased by three included functions. For developing and testing meta-analysis methods, a mock up data generator is integrated. Conclusions The use of MADAM enables a user to focus on one package, in turn enabling them to work with the same data types across a set of methods. By making use of the snow package, MADAM can be made compatible with an existing parallel computing infrastructure. MADAM is open source and freely available within CRAN http://cran.r-project.org.

  6. Determinants of investment behaviour. Methods and applications of meta-analysis

    Koetse, M.J.

    2006-03-14

    Meta-analysis is gradually gaining ground in economics as a research method to objectively and quantitatively summarise a body of existing empirical evidence. This dissertation studies the performance of well-known meta-analytic models and presents two meta-analysis applications. Despite its many attractive features, meta-analysis faces several methodical difficulties, especially when applied in economic research. We investigate two specific methodical problems that any meta-analysis in economics will have to deal with, viz., systematic effect-size variation due to primary-study misspecifications, and random effect-size heterogeneity. Using Monte-Carlo analysis we investigate the effects of these methodical problems on the results of a meta-analysis, and study the small-sample properties of several well-known and often applied meta-estimators. The focus of the meta-analysis applications is on two topics that are relevant for understanding investment behaviour, viz., the impact of uncertainty on investment spending, and the potential for substitution of capital for energy in production processes. In the first application we aim to shed light on the direction of the relationship between investment and uncertainty, and to uncover which factors are empirically relevant for explaining the wide variety in study outcomes. In the second application our goal is to analyse the direction and magnitude of capital-energy substitution potential, and to analyse the empirical relevance of suggested sources of variation in elasticity estimates.

  7. Advances in meta-analysis: examples from internal medicine to neurology.

    Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Graziano, Giusi; Veneziani, Federica; Siena, Federica; Scardapane, Marco; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Pellegrini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We review the state of the art in meta-analysis and data pooling following the evolution of the statistical models employed. Starting from a classic definition of meta-analysis of published data, a set of apparent antinomies which characterized the development of the meta-analytic tools are reconciled in dichotomies where the second term represents a possible generalization of the first one. Particular attention is given to the generalized linear mixed models as an overall framework for meta-analysis. Bayesian meta-analysis is discussed as a further possibility of generalization for sensitivity analysis and the use of priors as a data augmentation approach. We provide relevant examples to underline how the need for adequate methods to solve practical issues in specific areas of research have guided the development of advanced methods in meta-analysis. We show how all the advances in meta-analysis naturally merge into the unified framework of generalized linear mixed models and reconcile apparently conflicting approaches. All these complex models can be easily implemented with the standard commercial software available. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD): a meta-analysis

    Zhao, Luqian; Zhu, Zhigang; Lou, Huiling; Zhu, Guodong; Huang, Weimin; Zhang, Shaogang; Liu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Some studies reported a significant association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results are controversial. A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed, Science Direct, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Five case-control studies and 5 cohort studies were selected, involving a total of 104392 subjects in this meta-analysis. PCOS was significantly associated with the increased risk of CVD (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09 ? 1.56; P ...

  9. Effectiveness of Reirradiation for Painful Bone Metastases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Huisman, Merel; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Wijlemans, Joost W.; Vulpen, Marco van; Linden, Yvette M. van der; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reirradiation of painful bone metastases in nonresponders or patients with recurrent pain after initial response is performed in up to 42% of patients initially treated with radiotherapy. Literature on the effect of reirradiation for pain control in those patients is scarce. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we quantify the effectiveness of reirradiation for achieving pain control in patients with painful bone metastases. Methods and Materials: A free text search was performed to identify eligible studies using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Collaboration library electronic databases. After study selection and quality assessment, a pooled estimate was calculated for overall pain response for reirradiation of metastatic bone pain. Results: Our literature search identified 707 titles, of which 10 articles were selected for systematic review and seven entered the meta-analysis. Overall study quality was mediocre. Of the 2,694 patients initially treated for metastatic bone pain, 527 (20%) patients underwent reirradiation. Overall, a pain response after reirradiation was achieved in 58% of patients (pooled overall response rate 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.49–0.67). There was a substantial between-study heterogeneity (I 2 = 63.3%, p = 0.01) because of clinical and methodological differences between studies. Conclusions: Reirradiation of painful bone metastases is effective in terms of pain relief for a small majority of patients; approximately 40% of patients do not benefit from reirradiation. Although the validity of results is limited, this meta-analysis provides a comprehensive overview and the most quantitative estimate of reirradiation effectiveness to date.

  10. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  11. Survival Rate and Associated Factors of Childhood Leukemia in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Yousef Veisani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Resent reviews have shown that about 18% of all child cancers are leukemia. Track of the survival rate can help researchers improve quality of life of patients through improving screening or discovery of better treatments. Objectives This review aimed at estimating the 5-year survival rates and associated factors of childhood leukemia in Iran. Data Sources We carried out a systematic review through search of relevant studies published in English (PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and ISI and Persian databases (Magiran, Medlib, SID, and Iran Medex. Study Selection The study included all epidemiologic studies that estimated survival rate in children with leukemia in Iran during years 2002 to 2015, and a standardized manner was used for extraction of information. Data Extraction The entire text or summary of all searched articles was extracted and then, related articles were selected, and irrelevant ones were excluded. Fixed and random effects models were calculated by the STATA using standard meta-analysis methods. Heterogeneity was assessed by I² statistics. Results The overall 5-year survival rate in patients with childhood leukemia in Iran was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.67, 10 studies, in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL subtype was 71.0% (95% CI: 68.0 to 74.0, and in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML subtype was 46.0%. Results of the meta analysis showed significant poor survival with relapse (heart rate (HR 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.27 to 1.98 and white blood count (WBC counts ≥ 50,000 (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.60. Conclusions The results showed that 5-year survival rates in patients with AML were lower than patients with ALL. The results of this meta analysis strongly support the need for future research, action, and guidance for clinicians to improve health-related quality of life and outcomes for children with leukemia.

  12. Body mass index and age at natural menopause: a meta-analysis.

    Tao, Xingyong; Jiang, Anran; Yin, Liping; Li, Yingchun; Tao, Fangbiao; Hu, Huaqing

    2015-04-01

    There is no universal consensus on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and age at natural menopause (ANM). The primary bias was confounding by cigarette smoking because smoking was a strong confounding factor related to lower BMI and earlier menopause. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effect of BMI on ANM. Medline and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. Studies were selected for analysis based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI were extracted to assess the association between BMI and early ANM. Nine studies were selected for this meta-analysis. The HR of early ANM was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14; P < 0.01) in underweight women compared with women of normal BMI. Compared with women of normal BMI, overweight women (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96; P < 0.001) and obese women (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.79-1.15; P = 0.59) were associated with late ANM. In addition, the HRs of early ANM in overweight and obese women were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94; P < 0.001) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95; P < 0.001), respectively, compared with underweight women. A separate meta-analysis indicated that the results (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.90; P < 0.001) changed markedly in the comparison of obese versus normal-weight women in studies that controlled for smoking. The results of our study indicate that increased BMI modestly associates with later ANM. The relationship between BMI and ANM needs further clarification in well-designed studies, especially studies well-controlled for smoking status.

  13. Meta-analysis of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for relief of spinal pain.

    Resende, L; Merriwether, E; Rampazo, É P; Dailey, D; Embree, J; Deberg, J; Liebano, R E; Sluka, K A

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis analysing the existing data on transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or interferential current (IFC) for chronic low back pain (CLBP) and/or neck pain (CNP) taking into account intensity and timing of stimulation, examining pain, function and disability. Seven electronic databases were searched for TENS or IFC treatment in non-specific CLBP or CNP. Four reviewers independently selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TENS or IFC intervention in adult individuals with non-specific CLBP or CNP. Primary outcomes were for self-reported pain intensity and back-specific disability. Two reviewers performed quality assessment, and two reviewers extracted data using a standardized form. Nine RCTs were selected (eight CLBP; one CNP), and seven studies with complete data sets were included for meta-analysis (655 participants). For CLBP, meta-analysis shows TENS/IFC intervention, independent of time of assessment, was significantly different from placebo/control (p TENS/IFC intervention was better than placebo/control, during therapy (p = 0.02), but not immediately after therapy (p = 0.08), or 1-3 months after therapy (p = 0.99). Analysis for adequate stimulation parameters was not significantly different, and there was no effect on disability. This systematic review provides inconclusive evidence of TENS benefits in low back pain patients because the quality of the studies was low, and adequate parameters and timing of assessment were not uniformly used or reported. Without additional high-quality clinical trials using sufficient sample sizes and adequate parameters and outcome assessments, the outcomes of this review are likely to remain unchanged. These data highlight the need for additional high-quality RCTs to examine the effects of TENS in CLBP. Trials should consider intensity of stimulation, timing of outcome assessment and assessment of pain, disability and function. © 2017 European Pain

  14. Association between periodontitis and ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Leira, Yago; Seoane, Juan; Blanco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Takkouche, Bahi; Blanco, Juan; Castillo, José

    2017-01-01

    Several observational studies have suggested an association between periodontitis and cerebral ischemia. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether this link exists, and if so, the degree to which it is significant. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guideline for systematic review was used. The search strategy included using electronic databases and hand searching works published up to March 2015. MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Proceedings Web of Science and Current Contents Connect were searched by two independent reviewers. Case-control, cross-sectional or cohort studies including patients with measures of periodontitis and ischemic stroke were eligible to be included in the analysis. Quality assessments of selected studies were performed. From a total of 414 titles and abstracts, 57 potentially relevant full text papers were identified. After inclusion criteria were applied, 8 studies were included in the present systematic review (5 case-control and 3 cohort studies). Although it was not the intention, cross-sectional studies were excluded due to eligibility criteria were not accomplished. Therefore, meta-analyses were conducted with data retrieved from the 8 studies included. These meta-analyses showed statistically significant association between periodontitis and ischemic stroke in both cohort pooled relative risks at 2.52 (1.77–3.58), and case-control studies pooled relative risks at 3.04 (1.10–8.43). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis demonstrated an association between periodontitis and ischemic stroke. However, well-designed prospective studies should be carried out to provide robust evidence of the link between both diseases. In regards to ischemic stroke subtypes, further case-control studies should be carried out to investigate whether there is any association between the different subtypes of cerebral infarcts and periodontitis.

  15. Impact of Inhaled Corticosteroids on Growth in Children with Asthma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Yoon Kong Loke

    Full Text Available Long-term inhaled corticosteroids (ICS may reduce growth velocity and final height of children with asthma. We aimed to evaluate the association between ICS use of >12 months and growth.We initially searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in July 2013, followed by a PubMed search updated to December 2014. We selected RCTs and controlled observational studies of ICS use in patients with asthma. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of mean differences in growth velocity (cm/year or final height (cm between groups. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic.We found 23 relevant studies (twenty RCTs and three observational studies after screening 1882 hits. Meta-analysis of 16 RCTs showed that ICS use significantly reduced growth velocity at one year follow-up (mean difference -0.48 cm/year (95% CI -0.66 to -0.29. There was evidence of a dose-response effect in three RCTs. Final adult height showed a mean reduction of -1.20 cm (95% CI -1.90 cm to -0.50 cm with budesonide versus placebo in a high quality RCT. Meta-analysis of two lower quality observational studies revealed uncertainty in the association between ICS use and final adult height, pooled mean difference -0.85 cm (95% CI -3.35 to 1.65.Use of ICS for >12 months in children with asthma has a limited impact on annual growth velocity. In ICS users, there is a slight reduction of about a centimeter in final adult height, which when interpreted in the context of average adult height in England (175 cm for men and 161 cm for women, represents a 0.7% reduction compared to non-ICS users.

  16. Myo-inositol effects in women with PCOS: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Vittorio Unfer1,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol (MI supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS has been evaluated over the last years. Many hormonal and reproductive impairments associated with this disorder seem relieved by the supplement. The objective of the meta-analysis was to assess the effects of MI alone or combined with d-chiro-inositol (DCI on the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of women with PCOS. Literature was retrieved from selected databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and Research Gate (up to November 2016. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs investigating the effects of MI alone or combined with DdCI were reviewed. Nine RCTs involving 247 cases and 249 controls were included. Significant decreases in fasting insulin (SMD = −1.021 μU/mL, 95% CI: −1.791 to −0.251, P = 0.009 and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index (SMD = −0.585, 95% CI: −1.145 to −0.025, P = 0.041 were identified after MI supplementation. The trial sequential analysis of insulin meta-analysis illustrates that the cumulative z-curve crossed the monitoring boundary, providing firm evidence of the intervention effect. A slight trend toward a reduction of testosterone concentration by MI with respect to controls was found (SMD = −0.49, 95% CI: −1.072 to 0.092, P = 0.099, whereas androstenedione levels remained unaffected. Throughout a subgroup’s meta-analysis, a significant increase in serum SHBG was observed only in those studies where MI was administered for at least 24 weeks (SMD = 0.425 nmol/L, 95% CI: 0.050–0.801, P = 0.026. These results highlight the beneficial effect of MI in improving the metabolic profile of women with PCOS, concomitantly reducing their hyperandrogenism.

  17. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  18. Is Heller myotomy better than balloon dilation? A meta-analysis.

    Illés, Anita; Farkas, Nelli; Hegyi, Péter; Garami, András; Szabó, Imre; Solymár, Margit; Pétervári, Erika; Balaskó, Márta; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Szemes, Kata; Vincze, Áron

    2017-06-01

    Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) and laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) are the most commonly performed treatment options for achalasia. Decision between these treatment options is difficult. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of EBD compared to LHM. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry were systematically searched for the period between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 2015. Meta-analysis was performed using the PICOS (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design) format. Efficacy and safety of EBD were compared to LHM. Forest plot analyses were used to illustrate the success rate, perforation rate and post-procedural gastroesophageal reflux. Using the search strategy, eight studies met the selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The total number of patients included was 749 (360 in the EBD group and 389 in the LHM group). The success rate was lower in the EBD group than in the LHM group (OR=0.486; CI: 0.304-0.779; p=0.003). The rate of perforation did not differ significantly between the EBD and LHM group (RR= 0.635, CI: 0.340-1.186, p=0.154). The incidence of post-procedural symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux did not differ between the two treatment groups (RR=0.663, CI: 0.328-1.343, p=0.254). Our data suggest that the efficacy of LHM is superior to that of EBD, while there is no difference in safety between the two treatment groups.

  19. HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment in Perinatally Infected Children: A Meta-analysis.

    Phillips, Nicole; Amos, Taryn; Kuo, Caroline; Hoare, Jacqueline; Ipser, Jonathan; Thomas, Kevin G F; Stein, Dan J

    2016-11-01

    Research shows, conclusively, that perinatal HIV infection has negative effects on cognitive functioning of children and adolescents. However, the extent of these cognitive impairments is unknown. Current literature does not document specific cognitive domains most affected in HIV-infected children and adolescents. To systematically review and meta-analyze the degree of cognitive impairment, and the specific cognitive domains affected, in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection. We systematically searched 5 electronic bibliographic databases, namely: PubMed, PsychINFO, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, and WorldCat, by using a search protocol specifically designed for this study. Studies were selected on the basis of set a priori eligibility criteria. Titles, abstracts, and full texts were assessed by 2 independent reviewers. Data from included studies were extracted into Microsoft Excel by 2 independent reviewers. Twenty-two studies were identified for inclusion in the systematic review and of this, 6 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results from the meta-analysis indicated that working memory and executive function were the domains most affected by the HIV virus. Only 27% of the included studies were suitable to enter into the meta-analysis. There was significant geographic bias in published studies, with only 32% (7/22) of included studies from sub-Saharan Africa. The evidence supports an association between HIV infection in children and adolescents and cognitive impairment in the domains of working memory, executive function and processing speed, with effect size estimates also providing some support for deficits in visual memory and visual-spatial ability. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Meta-analysis of self-management education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Hurley J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common disease frequently associated with high use of health services. Self-management education is a term applied to programs aimed at teaching patients skills that promote the self-efficacy needed to carry out medical regimens specific to control their disease. In COPD, the value of self-management education is not yet clear and a recent trial was terminated early because of excess mortality in the intervention group.ObjectivesThe objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the settings, methods and efficacy of COPD self-management education programs on patient outcomes and healthcare utilization.Selection criteriaRandomized controlled trials of self-management education in patients with COPD were identified. Studies focusing primarily on comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (education and exercise and studies without usual care as a control group were excluded.Search strategyWe searched PubMed (January 1985 to May 2012 as well as other meta-analysis and reviews.Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers (JH and RAR independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Investigators were contacted for additional information.Main resultsThe reviewers included 3 group comparisons drawn from 12 trials. The studies showed no significant change in mortality, with one study being an outlier compared to the others. However, the meta-analysis revealed a reduction in the probability of hospital admission among patients receiving self-management education compared to those receiving usual care.ConclusionsIt is likely that self-management education is associated with a reduction in hospital admissions with no change in mortality. However, because of heterogeneity in interventions, study populations, follow-up time, and outcome measures, data are still insufficient to formulate clear recommendations regarding the preferred curriculum and delivery method of self-management education programs

  1. Role of sugammadex in accelerating postoperative discharge: A meta-analysis.

    Carron, Michele; Zarantonello, Francesco; Lazzarotto, Nadia; Tellaroli, Paola; Ori, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Sugammadex has been introduced for reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium (or vecuronium). Although its efficacy and safety have been established, data are conflicting as to whether it accelerates discharge to the surgical ward compared with neostigmine, which is traditionally used for reversing NMB. The object of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the research comparing sugammadex and neostigmine in the context of patient discharge after general anesthesia. Systematic review and meta-analysis. University medical hospital. Five-hundred eighteen patients from six studies were included. A comprehensive search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials written in English. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted data regarding postoperative discharge, and assessed the trials' methodological quality and evidence level. Postoperative discharge time was determined from the operating room (OR) to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and from the PACU to the surgical ward. This study was conducted using PRISMA methodology. Time to discharge after NMB reversal with sugammadex or neostigmine. Compared with neostigmine, sugammadex was associated with a significantly faster discharge from the OR to the PACU (mean difference [MD]=22.14min, 95% CI (14.62, 29.67), Psugammadex than for neostigmine from the OR to the PACU (MD=5.58min, 95% CI (3.03, 8.14), P≤0.0001, I 2 =0%). However, discharge-readiness was similar in both groups for patients moving from the PACU to the surgical ward (MD=-1.10min, 95% CI (-5.69, 3.50), P=0.6394, I 2 =25.3%). Results from this meta-analysis suggest that sugammadex accelerates postoperative discharge of patients after general anesthesia compared with neostigmine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tooth erosion and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Ana Paula Hermont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? METHODS: An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs and a 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1-37.5. Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6-68.8. Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2-41.7. CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion.

  3. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Seizure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Mohammad Mehdi Nasehi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most common convulsive disorder in children and different studies reported controversial results about the association between this disorder and iron deficiency. In some studies, iron level in children with febrile seizure is higher than control and in some reports it is less than the control group. So, we systematically reviewed all the studies in this field and analyzed their findings using meta-analysis methods. This review and meta-analysis was conducted by iron and fever keywords on articles published in the databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Federated search of medical digital library that includes a variety of international databases. All articles dated at the end of March 2012 were studied. Case-control studies were selected and quality assessment of studies were surveyed by STROB criteria and information requirements, including the status of iron deficiency anemia, iron levels and ferritin level of eligible studies were extracted and analyzed by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.0 software and the Forest and Funnel chart was drawn. Finally 11 studies included 1357 children with febrile seizure and 1347 children in the control group were evaluated. The odds ratio of iron deficiency anemia in children with febrile seizure in comparison to the control group was 1.27 (OR = 1.27, CI95%: 1.03 -1.56. Ferritin level was not significant between the two groups (p=0.08, but the iron level in the two groups was significant (p=0.000. Iron deficiency is considered as a risk factor in the incidence of febrile seizure and interventional studies can be helpful to confirm this hypothesis.

  4. C-reactive protein alterations in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Dargél, Aroldo A; Godin, Ophelia; Kapczinski, Flávio; Kupfer, David J; Leboyer, Marion

    2015-02-01

    There is growing evidence that bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with inflammation, including abnormal levels of acute-phase C-reactive protein (CRP). Our meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the size of the association between CRP levels and BD, accounting also for subgroup differences (mood phases and treatment). MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Science and references of identified articles were searched up to June 2013 using the keywords (bipolar disorder) AND (C-reactive protein OR CRP). English language studies measuring blood levels of CRP in patients with BD and control subjects were selected, 136 abstracts were reviewed, 20 articles retrieved, and 11 studies included. Two independent reviewers extracted data. All studies were included in the primary analyses, and between-group differences for subanalyses were also reported. This meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models. Eleven studies comprising 1,618 subjects were eligible for inclusion. Overall, CRP levels were significantly elevated in patients with BD versus controls (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.55; P < .0001). CRP levels were significantly higher in manic (SMD = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.02; P < .001) and euthymic (SMD = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.51; P = .04), but not in depressed (SMD = 0.28; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.73; P = .22) patients with BD compared to controls. CRP levels were unrelated to use of lithium or antipsychotic medication. This meta-analysis supports an association between increased CRP levels and BD. Given that an elevated level of CRP is a marker of low-grade inflammation and a risk factor for cardiovascular and malignant diseases, measurement of CRP level might be relevant to the clinical care of bipolar patients. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. A critical review and meta-analysis of the association between overt hyperthyroidism and mortality.

    Brandt, Frans; Green, Anders; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas H

    2011-10-01

    Overt hyperthyroidism has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias, hypercoagulopathy, stroke, and pulmonary embolism, all of which may increase mortality. Some, but not all, studies show an increased mortality in patients with hyperthyroidism. This inconsistency may be due to differences in study design, characteristics of participants, or confounders. In order to test whether hyperthyroidism influences mortality, we performed a critical review and statistical meta-analysis. Based on an electronic PubMed search, using the Medical Subject Heading words such as hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, and mortality or survival, case-control and cohort studies were selected and reviewed. Using meta-analysis, an overall relative risk (RR) of mortality was calculated. Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, six of which showed an increased all-cause mortality; seven studies, including 31,138 patients and 400,000 person years at risk, allowed calculation of mortality in a meta-analysis. Based on this, the RR of overall mortality was 1.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.38). Analyses including studies considering setting, treatment, and control for co-morbidity did not significantly alter this finding. As the measured heterogeneity (I(2)) ranges from 89.1 to 98.3%, which is much higher than the 50% generally viewed on as a threshold, the statistical heterogeneity is very pronounced in the included studies. In patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, mortality is increased by ∼ 20%. Future studies need to address the cause of hyperthyroidism, impact of type of therapy, time dependency, as well as the potential influence of confounding or genetic susceptibility before the question of causality can be answered.

  6. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Elisa Bruno

    Full Text Available The difference in epilepsy burden existing among populations in tropical regions has been attributed to many factors, including the distribution of infectious diseases with neurologic sequels. To define the burden of epilepsy in Latin American Countries (LAC and to investigate the strength of association with neurocysticercosis (NCC, considered one of the leading causes of epilepsy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.Studies published until 2012 were selected applying predefined inclusion criteria. Lifetime epilepsy (LTE prevalence, active epilepsy (AE prevalence, incidence, mortality, treatment gap (TG and NCC proportion among people with epilepsy (PWE were extracted. Median values were obtained for each estimate using random effects meta-analysis. The impact of NCC prevalence on epilepsy estimates was determined using meta-regression models. To assess the association between NCC and epilepsy, a further meta-analysis was performed on case-control studies.The median LTE prevalence was 15.8/1,000 (95% CI 13.5-18.3, the median AE prevalence was 10.7/1,000 (95% CI 8.4-13.2, the median incidence was 138.2/100,000 (95% CI 83.6-206.4, the overall standardized mortality ratio was 1.4 (95% CI 0.01-6.1 and the overall estimated TG was 60.6% (95% CI 45.3-74.9. The median NCC proportion among PWE was 32.3% (95% CI 26.0-39.0. Higher TG and NCC estimates were associated with higher epilepsy prevalence. The association between NCC and epilepsy was significant (p<0.001 with a common odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI 1.9-4.0.A high burden of epilepsy and of NCC in LAC and a consistent association between these two diseases were pointed out. Furthermore, NCC prevalence and TG were identified as important factors influencing epilepsy prevalence to be considered in prevention and intervention strategies.

  7. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Shi, Chunhu; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult. To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence. We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively). The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was of low or

  8. Risk of Occupational Accidents in Workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Garbarino, Sergio; Guglielmi, Ottavia; Sanna, Antonio; Mancardi, Gian Luigi; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the single most important preventable medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and driving accidents. OSA may also adversely affect work performance through a decrease in productivity, and an increase in the injury rate. Nevertheless, no systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between OSA and work accidents has been performed thus far. Methods: PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched. Out of an initial list of 1,099 papers, 10 studies (12,553 participants) were eligible for our review, and 7 of them were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effects were measured by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). An assessment was made of the methodological quality of the studies. Moderator analysis and funnel plot analysis were used to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Results: Compared to controls, the odds of work accident was found to be nearly double in workers with OSA (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.53–3.10). Occupational driving was associated with a higher effect size. Conclusions: OSA is an underdiagnosed nonoccupational disease that has a strong adverse effect on work accidents. The nearly twofold increased odds of work accidents in subjects with OSA calls for workplace screening in selected safety-sensitive occupations. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1171. Citation: Garbarino S, Guglielmi O, Sanna A, Mancardi GL, Magnavita N. Risk of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea: systematic review and meta-analysis. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1211–1218. PMID:26951401

  9. A Karnaugh map based approach towards systemic reviews and meta-analysis.

    Hassan, Abdul Wahab; Hassan, Ahmad Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Studying meta-analysis and systemic reviews since long had helped us conclude numerous parallel or conflicting studies. Existing studies are presented in tabulated forms which contain appropriate information for specific cases yet it is difficult to visualize. On meta-analysis of data, this can lead to absorption and subsumption errors henceforth having undesirable potential of consecutive misunderstandings in social and operational methodologies. The purpose of this study is to investigate an alternate forum for meta-data presentation that relies on humans' strong pictorial perception capability. Analysis of big-data is assumed to be a complex and daunting task often reserved on the computational powers of machines yet there exist mapping tools which can analyze such data in a hand-handled manner. Data analysis on such scale can benefit from the use of statistical tools like Karnaugh maps where all studies can be put together on a graph based mapping. Such a formulation can lead to more control in observing patterns of research community and analyzing further for uncertainty and reliability metrics. We present a methodological process of converting a well-established study in Health care to its equaling binary representation followed by furnishing values on to a Karnaugh Map. The data used for the studies presented herein is from Burns et al (J Publ Health 34(1):138-148, 2011) consisting of retrospectively collected data sets from various studies on clinical coding data accuracy. Using a customized filtration process, a total of 25 studies were selected for review with no, partial, or complete knowledge of six independent variables thus forming 64 independent cells on a Karnaugh map. The study concluded that this pictorial graphing as expected had helped in simplifying the overview of meta-analysis and systemic reviews.

  10. Association between the interleukin-1β C-511T polymorphism and periodontitis: a meta-analysis in the Chinese population.

    Wang, H F; He, F Q; Xu, C J; Li, D M; Sun, X J; Chi, Y T; Guo, W

    2017-02-23

    The association between the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) C-511T (or rs16944) polymorphism and periodontitis remains inconclusive, even though there have been previous studies on this association. To assess the effects of IL-1β C-511T variants on the risk of development of periodontitis, a meta-analysis was performed in a single ethnic population. Studies, published up to December 2015, were selected for the meta-analysis from PubMed and Chinese databases. The associations were assessed with pooled OR and 95%CI. This meta-analysis identified 8 studies, including 1276 periodontitis cases and 1558 controls. Overall, a significant association between the IL-1β C-511T polymorphism and periodontitis was found in the Chinese population (TT vs CC: OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.19-1.85; TT + CT vs CC: OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.25-1.81; T vs C: OR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.06-1.68). In the subgroup analyses based on geographical area(s), source of controls, and type of periodontitis, significant results were obtained for the association between IL-1β C-511T variants and periodontitis. Our meta-analysis indicated that the IL-1β C-511T polymorphism may be a genetic susceptibility factor for periodontitis in the Chinese population. This marker could be used to identify Chinese individuals at a high risk for periodontitis.

  11. Meta Analysis of Psychological Interventions’ Effectiveness on the Rate of Depression Among Elderly Iranians in 2000-2010

    Arghavan Shariat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Psychologists and consultants in the recent years have looked for measuring credibility and effectiveness of psychological interventions in the field of depressions among elderly people. In this regard, Meta analysis defines the rate of effect size of psychological interventions by integrating the obtained results from different studies. Methods & Materials: The present research is trying to determine the effectiveness of the psychological interventions on the elderly people’s depression, by using the researching model of Meta analysis. With attention to the different results about the psychological interaction on elderly depression, it seems that a Meta analysis study with accurate rate of psychological interaction on elderly depression will be helpful. On the other hand, Meta analysis can prepare a clear result about this intervention. This method helps us to examine the hypotheses mentioned in different researches.  Results: In this case, 9 psychologically acceptable researches, were selected out of 20 for analysis. The most significant effect (0.58 is related to Sad Hezary et.al and the least amount of effect (0.21 in this research is related to the research of Nemati Dehkordi. The tool in this research was Meta analysis’ check-list The rate the effect is 0.43(P<0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that according to the Cohen’s table of comprehension of the effective rate, the rate of the psychological interventions’ effectiveness on the elderly depression is evaluated intermediate.

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of nudging to increase fruit and vegetable choice.

    Broers, Valérie J V; De Breucker, Céline; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Luminet, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Nudging refers to interventions that organize the choice architecture in order to alter people's behaviour in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. As a strategy to encourage healthy behaviour, nudging can serve as a complement to health education. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of nudging as a way to influence food choice remains contradictory. To address this issue, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to test the effects of nudging to encourage people to select more fruit and vegetables. A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, Cochrane library, Scopus and Google Scholar. After quality assessment, 20 articles (23 studies) were retained for narrative synthesis. Twelve articles (14 studies) contained enough information to calculate effect-sizes for meta-analysis using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software. The meta-analysis shows that nudging interventions that aim to increase fruit and/or vegetable choice/sales/servings have a moderately significant effect (d = 0.30), with the largest effect for altering placement (d = 0.39) and combined nudges (d = 0.28). The results of this review provide an indication of the effectiveness of nudging on fruit and vegetable choice in terms of actual effect-sizes, while also highlighting the problems that must be addressed before more definitive conclusions can be drawn. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and validation of MIX: comprehensive free software for meta-analysis of causal research data

    Ikeda Noriaki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis has become a well-known method for synthesis of quantitative data from previously conducted research in applied health sciences. So far, meta-analysis has been particularly useful in evaluating and comparing therapies and in assessing causes of disease. Consequently, the number of software packages that can perform meta-analysis has increased over the years. Unfortunately, it can take a substantial amount of time to get acquainted with some of these programs and most contain little or no interactive educational material. We set out to create and validate an easy-to-use and comprehensive meta-analysis package that would be simple enough programming-wise to remain available as a free download. We specifically aimed at students and researchers who are new to meta-analysis, with important parts of the development oriented towards creating internal interactive tutoring tools and designing features that would facilitate usage of the software as a companion to existing books on meta-analysis. Results We took an unconventional approach and created a program that uses Excel as a calculation and programming platform. The main programming language was Visual Basic, as implemented in Visual Basic 6 and Visual Basic for Applications in Excel 2000 and higher. The development took approximately two years and resulted in the 'MIX' program, which can be downloaded from the program's website free of charge. Next, we set out to validate the MIX output with two major software packages as reference standards, namely STATA (metan, metabias, and metatrim and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2. Eight meta-analyses that had been published in major journals were used as data sources. All numerical and graphical results from analyses with MIX were identical to their counterparts in STATA and CMA. The MIX program distinguishes itself from most other programs by the extensive graphical output, the click-and-go (Excel interface, and the

  14. Leadership training design, delivery, and implementation: A meta-analysis.

    Lacerenza, Christina N; Reyes, Denise L; Marlow, Shannon L; Joseph, Dana L; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Recent estimates suggest that although a majority of funds in organizational training budgets tend to be allocated to leadership training (Ho, 2016; O'Leonard, 2014), only a small minority of organizations believe their leadership training programs are highly effective (Schwartz, Bersin, & Pelster, 2014), calling into question the effectiveness of current leadership development initiatives. To help address this issue, this meta-analysis estimates the extent to which leadership training is effective and identifies the conditions under which these programs are most effective. In doing so, we estimate the effectiveness of leadership training across four criteria (reactions, learning, transfer, and results; Kirkpatrick, 1959) using only employee data and we examine 15 moderators of training design and delivery to determine which elements are associated with the most effective leadership training interventions. Data from 335 independent samples suggest that leadership training is substantially more effective than previously thought, leading to improvements in reactions (δ = .63), learning (δ = .73), transfer (δ = .82), and results (δ = .72), the strength of these effects differs based on various design, delivery, and implementation characteristics. Moderator analyses support the use of needs analysis, feedback, multiple delivery methods (especially practice), spaced training sessions, a location that is on-site, and face-to-face delivery that is not self-administered. Results also suggest that the content of training, attendance policy, and duration influence the effectiveness of the training program. Practical implications for training development and theoretical implications for leadership and training literatures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Meta-analysis on Macropore Flow Velocity in Soils

    Liu, D.; Gao, M.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Macropore flow is ubiquitous in the soils and an important hydrologic process that is not well explained using traditional hydrologic theories. Macropore Flow Velocity (MFV) is an important parameter used to describe macropore flow and quantify its effects on runoff generation and solute transport. However, the dominant factors controlling MFV are still poorly understood and the typical ranges of MFV measured at the field are not defined clearly. To address these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a database created from 246 experiments on MFV collected from 76 journal articles. For a fair comparison, a conceptually unified definition of MFV is introduced to convert the MFV measured with different approaches and at various scales including soil core, field, trench or hillslope scales. The potential controlling factors of MFV considered include scale, travel distance, hydrologic conditions, site factors, macropore morphologies, soil texture, and land use. The results show that MFV is about 2 3 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. MFV is much larger at the trench and hillslope scale than at the field profile and soil core scales and shows a significant positive correlation with the travel distance. Generally, higher irrigation intensity tends to trigger faster MFV, especially at field profile scale, where MFV and irrigation intensity have significant positive correlation. At the trench and hillslope scale, the presence of large macropores (diameter>10 mm) is a key factor determining MFV. The geometric mean of MFV for sites with large macropores was found to be about 8 times larger than those without large macropores. For sites with large macropores, MFV increases with the macropore diameter. However, no noticeable difference in MFV has been observed among different soil texture and land use. Comparing the existing equations to describe MFV, the Poiseuille equation significantly overestimated the

  16. meta-analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Xianfeng LU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Optimal Cotton Insecticide Application Termination Timing: A Meta-Analysis.

    Griffin, T W; Zapata, S D

    2016-08-01

    The concept of insecticide termination timing is generally accepted among cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) researchers; however, exact timings are often disputed. Specifically, there is uncertainty regarding the last economic insecticide application to control fruit-feeding pests including tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus). A systematic review of prior studies was conducted within a meta-analytic framework. Nine publicly available articles were amalgamated to develop an optimal timing principle. These prior studies reported 53 independent multiple means comparison field experiments for a total of 247 trial observations. Stochastic plateau theory integrated with econometric meta-analysis methodology was applied to the meta-database to determine the shape of the functional form of both the agronomic optimal insecticide termination timing and corresponding yield potential. Results indicated that current university insecticide termination timing recommendations are later than overall estimated timing suggested. The estimated 159 heat units (HU) after the fifth position above white flower (NAWF5) was found to be statistically different than the 194 HU termination used as the status quo recommended termination timing. Insecticides applied after 159 HU may have been applied in excess, resulting in unnecessary economic and environmental costs. Empirical results also suggested that extending the insecticide termination time by one unit resulted in a cotton lint yield increase of 0.27 kilograms per hectare up to the timing where the plateau began. Based on economic analyses, profit-maximizing producers may cease application as soon as 124 HU after NAWF5. These results provided insights useful to improve production systems by applying inputs only when benefits were expected to be in excess of the

  18. Smoking and multiple sclerosis: an updated meta-analysis.

    Adam E Handel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a leading cause of disability in young adults. Susceptibility to MS is determined by environmental exposure on the background of genetic risk factors. A previous meta-analysis suggested that smoking was an important risk factor for MS but many other studies have been published since then.We performed a Medline search to identify articles published that investigated MS risk following cigarette smoking. A total of 14 articles were included in this study. This represented data on 3,052 cases and 457,619 controls. We analysed these studies in both a conservative (limiting our analysis to only those where smoking behaviour was described prior to disease onset and non-conservative manner. Our results show that smoking is associated with MS susceptibility (conservative: risk ratio (RR 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.35-1.63, p < 10⁻¹⁵; non-conservative: RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39-1.66, p < 10⁻¹⁹. We also analysed 4 studies reporting risk of secondary progression in MS and found that this fell just short of statistical significance with considerable heterogeneity (RR 1.88, 95% CI 0.98-3.61, p = 0.06.Our results demonstrate that cigarette smoking is important in determining MS susceptibility but the effect on the progression of disease is less certain. Further work is needed to understand the mechanism behind this association and how smoking integrates with other established risk factors.

  19. Treatments for bulimia nervosa: a network meta-analysis.

    Slade, Eric; Keeney, Edna; Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Dias, Sofia; Fou, Linyun; Stockton, Sarah; Saxon, Leanne; Waller, Glenn; Turner, Hannah; Serpell, Lucy; Fairburn, Christopher G; Kendall, Tim

    2018-05-06

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a severe eating disorder that can be managed using a variety of treatments including pharmacological, psychological, and combination treatments. We aimed to compare their effectiveness and to identify the most effective for the treatment of BN in adults. A search was conducted in Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Central from their inception to July 2016. Studies were included if they reported on treatments for adults who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for BN. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined available psychological, pharmacological, or combination therapies licensed in the UK were included. We conducted a network meta-analysis (NMA) of RCTs. The outcome analysed was full remission at the end of treatment. We identified 21 eligible trials with 1828 participants involving 12 treatments, including wait list. The results of the NMA suggested that individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (specific to eating disorders) was most effective in achieving remission at the end of treatment compared with wait list (OR 3.89, 95% CrI 1.19-14.02), followed by guided cognitive behavioural self-help (OR 3.81, 95% CrI 1.51-10.90). Inconsistency checks did not identify any significant inconsistency between the direct and indirect evidence. The analysis suggested that the treatments that are most likely to achieve full remission are individual CBT (specific to eating disorders) and guided cognitive behavioural self-help, although no firm conclusions could be drawn due to the limited evidence base. There is a need for further research on the maintenance of treatment effects and the mediators of treatment outcome.

  20. Adult Craniopharyngioma: Case Series, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

    Dandurand, Charlotte; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Asadi Lari, Mohammad Hossein; Akagami, Ryojo; Gooderham, Peter

    2017-12-18

    The optimal therapeutic approach for adult craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Some advocate for gross total resection (GTR), while others advocate for subtotal resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (STR + XRT). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the rate of recurrence in the follow-up of 3 yr in adult craniopharyngioma stratified by extent of resection and presence of adjuvant radiotherapy. MEDLINE (1946-July 1, 2016) and EMBASE (1980-June 30, 2016) were systematically reviewed. From1975 to 2013, 33 patients were treated with initial surgical resection for adult onset craniopharyngioma at our center and were reviewed for inclusion in this study. Data from 22 patients were available for inclusion as a case series in the systematic review. Eligible studies (n = 21) were identified from the literature in addition to a case series of our institutional experience. Three groups were available for analysis: GTR, STR + XRT, and STR. The rates of recurrence were 17%, 27%, and 45%, respectively. The risk of developing recurrence was significant for GTR vs STR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.38) and STR + XRT vs STR (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41). Risk of recurrence after GTR vs STR + XRT did not reach significance (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-1.24, P = .18). This is the first and largest systematic review focusing on the rate of recurrence in adult craniopharyngioma. Although the rates of recurrence are favoring GTR, difference in risk of recurrence did not reach significance. This study provides guidance to clinicians and directions for future research with the need to stratify outcomes per treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  1. A meta-analysis of global urban land expansion.

    Seto, Karen C; Fragkias, Michail; Güneralp, Burak; Reilly, Michael K

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of Earth's land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. It drives the loss of farmland, affects local climate, fragments habitats, and threatens biodiversity. Here we present a meta-analysis of 326 studies that have used remotely sensed images to map urban land conversion. We report a worldwide observed increase in urban land area of 58,000 km(2) from 1970 to 2000. India, China, and Africa have experienced the highest rates of urban land expansion, and the largest change in total urban extent has occurred in North America. Across all regions and for all three decades, urban land expansion rates are higher than or equal to urban population growth rates, suggesting that urban growth is becoming more expansive than compact. Annual growth in GDP per capita drives approximately half of the observed urban land expansion in China but only moderately affects urban expansion in India and Africa, where urban land expansion is driven more by urban population growth. In high income countries, rates of urban land expansion are slower and increasingly related to GDP growth. However, in North America, population growth contributes more to urban expansion than it does in Europe. Much of the observed variation in urban expansion was not captured by either population, GDP, or other variables in the model. This suggests that contemporary urban expansion is related to a variety of factors difficult to observe comprehensively at the global level, including international capital flows, the informal economy, land use policy, and generalized transport costs. Using the results from the global model, we develop forecasts for new urban land cover using SRES Scenarios. Our results show that by 2030, global urban land cover will increase between 430,000 km(2) and 12,568,000 km(2), with an estimate of 1,527,000 km(2) more likely.

  2. Crime, perceived safety, and physical activity: A meta-analysis.

    Rees-Punia, Erika; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Gay, Jennifer L

    2018-06-01

    Perceived safety from crime and objectively-measured crime rates may be associated with physical inactivity. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to estimate the odds of accumulating high levels of physical activity (PA) when the perception of safety from crime is high and when objectively-measured crime is high. Peer-reviewed studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest Criminal Justice, and ScienceDirect from earliest record through 2016. Included studies measured total PA, leisure-time PA, or walking in addition to perceived safety from crime or objective measures of crime. Mean odds ratios were aggregated with random effects models, and meta-regression was used to examine effects of potential moderators: country, age, and crime/PA measure. Sixteen cross-sectional studies yielded sixteen effects for perceived safety from crime and four effects for objective crime. Those reporting feeling safe from crime had a 27% greater odds of achieving higher levels of physical activity (OR=1.27 [1.08, 1.49]), and those living in areas with higher objectively-measured crime had a 28% reduced odds of achieving higher levels of physical activity (OR=0.72 [0.61, 0.83]). Effects of perceived safety were highly heterogeneous (I 2 =94.09%), but explored moderators were not statistically significant, likely because of the small sample size. Despite the limited number of effects suitable for aggregation, the mean association between perceived safety and PA was significant. As it seems likely that perceived lack of safety from crime constrains PA behaviors, future research exploring moderators of this association may help guide public health recommendations and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Music on Pain: A Meta-Analysis.

    Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted on the topic of music and pain, with the latest comprehensive study published in 2006. Since that time, more than 70 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published, necessitating a new and comprehensive review. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine published RCT studies investigating the effect of music on pain. The present study included RCTs published between 1995 and 2014. Studies were obtained by searching 12 databases and hand-searching related journals and reference lists. Main outcomes were pain intensity, emotional distress from pain, vital signs, and amount of analgesic intake. Study quality was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Analysis of the 97 included studies revealed that music interventions had statistically significant effects in decreasing pain on 0-10 pain scales (MD = -1.13), other pain scales (SMD = -0.39), emotional distress from pain (MD = -10.83), anesthetic use (SMD = -0.56), opioid intake (SMD = -0.24), non-opioid intake (SMD = -0.54), heart rate (MD = -4.25), systolic blood pressure (MD = -3.34), diastolic blood pressure (MD = -1.18), and respiration rate (MD = -1.46). Subgroup and moderator analyses yielded additional clinically informative outcomes. Considering all the possible benefits, music interventions may provide an effective complementary approach for the relief of acute, procedural, and cancer/chronic pain in the medical setting. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Meditation for posttraumatic stress: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Hilton, Lara; Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Colaiaco, Benjamin; Apaydin, Eric; Sorbero, Melony E; Booth, Marika; Shanman, Roberta M; Hempel, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of meditation interventions to provide estimates of their efficacy and safety in treating adults diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review was based on an established protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42015025782) and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Outcomes of interest included PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, functional status, and adverse events. Meta-analyses were conducted using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 10 trials on meditation interventions for PTSD with 643 participants met inclusion criteria. Across interventions, adjunctive meditation interventions of mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, and the mantram repetition program improve PTSD and depression symptoms compared with control groups, but the findings are based on low and moderate quality of evidence. Effects were positive but not statistically significant for quality of life and anxiety, and no studies addressed functional status. The variety of meditation intervention types, the short follow-up times, and the quality of studies limited analyses. No adverse events were reported in the included studies; only half of the studies reported on safety. Meditation appears to be effective for PTSD and depression symptoms, but in order to increase confidence in findings, more high-quality studies are needed on meditation as adjunctive treatment with PTSD-diagnosed participant samples large enough to detect statistical differences in outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Psoriasis and suicidality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Singh, Sanminder; Taylor, Catherine; Kornmehl, Heather; Armstrong, April W

    2017-09-01

    Psoriasis is associated with psychiatric comorbidities; however, the relationship between psoriasis and suicidality is not well understood. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that elucidates the relationship between psoriasis and suicidality. Applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. We searched literature published between 1946 and 2017. We identified 18 studies with a total of 1,767,583 participants, of whom 330,207 had psoriasis. On the basis of random effects modeling, the pooled odds ratio (OR) for suicidal ideation among patients with psoriasis was 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-2.74). Patients with psoriasis were more likely to exhibit suicidal behaviors (combined attempted and completed suicides) with a pooled OR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.13-1.40). Subgroup analysis showed that patients with psoriasis were more likely to attempt suicides (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.54) and complete suicide (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39) than those without psoriasis. More severe psoriasis and younger age were associated with greater likelihood of suicidality. There are few studies examining suicidality in conjunction with psoriasis severity. Patients with psoriasis have a significantly higher likelihood of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicides. Among patients with psoriasis, those who are younger and whose psoriasis is more severe are at particular risk for suicidality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Myopia correction in children: a meta-analysis.

    Cui, Yanhui; Li, Li; Wu, Qian; Zhao, Junyang; Chu, Huihui; Yu, Gang; Wei, Wenbin

    2017-06-26

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis comparing rigid gas permeable lenses (RGP) with soft contact lenses (SCL), spectacles and orthokeratology (OK) lenses for myopia control with respect to axial length elongation, spherical equivalent and measures of corneal curvature. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched to September 29, 2015 using the following keywords: rigid gas permeable contact lens; refractive error; and refractive abnormalities. Randomized controlled trials, two-arm prospective studies and retrospective studies of children with myopia treated with RGP lenses compared with spectacles, SCL, and OK lenses were included. Outcome measures were changes of axial length, spherical equivalent, flatter meridian, steeper meridian and corneal apical radius. Five studies were included. Three studies reported axial length change after 2-3 years of treatment with RGP lenses and SCL/spectacles and no difference between the groups was noted (pooled mean difference = -0.077, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.120 to 0.097, p = 0.840). Two studies reported a change of spherical equivalent after 2-3 years of treatment with RGP lenses and SCL/spectacles, and no difference between the groups was noted (pooled mean difference = 0.275, 95% CI: -0.390 to 0.941, p = 0.417). Two studies compared corneal curvature measures between RGP and OK lenses after 3-6 months of treatment and no differences in any measures of corneal curvature were seen. The effect of RGP lenses and SCL/spectacles on axial length elongation and spherical equivalent and of RGP and OK lenses on corneal curvature in children with myopia was similar.

  7. Meta-analysis of the predictive factors of postpartum fatigue.

    Badr, Hanan A; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 64% of new mothers are affected by fatigue during the postpartum period, making it the most common problem that a woman faces as she adapts to motherhood. Postpartum fatigue can lead to serious negative effects on the mother's health and the newborn's development and interfere with mother-infant interaction. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify predictive factors of postpartum fatigue and to document the magnitude of their effects using effect sizes. We used two search engines, PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify studies that met three inclusion criteria: (a) the article was written in English, (b) the article studied the predictive factors of postpartum fatigue, and (c) the article included information about the validity and reliability of the instruments used in the research. Nine articles met these inclusion criteria. The direction and strength of correlation coefficients between predictive factors and postpartum fatigue were examined across the studies to determine their effect sizes. Measurement of predictor variables occurred from 3days to 6months postpartum. Correlations reported between predictive factors and postpartum fatigue were as follows: small effect size (r range =0.10 to 0.29) for education level, age, postpartum hemorrhage, infection, and child care difficulties; medium effect size (r range =0.30 to 0.49) for physiological illness, low ferritin level, low hemoglobin level, sleeping problems, stress and anxiety, and breastfeeding problems; and large effect size (r range =0.50+) for depression. Postpartum fatigue is a common condition that can lead to serious health problems for a new mother and her newborn. Therefore, increased knowledge concerning factors that influence the onset of postpartum fatigue is needed for early identification of new mothers who may be at risk. Appropriate treatments, interventions, information, and support can then be initiated to prevent or minimize the postpartum fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  8. A meta-analysis of local adaptation in plants.

    Roosa Leimu

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is of fundamental importance in evolutionary, population, conservation, and global-change biology. The generality of local adaptation in plants and whether and how it is influenced by specific species, population and habitat characteristics have, however, not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, we examined published data on the outcomes of reciprocal transplant experiments using two approaches. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the performance of local and foreign plants at all transplant sites. In addition, we analysed frequencies of pairs of plant origin to examine whether local plants perform better than foreign plants at both compared transplant sites. In both approaches, we also examined the effects of population size, and of the habitat and species characteristics that are predicted to affect local adaptation. We show that, overall, local plants performed significantly better than foreign plants at their site of origin: this was found to be the case in 71.0% of the studied sites. However, local plants performed better than foreign plants at both sites of a pair-wise comparison (strict definition of local adaption only in 45.3% of the 1032 compared population pairs. Furthermore, we found local adaptation much more common for large plant populations (>1000 flowering individuals than for small populations (<1000 flowering individuals for which local adaptation was very rare. The degree of local adaptation was independent of plant life history, spatial or temporal habitat heterogeneity, and geographic scale. Our results suggest that local adaptation is less common in plant populations than generally assumed. Moreover, our findings reinforce the fundamental importance of population size for evolutionary theory. The clear role of population size for the ability to evolve local adaptation raises considerable doubt on the ability of small plant populations to cope with changing environments.

  9. Meta Analysis of Gene Expression Data within and Across Species.

    Fierro, Ana C; Vandenbussche, Filip; Engelen, Kristof; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    Since the second half of the 1990s, a large number of genome-wide analyses have been described that study gene expression at the transcript level. To this end, two major strategies have been adopted, a first one relying on hybridization techniques such as microarrays, and a second one based on sequencing techniques such as serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), cDNA-AFLP, and analysis based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Despite both types of profiling experiments becoming routine techniques in many research groups, their application remains costly and laborious. As a result, the number of conditions profiled in individual studies is still relatively small and usually varies from only two to few hundreds of samples for the largest experiments. More and more, scientific journals require the deposit of these high throughput experiments in public databases upon publication. Mining the information present in these databases offers molecular biologists the possibility to view their own small-scale analysis in the light of what is already available. However, so far, the richness of the public information remains largely unexploited. Several obstacles such as the correct association between ESTs and microarray probes with the corresponding gene transcript, the incompleteness and inconsistency in the annotation of experimental conditions, and the lack of standardized experimental protocols to generate gene expression data, all impede the successful mining of these data. Here, we review the potential and difficulties of combining publicly available expression data from respectively EST analyses and microarray experiments. With examples from literature, we show how meta-analysis of expression profiling experiments can be used to study expression behavior in a single organism or between organisms, across a wide range of experimental conditions. We also provide an overview of the methods and tools that can aid molecular biologists in exploiting these public data.

  10. Does Music Training Enhance Literacy Skills? A Meta-Analysis

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Fehd, Hilda M.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Children's engagement in music practice is associated with enhancements in literacy-related language skills, as demonstrated by multiple reports of correlation across these two domains. Training studies have tested whether engaging in music training directly transfers benefit to children's literacy skill development. Results of such studies, however, are mixed. Interpretation of these mixed results is made more complex by the fact that a wide range of literacy-related outcome measures are used across these studies. Here, we address these challenges via a meta-analytic approach. A comprehensive literature review of peer-reviewed music training studies was built around key criteria needed to test the direct transfer hypothesis, including: (a) inclusion of music training vs. control groups; (b) inclusion of pre- vs. post-comparison measures, and (c) indication that reading instruction was held constant across groups. Thirteen studies were identified (n = 901). Two classes of outcome measures emerged with sufficient overlap to support meta-analysis: phonological awareness and reading fluency. Hours of training, age, and type of control intervention were examined as potential moderators. Results supported the hypothesis that music training leads to gains in phonological awareness skills. The effect isolated by contrasting gains in music training vs. gains in control was small relative to the large variance in these skills (d = 0.2). Interestingly, analyses revealed that transfer effects for rhyming skills tended to grow stronger with increased hours of training. In contrast, no significant aggregate transfer effect emerged for reading fluency measures, despite some studies reporting large training effects. The potential influence of other study design factors were considered, including intervention design, IQ, and SES. Results are discussed in the context of emerging findings that music training may enhance literacy development via changes in brain mechanisms that

  11. Thrombophilic disorders and fetal loss: a meta-analysis.

    Rey, Evelyne; Kahn, Susan R; David, Michèle; Shrier, Ian

    2003-03-15

    Our aim was to assess the strength of the controversial association between thrombophilia and fetal loss, and to examine whether it varies according to the timing or definition of fetal loss. We searched Medline and Current Contents for articles published between 1975 and 2002 and their references with terms denoting recurrent fetal and non-recurrent fetal loss combined with various thrombophilic disorders. We included in our meta-analysis case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies published in English, the methodological quality of which was rated as moderate or strong. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI were generated by random effects models with Cochrane Review Manager software. We included 31 studies. Factor V Leiden was associated with early (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.13-3.58) and late (7.83, 2.83-21.67) recurrent fetal loss, and late non-recurrent fetal loss (3.26, 1.82-5.83). Exclusion of women with other pathologies that could explain fetal loss strengthened the association between Factor V Leiden and recurrent fetal loss. Activated protein C resistance was associated with early recurrent fetal loss (3.48, 1.58-7.69), and prothrombin G20210A mutation with early recurrent (2.56, 1.04-.29) and late non-recurrent (2.30, 1.09-4.87) fetal loss. Protein S deficiency was associated with recurrent fetal loss (14.72, 0.99-218.01) and late non-recurrent fetal loss (7.39, 1.28-42.63). Methylenetetrahydrofolate mutation, protein C, and antithrombin deficiencies were not significantly associated with fetal loss. The magnitude of the association between thrombophilia and fetal loss varies, according to type of fetal loss and type of thrombophilia.

  12. Bullying and Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

    Holt, Melissa K.; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Holland, Kristin M.; DeGue, Sarah; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Wolfe, Misty; Reid, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Over the last decade there has been increased attention to the association between bullying involvement (as a victim, perpetrator, or bully-victim) and suicidal ideation/behaviors. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the association between bullying involvement and suicidal ideation and behaviors. METHODS We searched multiple online databases and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches to identify cross-sectional studies published through July 2013. Using search terms associated with bullying, suicide, and youth, 47 studies (38.3% from the United States, 61.7% in non-US samples) met inclusion criteria. Seven observers independently coded studies and met in pairs to reach consensus. RESULTS Six different meta-analyses were conducted by using 3 predictors (bullying victimization, bullying perpetration, and bully/victim status) and 2 outcomes (suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors). A total of 280 effect sizes were extracted and multilevel, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Results indicated that each of the predictors were associated with risk for suicidal ideation and behavior (range, 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.69] to 4.02 [95% CI, 2.39–6.76]). Significant heterogeneity remained across each analysis. The bullying perpetration and suicidal behavior effect sizes were moderated by the study’s country of origin; the bully/victim status and suicidal ideation results were moderated by bullying assessment method. CONCLUSIONS Findings demonstrated that involvement in bullying in any capacity is associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. Future research should address mental health implications of bullying involvement to prevent suicidal ideation/behavior. PMID:25560447

  13. Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Dastgiri, Saeed; Yoosefian, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Kalankesh, Leila R

    2017-03-01

    Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide. Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women and identifying needs for appropriate related health policies and programs. Researchers searched Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID), Iranian biomedical journals (Iranmedex), and Iranian Research Institute of Information and Documentation (Irandoc) between January 2000 and June 2013, which reported induced abortion. Search terms from two categories including abortion and termination of pregnancy were compiled. The search terms were "induced abortion", "illegal abortion", "illegal abortion", "unsafe abortion", and "criminal abortion". The search was also conducted with "induced termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "unsafe termination of pregnancy" and "criminal termination of pregnancy". Meta-analysis was carried out by using OpenMeta software. Induced abortion rates were calculated based on the random effect model. Overall induced abortion rate was obtained 58.1 per 1000 women (95%CI: 55.16-61.04). In continental level, rate of induced abortion was 14 per 1000 women (95%CI: 11-16). Nation-wide and local rates were obtained 67.27 per 1000 women (95% CI: 60.02-74.23) and 148.92 (95% CI: 140.06-157.79) respectively. Induced abortion is a major public health problem that occurs worldwide whether under the legal restriction or freedom, and it remains as reproductive health concern globally. To eliminate the need for induced abortion is at the core of any effort for preventing this issue. Option with the highest priority is to prevent unwanted pregnancies through promoting reproductive health plans for women of reproductive age. In case the prevention strategies fail, universal provision of

  14. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis.

    Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Requena, Bernardo; Newton, Robert U

    2010-09-01

    Majority of the research suggests plyometric training (PT) improves maximal strength performance as measured by 1RM, isometric MVC or slow velocity isokinetic testing. However, the effectiveness of PT depends upon various factors. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with a total of 31 effect sizes (ES) was carried out to analyse the role of various factors on the effects of PT on strength performance. The inclusion criteria for the analysis were: (a) studies using PT programs for lower limb muscles; (b) studies employing true experimental design and valid and reliable measurements; (c) studies including sufficient data to calculate ES. When subjects can adequately follow plyometric exercises, the training gains are independent of fitness level. Subjects in either good or poor physical condition, benefit equally from plyometric work, also men obtain similar strength results to women following PT. In relation to the variables of program design, training volume of less than 10 weeks and with more than 15 sessions, as well as the implementation of high-intensity programs, with more than 40 jumps per session, were the strategies that seem to maximize the probability to obtain significantly greater improvements in performance (p<0.05). In order to optimise strength enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics with weight-training would be recommended, rather than utilizing only one form (p<0.05). The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by the strength and conditioning professional with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends for PT to optimise strength gains.

  15. Meta-analysis of Renal Function Following Infrarenal EVAR using Suprarenal or Infrarenal Fixation Devices.

    Stather, Philip W; Ferguson, James; Awopetu, Ayoola; Boyle, Jonathan R

    2018-03-03

    The effect of suprarenal (SR) as opposed to infrarenal (IR) fixation on renal outcomes post-endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) remains controversial. This meta-analysis aims to update current understanding of this issue. A prior meta-analysis was updated through a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses search for additional studies published in the last 3 years reporting on renal dysfunction or related outcomes post-EVAR. Random effects meta-analysis was undertaken using SPSS. A total of 25 non-randomised studies comparing SR with IR fixation were included, totalling 54,832 patients. In total, 16,634 underwent SR and 38,198 IR. Baseline characteristics, including age, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes, cardiac disease, and smoking, were similar between the groups. There was a small but significant difference in outcomes for renal dysfunction at the study end point (SR 5.98% vs. IR 4.83%; odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.40 [p analysis. Incidence of renal infarcts (SR 6.6% vs. IR 2.3%; OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.46-5.29 [p = .002]), renal stenosis (SR 2.4% vs. IR 0.8%; OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.00-8.38 [p = .05]), and renal artery occlusion (SR 2.4% vs. IR 1.2%; OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.25 [p = 0.02]) favoured IR fixation; however, there was no difference in haemodialysis rates. This meta-analysis has identified small but significantly worse renal outcomes in patients having SR fixation devices compared with IR; however, there was no difference in dialysis rates and a small effect on renal dysfunction, which did not stand up to rigorous sensitivity analysis. This should be taken into consideration during graft selection, and further studies must assess renal outcomes in the longer term, and in those with pre-existing renal dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma L-tryptophan concentration in major depressive disorder: new data and meta-analysis.

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Fujii, Takashi; Koga, Norie; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Noda, Takamasa; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the precursor to serotonin and is metabolized mainly by the kynurenine pathway. Both serotonin and kynurenine have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, plasma tryptophan concentration in patients with MDD has not unequivocally been reported to be decreased, which prompted us to perform a meta-analysis on previous studies and our own data. We searched the PubMed database for case-control studies published until August 31, 2013, using the search terms plasma AND tryptophan AND synonyms for MDD. An additional search was performed for the term amino acid instead of tryptophan. We obtained our own data in 66 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 82 controls who were recruited from March 2011 to July 2012. The majority of the patients were medicated (N = 53). Total plasma tryptophan concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. We scrutinized 160 studies for eligibility. Original articles that were written in English and documented plasma tryptophan values in patients and controls were selected. We included 24 studies from the literature and our own data in the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 744 patients and 793 controls. Data on unmedicated patients (N = 156) and their comparison subjects (N = 203) were also extracted. To see the possible correlation between tryptophan concentrations and depression severity, meta-regression analysis was performed for 10 studies with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item version score. In our case-control study, mean (SD) plasma tryptophan level was significantly decreased in the MDD patients versus the controls (53.9 [10.9] vs 57.2 [11.3] μmol/L; P = .03). The meta-analysis after adjusting for publication bias showed a significant decrease in patients with MDD with a modest effect size (Hedges g, -0.45). However, analysis on unmedicated subjects yielded a large effect (Hedges g, -0.84; P = .00015). We

  17. Influence of tooth bleaching on dental enamel microhardness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Zanolla, J; Marques, Abc; da Costa, D C; de Souza, A S; Coutinho, M

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have investigated the effect of bleaching on dental tissues. The evaluation of the effect of home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide is important for assessing alterations in enamel microhardness that may affect dental health in terms of resistance to masticatory forces. This meta-analysis was performed in order to determine scientific evidence regarding the effects of home vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the microhardness of human dental enamel. A systematic electronic literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science databases using search terms. Two independent researchers evaluated the information and methodological quality of the studies. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established for article selection; further, only studies published in English were selected. Thirteen studies that met all of the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and underwent statistical analysis. The results of this meta-analysis showed no significant changes in enamel microhardness when using the 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel over periods of 7, 14 and 21 days. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the circulatory, erythrocellular and CSF selenium levels in Alzheimer's disease: A metal meta-analysis (AMMA study-I).

    Reddy, Varikasuvu Seshadri; Bukke, Suman; Dutt, Naveen; Rana, Puneet; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Available studies in the literature on the selenium levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are inconsistent with some studies reporting its decrease in the circulation, while others reported an increase or no change as compared to controls. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of circulatory (plasma/serum and blood), erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) selenium levels in AD compared controls. We also performed a meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients (r) to demonstrate the associations between selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in AD patients. All major databases were searched for eligible studies. We included 12 case-control/observational studies reporting selenium concentrations in AD and controls. Pooled-overall effect size as standardized mean difference (SMD) and pooled r-values were generated using Review Manager 5.3 and MedCalc 15.8 software. Random-effects meta-analysis indicated a decrease in circulatory (SMD=-0.44), erythrocellular (SMD=-0.52) and CSF (SMD=-0.14) selenium levels in AD patients compared to controls. Stratified meta-analysis demonstrated that the selenium levels were decreased in both the subgroups with (SMD=-0.55) and without (SMD=-0.37) age matching between AD and controls. Our results also demonstrated a direct association between decreased selenium levels and GPx in AD. This meta-analysis suggests that circulatory selenium concentration is significantly lower in AD patients compared to controls and this decrease in selenium is directly correlated with an important antioxidant enzyme, the GPx, in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Meta-analysis of expression and function of neprilysin in Alzheimer's disease.

    Zhang, Huifeng; Liu, Dan; Wang, Yixing; Huang, Huanhuan; Zhao, Yujia; Zhou, Hui

    2017-09-14

    Neprilysin (NEP) is one of the most important Aβ-degrading enzymes, and its expression and activity in Alzheimer's brain have been widely reported, but the results remain debatable. Thus, the meta-analysis was performed to elucidate the role of NEP in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The relevant case-control or cohort studies were retrieved according to our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six studies with 123 controls and 141 AD cases, seven studies with 102 controls and 90 AD cases, and four studies with 93 controls and 132 AD cases were included in meta-analysis of NEP's protein, mRNA, and enzyme activity respectively. We conducted Meta regression to detect the sources of heterogeneity and further performed cumulative meta-analysis or subgroup analysis. Our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower level of NEP mRNA (SMD=-0.44, 95%CI: -0.87, -0.00, p=0.049) in AD cases than in non-AD cases, and such pattern was not altered over time in the cumulative meta-analysis. However, the decrease of NEP protein (SMD=-0.18, 95%CI: -0.62, 0.25) and enzyme activity (SMD=-0.35, 95%CI: -1.03, 0.32) in AD cases did not pass the significance check, while the cumulative meta-analysis by average age showed the pooled effect became insignificant as adding the studies with younger subjects, which indicates that the protein expression and enzyme activity of NEP in the cortex are affected by age. Therefore, the present meta-analysis suggests the need of further investigation of roles of NEP in AD pathogenesis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic Value of microRNA-9 in Various Cancers: a Meta-analysis.

    Zhang, Yunyuan; Zhou, Jun; Sun, Meiling; Sun, Guirong; Cao, Yongxian; Zhang, Haiping; Tian, Runhua; Zhou, Lan; Duan, Liang; Chen, Xian; Lun, Limin

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there are more and more evidences from studies have revealed the association between microRNA-9 (miR-9) expression and outcome in multiple cancers, but inconsistent results have also been reported. It is necessary to rationalize a meta analysis of all available data to clarify the prognostic role of miR-9. Eligible studies were selected through multiple search strategies and the quality was assessed by MOOSE. Data was extracted from studies according to the key statistics index. All analyses were performed using STATA software. Twenty studies were selected in the meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of miR-9 in multiple tumors. MiR-9 expression level was an independent prognostic biomarker for OS in tumor patients using multivariate and univariate analyses. High expression levels of miR-9 was demonstrated to associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.23, 95 % CI: 1.56-3.17, P analysis showed that residence region (China and Japan), sample size, cancer type (solid or leukemia), follow-up months and analysis method (qPCR) did not alter the predictive value of miR-9 on OS in various cancers. Furthermore, no significant associations were detected for miR-9 expression and lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. The present results suggest that promoted miR-9 expression is associated with poor OS in patients with general cancers.

  1. Materials used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth: a mixed treatment comparisons meta-analysis

    Pablo Silveira dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to systematically review the literature to address the question regarding the influence of different materials in the clinical and radiographic success of indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth. A literature search was carried out for articles published prior to January 2017 in PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Scopus, TRIP and ClinicalTrials databases; relevant articles included randomized clinical trials that compared materials used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and extracted the data. The effects of each material on the outcome (clinical and radiographic failures were analyzed using a mixed treatment comparisons meta-analysis. The ranking of treatments according to their probability of being the best choice was also calculated. From 1,088 potentially eligible studies, 11 were selected for full-text analysis, and 4 were included in the meta-analysis. In all papers, calcium hydroxide liner was used as the control group versus an adhesive system, resin-modified glass ionomer cement or placebo. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 48 months, with dropout rates of 0-25.7%. The material type did not significantly affect the risk of failure of the indirect pulp treatment. However, calcium hydroxide presented a higher probability of failure. In conclusion, there is no scientific evidence showing the superiority of any material used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth.

  2. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  3. Management Versus Non-Management Knowledge Transfer from Training to Real Work Environments: A Meta-Analysis

    2007-01-01

    .... A meta-analysis was performed with training transfer as a dependent variable and post-training independent variables of supervisor support, subordinate support, peer support, workplace support...

  4. Meta-analysis of rates of erectile function after treatment of localized prostate carcinoma

    Robinson, John W.; Moritz, Sabine; Fung, Tak

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The results of a 1997 meta-analysis of the rates of erectile function after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and radical prostatectomy have been widely used in patient and professional education materials and as a reference against which new findings are compared. With a number of recent publications, it is now possible to update this analysis and compare brachytherapy with or without EBRT with EBRT alone, standard and nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, and cryotherapy. Methods: A comprehensive literature review and subsequent meta-analysis of the rates of erectile dysfunction associated with the treatments of localized prostate carcinoma was conducted. A simple logistic regression analysis was used to combine the data from the 54 articles that met the selection criteria. Results: The predicted probability of maintaining erectile function after brachytherapy was 0.76, after brachytherapy plus EBRT 0.60, after EBRT 0.55, after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy 0.34, after standard radical prostatectomy 0.25, and after cryotherapy 0.13. When only studies reporting ≥2 years follow-up were considered, the only significant change was a decline in the probability for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. No brachytherapy studies had a follow-up of ≥2 years. When the probabilities were adjusted for age, the spread between the RT methods and surgical approaches was greater. Conclusion: The differences in the probability of maintaining erectile function after different treatments of localized prostate cancer are significant

  5. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of surgical scalpel or diathermy in making abdominal skin incisions.

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical scalpels are traditionally used to make skin incisions. Diathermy incisions on contrary are less popular among the surgeons. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of both techniques and address the common fallacies about diathermy incisions. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was done, using the keywords diathermy, cold scalpel, and incisions. Eleven clinical trials comparing both methods of making skin incisions were selected for meta-analysis. The end points compared included postoperative wound infection, pain in first 24 hours after surgery, time taken to complete the incisions, and incision-related blood loss. RESULTS: Postoperative wound infection rate was comparable in both techniques (P = 0.147, odds ratio = 1.257 and 95% CI = 0.923-1.711). Postoperative pain was significantly less with diathermy incisions in first 24 hours (P = 0.031, weighted mean difference = 0.852 and 95% CI = 0.076-1.628). Similarly, the time taken to complete the incision and incision-related blood loss was significantly less with diathermy incisions (95% CI = 0.245-0.502 and 0.548-1.020, respectively). CONCLUSION: Diathermy incisions are equally prone to get wound infection, as do the incisions made with scalpel. Furthermore, lower incidence of early postoperative pain, swiftness of the technique, and a reduced blood loss are the encouraging facts supporting routine use of diathermy for abdominal skin incisions after taking careful precautions.

  6. Maternal MTHFR polymorphism (677 C-T) and risk of Down's syndrome child: meta-analysis.

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Anupam

    2016-09-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the most important gene that participates in folate metabolism. Presence of valine instead of alanine at position 677 and elevated levels of homocystein causes DNA hypomethylation which in turn favours nondisjunction. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to establish link between maternal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and birth of Down's syndrome (DS) child. A total of 37 case-control studies were selected for analysis including our own, in which we investigated 110 cases and 111 control mothers. Overall, the result of meta-analysis showed significant risk of DS affected by the presence of maternal SNP (MTHFR 677 C-T OR = 0.816, 95% CI = 0.741-0.900, P <0.0001). Heterogeneity of high magnitude was observed among the studies. The chi-square value suggested a highly significant association between homozygous mutant TT genotype and birth of DS child (χ² = 23.63, P = 0.000). Genetic models suggested that 'T' allele possesses high risk for DS whether present in dominant (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13-1.34); codominant (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.10-1.25) or recessive (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.05-1.38) form. The analysis from all 37 studies combined together suggested that MTHFR 677 C-T is a major risk factor for DS birth.

  7. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-06-08

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

  8. bspmma: An R Package for Bayesian Semiparametric Models for Meta-Analysis

    Deborah Burr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an R package, bspmma, which implements a Dirichlet-based random effects model specific to meta-analysis. In meta-analysis, when combining effect estimates from several heterogeneous studies, it is common to use a random-effects model. The usual frequentist or Bayesian models specify a normal distribution for the true effects. However, in many situations, the effect distribution is not normal, e.g., it can have thick tails, be skewed, or be multi-modal. A Bayesian nonparametric model based on mixtures of Dirichlet process priors has been proposed in the literature, for the purpose of accommodating the non-normality. We review this model and then describe a competitor, a semiparametric version which has the feature that it allows for a well-defined centrality parameter convenient for determining whether the overall effect is significant. This second Bayesian model is based on a different version of the Dirichlet process prior, and we call it the "conditional Dirichlet model". The package contains functions to carry out analyses based on either the ordinary or the conditional Dirichlet model, functions for calculating certain Bayes factors that provide a check on the appropriateness of the conditional Dirichlet model, and functions that enable an empirical Bayes selection of the precision parameter of the Dirichlet process. We illustrate the use of the package on two examples, and give an interpretation of the results in these two different scenarios.

  9. Are Eating Disorders Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; González-Rivas, Juan P; Medina-Inojosa, José R; Florez, Hermes

    2017-11-22

    Eating disorders (ED) affect energy intake modifying body fat depots. Prior evidence suggests that binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) could increase the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while anorexia nervosa (AN) could reduce it. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate if ED are risk factors for T2D. Ten studies were selected out of 1057 screened. Meta-analysis of six studies with T2D as outcome is reported. Among cross-sectional studies, both BED (OR 3.69, 95% CI [1.12-12.12]) and BN (OR 3.45 [1.92-6.1]) increased the risk of T2D, while AN was not associated with lower risk (OR 0.87 [0.40-1.88]). Cohort studies showed increased risk of T2D with BN (RR 1.7 [1.2-2.5]), and decreased risk with AN (RR 0.71 [0.52-0.98]), but for BED the association was less clear (OR 3.34 [0.85-13.12]). Limitations of studies and recommendations for future research are presented.

  10. Correlations between MRI and Information Processing Speed in MS: A Meta-Analysis

    S. M. Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine relationships between conventional MRI measures and the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT and symbol digit modalities test (SDMT. Methods. A systematic literature review was conducted. Included studies had ≥30 multiple sclerosis (MS patients, administered the SDMT or PASAT, and measured T2LV or brain atrophy. Meta-analysis of MRI/information processing speed (IPS correlations, analysis of MRI/IPS significance tests to account for reporting bias, and binomial testing to detect trends when comparing correlation strengths of SDMT versus PASAT and T2LV versus atrophy were conducted. Results. The 39 studies identified frequently reported only significant correlations, suggesting reporting bias. Direct meta-analysis was only feasible for correlations between SDMT and T2LV (r=-0.45, P<0.001 and atrophy in patients with mixed-MS subtypes (r=-0.54, P<0.001. Familywise Holm-Bonferroni testing found that selective reporting was not the source of at least half of significant results reported. Binomial tests (P=0.006 favored SDMT over PASAT in strength of MRI correlations. Conclusions. A moderate-to-strong correlation exists between impaired IPS and MRI in mixed MS populations. Correlations with MRI were stronger for SDMT than for PASAT. Neither heterogeneity among populations nor reporting bias appeared to be responsible for these findings.

  11. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  12. Prevalence of sleep quality disorder among Iranian drivers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Tabrizi, Reza; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Razzaghi, Alireza; Akbari, Maryam; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Kavari, Seyed Habibollah; Mani, Arash; Kazemi, Maryam; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Sleep Quality Disorder (SQD) plays a major role in road accidents. So, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of SQD among occupational drivers using systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran. Methods: All Persian and English articles between January, 2000 and October, 2015 which had reported the SQD prevalence in Iranian drivers by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with cross-sectional design, after the quality evaluation process and achieving the required score, were selected. The heterogenic index of the studies was distinguished by using Cochran (Q) and I2 tests. Based on heterogeneity results, a random effects model was used to estimate pooled prevalence of SQD. Meta-regression was also used to investigate the heterogeneity of suspected factors. Results: In total, 936 articles were found from national and international databases. Ten articles entered to meta-analysis process, ultimately. Since heterogeneity index suggested that there is a consider-able heterogeneity among the results of primary studies (I-squared = 98.8%, Q= 754.1, p less than 0.001), the overall estimation of SQD among Iranian drivers was conducted using random-effects model and its rate was estimated to be 53.4% (95% CI: 38.9-67.8). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that more than half of Iranian drivers have SQD. Identifying the drivers with SQD by periodic examinations and providing advice and health care among occupational drivers could be appropriate solutions for decreasing the accident risks. PMID:29362294

  13. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis methods.

    Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Abangah, Ghobad; Kalvandi, Gholamreza; Tavan, Hamed; Aazami, Sanaz

    2018-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is a prevalent problem and symptoms include epigastria pain and heartburn. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and causes of peptic ulcers in Iran using systematic review and meta-analysis. Eleven Iranian papers published from 2002 to 2016 are selected using valid keywords in the SID, Goggle scholar, PubMed and Elsevier databases. Results of studies pooled using random effects model in meta-analysis. The heterogeneity of the sample was checked using Q test and I 2 index. Total sample size in this study consist of 1335 individuals with peptic ulcer (121 samples per article). The prevalence of peptic ulcers was estimated 34% (95% CI= 0.25 - 0.43). The prevalence of peptic ulcers was 30% and 60% in woman and man respectively. The highest environmental factor (cigarette) has been addressed in 30% (95% CI= 0.23-0.37) of patients. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was estimated in 62% (95% CI= 0.49-0.75) of patients. The results of this study show that prevalence of peptic ulcers in Iran (34%) is higher that worldwide rate (6% to 15%). There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of peptic ulcer over a decade from 2002 to 2016.

  14. Detecting and correcting for publication bias in meta-analysis - A truncated normal distribution approach.

    Zhu, Qiaohao; Carriere, K C

    2016-01-01

    Publication bias can significantly limit the validity of meta-analysis when trying to draw conclusion about a research question from independent studies. Most research on detection and correction for publication bias in meta-analysis focus mainly on funnel plot-based methodologies or selection models. In this paper, we formulate publication bias as a truncated distribution problem, and propose new parametric solutions. We develop methodologies of estimating the underlying overall effect size and the severity of publication bias. We distinguish the two major situations, in which publication bias may be induced by: (1) small effect size or (2) large p-value. We consider both fixed and random effects models, and derive estimators for the overall mean and the truncation proportion. These estimators will be obtained using maximum likelihood estimation and method of moments under fixed- and random-effects models, respectively. We carried out extensive simulation studies to evaluate the performance of our methodology, and to compare with the non-parametric Trim and Fill method based on funnel plot. We find that our methods based on truncated normal distribution perform consistently well, both in detecting and correcting publication bias under various situations.

  15. Comparing robotic, laparoscopic and open cystectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Thomas Fonseka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing outcomes between Open Radical Cystectomy (ORC, Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy (LRC and Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy (RARC. RARC is to be compared to LRC and ORC and LRC compared to ORC. Material and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted, collating studies comparing RARC, LRC and ORC. Surgical and oncological outcome data were extracted and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: Twenty-four studies were selected with total of 2,104 cases analyzed. RARC had a longer operative time (OPT compared to LRC with no statistical difference between length of stay (LOS and estimated blood loss (EBL. RARC had a significantly shorter LOS, reduced EBL, lower complication rate and longer OPT compared to ORC. There were no significant differences regarding lymph node yield (LNY and positive surgical margins (PSM. LRC had a reduced EBL, shorter LOS and increased OPT compared to ORC. There was no significant difference regarding LNY. Conclusion: RARC is comparable to LRC with better surgical results than ORC. LRC has better surgical outcomes than ORC. With the unique technological features of the robotic surgical system and increasing trend of intra-corporeal reconstruction it is likely that RARC will become the surgical option of choice.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD): a meta-analysis.

    Zhao, Luqian; Zhu, Zhigang; Lou, Huiling; Zhu, Guodong; Huang, Weimin; Zhang, Shaogang; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-07

    Some studies reported a significant association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results are controversial. A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed, Science Direct, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Five case-control studies and 5 cohort studies were selected, involving a total of 104392 subjects in this meta-analysis. PCOS was significantly associated with the increased risk of CVD (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09 - 1.56; P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis of study design, both case-control studies and prospective cohort studies showed significant results (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.16 - 2.77; P = 0.009; OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.06 - 1.37; P = 0.005), while retrospective cohort studies did not show positive result (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.60 - 1.40; P = 0.68). In a further stratified analysis by type of CVD, a significant association was found between PCOS and coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 1.44; 95% CI 1.13 - 1.84; P = 0.004). However, no significant association was observed between PCOS and myocardial infarction (MI) (OR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.68 - 1.51; P = 0.95). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that PCOS is significantly associated with increased CHD risk.

  17. An efficient Bayesian meta-analysis approach for studying cross-phenotype genetic associations.

    Arunabha Majumdar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous analysis of genetic associations with multiple phenotypes may reveal shared genetic susceptibility across traits (pleiotropy. For a locus exhibiting overall pleiotropy, it is important to identify which specific traits underlie this association. We propose a Bayesian meta-analysis approach (termed CPBayes that uses summary-level data across multiple phenotypes to simultaneously measure the evidence of aggregate-level pleiotropic association and estimate an optimal subset of traits associated with the risk locus. This method uses a unified Bayesian statistical framework based on a spike and slab prior. CPBayes performs a fully Bayesian analysis by employing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique Gibbs sampling. It takes into account heterogeneity in the size and direction of the genetic effects across traits. It can be applied to both cohort data and separate studies of multiple traits having overlapping or non-overlapping subjects. Simulations show that CPBayes can produce higher accuracy in the selection of associated traits underlying a pleiotropic signal than the subset-based meta-analysis ASSET. We used CPBayes to undertake a genome-wide pleiotropic association study of 22 traits in the large Kaiser GERA cohort and detected six independent pleiotropic loci associated with at least two phenotypes. This includes a locus at chromosomal region 1q24.2 which exhibits an association simultaneously with the risk of five different diseases: Dermatophytosis, Hemorrhoids, Iron Deficiency, Osteoporosis and Peripheral Vascular Disease. We provide an R-package 'CPBayes' implementing the proposed method.

  18. Association between coffee intake and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis.

    Kim, J; Oh, S-W; Myung, S-K; Kwon, H; Lee, C; Yun, J M; Lee, H K

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common diseases affecting patients worldwide, but its risk factors and causes are not clearly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of coffee intake on GERD by a meta-analysis. We searched online published research databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for studies that were published up to December 2012. These publications were reviewed by two independent authors, and studies that fulfilled the criteria were selected. Whenever there was a disagreement between the authors, a consensus was reached by discussion. Fifteen case-control studies were included in the final analysis. A meta-analysis showed that there was no significant association between coffee intake and GERD. The odds ratio was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.19). In subgroup analyses in which the groups were subdivided based on the definition of GERD (diagnosed by endoscopy or by symptoms alone), only the endoscopy group showed a significantly higher odds ratio. In subgroup analyses in which the groups were subdivided based on the amount of coffee intake, quality of study, and assessment of exposure, there was no significant association between coffee intake and GERD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  19. Eyewitness identification across the life span: A meta-analysis of age differences.

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Price, Heather L

    2015-11-01

    Lineup identifications are often a critical component of criminal investigations. Over the past 35 years, researchers have been conducting empirical studies to assess the impact of witness age on identification accuracy. A previous meta-analysis indicated that children are less likely than adults to correctly reject a lineup that does not contain the culprit, but children 5 years and older are as likely as adults to make a correct identification if the culprit is in the lineup (Pozzulo & Lindsay, 1998). We report an updated meta-analysis of age differences in eyewitness identification, summarizing data from 20,244 participants across 91 studies. Contrary to extant reviews, we adopt a life span approach and examine witnesses from early childhood to late adulthood. Children's increased tendency to erroneously select a culprit-absent lineup member was replicated. Children were also less likely than young adults to correctly identify the culprit. Group data from culprit-absent and culprit-present lineups were used to produce signal detection measures, which indicated young adults were better able than children to discriminate between guilty and innocent suspects. A strikingly similar pattern emerged for older adults, who had even stronger deficits in discriminability than children, relative to adults. Although identifications by young adults were the most reliable, identifications by all witnesses had probative value. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Divorce and Death: A Meta-Analysis and Research Agenda for Clinical, Social, and Health Psychology.

    Sbarra, David A; Law, Rita W; Portley, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Divorce is a relatively common stressful life event that is purported to increase risk for all-cause mortality. One problem in the literature on divorce and health is that it is fragmented and spread across many disciplines; most prospective studies of mortality are based in epidemiology and sociology, whereas most mechanistic studies are based in psychology. This review integrates research on divorce and death via meta-analysis and outlines a research agenda for better understanding the potential mechanisms linking marital dissolution and risk for all-cause mortality. Random effects meta-analysis with a sample of 32 prospective studies (involving more than 6.5 million people, 160,000 deaths, and over 755,000 divorces in 11 different countries) revealed a significant increase in risk for early death among separated/divorced adults in comparison to their married counterparts. Men and younger adults evidenced significantly greater risk for early death following marital separation/divorce than did women and older adults. Quantification of the overall effect size linking marital separation/divorce to risk for early death reveals a number of important research questions, and this article discusses what remains to be learned about four plausible mechanisms of action: social selection, resource disruptions, changes in health behaviors, and chronic psychological distress. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.

  1. Antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent miscarriage: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Santos, Thaís da Silva; Ieque, Andressa Lorena; de Carvalho, Hayalla Corrêa; Sell, Ana Maria; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; de Lima Neto, Quirino Alves; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2017-09-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition that is associated with thrombosis and morbidity in pregnancy. The exact mechanisms by which these associations occur appear to be heterogeneous and are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze publications in recent years to better understand the diagnosis and its contribution to monitoring APS among women with recurrent miscarriage (RM). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases, with articles published between 2010 and 2014, according to the PRISMA statement. Of the 85 identified studies, nine were selected. Most of the studies reported an association between recurrent miscarriage and specific antiphospholipid antibodies, as anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) and antiphosphatidylserine (aPS), which showed a relationship with RM. The main result of the meta-analysis revealed association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and/or APS compared to the patients with RM (OR: 0.279; 95% CI: 0.212-0.366) and APS cases compared to the patients with RM (OR: 0.083; 95% CI: 0.036-0.189). High heterogeneity among these studies (I 2 =100.0%, p antiphospholipid antibodies and/or antiphospholipid syndrome in patients with recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Chunla He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is common in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and may be associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in PCOS. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the associations of serum vitamin D levels with metabolic and endocrine dysregulations in women with PCOS, and to determine effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and hormonal functions in PCOS patients. The literature search was undertaken through five databases until 16 January 2015 for both observational and experimental studies concerning relationships between vitamin D and PCOS. A total of 366 citations were identified, of which 30 were selected (n = 3182. We found that lower serum vitamin D levels were related to metabolic and hormonal disorders in women with PCOS. Specifically, PCOS patients with VDD were more likely to have dysglycemia (e.g., increased levels of fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR compared to those without VDD. This meta-analysis found no evidence that vitamin D supplementation reduced or mitigated metabolic and hormonal dysregulations in PCOS. VDD may be a comorbid manifestation of PCOS or a minor pathway in PCOS associated metabolic and hormonal dysregulation. Future prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials with repeated VDD assessment and better characterization of PCOS disease severity at enrollment are needed to clarify whether VDD is a co-determinant of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS, represents a consequence of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS or both.

  3. A meta-analysis of the association of STAT4 polymorphism with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Yuan, Hui; Feng, Jin-Bao; Pan, Hai-Feng; Qiu, Li-Xin; Li, Lian-Hong; Zhang, Ning; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2010-06-01

    STAT4 has been newly identified as a susceptibility gene for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in recent reports. To more precisely estimate the association between STAT4 polymorphism and SLE risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Studies on the association of STAT4 rs7574865 or rs7601754 with SLE were fully considered and carefully selected using three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science). A total of 17 comparisons from 8 relevant studies involving 7,381 patients and 11,431 controls were included to analyze the association between STAT4 rs7574865 and SLE risk. The pooled OR for the minor T allele of STAT4 rs7574865 was 1.65 (95% CI 1.56-1.75, P rs7574865 with SLE susceptibility was similar in populations of European or Asian origin, although significant differences in the minor T allele frequencies were observed in the two population controls. As for rs7601754, there were five comparisons from four relevant studies involving 2,498 patients and 4,825 controls in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR for the minor C allele of STAT4 rs7601754 was 0.67 (95% CI 0.59-0.75, P rs7574865 polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for SLE in populations of European and Asian origin. Our results also suggest that STAT4 rs7601754 polymorphism might be associated with SLE risk.

  4. [Composite prevention strategy for shoulder dystocia: meta-analysis].

    Wang, Shaowei; Zhao, Xiaodong; Chu, Defa; Li, Min; Liang, Lin; Zhang, Junrong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the composite prevention strategy for shoulder dystocia. The published articles of randomized controlled trial (RCT) of comparison about the prevention of shoulder dystocia were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO databases and Cochrane Library, and these studies were screened under inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies were evaluated. And the Meta-analysis using statistic software RevMan 5.1 was completed. Totally 16 articles, all English published with no one Chinese article being searched out, were included in this analysis, published from 1993 to 2009. ( 1)To the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients, reviewed from 2 articles, it was found that the incidence of shoulder dystocia was reduced significantly by prenatal intervention versus usual care (OR = 0.40, 95% CI:0.21- 0.75, P = 0.004). (2)To the GDM patients with intensive prenatal intervention, reviewed form 5 articles, it was found that the incidence of shoulder dystocia was reduced significantly by intensive intervention(diet control combined with insulin if necessary)versus less intensive intervention (only diet control), OR = 0.29 (95%CI:0.11-0.73, P = 0.009). (3) To the non-GDM patients with suspected macrosomia, reviewed from 4 articles, it was found that the incidence of shoulder dystocia was not reduced by early artificial induction of parturition (OR = 0.85, 95%CI:0.41-1.75, P = 0.660). (4)To the GDM patients, reviewed form 2 articles, it was found that the incidence of shoulder dystocia was reduced marginal significantly by artificial induction of parturition in 38-39 gestational weeks compared with all spontaneous parturition patients (OR = 0.18, 95%CI:0.03-0.97, P = 0.050) and significantly reduced when compared with those spontaneous parturition patients after 40 gestational weeks (OR = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.02-0.75, P = 0.020). (5)To the GDM patients with suspected macrosomia, reviewed from only one article, it was found that the incidence of shoulder

  5. Clinical Use of Curcumin in Depression: A Meta-Analysis.

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Koh, Shawn Shao Hong; Chan, Hwei Wuen; Ho, Collin Yih Xian

    2017-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of curcumin, a plant polyphenol with potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective properties, as a novel antidepressant. Clinical trials have yielded conflicting conclusions pertaining to its effectiveness in depression. A meta-analysis of the topic, which has not been done until now, is therefore necessary to summarize current evidence and generate hypotheses for further research. Using the keywords [curcumin OR diferuloylmethane OR curcuminoid OR turmeric OR Indian saffron] AND [depression OR MDD OR suicide], a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, Clinical Trials Register of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (CCDANTR), and Cochrane Field for Complementary Medicine database yielded 2081 articles published in English between January 1, 1960, and August 1, 2016. Six clinical trials with a total of 377 patients were reviewed, comparing the use of curcumin to placebo. In patients with depression, the pooled standardized mean difference from baseline Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores (pooled standardized mean difference -0.344, 95% confidence interval -0.558 to -0.129; P = .002) support the significant clinical efficacy of curcumin in ameliorating depressive symptoms. Significant anti-anxiety effects were also reported in 3 of the trials. Notably, no adverse events were reported in any of the trials. Most trials had a generally low risk of bias, except for an open trial of curcumin and a single-blinded study. Because of the small number of studies available, a funnel plot or sensitivity analysis was not possible. Evidence on the long-term efficacy and safety of curcumin is also limited as the duration of all available studies ranged from 4 to 8 weeks. Curcumin appears to be safe, well-tolerated, and efficacious among depressed patients. More robust randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and follow-up studies carried out over a longer duration should be

  6. Bisphosphonates and risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis.

    Dae Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests that bisphosphonates may reduce atherosclerosis, while concerns have been raised about atrial fibrillation. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of bisphosphonates on total adverse cardiovascular (CV events, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction (MI, stroke, and CV death in adults with or at risk for low bone mass.A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE through July 2014 identified 58 randomized controlled trials with longer than 6 months in duration that reported CV events. Absolute risks and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of total CV events, atrial fibrillation, MI, stroke, and CV death were estimated. Subgroup analyses by follow-up duration, population characteristics, bisphosphonate types, and route were performed.Absolute risks over 25-36 months in bisphosphonate-treated versus control patients were 6.5% versus 6.2% for total CV events; 1.4% versus 1.5% for atrial fibrillation; 1.0% versus 1.2% for MI; 1.6% versus 1.9% for stroke; and 1.5% versus 1.4% for CV death. Bisphosphonate treatment up to 36 months did not have any significant effects on total CV events (14 trials; ORs [95% CI]: 0.98 [0.84-1.14]; I2 = 0.0%, atrial fibrillation (41 trials; 1.08 [0.92-1.25]; I2 = 0.0%, MI (10 trials; 0.96 [0.69-1.34]; I2 = 0.0%, stroke (10 trials; 0.99 [0.82-1.19]; I2 = 5.8%, and CV death (14 trials; 0.88 [0.72-1.07]; I2 = 0.0% with little between-study heterogeneity. The risk of atrial fibrillation appears to be modestly elevated for zoledronic acid (6 trials; 1.24 [0.96-1.61]; I2 = 0.0%, not for oral bisphosphonates (26 trials; 1.02 [0.83-1.24]; I2 = 0.0%. The CV effects did not vary by subgroups or study quality.Bisphosphonates do not have beneficial or harmful effects on atherosclerotic CV events, but zoledronic acid may modestly increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. Given the large reduction in fractures with bisphosphonates, changes in

  7. Arsenic metabolism and cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Cebrián, Mariano E; Franco-Marina, Francisco; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2017-07-01

    To describe the studies that have reported association measures between risk of cancer and the percentage distribution of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolites by anatomical site, in non-ecological epidemiological studies. Studies were identified in the PubMed database in the period from 1990 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were: non-ecological epidemiological study, with histologically confirmed cancer cases, reporting the percentage distribution of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated (MMA) and dimethylated (DMA) metabolites, as well as association measures with confidence intervals (CI) between cancer and %iAs and/or %MMA and/or %DMA. A descriptive meta-analysis was performed by the method of the inverse of the variance for the fixed effects model and the DerSimonian and Laird's method for the random effects model. Heterogeneity was tested using the Q statistic and stratifying for epidemiological design and total As in urine. The possibility of publication bias was assessed through Begg's test. A total of 13 eligible studies were found, most of them were performed in Taiwan and focused on skin and bladder cancer. The positive association between %MMA and various types of cancer was consistent, in contrast to the negative relationship between %DMA and cancer that was inconsistent. The summary risk of bladder (OR=1.79; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.26, n=4 studies) and lung (OR=2.44; 95% CI: 1.57, 3.80, n=2 studies) cancer increased significantly with increasing %MMA, without statistical heterogeneity. In contrast, lung cancer risk was inversely related to %DMA (OR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.93, n=2 studies), also without significant heterogeneity. These results were similar after stratifying by epidemiological design and total As in urine. No evidence of publication bias was found. These findings provide additional support that methylation needs to be taken into account when assessing the potential iAs carcinogenicity risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in the era of individual patient data sharing.

    Kawahara, Takuya; Fukuda, Musashi; Oba, Koji; Sakamoto, Junichi; Buyse, Marc

    2018-06-01

    Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis is considered to be a gold standard when the results of several randomized trials are combined. Recent initiatives on sharing IPD from clinical trials offer unprecedented opportunities for using such data in IPD meta-analyses. First, we discuss the evidence generated and the benefits obtained by a long-established prospective IPD meta-analysis in early breast cancer. Next, we discuss a data-sharing system that has been adopted by several pharmaceutical sponsors. We review a number of retrospective IPD meta-analyses that have already been proposed using this data-sharing system. Finally, we discuss the role of data sharing in IPD meta-analysis in the future. Treatment effects can be more reliably estimated in both types of IPD meta-analyses than with summary statistics extracted from published papers. Specifically, with rich covariate information available on each patient, prognostic and predictive factors can be identified or confirmed. Also, when several endpoints are available, surrogate endpoints can be assessed statistically. Although there are difficulties in conducting, analyzing, and interpreting retrospective IPD meta-analysis utilizing the currently available data-sharing systems, data sharing will play an important role in IPD meta-analysis in the future.

  9. Game-based digital interventions for depression therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on game-based digital interventions for depression systematically and examine their effectiveness through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Database searching was conducted using specific search terms and inclusion criteria. A standard meta-analysis was also conducted of available RCT studies with a random effects model. The standard mean difference (Cohen's d) was used to calculate the effect size of each study. Nineteen studies were included in the review, and 10 RCTs (eight studies) were included in the meta-analysis. Four types of game interventions-psycho-education and training, virtual reality exposure therapy, exercising, and entertainment-were identified, with various types of support delivered and populations targeted. The meta-analysis revealed a moderate effect size of the game interventions for depression therapy at posttreatment (d=-0.47 [95% CI -0.69 to -0.24]). A subgroup analysis showed that interventions based on psycho-education and training had a smaller effect than those based on the other forms, and that self-help interventions yielded better outcomes than supported interventions. A higher effect was achieved when a waiting list was used as the control. The review and meta-analysis support the effectiveness of game-based digital interventions for depression. More large-scale, high-quality RCT studies with sufficient long-term data for treatment evaluation are needed.

  10. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Mocellin, Simone; Verdi, Daunia; Nitti, Donato

    2009-10-01

    Polymorphisms of DNA repair-related genes might modulate cancer predisposition. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence regarding the relationship between these polymorphisms and the risk of developing cutaneous melanoma. Relevant studies were searched using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit, Cochrane and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Data were gathered according to the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. The model-free approach was adopted to perform the meta-analysis of the retrieved data. We identified 20 original reports that describe the relationship between melanoma risk and the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 16 genes (cases = 4195). For seven SNPs considered in at least two studies, the findings were heterogeneous. Data were suitable for meta-analysis only in the case of the XPD/ERCC2 SNP rs13181 (cases = 2308, controls = 3698) and demonstrated that the variant C allele is associated with increased melanoma risk (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.21, P = 0.01; population attributable risk = 9.6%). This is the first meta-analysis suggesting that XPD/ERCC2 might represent a low-penetrance melanoma susceptibility gene. Much work is still to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn on the role of DNA repair alterations in melanomagenesis since for the other genes involved in this highly complex process, the available information is scarce or null.

  11. Limitations in Using Multiple Imputation to Harmonize Individual Participant Data for Meta-Analysis.

    Siddique, Juned; de Chavez, Peter J; Howe, George; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2018-02-01

    Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis is a meta-analysis in which the individual-level data for each study are obtained and used for synthesis. A common challenge in IPD meta-analysis is when variables of interest are measured differently in different studies. The term harmonization has been coined to describe the procedure of placing variables on the same scale in order to permit pooling of data from a large number of studies. Using data from an IPD meta-analysis of 19 adolescent depression trials, we describe a multiple imputation approach for harmonizing 10 depression measures across the 19 trials by treating those depression measures that were not used in a study as missing data. We then apply diagnostics to address the fit of our imputation model. Even after reducing the scale of our application, we were still unable to produce accurate imputations of the missing values. We describe those features of the data that made it difficult to harmonize the depression measures and provide some guidelines for using multiple imputation for harmonization in IPD meta-analysis.

  12. Meta-analysis of SNPs involved in variance heterogeneity using Levene's test for equal variances

    Deng, Wei Q; Asma, Senay; Paré, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a commonly used approach to increase the sample size for genome-wide association searches when individual studies are otherwise underpowered. Here, we present a meta-analysis procedure to estimate the heterogeneity of the quantitative trait variance attributable to genetic variants using Levene's test without needing to exchange individual-level data. The meta-analysis of Levene's test offers the opportunity to combine the considerable sample size of a genome-wide meta-analysis to identify the genetic basis of phenotypic variability and to prioritize single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. The use of Levene's test has several advantages, including robustness to departure from the normality assumption, freedom from the influence of the main effects of SNPs, and no assumption of an additive genetic model. We conducted a meta-analysis of the log-transformed body mass index of 5892 individuals and identified a variant with a highly suggestive Levene's test P-value of 4.28E-06 near the NEGR1 locus known to be associated with extreme obesity. PMID:23921533

  13. Graphics and Statistics for Cardiology: Data visualisation for meta-analysis.

    Kiran, Amit; Crespillo, Abel Pérez; Rahimi, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Graphical displays play a pivotal role in understanding data sets and disseminating results. For meta-analysis, they are instrumental in presenting findings from multiple studies. This report presents guidance to authors wishing to submit graphical displays as part of their meta-analysis to a clinical cardiology journal, such as HeartWhen using graphical displays for meta-analysis, we recommend the following: Use a flow diagram to describe the number of studies returned from the initial search, the inclusion/exclusion criteria applied and the final number of studies used in the meta-analysis.Present results from the meta-analysis using a figure that incorporates a forest plot and underlying (tabulated) statistics, including test for heterogeneity.Use displays such as funnel plot (minimum 10 studies) and Galbraith plot to visually present distribution of effect sizes or associations in order to evaluate small-study effects and publication bias).For meta-regression, the bubble plot is a useful display for assessing associations by study-level factors.Final checks on graphs, such as appropriate use of axis scale, line pattern, text size and graph resolution, should always be performed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Using beta coefficients to impute missing correlations in meta-analysis research: Reasons for caution.

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Bobko, Philip

    2018-06-01

    Meta-analysis has become a well-accepted method for synthesizing empirical research about a given phenomenon. Many meta-analyses focus on synthesizing correlations across primary studies, but some primary studies do not report correlations. Peterson and Brown (2005) suggested that researchers could use standardized regression weights (i.e., beta coefficients) to impute missing correlations. Indeed, their beta estimation procedures (BEPs) have been used in meta-analyses in a wide variety of fields. In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of BEPs in meta-analysis. We first examined how use of BEPs might affect results from a published meta-analysis. We then developed a series of Monte Carlo simulations that systematically compared the use of existing correlations (that were not missing) to data sets that incorporated BEPs (that impute missing correlations from corresponding beta coefficients). These simulations estimated ρ̄ (mean population correlation) and SDρ (true standard deviation) across a variety of meta-analytic conditions. Results from both the existing meta-analysis and the Monte Carlo simulations revealed that BEPs were associated with potentially large biases when estimating ρ̄ and even larger biases when estimating SDρ. Using only existing correlations often substantially outperformed use of BEPs and virtually never performed worse than BEPs. Overall, the authors urge a return to the standard practice of using only existing correlations in meta-analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Epinephrine in cardiac arrest: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Morales-Cané, Ignacio; Valverde-León, María Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2016-12-08

    evaluate the effectiveness of epinephrine used during cardiac arrest and its effect on the survival rates and neurological condition. systematic review of scientific literature with meta-analysis, using a random effects model. The following databases were used to research clinical trials and observational studies: Medline, Embase and Cochrane, from 2005 to 2015. when the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) with administration of epinephrine was compared with ROSC without administration, increased rates were found with administration (OR 2.02. 95% CI 1.49 to 2.75; I2 = 95%). Meta-analysis showed an increase in survival to discharge or 30 days after administration of epinephrine (OR 1.23; 95% IC 1.05-1.44; I2=83%). Stratification by shockable and non-shockable rhythms showed an increase in survival for non-shockable rhythm (OR 1.52; 95% IC 1.29-1.78; I2=42%). When compared with delayed administration, the administration of epinephrine within 10 minutes showed an increased survival rate (OR 2.03; 95% IC 1.77-2.32; I2=0%). administration of epinephrine appears to increase the rate of ROSC, but when compared with other therapies, no positive effect was found on survival rates of patients with favorable neurological status. avaliar a efetividade da adrenalina na parada cardíaca e seu efeito na sobrevivência e no estado neurológico. revisão sistemática da literatura científica com meta-análise utilizando um modelo de efeitos aleatórios. Revisão em Medline, Embase e Cochrane, desde 2005 até 2015 de ensaios clínicos e estudos observacionais. observou-se aumento nas taxas de retorno de circulação espontânea com a administração de adrenalina (OR 2,02; 95% IC 1,49-2,75; I2=95%) comparadas com a não administração de adrenalina. A meta-análise mostrou um aumento da sobrevivência na alta ou depois de 30 dias da administração de adrenalina (OR 1,23; 95% IC 1,05-1,44; I2=83%). Quando estratificados por ritmos desfibrilháveis e não desfibrilh

  16. Meta-analysis: Nitroglycerin for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis

    Nøjgaard, C; Matzen, P; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis after ERCP is a severe side effect. AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of nitroglycerin on post-ERCP pancreatitis by a meta-analysis of randomized clinical studies. METHODS: We searched on Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library and all abstracts presented at Digestive......-ERCP pancreatitis after administration of nitroglycerin were identified. Meta-analysis including all five studies showed a relative risk (RR) of 0.61 (95% CI; 0.44, 0.86) with the number needed to treat (NNT) of 26 (95% CI: 16, 82). Three studies evaluated nitroglycerin administered by a dermal patch reaching...... together an RR of 0.66 (95% CI; 0.43, 1.01). The use of nitroglycerin is associated with a significantly increased risk of hypotension (RR 2.25) and headache (RR 3.64). No difference in mortality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our meta-analysis supports the use of nitroglycerin in the prevention...

  17. Risk for Asthma in Offspring of Asthmatic Mothers versus Fathers: A Meta-Analysis

    Lim, R.H.; Kobzik, L.; Dahl, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude of the "mate......Background: Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude...... of the "maternal effect.'' Methodology/Principal Findings: We screened the medical literature from 1966 to 2009 and performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of maternal asthma vs. paternal asthma on offspring asthma susceptibility. Aggregating data from 33 studies, the odds ratio for asthma in children...

  18. A Global Meta-Analysis of the Value of Ecosystem Services Provided by Lakes.

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Lanzanova, Denis

    2017-07-01

    This study presents the first meta-analysis on the economic value of ecosystem services delivered by lakes. A worldwide data set of 699 observations drawn from 133 studies combines information reported in primary studies with geospatial data. The meta-analysis explores antagonisms and synergies between ecosystem services. This is the first meta-analysis to incorporate simultaneously external geospatial data and ecosystem service interactions. We first show that it is possible to reliably predict the value of ecosystem services provided by lakes based on their physical and geographic characteristics. Second, we demonstrate that interactions between ecosystem services appear to be significant for explaining lake ecosystem service values. Third, we provide an estimation of the average value of ecosystem services provided by lakes: between 106 and 140 USD$2010 per respondent per year for non-hedonic price studies and between 169 and 403 USD$2010 per property per year for hedonic price studies.

  19. Meta-Analysis of Effect Sizes Reported at Multiple Time Points Using General Linear Mixed Model

    Musekiwa, Alfred; Manda, Samuel O. M.; Mwambi, Henry G.; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies combines effect sizes measured at pre-determined time points. The most common approach involves performing separate univariate meta-analyses at individual time points. This simplistic approach ignores dependence between longitudinal effect sizes, which might result in less precise parameter estimates. In this paper, we show how to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal effect sizes where we contrast different covariance structures for dependence between effect sizes, both within and between studies. We propose new combinations of covariance structures for the dependence between effect size and utilize a practical example involving meta-analysis of 17 trials comparing postoperative treatments for a type of cancer, where survival is measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Although the results from this particular data set show the benefit of accounting for within-study serial correlation between effect sizes, simulations are required to confirm these results. PMID:27798661

  20. Efficacy of chitosan dressing on endoscopic sinus surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Zhou, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Ke, Zhao-Yang; Zhang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Chitosan dressing might be promising to promote the recovery following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). However, the results remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of chitosan dressing on ESS. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of chitosan dressing on endoscopic sinus surgery were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were synechia and hemostasis. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effect model. Four RCTs involving 268 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall following ESS, compared with control intervention, chitosan dressing significantly reduced synechia (RR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.13-0.49; P chitosan dressing could significantly decrease edema and improve hemostasis, but had no effect on granulations, mucosal edema, crusting and infection.

  1. Meta-analysis of individual registry results enhances international registry collaboration.

    Paxton, Elizabeth W; Mohaddes, Maziar; Laaksonen, Inari; Lorimer, Michelle; Graves, Stephen E; Malchau, Henrik; Namba, Robert S; Kärrholm, John; Rolfson, Ola; Cafri, Guy

    2018-03-28

    Background and purpose - Although common in medical research, meta-analysis has not been widely adopted in registry collaborations. A meta-analytic approach in which each registry conducts a standardized analysis on its own data followed by a meta-analysis to calculate a weighted average of the estimates allows collaboration without sharing patient-level data. The value of meta-analysis as an alternative to individual patient data analysis is illustrated in this study by comparing the risk of revision of porous tantalum cups versus other uncemented cups in primary total hip arthroplasties from Sweden, Australia, and a US registry (2003-2015). Patients and methods - For both individual patient data analysis and meta-analysis approaches a Cox proportional hazard model was fit for time to revision, comparing porous tantalum (n = 23,201) with other uncemented cups (n = 128,321). Covariates included age, sex, diagnosis, head size, and stem fixation. In the meta-analysis approach, treatment effect size (i.e., Cox model hazard ratio) was calculated within each registry and a weighted average for the individual registries' estimates was calculated. Results - Patient-level data analysis and meta-analytic approaches yielded the same results with the porous tantalum cups having a higher risk of revision than other uncemented cups (HR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.4-1.7) and HR (95% CI) 1.5 (1.4-1.7), respectively). Adding the US cohort to the meta-analysis led to greater generalizability, increased precision of the treatment effect, and similar findings (HR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.4-1.7)) with increased risk of porous tantalum cups. Interpretation - The meta-analytic technique is a viable option to address privacy, security, and data ownership concerns allowing more expansive registry collaboration, greater generalizability, and increased precision of treatment effects.

  2. Meta-Analysis of Associations Between Interleukin-10 Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Vasculitis.

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Song, Gwan Gyu; Lee, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study determined whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to vasculitis. A meta-analysis was conducted of the associations between the IL-10 -1082 G/A, -819 C/T, and -592 C/A polymorphisms and the haplotype of the IL-10-1082 G/A, -819 C/T, -592 C/A polymorphisms and vasculitis. A total of 21 comparative studies involving 4121 patients and 5504 controls were considered in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed no association between the IL-10-1082 G allele and vasculitis in all study subjects (OR = 0.927, 95% CI = 0.780-1.102, p = 0.389). However, disease-specific meta-analysis showed an association between Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and the IL-10-1082 G allele (OR = 0.729, 95% CI = 0.547-0.971, p = 0.031). Meta-analysis revealed an association between vasculitis and the IL-10-819 C allele (OR = 0.804, 95% CI = 0.706-0.916, p = 0.001) in all study subjects and Behcet's disease (BD) (OR = 0.724, 95% CI = 0.679-0.781, p vasculitis in all study subjects (OR = 0.805, 95% CI = 0.619-0.938, p = 0.005) and BD (OR = 0.718, 95% CI = 0.661-0.781, p vasculitis in Europeans (OR = 1.239, 95% CI = 1.105-1.513, p = 0.035). This meta-analysis showed that IL-10 polymorphisms are associated with vasculitis susceptibility, especially in WG and BD.

  3. Cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis

    Lingyun Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence of the relationship between cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy, and risk of liver cancer and hence we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationships. PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to identify all published cohort studies and case-control studies that evaluated the relationships of cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy and risk of liver cancer and single-cohort studies which evaluated the incidence of liver cancer among patients who understood cholecystectomy (up to February 2013. Comprehensive meta-analysis software was used for meta-analysis. A total of 11 observational studies (six cohort studies and five case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The result from meta-analysis showed that cholecystectomy (risk ratio [RR]: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.51, I2 = 72% and cholecystolithiasis (RR: 5.40, 95% CI: 3.69-7.89, I2 = 93% was associated with more liver cancer, especially for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC (cholecystectomy: RR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.84-6.71, I2 = 26%; cholecystolithiasis: RR: 11.06, 95% CI: 6.99-17.52, I2 = 0%. The pooled standardized incidence rates (SIR of liver cancer in patients who understood cholecystectomy showed cholecystectomy might increase the incidence of liver cancer (SIR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13-2.20, I2 = 15%. Based on the results of the meta-analysis, cholecystectomy and cholecystolithiasis seemed to be involved in the development of liver cancer, especially for ICC. However, most available studies were case-control studies and short-term cohort studies, so the future studies should more long-term cohort studies should be well-conducted to evaluate the long-term relationship.

  4. Indirect health costs in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect all current data on indirect costs related to inflammatory bowel disease as well as assessing homogeneity and comparability, and conducting a meta-analysis. Costs were collected using databases from Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, then average annual cost per patient was calculated and expressed in 2013-rate USD using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity (scenario 1) and then adjusted to specific gross domestic product (scenario 2) to make them comparable. The studies were then included in quantitative synthesis using the meta-analysis and bootstrap methods. This systematic review was carried out and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. From 18 publications, overall annual indirect costs per patient as a result of the quantitative synthesis among all studies eligible for meta-analysis ranged from US$2425.01-US$9622.15 depending on the scenario and model used for analysis. The cost of presenteeism was assessed in only two studies. Considering heterogeneity among all identified studies random-effect model presented the most accurate results of meta-analysis equal to US$7189.27 and US$9622.15 per patient per year for scenario 1 and scenario 2, respectively. This systematic review revealed the existence of a relatively small number of studies that reported on the great economic burden of the disease upon society. A great variety of methodologies and cost components resulted in a very large discrepancy in indirect costs and made meta-analysis difficult to perform, so two scenarios were considered and meta-analysis conducted in subgroups to make data more comparable.

  5. Multivariate meta-analysis: a robust approach based on the theory of U-statistic.

    Ma, Yan; Mazumdar, Madhu

    2011-10-30

    Meta-analysis is the methodology for combining findings from similar research studies asking the same question. When the question of interest involves multiple outcomes, multivariate meta-analysis is used to synthesize the outcomes simultaneously taking into account the correlation between the outcomes. Likelihood-based approaches, in particular restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method, are commonly utilized in this context. REML assumes a multivariate normal distribution for the random-effects model. This assumption is difficult to verify, especially for meta-analysis with small number of component studies. The use of REML also requires iterative estimation between parameters, needing moderately high computation time, especially when the dimension of outcomes is large. A multivariate method of moments (MMM) is available and is shown to perform equally well to REML. However, there is a lack of information on the performance of these two methods when the true data distribution is far from normality. In this paper, we propose a new nonparametric and non-iterative method for multivariate meta-analysis on the basis of the theory of U-statistic and compare the properties of these three procedures under both normal and skewed data through simulation studies. It is shown that the effect on estimates from REML because of non-normal data distribution is marginal and that the estimates from MMM and U-statistic-based approaches are very similar. Therefore, we conclude that for performing multivariate meta-analysis, the U-statistic estimation procedure is a viable alternative to REML and MMM. Easy implementation of all three methods are illustrated by their application to data from two published meta-analysis from the fields of hip fracture and periodontal disease. We discuss ideas for future research based on U-statistic for testing significance of between-study heterogeneity and for extending the work to meta-regression setting. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Structured behavioral interview as a legal guarantee for ensuring equal employment opportunities for women: A meta-analysis

    Pamela Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Equal employment opportunities for women are a legal requirement in many legal environments, including the United States (US and European Union (EU legislations. In this context, indirect discrimination in the access to jobs is an illegal practice. For this reason, personnel selection procedures must be fair for protected-by-law groups. Specifically, gender discrimination is the focus of research on employment interviews. This article presents a meta-analysis of gender differences in the scores in structured behavioral interviews (SBI. A database was created consisting of studies conducted with real candidates and employees. Psychometric meta-analysis methods were applied. The results showed that the SBI is fair for women and men and does not show evidence of adverse impact and indirect discrimination. Implications for the practice of personnel selection are discussed and future research is suggested.

  7. Design database for quantitative trait loci (QTL) data warehouse, data mining, and meta-analysis.

    Hu, Zhi-Liang; Reecy, James M; Wu, Xiao-Lin

    2012-01-01

    A database can be used to warehouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) data from multiple sources for comparison, genomic data mining, and meta-analysis. A robust database design involves sound data structure logistics, meaningful data transformations, normalization, and proper user interface designs. This chapter starts with a brief review of relational database basics and concentrates on issues associated with curation of QTL data into a relational database, with emphasis on the principles of data normalization and structure optimization. In addition, some simple examples of QTL data mining and meta-analysis are included. These examples are provided to help readers better understand the potential and importance of sound database design.

  8. Problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Männikkö, Niko; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Miettunen, Jouko; Pontes, Halley M; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the interplay between problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes at different developmental stages. A total of 50 empirical studies met the specified inclusion criteria, and a meta-analysis using correlation coefficients was used for the studies that reported adverse health implications regarding the impact of problematic gaming behaviour on depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and somatisation. Overall, the results suggested that problematic gaming behaviour is significantly associated with a wide range of detrimental health-related outcomes. Finally, the limitations of this review alongside its implications were discussed and considered for future research.

  9. A meta-analysis of HLA-antigen prevalences in alcoholics and alcoholic liver disease

    List, S; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    suspected of being associated with both alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease. In the present study a meta-analysis is carried out on the data from these studies, subdivided according to race and degree of liver injury. The conclusion is that none of the HLA-phenotypes so far investigated in Caucasians can...... be shown to be significantly more common in any of the studied patient categories than in controls, whereas the results of Japanese studies are less clear. The limitations of the data material and the design of the studies are discussed, as well as the strength and limitations of the method of meta-analysis....

  10. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    on grain yield. To investigate the prevalence and preconditions for positive mixing effects, reported grain yields of variety mixtures and pure variety stands were obtained from previously published variety trials, converted into relative mixing effects and combined using meta-analysis. Furthermore...... as meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p

  11. An Introduction to MAMA (Meta-Analysis of MicroArray data) System.

    Zhang, Zhe; Fenstermacher, David

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing microarray data across multiple experiments has been proven advantageous. To support this kind of analysis, we are developing a software system called MAMA (Meta-Analysis of MicroArray data). MAMA utilizes a client-server architecture with a relational database on the server-side for the storage of microarray datasets collected from various resources. The client-side is an application running on the end user's computer that allows the user to manipulate microarray data and analytical results locally. MAMA implementation will integrate several analytical methods, including meta-analysis within an open-source framework offering other developers the flexibility to plug in additional statistical algorithms.

  12. Plasma Exchange for Renal Vasculitis and Idiopathic Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis: A Meta-analysis

    Walsh, Michael; Catapano, Fausta; Szpirt, Wladimir

    2010-01-01

    exchange did not differ significantly across the range of baseline serum creatinine values (P = 0.7) or number of plasma exchange treatments (P = 0.8). The RR for end-stage renal disease was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.47-0.88; P = 0.006), whereas the RR for death alone was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.71-1.4; P = 0......BACKGROUND:: Plasma exchange may be effective adjunctive treatment for renal vasculitis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of plasma exchange for renal vasculitis. STUDY DESIGN:: Systematic review and meta-analysis of articles identified from...

  13. The Role of Mother in Informing Girls About Puberty: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Sooki, Zahra; Shariati, Mohammad; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Effatpanah, Mohammad; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Family, especially the mother, has the most important role in the education, transformation of information, and health behaviors of girls in order for them to have a healthy transition from the critical stage of puberty, but there are different views in this regard. Objectives Considering the various findings about the source of information about puberty, a meta-analysis study was conducted to investigate the extent of the mother’s role in informing girls about puberty. Data Sources This meta-analysis study was based on English articles published from 2000 to February 2015 in the Scopus, PubMed, and Science direct databases and on Persian articles in the SID, Magiran, and Iran Medex databases with determined key words and their MeSH equivalent. Study Selection Quantitative cross-sectional articles were extracted by two independent researchers and finally 46 articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. STROBE list were used for evaluation of studies. Data Extraction The percent of mothers as the current and preferred source of gaining information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls was extracted from the articles. The results of studies were analyzed using meta-analysis (random effects model) and the studies’ heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 calculation index. Variance between studies was analyzed using tau squared (Tau2) and review manager 5 software. Results The results showed that, from the perspective of teenage girls in Iran and other countries, in 56% of cases, the mother was the current source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation. The preferred source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation was the mother in all studies at 60% (Iran 57%, and other countries 66%). Conclusions According to the findings of this study, it is essential that health professionals and officials of the ministry of health train

  14. A Comparative Effectiveness Meta-Analysis of Drugs for the Prophylaxis of Migraine Headache

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness and side effects of migraine prophylactic medications. Design We performed a network meta-analysis. Data were extracted independently in duplicate and quality was assessed using both the JADAD and Cochrane Risk of Bias instruments. Data were pooled and network meta-analysis performed using random effects models. Data Sources PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Trial Registry, bibliography of retrieved articles through 18 May 2014. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies We included randomized controlled trials of adults with migraine headaches of at least 4 weeks in duration. Results Placebo controlled trials included alpha blockers (n = 9), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 3), angiotensin receptor blockers (n = 3), anticonvulsants (n = 32), beta-blockers (n = 39), calcium channel blockers (n = 12), flunarizine (n = 7), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 6), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n = 1) serotonin agonists (n = 9) and tricyclic antidepressants (n = 11). In addition there were 53 trials comparing different drugs. Drugs with at least 3 trials that were more effective than placebo for episodic migraines included amitriptyline (SMD: -1.2, 95% CI: -1.7 to -0.82), -flunarizine (-1.1 headaches/month (ha/month), 95% CI: -1.6 to -0.67), fluoxetine (SMD: -0.57, 95% CI: -0.97 to -0.17), metoprolol (-0.94 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.4 to -0.46), pizotifen (-0.43 ha/month, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.21), propranolol (-1.3 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.0 to -0.62), topiramate (-1.1 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.73) and valproate (-1.5 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.1 to -0.8). Several effective drugs with less than 3 trials included: 3 ace inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, captopril), two angiotensin receptor blockers (candesartan, telmisartan), two anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, levetiracetam), and several beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol, timolol). Network meta-analysis found amitriptyline to be better than several other medications including

  15. On the Multilevel Nature of Meta-Analysis: A Tutorial, Comparison of Software Programs, and Discussion of Analytic Choices.

    Pastor, Dena A; Lazowski, Rory A

    2018-01-01

    The term "multilevel meta-analysis" is encountered not only in applied research studies, but in multilevel resources comparing traditional meta-analysis to multilevel meta-analysis. In this tutorial, we argue that the term "multilevel meta-analysis" is redundant since all meta-analysis can be formulated as a special kind of multilevel model. To clarify the multilevel nature of meta-analysis the four standard meta-analytic models are presented using multilevel equations and fit to an example data set using four software programs: two specific to meta-analysis (metafor in R and SPSS macros) and two specific to multilevel modeling (PROC MIXED in SAS and HLM). The same parameter estimates are obtained across programs underscoring that all meta-analyses are multilevel in nature. Despite the equivalent results, not all software programs are alike and differences are noted in the output provided and estimators available. This tutorial also recasts distinctions made in the literature between traditional and multilevel meta-analysis as differences between meta-analytic choices, not between meta-analytic models, and provides guidance to inform choices in estimators, significance tests, moderator analyses, and modeling sequence. The extent to which the software programs allow flexibility with respect to these decisions is noted, with metafor emerging as the most favorable program reviewed.

  16. Rates of progression in diabetic retinopathy during different time periods: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Wong, Tien Y; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Klein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviews rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and/or severe visual loss (SVL) and temporal trends.......This meta-analysis reviews rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and/or severe visual loss (SVL) and temporal trends....

  17. Do jobs follow people or people follow jobs? A meta-analysis of Carlino–Mills studies

    Hoogstra, Gerke J.; Van Dijk, Jouke; Florax, Raymond J. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Do jobs follow people or people follow jobs? A meta-analysis of Carlino–Mills studies. Spatial Economic Analysis. This study examines the classic question as to whether ‘jobs follow people’ or ‘people follow jobs’ by performing a meta-analysis of 321 results from 64 Carlino–Mills studies. It is

  18. Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety disorders in Low- and middle- income countries: a meta-analysis.

    van t Hof, E.; Cuijpers, P.; Waheed, W.; Stein, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of psychological treatments for depression and anxiety disorders in low- and middle- income countries (LAMIC). Method: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on psychological treatment of depression and anxiety

  19. Validity of the assessment method of skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Bittencourt, M A V; Paranhos, L R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis to answer the question: is the cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI) effective to replace hand–wrist radiograph (gold standard) in determining the pubertal growth spurt in patients undergoing bone growth? Methods: A search in three databases was performed, in which studies were selected that compared one of the two main assessment methods for cervical vertebrae (Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 107: 58–66, or Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Angle Orthod 2002; 72: 316–23) to a carpal assessment method. The main methodological data from each of the texts were collected and tabulated after. Later, the meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients obtained was performed. Results: 19 articles were selected from an initial 206 articles collected. Regardless of the method used, the results of the meta-analysis showed that every article selected presented a positive correlation between skeletal maturation assessment performed by cervical vertebrae and carpal methods, with discrepancy of values between genders indicating higher correlation for the female gender (0.925; 0.878) than for the male (0.879; 0.842). When the assessment was performed without gender separation, correlation was significant (0.592; 0.688) but lower in the cases when genders were separated. Conclusions: With the results of this meta-analysis, it is safe to affirm that both CVMIs used in the present study are reliable to replace the hand–wrist radiograph in predicting the pubertal growth spurt, considering that the highest values were found in female samples, especially in the method by Hassel and Farman. PMID:25521202

  20. Validity of the assessment method of skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Cericato, G O; Bittencourt, M A V; Paranhos, L R

    2015-01-01

    To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis to answer the question: is the cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI) effective to replace hand-wrist radiograph (gold standard) in determining the pubertal growth spurt in patients undergoing bone growth? A search in three databases was performed, in which studies were selected that compared one of the two main assessment methods for cervical vertebrae (Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 107: 58-66, or Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Angle Orthod 2002; 72: 316-23) to a carpal assessment method. The main methodological data from each of the texts were collected and tabulated after. Later, the meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients obtained was performed. 19 articles were selected from an initial 206 articles collected. Regardless of the method used, the results of the meta-analysis showed that every article selected presented a positive correlation between skeletal maturation assessment performed by cervical vertebrae and carpal methods, with discrepancy of values between genders indicating higher correlation for the female gender (0.925; 0.878) than for the male (0.879; 0.842). When the assessment was performed without gender separation, correlation was significant (0.592; 0.688) but lower in the cases when genders were separated. With the results of this meta-analysis, it is safe to affirm that both CVMIs used in the present study are reliable to replace the hand-wrist radiograph in predicting the pubertal growth spurt, considering that the highest values were found in female samples, especially in the method by Hassel and Farman.