Virtanen, M.; Jokela, M.; Madsen, I. E.; Magnusson Hanson, L. L.; Lallukka, T.; Nyberg, S. T.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, D.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J. E.; Heikkilä, K.
Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identi...
Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Lallukka, Tea; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lahelma, Eero; Nielsen, Martin L; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Shipley, Martin J; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jian Li; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika
Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 =45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.
Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; Lallukka, Tea; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika
To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333,693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100,602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥ 55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate
Delcourt, Cécile; Le Goff, Mélanie; von Hanno, Therese; Mirshahi, Alireza; Khawaja, Anthony P; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Hogg, Ruth E; Anastosopoulos, Eleftherios; Cachulo, Maria Luz; Höhn, René; Wolfram, Christian; Bron, Alain; Miotto, Stefania; Carrière, Isabelle; Colijn, Johanna M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Evans, Jennifer; Nitsch, Dorothea; Founti, Panayiota; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Silva, Rufino; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Topouzis, Fotis; Bertelsen, Geir; Foster, Paul J; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C W; Korobelnik, Jean-François
To estimate the prevalence of nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness in European persons 55 years of age and older. Few visual impairment and blindness prevalence estimates are available for the European population. In addition, many of the data collected in European population-based studies currently are unpublished and have not been included in previous estimates. Fourteen European population-based studies participating in the European Eye Epidemiology Consortium (n = 70 723) were included. Each study provided nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness prevalence estimates stratified by age (10-year strata) and gender. Nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness were defined as best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/60 and 20/400 in the better eye, respectively. Using random effects meta-analysis, prevalence rates were estimated according to age, gender, geographical area, and period (1991-2006 and 2007-2012). Because no data were available for Central and Eastern Europe, population projections for numbers of affected people were estimated using Eurostat population estimates for European high-income countries in 2000 and 2010. The age-standardized prevalence of nonrefractive visual impairment in people 55 years of age or older decreased from 2.22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-3.10) from 1991 through 2006 to 0.92% (95% CI, 0.42-1.42) from 2007 through 2012. It strongly increased with age in both periods (up to 15.69% and 4.39% in participants 85 years of age or older from 1991 through 2006 and from 2007 through 2012, respectively). Age-standardized prevalence of visual impairment tended to be higher in women than men from 1991 through 2006 (2.67% vs. 1.88%), but not from 2007 through 2012 (0.87% vs. 0.88%). No differences were observed between northern, western, and southern regions of Europe. The projected numbers of affected older inhabitants in European high-income countries decreased from 2.5 million affected individuals in 2000 to 1
Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Fransson, Eleonor I; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hamer, Mark; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lunau, Thorsten; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Shipley, Martin J; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; O'Reilly, Dermot; Kumari, Meena; Batty, G David; Ferrie, Jane E; Virtanen, Marianna
Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium and open-access data archives. We used cumulative random-effects meta-analysis to combine effect estimates from published and unpublished data. We included 25 studies from 24 cohorts in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The meta-analysis of coronary heart disease comprised data for 603,838 men and women who were free from coronary heart disease at baseline; the meta-analysis of stroke comprised data for 528,908 men and women who were free from stroke at baseline. Follow-up for coronary heart disease was 5·1 million person-years (mean 8·5 years), in which 4768 events were recorded, and for stroke was 3·8 million person-years (mean 7·2 years), in which 1722 events were recorded. In cumulative meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, compared with standard hours (35-40 h per week), working long hours (≥55 h per week) was associated with an increase in risk of incident coronary heart disease (relative risk [RR] 1·13, 95% CI 1·02-1·26; p=0·02) and incident stroke (1·33, 1·11-1·61; p=0·002). The excess risk of stroke remained unchanged in analyses that addressed reverse causation, multivariable adjustments for other risk factors, and different methods of stroke ascertainment (range of RR estimates 1·30-1·42). We recorded a dose-response association for stroke, with RR estimates of 1·10 (95% CI 0·94-1·28; p=0·24) for 41-48 working hours, 1·27 (1·03-1·56; p=0·03) for 49-54 working hours, and 1·33 (1·11-1·61; p
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric J; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Jokela, Markus
Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10 000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (≥55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35-40 h) was 1·07 (95% CI 0·89-1·27, difference in incidence three cases per 10 000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I(2)=53%, p=0·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06-1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10 000 person-years, I(2)=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80-1·25, incidence difference zero per 10 000 person-years, I(2)=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to
Kivimaki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A.
BACKGROUND: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. METHODS: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-anal...
Kivimäki, M.; Jokela, M.; Nyberg, S.T.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Fransson, E.I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Casini, A.; Clays, E.; Bacquer, D. de; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G.A.
Background: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. Methods: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-anal...
Kivimäki, M.; Jokela, M.; Nyberg, S. T.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Fransson, E. I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Casini, A.; Clays, E.; De Bacquer, D.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G. A.
Background: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. / Methods: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Met...
Full Text Available Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853 to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication.Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA, and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1 health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications, (2 alcohol consumption outcomes, (3 biological outcomes, or (4 treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane's Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs, mean differences (MDs, or standardized mean differences (SMDs with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF; for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population defined by the EMA approval
Theorell, Töres; Hammarström, Anne; Aronsson, Gunnar; Träskman Bendz, Lil; Grape, Tom; Hogstedt, Christer; Marteinsdottir, Ina; Skoog, Ingmar; Hall, Charlotte
Depressive symptoms are potential outcomes of poorly functioning work environments. Such symptoms are frequent and cause considerable suffering for the employees as well as financial loss for the employers. Accordingly good prospective studies of psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms are valuable. Scientific reviews of such studies have pointed at methodological difficulties but still established a few job risk factors. Those reviews were published some years ago. There is need for an updated systematic review using the GRADE system. In addition, gender related questions have been insufficiently reviewed. Inclusion criteria for the studies published 1990 to June 2013: 1. European and English speaking countries. 2. Quantified results describing the relationship between exposure (psychosocial or physical/chemical) and outcome (standardized questionnaire assessment of depressive symptoms or interview-based clinical depression). 3. Prospective or comparable case-control design with at least 100 participants. 4. Assessments of exposure (working conditions) and outcome at baseline and outcome (depressive symptoms) once again after follow-up 1-5 years later. 5. Adjustment for age and adjustment or stratification for gender. Studies filling inclusion criteria were subjected to assessment of 1.) relevance and 2.) quality using predefined criteria. Systematic review of the evidence was made using the GRADE system. When applicable, meta-analysis of the magnitude of associations was made. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of possible confounders and publication bias was discussed. Fifty-nine articles of high or medium high scientific quality were included. Moderately strong evidence (grade three out of four) was found for job strain (high psychological demands and low decision latitude), low decision latitude and bullying having significant impact on development of depressive symptoms. Limited evidence (grade two) was shown for psychological
Strick, M.A.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Bos, M.W.; Sjoerdsma, A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Nordgren, L.F.
A meta-analysis was performed on the unconscious thought effect (UTE). All available published and unpublished data on unconscious thought were included. Our aims were to provide a statistically robust estimate of the effect size of the UTE, to identify significant moderators, and to
Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping
A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.
Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.
Schwarzer, Guido; Rücker, Gerta
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to performing meta-analysis using the statistical software R. It is intended for quantitative researchers and students in the medical and social sciences who wish to learn how to perform meta-analysis with R. As such, the book introduces the key concepts and models used in meta-analysis. It also includes chapters on the following advanced topics: publication bias and small study effects; missing data; multivariate meta-analysis, network meta-analysis; and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies. .
Pieters, Florence F.J.M.; Winthagen, Diny
Recently the scientific correspondence of the Dutch zoologist P.P.C. Hoek (1851—1914) turned up in the Artis Library. This collection contains three hitherto unpublished letters from Charles Darwin. It appears that Charles Darwin recommended Hoek to the favour of Sir Charles Wyville Thomson upon
Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping
A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cance...
Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei
Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No clear consensus has been reached on the alpha-adducin polymorphism (Gly460Trp and essential hypertension risk. We performed a meta-analysis in an effort to systematically summarize the possible association. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases complemented with perusal of bibliographies of retrieved articles and correspondence with original authors. The fixed-effects model and the random-effects model were applied for dichotomous outcomes to combine the results of the individual studies. We selected 22 studies that met the inclusion criteria including a total of 14303 hypertensive patients and 15961 normotensive controls. Overall, the 460Trp allele showed no statistically significant association with hypertension risk compared to Gly460 allele (P = 0.69, OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10, P(heterogeneity<0.0001 in all subjects. Meta-analysis under other genetic contrasts still did not reveal any significant association in all subjects, Caucasians, East Asians and others. The results were similar but heterogeneity did not persist when sensitivity analyses were limited to these studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our meta-analysis failed to provide evidence for the genetic association of α-adducin gene Gly460Trp polymorphism with hypertension. Further studies investigating the effect of genetic networks, environmental factors, individual biological characteristics and their mutual interactions are needed to elucidate the possible mechanism for hypertension in humans.
Ford, Alexander C; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Lacy, Brian E; Lembo, Anthony J; Saito, Yuri A; Schiller, Lawrence R; Soffer, Edy E; Spiegel, Brennan M R; Moayyedi, Paul
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder. Evidence relating to the treatment of this condition with antidepressants and psychological therapies continues to accumulate. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched (up to December 2013). Trials recruiting adults with IBS, which compared antidepressants with placebo, or psychological therapies with control therapy or "usual management," were eligible. Dichotomous symptom data were pooled to obtain a relative risk (RR) of remaining symptomatic after therapy, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The search strategy identified 3,788 citations. Forty-eight RCTs were eligible for inclusion: thirty-one compared psychological therapies with control therapy or "usual management," sixteen compared antidepressants with placebo, and one compared both psychological therapy and antidepressants with placebo. Ten of the trials of psychological therapies, and four of the RCTs of antidepressants, had been published since our previous meta-analysis. The RR of IBS symptom not improving with antidepressants vs. placebo was 0.67 (95% CI=0.58-0.77), with similar treatment effects for both tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The RR of symptoms not improving with psychological therapies was 0.68 (95% CI=0.61-0.76). Cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnotherapy, multicomponent psychological therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy were all beneficial. Antidepressants and some psychological therapies are effective treatments for IBS. Despite the considerable number of studies published in the intervening 5 years since we last examined this issue, the overall summary estimates of treatment effect have remained remarkably stable.
Sun, Yu; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Estabrooks, Paul; Davy, Brenda
Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health concern. With the completion of the Diabetes Prevention Program, there has been a proliferation of studies attempting to translate this evidence base into practice. However, the cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of these adapted interventions is unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis to synthesize the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle diabetes prevention interventions and compare effects by intervention delivery agent (dietitian vs non-dietitian) and channel (in-person vs technology-delivered). English and full-text research articles published up to July 2015 were identified using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Education Resources Information Center, CAB Direct, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Sixty-nine studies met inclusion criteria. Most employed both dietary and physical activity intervention components (four of 69 were diet-only interventions). Changes in weight, fasting and 2-hour blood glucose concentration, and hemoglobin A1c were extracted from each article. Heterogeneity was measured by the I 2 index, and study-specific effect sizes or mean differences were pooled using a random effects model when heterogeneity was confirmed. Participants receiving intervention with nutrition education experienced a reduction of 2.07 kg (95% CI 1.52 to 2.62; Phemoglobin A1c level changes ranged from small to medium. The meta-regression analysis revealed a larger relative weight loss in dietitian-delivered interventions than in those delivered by nondietitians (full sample: -1.0 kg; US subsample: -2.4 kg), and did not find statistical evidence that the delivery channel was an important predictor of weight loss. The average cost per kilogram weight loss ranged from $34.06 over 6 months to $1,005.36 over 12 months. The cost of intervention per participant delivered by dietitians was lower than interventions delivered by non
Li, Yan-Yan; Lu, Xin-Zheng; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yang, Xin-Xing; Geng, Hong-Yu; Gong, Ge; Kim, Hyun Jun
Background: Presence of the β 3-Adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) gene Trp64Arg (T64A) polymorphism may be associated with an increased susceptibility for essential hypertension (EH). A clear consensus, however, has yet to be reached. Objective and methods: To further elucidate the relationship between the ADRB3 gene Trp64Arg polymorphism and EH, a meta-analysis of 9,555 subjects aggregated from 16 individual studies was performed. The combined odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were evaluated using either a random or fixed effect model. Results: We found a marginally significant association between ADRB3 gene Trp64Arg polymorphism and EH in the whole population under the additive genetic model (OR: 1.200, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43, P = 0.049). Association within the Chinese subgroup, however, was significant under allelic (OR: 1.150, 95% CI: 1.002-1.320, P = 0.046), dominant (OR: 1.213, 95% CI: 1.005-1.464, P = 0.044), heterozygous (OR: 1.430, 95% CI:1.040-1.970, P = 0.03), and additive genetic models (OR: 1.280, 95% CI: 1.030-1.580, P = 0.02). A significant association was also found in the Caucasian subgroup under allelic (OR: 1.850, 95% CI: 1. 260-2.720, P = 0.002), dominant (OR: 2.004, 95% CI: 1.316-3.052, P = 0.001), heterozygous (OR: 2.220, 95% CI: 1.450-3.400, P = 0.0002), and additive genetic models (OR: 2.000, 95% CI: 1. 330-3.010, P = 0.0009). Conclusions: The presence of the ADRB3 gene Trp64Arg polymorphism is positively associated with EH, especially in the Chinese and Caucasian population. The Arg allele carriers of ADRB3 gene Trp64Arg polymorphism may be at an increased risk for developing EH.
Full Text Available Purpose. The prognostic role of serum cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in breast cancer remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of these two markers in breast cancer patients. Methods. After electronic databases were searched, 36 studies (31 including information regarding CA15-3 and 23 including information regarding CEA with 12,993 subjects were included. Based on the data directly or indirectly from the available studies, the hazard ratios (HRs and odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were pooled according to higher or lower marker levels. Results. Elevated CA15-3 or CEA was statistically significant with poorer DFS and OS in breast cancer (multivariate analysis of OS: HR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.76–2.33 for CA15-3; HR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.46–2.20 for CEA; multivariate analysis of DFS: HR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.06–1.55 for CA15-3; HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.53–2.04 for CEA. Subgroup analysis showed that CA15-3 or CEA had significant predictive values in primary or metastasis types and different cut-offs and included sample sizes and even the study publication year. Furthermore, elevated CA15-3 was associated with advanced histological grade and younger age, while elevated CEA was related to the non-triple-negative tumor type and older age. These two elevated markers were all associated with a higher tumor burden. Conclusions. This meta-analysis showed that elevated serum CA15-3 or CEA was associated with poor DFS and OS in patients with breast cancer, and they should be tested anytime if possible.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Capecitabine has proven effective as a chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Though several Phase II/III studies of capecitabine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy have been conducted, the results still remain inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain more precise understanding of the role of capecitabine in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients. METHODS: The electronic database PubMed and online abstracts from ASCO and SABCS were searched to identify randomized clinical trials comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without capecitabine in early/operable breast cancer patients without distant metastasis. Risk ratios were used to estimate the association between capecitabine in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and various efficacy outcomes. Fixed- or random-effect models were adopted to pool data in RevMan 5.1. RESULTS: Five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Neoadjuvant use of capecitabine with anthracycline and/or taxane based therapy was not associated with significant improvement in clinical outcomes including: pathologic complete response in breast (pCR; RR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.87-1.40, p = 0.43, pCR in breast tumor and nodes (tnpCR RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.83-1.18, p = 0.90, overall response rate (ORR; RR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.07, p = 0.93, or breast-conserving surgery (BCS; RR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.93-1.04, p = 0.49. CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer involving capecitabine did not significantly improve pCR, tnpCR, BCS or ORR. Thus adding capecitabine to neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimes is unlikely to improve outcomes in breast cancer patients without distant metastasis. Further research is required to establish the condition that capecitabine may be useful in breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.
Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further
Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas
Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy
Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Straus, Sharon E; Fyraridis, Alexandros; Tricco, Andrea C
To present a novel and simple graphical approach to improve the presentation of the treatment ranking in a network meta-analysis (NMA) including multiple outcomes. NMA simultaneously compares many relevant interventions for a clinical condition from a network of trials, and allows ranking of the effectiveness and/or safety of each intervention. There are numerous ways to present the NMA results, which can challenge their interpretation by research users. The rank-heat plot is a novel graph that can be used to quickly recognize which interventions are most likely the best or worst interventions with respect to their effectiveness and/or safety for a single or multiple outcome(s) and may increase interpretability. Using empirical NMAs, we show that the need for a concise and informative presentation of results is imperative, particularly as the number of competing treatments and outcomes in an NMA increases. The rank-heat plot is an efficient way to present the results of ranking statistics, particularly when a large amount of data is available, and it is targeted to users from various backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F
with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did......The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies...... not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p...
Motaghi, Zahra; Poorolajal, Jalal; Keramat, Afsaneh; Shariati, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra
About 44 million induced abortions take place worldwide annually, of which 50% are unsafe. The results of studies investigated the induced abortion rate in Iran are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the incidence rate of induced abortion in Iran. National and international electronic databases, as well as conference databases until July 2012 were searched. Reference lists of articles were screened and the studies' authors were contacted for additional unpublished studies. Cross-sectional studies addressing induced abortion in Iran were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome of interest was the induced abortion rate (the number of abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44 years in a year) or the ratio (the number of abortions per 100 live births in a year). The secondary outcome of interest was the prevalence of unintended pregnancies (the number of mistimed, unplanned, or unwanted pregnancies per total pregnancies). Data were analyzed using random effect models. Of 603 retrieved studies, using search strategy, 10 studies involving 102,394 participants were eventually included in the meta-analysis. The induced abortion rate and ratio were estimated as 8.9 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years (95% CI: 5.46, 12.33) and 5.34 per 100 live births (95% CI: 3.61, 7.07), respectively. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was estimated as 27.94 per 100 pregnant women (95% CI: 23.46, 32.42). The results of this meta-analysis helped a better understanding of the incidence of induced abortion in Iran compared to the other developing countries in Asia. However, additional sources of data on abortion other than medical records and survey studies are needed to estimate the true rate of unsafe abortion in Iran.
Zhao, Qing-Tao; Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Hui-En; Wang, Zhi-Kang; Duan, Guo-Chen
Platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) was recently reported as a useful index in predicting the prognosis of lung cancer. However, the prognostic role of PLR in lung cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between PLR and clinical outcome of lung cancer patients through a meta-analysis. Relevant literatures were retrieved from PubMed, Ovid, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Meta-analysis was performed using hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as effect measures. A total of 5,314 patients from 13 studies were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. The summary results showed that elevated PLR predicted poorer overall survival (OS) (HR: 1.526, 95%CI: 1.268-1.836, p analysis revealed that increased PLR was also associated with poor OS in NSCLC treated by surgical resection (HR: 1.884, 95%CI: 1.308-2.714, P 160 (HR: 1.842, 95%CI: 1.523-2.228, P 0.05) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC).This meta-analysis result suggested that elevated PLR might be a predicative factor of poor prognosis for NSCLC patients. © 2016 UICC.
Systematic review with meta-analysis: online psychological interventions for mental and physical health outcomes in gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.
Hanlon, I; Hewitt, C; Bell, K; Phillips, A; Mikocka-Walus, A
Online psychotherapy has been successfully used as supportive treatment in many chronic illnesses. However, there is a lack of evidence on its role in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. To examine whether online psychological interventions improve mental and physical outcomes in gastrointestinal diseases. We searched CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, a specialised register of the IBD/FBD Cochrane Group, MEDLINE (PubMed) WHO International Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of all papers included in the review. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess internal validity. Where possible, data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. We identified 11 publications (encompassing nine studies) meeting inclusion criteria. One study had a high risk of selection bias (allocation concealment), all studies had a high risk of performance and detection bias. Eight studies were included in the meta-analyses (6 on irritable bowel syndrome [IBS] and two on inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]). Online cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was shown to significantly improve gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety (MD: -8.51, 95% CI -12.99 to -4.04, P = 0.0002) and lessen symptom-induced disability (MD: -2.78, 95% CI -5.43 to -0.12, P = 0.04) in IBS post intervention. There was no significant effect of online CBT on any other outcomes in IBS. No significant effect of online psychotherapy was demonstrated in IBD. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of online CBT to manage mental and physical outcomes in gastrointestinal diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bagos, Pantelis G.
There are several user-written programs for performing meta-analysis in Stata (Stata Statistical Software: College Station, TX: Stata Corp LP). These include metan, metareg, mvmeta, and glst. However, there are several cases for which these programs do not suffice. For instance, there is no software for performing univariate meta-analysis with…
Hox, J.J.; Maas, C.J.M.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.
The goal of meta-analysis is to integrate the research results of a number of studies on a specific topic. Characteristic for meta-analysis is that in general only the summary statistics of the studies are used and not the original data. When the published research results to be integrated
Armagan, Fulya Öner; Keskin, Melike Özer; Akin, Beril Salman
The purpose of this study was to determine the overall effectiveness of conceptual change texts (CCTs) on academic achievement and to find out if effectiveness was related to some characteristics of the study. It followed up a Meta-analysis research approach. 42 published and unpublished studies, published between 1995 and 2010, and 42 experiment…
Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; Laan, P.H. van der; Smeenk, W.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.
This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects
Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W.; Gerris, J.R.M.
This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects
Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Dubas, Judith Semon; van der Laan, Peter H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.
To investigate the link between attachment to parents and delinquency, and the potential moderating effects of age and sex, 74 published and unpublished manuscripts (N = 55,537 participants) were subjected to a multilevel meta-analysis. A mean small to moderate effect size was found (r = 0.18). Poor attachment to parents was significantly linked…
Steuri, Ruedi; Sattelmayer, Martin; Elsig, Simone; Kolly, Chloé; Tal, Amir; Taeymans, Jan; Hilfiker, Roger
To investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions for pain, function and range of motion in adults with shoulder impingement. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase and PEDro were searched from inception to January 2017. Randomised controlled trials including participants with shoulder impingement and evaluating at least one conservative intervention against sham or other treatments. For pain, exercise was superior to non-exercise control interventions (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.94, 95% CI -1.69 to -0.19). Specific exercises were superior to generic exercises (SMD -0.65, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.32). Corticosteroid injections were superior to no treatment (SMD -0.65, 95% CI -1.04 to -0.26), and ultrasound guided injections were superior to non-guided injections (SMD -0.51, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.13). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) had a small to moderate SMD of -0.29 (95% CI -0.53 to -0.05) compared with placebo. Manual therapy was superior to placebo (SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.01). When combined with exercise, manual therapy was superior to exercise alone, but only at the shortest follow-up (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.01). Laser was superior to sham laser (SMD -0.88, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.27). Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) was superior to sham (-0.39, 95% CI -0.78 to -0.01) and tape was superior to sham (-0.64, 95% CI -1.16 to -0.12), with small to moderate SMDs. Although there was only very low quality evidence, exercise should be considered for patients with shoulder impingement symptoms and tape, ECSWT, laser or manual therapy might be added. NSAIDS and corticosteroids are superior to placebo, but it is unclear how these treatments compare to exercise. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
... ORGANIZATIONAL REGULATIONS § 510.5 Release of unpublished OTS information. (a) Scope. (1) This section applies to... their official capacities. Examples of unpublished information include: (i) Information in the memory of...
Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren
BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...... and manual searches, gathered information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Home Page, and obtained unpublished information on trial design and outcome measures from authors and pharmaceutical companies. Meta-analyses were performed and results presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, Sarah
the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... publication bias tests. In total, 31 studies were included in the analyses, of which 26 were peer-reviewed studies, 1 was a symposium study and 4 were unpublished studies. Cattle, swine and sheep were well protected against clinical disease and foot and mouth disease infection following the use of emergency...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....
Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y
There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Ali H. Hachem
Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary vein isolation is commonly performed using radiofrequency energy with cryoablation gaining acceptance. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials which compared radiofrequency versus cryoablation for patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods. A systematic search strategy identified both published and unpublished articles from inception to November 10, 2016, in multiple databases. The primary outcomes for this meta-analysis were long-term freedom from atrial fibrillation at 12-month follow-up and overall postoperative complication rates. For all included studies, the methodological quality was assessed through the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for risk of bias. Results. A total of 247 articles were identified with eight being included in this review as they satisfied the prespecified inclusion criteria. Overall, there was no significant difference in freedom from atrial fibrillation at ≥12-month follow-up between those receiving cryoballoon and radiofrequency ablation, respectively (OR = 0.98, CI = 0.67–1.43, I2 = 56%, p=0.90. Additionally, the secondary outcomes of duration of ablation, fluoroscopy time, and ablation time failed to reach significance. Cryoballoon ablation had significantly greater odds of postoperative phrenic nerve injury at 12-month follow-up. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that cryoballoon ablation provides comparable benefits with regard to freedom from atrial fibrillation at medium-term follow-up, fluoroscopy time, ablation time, operative duration, and overall complication rate in comparison to radiofrequency ablation.
Chrissa G. Tsiara
Mar 13, 2018 ... a meta-analysis of case–control studies was conducted. Univariate and ...... recent hepatitis C virus: potential benefit for ribavirin use in. HCV/HIV ... C/G polymorphism in breast pathologies and in HIV-infected patients.
Full Text Available The radial approach is widely used in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of published results on the efficacy and safety of the left and right radial approaches in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures. A systematic search of reference databases was conducted, and data from 14 randomized controlled trials involving 6870 participants were analyzed. The left radial approach was associated with significant reductions in fluoroscopy time [standardized mean difference (SMD=-0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI=-0.19 to -0.09; P<0.00001] and contrast volume (SMD=-0.07, 95%CI=-0.12 to -0.02; P=0.009. There were no significant differences in rate of procedural failure of the left and the right radial approaches [risk ratios (RR=0.98; 95%CI=0.77-1.25; P=0.88] or procedural time (SMD=-0.05, 95%CI=0.17-0.06; P=0.38. Tortuosity of the subclavian artery (RR=0.27, 95%CI=0.14-0.50; P<0.0001 was reported more frequently with the right radial approach. A greater number of catheters were used with the left than with the right radial approach (SMD=0.25, 95%CI=0.04-0.46; P=0.02. We conclude that the left radial approach is as safe as the right radial approach, and that the left radial approach should be recommended for use in percutaneous coronary procedures, especially in percutaneous coronary angiograms.
Jackson, William M; Davis, Nicholas; Sands, Stephen A; Whittington, Robert A; Sun, Lena S
Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target. To estimate the effect of a structured regular exercise program on neuropsychological domains of executive function in children ages 7 to 12. We performed a systematic review of English and non-English articles using Cochrane Library, EBSCO CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, PSYCInfo, Pubmed, and Web of Science, including all years allowed by each individual search engine. The search string used was "(exercise OR phys*) AND (cognit* OR executive) AND (child* OR preadolesc*)." The authors of the studies selected for review were contacted for any unpublished data. Randomized controlled trials, which enrolled children between the ages of 7 and 12, with randomization to either normal activity or a structured physical activity intervention consisting of scheduled aerobic exercise, at least once per week, for a period of at least 1 month. Eligible studies must have included a neuropsychological battery of tests that measured at least 1 executive function both before and after the intervention was completed. Two independent reviewers examined the screened studies in detail for potential inclusion. The results of the individual examinations were compared; if any discrepancies were present, a third party analyzed the study to determine if it should be included in the meta-analysis. A total of 18 studies were identified by abstract as candidates for
Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Brown, Lori M.; Lusk, Sally L.
Context Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from these programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Evidence acquisition Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Evidence synthesis Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21), fitness (0.57), lipids (0.13), anthropometric measures (0.08), work attendance (0.19), and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is more tentative given small sample sizes. Significant heterogeneity documents intervention effects varied across studies. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on V02max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, −0.2 on total cholesterol:HDL; and for diabetes risk, −12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. Conclusions These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity. PMID:19765506
Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam R; Cooper, Pamela S; Brown, Lori M; Lusk, Sally L
Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity levels. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from such programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21); fitness (0.57); lipids (0.13); anthropometric measures (0.08); work attendance (0.19); and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is less robust given small sample sizes. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on VO2max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, -0.2 on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein; and for diabetes risk, -12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity.
Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.
The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…
Trials of statin therapy have had conflicting findings on the risk of development of diabetes mellitus in patients given statins. We aimed to establish by a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data whether any relation exists between statin use and development of diabetes.
Suppli, N P; Bukh, J D; Moffitt, T E
created an exposed-only cohort of 849 colorectal cancer patients from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. The hypothesized association was investigated with Cox regression models and competing risk analyses. Five studies comprising a total of 1484 cancer patients were included in the meta...
Tannenbaum, Melanie B.; Hepler, Justin; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Saul, Lindsey; Jacobs, Samantha; Wilson, Kristina; Albarracin, Dolores
Fear appeals are a polarizing issue, with proponents confident in their efficacy and opponents confident that they backfire. We present the results of a comprehensive meta-analysis investigating fear appeals’ effectiveness for influencing attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. We tested predictions from a large number of theories, the majority of which have never been tested meta-analytically until now. Studies were included if they contained a treatment group exposed to a fear appeal, a valid comparison group, a manipulation of depicted fear, a measure of attitudes, intentions, or behaviors concerning the targeted risk or recommended solution, and adequate statistics to calculate effect sizes. The meta-analysis included 127 papers (9% unpublished) yielding 248 independent samples (NTotal = 27,372) collected from diverse populations. Results showed a positive effect of fear appeals on attitudes, intentions, and behaviors, with the average effect on a composite index being random-effects d¯ = 0.29. Moderation analyses based on prominent fear appeal theories showed that the effectiveness of fear appeals increased when the message included efficacy statements, depicted high susceptibility and severity, recommended one-time only (vs. repeated) behaviors, and targeted audiences that included a larger percentage of female message recipients. Overall, we conclude that (a) fear appeals are effective at positively influencing attitude, intentions, and behaviors, (b) there are very few circumstances under which they are not effective, and (c) there are no identified circumstances under which they backfire and lead to undesirable outcomes. PMID:26501228
Moraros, John; Nwankwo, Chijioke; Patten, Scott B; Mousseau, Darrell D
To determine if antidepressant drug usage is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD). We conducted a systematic search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. An initial screen by abstracts and titles was performed, and relevant full articles were then reviewed and assessed for their methodologic quality. Crude effect estimates were extracted from the included articles and a pooled estimate was obtained using a random effects model. Five articles were selected from an initial pool of 4,123 articles. Use of antidepressant drugs was associated with a significant twofold increase in the odds of some form of cognitive impairment or dementia (OR = 2.17). Age was identified as a likely modifier of the association between antidepressant use and some form of cognitive impairment or AD/dementia. Studies that included participants with an average age equal to or greater than 65 years showed an increased odds of some form of cognitive impairment with antidepressant drug usage (OR = 1.65), whereas those with participants less than age 65 revealed an even stronger association (OR = 3.25). Antidepressant drug usage is associated with AD/dementia and this is particularly evident if usage begins before age 65. This association may arise due to confounding by depression or depression severity. However, biological mechanisms potentially linking antidepressant exposure to dementia have been described, so an etiological effect of antidepressants is possible. With this confirmation that an association exists, clarification of underlying etiologic pathways requires urgent attention. © 2016 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arnott, Sydney J.; Duncan, William; Gignoux, Marc; Girling, David J.; Hansen, Hanne S.; Launois, B.; Nygaard, Knut; Parmar, Mahesh K.B.; Roussel, Alain; Spiliopoulos, G.; Stewart, Lesley A.; Tierney, Jayne F.; Wang Mei; Zhang Rugang
Purpose: The existing randomized evidence has failed to conclusively demonstrate the benefit or otherwise of preoperative radiotherapy in treating patients with potentially resectable esophageal carcinoma. This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether there is benefit from adding radiotherapy prior to surgery. Methods and Materials: This quantitative meta-analysis included updated individual patient data from all properly randomized trials (published or unpublished) comprising 1147 patients (971 deaths) from five randomized trials. Results: With a median follow-up of 9 years, the hazard ratio (HR) of 0.89 (95% CI 0.78-1.01) suggests an overall reduction in the risk of death of 11% and an absolute survival benefit of 3% at 2 years and 4% at 5 years. This result is not conventionally statistically significant (p 0.062). No clear differences in the size of the effect by sex, age, or tumor location were apparent. Conclusion: Based on existing trials, there was no clear evidence that preoperative radiotherapy improves the survival of patients with potentially resectable esophageal cancer. These results indicate that if such preoperative radiotherapy regimens do improve survival, then the effect is likely to be modest with an absolute improvement in survival of around 3 to 4%. Trials or a meta-analysis of around 2000 patients would be needed to reliably detect such an improvement (15→20%)
Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L; Shayeb, A G; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K; Van Wely, M; Cao, J; Martini, A C; Eskandar, M; Chavarro, J E; Koloszar, S; Twigt, J M; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Borges, E; Lotti, F; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Zorn, B; Polotsky, A J; La Vignera, S; Eskenazi, B; Tremellen, K; Magnusdottir, E V; Fejes, I; Hercberg, S; Lévy, R; Czernichow, S
BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0.93-1.43) for underweight, 1.11 (1.01-1.21) for overweight, 1.28 (1.06-1.55) for obese and 2.04 (1.59-2.62) for morbidly obese men. CONCLUSIONS Overweight and obesity were associated with an increased prevalence of azoospermia or oligozoospermia. The main limitation of this report is that studied populations varied, with men recruited from both the general population and infertile couples. Whether weight normalization could improve sperm parameters should be evaluated further.
Ngo, Anh Duc; Taylor, Richard; Roberts, Christine L.
The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles and conference proceedings; and by contacting researchers for unpublished studies. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the results of individual studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I 2 ) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and a funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Seven studies, including two Vietnamese and five non-Vietnamese studies, involving 330 cases and 134,884 non-cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall relative risk (RR) for spina bifida associated with paternal exposure to AO was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-2.74), with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Non-Vietnamese studies showed a slightly higher summary RR (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.38-3.56) than Vietnamese studies (RR = 1.92 95% CI: 1.29-2.86). When analyzed separately, the overall association was statistically significant for the three case-control studies (Summary Odds Ratio = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.31-3.86) and the cross sectional study (RR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.96), but not for the three cohort studies (RR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.78-5.73). Paternal exposure to AO appears to be associated with a statistically increased risk of spina bifida.
Tifani Titah Dwi Tyastari
Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the effect of dividend policy on corporate value, as well as to examine and analyze the variation of result study on corporate value in Indonesia.Dividend Signaling Model was the grand theory used to explain the effect of dividend policy on corporate value. This study used meta-analysis approach with the sample were 70 researches in Indonesia, both the published and unpublished in 2007-2015. The result of this study, meta-analysis strengthens the findings of the previous study which stated that the dividend policy could increase the corporate value. The differences of the previous studies were due to the presence of moderation effect from the measurement model of corporate value and dividend corporate.
Prasad Shyamrajan Nadig
Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present meta-analysis is to determine the efficacy of tetracycline group of antibiotics as local drug delivery agents in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE, EBSCO, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar were used to identify studies in English published up to January 31, 2017. An additional hand search of relevant journals and of the bibliographies of the paper identified was also performed. Articles retrieved were screened using specific inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Randomized control trials investigating the effect of tetracycline group of antibiotics as local drug delivery agents in chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Results: Ten relevant articles were selected for the meta-analysis, of which five articles were retrieved after electronic search, three articles were included after hand search, and two unpublished articles were included. The number of patients in studies ranged from 13 to 140 sites with mean age ranging from 20 to 75. A total of 588 sites were treated using tetracycline group of antibiotics as local drug delivery agents in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. The meta-analysis showed standard difference in mean −1.02 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28, 1.75 for clinical gain in attachment in favor of tetracycline group. Standard difference in mean for probing depth (PD was 1.20 mm (95% CI 0.57, 1.87 in tetracycline group. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis showed a significant improvement in periodontal parameters such as CAL, PD, and sulcular bleeding index in favor of tetracycline as local drug delivery compared to placebo.
Ojagbemi, Akin; Akpa, Onoja; Elugbadebo, Fisayo; Owolabi, Mayowa; Ovbiagele, Bruce
We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and characteristics of poststroke depression (PSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and African Journals OnLine using keywords for stroke and depression and the .mp. operator for all 54 SSA countries/regions. Further information was retrieved through a manual search of references from relevant published and unpublished articles. We included only peer-reviewed original studies with epidemiological or experimental designs, conducted random-effect meta-analysis, and identified the most commonly associated factors by weight (inverse of variance method). Seventeen studies, comprising 1483 stroke survivors, met the criteria for syntheses. The pooled frequency of clinically diagnosed PSD was 31% (95% CI = 26%-36%), versus 13.9% in healthy control pairs. Prevalence did not vary much across healthcare settings but was affected by methods of depression ascertainment. PSD was significantly associated with low education, cognitive impairment, physical disability, poor quality of life, and divorced marital status. Almost 1 in 3 individuals with stroke in SSA has clinical depression. Despite limitations around quality of identified studies, results of the present systematic review overlap with findings in the global literature and highlight useful targets for the design and trial of tailored intervention for PSD in SSA.
Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and characteristics of poststroke depression (PSD in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Methods. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and African Journals OnLine using keywords for stroke and depression and the .mp. operator for all 54 SSA countries/regions. Further information was retrieved through a manual search of references from relevant published and unpublished articles. We included only peer-reviewed original studies with epidemiological or experimental designs, conducted random-effect meta-analysis, and identified the most commonly associated factors by weight (inverse of variance method. Results. Seventeen studies, comprising 1483 stroke survivors, met the criteria for syntheses. The pooled frequency of clinically diagnosed PSD was 31% (95% CI = 26%–36%, versus 13.9% in healthy control pairs. Prevalence did not vary much across healthcare settings but was affected by methods of depression ascertainment. PSD was significantly associated with low education, cognitive impairment, physical disability, poor quality of life, and divorced marital status. Conclusion. Almost 1 in 3 individuals with stroke in SSA has clinical depression. Despite limitations around quality of identified studies, results of the present systematic review overlap with findings in the global literature and highlight useful targets for the design and trial of tailored intervention for PSD in SSA.
.... Meta-analysis results among criteria using this framework include the finding of substantial reliabilities across training criteria and reasonable convergence among subdivisions of criteria within a larger level...
Biffi, Alessandro; Devan, William J; Anderson, Christopher D; Cortellini, Lynelle; Furie, Karen L; Rosand, Jonathan; Rost, Natalia S
Multiple studies suggest that statin use before acute ischemic stroke is associated with improved functional outcome. However, available evidence is conflicting, and several published reports are limited by small sample sizes. We therefore investigated the effect of antecedent use of statins on stroke outcome by performing a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own unpublished data. We performed a systematic literature search and meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between prestroke statin use and clinical outcome and included additional data from 126 prestroke statin users and 767 nonusers enrolled at our institution. A total of 12 studies, comprising 2013 statin users and 9682 nonusers, was meta-analyzed using a random effects model. We also meta-analyzed results for individual Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment stroke subtypes to determine whether the effect of statin use differed across subtypes using the Breslow-Day test. Meta-analysis of all available data identified an association between prestroke statin use and improved functional outcome (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.39 to 1.88), but we uncovered evidence of publication bias. The effect of statin use on functional outcome was found to be larger for small vessel strokes compared with other subtypes (Breslow-Day P=0.008). Antecedent use of statins is associated with improved outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This association appears to be stronger in patients with small vessel stroke subtype. However, evidence of publication bias in the existing literature suggests these findings should be interpreted with caution.
Braun, Cora; Bschor, Tom; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher
It is unclear whether antidepressants can prevent suicides or suicide attempts, particularly during long-term use. We carried out a comprehensive review of long-term studies of antidepressants (relapse prevention). Sources were obtained from 5 review articles and by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed Central and a hand search of bibliographies. We meta-analyzed placebo-controlled antidepressant RCTs of at least 3 months' duration and calculated suicide and suicide attempt incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and Peto odds ratios (ORs). Out of 807 studies screened 29 were included, covering 6,934 patients (5,529 patient-years). In total, 1.45 suicides and 2.76 suicide attempts per 1,000 patient-years were reported. Seven out of 8 suicides and 13 out of 14 suicide attempts occurred in antidepressant arms, resulting in incidence rate ratios of 5.03 (0.78-114.1; p = 0.102) for suicides and of 9.02 (1.58-193.6; p = 0.007) for suicide attempts. Peto ORs were 2.6 (0.6-11.2; nonsignificant) and 3.4 (1.1-11.0; p = 0.04), respectively. Dropouts due to unknown reasons were similar in the antidepressant and placebo arms (9.6 vs. 9.9%). The majority of suicides and suicide attempts originated from 1 study, accounting for a fifth of all patient-years in this meta-analysis. Leaving out this study resulted in a nonsignificant incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts of 3.83 (0.53-91.01). Therapists should be aware of the lack of proof from RCTs that antidepressants prevent suicides and suicide attempts. We cannot conclude with certainty whether antidepressants increase the risk for suicide or suicide attempts. Researchers must report all suicides and suicide attempts in RCTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wolfe, Nicole; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Bero, Lisa Anne
Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best...... practices for identifying, obtaining and using unpublished data....
Af Wåhlberg, A E; Barraclough, P; Freeman, J
The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is the most commonly used self-report tool in traffic safety research and applied settings. It has been claimed that the violation factor of this instrument predicts accident involvement, which was supported by a previous meta-analysis. However, that analysis did not test for methodological effects, or include unpublished results. The present study re-analysed studies on prediction of accident involvement from DBQ factors, including lapses, and many unpublished effects. Tests of various types of dissemination bias and common method variance were undertaken. Outlier analysis showed that some effects were probably not reliable data, but excluding them did not change the results. For correlations between violations and crashes, tendencies for published effects to be larger than unpublished ones and for effects to decrease over time were observed, but were not significant. Also, using the mean of accidents as proxy for effect indicated that studies where effects for violations are not reported have smaller effect sizes. These differences indicate dissemination bias. Studies using self-reported accidents as dependent variables had much larger effects than those using recorded accident data. Also, zero-order correlations were larger than partial correlations controlled for exposure. Similarly, violations/accidents effects were strong only when there was also a strong correlation between accidents and exposure. Overall, the true effect is probably very close to zero (rresearch. Also, validation of self-reports should be more comprehensive in the future, taking into account the possibility of common method variance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Dimou, Niki L; Pantavou, Katerina G; Braliou, Georgia G; Bagos, Pantelis G
Multivariate meta-analysis of genetic association studies and genome-wide association studies has received a remarkable attention as it improves the precision of the analysis. Here, we review, summarize and present in a unified framework methods for multivariate meta-analysis of genetic association studies and genome-wide association studies. Starting with the statistical methods used for robust analysis and genetic model selection, we present in brief univariate methods for meta-analysis and we then scrutinize multivariate methodologies. Multivariate models of meta-analysis for a single gene-disease association studies, including models for haplotype association studies, multiple linked polymorphisms and multiple outcomes are discussed. The popular Mendelian randomization approach and special cases of meta-analysis addressing issues such as the assumption of the mode of inheritance, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and gene-environment interactions are also presented. All available methods are enriched with practical applications and methodologies that could be developed in the future are discussed. Links for all available software implementing multivariate meta-analysis methods are also provided.
Setia, Maninder Singh
Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the "highest level of evidence" for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies - sometimes with contradictory conclusions - on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist.
Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Mehr, David R.; Russell, Cynthia L.
Purpose: This study investigated the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence (MA) in older adults. Design and Methods: Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results of 33 published and unpublished randomized controlled trials. Random-effects models were used to estimate overall mean effect sizes (ESs) for MA, knowledge,…
Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.
This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to
Meta-analysis is a statistical method to summarize research data from multiple studies in a quantitative manner. This dissertation addresses a number of methodological topics in causal meta-analysis and reports the development and validation of meta-analysis software. In the first (methodological)
Calzetta, Luigino; Ora, Josuel; Cavalli, Francesco; Rogliani, Paola; O'Donnell, Denis E; Cazzola, Mario
The ability to exercise is an important clinical outcome in COPD, and the improvement in exercise capacity is recognized to be an important goal in the management of COPD. Therefore, since the current interest in the use of bronchodilators in COPD is gradually shifting towards the dual bronchodilation, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of LABA/LAMA combination on exercise capacity and lung hyperinflation in COPD. RCTs were identified after a search in different databases of published and unpublished trials. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of LABA/LAMA combinations on endurance time (ET) and inspiratory capacity (IC), vs. monocomponents. Eight RCTs including 1632 COPD patients were meta-analysed. LABA/LAMA combinations were significantly (P meta-analysis. This meta-analysis clearly demonstrates that if the goal of the therapy is to enhance exercise capacity in patients with COPD, LABA/LAMA combinations consistently meet the putative clinically meaningful differences for both ET and IC and, in this respect, are superior to their monocomponents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dan Song; Qin Shen; Tu-Zhen Xu; Qiu-Hua Sun
Background/purpose: The present meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of group reminiscence on depression in elderly patients. Methods: Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of group reminiscence on depression in elderly patients were systematically reviewed using multiple electronic databases. Relative risks for dichotomous data and weighted mean differences for continuous data were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. ...
Dellert, Jane Cerruti; Johnson, Portia
Examine the effect of interventions with parents and children on children's physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Computerized searches for intervention studies published between 1990 and 2011 used multiple ProQuest databases, including unpublished dissertations and theses to minimize publication bias. English-language, intervention-testing studies of children, parents, or families with outcomes of physical activity or BMI were retrieved from peer-reviewed journals, dissertations, and theses. Eliminated studies had no control or comparison group; had no continuous outcome variable; had no physical activity/exercise and/or BMI as outcomes; or had incomplete statistics necessary for meta-analysis (means, standard deviations, or confidence intervals). Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Quality criteria were control group, objective outcome variable measure, clarity of variable definitions, and number and reason for subject withdrawal. Meta-analysis on the raw difference of means estimated mean weighted effect size (MWES) assessed dispersion of effects and computed a summary effect. MWES for interventions with parents and children on physical activity (Z = 2.92; confidence interval [CI] = .09 to .48; p = .002) and on BMI for interventions with children alone (Z = -2.10; CI = -.16 to -.01; p = .02) was significant. A significant effect on physical activity but not on BMI was found when interventions included both parents and their children.
Tricco Andrea C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly individuals who have memory problems without significant limitations in activities of daily living are often diagnosed as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Some of these individuals progress to dementia. Several cognitive enhancers (for example donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantine have been approved for use in people with Alzheimer’s dementia but their use in patients with MCI is unclear. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of cognitive enhancers for MCI through a systematic review and network (that is, indirect comparisons meta-analysis. Design/Methods We will include studies that examine the use of cognitive enhancers compared to placebo, supportive care, or other cognitive enhancers among patients diagnosed with MCI. Outcomes of interest include cognition and function (primary outcomes, as well as behavior, quality of life, safety, and cost (secondary outcomes. We will include all experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies (controlled before-after, interrupted time series, and observational studies (cohort, case–control. Studies will be included regardless of publication status (that is, we will include unpublished studies, year, or language of dissemination. To identify potentially relevant material, we will search the following electronic databases from inception onwards: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Ageline. The electronic database search will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies, searching Google and organization websites for unpublished or difficult to locate material literature, and contacting experts. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies for inclusion using the eligibility criteria established a priori and independently extract data. Risk of bias will be assessed
Atkin, Stephen L; Katsiki, Niki; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein
Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol that has been suggested to improve several metabolic diseases. Leptin is an adipokine involved in metabolic status and appetite, with marked crosstalk with other systems. Available data suggest that curcumin may affect leptin levels; therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken on all randomized controlled trials of curcumin studies that included the measurement of leptin. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation, and Egger's weighted regression tests assessed the presence of publication bias. Four eligible articles comprising five treatment arms were selected for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in plasma leptin concentrations following curcumin treatment (standardized mean difference: -0.69, 95% confidence interval: -1.16, -0.23, p = 0.003; I 2 = 76.53%). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis showed that curcumin supplementation is associated with a decrease in leptin levels that may be regarded as a potential mechanism for the metabolic effects of curcumin. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rubio-Rivas, Manuel; Moreno, Rafael; Corbella, Xavier
The etiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains unknown; however, several occupational and environmental factors have been implicated. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis of all studies published on SSc associated with occupational and environmental exposure. The review was undertaken by means of MEDLINE and SCOPUS from 1960 to 2014 and using the terms: "systemic," "scleroderma," or "systemic sclerosis/chemically induced" [MesH]. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for the qualifying assessment. The inverse variance-weighted method was performed. The meta-analysis of silica exposure included 15 case-control studies [overall OR 2.81 (95%CI 1.86-4.23; p < 0.001)] and 4 cohort studies [overall RR 17.52 (95%CI 5.98-51.37; p < 0.001)]; the meta-analysis of solvents exposure included 13 case-control studies (overall OR 2.00 [95%CI 1.32-3.02; p = 0.001); the meta-analysis of breast implants exposure included 4 case-control studies (overall OR 1.68 (95%CI 1.65-1.71; p < 0.001)) and 6 cohort studies (overall RR 2.13 (95%CI 0.86-5.27; p = 0.10)); the meta-analysis of epoxy resins exposure included 4 case-control studies (overall OR 2.97 (95%CI 2.31-3.83; p < 0.001)), the meta-analysis of pesticides exposure included 3 case-control studies (overall OR 1.02 (95%CI 0.78-1.32; p = 0.90)) and, finally, the meta-analysis of welding fumes exposure included 4 studies (overall OR 1.29 (95%CI 0.44-3.74; p = 0.64)). Not enough studies citing risks related to hair dyes have been published to perform an accurate meta-analysis. Silica and solvents were the two most likely substances related to the pathogenesis of SSc. While silica is involved in particular jobs, solvents are widespread and more people are at risk of having incidental contact with them.
van Heijst, Barbara F. C.; Geurts, Hilde M.
Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with a known impact on quality of life. Yet the developmental trajectory of quality of life is not well understood. First, the effect of age on quality of life was studied with a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 10 studies (published between 2004 and 2012) with a combined sample size of…
Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela
Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…
van Heijst, B.F.C.; Geurts, H.M.
Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with a known impact on quality of life. Yet the developmental trajectory of quality of life is not well understood. First, the effect of age on quality of life was studied with a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 10 studies (published between
Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.
Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.
Marwa Salem; D. Evan Mercer
This paper presents a synthesis of the mangrove ecosystem valuation literature through a meta-regression analysis. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first meta-analysis focusing solely on mangrove forests, whereas previous studies have included different types of wetlands. The number of studies included in the regression analysis is 44 for a total...
Nielsen, G M; Tvedegaard, K C; Andersen, Niels Trolle
Hyperhomocysteinaemia has been identified as a risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular disease in several studies. To evaluate the evidence we performed a meta-analysis. We found 21 studies searching Medline from 1966-July 1999 using the key words homocysteine, homocystine and cerebrovascular...... was used. The reports on 8 cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies gave data on the mean and standard deviations of plasma or serum homocysteine for both cases and controls, and these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the 5 excluded studies all pointed to a positive relationship...
Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin
Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish....... The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared...
Mattmann, Matteo; Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy
This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to quantify and explain the economic values for positive and negative hydropower externalities. Different meta-regression model specifications are used to test the robustness of significant determinants of non-market values, including different types of hydropower impacts. The explanatory and predictive power of the estimated models is relatively high. Whilst controlling for sample and study characteristics, we find significant evidence for public aversion towards deteriorations of landscape, vegetation and wildlife caused by hydropower projects. There is however only weak evidence of willingness to pay for mitigating these effects. The main positive externality of hydropower generation, the avoidance of greenhouse gas emission, positively influences welfare estimates when combined with the share of hydropower in national energy production. Sensitivity to scope is detected, but not linked to specific externalities or non-market valuation methods. - Highlights: • A global meta-analysis of valuation studies of hydropower externalities is presented. • Positive and negative externalities are distinguished. • Welfare losses due to environmental deteriorations outweigh gains of GHG reductions. • There is only weak evidence of public WTP for mitigating negative externalities. • The non-market values of hydropower externalities are sensitive to scope.
Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.
Muche, Achenef Asmamaw; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Berhe, Abadi Kidanemariam; Fekadu, Gedefaw Abeje
Risky sexual practice is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. There are various studies on the prevalence and determinants of risky sexual practice in different regions of the country but there is no study which shows the national estimate of risky sexual practices in Ethiopia. Therefore, this review was conducted to estimate the national pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice and its risk factors in Ethiopia. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline was followed to review published and unpublished studies in Ethiopia. The databases used were; PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL and African Journals Online. Search terms were; risky sexual behavior, risky sexual practice, unprotected sex, multiple sexual partner, early sexual initiation, and/or Ethiopia. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument was used for critical appraisal. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software. Descriptive information of studies was presented in narrative form and quantitative results were presented in forest plots. The Cochran Q test and I 2 test statistics were used to test heterogeneity across studies. The pooled estimate prevalence and the odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed by a random effect model. A total of 31 studies with 43,695 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice was 42.80% (95% CI: 35.64%, 49.96%). Being male (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.37), substance use (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.41, 8.31), peer pressure (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.69, 6.87) and watching pornography (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.21, 5.86) were factors associated with an increase in risky sexual practices. The prevalence of risky sexual practices is high in Ethiopia. Being male, substance use, peer pressure and viewing pornographic materials were found to be associated with risky sexual practices. Therefore, life skills training is recommended to
ArchMiller, Althea A; Bauer, Eric F; Koch, Rebecca E; Wijayawardena, Bhagya K; Anil, Ammu; Kottwitz, Jack J; Munsterman, Amelia S; Wilson, Alan E
Meta-analysis, the statistical synthesis of pertinent literature to develop evidence-based conclusions, is relatively new to the field of molecular ecology, with the first meta-analysis published in the journal Molecular Ecology in 2003 (Slate & Phua 2003). The goal of this article is to formalize the definition of meta-analysis for the authors, editors, reviewers and readers of Molecular Ecology by completing a review of the meta-analyses previously published in this journal. We also provide a brief overview of the many components required for meta-analysis with a more specific discussion of the issues related to the field of molecular ecology, including the use and statistical considerations of Wright's FST and its related analogues as effect sizes in meta-analysis. We performed a literature review to identify articles published as 'meta-analyses' in Molecular Ecology, which were then evaluated by at least two reviewers. We specifically targeted Molecular Ecology publications because as a flagship journal in this field, meta-analyses published in Molecular Ecology have the potential to set the standard for meta-analyses in other journals. We found that while many of these reviewed articles were strong meta-analyses, others failed to follow standard meta-analytical techniques. One of these unsatisfactory meta-analyses was in fact a secondary analysis. Other studies attempted meta-analyses but lacked the fundamental statistics that are considered necessary for an effective and powerful meta-analysis. By drawing attention to the inconsistency of studies labelled as meta-analyses, we emphasize the importance of understanding the components of traditional meta-analyses to fully embrace the strengths of quantitative data synthesis in the field of molecular ecology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tao, Karen W; Owen, Jesse; Pace, Brian T; Imel, Zac E
For decades, psychologists have emphasized the provision of multiculturally competent psychotherapy to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in mental health treatment. However, the relationship between multicultural competencies (MC) and other measures of clinical process and treatment outcome has shown heterogeneity in effect sizes. This meta-analysis tested the association of client ratings of therapist MC with measures of therapeutic processes and outcome, including: (a) working alliance, (b) client satisfaction, (c) general counseling competence, (d) session impact, and (e) symptom improvement. Among 18 studies (20 independent samples) included in the analysis, the correlation between therapist MC and outcome (r = .29) was much smaller than the association with process measures (r = .75), but there were no significant differences in correlations across different types of MC or clinical process measures. Providing some evidence of publication bias, effect sizes from published studies (r = .67) were larger than those from unpublished dissertations (r = .28). Moderator analyses indicated that client age, gender, the representation of racial-ethnic minority (R-EM) clients, and clinical setting were not associated with effect size variability. Based on these findings, we discuss implications and recommendations for future research that might lead to a better understanding of the effects of therapist MC on treatment process and outcome. Primary needs in future research include the development and evaluation of observer ratings of therapist MC and the implementation of longitudinal research designs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This meta-analysis of 12 dependent variables from 9 quantitative studies comparing music to no-music conditions during treatment of children and adolescents with autism resulted in an overall effect size of d =.77 and a mean weighted correlation of r =.36 (p =.00). Since the confidence interval did not include 0, results were considered to be significant. All effects were in a positive direction, indicating benefits of the use of music in intervention. The homogeneity Q value was not significant (p =.83); therefore, results of included studies are considered to be homogeneous and explained by the overall effect size. The significant effect size, combined with the homogeneity of the studies, leads to the conclusion that all music intervention, regardless of purpose or implementation, has been effective for children and adolescents with autism. Included studies are described in terms of type of dependent variables measured; theoretical approach; number of subjects in treatment sessions; participation in and use, selection, and presentation of music; researcher discipline; published or unpublished source; and subject age. Clinical implications as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors. Methods We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. Results The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2 measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in
Michaela Foster; M. Nils Peterson; Frederick Cubbage; Gerard McMahon
The number of studies evaluating the quality and content of many types of plans have grown in recent decades. Natural resource conservation plans have been included in some of these plan evaluation studies; however, no meta-analysis of natural resource planning literature has been conducted. This focus is needed because natural resource conservation planning differs...
Marcus, David K.; Fulton, Jessica J.; Clarke, Erin J.
This meta-analysis examined the association between conduct problems and lead exposure. Nineteen studies on 8,561 children and adolescents were included. The average "r" across all 19 studies was 0.19 (p less than 0.001), which is considered a medium effect size. Studies that assessed lead exposure using hair element analysis yielded…
Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia
To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided
"Practical intensity-based meta-analysis" slides from my talk in the OHBM 2017 educational talk on Neuroimaging meta-analysis.http://www.humanbrainmapping.org/files/2017/ED Courses/Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis.pdf
Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John
Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…
Statistical power is important in a meta-analysis study, although few studies have examined the performance of simulated power in meta-analysis. The purpose of this study is to inform researchers about statistical power estimation on two sample mean difference test under different situations: (1) the discrepancy between the analytical power and…
Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua
The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…
Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.
We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...
Courson, Andy M; Stankiewicz, James A; Lal, Devyani
To analyze trends in the surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles through meta-analysis. Meta-analysis and case series. A systematic literature review on surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles was conducted. Studies were divided into historical (1975-2001) and contemporary (2002-2012) groups. A meta-analysis of these studies was performed. The historical and contemporary cohorts were compared (surgical approach, recurrence, and complications). To study evolution in surgical management, a senior surgeon's experience over 28 years was analyzed separately. Thirty-one studies were included for meta-analysis. The historical cohort included 425 mucoceles from 11 studies. The contemporary cohort included 542 mucoceles from 20 studies. More endoscopic techniques were used in the contemporary versus historical cohort (53.9% vs. 24.7%; P = contemporary). In the historical cohort, higher recurrence was noted in the external group (P = 0.03). Results from endoscopic and open approaches are comparable. Although endoscopic techniques are being increasingly adopted, comparison with our series shows that more cases could potentially be treated endoscopically. Frequent use of open approaches may reflect efficacy, or perhaps lack of expertise and equipment required for endoscopic management. Most contemporary authors favor endoscopic management, limiting open approaches for specific indications (unfavorable anatomy, lateral disease, and scarring). N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Yulia A. Martynova
Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of Xinjiang expedition by N.F. Katanov, conducted in 1889–1892 by order of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The core materials and undifferentiated diaries remained unpublished and are deposited in the National Archives of the Republic of Tatarstan. N.F. Katanov’s data in the National Archives of the Republic of Tatarstan (Fund 969 includes 551 files, covering the period of 1878 – 1919. We are talking about three documents: - Fund 969, Inv. 1, d. 10: Journey to Siberia, Dzungaria and East Turkestan, committed in 1890 (241 pages; - F. 969, Inv. 1, d. 11: Trip to the Seven Rivers and Tarbagatai, 1891 (558 p. - F. 969, Inv. 1, d. 76: Travel to Central Asia, Western China (Turfan and Mongolia (487 p.. N.F. Katanov travelled across the territory of Qing China several times. In 1890 he visited eight Chinese centers – Hotan, Kashgar, Aksu, Kuchar, Karakash, Baya, Lo-gucheng and Turpan, the language and folklore of the Turkic peoples of Eastern Turkestan were of his primarily concern. Then he visited mainly Seven Rivers (Zhetysu, settled in Chuguchak, starting from May 13 to November 7, 1891, and in Chuguchak (where he settled from May 13 to November 7. Since November 8, 1891 to March 7, 1892, he visited Xinjiang, where he lived mainly in Hami. Then he went to Kulja, and returned to the Russian Empire in May 1892, staying within the China territory 18 months in total.
Milner, Allison; Page, Kathryn; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Lamotagne, Anthony D
There are a number of published studies on workplace suicide prevention activities, and an even larger number of activities that are not reported on in academic literature. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic assessment of workplace suicide prevention activities, including short-term training activities, as well as suicide prevention strategies designed for occupational groups at risk of suicide. The search was based on Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Guidelines. The databases used for the searches were the Cochrane Trials Library and PubMed. A range of suicide prevention websites were also searched to ascertain the information on unpublished workplace suicide prevention activities. Key characteristics of retrieved studies were extracted and explained, including whether activities were short-term training programmes or developed specifically for occupations at risk of suicide. There were 13 interventions relevant for the review after exclusions. There were a few examples of prevention activities developed for at-risk occupations (e.g. police, army, air force and the construction industry) as well as a number of general awareness programmes that could be applied across different settings. Very few workplace suicide prevention initiatives had been evaluated. Results from those that had been evaluated suggest that prevention initiatives had beneficial effects. Suicide prevention has the potential to be integrated into existing workplace mental health activities. There is a need for further studies to develop, implement and evaluate workplace suicide prevention programmes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Feltz, Adam; May, Joshua
Experimental research suggests that people draw a moral distinction between bad outcomes brought about as a means versus a side effect (or byproduct). Such findings have informed multiple psychological and philosophical debates about moral cognition, including its computational structure, its sensitivity to the famous Doctrine of Double Effect, its reliability, and its status as a universal and innate mental module akin to universal grammar. But some studies have failed to replicate the means/byproduct effect especially in the absence of other factors, such as personal contact. So we aimed to determine how robust the means/byproduct effect is by conducting a meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies (k=101; 24,058 participants). We found that while there is an overall small difference between moral judgments of means and byproducts (standardized mean difference=0.87, 95% CI 0.67-1.06; standardized mean change=0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.69; log odds ratio=1.59, 95% CI 1.15-2.02), the mean effect size is primarily moderated by whether the outcome is brought about by personal contact, which typically involves the use of personal force. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ter Beek, Ellis; Spruit, Anouk; Kuiper, Chris H Z; van der Rijken, Rachel E A; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan J M
The current study investigated the effect on recidivism of treatment aimed at juveniles who have sexually offended. It also assessed the potential moderating effect of type of recidivism, and several treatment, participant and study characteristics. In total, 14 published and unpublished primary studies, making use of a comparison group and reporting on official recidivism rates, were included in a multilevel meta-analysis. This resulted in the use of 77 effect sizes, and 1726 participants. A three-level meta-analytic model was used to calculate the combined effect sizes (Cohens d) and to perform moderator analyses. Study quality was assessed with the EPHPP Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. A moderate effect size was found (d = 0.37), indicating that the treatment groups achieved an estimated relative reduction in recidivism of 20.5% as compared to comparison groups. However, after controlling for publication bias, a significant treatment effect was no longer found. Type of recidivism did not moderate the effect of treatment, indicating that treatment groups were equally effective for all types of recidivism. Also, no moderating effects of participant or treatment characteristics were found. Regarding study characteristics, a shorter follow up time showed a trend for larger effect sizes, and the effect size calculation based on proportions yielded larger effect sizes than calculation via mean frequency of offending. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Miller, Brian; Messias, Erick; Miettunen, Jouko; Alaräisänen, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riita; Koponen, Hannu; Räsänen, Pirkko; Isohanni, Matti; Kirkpatrick, Brian
Advanced paternal age (APA) is a reported risk factor for schizophrenia in the offspring. We performed a meta-analysis of this association, considering the effect of gender and study design. We identified articles by searching Pub Med, PsychInfo, ISI, and EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. Previously unpublished data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966) study were also included. There were 6 cohort studies and 6 case-control studies that met the inclusion criteria. In both study designs, there was a significant increase in risk of schizophrenia in the offspring of older fathers (≥30) compared to a reference paternal age of 25-29, with no gender differences. The relative risk (RR) in the oldest fathers (≥50) was 1.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.46-1.89, P APA (≥30) and younger paternal age (<25) increase the risk of schizophrenia; younger paternal age may be associated with an increased risk in males but not females. This risk factor increases the risk of schizophrenia as much as any single candidate gene of risk. The mechanism of these associations is not known and may differ for older and younger fathers.
Claudino, João Gustavo; Gabbett, Tim J; Bourgeois, Frank; Souza, Helton de Sá; Miranda, Rafael Chagas; Mezêncio, Bruno; Soncin, Rafael; Cardoso Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bottaro, Martim; Hernandez, Arnaldo Jose; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca
CrossFit is recognized as one of the fastest growing high-intensity functional training modes in the world. However, scientific data regarding the practice of CrossFit is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the findings of scientific literature related to CrossFit via systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme/MedLine, and SciELO online databases were conducted for articles reporting the effects of CrossFit training. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The Oxford Levels of Evidence was used for all included articles, and only studies that investigated the effects of CrossFit as a training program were included in the meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes (ESs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. Thirty-one articles were included in the systematic review and four were included in the meta-analysis. However, only two studies had a high level of evidence at low risk of bias. Scientific literature related to CrossFit has reported on body composition, psycho-physiological parameters, musculoskeletal injury risk, life and health aspects, and psycho-social behavior. In the meta-analysis, significant results were not found for any variables. The current scientific literature related to CrossFit has few studies with high level of evidence at low risk of bias. However, preliminary data has suggested that CrossFit practice is associated with higher levels of sense of community, satisfaction, and motivation.
Jane P. Canoy
Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data. The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.
This study aimed to assess the magnitude of the association between hypothyroidism and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Eighteen studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of the studies that did not control their estimates for any confounder showed an association between a thyroid disease (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) and CTS (N = 9,573, effect size [ES] = 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.68) and between hypothyroidism and CTS (N = 64,531, ES = 2.15 [95% CI, 1.64-2.83]). When a meta-analysis limited to the studies that controlled their estimates for some potential confounders, the association between a thyroid disease and CTS disappeared (N = 4,799, ES = 1.17 [95% CI, 0.71-1.92], I(2) = 0%), and the effect size for hypothyroidism largely attenuated (N = 71,133, ES = 1.44 [95% CI, 1.27-1.63], I(2) = 0%). Moreover, there was evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis found only a modest association between hypothyroidism and CTS. Confounding and publication bias may still account for part of the remaining excess risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Koetse, M.J. [Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Groot, Henri L.F. [Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Florax, R.J.G.M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)
In this paper we perform a meta-analysis on empirical estimates of the impact between investment and uncertainty. Since the outcomes of primary studies are largely incomparable with respect to the magnitude of the effect, our analysis focuses on the direction and statistical significance of the relationship. The standard approach in this situation is to estimate an ordered probit model on a categorical estimate, defined in terms of the direction of the effect. The estimates are transformed into marginal effects, in order to represent the changes in the probability of finding a negative significant, insignificant, and positive significant estimate. Although a meta-analysis generally does not allow for inferences on the correctness of model specifications in primary studies, our results give clear directions for model building in empirical investment research. For example, not including factor prices in investment models may seriously affect the model outcomes. Furthermore, we find that Q models produce more negative significant estimates than other models do, ceteris paribus. The outcome of a study is also affected by the type of data used in a primary study. Although it is clear that meta-analysis cannot always give decisive insights into the explanations for the variation in empirical outcomes, our meta-analysis shows that we can explain to a large extent why empirical estimates of the investment uncertainty relationship differ.
Arthur, Winfried; Huffcutt, Allen I; Arthur, Winfred
Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS reviews the meta-analysis statistical procedure and shows the reader how to conduct one using SAS. It presents and illustrates the use of the PROC MEANS procedure in SAS to perform the data computations called for by the two most commonly used meta-analytic procedures, the Hunter & Schmidt and Glassian approaches. This book serves as both an operational guide and user's manual by describing and explaining the meta-analysis procedures and then presenting the appropriate SAS program code for computing the pertinent statistics. The practical, step-by-step instru
Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole
In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research), cultural context (US versus Europe), age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26217256
Full Text Available In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of .63 (random effects model in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research, cultural context (US vs. Europe, age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias
Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing
Smith, Toby; Pelpola, Kelum; Ball, Martin; Ong, Alice; Myint, Phyo Kyaw
hip fracture is a common and serious condition associated with high mortality. This study aimed to identify pre-operative characteristics which are associated with an increased risk of mortality after hip fracture surgery. systematic search of published and unpublished literature databases, including EMBASE, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, PubMed and the Cochrane Library, was undertaken to identify all clinical studies on pre-operative predictors of mortality after surgery in hip fracture with at least 3-month follow-up. Data pertaining to the study objectives was extracted by two reviewers independently. Where study homogeneity was evidence, a meta-analysis of pooled relative risk and 95% confidence intervals was performed for mortality against pre-admission characteristics. fifty-three studies including 544,733 participants were included. Thirteen characteristics were identified as possible pre-operative indicators for mortality. Following meta-analysis, the four key characteristics associated with the risk of mortality up to 12 months were abnormal ECG (RR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.45, 2.76), cognitive impairment (RR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.70), age >85 years (RR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.90) and pre-fracture mobility (RR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.34). Other statistically significant pre-fracture predictors of increased mortality were male gender, being resident in a care institution, intra-capsular fracture type, high ASA grade and high Charlson comorbidity score on admission. this review has identified the characteristics of patients with a high risk of mortality after a hip fracture surgery beyond the peri-operative period who may benefit from comprehensive assessment and appropriate management. CRD42012002107. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Vickers, Jr, Ross R
.... This meta-analysis of available PRT studies (k = 3) indicated that (a) Fitness gains in the PRT program were equal to the gains in traditional fitness programs, and (b) the injury rate (i.e., hazard ratio...
Kelley, George A; Sharpe-Kelley, Kristi
.... Since no meta-analysis had existed using individual patient data (IPD) to examine the effects of exercise on BMD, our second two-year period of funding was devoted to examining the feasibility...
Zhu, Changtai; Jiang, Ting; Cao, Hao; Sun, Wenguang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jinming
The meta-analysis is regarded as an important evidence for making scientific decision. The database of ISI Web of Science collected a great number of high quality literatures including meta-analysis literatures. However, it is significant to understand the general characteristics of meta-analysis literatures to outline the perspective of meta-analysis. In this present study, we summarized and clarified some features on these literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. We retrieved the meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science including SCI-E, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, CCR-E, and IC. The annual growth rate, literature category, language, funding, index citation, agencies and countries/territories of the meta-analysis literatures were analyzed, respectively. A total of 95,719 records, which account for 0.38% (99% CI: 0.38%-0.39%) of all literatures, were found in the database. From 1997 to 2012, the annual growth rate of meta-analysis literatures was 18.18%. The literatures involved in many categories, languages, fundings, citations, publication agencies, and countries/territories. Interestingly, the index citation frequencies of the meta-analysis were significantly higher than that of other type literatures such as multi-centre study, randomize controlled trial, cohort study, case control study, and cases report (Panalysis has been becoming more and more prominent in recent years. In future, in order to promote the validity of meta-analysis, the CONSORT and PRISMA standard should be continuously popularized in the field of evidence-based medicine.
Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a statistical methodology that combines or integrates the results ofseveral independent clinical trials considered by the analyst to be `combinable' (Huque1988. However, completeness and user-friendliness are uncommon both in specialisedmeta-analysis software packages and in mainstream statistical packages that have to relyon user-written commands. We implemented the meta-analysis methodology in an Mi-crosoft Excel add-in which is freely available and incorporates more meta-analysis models(including the iterative maximum likelihood and prole likelihood than are usually avail-able, while paying particular attention to the user-friendliness of the package.
Reis, Alessandra; Dourado Loguercio, Alessandro; Schroeder, Marcos; Luque-Martinez, Issis; Masterson, Danielle; Cople Maia, Lucianne
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the risk and intensity of postoperative sensitivity (POS) in posterior resin composite restorations bonded with self-etch (SE) and etch-and-rinse (ER) adhesives. A comprehensive search was performed in the MEDLINE via PubMeb, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, BBO and Cochrane Library and SIGLE without restrictions. The abstracts of the annual conference of the IADR (1990-2014), unpublished and ongoing trials registry were also searched. Dissertations and theses were searched using the ProQuest Dissertations and Periodicos Capes Theses databases. We included randomized clinical trials that compared the clinical effectiveness of SE and ER used for direct resin composite restorations in permanent dentition of adult patients. The risk/intensity of POS was the primary outcome. The risk of bias tool of the Cochrane Collaboration was used. The meta-analysis was performed on the studies considered 'low' risk of bias. After duplicates removal, 2600 articles were identified but only 29 remained in the qualitative synthesis. Five were considered to be 'high' risk of bias and eleven were considered to be 'unclear' in the key domains, yielding 13 studies for meta-analysis. The overall relative risk of the spontaneous POS was 0.63 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.15), while the stimuli-induced POS was 0.99 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.56). The overall standardized mean difference was 0.08 (95%CI -0.19 to 0.35). No overall effect was revealed in the meta-analyses, meaning that no influence of the ER or SE strategy on POS. The type of adhesive strategy (ER or SE) for posterior resin composite restorations does not influence the risk and intensity of POS. CRD42014006617. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lacny, Sarah; Wilson, Todd; Clement, Fiona; Roberts, Derek J; Faris, Peter D; Ghali, William A; Marshall, Deborah A
Although Kaplan-Meier survival analysis is commonly used to estimate the cumulative incidence of revision after joint arthroplasty, it theoretically overestimates the risk of revision in the presence of competing risks (such as death). Because the magnitude of overestimation is not well documented, the potential associated impact on clinical and policy decision-making remains unknown. We performed a meta-analysis to answer the following questions: (1) To what extent does the Kaplan-Meier method overestimate the cumulative incidence of revision after joint replacement compared with alternative competing-risks methods? (2) Is the extent of overestimation influenced by followup time or rate of competing risks? We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Web of Science (1946, 1980, 1980, and 1899, respectively, to October 26, 2013) and included article bibliographies for studies comparing estimated cumulative incidence of revision after hip or knee arthroplasty obtained using both Kaplan-Meier and competing-risks methods. We excluded conference abstracts, unpublished studies, or studies using simulated data sets. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of reporting of the included studies. Among 1160 abstracts identified, six studies were included in our meta-analysis. The principal reason for the steep attrition (1160 to six) was that the initial search was for studies in any clinical area that compared the cumulative incidence estimated using the Kaplan-Meier versus competing-risks methods for any event (not just the cumulative incidence of hip or knee revision); we did this to minimize the likelihood of missing any relevant studies. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) comparing the cumulative incidence estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the competing-risks method for each study and used DerSimonian and Laird random effects models to pool these RRs. Heterogeneity was explored using stratified meta-analyses and
Smith, Toby O. [University of East Anglia, Faculty of Health, Norwich (United Kingdom); Davies, Leigh [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich (United Kingdom); Toms, Andoni P.; Donell, Simon T. [University of East Anglia, Faculty of Health, Norwich (United Kingdom); Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich (United Kingdom); Hing, Caroline B. [St George' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)
To determine the discriminative validity and reliability of the evidence base using meta-analysis. A review of published sources using the databases AMED, CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library, and for unpublished material was conducted. All studies assessing the reliability, validity, sensitivity or specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound (US) of the patellofemoral joint of patients following patellar dislocation, subluxation or instability, were included. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the difference in radiological measurements between healthy controls and subjects with patellar instability in order to assess discrimination validity. A narrative assessment was used to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability as well as the sensitivity and specificity of specific radiological measurements. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. The findings indicated that there was acceptable inter-observer and intra-observer reliability and validity for different methods of assessing patellar height and the sulcus angle with X-ray, MRI and CT methods, and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) assessed using CT. There was poor reliability or validity for the assessment of severity of trochlear dysplasia and the sulcus angle using US. There is insufficient evidence to determine the reliability, validity, sensitivity or specificity of tests such as the congruence angle, lateral patellar displacement, lateral patellar tilt, trochlear depth, boss height, the crossing sign or Wiberg patellar classification. A critical appraisal of the literature identified a number of recurrent methodological limitations. Further study is recommended to evaluate the reliability and validity of these radiological outcomes using well-designed radiological trials. (orig.)
Widdowson, W Matthew
CONTEXT\\/OBJECTIVES: GH replacement increases muscle mass and reduces body fat in growth hormone deficiency (GHD) adults. A recent meta-analysis has demonstrated that this improvement in body composition is associated with improved exercise performance. The current meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether high-quality evidence exists to support a beneficial effect of GH replacement on strength. DESIGN\\/METHODS: An extensive Medline search\\/literature review identified eight studies with utilizable, robust data, involving 231 patients in nine cohorts. Previously unpublished data were sought from authors and obtained in two cases. All studies included were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, of parallel or cross-over design and of an average 6.7 months duration. Information was retrieved in uniform format, with data pertaining to patient numbers, study-design, GH-dose, mean age, IGF-I levels and muscle strength measurements (isometric or isokinetic quadriceps strength) recorded. Data were analysed using a fixed-effects model, utilizing continuous data measured on different scales. A summary effect measure (d(s)) was derived for individual strength variables, whereas an overall summary effect was derived from the sum of all studies incorporating different variables; 95% CIs were calculated from the weighted variances of individual study effects. RESULTS: Analysis revealed no significant improvement, neither when all studies were combined (d(s) = +0.01 +\\/- 0.26) nor when measured individually (isometric quadriceps strength, d(s) = +0.02 +\\/- 0.32 and isokinetic quadriceps strength, d(s) = 0.00 +\\/- 0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from short-term controlled studies fails to support a benefit on muscle strength of GH replacement in GHD patients, which is likely to occur over a longer time-course, as seen in open-label studies.
Smith, Toby O.; Davies, Leigh; Toms, Andoni P.; Donell, Simon T.; Hing, Caroline B.
To determine the discriminative validity and reliability of the evidence base using meta-analysis. A review of published sources using the databases AMED, CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library, and for unpublished material was conducted. All studies assessing the reliability, validity, sensitivity or specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound (US) of the patellofemoral joint of patients following patellar dislocation, subluxation or instability, were included. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the difference in radiological measurements between healthy controls and subjects with patellar instability in order to assess discrimination validity. A narrative assessment was used to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability as well as the sensitivity and specificity of specific radiological measurements. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. The findings indicated that there was acceptable inter-observer and intra-observer reliability and validity for different methods of assessing patellar height and the sulcus angle with X-ray, MRI and CT methods, and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) assessed using CT. There was poor reliability or validity for the assessment of severity of trochlear dysplasia and the sulcus angle using US. There is insufficient evidence to determine the reliability, validity, sensitivity or specificity of tests such as the congruence angle, lateral patellar displacement, lateral patellar tilt, trochlear depth, boss height, the crossing sign or Wiberg patellar classification. A critical appraisal of the literature identified a number of recurrent methodological limitations. Further study is recommended to evaluate the reliability and validity of these radiological outcomes using well-designed radiological trials. (orig.)
Full Text Available ABSTRACT We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the efficacy of the targeted therapies in the treatment of advanced RCC and, via an indirect comparison, to provide an optimal treatment among these agents. A systematic search of Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Clinical Trials unpublished was performed up to Jan 1, 2015 to identify eligible randomized trials. Outcomes of interest assessing a targeted agent included progression free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS and objective response rate (ORR. Thirty eligible randomized controlled studies, total twentyfourth trails (5110 cases and 4626 controls were identified. Compared with placebo and IFN-α, single vascular epithelial growth factor (receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and mammalian target of rapamycin agent (VEGF(r-TKI & mTOR inhibitor were associated with improved PFS, improved OS and higher ORR, respectively. Comparing sorafenib combination vs sorafenib, there was no significant difference with regard to PFS and OS, but with a higher ORR. Comparing single or combination VEGF(r-TKI & mTOR inhibitor vs BEV + IFN-α, there was no significant difference with regard to PFS, OS, or ORR. Our network ITC meta-analysis also indicated a superior PFS of axitinib and everolimus compared to sorafenib. Our data suggest that targeted therapy with VEGF(r-TKI & mTOR inhibitor is associated with superior efficacy for treating advanced RCC with improved PFS, OS and higher ORR compared to placebo and IFN-α. In summary, here we give a comprehensive overview of current targeted therapies of advanced RCC that may provide evidence for the adequate targeted therapy selecting.
Verbitskaya, E V
Meta-analysis is a powerful tool to identify Evidence Based medical technologies (interventions) for use in every day practice. Meta-analysis uses statistical approaches to combine results from multiple studies in an effort to increase power (over individual studies), improve estimates of the size of the effect and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. Meta-analysis is a quantitative, formal study design used to systematically assess previous research studies to derive conclusions from this research. Meta-analysis may provide more precise estimate of the effect of treatment or risk factor for a disease, or other outcomes, than any individual study contributing to the pooled analysis.We have quite a substantial number of Russian medical publications, but not so many Meta-Analyses published in Russian. Russian publications are cited in English language papers not so often. A total of 90% of clinical studies included in published Meta-Analyses incorporate only English language papers. International studies or papers with Russian co-authors are published in English language. The main question is: what is the problem with inclusion of Russian medical publications in Meta-Analysis? The main reasons for this are the following: 1) It is difficult to find Russian papers, difficult to work with them and to work with Russian journals:a. There are single Russian Biomedical Journals, which are translated into English and are included in databases (PubMed, Scopus and other), despite the fact that all of them have English language abstracts.b. The majority the meta-analyses authors use in their work different citation management software such as the Mendeley, Reference Manager, ProCite, EndNote, and others. These citation management systems allow scientists to organize their own literature databases with internet searches and have adds-on for the Office programs what makes process of literature citation very convenient. The Internet sites of the majority of
Singer, Adam D.; Subhawong, Ty K.; Jose, Jean; Tresley, Jonathan; Clifford, Paul D. [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Miami, FL (United States)
The aims of this article are to review the imaging characteristics of ischiofemoral impingement (IFI), summarize measurement thresholds for radiologic diagnosis based on a meta-analysis of the literature and raise awareness among radiologists and clinicians of this entity. A PubMed search restricted to the English language containing the keywords ''ischiofemoral impingement'' and ''quadratus femoris MRI'' was performed, and citations in these articles were also used to identify a total of 27 studies discussing ischiofemoral impingement. After excluding case reports and non-representative studies, there were five remaining articles including 193 hip MRIs of IFI in 154 subjects (133 female, 21 male) and 135 asymptomatic control hip MRIs from 74 subjects (55 female, 19 male). Additionally, we performed a retrospective database search of pelvic and hip MRI reports from our institution including the terms ''quadratus femoris'' or ''ischiofemoral impingement'' from a 9-year period and 24 hip MRIs from 21 patients (18 female, 3 male) with IFI with 5 asymptomatic contralateral control hip MRIs identified. In all, 217 hip MRIs of IFI and 140 control cases were included. A meta-analysis of these hip MRIs was conducted to determine optimal thresholds of the ischiofemoral space (IFS) and quadratus femoris space (QFS) for identifying IFI. Cases of IFI showed significantly smaller IFS and QFS compared to controls (14.91 ± 4.8 versus 26.01 ± 7.98 and 9.57 ± 3.7 versus 15.97 ± 6.07, measured in mm, respectively, p < 0.0001 for both). Pooled analysis revealed that for IFS, using a cutoff of ≤15 mm yielded a sensitivity of 76.9 %, specificity of 81.0 % and overall accuracy of 78.3 %. For QFS, a cutoff of ≤ 10.0 mm resulted in 78.7 % sensitivity, 74.1 % specificity and 77.1 % overall accuracy. IFI is a potential cause of hip pain that can be accurately diagnosed with MRI in conjunction with
Sibley, Lynn; Ann Sipe, Theresa
to summarise the available published and unpublished studies on traditional birth attendant (TBA) training effectiveness. a meta-analysis. sixty studies (n=60) spanning 1971-1999 from 24 countries and three regions. the effect size index, Cohen's h for each outcome; the variance-weighted mean effect size and 95% confidence interval for sub-group of outcomes; homogeneity tests on the distribution of the weighted mean effect sizes; and sensitivity analysis to detect the presence of publication bias. TBA training was associated with significant increases in attributes such as TBA 'knowledge' (90%), 'attitude' (74%), 'behaviour' (63%) and 'advice' (90%) over the untrained TBA baseline. Results for 'behaviour' and 'advice' in specific content areas related to peri-neonatal health outcome, however, reveal sources of variability and underscore the conflicting evidence on TBA training. TBA training was also associated with small but significant decreases in peri-neonatal mortality (8%) and birth asphyxia mortality (11%). Incomplete reporting limited the assessment of neonatal mortality due to tetanus and acute respiratory infection, maternal mortality, as well as assessment of the relationship between intervention characteristics and outcomes. The quality of studies included in the meta-analysis lack sufficient rigour to address the question of causality. Thus, while the data suggest that TBA training is effective in terms of the outcomes measured, we are unable to demonstrate that it is a cost-effective intervention. skilled attendance at birth is a distant reality in many developing countries and effective community-based strategies are needed to help reduce high levels of mortality. Given the magnitude of peri-neonatal mortality, the associations observed between TBA training peri-neonatal and birth asphyxia mortality, and TBA attributes in content relevant to peri-neonatal survival, we suggest that these strategies may usefully include TBA training in appropriate
Mist, Scott; Firestone,Kari; Jones,Kim Dupree
Scott David Mist, Kari Firestone, Kim Dupree Jones Fibromyalgia Research and Treatment Group, School of Nursing, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events....
Chopra, Vineet; Anand, Sarah; Hickner, Andy; Buist, Michael; Rogers, Mary Am; Saint, Sanjay; Flanders, Scott A
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. However, the size of this risk relative to that associated with other central venous catheters (CVCs) is unknown. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with PICCs versus that associated with other CVCs. We searched several databases, including Medline, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Conference Papers Index, and Scopus. Additional studies were identified through hand searches of bibliographies and internet searches, and we contacted study authors to obtain unpublished data. All human studies published in full text, abstract, or poster form were eligible for inclusion. All studies were of adult patients aged at least 18 years who underwent insertion of a PICC. Studies were assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa risk of bias scale. In studies without a comparison group, the pooled frequency of venous thromboembolism was calculated for patients receiving PICCs. In studies comparing PICCs with other CVCs, summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with a random effects meta-analysis. Of the 533 citations identified, 64 studies (12 with a comparison group and 52 without) including 29 503 patients met the eligibility criteria. In the non-comparison studies, the weighted frequency of PICC-related deep vein thrombosis was highest in patients who were critically ill (13·91%, 95% CI 7·68-20·14) and those with cancer (6·67%, 4·69-8·64). Our meta-analysis of 11 studies comparing the risk of deep vein thrombosis related to PICCs with that related to CVCs showed that PICCs were associated with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (OR 2·55, 1·54-4·23, p<0·0001) but not pulmonary embolism (no events). With the baseline PICC-related deep vein thrombosis rate of 2·7% and pooled OR of 2·55, the number needed to harm relative to CVCs was 26 (95% CI 13-71). PICCs are
Wallace, Anna; Bucks, Romola S.
Study Objectives: To examine episodic memory performance in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results from individual studies examining the impact of OSA on episodic memory performance. The performance of individuals with OSA was compared to healthy controls or normative data. Participants Forty-two studies were included, comprising 2,294 adults with untreated OSA and 1,364 healthy controls. Studies that recorded information about participants at baseline prior to treatment interventions were included in the analysis. Measurements Participants were assessed with tasks that included a measure of episodic memory: immediate recall, delayed recall, learning, and/or recognition memory. Results: The results of the meta-analyses provide evidence that individuals with OSA are significantly impaired when compared to healthy controls on verbal episodic memory (immediate recall, delayed recall, learning, and recognition) and visuo-spatial episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall), but not visual immediate recall or visuo-spatial learning. When patients were compared to norms, negative effects of OSA were found only in verbal immediate and delayed recall. Conclusions: This meta-analysis contributes to understanding of the nature of episodic memory deficits in individuals with OSA. Impairments to episodic memory are likely to affect the daily functioning of individuals with OSA. Citation Wallace A; Bucks RS. Memory and obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2013;36(2):203-220. PMID:23372268
Simmonds, M.; Llewellyn, A.; Owen, C. G.; Woolacott, N.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included ...
Grey literature in systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study of the contribution of non-English reports, unpublished studies and dissertations to the results of meta-analyses in child-relevant reviews.
Hartling, Lisa; Featherstone, Robin; Nuspl, Megan; Shave, Kassi; Dryden, Donna M; Vandermeer, Ben
Systematic reviews (SRs) are an important source of information about healthcare interventions. A key component of a well-conducted SR is a comprehensive literature search. There is limited evidence on the contribution of non-English reports, unpublished studies, and dissertations and their impact on results of meta-analyses. Our sample included SRs from three Cochrane Review Groups: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), Infectious Diseases (ID), Developmental Psychosocial and Learning Problems (DPLP) (n = 129). Outcomes included: 1) proportion of reviews that searched for and included each study type; 2) proportion of relevant studies represented by each study type; and 3) impact on results and conclusions of the primary meta-analysis for each study type. Most SRs searched for non-English studies; however, these were included in only 12% of reviews and represented less than 5% of included studies. There was a change in results in only four reviews (total sample = 129); in two cases the change did not have an impact on the statistical or clinical significance of results. Most SRs searched for unpublished studies but the majority did not include these (only 6%) and they represented 2% of included studies. In most cases the impact of including unpublished studies was small; a substantial impact was observed in one case that relied solely on unpublished data. Few reviews in ARI (9%) and ID (3%) searched for dissertations compared to 65% in DPLP. Overall, dissertations were included in only nine SRs and represented less than 2% of included studies. In the majority of cases the change in results was negligible or small; in the case where a large change was noted, the estimate was more conservative without dissertations. The majority of SRs searched for non-English and unpublished studies; however, these represented a small proportion of included studies and rarely impacted the results and conclusions of the review. Inclusion of these study types may have an impact
This paper presents a meta-analysis of the road safety effects of converting junctions to roundabouts. 44 studies containing a total of 154 estimates of effect were included. Based on a meta-regression analysis, converting junctions to roundabouts is associated with a reduction of fatal accidents of about 65% and a reduction of injury accidents of about 40%. The mean effect on property-damage-only accidents is ambiguous. Summary estimates of effect are robust for fatal and injury accidents, but vary depending on the model of meta-analysis and the treatment of outlying data points for property-damage-only accidents. A trim-and-fill analysis suggests a weak tendency for publication bias, with modest influence on summary estimates of effect. It is concluded that roundabouts are very effective in reducing traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldie, Christina; Taylor, Allen J; Nguyen, Peter; McCoy, Cody; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Preiss, David
Previous studies have suggested that niacin treatment raises glucose levels in patients with diabetes and may increase the risk of developing diabetes. We undertook a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from randomised trials to confirm whether an association exists between niacin and new-onset diabetes. We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 1975 to 2014, for randomised controlled trials of niacin primarily designed to assess its effects on cardiovascular endpoints and cardiovascular surrogate markers. We included trials with ≥50 non-diabetic participants and average follow-up of ≥24 weeks. Published data were tabulated and unpublished data sought from investigators. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for new-onset diabetes with random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity between trials was assessed using the I(2) statistic. In 11 trials with 26 340 non-diabetic participants, 1371 (725/13 121 assigned niacin; 646/13 219 assigned control) were diagnosed with diabetes during a weighted mean follow-up of 3.6 years. Niacin therapy was associated with a RR of 1.34 (95% CIs 1.21 to 1.49) for new-onset diabetes, with limited heterogeneity between trials (I(2)=0.0%, p=0.87). This equates to one additional case of diabetes per 43 (95% CI 30 to 70) initially non-diabetic individuals who are treated with niacin for 5 years. Results were consistent regardless of whether participants received background statin therapy (p for interaction=0.88) or combined therapy with laropiprant (p for interaction=0.52). Niacin therapy is associated with a moderately increased risk of developing diabetes regardless of background statin or combination laropiprant therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
De Bruycker Manolito
Full Text Available Purpose: This meta-analysis evaluates the mid- to long-term survival outcome of MAT (meniscal allograft transplantation. Potential prognosticators, with particular focus on chondral status and age of the patient at the time of transplantation, were also analysed. Study design: Meta-analysis. Methods: An online database search was performed using following search string: “meniscal allograft transplantation” and “outcome”. A total of 65 articles were analysed for a total of 3157 performed MAT with a mean follow-up of 5.4 years. Subjective and clinical data was analysed. Results: The subjective and objective results of 2977 patients (3157 allografts were analysed; 70% were male, 30% were female. Thirty-eight percent received an isolated MAT. All other patients underwent at least one concomitant procedure. Lysholm, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores were analysed. All scores showed a good patient satisfaction at long-term follow-up. The mean overall survival rate was 80.9%. Complication rates were comparable to standard meniscal repair surgery. There was a degenerative evolution in osteoarthritis with at least one grade in 1760 radiographically analysed patients. Concomitant procedures seem to have no effect on the outcome. Age at transplantation is a negative prognosticator. The body mass index (BMI of the patient shows a slightly negative correlation with the outcome of MAT. Conclusions: MAT is a viable solution for the younger patient with chronic pain in the meniscectomised knee joint. The complications are not severe and comparable to meniscal repair. The overall failure rate at final follow-up is acceptable and the allograft heals well in most cases, but MAT cannot be seen as a definitive solution for post-meniscectomy pain. The correct approach to the chronic painful total meniscectomised knee joint thus requires consideration of all
Full Text Available Current (1999 World Health Organization guidelines recommend giving routine antibiotics (AB for all children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM, even if they have uncomplicated disease with no clinically obvious infections. We examined the evidence behind this recommendation.OVID-MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, GLOBAL-HEALTH, CINAHL, POPLINE, AFRICA-WIDE-NiPAD, and LILACS were searched for AB efficacy, bacterial resistance, and infection rates in SAM. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Three randomised controlled trials (RCT, five Cochrane reviews, and 37 observational studies were identified. One cohort-study showed no increase in nutritional-cure and mortality in uncomplicated SAM where no AB were used. (p>0.05. However, an unpublished RCT in this setting did show mortality benefits. Another RCT did not show superiority of ceftriaxone over amoxicilllin for these same outcomes, but adressed SAM children with and without complications (p = 0.27. Another RCT showed no difference between amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole efficacies for pneumonia in underweight, but not SAM. Our meta-analysis of 12 pooled susceptibility-studies for all types of bacterial isolates, including 2767 stricly SAM children, favoured amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole for susceptibility medians: 42% (IQR 27-55% vs 22% (IQR 17-23% and population-weighted-means 52.9% (range 23-57% vs 35.4% (range 6.7-42%. Susceptibilities to second-line AB were better, above 80%. Prevalence of serious infections in SAM, pooled from 24 studies, ranged from 17% to 35.2%. No study infered any association of infection prevalence with AB regimens in SAM.The evidence underlying current antibiotic recommendations for uncomplicated SAM is weak. Susceptibility-studies favour amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole. However, given that these antibiotics have side-effects, costs, and risks as well as benefits, their routine use needs urgent testing. With reliable
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.
The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... of clinical signs including FMD lesions and fever, while the virological protection parameter was estimated based on the outcome of laboratory tests that were used to diagnose FMD infection. A meta-analysis relative risk was calculated per protection parameter. Results of the meta-analyses were examined using...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....
Steinberg, Julia R; Trussell, James; Hall, Kelli S; Guthrie, Kate
Similar to other reviews within the last 4 years, a thorough review by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, published in December 2011, found that compared to delivery of an unintended pregnancy, abortion does not increase women's risk of mental health problems. In contrast, a meta-analysis published in September 2011 concluded that abortion increases women's risk of mental health problems by 81% and that 10% of mental health problems are attributable to abortions. Like others, we strongly question the quality of this meta-analysis and its conclusions. Here we detail seven errors of this meta-analysis and three significant shortcomings of the included studies because policy, practice and the public have been misinformed. These errors and shortcomings render the meta-analysis' conclusions invalid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agarwal, Shipra; Jain, Deepali
Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a screening test for triaging thyroid nodules, aiding in subsequent clinical management. However, the advantages have been overshadowed by the multiplicity of reporting systems and a wide range of nomenclature used. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was formulated in 2007, to give the world a uniform thyroid cytology reporting system, facilitating easy interpretation by the clinicians. Here, we review the status of thyroid FNAC in India in terms of various reporting systems used including a meta-analysis of the previously published data. An extensive literature search was performed using internet search engines. The reports with detailed classification system used in thyroid cytology were included. The meta-analysis of published data was compared with the implied risk of malignancy by TBSRTC. More than 50 studies were retrieved and evaluated. TBSRTC is currently the most widely used reporting system with different studies showing good efficacy and interobserver concordance. Ancillary techniques have, as of now, limited applicability and acceptability in thyroid cytology in India. Twenty-eight published articles met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. When compared with TBSRTC recommendations, the meta-analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for categories I and III. Thyroid FNAC is practiced all over India. TBSRTC has found widespread acceptance, with most institutions using this system for routine thyroid cytology reporting. However, reasons for a high malignancy risk for categories I and III need to be looked into. Various possible contributing factors are discussed in the review.
Feng, Yu-Liang; Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun
The analysis of dietary patterns has recently drawn considerable attention as a method of investigating the association between the overall whole diet and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the results have yielded conflicting findings. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis to identify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 40 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The highest category of 'healthy' dietary pattern compared with the lowest category was apparently associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.75; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.83; Pcolorectal cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest category of a 'western-style' dietary pattern (OR=1.40; CI: 1.26-1.56; Pcolorectal cancer in the highest compared with the lowest category of 'alcohol-consumption' pattern (OR=1.44; CI: 1.13-1.82; P=0.003). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that a 'healthy' dietary pattern may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas 'western-style' and 'alcohol-consumption' patterns may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.
Li, Ye; Lv, Mei-Rong; Wei, Yan-Jin; Sun, Ling; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Huai-Guo; Li, Bin
Although some studies have reported potential associations of dietary patterns with depression risk, a consistent perspective hasn't been estimated to date. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the relation between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. A literature research was conducted searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to September 2016. In total, 21 studies from ten countries met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grain, fish, olive oil, low-fat dairy and antioxidants and low intakes of animal foods was apparently associated with a decreased risk of depression. A dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of red and/or processed meat, refined grains, sweets, high-fat dairy products, butter, potatoes and high-fat gravy, and low intakes of fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of depression. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that healthy pattern may decrease the risk of depression, whereas western-style may increase the risk of depression. However, more randomized controlled trails and cohort studies are urgently required to confirm this findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chan, Raymond C. K.; Xu, Ting; Heinrichs, R. Walter; Yu, Yue; Wang, Ya
Background: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are hypothesized as candidate endophenotypes for schizophrenia, but their prevalence and relations with clinical and demographic data are unknown. The authors undertook a quantification (meta-analysis) of the published literature on NSS in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. A systematic search was conducted for published articles reporting NSS and related data using standard measures in schizophrenia and healthy comparison groups. Method: A systematic search was conducted for published articles reporting data on the prevalence of NSS in schizophrenia using standard clinical rating scales and healthy comparison groups. Meta-analyses were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis software package. Effect sizes (Cohen d) indexing the difference between schizophrenic patients and the healthy controls were calculated on the basis of reported statistics. Potential moderator variables evaluated included age of patient samples, level of education, sample sex proportions, medication doses, and negative and positive symptoms. Results: A total of 33 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. A large and reliable group difference (Cohen d) indicated that, on average, a majority of patients (73%) perform outside the range of healthy subjects on aggregate NSS measures. Cognitive performance and positive and negative symptoms share 2%–10% of their variance with NSS. Conclusions: NSS occur in a majority of the schizophrenia patient population and are largely distinct from symptomatic and cognitive features of the illness. PMID:19377058
Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.; Li, Gordon; Sughrue, Michael E.; Redmond, Kristin; Rigamonti, Daniele; Parsa, Andrew T.; Chang, Steven; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Lim, Michael
Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data when Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was 36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.
de Wit, Frank R C; Greer, Lindred L; Jehn, Karen A
Since the meta-analysis by De Dreu and Weingart (2003b) on the effects of intragroup conflict on group outcomes, more than 80 new empirical studies of conflict have been conducted, often investigating more complex, moderated relationships between conflict and group outcomes, as well as new types of intragroup conflict, such as process conflict. To explore the trends in this new body of literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of 116 empirical studies of intragroup conflict (n = 8,880 groups) and its relationship with group outcomes. To address the heterogeneity across the studies included in the meta-analysis, we also investigated a number of moderating variables. Stable negative relationships were found between relationship and process conflict and group outcomes. In contrast to the results of De Dreu and Weingart, we did not find a strong and negative association between task conflict and group performance. Analyses of main effects as well as moderator analyses revealed a more complex picture. Task conflict and group performance were more positively related among studies where the association between task and relationship conflict was relatively weak, in studies conducted among top management teams rather than non-top management teams, and in studies where performance was measured in terms of financial performance or decision quality rather than overall performance.
Laws, Andrew; Kendall, Robyn; Hawkins, Neil
Within technology appraisals, it is necessary to compare the complete set of treatments that may be used in the patient group under consideration. Randomized controlled trials are a key source of evidence for these comparisons. The techniques of network meta-analysis allow the networks of trial evidence to be evaluated to obtain estimates of comparative efficacy between sets of treatments. These techniques may be the only source of estimates of comparative effectiveness if trials directly comparing the treatments of interest have not been conducted, and may provide useful additional evidence if both direct and indirect comparisons exist. We examined both published and draft guidelines from reimbursement and health technology appraisal bodies, and considered their recommendations using appropriate methodology for the conduct of indirect comparisons and the assessments of their validity. Guidelines from 33 countries were reviewed. Of these, guidelines from 9 countries-Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Scotland, Spain, South Africa, and the United Kingdom (England and Wales)-included detailed recommendations on the conduct of network meta-analysis. The recommendations were summarized. No two recommendations from the multiple national guidelines are mutually exclusive. It is possible to perform one network meta-analysis for submission to multiple national jurisdictions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This meta-analysis of 26 reports published between 1978 and 2010 tests an unusal hypothesis: for stimuli of two or more types that are presented in an order designed to be unpredictable and that produce different post-stimulus physiological activity, the direction of pre-stimulus physiological activity reflects the direction of post-stimulus physiological activity, resulting in an unexplained anticipatory effect. The reports we examined used one of two paradigms: 1 randomly presented arousing vs. neutral stimuli, or 2 guessing tasks with feedback (correct vs. incorrect. Dependent variables included: electrodermal activity, heart rate, blood volume, pupil dilation, electroencephalographic activity (EEG, and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activity. To avoid including data hand-picked from multiple different analyses, no post-hoc experiments are considered. The results reveal a significant overall effect with a small effect size (random effects: overall [weighted] ES=0.21, 95%CI=0.13-0.29, z=5.3, p<5.7x10-8; fixed effects: overall ES=0.21, 95%CI=0.15-0.27, z=6.9, p<2.7x10-12. Higher quality experiments produce a quantitately larger effect size and a greater level of significance than lower quality studies. The number of contrary unpublished reports that would be necessary to reduce the level of significance to chance (p>0.05 was conservatively calculated to be 87 reports. We explore alternative explanations and examine the potential linkage between this unexplained anticipatory activity and other results demonstrating meaningful pre-stimulus activity preceding behaviourally relevant events. Multiple replications arising from different laboratories using the same methods are necessary to further examine this currently unexplained anticipatory activity. The cause of this anticipatory activity, which undoubtedly lies within the realm of natural physical processes (as opposed to supernatural or paranormal ones, remains to be determined.
Schmid Christopher H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Results Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF. The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI or to the analytic modules. We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software. Conclusion We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.
Nielsen, Finn Årup
We provide a method for mass meta-analysis in a neuroinformatics database containing stereotaxic Talairach coordinates from neuroimaging experiments. Database labels are used to group the individual experiments, e.g., according to cognitive function, and the consistent pattern of the experiments...... of experiments, and the distances to the null hypotheses are used to sort the voxels across groups of experiments. This allows for mass meta-analysis, with the construction of a list with the most prominent associations between brain areas and group labels. Furthermore, the method can be used for functional...
Amlung, Michael; Vedelago, Lana; Acker, John; Balodis, Iris; MacKillop, James
Aims To synthesize continuous associations between delayed reward discounting (DRD) and both addiction severity and quantity-frequency (QF); to examine moderators of these relationships; and to investigate publication bias. Methods Meta-analysis of published studies examining continuous associations between DRD and addictive behaviors. Published, peer-reviewed studies on addictive behaviors (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, stimulants, opiates, and gambling) were identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycInfo. Studies were restricted to DRD measures of monetary gains. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted using Pearson’s r as the effect size. Publication bias was evaluated using fail-safe N, Begg-Mazumdar and Egger’s tests, meta-regression of publication year and effect size, and imputation of missing studies. Results The primary meta-analysis revealed a small magnitude effect size that was highly significant (r = 0.14, p addictive behavior (p = 0.30) or DRD assessment (p = 0.90). Indices of publication bias suggested a modest impact of unpublished findings. Conclusions Delayed reward discounting is robustly associated with continuous measures of addiction severity and quantity-frequency. This relation is generally robust across type of addictive behavior and delayed reward discounting assessment modality. PMID:27450931
Wu, Q; Liu, B; Tonmoy, S
This meta-analysis pooled results from 23 qualifying individual cohort studies and found that depression was significantly associated with an increased risk of fractures and bone loss. The association between depression and risk of fracture remains controversial. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the effect of depression on the risk of osteoporotic fractures and bone loss. We searched databases and reviewed citations in relevant articles for eligible cohort studies. Two investigators independently conducted study selection, appraisal, and data abstraction through the use of a standardized protocol. Random effect models were used for meta-analysis. Cochrane Q and I 2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Funnel plots and rank correlation tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Twenty-three studies were included for meta-analysis. In studies that reported hazard ratio (HR) as the outcome (nine studies [n = 309,862]), depression was associated with 26% increase in fracture risk (HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.10-1.43, p meta-analysis having modified inclusion criteria and in different subgroup analyses as well. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the meta-analysis; however, no significant publication bias was detected. Depression is associated with a significant increased risk in fracture and bone loss. Effective prevention may decrease such risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Network meta-analysis, in the context of a systematic review, is a meta-analysis in which multiple treatments (that is, three or more are being compared using both direct comparisons of interventions within randomized controlled trials and indirect comparisons across trials based on a common comparator. To ensure validity of findings from network meta-analyses, the systematic review must be designed rigorously and conducted carefully. Aspects of designing and conducting a systematic review for network meta-analysis include defining the review question, specifying eligibility criteria, searching for and selecting studies, assessing risk of bias and quality of evidence, conducting a network meta-analysis, interpreting and reporting findings. This commentary summarizes the methodologic challenges and research opportunities for network meta-analysis relevant to each aspect of the systematic review process based on discussions at a network meta-analysis methodology meeting we hosted in May 2010 at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Since this commentary reflects the discussion at that meeting, it is not intended to provide an overview of the field.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is a major theme in biomedical research. In the present paper we introduce a package for R and Bioconductor that provides useful tools for performing this type of work. One idea behind the development of MADAM was that many meta-analysis methods, which are available in R, are not able to use the capacities of parallel computing yet. In this first version, we implemented one meta-analysis method in such a parallel manner. Additionally, we provide tools for combining the results from a set of methods in an ensemble approach. Functionality for visualization of results is also provided. Results The presented package enables the carrying out of meta-analysis either by providing functions directly or by wrapping them to existing implementations. Overall, five different meta-analysis methods are now usable through MADAM, along with another three methods for combining the corresponding results. Visualizing the results is eased by three included functions. For developing and testing meta-analysis methods, a mock up data generator is integrated. Conclusions The use of MADAM enables a user to focus on one package, in turn enabling them to work with the same data types across a set of methods. By making use of the snow package, MADAM can be made compatible with an existing parallel computing infrastructure. MADAM is open source and freely available within CRAN http://cran.r-project.org.
Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, E-M; Sturm, G J; Muraro, A; Akdis, C A; Antolín-Amérigo, D; Bilò, M B; Bokanovic, D; Calderon, M A; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Oude Elberink, J N G; Gawlik, R; Jakob, T; Kosnik, M; Lange, J; Mingomataj, E; Mitsias, D I; Mosbech, H; Ollert, M; Pfaar, O; Pitsios, C; Pravettoni, V; Roberts, G; Ruëff, F; Sin, B A; Asaria, M; Netuveli, G; Sheikh, A
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were descriptively summarized and, where possible, meta-analysed. Our searches identified a total of 16 950 potentially eligible studies; of which, 17 satisfied our inclusion criteria. The available evidence was limited both in volume and in quality, but suggested that venom immunotherapy (VIT) could substantially reduce the risk of subsequent severe systemic sting reactions (OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.26); meta-analysis showed that it also improved disease-specific quality of life (risk difference = 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.79). Adverse effects were experienced in both the build-up and maintenance phases, but most were mild with no fatalities being reported. The very limited evidence found on modelling cost-effectiveness suggested that VIT was likely to be cost-effective in those at high risk of repeated systemic sting reactions and/or impaired quality of life. The limited available evidence suggested that VIT is effective in reducing severe subsequent systemic sting reactions and in improving disease-specific quality of life. VIT proved to be safe and no fatalities were recorded in the studies included in this review. The cost-effectiveness of VIT needs to be established. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Armstrong, Bonnie; Gallant, Sara N; Li, Lingqian; Patel, Khushi; Wong, Brenda I
Prior research has shown that exposure to negative age-based stereotype threat (ST) can undermine older adults' memory performance. The objective of the current meta-analysis was to examine the reliability and magnitude of ST effects on older adults' episodic and working memory performance-two forms of memory that typically show the greatest age-related declines. In addition, we examined potential moderators of age-based ST including type of ST manipulation, type and timing of memory task, participant age and education level. A total of 23 samples for episodic memory and 15 samples for working memory were derived from 19 published and 4 unpublished articles and analyzed in two separate meta-analyses. Analyses revealed a reliable effect of ST on both older adults' episodic (d = 0.373) and working memory performance (d = 0.253). Interestingly, the age-based ST effect was only significant when blatant ST manipulations were used with episodic memory tasks or when subtle ST manipulations were used with working memory tasks. Moreover, within episodic memory, the ST effect only reached significance for recall but not cued-recall or recognition performance, and for immediate but not delayed tests of memory. Neither age nor level of education moderated the association between ST and older adults' memory performance. These results highlight the vulnerability of both older adults' episodic and working memory performance to age-based ST. When measuring older adults' memory performance in a research context, we must therefore be wary of exposing participants to common stereotypes about aging and memory. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cortese, Samuele; Moreira-Maia, Carlos Renato; St Fleur, Diane; Morcillo-Peñalver, Carmen; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Faraone, Stephen V
Impulsivity and inattention related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may increase food intake and, consequently, weight gain. However, findings on the association between obesity/overweight and ADHD are mixed. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to estimate this association. A broad range of databases was searched through Aug. 31, 2014. Unpublished studies were also obtained. Study quality was rated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects models were used. Forty-two studies that included a total of 728,136 individuals (48,161 ADHD subjects; 679,975 comparison subjects) were retained. A significant association between obesity and ADHD was found for both children (odds ratio=1.20, 95% CI=1.05-1.37) and adults (odds ratio=1.55, 95% CI=1.32-1.81). The pooled prevalence of obesity was increased by about 70% in adults with ADHD (28.2%, 95% CI=22.8-34.4) compared with those without ADHD (16.4%, 95% CI=13.4-19.9), and by about 40% in children with ADHD (10.3%, 95% CI=7.9-13.3) compared with those without ADHD (7.4%, 95% CI=5.4-10.1). The significant association between ADHD and obesity remained when limited to studies 1) reporting odds ratios adjusted for possible confounding factors; 2) diagnosing ADHD by direct interview; and 3) using directly measured height and weight. Gender, study setting, study country, and study quality did not moderate the association between obesity and ADHD. ADHD was also significantly associated with overweight. Individuals medicated for ADHD were not at higher risk of obesity. This study provides meta-analytic evidence for a significant association between ADHD and obesity/overweight. Further research should address possible underlying mechanisms and the long-term effects of ADHD treatments on weight in individuals with both ADHD and obesity.
Full Text Available Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas.
Risk of second non-breast cancer among patients treated with and without postoperative radiotherapy for primary breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies including 522,739 patients
Grantzau, Trine; Overgaard, Jens
-irradiated women. Irradiated patients had an overall increased risk of second non-breast cancer, with a SIR of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.36). For non-irradiated patients the SIR was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13). For irradiated patients the incidence of second cancers including the lung, esophagus......, thyroid and connective tissues progressively increased over time, peaking at 10-15years following breast cancer diagnosis. Summary estimates at ⩾15years after breast cancer irradiation were 1.91 for lung, 2.71 for esophagus, 3.15 for thyroid and 6.54 at ⩾10years for second sarcomas. Non......-irradiated patients had no increased risk of second lung or esophagus cancer, neither overall nor over time. For non-irradiated patients' risk of second thyroid cancer (SIR 1.21) and sarcomas (SIR 1.42) were increased overall, but with no remaining risk ⩾10 after breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy for breast...
Toosi, Negin R.; Babbitt, Laura G.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.
This meta-analysis examined over 40 years of research on interracial interactions by exploring 4 types of outcomes: explicit attitudes toward interaction partners, participants' self-reports of their own emotional state, nonverbal or observed behavior, and objective measures of performance. Data were collected from 108 samples (N = 12,463)…
DerSimonian, Rebecca; Laird, Nan
In this paper, we revisit a 1986 article we published in this Journal, Meta-Analysis in Clinical Trials, where we introduced a random-effects model to summarize the evidence about treatment efficacy from a number of related clinical trials. Because of its simplicity and ease of implementation, our approach has been widely used (with more than 12,000 citations to date) and the "DerSimonian and Laird method" is now often referred to as the 'standard approach' or a 'popular' method for meta-analysis in medical and clinical research. The method is especially useful for providing an overall effect estimate and for characterizing the heterogeneity of effects across a series of studies. Here, we review the background that led to the original 1986 article, briefly describe the random-effects approach for meta-analysis, explore its use in various settings and trends over time and recommend a refinement to the method using a robust variance estimator for testing overall effect. We conclude with a discussion of repurposing the method for Big Data meta-analysis and Genome Wide Association Studies for studying the importance of genetic variants in complex diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Karabatsos, George; Talbott, Elizabeth; Walker, Stephen G.
In a meta-analysis, it is important to specify a model that adequately describes the effect-size distribution of the underlying population of studies. The conventional normal fixed-effect and normal random-effects models assume a normal effect-size population distribution, conditionally on parameters and covariates. For estimating the mean overall…
Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.
This study presents the first quantitative meta-analysis of the non-market valuation literature on the external effects associated with wind power production. A data set of 60 observations drawn from 32 studies is constructed. The relative economic values of different types of externalities as well
Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko
The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…
Glass, Gene V.
The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…
Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. This meta-analysis aimed to inform DSM revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS to that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125 eligible studies (published and unpublished) appearing in the literature from 1987 to 2007. Random effects analyses indicated that whil...
Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, June Young
Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies differs from the usual meta-analysis of therapeutic/interventional studies in that, it is required to simultaneously analyze a pair of two outcome measures such as sensitivity and specificity, instead of a single outcome. Since sensitivity and specificity are generally inversely correlated and could be affected by a threshold effect, more sophisticated statistical methods are required for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Hierarchical models including the bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model are increasingly being accepted as standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We provide a conceptual review of statistical methods currently used and recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. This article could serve as a methodological reference for those who perform systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies
Nowak, Glen J.; Sheedy, Kristine; Bursey, Kelli; Smith, Teresa M.; Basket, Michelle
Introduction A primary mission of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) is promoting immunization against seasonal influenza. As with most education efforts, CDCs influenza-related communications are often informed by formative research. Methods A qualitative meta-analysis of 29 unpublished, primarily qualitative CDC-sponsored studies related to flu and flu vaccination knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KABs). The studies, undertaken between 2000 and 2013, involved focus groups, in-depth interviews, message testing and surveys. Some involved health care professionals, while others involved members of the public, including sub-populations at risk for severe illness. Findings The themes that emerged suggested progress in terms of KABs related to influenza and influenza vaccination, but also the persistence of many barriers to vaccine acceptance. With respect to the public, recurring themes included limited understanding of influenza and immunization recommendations, indications of greater sub-group recognition of the value of flu vaccination, continued resistance to vaccination among many, and overestimation of the effectiveness of non-vaccine measures. Seven cognitive facilitators of vaccination were identified in the studies along with six cognitive barriers. For health care providers, the analysis suggests greater knowledge and more favorable beliefs, but many misperceptions persist and are similar to those held by the public. KABs often differed by type or category of health care provider. Conclusions The themes identified in this qualitative analysis illustrate the difficulty in changing KABs related to influenza and influenza vaccine, particularly on the scope and scale needed to greatly improve uptake. Even with an influenza pandemic and more vaccine options available, public and some health care provider perceptions and beliefs are difficult and slow to change. This meta-analysis does, however, provide important insights from previously
Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin
This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stages of Toxocara canis (T. canis and less frequently Toxocara cati (T. cati. A relationship between toxocariasis and epilepsy has been hypothesized. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available data to evaluate the strength of association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity and to propose some guidelines for future surveys. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases, the database from the Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology of the University of Limoges (http://www-ient.unilim.fr/ and the reference lists of all relevant papers and books were screened up to October 2011. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of literature on toxocariasis (the exposure and epilepsy (the outcome. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and study quality and extracted data. A common odds ratio (OR was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis model of aggregated published data. RESULTS: Seven case-control studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 1867 participants (850 cases and 1017 controls. The percentage of seropositivity (presence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies was higher among people with epilepsy (PWE in all the included studies even if the association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity was statistically significant in only 4 studies, with crude ORs ranging 2.04-2.85. Another study bordered statistical significance, while in 2 of the included studies no significant association was found. A significant (p < 0.001 common OR of 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.50-2.44] was estimated. Similar results were found when meta-analysis was restricted to the studies considering an exclusively juvenile population and to surveys using Western Blot as confirmatory or diagnostic serological assay. CONCLUSION: Our results support the existence of a positive association between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and
Krause, David S
The economic effectiveness of disease management programs, which are designed to improve the clinical and economic outcomes for chronically ill individuals, has been evaluated extensively. A literature search was performed with MEDLINE and other published sources for the period covering January 1995 to September 2003. The search was limited to empirical articles that measured the direct economic outcomes for asthma, diabetes, and heart disease management programs. Of the 360 articles and presentations evaluated, only 67 met the selection criteria for meta-analysis, which included 32,041 subjects. Although some studies contained multiple measurements of direct economic outcomes, only one average effect size per study was included in the meta-analysis. Based on the studies included in the research, a meta-analysis provided a statistically significant answer to the question of whether disease management programs are economically effective. The magnitude of the observed average effect size for equally weighted studies was 0.311 (95% CI = 0.272-0.350). Statistically significant differences of effect sizes by study design, disease type and intensity of disease management program interventions were not found after a moderating variable, disease severity, was taken into consideration. The results suggest that disease management programs are more effective economically with severely ill enrollees and that chronic disease program interventions are most effective when coordinated with the overall level of disease severity. The findings can be generalized, which may assist health care policy makers and practitioners in addressing the issue of providing economically effective care for the growing number of individuals with chronic illness.
Zhang, Huifeng; Liu, Dan; Wang, Yixing; Huang, Huanhuan; Zhao, Yujia; Zhou, Hui
Neprilysin (NEP) is one of the most important Aβ-degrading enzymes, and its expression and activity in Alzheimer's brain have been widely reported, but the results remain debatable. Thus, the meta-analysis was performed to elucidate the role of NEP in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The relevant case-control or cohort studies were retrieved according to our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six studies with 123 controls and 141 AD cases, seven studies with 102 controls and 90 AD cases, and four studies with 93 controls and 132 AD cases were included in meta-analysis of NEP's protein, mRNA, and enzyme activity respectively. We conducted Meta regression to detect the sources of heterogeneity and further performed cumulative meta-analysis or subgroup analysis. Our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower level of NEP mRNA (SMD=-0.44, 95%CI: -0.87, -0.00, p=0.049) in AD cases than in non-AD cases, and such pattern was not altered over time in the cumulative meta-analysis. However, the decrease of NEP protein (SMD=-0.18, 95%CI: -0.62, 0.25) and enzyme activity (SMD=-0.35, 95%CI: -1.03, 0.32) in AD cases did not pass the significance check, while the cumulative meta-analysis by average age showed the pooled effect became insignificant as adding the studies with younger subjects, which indicates that the protein expression and enzyme activity of NEP in the cortex are affected by age. Therefore, the present meta-analysis suggests the need of further investigation of roles of NEP in AD pathogenesis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian
BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size...... from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can be reduced using Trial Sequential Analysis. Several empirical studies have demonstrated...
Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree
Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management.
Roda, G; Narula, N; Pinotti, R
and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies reporting on extension of ulcerative colitis to determine frequency of disease extension in patients with limited ulcerative colitis at diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies on disease extension of ulcerative colitis...... (UC) and predictors of disease progression. RESULTS: Overall, 41 studies were eligible for systematic review but only 30 for meta-analysis. The overall pooled frequency of UC extension was 22.8% with colonic extension being 17.8% at 5 years and 31% at 10 years. Extension was 17.8% (95% CI 11...... in patients from North America (37.8%) than from Europe (19.6%) (Pmeta-analysis, approximately one quarter of patients with limited UC extend over time with most extension occurring during the first 10 years. Rate of extension depends on age at diagnosis and geographic origin...
Pupovac, Vanja; Fanelli, Daniele
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) and 30% (95% CI 17-46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.
Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R
The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day ‘Multivariate meta-analysis’ event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21268052
Duale, J M J; Patel, Y A; Wu, J; Hyde, T P
OHIP-EDENT is widely used in the literature to assess Oral-Health-Related-Quality-of-Life (OHRQoL) for edentulous patients. However the normal variance and mean of the baseline OHIP scores has not been reported. It would facilitate critical appraisal of studies if we had knowledge of the normal variation and mean of baseline OHIP-EDENT scores. An established figure for baseline OHIP-EDENT, obtained from a meta-analysis, would simplify comparisons of studies and quantify variations in initial OHRQoL of the trial participants. The aim of this study is to quantify a normal baseline value for pre-operative OHIP-EDENT scores by a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature. A systematic literature review was carried. 83 papers were identified that included OHIP-EDENT values. After screening and eligibility assessment, 7 papers were selected and included in the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis for the 7 papers by a random-effect model yielded a mean baseline OHIP-EDENT score of 28.63 with a 95% Confidence intervals from 21.93 to 35.34. A pre-operative baseline OHIP-EDENT has been established by meta-analysis of published papers. This will facilitate the comparison of the initial OHRQoL of one study population to that found elsewhere in the published literature. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert
The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on game-based digital interventions for depression systematically and examine their effectiveness through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Database searching was conducted using specific search terms and inclusion criteria. A standard meta-analysis was also conducted of available RCT studies with a random effects model. The standard mean difference (Cohen's d) was used to calculate the effect size of each study. Nineteen studies were included in the review, and 10 RCTs (eight studies) were included in the meta-analysis. Four types of game interventions-psycho-education and training, virtual reality exposure therapy, exercising, and entertainment-were identified, with various types of support delivered and populations targeted. The meta-analysis revealed a moderate effect size of the game interventions for depression therapy at posttreatment (d=-0.47 [95% CI -0.69 to -0.24]). A subgroup analysis showed that interventions based on psycho-education and training had a smaller effect than those based on the other forms, and that self-help interventions yielded better outcomes than supported interventions. A higher effect was achieved when a waiting list was used as the control. The review and meta-analysis support the effectiveness of game-based digital interventions for depression. More large-scale, high-quality RCT studies with sufficient long-term data for treatment evaluation are needed.
Zhou, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Ke, Zhao-Yang; Zhang, Bo
Chitosan dressing might be promising to promote the recovery following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). However, the results remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of chitosan dressing on ESS. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of chitosan dressing on endoscopic sinus surgery were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were synechia and hemostasis. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effect model. Four RCTs involving 268 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall following ESS, compared with control intervention, chitosan dressing significantly reduced synechia (RR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.13-0.49; P chitosan dressing could significantly decrease edema and improve hemostasis, but had no effect on granulations, mucosal edema, crusting and infection.
Sang Wook Kang
Full Text Available The relationship between polymorphism of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE gene and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been examined in many previous studies. However, their results were controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between the ACE gene and the risk of COPD. Fourteen case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled p value, odds ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used to investigate the strength of the association. The meta-analysis was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Our meta-analysis results revealed that ACE polymorphisms were not related to the risk of COPD (p>0.05 in each model. In further analyses based on ethnicity, we observed an association between insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene and risk of COPD in the Asian population (codominant 2, OR = 3.126, 95% CI = 1.919–5.093, p0.05 in each model. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis indicated that the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene may be associated with susceptibility to COPD in the Asian population but not in the Caucasian population. However, the results of the present meta-analysis need to be confirmed in a larger sample.
Bosu, William K; Aheto, Justice M K; Zucchelli, Eugenio; Reilly, Siobhan
The health of older persons has not been a major priority in many African countries. Hypertension is one of the common health problems of older persons. However, there is little information on the prevalence of hypertension in older adults in Africa. This is in spite of the fact that Africa has the highest age-standardized prevalence of hypertension in the world. We therefore present this protocol to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of hypertension and the level of its awareness among older persons living in Africa. Major databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsycINFO) and unpublished literature will be searched to identify population-based studies on hypertension in adults aged 50 years and older living in Africa. Eligible articles are those which use the 140/90-mmHg cutoff to diagnose hypertension and were published from 1980 to present. We will exclude subjects in restricted environments such as patients and refugees. Articles will be independently evaluated by two reviewers to determine if they meet the inclusion criteria. They will also evaluate the quality of included studies using a validated tool by Hoy and colleagues for prevalence studies. The main outcome is the prevalence of hypertension while the explanatory variables include demographic, socio-economic, dietary, lifestyle and behavioural factors. Effect sizes in bivariate and multivariate analyses will be presented as odds or prevalence ratios. We will explore for heterogeneity of the standard errors across the studies, and if appropriate, we will perform a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to present a summary estimate of the prevalence of hypertension in this population. The estimates of the prevalence, the risk factors and the level of awareness of hypertension could help in galvanizing efforts at prioritizing the cardiovascular health of older persons in Africa. PROSPERO CRD42017056474.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The "integrated safety report" of the drug registration files submitted to health authorities usually summarizes the rates of adverse events observed for a new drug, placebo or active control drugs by pooling the safety data across the trials. Pooling consists of adding the numbers of events observed in a given treatment group across the trials and dividing the results by the total number of patients included in this group. Because it considers treatment groups rather than studies, pooling ignores validity of the comparisons and is subject to a particular kind of bias, termed "Simpson's paradox." In contrast, meta-analysis and other stratified analyses are less susceptible to bias. Methods We use a hypothetical, but not atypical, application to demonstrate that the results of a meta-analysis can differ greatly from those obtained by pooling the same data. In our hypothetical model, a new drug is compared to 1 a placebo in 4 relatively small trials in patients at high risk for a certain adverse event and 2 an active reference drug in 2 larger trials of patients at low risk for this event. Results Using meta-analysis, the relative risk of experiencing the adverse event with the new drug was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [1.02; 3.12] compared to placebo and 2.20 [0.76; 6.32] compared to active control. By pooling the data, the results were, respectively, 1.00 [0.59; 1.70] and 5.20 [2.07; 13.08]. Conclusions Because these findings could mislead health authorities and doctors, regulatory agencies should require meta-analyses or stratified analyses of safety data in drug registration files.
Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel
The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face recognition research, yet central questions related to holistic processing remain unanswered, and debates have thus far failed to reach a resolution despite accumulating empirical evidence. We argue that a considerable source of confusion in this literature stems from a methodological problem. Specifically, 2 measures of holistic processing based on the composite paradigm (complete design and partial design) are used in the literature, but they often lead to qualitatively different results. First, we present a comprehensive review of the work that directly compares the 2 designs, and which clearly favors the complete design over the partial design. Second, we report a meta-analysis of holistic face processing according to both designs and use this as further evidence for one design over the other. The meta-analysis effect size of holistic processing in the complete design is nearly 3 times that of the partial design. Effect sizes were not correlated between measures, consistent with the suggestion that they do not measure the same thing. Our meta-analysis also examines the correlation between conditions in the complete design of the composite task, and suggests that in an individual differences context, little is gained by including a misaligned baseline. Finally, we offer a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge about holistic processing based on evidence gathered from the measure we favor based on the 1st sections of our review-the complete design-and outline outstanding research questions in that new context. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina
Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.
Eshetie, Setegn; Tarekegn, Fentahun; Moges, Feleke; Amsalu, Anteneh; Birhan, Wubet; Huruy, Kahsay
The burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern worldwide; however the overall epidemiology of multidrug resistant strains is neither coordinated nor harmonized, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcos aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia at large. PubMed, Google Scholar, and lancet databases were searched and a total of 20 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Six authors have independently extracts data on the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analysis was achieved by using Open meta-analyst (version 3.13) and Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3) softwares. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern were pooled by using the forest plot, table and figure with 95% CI. The pooled prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32.5% (95% CI, 24.1 to 40.9%). Moreover, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be highly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and amoxicillin, with a pooled resistance ratio of 99.1, 98.1, 97.2 and 97.1%, respectively. On the other hand, comparably low levels of resistance ratio were noted to vancomycin, 5.3%. The overall burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considerably high, besides these strains showed extreme resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. In principle, appropriate use of antibiotics, applying safety precautions are the key to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular.
Deng, Wei Q; Asma, Senay; Paré, Guillaume
Meta-analysis is a commonly used approach to increase the sample size for genome-wide association searches when individual studies are otherwise underpowered. Here, we present a meta-analysis procedure to estimate the heterogeneity of the quantitative trait variance attributable to genetic variants using Levene's test without needing to exchange individual-level data. The meta-analysis of Levene's test offers the opportunity to combine the considerable sample size of a genome-wide meta-analysis to identify the genetic basis of phenotypic variability and to prioritize single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. The use of Levene's test has several advantages, including robustness to departure from the normality assumption, freedom from the influence of the main effects of SNPs, and no assumption of an additive genetic model. We conducted a meta-analysis of the log-transformed body mass index of 5892 individuals and identified a variant with a highly suggestive Levene's test P-value of 4.28E-06 near the NEGR1 locus known to be associated with extreme obesity. PMID:23921533
Kiran, Amit; Crespillo, Abel Pérez; Rahimi, Kazem
Graphical displays play a pivotal role in understanding data sets and disseminating results. For meta-analysis, they are instrumental in presenting findings from multiple studies. This report presents guidance to authors wishing to submit graphical displays as part of their meta-analysis to a clinical cardiology journal, such as HeartWhen using graphical displays for meta-analysis, we recommend the following: Use a flow diagram to describe the number of studies returned from the initial search, the inclusion/exclusion criteria applied and the final number of studies used in the meta-analysis.Present results from the meta-analysis using a figure that incorporates a forest plot and underlying (tabulated) statistics, including test for heterogeneity.Use displays such as funnel plot (minimum 10 studies) and Galbraith plot to visually present distribution of effect sizes or associations in order to evaluate small-study effects and publication bias).For meta-regression, the bubble plot is a useful display for assessing associations by study-level factors.Final checks on graphs, such as appropriate use of axis scale, line pattern, text size and graph resolution, should always be performed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Nøjgaard, C; Matzen, P; Andersen, Per Kragh
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis after ERCP is a severe side effect. AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of nitroglycerin on post-ERCP pancreatitis by a meta-analysis of randomized clinical studies. METHODS: We searched on Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library and all abstracts presented at Digestive......-ERCP pancreatitis after administration of nitroglycerin were identified. Meta-analysis including all five studies showed a relative risk (RR) of 0.61 (95% CI; 0.44, 0.86) with the number needed to treat (NNT) of 26 (95% CI: 16, 82). Three studies evaluated nitroglycerin administered by a dermal patch reaching...... together an RR of 0.66 (95% CI; 0.43, 1.01). The use of nitroglycerin is associated with a significantly increased risk of hypotension (RR 2.25) and headache (RR 3.64). No difference in mortality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our meta-analysis supports the use of nitroglycerin in the prevention...
Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica; Barnes, Marcia; Sun, Congying
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the relation between mathematics and working memory (WM) and to identify possible moderators of this relation including domains of WM, types of mathematics skills, and sample type. A meta-analysis of 110 studies with 829 effect sizes found a significant medium correlation of mathematics and WM, r…
Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.
We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...... allows for mass meta-analysis, e.g., meta-analysis across multiple brain regions and multiple mental disorders providing an overview of important relationships and their uncertainties in a collaborative environment....
METHODS: A meta-analysis of Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios was conducted by including 24 articles which were reported between 2000 and 2013 from developing countries. A computer-based search was done from MEDLINE, African Journals Online, Google Scholar and HINARI databases. Included studies did compare ...
Hu, Zhi-Liang; Reecy, James M; Wu, Xiao-Lin
A database can be used to warehouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) data from multiple sources for comparison, genomic data mining, and meta-analysis. A robust database design involves sound data structure logistics, meaningful data transformations, normalization, and proper user interface designs. This chapter starts with a brief review of relational database basics and concentrates on issues associated with curation of QTL data into a relational database, with emphasis on the principles of data normalization and structure optimization. In addition, some simple examples of QTL data mining and meta-analysis are included. These examples are provided to help readers better understand the potential and importance of sound database design.
Zhang, Zhe; Fenstermacher, David
Analyzing microarray data across multiple experiments has been proven advantageous. To support this kind of analysis, we are developing a software system called MAMA (Meta-Analysis of MicroArray data). MAMA utilizes a client-server architecture with a relational database on the server-side for the storage of microarray datasets collected from various resources. The client-side is an application running on the end user's computer that allows the user to manipulate microarray data and analytical results locally. MAMA implementation will integrate several analytical methods, including meta-analysis within an open-source framework offering other developers the flexibility to plug in additional statistical algorithms.
Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus
The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter has given rise to speculations that the intensity of using these platforms is associated with narcissistic tendencies. However, recent research on this issue has been all but conclusive. We present a three-level, random effects meta-analysis including 289 effect sizes from 57 studies (total N = 25,631) on the association between trait narcissism and social networking behavior. The meta-analysis identified a small to moderate effect of ρ = .17 (τ = .11), 95% CI [.13, .21], for grandiose narcissism that replicated across different social networking platforms, respondent characteristics, and time. Moderator analyses revealed pronounced cultural differences, with stronger associations in power-distant cultures. Moreover, social networking behaviors geared toward self-presentation and the number of SNS friends exhibited stronger effects than usage durations. Overall, the study not only supported but also refined the notion of a relationship between engaging in social networking sites and narcissistic personality traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with executive dysfunction and behavioural impairment. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive deficits might also be a prominent feature of ALS. Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in social cognition including theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in ALS. In this meta-analysis of 15 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 389 patients with ALS and 471 healthy controls were compared. ALS was associated with significant impairments with medium effect sizes in ToM (d = .65) and facial emotion recognition (d = .69). Among individual emotions recognition of disgust and surprise were particularly impaired. Deficits in perspective taking (d = .73) aspects of ToM (ToM-PT) was more pronounced in comparison to decoding (d = .28) aspects of ToM (ToM-decoding). The severity of social cognitive impairment was similar to level of executive dysfunction and there was a significant relationship between social cognition and executive dysfunction. Deficits in social cognition are part of the cognitive phenotype of ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Prospective memory (ProM refers to our ability to become aware of a previously formed plan at the right time and place. After two decades of research on prospective memory and aging, narrative reviews and summaries have arrived at widely different conclusions. One view is that prospective memory shows large age declines, larger than age declines on retrospective memory (RetM. Another view is that prospective memory is an exception to age declines and remains invariant across the adult lifespan. The present meta-analysis of over twenty years of research settles this controversy. It shows that prospective memory declines with aging and that the magnitude of age decline varies by prospective memory subdomain (vigilance, prospective memory proper, habitual prospective memory as well as test setting (laboratory, natural. Moreover, this meta-analysis demonstrates that previous claims of no age declines in prospective memory are artifacts of methodological and conceptual issues afflicting prior research including widespread ceiling effects, low statistical power, age confounds, and failure to distinguish between various subdomains of prospective memory (e.g., vigilance and prospective memory proper.
Baker, Joseph M; Reiss, Allan L
Studies investigating the relationship between Turner syndrome and math learning disability have used a wide variation of tasks designed to test various aspects of mathematical competencies. Although these studies have revealed much about the math deficits common to Turner syndrome, their diversity makes comparisons between individual studies difficult. As a result, the consistency of outcomes among these diverse measures remains unknown. The overarching aim of this review is to provide a systematic meta-analysis of the differences in math and number performance between females with Turner syndrome and age-matched neurotypical peers. We provide a meta-analysis of behavioral performance in Turner syndrome relative to age-matched neurotypical populations on assessments of math and number aptitude. In total, 112 comparisons collected across 17 studies were included. Although 54% of all statistical comparisons in our analyses failed to reject the null hypothesis, our results indicate that meaningful group differences exist on all comparisons except those that do not require explicit calculation. Taken together, these results help elucidate our current understanding of math and number weaknesses in Turner syndrome, while highlighting specific topics that require further investigation. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Kiselica, Andrew M; Webber, Troy A; Bornovalova, Marina A
Behavioral economists assess alcohol consumption as a function of unit price. This method allows construction of demand curves and demand indices, which are thought to provide precise numerical estimates of risk for alcohol problems. One of the more commonly used behavioral economic measures is the Alcohol Purchase Task (APT). Although the APT has shown promise as a measure of risk for alcohol problems, the construct validity and incremental utility of the APT remain unclear. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the APT literature. Sixteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were gathered via searches of the PsycInfo, PubMed, Web of Science and EconLit research databases. Random-effects meta-analyses with inverse variance weighting were used to calculate summary effect sizes for each demand index-drinking outcome relationship. Moderation of these effects by drinking status (regular versus heavy drinkers) was examined. Additionally, tests of the incremental utility of the APT indices in predicting drinking problems above and beyond measuring alcohol consumption were performed. The APT indices were correlated in the expected directions with drinking outcomes, although many effects were small in size. These effects were typically not moderated by the drinking status of the samples. Additionally, the intensity metric demonstrated incremental utility in predicting alcohol use disorder symptoms beyond measuring drinking. The Alcohol Purchase Task appears to have good construct validity, but limited incremental utility in estimating risk for alcohol problems. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Na Young Shin
Full Text Available Empirical research has produced mixed results regarding the effects of acupuncture on the treatment of alcohol use disorder in humans. Few studies have provided a comprehensive review or a systematic overview of the magnitude of the treatment effect of acupuncture on alcoholism. This study investigated the effects of acupuncture on alcohol-related symptoms and behaviors in patients with this disorder. The PubMed database was searched until 23 August 2016, and reference lists from review studies were also reviewed. Seventeen studies were identified for a full-text inspection, and seven (243 patients of these met our inclusion criteria. The outcomes assessed at the last posttreatment point and any available follow-up data were extracted from each of the studies. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that an acupuncture intervention had a stronger effect on reducing alcohol-related symptoms and behaviors than did the control intervention (g=0.67. A beneficial but weak effect of acupuncture treatment was also found in the follow-up data (g=0.29. Although our analysis showed a significant difference between acupuncture and the control intervention in patients with alcohol use disorder, this meta-analysis is limited by the small number of studies included. Thus, a larger cohort study is required to provide a firm conclusion.
Full Text Available Transcriptomics meta-analysis aims at re-using existing data to derive novel biological hypotheses, and is motivated by the public availability of a large number of independent studies. Current methods are based on breaking down studies into multiple comparisons between phenotypes (e.g. disease vs. healthy, based on the studies' experimental designs, followed by computing the overlap between the resulting differential expression signatures. While useful, in this methodology each study yields multiple independent phenotype comparisons, and connections are established not between studies, but rather between subsets of the studies corresponding to phenotype comparisons. We propose a rank-based statistical meta-analysis framework that establishes global connections between transcriptomics studies without breaking down studies into sets of phenotype comparisons. By using a rank product method, our framework extracts global features from each study, corresponding to genes that are consistently among the most expressed or differentially expressed genes in that study. Those features are then statistically modelled via a term-frequency inverse-document frequency (TF-IDF model, which is then used for connecting studies. Our framework is fast and parameter-free; when applied to large collections of Homo sapiens and Streptococcus pneumoniae transcriptomics studies, it performs better than similarity-based approaches in retrieving related studies, using a Medical Subject Headings gold standard. Finally, we highlight via case studies how the framework can be used to derive novel biological hypotheses regarding related studies and the genes that drive those connections. Our proposed statistical framework shows that it is possible to perform a meta-analysis of transcriptomics studies with arbitrary experimental designs by deriving global expression features rather than decomposing studies into multiple phenotype comparisons.
Cheung, Mike W-L
Presents a novel approach to conducting meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis are two powerful statistical methods in the educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. They are often treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. This book presents a unified framework on analyzing meta-analytic data within the SEM framework, and illustrates how to conduct meta-analysis using the metaSEM package in the R statistical environment. Meta-Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach begins by introducing the impo
Lo, B; Prosberg, M V; Gluud, L L
BACKGROUND: The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Disability Index (IBD-DI) has recently been developed for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To assess the severity of disability and associated factors using the IBD-DI, and review the validity of the IBD-DI as a tool. ...... review and meta-analysis found a significant association between disease activity, treatment received and disability; although significant heterogeneity was found. The IBD-DI is reliable and valid, but further studies are needed to measure its interpretability....
Maran, Bianca Medeiros; Burey, Adrieli; de Paris Matos, Thalita; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to answer the following research question: Does light-activated in-office vital bleaching have a greater whitening efficacy and higher tooth sensitivity (TS) in comparison with in-office vital bleaching without light when used in adults? Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving adults who had in-office bleaching with and without light activation were included. Controlled vocabulary and keywords were used in a comprehensive search for titles and abstracts in PubMed, and this search was adapted for Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, BBO, Cochrane Library, and SIGLE without restrictions in May 2016 and was updated in August 2017. IADR abstracts (1990-2016), unpublished- and ongoing-trial registries, dissertations, and theses were also searched. The risk-of-bias tool of the Cochrane Collaboration was used for quality assessment. The quality of the evidence was rated using the Grading of Recommendations: Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Through the use of the random effects model, a meta-analysis with a subgroup analysis (low and high hydrogen peroxide concentration) was conducted for color change (ΔE*, ΔSGU) as well as the risk and intensity of TS. We retrieved 6663 articles, but after removing duplicates and non-relevant articles, only 21 RCTs remained. No significant difference in ΔE*, ΔSGU, and risk and intensity of TS was observed (p > .05). For ΔE and risk of TS, the quality of the evidence was graded as moderate whereas the evidence for ΔSGU and intensity of TS was graded as very low and low, respectively. Without considering variations in the protocols, the activation of in-office bleaching gel with light does not seem to improve color change or affect tooth sensitivity, regardless of the hydrogen peroxide concentration. (PROSPERO - CRD42016037630). Although it is commercially claimed that in-office bleaching associated with light improves and accelerates color change, this
Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M; Woods, Jacquelina; Plante, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Goblick, Gregory; Roberts, Christopher; Locas, Annie; Hajen, Walter; Stobo, Jeffrey; White, John; Holtzman, Jennifer; Buenaventura, Enrico; Burkhardt, William; Catford, Angela; Edwards, Robyn; DePaola, Angelo; Calci, Kevin R
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States and Canada. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents impacting bivalve mollusk-growing areas are potential sources of NoV contamination. We have developed a meta-analysis that evaluates WWTP influent concentrations and log10 reductions of NoV genotype I (NoV GI; in numbers of genome copies per liter [gc/liter]), NoV genotype II (NoV GII; in gc/liter), and male-specific coliphage (MSC; in number of PFU per liter), a proposed viral surrogate for NoV. The meta-analysis included relevant data (2,943 measurements) reported in the scientific literature through September 2013 and previously unpublished surveillance data from the United States and Canada. Model results indicated that the mean WWTP influent concentration of NoV GII (3.9 log10 gc/liter; 95% credible interval [CI], 3.5, 4.3 log10 gc/liter) is larger than the value for NoV GI (1.5 log10 gc/liter; 95% CI, 0.4, 2.4 log10 gc/liter), with large variations occurring from one WWTP to another. For WWTPs with mechanical systems and chlorine disinfection, mean log10 reductions were -2.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.9, -1.1 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, -2.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.6, -1.9 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and -2.9 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, -3.4, -2.4 log10 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Comparable values for WWTPs with lagoon systems and chlorine disinfection were -1.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.3, 0.5 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, -1.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.1, -0.3 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and -3.6 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, -4.8, -2.4 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Within WWTPs, correlations exist between mean NoV GI and NoV GII influent concentrations and between the mean log10 reduction in NoV GII and the mean log10 reduction in MSCs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Fan, Zhengrui; Ma, Jianxiong; Kuang, Mingjie; Zhang, Lukai; Han, Biao; Yang, Baocheng; Wang, Ying; Ma, Xinlong
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is gradually emerging as the treatment of choice for end-stage osteoarthritis. In the past, Perioperative dexamethasone treatment is still a controversial subject in total knee arthroplasty. Therefore, we write this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone on pain and recovery after Total knee Arthroplasty. Embase, Pubmed, and Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis. Eight studies that compared dexamethasone groups with placebo groups were included in our meta-analysis. The research was reported according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Randomized controlled trials were included in our meta-analysis. Our study demonstrated that the dexamethasone group was more effective than the placebo group in term of VAS score at 24 h(P meta-analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone decreased postoperative pain, the incidence of POVN, and total opioid consumption effectively which played a critical role in rapid recovery to TKA. However, we still need large sample size, high quality studies to explore the relationship between complications and dose response to give the final conclusion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Noar, Seth M; Black, Hulda G; Pierce, Larson B
To conduct a meta-analysis of computer technology-based HIV prevention behavioral interventions aimed at increasing condom use among a variety of at-risk populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing published and unpublished studies testing computer-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compute and aggregate effect sizes for 12 randomized controlled trials that met inclusion criteria. Variables that had the potential to moderate intervention efficacy were also tested. The overall mean weighted effect size for condom use was d = 0.259 (95% confidence interval = 0.201, 0.317; Z = 8.74, P partners, and incident sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, interventions were significantly more efficacious when they were directed at men or women (versus mixed sex groups), utilized individualized tailoring, used a Stages of Change model, and had more intervention sessions. Computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions have similar efficacy to more traditional human-delivered interventions. Given their low cost to deliver, ability to customize intervention content, and flexible dissemination channels, they hold much promise for the future of HIV prevention.
Full Text Available Soybean rust (SBR, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, has been of concern to soybean (Glycine max Merrill growers in the southern United States since its introduction in 2004. As this fungus develops, pustules become numerous on the underside of leaves, which then turn yellow and drop prematurely, resulting in fewer pods, and poorly developed seeds. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of fungicide use in controlling SBR by conducting a meta-analysis of 61 published and unpublished trials across the southern United States from 2004 to 2014. We analyzed fungicide efficacy based on factors such as specific classes of fungicide, active ingredients, number of fungicide applications, target growth stage upon initial application, level of disease pressure, and year of the study. Fungicides significantly increased yield and 100-seed weight and decreased the severity of SBR. The means of SBR severity, yield, and 100-seed weight in fungicide-treated plants were 9% (95% confidence interval: 2%, 21%, 128% (121%, 135%, and 121% (116%, 128%, respectively, of those calculated in the control plants. By using meta-analysis to analyze fungicide efficacy across multiple field trials, we were able to determine that one application of a strobilurin fungicide when plants were either beginning pod development (R3 or developing seeds (R5 was the most cost-effective approach to controlling SBR and increasing 100-seed weight.
Michelle A. Evans-White
Full Text Available The framework of ecological stoichiometry was developed primarily within the context of “green” autotroph-based food webs. While stoichiometric principles also apply in “brown” detritus-based systems, these systems have been historically understudied and differ from green ones in several important aspects including carbon (C quality and the nutrient [nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P] contents of food resources for consumers. In this paper, we review work over the last decade that has advanced the application of ecological stoichiometry from green to brown food webs, focusing on freshwater ecosystems. We first review three focal areas where green and brown food webs differ: (1 bottom–up controls by light and nutrient availability, (2 stoichiometric constraints on consumer growth and nutritional regulation, and (3 patterns in consumer-driven nutrient dynamics. Our review highlights the need for further study of how light and nutrient availability affect autotroph–heterotroph interactions on detritus and the subsequent effects on consumer feeding and growth. To complement this conceptual review, we formally quantified differences in stoichiometric principles between green and brown food webs using a meta-analysis across feeding studies of freshwater benthic invertebrates. From 257 datasets collated across 46 publications and several unpublished studies, we compared effect sizes (Pearson’s r of resource N:C and P:C on growth, consumption, excretion, and egestion between herbivorous and detritivorous consumers. The meta-analysis revealed that both herbivore and detritivore growth are limited by resource N:C and P:C contents, but effect sizes only among detritivores were significantly above zero. Consumption effect sizes were negative among herbivores but positive for detritivores in the case of both N:C and P:C, indicating distinct compensatory feeding responses across resource stoichiometry gradients. Herbivore P excretion rates responded
Harrison, Amy; Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Enander, Jesper; Radua, Joaquim; Mataix-Cols, David
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder unlikely to remit without treatment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for BDD was conducted, including published and unpublished trials to 26th November 2015. Primary outcomes were validated BDD measures; secondary outcomes included depression and insight. Meta-regressions were conducted to examine potential effects of variables on the primary outcome, including socio-demographic variables, comorbidity, symptom severity/duration, concomitant medication, treatment duration, and methodological quality of the RCTs. Seven RCTs (N=299) met inclusion criteria. CBT was superior to waitlist or credible psychological placebo in reducing BDD (7 studies; delta=-1.22, 95% CI=-1.66 to -0.79) and depression symptoms (5 studies; delta=-0.49, 95% CI=-0.76 to -0.22). CBT was associated with improvements in insight/delusionality (4 studies; delta=-0.56, 95% CI=-0.93 to -0.19). Improvement in BDD was maintained after 2-4months follow-up (3 studies; delta=-0.89, 95% CI=-1.24 to -0.54). Meta-regression analyses did not reveal any significant predictors of outcome. CBT is an efficacious treatment for BDD but there is substantial room for improvement. The specificity and long-term effects of CBT for BDD require further evaluation using credible control conditions. Additional trials comparing CBT with pharmacological therapies, as well as their combination, are warranted. Tele-care options, such as Internet-based CBT, hold great promise to increase access to evidence-based treatment for a majority of patients who need it and should be evaluated further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paxton, Elizabeth W; Mohaddes, Maziar; Laaksonen, Inari; Lorimer, Michelle; Graves, Stephen E; Malchau, Henrik; Namba, Robert S; Kärrholm, John; Rolfson, Ola; Cafri, Guy
Background and purpose - Although common in medical research, meta-analysis has not been widely adopted in registry collaborations. A meta-analytic approach in which each registry conducts a standardized analysis on its own data followed by a meta-analysis to calculate a weighted average of the estimates allows collaboration without sharing patient-level data. The value of meta-analysis as an alternative to individual patient data analysis is illustrated in this study by comparing the risk of revision of porous tantalum cups versus other uncemented cups in primary total hip arthroplasties from Sweden, Australia, and a US registry (2003-2015). Patients and methods - For both individual patient data analysis and meta-analysis approaches a Cox proportional hazard model was fit for time to revision, comparing porous tantalum (n = 23,201) with other uncemented cups (n = 128,321). Covariates included age, sex, diagnosis, head size, and stem fixation. In the meta-analysis approach, treatment effect size (i.e., Cox model hazard ratio) was calculated within each registry and a weighted average for the individual registries' estimates was calculated. Results - Patient-level data analysis and meta-analytic approaches yielded the same results with the porous tantalum cups having a higher risk of revision than other uncemented cups (HR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.4-1.7) and HR (95% CI) 1.5 (1.4-1.7), respectively). Adding the US cohort to the meta-analysis led to greater generalizability, increased precision of the treatment effect, and similar findings (HR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.4-1.7)) with increased risk of porous tantalum cups. Interpretation - The meta-analytic technique is a viable option to address privacy, security, and data ownership concerns allowing more expansive registry collaboration, greater generalizability, and increased precision of treatment effects.
Full Text Available Available evidence of the relationship between cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy, and risk of liver cancer and hence we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationships. PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to identify all published cohort studies and case-control studies that evaluated the relationships of cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy and risk of liver cancer and single-cohort studies which evaluated the incidence of liver cancer among patients who understood cholecystectomy (up to February 2013. Comprehensive meta-analysis software was used for meta-analysis. A total of 11 observational studies (six cohort studies and five case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The result from meta-analysis showed that cholecystectomy (risk ratio [RR]: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.51, I2 = 72% and cholecystolithiasis (RR: 5.40, 95% CI: 3.69-7.89, I2 = 93% was associated with more liver cancer, especially for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC (cholecystectomy: RR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.84-6.71, I2 = 26%; cholecystolithiasis: RR: 11.06, 95% CI: 6.99-17.52, I2 = 0%. The pooled standardized incidence rates (SIR of liver cancer in patients who understood cholecystectomy showed cholecystectomy might increase the incidence of liver cancer (SIR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13-2.20, I2 = 15%. Based on the results of the meta-analysis, cholecystectomy and cholecystolithiasis seemed to be involved in the development of liver cancer, especially for ICC. However, most available studies were case-control studies and short-term cohort studies, so the future studies should more long-term cohort studies should be well-conducted to evaluate the long-term relationship.
Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr
The aim of this systematic review was to collect all current data on indirect costs related to inflammatory bowel disease as well as assessing homogeneity and comparability, and conducting a meta-analysis. Costs were collected using databases from Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, then average annual cost per patient was calculated and expressed in 2013-rate USD using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity (scenario 1) and then adjusted to specific gross domestic product (scenario 2) to make them comparable. The studies were then included in quantitative synthesis using the meta-analysis and bootstrap methods. This systematic review was carried out and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. From 18 publications, overall annual indirect costs per patient as a result of the quantitative synthesis among all studies eligible for meta-analysis ranged from US$2425.01-US$9622.15 depending on the scenario and model used for analysis. The cost of presenteeism was assessed in only two studies. Considering heterogeneity among all identified studies random-effect model presented the most accurate results of meta-analysis equal to US$7189.27 and US$9622.15 per patient per year for scenario 1 and scenario 2, respectively. This systematic review revealed the existence of a relatively small number of studies that reported on the great economic burden of the disease upon society. A great variety of methodologies and cost components resulted in a very large discrepancy in indirect costs and made meta-analysis difficult to perform, so two scenarios were considered and meta-analysis conducted in subgroups to make data more comparable.
Nímia, Heloisa Helena; Carvalho, Viviane Fernandes; Isaac, Cesar; Souza, Francisley Ávila; Gemperli, Rolf; Paggiaro, André Oliveira
The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the effect of Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) with other new dressings, with or without silver, on healing and infection prevention in burns. The electronic search was carried out in the electronic databases of Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Lilacs and BVS. The articles included were randomized clinical trials about burn treatment with SSD, which evaluated the healing and infection of burn wounds in humans. The exclusion criteria included articles, editorials and letters published in the form of abstracts, unpublished reports and case series, cross-sectional, observational experimental studies, and the use of sulfadiazine for other types of wounds. The search identified 873 references, and 24 studies were included in accordance with the eligibility criteria. The results showed a statistically favorable difference related to the time of healing for silver dressings (p0.05). The rate of infection was significantly higher in the SSD group compared with the group treated with dressings without silver (p<0.005; MD 25.29% and MD 12.97%). Considering the clinical trials conducted up to the present time, the authors concluded that new dressings with and without silver show better results than SSD for wound healing, and burns treated with dressings without silver are less likely to become infected than burns with SSD. No differences between SSD and new silver materials were observed in relation to infection prevention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Kaneoka, Asako; Pisegna, Jessica M; Saito, Hiroki; Lo, Melody; Felling, Katey; Haga, Nobuhiko; LaValley, Michael P; Langmore, Susan E
To investigate whether drinking thin liquids with safety strategies increases the risk for pneumonia as compared with thickened liquids in patients who have demonstrated aspiration of thin liquids. Seven electronic databases, one clinical register, and three conference archives were searched. No language or publication date restrictions were imposed. Reference lists were scanned and authors and experts in the field were contacted. A blind review was performed by two reviewers for published or unpublished randomized controlled trials and prospective non-randomized trials comparing the incidence of pneumonia with intake of thin liquids plus safety strategies vs. thickened liquids in adult patients who aspirated on thin liquids. The data were extracted from included studies. Odds ratios (OR) for pneumonia were calculated from the extracted data. Risk of bias was also assessed with the included published trials. Seven studies out of 2465 studies including 650 patients met the inclusion criteria. All of the seven studies excluded patients with more than one known risk factor for pneumonia. Six studies compared thin water protocols to thickened liquids for pneumonia prevention. A meta-analysis was done on the six studies, showing no significant difference for pneumonia risk (OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.05-13.42; p = 0.89). There was no significant difference in the risk of pneumonia in aspirating patients who took thin liquids with safety strategies compared with those who took thickened liquids only. This result, however, is generalizable only for patients with low risk of pneumonia.
Reddy, Varikasuvu Seshadri; Bukke, Suman; Dutt, Naveen; Rana, Puneet; Pandey, Arun Kumar
Available studies in the literature on the selenium levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are inconsistent with some studies reporting its decrease in the circulation, while others reported an increase or no change as compared to controls. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of circulatory (plasma/serum and blood), erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) selenium levels in AD compared controls. We also performed a meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients (r) to demonstrate the associations between selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in AD patients. All major databases were searched for eligible studies. We included 12 case-control/observational studies reporting selenium concentrations in AD and controls. Pooled-overall effect size as standardized mean difference (SMD) and pooled r-values were generated using Review Manager 5.3 and MedCalc 15.8 software. Random-effects meta-analysis indicated a decrease in circulatory (SMD=-0.44), erythrocellular (SMD=-0.52) and CSF (SMD=-0.14) selenium levels in AD patients compared to controls. Stratified meta-analysis demonstrated that the selenium levels were decreased in both the subgroups with (SMD=-0.55) and without (SMD=-0.37) age matching between AD and controls. Our results also demonstrated a direct association between decreased selenium levels and GPx in AD. This meta-analysis suggests that circulatory selenium concentration is significantly lower in AD patients compared to controls and this decrease in selenium is directly correlated with an important antioxidant enzyme, the GPx, in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
This bibliography includes titles of unpublished works in various fields of linguistics such as grammar (morphology, phonology and syntax), socioli nguistics, psycholinguistics, foreign language instruction, language acquisit ion, discourse analysis, poetics, etc. (Text is in German.) (DS)
Scheerman, Janneke F M; van Loveren, Cor; van Meijel, Berno; Dusseldorp, Elise; Wartewig, Eva; Verrips, Gijsbert H W; Ket, Johannes C F; van Empelen, Pepijn
This systematic and meta-analytic review aimed to quantify the association of psychosocial correlates with oral hygiene behaviour among 9- to 19-year olds. A systematic search up to August 2015 was carried out using the following databases: PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science. If necessary, authors of studies were contacted to obtain unpublished statistical information. A study was eligible for inclusion when it evaluated the association between the psychosocial correlates and oral hygiene behaviour varying from self-reports to clinical measurements, including plaque and bleeding scores. A modified New Castle Ottawa Scale was applied to examine the quality of the included studies. Twenty-seven data sets (k) presented in 22 publications, addressing nine psychosocial correlates, were found to be eligible for the meta-analysis. For both tooth brushing and oral hygiene behaviour, random effect models revealed significant weighted average correlation (r+ ) for the psychosocial factors: 'intention', 'self-efficacy', 'attitude' (not significant for tooth brushing), 'social influence', 'coping planning' and 'action planning' (r+ ranging from 0.18 to 0.57). Little or no associations were found for 'locus of control', 'self-esteem' and 'sense of coherence' (r+ ranges from 0.01 to 0.08). The data at present indicates that 'self-efficacy', 'intention', 'social influences', 'coping planning' and 'action planning' are potential psychosocial determinants of oral health behaviour. Future studies should consider a range of psychological factors that have not been studied, but have shown to be important psychosocial determinants of health behaviours, such as 'self-determination', 'anticipated regret', 'action control' and 'self-identity'. Effectiveness of addressing these potential determinants to induce behaviour change should be further examined by intervention trials. © 2016 The Authors. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment in the world affecting 60.5 million people worldwide in 2010, which is expected to increase to approximately 79.6 million by 2020. Therefore, glaucoma screening is important to detect, diagnose, and treat patients at the earlier stages to prevent disease progression and vision loss. Teleglaucoma uses stereoscopic digital imaging to take ocular images, which are transmitted electronically to an ocular specialist. The purpose is to synthesize literature to evaluate teleglaucoma, its diagnostic accuracy, healthcare system benefits, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to help locate published and unpublished studies. Studies which evaluate teleglaucoma as a screening device for glaucoma were included. A meta-analysis was conducted to provide estimates of diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic odds ratio, and the relative percentage of glaucoma cases detected. The improvements to healthcare service quality and cost data were assessed. RESULTS: Of 11237 studies reviewed, 45 were included. Our results indicated that, teleglaucoma is more specific and less sensitive than in-person examination. The pooled estimates of sensitivity was 0.832 [95% CI 0.770, 0.881] and specificity was 0.790 [95% CI 0.668, 0.876]. The relative odds of a positive screen test in glaucoma cases are 18.7 times more likely than a negative screen test in a non-glaucoma cases. Additionally, the mean cost for every case of glaucoma detected was $1098.67 US and of teleglaucoma per patient screened was $922.77 US. CONCLUSION: Teleglaucoma can accurately discriminate between screen test results with greater odds for positive cases. It detects more cases of glaucoma than in-person examination. Both patients and the healthcare systems benefit from early detection, reduction in wait and travel times, increased specialist referral rates, and cost savings. Teleglaucoma is an effective
Cortese, Samuele; Moreira Maia, Carlos Renato; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Morcillo-Peñalver, Carmen; Faraone, Stephen V
An increasing number of clinical and epidemiological studies suggest a possible association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity/overweight. However, overall evidence is mixed. Given the public health relevance of ADHD and obesity/overweight, understanding whether and to what extent they are associated is paramount to plan intervention and prevention strategies. We describe the protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at assessing the prevalence of obesity/overweight in individuals with ADHD versus those without ADHD. We will include studies of any design (except case reports or case series) comparing the prevalence of obesity and/or overweight in children or adults with and without ADHD (or hyperkinetic disorder). We will search an extensive number of databases including PubMed, Ovid databases, Web of Knowledge and Thomson-Reuters databases, ERIC and CINAHL. No restrictions of language will be applied. We will also contact experts in the field for possible unpublished or in press data. Primary and additional outcomes will be the prevalence of obesity and overweight, respectively. We will combine ORs using random-effects models in STATA V.12.0. The quality of the study will be assessed primarily using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Subgroup meta-analyses will be conducted according to participants' age (children vs adults) and study setting (clinical vs general population). We will explore the feasibility of conducting meta-regression analyses to assess the moderating effect of age, gender, socioeconomic status, study setting, geographic location of the study (low-income, middle-income countries vs high-income countries), definition of obesity, method to assess ADHD, psychiatric comorbidities and medication status. No ethical issues are foreseen. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences of psychiatry, psychology, obesity and paediatrics. PROSPERO
Zaharia, Cătălin; Reiner, Melita; Schütz, Peter
Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) Framework has enjoyed enormous popularity in the field of applied psychology. NLP has been used in business, education, law, medicine and psychotherapy to identify people's patterns and alter their responses to stimuli, so they are better able to regulate their environment and themselves. NLP looks at achieving goals, creating stable relationships, eliminating barriers such as fears and phobias, building self-confidence, and self-esteem, and achieving peak performance. Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) encompasses NLP as framework and set of interventions in the treatment of individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. We aimed systematically to analyse the available data regarding the effectiveness of Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt). The present work is a meta-analysis of studies, observational or randomized controlled trials, for evaluating the efficacy of Neuro Linguistic Programming in individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. The databases searched to identify studies in English and German language: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library; PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge (include results also from Medline and the Web of Science); PsycINFO (including PsycARTICLES); Psyndex; Deutschsprachige Diplomarbeiten der Psychologie (database of theses in Psychology in German language), Social SciSearch; National library of health and two NLP-specific research databases: one from the NLP Community (http://www.nlp.de/cgi-bin/research/nlprdb.cgi?action=res_entries) and one from the NLP Group (http://www.nlpgrup.com/bilimselarastirmalar/bilimsel-arastirmalar-4.html#Zweig154). From a total number of 425 studies, 350 were removed and considered not relevant based on the title and abstract. Included, in the final analysis, are 12 studies with numbers of participants ranging between 12 and 115 subjects. The vast majority of studies were prospective observational. The actual paper represents the first
Nikkilä, J.; Vos, de W.M.
GOALS: We describe advanced approaches for the computational meta-analysis of a collection of independent studies, including over 1000 phylogenetic array datasets, as a means to characterize the variability of human intestinal microbiota. BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota is a complex
Jitendra, Asha K.; Lein, Amy E.; Im, Soo-hyun; Alghamdi, Ahmed A.; Hefte, Scott B.; Mouanoutoua, John
This meta-analysis is the first to provide a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of mathematical intervention programs implemented in secondary schools for students with learning disabilities and mathematics difficulties. Included studies used a treatment-control group design. A total of 19 experimental and quasi-experimental studies…
Lundahl, Brad W.; Kunz, Chelsea; Brownell, Cynthia; Tollefson, Derrik; Burke, Brian L.
Objective: The authors investigated the unique contribution motivational interviewing (MI) has on counseling outcomes and how MI compares with other interventions. Method: A total of 119 studies were subjected to a meta-analysis. Targeted outcomes included substance use (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, marijuana), health-related behaviors (diet,…
Van Mourik, Rosa; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.
Background: An inhibition deficit, including poor interference control, has been implicated as one of the core deficits in AD/HD. Interference control is clinically measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the strength of an interference deficit in AD/HD as measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task…
van Mourik, R.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.
Background: An inhibition deficit, including poor interference control, has been implicated as one of the core deficits in AD/HD. Interference control is clinically measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the strength of an interference deficit in
Noland, Theresa Koontz; Taylor, Bob L.
The study reported in this paper quantitatively integrated the recent research findings on ability grouping in order to generalize about these effects on student achievement and student self-concept. Meta-analysis was used to statistically integrate the empirical data. The relationships among various experimental variables including grade level,…
Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Gormley, Padhraig
Migraine is the most common brain disorder, affecting approximately 14% of the adult population, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the results of a meta-analysis across 29 genome-wide association studies, including a total of 23,285 individuals with migraine (cases) an...
Stoltenborgh, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.
This comprehensive meta-analysis combined prevalence figures of child emotional abuse reported in 29 studies, including 46 independent samples with a total of 7,082,279 participants. The overall estimated prevalence was 3/1,000 for studies using informants and 363/1,000 for studies using self-report
Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat
This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…
Kraag, G.C; Zeegers, M.P.; Kok, G.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.
Introduction This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stress management or coping skills in school children. Methods Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The
We identified novel non-HLA-susceptible regions for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) by applying the genome-search-meta-analysis (GSMA) method to combine the previous four AS genomewide scan studies including 479 families with 1175 affected individuals. Three original genomescans were mainly analysed for Caucasian ...
Bohlmeijer, E.; Roemer, M.; Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.
This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence on psychological well-being across different target groups and treatment modalities. Fifteen controlled outcome studies were included. An overall effect size of 0.54 was found, indicating a moderate
Bohlmeijer, E.; Roemer, M.; Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.
This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence on psychological well-being across different target groups and treatment modalities. Fifteen controlled outcome studies were included. An overall effect size of 0.54 was found, indicating a moderate
Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Dickson, Ruth; Walton, Richard J.; Granger, Renee E.; van Wyk, Gregory W.
Objective: Previous studies comparing atomoxetine and methylphenidate to treat ADHD symptoms have been equivocal. This noninferiority meta-analysis compared core ADHD symptom response between atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children and adolescents. Method: Selection criteria included randomized, controlled design; duration 6 weeks; and…
Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Gormley, Padhraig; Kurth, Tobias; Bettella, Francesco; McMahon, George; Kallela, Mikko; Malik, Rainer; de Vries, Boukje; Terwindt, Gisela; Medland, Sarah E.; Todt, Unda; McArdle, Wendy L.; Quaye, Lydia; Koiranen, Markku; Ikram, M. Arfan; Lehtimaki, Terho; Stam, Anine H.; Ligthart, Lannie; Wedenoja, Juho; Dunham, Ian; Neale, Benjamin M.; Palta, Priit; Hamalainen, Eija; Schuerks, Markus; Rose, Lynda M.; Buring, Julie E.; Ridker, Paul M.; Steinberg, Stacy; Stefansson, Hreinn; Jakobsson, Finnbogi; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Evans, David M.; Ring, Susan M.; Farkkila, Markus; Artto, Ville; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Freilinger, Tobias; Schoenen, Jean; Frants, Rune R.; Pelzer, Nadine; Weller, Claudia M.; Zielman, Ronald; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Borck, Guntram; Goebel, Hartmut; Heinze, Axel
Migraine is the most common brain disorder, affecting approximately 14% of the adult population, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the results of a meta-analysis across 29 genome-wide association studies, including a total of 23,285 individuals with migraine (cases) and
Anttila, V.; Winsvold, B.S.; Gormley, P.; Kurth, T.; Bettella, F.; McMahon, G.; Kallela, M.; Malik, R.; de Vries, B.; Terwindt, G.; Medland, S.E.; Todt, U.; McArdle, W.L.; Quaye, L.; Koiranen, M.; Ikram, M.A.; Lehtimäki, T.; Stam, A.H.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Wedenoja, J.; Dunham, I.; Neale, B. M.; Palta, P.; Hamalainen, E.; Schürks, M.; Rose, L.M.; Buring, J.E.; Ridker, P.M.; Steinberg, S.; Stefansson, H.; Jakobsson, F.; Lawlor, D.A.; Evans, D.M.; Ring, S.M.; Färkkilä, M.; Artto, V.; Kaunisto, M.A.; Freilinger, T.; Schoenen, J.; Frants, R.R.; Pelzer, N.; Weller, C.M.; Zielman, R.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Martin, N.G.; Borck, G.; Göbel, H.; Heinze, A.; Heinze-Kuhn, K.; Williams, F.M.; Hartikainen, A.-L.; Pouta, A.; van den Ende, J..; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Amin, N.; Hottenga, J.J.; Vink, J.M.; Heikkilä, K.; Alexander, M.; Muller-Myhsok, B.; Schreiber, S; Meitinger, T.; Wichmann, H. E.; Aromaa, A.; Eriksson, J.G.; Traynor, B.J.; Trabzuni, D.; Rossin, E.; Lage, K.; Jacobs, S.B.; Gibbs, J.R.; Birney, E.; Kaprio, J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; van Duijn, C.M.; Raitakari, O.; Jarvelin, M.-R.; Zwart, J.A.; Cherkas, L.; Strachan, D.P.; Kubisch, C.; Ferrari, M.D.; van den Maagdenberg, A.M.J.M.; Dichgans, M.; Wessman, M.; Smith, G.D.; Stefansson, K.; Daly, M.J.; Nyholt, DR; Chasman, D.I.; Palotie, A.
Migraine is the most common brain disorder, affecting approximately 14% of the adult population, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the results of a meta-analysis across 29 genome-wide association studies, including a total of 23,285 individuals with migraine (cases) and
Phuong, H.N.; Friggens, N.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Schmidely, P.
A meta-analysis was performed to explore the correlation between energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows, and to study nutritional and animal factors that influence these efficiencies, as well as their relationship. Treatment mean values were extracted from 68 peer-reviewed studies, including
M.H.M. de Moor; P.T. Costa Jr; A. Terracciano; R.F. Krueger; E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); T. Toshiko; B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); T. Esko; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); J. Derringer; N. Amin (Najaf); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.A. Distel (Marijn); M. Uda (Manuela); S. Sanna (Serena); P. Spinhoven; C.A. Hartman; P.F. Sullivan (Patrick); A. Realo; J. Allik; A.C. Heath; M.L. Pergadia; P. Lin; R. Grucza; T. Nutile; M. Ciullo; D. Rujescu (Dan); I. Giegling (Ina); B. Konte; E. Widen (Elisabeth); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.G. Eriksson; A. Palotie; L. Peltonen; M. Luciano (Michelle); A. Tenesa (Albert); G. Davies; L.M. Lopez; N.K. Hansell (Narelle); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); L. Ferrucci; D. Schlessinger; G.W. Montgomery; M.J. Wright (Margaret); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Metspalu (Andres); I.J. Deary; K. Räikkönen (Katri); L.J. Bierut (Laura); N.G. Martin; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); A. Agrawal (Arpana)
textabstractPersonality can be thought of as a set of characteristics that influence people's thoughts, feelings and behavior across a variety of settings. Variation in personality is predictive of many outcomes in life, including mental health. Here we report on a meta-analysis of genome-wide
Rolstad, Kellie; Mahoney, Kate; Glass, Gene V.
In light of a recent revelation that Gersten (1985) included erroneous information on one of two programs for English Language Learners (ELLs), the authors re-calculate results of their earlier meta-analysis of program effectiveness studies for ELLs in which Gersten's studies had behaved as outliers (Rolstad, Mahoney & Glass, 2005). The correction…
Thompson, Teresa Lynn
The objective of this research was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine existing research studies on video modeling as an effective teaching tool for children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study eligibility criteria included (a) single case research design using multiple baselines, alternating treatment designs,…
Ricci, Federico; Chiesi, Andrea; Bisio, Carlo; Panari, Chiara; Pelosi, Annalisa
Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to verify the efficacy of occupational health and safety (OHS) training in terms of knowledge, attitude and beliefs, behavior and health. Design/methodology/approach: The authors included studies published in English (2007-2014) selected from ten databases. Eligibility criteria were studies concerned with the…
Riet, J.P. van 't; Alblas, E.E.; Crutzen, R.M.M.; Lu, A.S.; Novák, D.; Tulu, B.; Brendryen, H.
The objective of this chapter is a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to quantify the effectiveness of active videogames (AVGs) as obesity prevention interventions aimed at children and adolescents. The method is studies were included that focused on children or adolescents (=18
Karadag, Engin; Bektas, Fatih; Çogaltay, Nazim; Yalçin, Mikail
In this meta-analysis study, different leadership styles were combined, and the relationship between educational leadership and student achievement was analyzed. In the literature review, 57 research articles/dissertations, independent from one another, were brought together, and 28,964 study subjects were included in the sample group. The results…
Hubbard, Dana Jones; Pratt, Travis C.
Presents the results of a meta-analysis of the predictors of female delinquency. Finds that most of the strong predictors of female delinquency are the same as those for males, including history of antisocial behavior, antisocial attitudes, antisocial peers, and antisocial personality. School and family relationships and a history of…
Langan, Dean; Higgins, Julian P T; Gregory, Walter; Sutton, Alexander J
We aim to illustrate the potential impact of a new study on a meta-analysis, which gives an indication of the robustness of the meta-analysis. A number of augmentations are proposed to one of the most widely used of graphical displays, the funnel plot. Namely, 1) statistical significance contours, which define regions of the funnel plot in which a new study would have to be located to change the statistical significance of the meta-analysis; and 2) heterogeneity contours, which show how a new study would affect the extent of heterogeneity in a given meta-analysis. Several other features are also described, and the use of multiple features simultaneously is considered. The statistical significance contours suggest that one additional study, no matter how large, may have a very limited impact on the statistical significance of a meta-analysis. The heterogeneity contours illustrate that one outlying study can increase the level of heterogeneity dramatically. The additional features of the funnel plot have applications including 1) informing sample size calculations for the design of future studies eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis; and 2) informing the updating prioritization of a portfolio of meta-analyses such as those prepared by the Cochrane Collaboration. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michael J Peeters
Full Text Available Objective: The investigators aimed to summarize prior studies of critical thinking development among pharmacy students, using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST, Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT, and Defining Issues Test (DIT. Methods: Independently, two investigators (KLZ, MJP systematically searched available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsychInfo, as well as pharmacy education conference abstracts in American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Their search terms were ‘pharmacy’, and [‘critical thinking’, ‘HSRT’, ‘CCTST’, and ‘DIT’]. Studies included were those that investigated pharmacy students, used one of the tests (CCTST, HSRT, DIT, and used a longitudinal design with test administration at two or more time-points for the same subjects (i.e., development. On review, the CCTST and HSRT seem more foundational to analytical/critical thinking, while the DIT appears to measure moral/complex thinking. Summarizing used meta-analysis with Cohen’s d and random-effects modelling. Results: Five studies involved thinking development with 10 separate cohorts for meta-analysis (8 cohorts for CCTST, 2 for DIT, and 0 for HSRT. At 5 institutions, 407 and 1148 students were included (CCTST and DIT, respectively. For the CCTST, the overall effect was 0.33 (0.19-0.47 95%CI with some heterogeneity among study cohorts (I2=52%. For the DIT, the overall effect was -0.23 (-0.83-0.37 95%CI with considerable heterogeneity between study cohorts (I2=95%. For the CCTST and DIT, some studies showed effect-sizes greater than 0.5. Meta-analysis of the HSRT could not be conducted (i.e., 0 studies found. Implications: While measuring different aspects of “critical thinking”, the CCTST and DIT showed responsiveness to change and appear to be promising measures of cognitive development. These tests should be used in further well-designed research studies that explore strategies for improving cognitive
Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this
The purpose of this article is to introduce the technique and main findings of meta-analysis to the reader, who is unfamiliar with the field and has the usual objections. A meta-analysis is a quantitative survey of a literature reporting estimates of the same parameter. The funnel showing...
Meta-analysis is the structured and systematic qualitative and quantitative integration of the results of several independent studies (Le. the epidemiology of results). As in any epidemiological study, a meta-analysis needs to start with clearly stated aims and objectives. Attention needs to be paid to selection bias in selecting ...
Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.; Schuurmans, J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.
Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and
Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Schuurmans, J.; Oppen, van P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.
Abstract Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic
Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.; Schuurmans, J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.
Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of primary studies. It is often used in systematic reviews and is increasingly a method and topic that appears in student dissertations. MetaLight is a freely available software application that runs simple meta-analyses and contains specific functionality to facilitate the teaching and learning of meta-analysis. While there are many courses and resources for meta-analysis available and numerous software applications to run meta-analyses, there are few pieces of software which are aimed specifically at helping those teaching and learning meta-analysis. Valuable teaching time can be spent learning the mechanics of a new software application, rather than on the principles and practices of meta-analysis. Findings We discuss ways in which the MetaLight tool can be used to present some of the main issues involved in undertaking and interpreting a meta-analysis. Conclusions While there are many software tools available for conducting meta-analysis, in the context of a teaching programme such software can require expenditure both in terms of money and in terms of the time it takes to learn how to use it. MetaLight was developed specifically as a tool to facilitate the teaching and learning of meta-analysis and we have presented here some of the ways it might be used in a training situation.
data, and (6) report the results. Define the Research Question. A meta-analysis begins with a question. Common questions addressed in meta-analyses are whether one. META-ANALYSIS: THE WAY FORWARD IN MEDICAL DISCOVERY. Akinyemi J.O. MSc (Medical Statistics), B Tech (Comp. Sc.) Correspondence:.
Masters, Kevin S; Spielmans, Glen I
This article reviews the empirical research on prayer and health and offers a research agenda to guide future studies. Though many people practice prayer and believe it affects their health, scientific evidence is limited. In keeping with a general increase in interest in spirituality and complementary and alternative treatments, prayer has garnered attention among a growing number of behavioral scientists. The effects of distant intercessory prayer are examined by meta-analysis and it is concluded that no discernable effects can be found. The literature regarding frequency of prayer, content of prayer, and prayer as a coping strategy is subsequently reviewed. Suggestions for future research include the conduct of experimental studies based on conceptual models that include precise operationally defined constructs, longitudinal investigations with proper measure of control variables, and increased use of ecological momentary assessment techniques.
Full Text Available Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has already been used to manage tinnitus patients, paucity of reports and variations in protocols preclude a comprehensive understanding. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis based on systemic review to assess effectiveness of tDCS in tinnitus management and to compare stimulation parameters. PubMed was searched for tDCS studies in tinnitus. For randomized controlled trials (RCTs, a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 17 studies were identified and 6 of them were included in the systemic review and 2 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Overall 39.5% responded to active tDCS with a mean tinnitus intensity reduction of 13.5%. Additionally, left temporal area (LTA and bifrontal tDCS indicated comparable results. Active tDCS was found to be more effective than sham tDCS for tinnitus intensity reduction (Hedges' g=.77, 95% confidence interval 0.23–1.31. The efficacy of tDCS in tinnitus could not be fully confirmed by the current study because of the limited number of studies, but all studies included in the current systemic review and meta-analysis demonstrated significant tinnitus intensity improvement. Therefore, tDCS may be a promising tool for tinnitus management. Future RCTs in a large series regarding the efficacy as well as the comparison between LTA- and bifrontal tDCS are recommended.
Benfica, Poliana do Amaral; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Brito, Sherindan Ayessa Ferreira de; Bernardino, Luane Helena Nunes; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais
Muscle strength is an important component of health. To describe and evaluate the studies which have established the reference values for muscle strength on healthy individuals and to synthesize these values with a descriptive meta-analysis approach. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Studies that investigated the reference values for muscle strength of two or more appendicular/axial muscle groups of health individuals were included. Methodological quality, including risk of bias was assessed by the QUADAS-2. Data extracted included: country of the study, sample size, population characteristics, equipment/method used, and muscle groups evaluated. Of the 414 studies identified, 46 were included. Most of the studies had adequate methodological quality. Included studies evaluated: appendicular (80.4%) and axial (36.9%) muscles; adults (78.3%), elderly (58.7%), adolescents (43.5%), children (23.9%); isometric (91.3%) and isokinetic (17.4%) strength. Six studies (13%) with similar procedures were synthesized with meta-analysis. Generally, the coefficient of variation values that resulted from the meta-analysis ranged from 20.1% to 30% and were similar to those reported by the original studies. The meta-analysis synthesized the reference values of isometric strength of 14 muscle groups of the dominant/non-dominant sides of the upper/lower limbs of adults/elderly from developed countries, using dynamometers/myometer. Most of the included studies had adequate methodological quality. The meta-analysis provided reference values for the isometric strength of 14 appendicular muscle groups of the dominant/non-dominant sides, measured with dynamometers/myometers, of men/women, of adults/elderly. These data may be used to interpret the results of the evaluations and establish appropriate treatment goals. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights
Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (P<0.0001). In addition, the data indicates that there are high seroprevalence in groups who have direct contact with cats, consume uncooked meat and raw fruits or vegetables, in farmers and Housewife, individuals who have a low level of education, and live in rural areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection
Xu, Yina; Amiche, Mohamed Amine; Tadrous, Mina
Network meta-analysis is a new tool used to summarize and compare studies for multiple interventions, irrespective of whether these interventions have been directly evaluated against each other. Network meta-analysis is quickly becoming the standard in conducting therapeutic reviews and clinical guideline development. However, little guidance is available to help pharmacists review network meta-analysis studies in their practice. Major institutions such as the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit have endorsed utilizing network meta-analysis to establish therapeutic evidence and inform decision making. Our objective is to introduce this novel technique to pharmacy practitioners, and highlight key assumptions behind network meta-analysis studies.
Fanning, Jason; Mullen, Sean P; McAuley, Edward
Regular physical activity has established physical and mental health benefits; however, merely one quarter of the U.S. adult population meets national physical activity recommendations. In an effort to engage individuals who do not meet these guidelines, researchers have utilized popular emerging technologies, including mobile devices (ie, personal digital assistants [PDAs], mobile phones). This study is the first to synthesize current research focused on the use of mobile devices for increasing physical activity. To conduct a meta-analysis of research utilizing mobile devices to influence physical activity behavior. The aims of this review were to: (1) examine the efficacy of mobile devices in the physical activity setting, (2) explore and discuss implementation of device features across studies, and (3) make recommendations for future intervention development. We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) and identified publications through reference lists and requests to experts in the field of mobile health. Studies were included that provided original data and aimed to influence physical activity through dissemination or collection of intervention materials with a mobile device. Data were extracted to calculate effect sizes for individual studies, as were study descriptives. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software suite. Study quality was assessed using the quality of execution portion of the Guide to Community Preventative Services data extraction form. Four studies were of "good" quality and seven of "fair" quality. In total, 1351 individuals participated in 11 unique studies from which 18 effects were extracted and synthesized, yielding an overall weight mean effect size of g = 0.54 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.91, P = .01). Research utilizing mobile devices is gaining in popularity, and this study suggests that this platform is an effective means for influencing physical activity behavior. Our focus
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii increases the need for polymyxins. We conducted a meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of polymyxins for the treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infection. METHODS: We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, CNKI, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up to November 1, 2013, to identify published studies, and we searched clinical trial registries to identify completed unpublished studies. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were considered for inclusion. Data were extracted on clinical response, microbiological response, mortality, length of stay and adverse events. RESULTS: 12 controlled studies, comparing 677 patients, were included. Although clinical (odds ratio 1.421, 95% confidence interval 0.722-2.797 and microbiological (OR 1.416, 95% CI 0.369-5.425 response rates favored the polymyxins group, these differences were not significant. Treatment with polymyxins vs. controls did not affect hospital mortality (OR 0.506, 95% CI 0.101-2.536, lengths of hospital stay (standard mean difference -0.221, 95% CI 0.899-0.458 or nephrotoxicity (OR 1.192, 95% CI 0.436-3.261. The combination of polymyxins with other antibiotics achieved similar clinical response rates to its monotherapy regimen (OR 0.601, 95% CI 0.320-1.130. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that polymyxins may be as safe and as efficacious as standard antibiotics for the treatment of A. baumannii infection. There is no strong evidence that combination regimen of polymyxins is superior to monotherapy regimen.
Liu, Qianqian; Li, Wenzhang; Feng, Yulin; Tao, Chuanmin
Multi-drug resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii increases the need for polymyxins. We conducted a meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of polymyxins for the treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infection. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CNKI, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up to November 1, 2013, to identify published studies, and we searched clinical trial registries to identify completed unpublished studies. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were considered for inclusion. Data were extracted on clinical response, microbiological response, mortality, length of stay and adverse events. 12 controlled studies, comparing 677 patients, were included. Although clinical (odds ratio 1.421, 95% confidence interval 0.722-2.797) and microbiological (OR 1.416, 95% CI 0.369-5.425) response rates favored the polymyxins group, these differences were not significant. Treatment with polymyxins vs. controls did not affect hospital mortality (OR 0.506, 95% CI 0.101-2.536), lengths of hospital stay (standard mean difference -0.221, 95% CI 0.899-0.458) or nephrotoxicity (OR 1.192, 95% CI 0.436-3.261). The combination of polymyxins with other antibiotics achieved similar clinical response rates to its monotherapy regimen (OR 0.601, 95% CI 0.320-1.130). Our results suggest that polymyxins may be as safe and as efficacious as standard antibiotics for the treatment of A. baumannii infection. There is no strong evidence that combination regimen of polymyxins is superior to monotherapy regimen.
Ruane, AIlbhe; Carr, Alan
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) parent training programs on child behavior problems and parenting outcomes in families of children with developmental disabilities. Sixteen suitable studies including data from over 900 families were identified in a search for English language published and unpublished controlled outcome studies. SSTP has five levels on a graded continuum of increasing intensity targeting families with differing degrees of treatment need from low intensity media-based parenting information campaigns at level 1, through brief interventions at levels 2 and 3, to more intensive parent training and family therapy interventions at levels 4 and 5. Analyses were conducted on the combination of all levels of SSTP and separately for each level. For combined levels, significant overall effect sizes were found for parent-reported child problems (d = 0.46), researcher observed child behavior (d = 0.51), parenting style (d = 0.70), parenting satisfaction/self-efficacy (d = 0.44), parental adjustment (d = 0.27), and coparental relationship (d = 0.26), but not researcher-observed parent behavior. Strong support was found for level 4 SSTP as an effective intervention for improving child and parent outcomes in families of children with disabilities who have clinically significant problems. Less intensive SSTP interventions for cases with circumscribed difficulties yielded fewer significant treatment effects, and there were relatively few studies of such interventions. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Schroeder, Marcos; Correa, Ivo Carlos; Bauer, Jose; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra
We aimed to answer the following PICO question: "Is the risk of postoperative sensitivity (POS), retention rates and marginal discoloration of composite restorations [CR] bonded with self-etch (SE) in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) of adults equals to etch-and-rinse (ER) adhesives?". A comprehensive search was performed in May 2016 in the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, BBO and Cochrane Library and SIGLE, abstracts of IADR, unpublished and ongoing trials registries, dissertations and theses without restrictions. Only randomized clinical trials that compared composite resin restorations placed with self-etch and etch-and-rinse in NCCLs were included. After removal of duplicates and non-eligible articles, 50 articles from 42 studies (follow-ups of the same study were merged) remained for synthesis of the risk of bias (Cochrane Risk of bias tool). Thirteen studies were at "high" risk of bias, yielding 29 studies for meta-analysis. No difference on the POS after restoration placement (risk ratio [RR] 1.04; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.34) as well as in the retention rates for all follow-up periods was observed. The etch-and-rinse approach produced less marginal discoloration at 18 months to 2 years (RR 1.51; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.90) and at 4 to 5 years (RR 1.81; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.55) (pPOS and the retention rates of composite resin in NCCLs in any of the follow-up periods; but less marginal discoloration was found in etch-and-rinse adhesives. Composite resin restorations placed with self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesives produce restoration with the similar clinical service and POS, however using etch-and-rinse adhesives one can reduce marginal discoloration. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015019533. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Diaz, Mireya
High Dk silicone hydrogel (SH) lenses have been shown to significantly decrease the risk of hypoxic complications compared to traditional low Dk hydrogels. However, the risks of inflammatory complications with SH compared to low Dk lenses are not as clear. A meta-analysis was performed to combine the relevant literature to evaluate the risks of corneal inflammatory events in users of SH and low Dk hydrogel extended wear lenses. A systematic search was conducted using online databases, unpublished meeting abstracts, and retrieval of other cited references presented or published between 1990 and February 2006. Each study was evaluated for quality in terms of the research question, and these quality assessments were used to determine which studies should be used in subgroup analyses. A generalized linear mixed model framework with an underlying Poisson distribution for the occurrence of events was employed to combine information from the included studies. Twenty-three studies published or presented on either or both arms by February 2006 were selected for analysis. A total of 9,336 subjects and 18,537 eyes comprised the entire sample. Seven studies were published in the 1990s. Eighteen studies (78%) were prospective, and 11 (48%) used randomization. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 36 months, with a median of 12 months. The rates of infiltrates for low Dk hydrogels and SH lenses were 7.7 (2.2, 26.7) and 14.4 (4.3, 48.2) per 100 eye-years, respectively. In the subset of five best quality studies, the unadjusted risk ratio for corneal inflammatory events for SH lenses compared to low Dk lenses was 2.18 (p Dk extended wear lenses when typically worn for 7 days extended wear. The increased risk cannot be definitively linked to SH lens materials because the effect of material on outcome is confounded by length of wear.
Song, Youngshin; Gang, Moonhee; Kim, Sun Ae; Shin, In Soo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of meta-analysis regarding exercise using Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) as well as to compare effect size according to outcomes. Electronic databases including the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), the National Assembly Library and the DBpia, HAKJISA and RISS4U for the dates 1990 to January 2014 were searched for 'meta-analysis' and 'exercise' in the fields of medical, nursing, physical therapy and physical exercise in Korea. AMSTAR was scored for quality assessment of the 33 articles included in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and χ²-test. The mean score for AMSTAR evaluations was 4.18 (SD=1.78) and about 67% were classified at the low-quality level and 30% at the moderate-quality level. The scores of quality were statistically different by field of research, number of participants, number of databases, financial support and approval by IRB. The effect size that presented in individual studies were different by type of exercise in the applied intervention. This critical appraisal of meta-analysis published in various field that focused on exercise indicates that a guideline such as the PRISMA checklist should be strongly recommended for optimum reporting of meta-analysis across research fields.
Araújo, Milena Moreira; Martins, Carolina Castro; Costa, Lidiane Cristina Machado; Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Faria, Rodrigo Lamounier Araújo Melo; Cunha, Fabiano Araújo; Costa, Fernando Oliveira
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the scientific evidence on the association between depression and periodontitis. An electronic search was conducted in three databases until October 2015 (PROSPERO-CRD42014006451). Hand searches and grey literature were also included. Search retrieved 423 potentially studies. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk bias through a modified version of Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis was performed for the presence/absence of periodontitis (dichotomic). Summary effect measures and odds ratio (OR) 95% CI were calculated. After selecting the studies, 15 were included in the systematic review (eight cross-sectional, six case-control and one cohort study). Six studies reported that depression was associated with periodontitis, whereas nine studies did not. The majority of studies had low risk of bias by methodological quality assessment. Meta-analysis of seven cross-sectional studies showed no significant association between depression and periodontitis (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.75-1.41). Findings from the present systematic review showed a great heterogeneity among the studies and the summary effect measure of the meta-analysis cannot affirm an association between depression and periodontitis. Future studies with different designs in distinct populations should be conducted to investigate this association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia
Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by "a posteriori" methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a "Healthy pattern" and a "Western pattern". The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, the "Carbohydrate pattern", which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western ( p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate ( p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.
Tsang, Hector W H; Ching, S C; Tang, K H; Lam, H T; Law, Peggy Y Y; Wan, C N
Internalized stigma can lead to pervasive negative effects among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although prevalence of internalized stigma is high, there is a dearth of interventions and meanwhile a lack of evidence as to their effectiveness. This study aims at unraveling the existence of different therapeutic interventions and the effectiveness internalized stigma reduction in people with SMI via a systematic review and meta-analysis. Five electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they (1) involved community or hospital based interventions on internalized stigma, (2) included participants who were given a diagnosis of SMI>50%, and (3) were empirical and quantitative in nature. Fourteen articles were selected for extensive review and five for meta-analysis. Nine studies showed significant decrease in internalized stigma and two showed sustainable effects. Meta-analysis showed that there was a small to moderate significant effect in therapeutic interventions (SMD=-0.43; p=0.003). Among the intervention elements, four studies suggested a favorable effect of psychoeducation. Meta-analysis showed that there was small to moderate significant effect (SMD=-0.40; p=0.001). Most internalized stigma reduction programs appear to be effective. This systematic review cannot make any recommendation on which intervention is more effective although psychoeducation seems most promising. More Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) on particular intervention components using standard outcome measures are recommended in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Studies that have evaluated the association between increases in traffic fine amounts (fixed penalties) and changes in compliance with road traffic law or the number of accidents are synthesised by means of meta-analysis. The studies were few and different in many respects. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis of changes in compliance. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis of changes in accidents. Increasing traffic fines was found to be associated with small changes in the rate of violations. The changes were non-linear. For increases up to about 100%, violations were reduced. For larger increases, no reduction in violations was found. A small reduction in fatal accidents was associated with increased fixed penalties, varying between studies from less than 1-12%. The main pattern of changes in violations was similar in the fixed-effects and random-effects models of meta-analysis, meta-regression and when simple (non-weighted) mean values were computed. The main findings are thus robust, although most of the primary studies did not control very well for potentially confounding factors. Summary estimates of changes in violations or accidents should be treated as provisional and do not necessarily reflect causal relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chrcanovic, B R; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A
The aim of this meta-analysis was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the implant failure rates, marginal bone loss (MBL)and post-operative infection for patients being rehabilitated by turned versus anodised-surface implants, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in November 2015. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomised or not. Thirty-eight publications were included. The results suggest a risk ratio of 2·82 (95% CI 1·95-4·06, P implants, when compared to anodised-surface implants. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results when only the studies inserting implants in maxillae or mandibles were pooled. There were no statistically significant effects of turned implants on the MBL (mean difference-MD 0·02, 95%CI -0·16-0·20; P = 0·82) in comparison to anodised implants. The results of a meta-regression considering the follow-up period as a covariate suggested an increase of the MD with the increase in the follow-up time (MD increase 0·012 mm year(-1) ), however, without a statistical significance (P = 0·813). Due to lack of satisfactory information, meta-analysis for the outcome 'post-operative infection' was not performed. The results have to be interpreted with caution due to the presence of several confounding factors in the included studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L
Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.
Yang, Jheng-Dao; Tam, Ka-Wai; Huang, Tsai-Wei; Huang, Shih-Wei; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Hung-Chou
A meta-analysis. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive search of current literature and conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the neck pain relieving effect of intermittent cervical traction (ICT). Neck pain is a common and disabling problem with a high prevalence in general population. It causes a considerable burden on the health care system with a substantial expenditure. ICT is a common component of physical therapy for neck pain in the outpatient clinic. However, the evidence regarding the effectiveness of ICT for neck pain is insufficient. Data were obtained from the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Scopus databases from the database inception date to July 02, 2016. RCTs reporting the effects of ICT on neck pain, including those comparing the effects of ICT with those of a placebo treatment, were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed the studies, conducted a risk of bias assessment, and extracted data. The data were pooled in a meta-analysis by using a random-effects model. The meta-analysis included seven RCTs. The results indicated that patients who received ICT for neck pain had significantly lower pain scores than those receiving placebos did immediately after treatment (standardized mean difference = -0.26, 95% confidence interval = -0.46 to -0.07). The pain scores during the follow-up period and the neck disability index scores immediately after treatment and during the follow-up period did not differ significantly. ICT may have a short-term neck pain-relieving effect. Some risks of bias were noted in the included studies, reducing the evidence level of this meta-analysis. Additional high-quality RCTs are required to clarify the long-term effects of ICT on neck pain. 1.
Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that there is an association between prehypertension and an increased risk of end-stage renal disease. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between prehypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD. This meta-analysis aimed to demonstrate the association between prehypertension and the incidence of CKD and identify the impacts of gender and ethnic differences.MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (from inception through March 2016 and article reference lists were searched for relevant studies regarding blood pressure and CKD. Blood pressure (BP measurements were classified as follows: optimal BP (less than 120/80 mmHg, prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mmHg and hypertension (over 140/90 mmHg. CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria. Two investigators independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of studies enrolled in this meta-analysis using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS. We performed the meta-analysis using Stata/SE 12.0 (StataCorp LP. The random-effect models were used in the heterogeneous analyses.After retrieving data from 4,537 potentially relevant articles, we identified 7 cohort studies including 261,264 subjects, according to the predefined selection criteria. Five studies were conducted in Mongolians from East Asia, and the other two studies were performed in Indo-Europeans from Austria and Iran. The participants ranged in age from 20 to 89 years, and the proportion of females ranged from 27.2% to 63.8%. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 11 years. Compared with the optimal BP values, prehypertension showed an increased risk of CKD (pooled RR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.13-1.44; P = 0.000; I2 = 77.9%. In the sex-stratified analysis, we found a similar trend in women (pooled RR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01-1.63; P = 0.039; I2 = 76.1% but not in men. This effect was observed only in Mongolians from East Asia (pooled RR = 1.37; 95
Cracco, Emiel; Bardi, Lara; Desmet, Charlotte; Genschow, Oliver; Rigoni, Davide; De Coster, Lize; Radkova, Ina; Deschrijver, Eliane; Brass, Marcel
Automatic imitation is the finding that movement execution is facilitated by compatible and impeded by incompatible observed movements. In the past 15 years, automatic imitation has been studied to understand the relation between perception and action in social interaction. Although research on this topic started in cognitive science, interest quickly spread to related disciplines such as social psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience. However, important theoretical questions have remained unanswered. Therefore, in the present meta-analysis, we evaluated seven key questions on automatic imitation. The results, based on 161 studies containing 226 experiments, revealed an overall effect size of g z = 0.95, 95% CI [0.88, 1.02]. Moderator analyses identified automatic imitation as a flexible, largely automatic process that is driven by movement and effector compatibility, but is also influenced by spatial compatibility. Automatic imitation was found to be stronger for forced choice tasks than for simple response tasks, for human agents than for nonhuman agents, and for goalless actions than for goal-directed actions. However, it was not modulated by more subtle factors such as animacy beliefs, motion profiles, or visual perspective. Finally, there was no evidence for a relation between automatic imitation and either empathy or autism. Among other things, these findings point toward actor-imitator similarity as a crucial modulator of automatic imitation and challenge the view that imitative tendencies are an indicator of social functioning. The current meta-analysis has important theoretical implications and sheds light on longstanding controversies in the literature on automatic imitation and related domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Scott David Mist, Kari Firestone, Kim Dupree Jones Fibromyalgia Research and Treatment Group, School of Nursing, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management. Keywords: fibromyalgia, exercise, complementary and alternative, efficacy, safety
Milfont, Taciano L; Wilson, Jessie; Diniz, Pollyane
Environmental issues entail both a social conflict (private vs. public interests) and a temporal conflict (short- vs. long-term interests). This paper focuses on the role temporal concerns play in influencing environmental engagement by quantitatively integrating results of studies that assessed the associations between time perspective and proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors. The meta-analysis included a total of 19 independent samples and 6,301 participants from seven countries (Australia, Brazil, Germany, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, and the United States). Results showed that the associations between time perspective and proenvironmental behaviors were higher than those for proenvironmental attitudes. Supporting predictions, the associations between future time perspective and proenvironmental behaviors were strong and nontrivial compared to those for the combined past-present time perspective. The findings indicate that future time perspective seems to play an important role in influencing individuals' attitudes and behaviors towards the environment. Implications of the findings for theory and practice are discussed.
Attia; Ahmed, Hussien; Gadelkarim, Mohamed; Morsi, Mahmoud; Awad, Kamal; Elnenny, Mohamed; Ghanem, Esraa; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa; Negida, Ahmed
Creatine is an antioxidant agent that showed neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Creatine was selected by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke as a possible disease modifying agent for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, many clinical trials evaluated the efficacy of creatine for patients with PD. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize evidence from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the efficacy of Creatine for patients with PD. We followed PRISMA statement guidelines during the preparation of this systematic review and meta-analysis. A computer literature search for PubMed, EBSCO, web of science and Ovid Midline was carried out. We included RCTs comparing creatine with placebo in terms of motor functions and quality of life. Outcomes of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), UPDRS I, UPDRS II, and UPDRS III were pooled as mean difference (MD) between two groups from baseline to the endpoint. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of the forest plot and measured by chi-square and I square tests. Three RCTs (n=1935) were included in this study. The overall effect did not favor either of the two groups in terms of: UPDRS total score (MD 1.07, 95% CI [3.38 to 1.25], UPDRS III (MD 0.62, 95% CI [2.27 to 1.02]), UPDRS II (MD 0.03, 95% CI [0.81 to 0.86], or UPDRS I (MD 0.03, 95% CI [0.33 to 0.28]). Current evidence does not support the use of creatine for neuroprotection against PD. Future well-designed, randomized controlled trials are needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that gardening provides substantial human health benefits. However, no formal statistical assessment has been conducted to test this assertion. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of research examining the effects of gardening, including horticultural therapy, on health. We performed a literature search to collect studies that compared health outcomes in control (before participating in gardening or non-gardeners and treatment groups (after participating in gardening or gardeners in January 2016. The mean difference in health outcomes between the two groups was calculated for each study, and then the weighted effect size determined both across all and sets of subgroup studies. Twenty-two case studies (published after 2001 were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised 76 comparisons between control and treatment groups. Most studies came from the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Studies reported a wide range of health outcomes, such as reductions in depression, anxiety, and body mass index, as well as increases in life satisfaction, quality of life, and sense of community. Meta-analytic estimates showed a significant positive effect of gardening on the health outcomes both for all and sets of subgroup studies, whilst effect sizes differed among eight subgroups. Although Egger's test indicated the presence of publication bias, significant positive effects of gardening remained after adjusting for this using trim and fill analysis. This study has provided robust evidence for the positive effects of gardening on health. A regular dose of gardening can improve public health.
Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi
There is increasing evidence that gardening provides substantial human health benefits. However, no formal statistical assessment has been conducted to test this assertion. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of research examining the effects of gardening, including horticultural therapy, on health. We performed a literature search to collect studies that compared health outcomes in control (before participating in gardening or non-gardeners) and treatment groups (after participating in gardening or gardeners) in January 2016. The mean difference in health outcomes between the two groups was calculated for each study, and then the weighted effect size determined both across all and sets of subgroup studies. Twenty-two case studies (published after 2001) were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised 76 comparisons between control and treatment groups. Most studies came from the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Studies reported a wide range of health outcomes, such as reductions in depression, anxiety, and body mass index, as well as increases in life satisfaction, quality of life, and sense of community. Meta-analytic estimates showed a significant positive effect of gardening on the health outcomes both for all and sets of subgroup studies, whilst effect sizes differed among eight subgroups. Although Egger's test indicated the presence of publication bias, significant positive effects of gardening remained after adjusting for this using trim and fill analysis. This study has provided robust evidence for the positive effects of gardening on health. A regular dose of gardening can improve public health.
de Souza Melo, Gilberto; Batistella, Elis Ângela; Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Simek Vega Gonçalves, Thais Marques; Mendes de Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia; Porporatti, André Luís; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela
Ceramic restorations are popular because of their excellent optical properties. However, failures are still a major concern, and dentists are confronted with the following question: is sleep bruxism (SB) associated with an increased frequency of ceramic restoration failures? The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether the presence of SB is associated with increased ceramic restoration failure. Observational studies and clinical trials that evaluated the short- and long-term survival rate of ceramic restorations in SB participants were selected. Sleep bruxism diagnostic criteria must have included at least 1 of the following: questionnaire, clinical evaluation, or polysomnography. Seven databases, in addition to 3 nonpeer-reviewed literature databases, were searched. The risk of bias was assessed by using the meta-analysis of statistics assessment and review instrument (MAStARI) checklist. Eight studies were included for qualitative synthesis, but only 5 for the meta-analysis. Three studies were categorized as moderate risk and 5 as high risk of bias. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity across studies were considered high. Increased hazard ratio (HR=7.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.50 to 23.95) and odds ratio (OR=2.52; 95% CI=1.24 to 5.12) were observed considering only anterior ceramic veneers. Nevertheless, limited data from the meta-analysis and from the restricted number of included studies suggested that differences in the overall odds of failure concerning SB and other types of ceramic restorations did not favor or disfavor any association (OR=1.10; 95% CI=0.43 to 2.8). The overall quality of evidence was considered very low according to the GRADE criteria. Within the limitations of this systematic review, the overall result from the meta-analysis did not favor any association between SB and increased odds of failure for ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
He, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yong; Xue, Rongliang; Lv, Jianrui; Ding, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhenni
To compare the effect of desflurane versus sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia by conducting meta-analysis. Studies were searched from PubMed, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar up to July 2014. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered as effect sizes. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by Cochran Q test and I2 statistic. The random effects model was performed in the meta-analysis when heterogeneity was observed, or the fixed effect model was used. Review Manager 5.1 software was applied for the meta-analysis. A total of 11 studies (13 comparisons) involving 1,273 objects were included in this meta-analysis. No heterogeneity was observed between studies for any comparison but for postoperative extubation time. The results showed significant differences between desflurane and sevoflurane groups for postoperative extubation time (WMD = -3.87, 95%CI = -6.14 to -1.60, P 0.05) were detected for discharge from the recovery room, oculocardiac reflex, nausea and vomiting and severe pain. Desflurane may have less adverse effects than sevoflurane when used in pediatric anesthesia with significantly shorter postoperative extubation time, eye opening time and awakening time as well as slighter agitation.
Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong
Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship.
Hattori, Satoshi; Zhou, Xiao-Hua
Publication bias is one of the most important issues in meta-analysis. For standard meta-analyses to examine intervention effects, the funnel plot and the trim-and-fill method are simple and widely used techniques for assessing and adjusting for the influence of publication bias, respectively. However, their use may be subjective and can then produce misleading insights. To make a more objective inference for publication bias, various sensitivity analysis methods have been proposed, including the Copas selection model. For meta-analysis of diagnostic studies evaluating a continuous biomarker, the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve is a very useful method in the presence of heterogeneous cutoff values. To our best knowledge, no methods are available for evaluation of influence of publication bias on estimation of the sROC curve. In this paper, we introduce a Copas-type selection model for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies and propose a sensitivity analysis method for publication bias. Our method enables us to assess the influence of publication bias on the estimation of the sROC curve and then judge whether the result of the meta-analysis is sufficiently confident or should be interpreted with much caution. We illustrate our proposed method with real data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Linde, Klaus; Rücker, Gerta; Schneider, Antonius; Kriston, Levente
We aimed to evaluate the underlying assumptions of a network meta-analysis investigating which depression treatment works best in primary care and to highlight challenges and pitfalls of interpretation under consideration of these assumptions. We reviewed 100 randomized trials investigating pharmacologic and psychological treatments for primary care patients with depression. Network meta-analysis was carried out within a frequentist framework using response to treatment as outcome measure. Transitivity was assessed by epidemiologic judgment based on theoretical and empirical investigation of the distribution of trial characteristics across comparisons. Homogeneity and consistency were investigated by decomposing the Q statistic. There were important clinical and statistically significant differences between "pure" drug trials comparing pharmacologic substances with each other or placebo (63 trials) and trials including a psychological treatment arm (37 trials). Overall network meta-analysis produced results well comparable with separate meta-analyses of drug trials and psychological trials. Although the homogeneity and consistency assumptions were mostly met, we considered the transitivity assumption unjustifiable. An exchange of experience between reviewers and, if possible, some guidance on how reviewers addressing important clinical questions can proceed in situations where important assumptions for valid network meta-analysis are not met would be desirable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Jiyin; Zhou, Shiwen; Huang, Chunji; Xu, Rufu; Zhang, Zuo; Zeng, Shengya; Qian, Guisheng
This review provides a critical overview of problem-based learning (PBL) practices in Chinese pharmacy education. PBL has yet to be widely applied in pharmaceutical education in China. The results of those studies that have been conducted are published in Chinese and thus may not be easily accessible to international researchers. Therefore, this meta-analysis was carried out to review the effectiveness of PBL. Databases were searched for studies in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently performed the study identification and data extraction. A meta-analysis was conducted using Revman 5.3 software. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were included. The meta-analysis revealed that PBL had a positive association with higher theoretical scores (SMD = 1.17, 95% CI [0.77, 11.57], P methods are superior to conventional teaching methods in improving students' learning interest, independent analysis skills, scope of knowledge, self-study, team spirit, and oral expression. This meta-analysis indicates that PBL pedagogy is superior to traditional lecture-based teaching in Chinese pharmacy education. PBL methods could be an optional, supplementary method of pharmaceutical teaching in China. However, Chinese pharmacy colleges and universities should revise PBL curricula according to their own needs, which would maximize the effectiveness of PBL.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: In the developed countries, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC is increasing over recent decades. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to arrive at quantitative conclusions about the contribution of alcohol intakes and the progression of Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: A comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of medical literature published up to Oct 2013 was conducted to identify relevant studies. A meta-analysis was conducted for alcohol consumption on the Barrett's esophagus progression. RESULTS: A total of 882 cases in 6,867 individuals from 14 observational studies were indemnified in this meta-analysis. The result of this current meta-analysis, including 10 case-control and 4 cohort studies, indicated that alcohol consumption was not associated with the neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48. When stratified by the study designs, no significant association was detected in either high vs low group or ever vs never group. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol drinking is not associated with risk of neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus. Further well designed studies are needed in this area.
Lichtenauer, Michael; Wheatley, Sean D; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Duncan, Michael J; Cobayashi, Fernanda; Berg, Gabriela; Musso, Carla; Graffigna, Mabel; Soutelo, Jimena; Bovet, Pascal; Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S; Grammatikos, Evangelos; Griffiths, Claire; Ingle, Lee; Jung, Christian
To compare the ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk levels in adolescents. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed after a database search for relevant literature (Cochrane, Centre for Review and Dissemination, PubMed, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, BIOSIS citation index, ChildData, metaRegister). 117 records representing 96 studies with 994,595 participants were included in the systematic review, 14 of which (13 studies, n=14,610) were eligible for the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that BMI was a strong indicator of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin; but not total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein or glucose. Few studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis considering WC or WHtR (n≤2). The narrative synthesis found measures of central adiposity to be consistently valid indicators of the same risk factors as BMI. BMI was an indicator of CVD risk. WC and WHtR were efficacious for indicating the same risk factors BMI performed strongly for, though there was insufficient evidence to judge the relative strength of each measure possibly due to heterogeneity in the methods for measuring and classifying WC.
Elaine Machado Pingueiro OKADA
Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish on the reduction of caries incidence during fixed orthodontic treatment. The literature searches involved The Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, OpenSigle databases and manual searches. The search on OpenSigle did not produce any additional articles. Clinical studies conducted in patients with orthodontic fixed appliances that used professional application of chlorhexidine varnish were included. The effect-size was calculated and a meta-analysis was performed. From 182 abstracts, a total of six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After reading the full articles, one was excluded because of lack of a control group. Three articles were used for continuous data analysis, and two articles were used for the dichotomous data analysis. The pooled meta-analysis with continuous data demonstrated chlorhexidine varnish effectiveness on caries reduction (p = 0.003, with a mean difference and confidence interval of −1.49 [−2.47, −0.51]. On the basis of the pooled meta-analysis of continuous data, we were able to conclude that professional application of chlorhexidine varnish is effective in caries incidence reduction during fixed orthodontic treatment.
Imberger, G; Orr, A; Thorlund, K; Wetterslev, J; Myles, P; Møller, A M
The role of nitrous oxide in modern anaesthetic practice is contentious. One concern is that exposure to nitrous oxide may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. ENIGMA II is a large randomized clinical trial currently underway which is investigating nitrous oxide and cardiovascular complications. Before the completion of this trial, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, using Cochrane methodology, on the outcomes that make up the composite primary outcome. We used conventional meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). We reviewed 8282 abstracts and selected 138 that fulfilled our criteria for study type, population, and intervention. We attempted to contact the authors of all the selected publications to check for unpublished outcome data. Thirteen trials had outcome data eligible for our outcomes. We assessed three of these trials as having a low risk of bias. Using conventional meta-analysis, the relative risk of short-term mortality in the nitrous oxide group was 1.38 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-8.71] and the relative risk of long-term mortality in the nitrous oxide group was 0.94 (95% CI 0.80-1.10). In both cases, TSA demonstrated that the data were far too sparse to make any conclusions. There were insufficient data to perform meta-analysis for stroke, myocardial infarct, pulmonary embolus, or cardiac arrest. This systematic review demonstrated that we currently do not have robust evidence for how nitrous oxide used as part of general anaesthesia affects mortality and cardiovascular complications.
Udani, Jay; Tan, Ollie; Molina, Jhanna
The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects), and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects), as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001), and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02). This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.
Full Text Available The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects, and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects, as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval, −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001, and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02. This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.
Lee, Young Ho
The number of medical studies being published is increasing exponentially, and clinicians must routinely process large amounts of new information. Moreover, the results of individual studies are often insufficient to provide confident answers, as their results are not consistently reproducible. A meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of different studies on the same topic and it may resolve conflicts among studies. Meta-analysis is being used increasingly and plays an important role in medical research. This review introduces the basic concepts, steps, advantages, and caveats of meta-analysis, to help clinicians understand it in clinical practice and research. A major advantage of a meta-analysis is that it produces a precise estimate of the effect size, with considerably increased statistical power, which is important when the power of the primary study is limited because of a small sample size. A meta-analysis may yield conclusive results when individual studies are inconclusive. Furthermore, meta-analyses investigate the source of variation and different effects among subgroups. In summary, a meta-analysis is an objective, quantitative method that provides less biased estimates on a specific topic. Understanding how to conduct a meta-analysis aids clinicians in the process of making clinical decisions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent success of genome-wide association studies in identifying novel loci contributing effects to complex human traits, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, much of the genetic component of variation in these phenotypes remains unexplained. One way to improving power to detect further novel loci is through meta-analysis of studies from the same population, increasing the sample size over any individual study. Although statistical software analysis packages incorporate routines for meta-analysis, they are ill equipped to meet the challenges of the scale and complexity of data generated in genome-wide association studies. Results We have developed flexible, open-source software for the meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. The software incorporates a variety of error trapping facilities, and provides a range of meta-analysis summary statistics. The software is distributed with scripts that allow simple formatting of files containing the results of each association study and generate graphical summaries of genome-wide meta-analysis results. Conclusions The GWAMA (Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis software has been developed to perform meta-analysis of summary statistics generated from genome-wide association studies of dichotomous phenotypes or quantitative traits. Software with source files, documentation and example data files are freely available online at http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/GWAMA.
Lee, Young Ho
The number of medical studies being published is increasing exponentially, and clinicians must routinely process large amounts of new information. Moreover, the results of individual studies are often insufficient to provide confident answers, as their results are not consistently reproducible. A meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of different studies on the same topic and it may resolve conflicts among studies. Meta-analysis is being used increasingly and plays an important role in medical research. This review introduces the basic concepts, steps, advantages, and caveats of meta-analysis, to help clinicians understand it in clinical practice and research. A major advantage of a meta-analysis is that it produces a precise estimate of the effect size, with considerably increased statistical power, which is important when the power of the primary study is limited because of a small sample size. A meta-analysis may yield conclusive results when individual studies are inconclusive. Furthermore, meta-analyses investigate the source of variation and different effects among subgroups. In summary, a meta-analysis is an objective, quantitative method that provides less biased estimates on a specific topic. Understanding how to conduct a meta-analysis aids clinicians in the process of making clinical decisions. PMID:29277096
Editor's note: Albert Mason discovered an unpublished paper by Donald Meltzer dating from around 1968 and has made the text available to the IJP. He writes "my best guess is that Meltzer gave me the paper to read/approve about the time I was preparing to move to Los Angeles (1968-69) and that I hastily packed it away with other papers. It got buried, and only came to light recently, kind of like a lost score that turns up in someone's attic!" The patient Meltzer discusses in his paper is a patient who Dr Mason treated for approximately 11 years, and about whom Dr Mason consulted with Dr Meltzer early in the treatment. Dr Mason has also provided the original report he wrote about the patient in the 1960s. Following an introduction by Dr Abbot Bronstein, we have published extracts from Dr Mason's report, including the following: details about the case, the two dreams which Dr Mason believes were 'turning point dreams', and a third dream called the 'hula hula dream', as well as the clinical material leading up to it. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Sahyouni, Ronald; Mahboubi, Hossein; Tran, Peter; Roufail, John S; Chen, Jefferson W
Initial management strategies of chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) are controversial and range from bedside twist-drill or burr-hole drainage to craniotomy with membranectomy (CWM). We aim to 1) perform a meta-analysis of the available data on the outcomes of CWM for treatment of cSDH in published English-language literature and 2) evaluate collective outcomes of CWM with respect to morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rates. A search of English-language literature performed in PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane databases using key words ("subdural hematoma" or "chronic subdural hematoma") and ("membrane" or "membranectomy") from inception to December 2016 was conducted. Studies reporting outcomes of CWM in cSDH were included. Mortality, morbidity, follow-up duration, and recurrence rate data were extracted and analyzed. Pooled estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for all outcomes using a random-effects model. Of 301 articles found, 17 articles containing 5369 patients met our eligibility criteria. Mean follow-up duration ranged from 1-30.8 months. Collective mean mortality and morbidity rates were 3.7% and 6.9%, respectively (95% CI 2-5.4% and 2.1-11.6%; P < 0.001 and P = 0.004). The collective mean recurrence rate was 7.6% (95% CI: 5%-10.2%; P < 0.001). Clinical data on outcomes of CWM in cSDH are limited to single institutional analyses, with considerable variation in recurrence rates and follow-up time. The rates we reported are comparable with the 5% mortality and 3%-12% morbidity rates and lower than the 10%-21% recurrence rate in the literature for burr holes or craniotomy without membranectomy. This meta-analysis provides an in-depth analysis of available data and reviews reported outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bartholomew, Alex J; Houk, Anna K; Pulcrano, Marisa; Shara, Nawar M; Kwagyan, John; Jackson, Patrick G; Sosin, Michael
Surgeon burnout compromises the quality of life of physicians and the delivery of care to patients. Burnout rates and interpretation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) complicates the interpretation of surgeon burnout. The purpose of this study is to apply a standardized interpretation of severe surgeon burnout termed, "burnout syndrome" to analyze inherent variation within surgical specialties. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies reporting MBI data by surgical specialty. Data extraction was performed to isolate surgeon specific data. A meta-analysis was performed. A total of 16 cross-sectional studies were included in this meta-analysis, totaling 3581 subjects. A random effects model approximated burnout syndrome at 3.0% (95% CI: 2.0%-5.0%; I 2 = 78.1%). Subscale analysis of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment indicated subscale burnout in 30.0% (CI: 25.0%-36.0%; I 2 = 93.2%), 34.0% (CI: 25.0%-43.0%; I 2 = 96.9%), and 25.0% (CI: 18.0%-32.0%; I 2 = 96.5%) of surgeons, respectively. Significant differences (p burnout termed "burnout syndrome," although surgeon burnout may occur in up to 34% of surgeons, characterized by high burnout in 1 of 3 subscales. Surgical specialties have significantly different rates of burnout subscales. Future burnout studies should target the specialty-specific level to understand inherent differences in an effort to better understand methods of improving surgeon burnout. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rona, Roberto J; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte
There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food allergy. We summarized the information in 5 categories: self-reported symptoms, specific IgE positive, specific skin prick test positive, symptoms combined with sensitization, and food challenge studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for publications since 1990. The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared with objective measures. There was marked heterogeneity between studies regardless of type of assessment or food item considered, and in most analyses this persisted after age stratification. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. There is a marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of food allergy that could be a result of differences in study design or methodology, or differences between populations. We recommend that measurements be made by using standardized methods, if possible food challenge. We need to be cautious in estimates of prevalence based only on self-reported food allergy.
Santangelo, Gabriella; Garramone, Federica; Baiano, Chiara; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Piscopo, Fausta; Raimo, Simona; Vitale, Carmine
Personality changes are considered pre-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional studies revealed that PD patients were more introvert, apprehensive, and cautious than healthy subjects (HS), whereas other studies failed to disclose these behavioural traits. Some studies found mixed results concerning Novelty Seeking (NS) and Harm Avoidance (HA) profiles in PD patients. To better clarify the personality profile in PD we performed a meta-analysis on studies exploring such topic according to both Cloninger's Psychobiological Model (PM) and Big Five Model (BFM) METHODS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies evaluating the personality in PD patients compared with HS. The outcomes were the dimensions of the temperament and character of the PM and personality traits of BFM. Effect sizes from data reported in the primary studies were computed using Hedges'g unbiased approach. Heterogeneity among the studies and publication bias were assessed. Meta-regressions were conducted with age at evaluation, gender, schooling, and type of personality trait tools as moderators. As for PM, PD patients scored higher on HA and lower on NS than HS. No difference was found on Reward Dependence, Perseverance/Persistence and on character level. As for BFM, higher levels of Neuroticism, but lower levels of Openness and Extraversion were associated with PD. The personality profile in PD is characterized by high Neuroticism and HA, and by low Openness, Extraversion and NS. The personality profile delineated in the present study on PD patients seems to reflect the premorbid one and might contribute to development and persistence of affective disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available High priority areas for conservation are typically identified based on ad hoc methods without supporting data due to a lack of scientific resources and staff. The objective of this study was to show how unpublished data in combination with citizen science can be useful for identifying biodiversity hotspot areas using Thailand as an example. Species records were aggregated from various sources both published (records permanently archived or temporarily available on the internet and unpublished data (derived from interviews. Data from 2001 to 2016 were used to identify hotspot areas. In total, 15% of the data were obtained from personal interviews. Most Thai hotspot areas were already inside government protected areas. Amphibians and reptiles were the taxa that unpublished data had the greatest influence on hotspot identification, while this influence was least for birds. Spatial coverage of species records showed a bias toward particular regions and areas probably due to a number of factors including their international reputation and previous species records. Results from this project reveal the importance of unpublished records as a source for identifying hotspot locations especially for less studied species groups and indicates the continued need for encouraging scientists as well as amateur naturalists to report their observations to archived websites and/or publish in peer-reviewed journals. Keywords: Citizen science, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals
Systematic reviews and pairwise meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, at the intersection of clinical medicine, epidemiology and statistics, are positioned at the top of evidence-based practice hierarchy. These are important tools to base drugs approval, clinical protocols and guidelines formulation and for decision-making. However, this traditional technique only partially yield information that clinicians, patients and policy-makers need to make informed decisions, since it usually compares only two interventions at the time. In the market, regardless the clinical condition under evaluation, usually many interventions are available and few of them have been studied in head-to-head studies. This scenario precludes conclusions to be drawn from comparisons of all interventions profile (e.g. efficacy and safety). The recent development and introduction of a new technique – usually referred as network meta-analysis, indirect meta-analysis, multiple or mixed treatment comparisons – has allowed the estimation of metrics for all possible comparisons in the same model, simultaneously gathering direct and indirect evidence. Over the last years this statistical tool has matured as technique with models available for all types of raw data, producing different pooled effect measures, using both Frequentist and Bayesian frameworks, with different software packages. However, the conduction, report and interpretation of network meta-analysis still poses multiple challenges that should be carefully considered, especially because this technique inherits all assumptions from pairwise meta-analysis but with increased complexity. Thus, we aim to provide a basic explanation of network meta-analysis conduction, highlighting its risks and benefits for evidence-based practice, including information on statistical methods evolution, assumptions and steps for performing the analysis. PMID:28503228
A G van Bergeijk, Peter; Lazzaroni, Sara
We use the case of the macroeconomic impact of natural disasters to analyze strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 60 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and therefore the need to synthesize the available research is evident. Meta-analysis is a useful method in this field. An important aim of our article is to show how one can use the identified methodological characteristics to better understand the robustness and importance of new findings. To provide a comparative perspective, we contrast our meta-analysis and its findings with the major influential research synthesis in the field: the IPCC's 2012 special report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. We show that the IPCC could have been more confident about the negative economic impact of disasters and more transparent on inclusion and qualification of studies, if it had been complemented by a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that, controlling for modeling strategies and data set, the impact of disasters is significantly negative. The evidence is strongest for direct costs studies where we see no difference between our larger sample and the studies included in the IPCC report. Direct cost studies and indirect cost studies differ significantly, both in terms of the confidence that can be attached to a negative impact of natural disasters and in terms of the sources of heterogeneity of the findings reported in the primary studies. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C
This study aimed to explore whether TYK2 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune rheumatic diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis on the association between TYK2 polymorphisms and autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Twelve studies with a total of 16,335 patients and 30,065 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed an association between rheumatic diseases and the 2 allele of the TYK2 rs2304256 (OR = 0.885, 95% CI = 0.802-0.978, p = 0.016). Furthermore, stratification by ethnicity identified a significant association between this polymorphism and rheumatic diseases in Caucasians (OR = 0.822, 95% CI = 0.706-0.889, p = 9.5 × 10(-7)), but not in Asians (OR = 1.127, 95% CI = 0.835-1.522, p = 0.434). Meta-analysis by rheumatic disease type revealed a significant association between the 2 allele of the TYK2 rs2304256 and SLE in Caucasians (OR = 0.737, 95% CI = 0.673-0.808, p rheumatic diseases in Caucasians (OR = 0.812, 95% CI = 0.661-0.997, p = 0.046) but not in Asians. Interestingly, the rs280519 polymorphism was significantly associated with susceptibility to SLE both in Caucasians and Asians. However, no associations were found between the rs12720270, rs280500, rs280523 and rs8108236 polymorphisms and susceptibility to rheumatic diseases. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the TYK2 rs2304256 and rs12720356 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to rheumatic diseases, rs2304256 polymorphism is associated with SLE in Caucasians, and rs280519 polymorphism is associated with SLE in Caucasians and Asians. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi
Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total
Full Text Available Research indicates that higher levels of traffic-related pollution exposure increase the risk of diabetes, but the association between road proximity and diabetes risk remains unclear. To assess and quantify the association between residential proximity to major roadways and type 2 diabetes, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Embase, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for eligible studies. Using a random-effects meta-analysis, the summary relative risks (RRs were calculated. Bayesian meta-analysis was also performed. Eight studies (6 cohort and 2 cross-sectional with 158,576 participants were finally included. The summary unadjusted RR for type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.44, p = 0.001, I2 = 48.1%. The summary adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03–1.22, p = 0.01, I2 = 17.9%. After excluding two cross-sectional studies, the summary results suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could increase type 2 diabetes risk (Adjusted RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.27, p = 0.025, I2 = 36.6%. Bayesian meta-analysis showed that the unadjusted RR and adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways were 1.22 (95% credibility interval: 1.06–1.55 and 1.13 (95% credibility interval: 1.01–1.31, respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could significantly increase risk of type 2 diabetes, and it is an independent risk factor of type 2 diabetes. More well-designed studies are needed to further strengthen the evidence.
Nguyen, Tin; Tagett, Rebecca; Donato, Michele; Mitrea, Cristina; Draghici, Sorin
The accumulation of high-throughput data in public repositories creates a pressing need for integrative analysis of multiple datasets from independent experiments. However, study heterogeneity, study bias, outliers and the lack of power of available methods present real challenge in integrating genomic data. One practical drawback of many P-value-based meta-analysis methods, including Fisher's, Stouffer's, minP and maxP, is that they are sensitive to outliers. Another drawback is that, because they perform just one statistical test for each individual experiment, they may not fully exploit the potentially large number of samples within each study. We propose a novel bi-level meta-analysis approach that employs the additive method and the Central Limit Theorem within each individual experiment and also across multiple experiments. We prove that the bi-level framework is robust against bias, less sensitive to outliers than other methods, and more sensitive to small changes in signal. For comparative analysis, we demonstrate that the intra-experiment analysis has more power than the equivalent statistical test performed on a single large experiment. For pathway analysis, we compare the proposed framework versus classical meta-analysis approaches (Fisher's, Stouffer's and the additive method) as well as against a dedicated pathway meta-analysis package (MetaPath), using 1252 samples from 21 datasets related to three human diseases, acute myeloid leukemia (9 datasets), type II diabetes (5 datasets) and Alzheimer's disease (7 datasets). Our framework outperforms its competitors to correctly identify pathways relevant to the phenotypes. The framework is sufficiently general to be applied to any type of statistical meta-analysis. The R scripts are available on demand from the authors. firstname.lastname@example.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e
The applicability of tables derived from the data Moyer used to other ethnic groups has ... This implies that Moyer's method of prediction may have population variations. ... Key Words: meta-analysis, mixed dentition analysis, Moyer's method
Sainsbury, A; Sanders, D S; Ford, A C
There may be a positive association between coeliac disease and serum hypertransaminasaemia but evidence is conflicting. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of coeliac disease in adults presenting with cryptogenic serum hypertransaminasaemia and the prevalence of hypertransaminasaemia in patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to August 2010. Case series and case-control studies recruiting adults with either cryptogenic hypertransaminasaemia that applied serological tests for coeliac disease and/or distal duodenal biopsy to participants or newly diagnosed biopsy-proven coeliac disease that assessed serum transaminases were eligible. The pooled prevalence of coeliac disease in individuals presenting with abnormal serum transaminases and the pooled prevalence of hypertransaminasaemia in newly diagnosed coeliac disease were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Eleven eligible studies were identified. Pooled prevalences of positive coeliac serology and biopsy-proven coeliac disease in cryptogenic hypertransaminasaemia were 6% (95% CI 3% to 10%) and 4% (95% CI 1% to 7%) respectively. Pooled prevalence of abnormal serum transaminases in newly diagnosed coeliac disease was 27% (95% CI 13% to 44%). Exclusion of gluten led to normalisation of serum transaminase levels in 63% to 90% of patients within 1 year. Undetected coeliac disease is a potential cause for cryptogenic hypertransaminasaemia in 3% to 4% of cases. More than 20% of individuals with newly diagnosed coeliac disease may have abnormal serum transaminases and these normalise on a gluten-free diet in the majority of cases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Zhang, Yan; Yu, Dan-Dan; Cui, De-Hua; Liao, Xing; Guo, Hua
To evaluate the report quality of intervention-related systematic reviews or Meta-analysis published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, we searched CNKI and China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica webpages to collect intervention-related systematic reviews or Meta-analysis since the first issue of the magazine. A total of 40 systematic reviews or Meta-analysis reports were included, including one network Meta-analysis. According to the PRISMA statement published in 2009, the report quality of the systematic reviews or Meta-analysis was evaluated. According to the results, 3 had the low quality, 30 had the medium quality, and 7 had the high quality. The average score for all of items was 30 points (21-30.5 points for the medium quality). The 17 high-quality (31-40 points) report items were title, rationale, objectives, information sources, study selection, data collection process, data items, risk of bias in individual studies, summary measures, risk of bias across studies, study selection, study characteristics, risk of bias within studies, results of individual studies, synthesis of results, risk of bias across studies and funding; the 4 medium-quality (21-30.5 points) reporting items were eligibility criteria, search, limitations and conclusions; and the 6 low-quality (Materia Medica is medium, and it is necessary to improve the quality standard of the report. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Douglas J. Bryant; Wang F; Kelley Deardeuff; Emily Zoccoli; Chang S. Nam
We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate current research that aims to map the neural correlates of two typical conditions of moral judgment: right-wrong moral judgments and decision-making in moral dilemmas. Utilizing the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method, we conducted a meta-analysis using neuroimaging data obtained from twenty-one previous studies that measured responses in one or the other of these conditions. We found that across the studies (n = 400), distinct neural circuit...
Vimaleswaran, Karani Santhanakrishnan; Luan, Jian'an; Andersen, Gitte
The protein encoded by the PPARGC1A gene is expressed at high levels in metabolically active tissues and is involved in the control of oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species detoxification. Several recent reports suggest that the PPARGC1A Gly482Ser (rs8192678) missense polymorphism may relate...... inversely with blood pressure. We used conventional meta-analysis methods to assess the association between Gly482Ser and systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressures (DBP) or hypertension in 13,949 individuals from 17 studies, of which 6,042 were previously unpublished observations. The studies comprised...
Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone
This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students’ academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade
Zhai, Ting; Li, Shi-Zhen; Fan, Xin-Tong; Tian, Zhao; Lu, Xiao-Qing; Dong, Jing
The role of nesfatin-1 in glucose homeostasis has been investigated previously. However, although numerous studies have examined the relationships between circulating nesfatin-1 levels and type 2 diabetes, the conclusions are contradictory. We aimed to probe the relationship between circulating nesfatin-1 levels and type 2 diabetes by meta-analysis. Seven studies including 328 type 2 diabetes patients and 294 control subjects were included. Although there was no obvious difference in circulat...
Altayar, Osama; Al Nofal, Alaa; Carranza Leon, B. Gisella; Prokop, Larry J.; Wang, Zhen; Murad, M. Hassan
Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that evaluated the effect of hormonal therapy [estrogen therapy including oral contraceptive pills (OCP)] and bisphosphonates in preventing bone loss in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Methods: We searched several electronic databases for controlled and noncontrolled studies that enrolled females of any age presenting with FHA (including athletic, weight loss, and stress-associated amenorrhea/olig...
Song Joon J
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing abundance of microarray data, statistical methods are increasingly needed to integrate results across studies. Two common approaches for meta-analysis of microarrays include either combining gene expression measures across studies or combining summaries such as p-values, probabilities or ranks. Here, we compare two Bayesian meta-analysis models that are analogous to these methods. Results Two Bayesian meta-analysis models for microarray data have recently been introduced. The first model combines standardized gene expression measures across studies into an overall mean, accounting for inter-study variability, while the second combines probabilities of differential expression without combining expression values. Both models produce the gene-specific posterior probability of differential expression, which is the basis for inference. Since the standardized expression integration model includes inter-study variability, it may improve accuracy of results versus the probability integration model. However, due to the small number of studies typical in microarray meta-analyses, the variability between studies is challenging to estimate. The probability integration model eliminates the need to model variability between studies, and thus its implementation is more straightforward. We found in simulations of two and five studies that combining probabilities outperformed combining standardized gene expression measures for three comparison values: the percent of true discovered genes in meta-analysis versus individual studies; the percent of true genes omitted in meta-analysis versus separate studies, and the number of true discovered genes for fixed levels of Bayesian false discovery. We identified similar results when pooling two independent studies of Bacillus subtilis. We assumed that each study was produced from the same microarray platform with only two conditions: a treatment and control, and that the data sets
Simental-Mendia, Luis E; Pirro, Matteo; Atkin, Stephen L; Banach, Maciej; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Sahebkar, Amirhossein
Fibrinogen is a key mediator of thrombosis and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Because metformin has shown a potential protective effect on different atherothrombotic risk factors, we assessed in this meta-analysis its effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials evaluating the effect of metformin administration on fibrinogen levels. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar databases (by June 2, 2017) and quality of studies was performed according to Cochrane criteria. Quantitative data synthesis was conducted using a random-effects model and sensitivity analysis by the leave-one-out method. Meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the modifiers of treatment response. Meta-analysis of data from 9 randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials with 2302 patients comprising 10 treatment arms did not suggest a significant change in plasma fibrinogen concentrations following metformin therapy (WMD: -0.25 g/L, 95% CI: -0.53, 0.04, p = 0.092). The effect size was robust in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis and remained non-significant after omission of each single study from the meta-analysis. No significant effect of metformin on plasma fibrinogen concentrations was demonstrated in the current meta-analysis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Abdulla, Jawdat; Sivertsen, Jacob; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang
a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, was to explore whether MSCT is a reliable method for AVA quantification, and simultaneously to assess the coronary anatomy in patients with AVS. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search and meta-analysis was conducted that included 14 studies...... totaling 470 patients. The meta-analysis was carried out to examine the reliability of MSCT compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Seven studies including 266 patients with AVS were also eligible for a secondary analysis to compare the accuracy of MSCT...... was concordant with planimetry by TEE, with a small bias of -0.02 (95% CI -0.16, 0.11) cm2 (p = 0.71). MSCT, when compared to invasive angiography for the detection of significant coronary stenosis, showed sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.5% (95% CI 88-99), 81% (95% CI 75-86)%, and 53 (95...
Trahan, Lisa; Stuebing, Karla K.; Hiscock, Merril K.; Fletcher, Jack M.
The “Flynn effect” refers to the observed rise in IQ scores over time, resulting in norms obsolescence. Although the Flynn effect is widely accepted, most approaches to estimating it have relied upon “scorecard” approaches that make estimates of its magnitude and error of measurement controversial and prevent determination of factors that moderate the Flynn effect across different IQ tests. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the magnitude of the Flynn effect with a higher degree of precision, to determine the error of measurement, and to assess the impact of several moderator variables on the mean effect size. Across 285 studies (N = 14,031) since 1951 with administrations of two intelligence tests with different normative bases, the meta-analytic mean was 2.31, 95% CI [1.99, 2.64], standard score points per decade. The mean effect size for 53 comparisons (N = 3,951) (excluding three atypical studies that inflate the estimates) involving modern (since 1972) Stanford-Binet and Wechsler IQ tests (2.93, 95% CI [2.3, 3.5], IQ points per decade) was comparable to previous estimates of about 3 points per decade, but not consistent with the hypothesis that the Flynn effect is diminishing. For modern tests, study sample (larger increases for validation research samples vs. test standardization samples) and order of administration explained unique variance in the Flynn effect, but age and ability level were not significant moderators. These results supported previous estimates of the Flynn effect and its robustness across different age groups, measures, samples, and levels of performance. PMID:24979188
Background The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of homicide recidivists among population studies of homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of homicide associated with schizophrenia conducted in defined populations and indexed in Medline, PsychINFO, or Embase between January 1960 and November 2013. Published data was supplemented with unpublished data about recidivism obtained by personal communication from the authors of published studies of homicide and schizophrenia. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of homicide recidivists. Results Three studies reported that 4.3%, 4.5%, and 10.7% of homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed an earlier homicide. Unpublished data were obtained from the authors of 11 studies of homicide in schizophrenia published in English between 1980 and 2013. The authors of 2 studies reported a single case of homicide recidivism and the authors of 9 studies reported no cases. The rates of homicide recidivism between studies were highly heterogeneous (I-square = 79). The pooled estimate of the proportion of homicide offenders with schizophrenia who had committed an earlier homicide was 2.3% (95% CI (Confidence Interval) 0.07% to 7.2%), a figure that was not reported in any individual study. The pooled proportion of homicide recidivists from published reports was more than ten times greater (8.6%, 95% CI 5.7%-12.9%) than the pooled proportion of homicide recidivists estimated from data provided by personal communication (0.06%, 95% CI 0.02% to 1.8%). Conclusions In most jurisdictions, homicide recidivism by people with schizophrenia is less common than published reports have suggested. The reasons for the variation in the rates of homicide recidivism between studies are unclear, although in most jurisdictions long-term secure treatment and supervision after release appears to be effective in
Veglia, Fabrizio; Loft, Steffen; Matullo, Giuseppe
in which bulky DNA adducts have been measured in blood samples collected from healthy subjects (N = 1947; average follow-up 51-137 months). In addition, we have performed a meta-analysis by identifying all articles on the same subject published up to the end of 2006, including case-control studies......). The association was evident only in current smokers and was absent in former smokers. Also the meta-analysis, which included both lung and bladder cancers, showed a statistically significant association in current smokers, whereas the results in never smokers were equivocal; in former smokers, no association......Bulky DNA adducts are biomarkers of exposure to aromatic compounds and of the ability of the individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Their ability to predict cancer onset is uncertain. We have performed a pooled analysis of three prospective studies on cancer risk...
Zatti, Cleonice; Rosa, Virgínia; Barros, Alcina; Valdivia, Lucianne; Calegaro, Vitor Crestani; Freitas, Lúcia Helena; Ceresér, Keila Maria Mendes; Rocha, Neusa Sica da; Bastos, Andre Goettems; Schuch, Felipe Barreto
Childhood trauma (CT) is a modifiable risk factor for lifetime suicide attempts (SA). However, the extent to which each type of CT increases SA risk is unclear. This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published in the last 10 years about the relationship between CT and lifetime SA risk. The PUBMED, PsycINFO, ISI, and EMBASE databases were searched for cohort studies that reported AS during follow-up and included an assessment of CT. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify potential effects of each type of CT on SA. Seven unique studies were included for review. Sexual (n=6, OR=3.73, 95%CI 2.94-4.75, pbroken home were not significantly associated with further SA. The modes of CT that most contribute to SA in later life are physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical neglect, in descending order. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yuan, Ju; Lu, Xiuqing; Yue, Yan
Radioactive 131I is currently reported to be a potential effective intervention for Graves' Disease treatment in China. Whether 131I treatment was associated with effective outcome or reduced risk of side effects, reccurence rate remained unknown. Eligible studies were selected from Chinese VIP, Wangfang, CNKI databases using the keywords "Iodine" and "Graves Disease". Finally, 13 clinical trials met the inclusion criterion and were included this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 1355 patients diagnosed of Graves' Disease with regular anti-thyroid drugs oral administration and 1320 patients with 131I therapy. The results showed that there was significant symptom improvement with radioactive iodine intervention (Odd Ratio (OR)=4.50, 95% CI [3.55, 5.71], PGraves' Disease. Treatment with 131I was associated with better clinical outcome; it reduced side effects and reccurence rate but increased hypothyroidism in Graves' Disease.
Roque, Matheus; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the literature and identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in order to answer if performing follicular flushing during the oocyte retrieval may improve the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes. An exhaustive electronic search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Only RCTs comparing follicular flushing to aspiration only during ART, were included. We included 5 trials, with a total of 482 patients randomized, with median ages ranging from 30.5 to 37.1. The data analyses did not show significant differences regarding live birth rate, clinical pregnancies rates, and the number of oocytes retrieved. The duration of oocyte retrieval was significantly increased in the follicular flushing group. The results from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no advantage to use of routine follicular flushing during OR in an unselected group of patients.
Guo, Hui-Wen; Yuan, Tang-Zhan; Chen, Jia-Xi; Zheng, Yang
The albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) has been widely reported to be a potential predictor of prognosis in digestive system cancers (DSCs), but convincing conclusions have not been made. Therefore, herein, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies regarding this topic to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with DSCs. Three databases, including PubMed, EMBase, and Web of science, were searched comprehensively for eligible studies through September 8, 2017. The outcomes of interest included overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). In our meta-analysis, pooled analysis of 13 studies with 9269 patients showed that a low AGR was significantly correlated with poor OS (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.57-2.38; P digestive system cancers. A low pretreatment AGR may be a useful predictive prognostic biomarker in human digestive system cancers.
Guo, Ming; Qu, Hua; Xu, Lin; Shi, Da-Zhuo
Several epidemiological investigations have evaluated the correlation between tea consumption and risk of osteoporosis, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. We searched for all relevant studies including cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies published from database inception to July 15, 2016, using MEDLINE EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Polled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the random-effect model. Fourteen articles (16 studies) that examined 138523 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Seven studies concerning bone mineral density (BMD) showed an increase in BMD with tea consumption, including 4 cross-sectional studies (OR, 0.04, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.08) and 3 cohort studies (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.01-0.01). The remaining 9 studies concerning fracture, including 6 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies, showed no association between tea consumption and osteoporotic fracture (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-1.01). This updated meta-analysis demonstrates that tea consumption could increase BMD, but the association with osteoporotic fracture requires further investigation. Together, the results highlight the need for future, high-quality-designed clinical trials on tea consumption and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rogozinska, Ewelina; D'Amico, M. I.; Khan, Khalid S
Objective To develop maternal, fetal, and neonatal composite outcomes relevant to the evaluation of diet and lifestyle interventions in pregnancy by individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Design Delphi survey. Setting The International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) collaborative...... by IPD meta-analysis. Tweetable abstract Composite outcomes in IPD meta-analysis on diet and lifestyle in pregnancy. Tweetable abstract Composite outcomes in IPD meta-analysis on diet and lifestyle in pregnancy. This article includes Author Insights, a video abstract available at https...... and the following were included in the final composite: pre-eclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), elective or emergency caesarean section, and preterm delivery. Of the 27 fetal and neonatal outcomes, nine were further evaluated, with the final composite consisting...
Raskovalova, Tatiana; Deegan, Patrick B; Yang, Ruby; Pavlova, Elena; Stirnemann, Jérome; Labarère, José; Zimran, Ari; Mistry, Pramod K; Berger, Marc
Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency in acid beta-glucosidase. GD exhibits a wide clinical spectrum of disease severity with an unpredictable natural course. Plasma chitotriosidase activity and CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) have been exchangeably used for monitoring GD activity and response to enzyme replacement therapy in conjunction with clinical assessment. Yet, a large-scale head-to-head comparison of these two biomarkers is currently lacking. We propose a collaborative systematic review with meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) to compare the accuracy of plasma chitotriosidase activity and CCL18 in assessing type I (i.e., non-neuropathic) GD severity. Eligible studies include cross-sectional, cohort, and randomized controlled studies recording both plasma chitotriosidase activity and CCL18 level at baseline and/or at follow-up in consecutive children or adult patients with type I GD. Pre-specified surrogate outcomes reflecting GD activity include liver and spleen volume, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and symptomatic bone events with imaging confirmation. Primary studies will be identified by searching Medline (1995 onwards), EMBASE (1995 onwards), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Electronic search will be complemented by contacting research groups in order to identify unpublished relevant studies. Where possible, IPD will be extracted from published articles. Corresponding authors will be invited to collaborate by supplying IPD. The methodological quality of retrieved studies will be appraised for each study outcome, using a checklist adapted from the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The primary outcome will be a composite of liver volume >1.25 multiple of normal (MN), spleen volume >5 MN, hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL, or platelet count <100 × 10 9 /L. Effect size estimates for biomarker comparative accuracy in
Karina Glies Vincents Johansen
Full Text Available Nalmefene is a newly approved drug for alcohol use disorder, but the risk of harms has not been evaluated from empirical trial evidence.To assess the harm of nalmefene administered to individuals diagnosed with substance use or impulse control disorders by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.A search was performed in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014, MEDLINE via PubMed (1950, EMBASE via Ovid (1974, and Clinicaltrials.gov through December 2014.This study included only randomised controlled trials with placebo or active controls that administered nalmefene to adult individuals for treating impulse control and/or substance use disorders. Both published and unpublished randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion.Internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Published information from the trials was supplemented by contact between reviewers and industry sponsor. Data were combined using two meta-approaches in fixed effects models; Peto Odds Ratios and risk differences were reported with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs.Number of patients with serious adverse events, including specific psychiatric serious adverse events and withdrawals due to adverse events.Of 20 potentially relevant studies, 15 randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, and 8 of these provided data enabling the meta-analysis. Overall, serious adverse events did not occur more often in the nalmefene group than in the placebo group (Peto Odds Ratio = 0.97 [95% CI 0.64-1.44]; P = 0.86. Risk of psychiatric serious adverse events was slightly elevated, albeit not at a statistically significant level (Peto Odds Ratio = 1.32 [95% CI 0.62, 2.83]; P = 0.47. Withdrawals due to adverse events were significantly more likely to occur with nalmefene compared to placebo (Peto Odds Ratio = 3.22 [95% CI 2.46-4.22]; P<0.001.The three-fold increased risk of withdrawal from
Bian, Shanshan; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yunguo; Yu, Miaohui; Ma, Jie
Background Dairy product consumption may affect the risk of hip fracture, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. The primary aim of our meta-analysis was to examine and quantify the potential association of dairy product consumption with risk of hip fracture. Methods We searched the databases of PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles from their inception through April 17, 2017. The final analysis included 10 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies. Random-effects models ...
Purewal, S.; Chapman, S. C. E.; van den Akker, O. B. A.
Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to perform an updated investigation of the effects of depression and anxiety on pregnancy outcomes following assisted reproductive technologies. A bibliographic search was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Science Direct databases. Data retrieved were analysed using a random effects model to estimate standardised mean differences. Results Of the 22 included studies, 18 investigated depression, 15 state anxiety, and sev...
Omrani-Navai, Versa; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Yahyapour, Yousef; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Abediankenari, Saeid; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Toghani, Fatima
Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most common cancers and account for nearly half of all cancer-related deaths in Iran. There was a strong association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and urogenital cancers, in particular the cervix. However, there is no clear causal relationship in all types of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, the present study as a systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the prevalence and relation of HPV in GI cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis study assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus in GI cancers in Iran. Data were collected by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID and Iranmedex by English and Persian key words up to August 2016. Key words included: Human Papillomavirus, HPV, Cancer, Neoplasm, Carcinoma, Esophageal, colorectal, Gastrointestinal and Iran articles were entered in the EndNote software and duplicate papers were excluded. Data were extracted and analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software, Version 2 (CMA.V2) and random effects model. Finally, we included 17 studies in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of HPV in Iranian patients with GI cancers was 16.4% (CI95%: 10.4-24.9). Considering all HPV types, the odds ratio of GI cancers in positive patients was 3.03 (CI95%: 1.42-6.45) while in patients with HPV-16 was 3.62 (CI: 1.43-4.82). The results show a strong relationship between HPV infection especially high-risk HPV type 16 and GI cancers in Iranian population.
Bearden, Carrie E; Thompson, Paul M
The Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a global team science effort, now including over 800 scientists spread across 340 institutions in 35 countries, with the shared goal of understanding disease and genetic influences on the brain. This "crowdsourcing" approach to team neuroscience has unprecedented power for advancing our understanding of both typical and atypical human brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Le-Le; Zhang, Zi-Ning; Wu, Xian; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Fu, Ya-Jing; Shang, Hong
A small proportion of HIV-infected patients remain clinically and/or immunologically stable for years, including elite controllers (ECs) who have undetectable viremia (10 years). However, the mechanism of nonprogression needs to be further resolved. In this study, a transcriptome meta-analysis was performed on nonprogressor and progressor microarray data to identify differential transcriptome pathways and potential biomarkers. Using the INMEX (integrative meta-analysis of expression data) program, we performed the meta-analysis to identify consistently differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in nonprogressors and further performed functional interpretation (gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis) of the DEGs identified in the meta-analysis. Five microarray datasets (81 cases and 98 controls in total), including whole blood, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, were collected for meta-analysis. We determined that nonprogressors have reduced expression of important interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), CD38, lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in whole blood, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed a significant enrichment in DEGs that function in the type I interferon signaling pathway. Upregulated pathways, including the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in whole blood, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction in CD4 + T cells and the MAPK signaling pathway in CD8 + T cells, were identified in nonprogressors compared with progressors. In each metabolic functional category, the number of downregulated DEGs was more than the upregulated DEGs, and almost all genes were downregulated DEGs in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the three types of samples. Our transcriptomic meta-analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the gene expression profiles in major blood types of nonprogressors, providing new insights in the understanding of HIV pathogenesis and developing strategies to delay HIV disease progression.
Friebele, Jill C; Peck, Jeffrey; Pan, Xueliang; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Mayerson, Joel L
Over the past 30 years, treatment advances and the addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have led to improved 5-year survival in patients with osteosarcoma. More recent literature suggests the overall prognosis remains highly variable, with little improvement since the introduction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tumor necrosis is an important predictor of patient prognosis. Necrosis of more than 90% correlates with overall survival (OS) approaching 75%. We reviewed the history of osteosarcoma treatment and survival and performed a meta-analysis of the 2000-2011 literature. Forty articles were included in the study. Five-year OS was 63% (95% confidence interval, 60%-66%) in studies that included patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic disease and 71% (95% confidence interval, 67%-76%) in studies that included only patients with nonmetastatic disease. Fifty percent of the patients in the studies of those with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma achieved 90% necrosis on histology. Five-year OS and number of patients achieving 90% necrosis are consistent with previous reports. Research is needed to improve treatment regimens and patient outcomes.
Marwa E. Salem
Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the mangrove ecosystem valuation literature through a meta-regression analysis. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first meta-analysis focusing solely on mangrove forests, whereas previous studies have included different types of wetlands. The number of studies included in the regression analysis is 44 for a total of 145 observations. We include several regressions with the objective of addressing outliers in the data as well as the possible correlations between observations of the same study. We also investigate possible interaction effects between type of service and GDP per capita. Our findings indicate that mangroves exhibit decreasing returns to scale, that GDP per capita has a positive effect on mangrove values and that using the replacement cost and contingent valuation methods produce higher estimates than do other methods. We also find that there are statistically significant interaction effects that influence the data. Finally, the results indicate that employing weighted regressions provide a better fit than others. However, in terms of forecast performance we find that all the estimated models performed similarly and were not able to conclude decisively that one outperforms the other.
Hu, D-H; Yu, S-M
Some studies investigated the association between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the results remained inconclusive. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis. Published studies were searched in PubMed and EMBASE. The strength of association was assessed by calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 6 studies with 1446 HCC patients were included in this meta-analysis. HCC with higher PLR showed an increased death risk (OR = 1.59; 95%CI, 1.15-2.20; P < 0.0001). However, the heterogeneity was high (I2=89.2%). When the study by Li et al. was excluded, the heterogeneity decreased (I2=20%). Further, the result was still positive (OR = 1.70; 95%CI, 1.42-2.04; P < 0.00001). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that PLR was significantly associated with the OS of HCC.
Shigemura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Murata, Y; Sato, T; Tsuchiya, R; Wada, Y
There are several reports regarding total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a previous pelvic osteotomy (PO). However, to our knowledge, until now there has been no formal systematic review and meta-analysis published to summarize the clinical results of THA after a previous PO. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of results of THA after a previous PO. We focus on these questions as follows: does a previous PO affect the results of subsequent THA, such as clinical outcomes, operative time, operative blood loss, and radiological parameters. Using PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, we searched for relevant original papers. The pooling of data was performed using RevMan software (version 5.3, Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). A p-value50%, significant heterogeneity was assumed and a random-effects model was applied for the meta-analysis. A fixed-effects model was applied in the absence of significant heterogeneity. Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that there was no significant difference in postoperative Merle D'Aubigne-Postel score (I 2 =0%, SMD=-0.15, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.06, p=0.17), postoperative Harris hip score (I 2 =60%, SMD=-0.23, 95% CI: -0.50 to 0.05, p=0.10), operative time (I 2 =86%, SMD=0.37, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.82, p=0.11), operative blood loss (I 2 =82%, SMD=0.23, 95% CI: -0.17 to 0.63, p=0.25), and cup abduction angle (I 2 =43%, SMD=-0.08, 95% CI: -0.25 to 0.09, p=0.38) between THA with and without a previous PO. However, cup anteversion angle of THA with a previous PO was significantly smaller than that of without a previous PO (I 2 =77%, SMD=-0.63, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.13, p=0.01). Systematic review and meta-analysis of results of THA after a previous PO was performed. A previous PO did not affect the results of subsequent THA, except for cup anteversion. Because of the low quality evidence currently available, high-quality randomized controlled trials are required
Full Text Available Metallothionein (MT has been extensively investigated as a molecular marker of various types of cancer. In spite of the fact that numerous reviews have been published in this field, no meta-analytical approach has been performed. Therefore, results of to-date immunohistochemistry-based studies were summarized using meta-analysis in this review. Web of science, PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL databases were searched (up to April 30, 2013 and the eligibility of individual studies and heterogeneity among the studies was assessed. Random and fixed effects model meta-analysis was employed depending on the heterogeneity, and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's tests. A total of 77 studies were included with 8,015 tissue samples (4,631 cases and 3,384 controls. A significantly positive association between MT staining and tumors (vs. healthy tissues was observed in head and neck (odds ratio, OR 9.95; 95% CI 5.82-17.03 and ovarian tumors (OR 7.83; 1.09-56.29, and a negative association was ascertained in liver tumors (OR 0.10; 0.03-0.30. No significant associations were identified in breast, colorectal, prostate, thyroid, stomach, bladder, kidney, gallbladder, and uterine cancers and in melanoma. While no associations were identified between MT and tumor staging, a positive association was identified with the tumor grade (OR 1.58; 1.08-2.30. In particular, strong associations were observed in breast, ovarian, uterine and prostate cancers. Borderline significant association of metastatic status and MT staining were determined (OR 1.59; 1.03-2.46, particularly in esophageal cancer. Additionally, a significant association between the patient prognosis and MT staining was also demonstrated (hazard ratio 2.04; 1.47-2.81. However, a high degree of inconsistence was observed in several tumor types, including colorectal, kidney and prostate cancer. Despite the ambiguity in some tumor types, conclusive results are provided in the tumors of
Regehr, Cheryl; Glancy, Dylan; Pitts, Annabel
Recent research has revealed concerning rates of anxiety and depression among university students. Nevertheless, only a small percentage of these students receive treatment from university health services. Universities are thus challenged with instituting preventative programs that address student stress and reduce resultant anxiety and depression. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stress in university students. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Retrieved studies represented a variety of intervention approaches with students in a broad range of programs and disciplines. Twenty-four studies, involving 1431 students were included in the meta-analysis. Cognitive, behavioral and mindfulness interventions were associated with decreased symptoms of anxiety. Secondary outcomes included lower levels of depression and cortisol. Included studies were limited to those published in peer reviewed journals. These studies over-represent interventions with female students in Western countries. Studies on some types of interventions such as psycho-educational and arts based interventions did not have sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. This review provides evidence that cognitive, behavioral, and mindfulness interventions are effective in reducing stress in university students. Universities are encouraged to make such programs widely available to students. In addition however, future work should focus on developing stress reduction programs that attract male students and address their needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee
This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, Phamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808
Ma, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yun-Feng; Peng, Cong-Bin; Yan, Chao; Liu, Zi-Gui; Xu, Wei-Xing
In the past, the efficacy of local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine for total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients was in debate. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine provides better pain relief after THA. We searched Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases to the April 2017. Any studies comparing liposomal bupivacaine and traditional bupivacaine were included in our meta-analysis. The outcomes included visual analog scale (VAS) at 24, 48, and 72 hours, total morphine consumption at 24 hours, and the length of hospital stay. We assessed the pooled data using a random-effect model. Six studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. Our pooled data analysis demonstrated that liposomal bupivacaine was more effective than the traditional bupivacaine in terms of VAS at 24 hours (P = .018) and the length of hospital stay (P = .000). There was no significant difference in terms of the VAS at 48 and 72 hours and total morphine consumption at 24 hours (P >.05). Compared with the traditional bupivacaine, liposomal bupivacaine shows better pain control at 24 hours and reduces the length of hospital stay after THA. Its economic costs must be assessed in multimodal center randomized controlled trials when being recommended as a long-acting alternative analgesic agent for a THA patient.
Gusman, David Jonathan R; Mello-Neto, João M; Alves, Breno Edson S; Matheus, Henrique R; Ervolino, Edilson; Theodoro, Letícia H; de Almeida, Juliano M
Despite clinical trials and reviews attempt to assess a possible relationship between dementia and periodontal disease, no meta-analysis has been performed and this issue remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess severity of periodontitis in subjects with dementia. The search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase/MEDLINE. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk bias (Newcastle-Ottawa scale). Meta-analyses were performed using the means of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) in patients with or without dementia. The mean difference were analyzed (P ≤ 0.05). Fourteen studies were included in the systematic review. In the qualitative analysis, most studies reported higher prevalence of periodontal disease in dementia patients. The studies had low risk of bias and two meta-analyses were performed for each parameter, including or not a cross-sectional study. The meta-analyses including the cross-sectional study demonstrated significant association between dementia and periodontal disease (mean difference: PD = 1.41; CAL = 1.40, P periodontal conditions in dementia patients, due to different study types and the high heterogeneity among them, the meta-analysis does not support the association between dementia and severity of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wijarnpreecha, Karn; Thongprayoon, Charat; Ungprasert, Patompong
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a worldwide public health concern. Coffee might have a protective effect against NAFLD. However, the results of previous reports are conflicting. Therefore, we carried out this meta-analysis to summarize all available data. This study consisted of two meta-analyses. The first meta-analysis included observational studies comparing the risk of NAFLD in patients who did and did not drink coffee. The second analysis included studies comparing the risk of liver fibrosis between NAFLD patients who did and did not drink coffee. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Out of 355 articles, five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and were included in the analysis. The risk of NAFLD in patients who drank coffee was significantly lower than that in patients who did not pooled RR 0.71 (95% CI, 0.60-0.85). We also found a significantly decreased risk of liver fibrosis among NAFLD patients who drank coffee compared with those who did not, with a pooled RR of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.60-0.82). However, it should be noted that the definition of regular coffee consumption varied between studies, which is the main limitation of this meta-analysis. Our study found a significantly decreased risk of NAFLD among coffee drinkers and significantly decreased risk of liver fibrosis among patients with NAFLD who drank coffee on a regular basis. Whether consumption of coffee could be considered a preventative measure against NAFLD needs further investigations.
Pan, Jiajia; Pan, Qiangwei; Chen, Yumei; Zhang, Hongping; Zheng, Xiaodong
Probiotic supplement might be beneficial for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus. PubMed, Embase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcome were fasting serum insulin and fasting plasma glucose. Meta-analysis was performed using the fixed-effect or random-effect model. Six RCTs involving 830 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotic supplementation intervention was found to significantly reduce fasting serum insulin (Std. mean difference = -0.95; 95% CI = -1.73 to -0.17; p gestational age (Std. mean difference = 0.07; 95% CI = -0.20-0.34; p = .63), and gestational weight (Std. mean difference = -0.11; 95% CI = -0.38-0.16; p = .43). Compared with control intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotic supplementation was found to significantly reduce insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting serum insulin, but had no substantial influence on fasting plasma glucose, gestational age and gestational weight.
Suzi S. Y. Mansu
Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the current best available evidence of the efficacy and safety of acupuncture and related therapies for acne vulgaris. Methods. Eleven English and Chinese databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs of acne vulgaris compared to pharmacotherapies, no treatment, and sham or placebo acupuncture. Methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan software. Results. Twelve RCTs were included in the qualitative review and 10 RCTs were included in meta-analysis. Methodological quality of trials was generally low. The chance of achieving ≥30% change in lesion count in the acupuncture group was no different to the pharmacotherapy group (RR: 1.07 [95% CI 0.98, 1.17]; I2=8% and ≥50% change in lesion count in the acupuncture group was not statistically different to the pharmacotherapy group (RR: 1.07 [95% CI 0.98, 1.17]; I2=50%. Conclusions. While caution should be exercised due to quality of the included studies, acupuncture and auricular acupressure were not statistically different to guideline recommended treatments but were with fewer side effects and may be a treatment option. Future trials should address the methodological weaknesses and meet standard reporting requirements stipulated in STRICTA.
Pallini, Susanna; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Morelli, Mara; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Eisenberg, Nancy
Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age. One hundred six papers met the inclusion criteria and 101 independent samples were used in analyses. When secure attachment status was compared with insecure attachment status, a significant relation (effect size [ES]) with EC favoring children with a secure attachment was found (100 studies; 20,350 participants; r = .20). A stronger relation was found when the same coder evaluated attachment than when the coder was different and when the measure of attachment was continuous; other moderators were not significant. Securely attached children were higher in EC than their avoidant (r = .10) or resistant (r = .17) counterparts. Children with organized attachments were higher in EC than those with disorganized attachments (r = .17), although this finding could be due to publication bias. For some comparisons of subgroups (B vs. A, B vs. C, and/or D vs. all others), moderation was found by source of information (higher ES for same reporter), age at assessment of EC and/or attachment (higher ES at older ages), method of attachment (lower ES for observational measures), time difference between assessments or research design (higher ESs for smaller time differences and concurrent findings), and published versus unpublished studies (higher ES for unpublished studies for A vs. B). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Context Symptoms of methadone poisoning, as one of the most dangerous types of poisoning, are very serious in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe causes and clinical symptoms of methadone poisoning in children admitted to hospitals in Iran. Data Sources Relevant studies published in national and international journals before January 29, 2016 were identified by studying the available databases, including PubMed, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, MagIran, and Irandoc. Study Selection After excluding duplicate, irrelevant, and low-quality articles, relevant papers were entered into the meta-analysis. The prevalence, mean, and standard deviation of methadone poisoning symptoms in children were statistically analyzed, using Stata version 11, and causes of methadone poisoning were presented in tables. Data Extraction Studies with unknown sample sizes, abstracts without access to full text, articles with quality assessment scores below 15.5, and studies carried out on non-Iranian populations were excluded from the meta-analysis. Results During the initial advanced search, 1594 articles were identified. After quality assessment, 12 papers were found eligible for the final systematic review and meta-analysis, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The reported symptoms included drowsiness, vomiting, apnea, cyanosis, seizure, ataxia, and delirium. In the meta-analysis, prevalence of symptoms in referred patients was estimated at 44% (0.95% confidence interval, 0.288 to 0.609. The causes of poisoning in children included accidental feeding by parents, storage of drugs in inappropriate containers, parental addiction, and low educational level of parents. Conclusions It is important to keep methadone in a suitable container away from children. Also, it is essential to focus on educating parents on health issues of their children.
Lucchetta, Rosa Camila; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Pontarolo, Roberto; Radominski, Rosana Bento; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Correr, Cassyano Januário
The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of amfepramone, fenproporex and mazindol as a monotherapy for the treatment of obese or overweight patients. A systematic review of primary studies was conducted, followed by a direct meta-analysis (random effect) and mixed treatment comparison. Medline and other databases were searched. Heterogeneity was explored through I2 associated with a p-value. Of 739 identified publications, 25 were included in the meta-analysis. The global eva...
Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei
We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…
Barrett, Jeffrey C; Clayton, David G; Concannon, Patrick
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disorder that arises from the action of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. We report the findings of a genome-wide association study of T1D, combined in a meta-analysis with two previously published studies. The total sample set included 7......,514 cases and 9,045 reference samples. Forty-one distinct genomic locations provided evidence for association with T1D in the meta-analysis (P
Artang, Ramin; Rome, Eric; Nielsen, Jørn Dalsgaard
. To address these questions, we systematically searched MEDLINE and performed a meta-analysis on randomized trials that compared oral DTIs with warfarin for any indication with end point of MIs after randomization. We furthermore performed a secondary meta-analysis on atrial fibrillation stroke prevention...... to experience an MI than their counterparts treated with warfarin (285 of 23,333 vs 133 of 16,024, odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.66, p = 0.005). For secondary analysis, 8 studies (69,615 patients) were identified that compared warfarin with alternative anticoagulant including factor Xa...
Di, Baoshan; Pan, Bei; Ge, Long; Ma, Jichun; Wu, Yiting; Guo, Tiankang
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a devastating malignant tumor. Although surgical resection may offer a good prognosis and prolong survival, approximately 80% patients with PC are always diagnosed as unresectable tumor. National Comprehensive Cancer Network's (NCCN) recommended gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as efficient treatment. While, according to recent studies, targeted agents might be a better available option for advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis will be to examine the differences of different targeted interventions for advanced/metastatic PC patients. We will conduct this systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian method and according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. To identify relevant studies, 6 electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of science, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), and CBM (Chinese Biological Medical Database) will be searched. The risk of bias in included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be assessed using the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0. And we will use GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence from network meta-analysis. Data will be analyzed using R 3.4.1 software. To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review and network meta-analysis will firstly use both direct and indirect evidence to compare the differences of different targeted agents and targeted agents plus chemotherapy for advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. This is a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis, so the ethical approval and patient consent are not required. We will disseminate the results of this review by submitting to a peer-reviewed journal.
Ikiugu, Moses N; Nissen, Ranelle M; Bellar, Cali; Maassen, Alexya; Van Peursem, Katlin
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of theory-based occupational therapy interventions in improving occupational performance and well-being among people with a mental health diagnosis. The meta-analysis included 11 randomized controlled trials with a total of 520 adult participants with a mental health diagnosis. Outcomes were occupational performance, well-being, or both. We conducted meta-analyses using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 3.0) with occupational performance and well-being as the dependent variables. Results indicated a medium effect of intervention on improving occupational performance (mean Hedge's g = 0.50, Z = 4.05, p occupational therapy interventions may be effective in improving occupational performance and well-being among people with a mental health diagnosis and should be an integral part of rehabilitation services in mental health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan
Assessments of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of alcoholism have not been based on quantitative meta-analysis. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, pooling the effects using odds ratios (ORs) by a generic inverse variance, random effects model. We identified six eligible trials, including 536 participants. There was evidence for a beneficial effect of LSD on alcohol misuse (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.36-2.84; p = 0.0003). Between-trial heterogeneity for the treatment effects was negligible (I² = 0%). Secondary outcomes, risk of bias and limitations are discussed. A single dose of LSD, in the context of various alcoholism treatment programs, is associated with a decrease in alcohol misuse.
Wilson, Laura C
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the dose-response theory as it relates to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) following mass shootings. It was hypothesized that greater exposure to a mass shooting would be associated with greater PTSSs. Trauma exposure in the current study was broadly defined as the extent to which a person experienced or learned about a mass shooting. The meta-analysis identified 11 qualifying studies that included 13 independent effect sizes from a total of 8,047 participants. The overall weighted mean effect size, based on a random effects model, was r = .19, p shooting on the relationship between exposure and PTSSs. Because so few studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, the present study also documents that this area of the literature is underresearched. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Selmer, Randi; Haglund, Bengt; Furu, Kari
Purpose: Compare analyses of a pooled data set on the individual level with aggregate meta-analysis in a multi-database study. Methods: We reanalysed data on 2.3 million births in a Nordic register based cohort study. We compared estimated odds ratios (OR) for the effect of selective serotonin...... covariates in the pooled data set, and 1.53 (1.19–1.96) after country-optimized adjustment. Country-specific adjusted analyses at the substance level were not possible for RVOTO. Conclusion: Results of fixed effects meta-analysis and individual-based analyses of a pooled dataset were similar in this study...... reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and venlafaxine use in pregnancy on any cardiovascular birth defect and the rare outcome right ventricular outflow tract obstructions (RVOTO). Common covariates included maternal age, calendar year, birth order, maternal diabetes, and co-medication. Additional covariates were...
Fischer, Ronald; Derham, Crysta
We report a meta-analysis on the relationship between in-group bias and culture. Our focus is on whether broad macro-contextual variables influence the extent to which individuals favour their in-group. Data from 21,266 participants from 18 societies included in experimental and survey studies were available. Using Hofstede's (1980) and Schwartz (2006) culture-level predictors in a 3-level mixed-effects meta-analysis, we found strong support for the uncertainty-reduction hypothesis. An interaction between Autonomy and real vs artificial groups suggested that in low autonomy contexts, individuals show greater in-group bias for real groups. Implications for social identity theory and intergroup conflict are outlined.
Gunnery, Sarah D; Ruben, Mollie A
A meta-analysis was conducted to compare perceptions of Duchenne smiles, smiles that include activation of the cheek raiser muscle that creates crow's feet around the eyes, with perceptions of non-Duchenne smiles, smiles without cheek raiser activation. In addition to testing the overall effect, moderator analyses were conducted to test how methodological, stimulus-specific and perceiver-specific differences between studies predicted the overall effect size. The meta-analysis found that, overall, Duchenne smiles and people producing Duchenne smiles are rated more positively (i.e., authentic, genuine, real, attractive, trustworthy) than non-Duchenne smiles and people producing non-Duchenne smiles. The difference between Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles was greater when the stimuli were videos rather than photographs, when smiles were elicited naturally rather than through posing paradigms and when Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles were not matched for intensity of the lip corner puller in addition to other perceiver and methodological moderators.
Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Tung; Chen, Chi-Chung
The causal relationships between energy consumption and economic growth have given rise to much discussion but remain controversial. Alternative data sets based on different time spans, countries, energy policies and econometric approaches result in diverse outcomes. A meta analysis using a multinomial logit model with 174 samples governing the relationships between GDP and energy consumption is applied here to investigate the major factors that affect these controversial outcomes. The empirical results have demonstrated how the time spans, subject selections including GDP and energy consumption, econometric models, and tools for greenhouse gases emission reduction characteristics significantly affect these controversial outcomes. - Highlights: ► The controversial casual relationships between energy consumption and GDP are investigated. ► A meta analysis using a multinomial logit model is adopted. ► 74 studies governing the relationships between GDP and energy consumption was collected. ► The empirical results show how the probability of major factors affects such relationships.
Sut, Necdet; Kahyaoglu-Sut, Hatice
This meta-analysis investigates the effect of aromatherapy massage on pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Randomized controlled trials were searched by keywords in several databases (Pubmed, ISI Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar). Six randomized controlled trials that included 362 participants with primary dysmenorrhea, comparing abdominal aromatherapy massage (n = 184) with massage with placebo oils (n = 178), were analyzed in the meta-analysis. The change in the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from the first menstruation cycle to the second cycle at the first menstruation day was used as the primary outcome. Aromatherapy massage with essential oils was superior to massage with placebo oils (standardized mean difference = -1.06 [95% CI: -1.55 to -0.55]). Abdominal aromatherapy massage with essential oils is an effective complementary method to relieve pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vogelius, Ivan R; Bentzen, Søren; Maraldo, Maja V
BACKGROUND: A systematic overview and meta-analysis of studies reporting data on hypothyroidism (HT) after radiation therapy was conducted to identify risk factors for development of HT. METHODS: Published studies were identified from the PubMed and Embase databases and by hand-searching published...... reviews. Studies allowing the extraction of odds ratios (OR) for HT in 1 or more of several candidate clinical risk groups were included. A meta-analysis of the OR for development of HT with or without each of the candidate risk factors was performed. Furthermore, studies allowing the extraction......% risk of HT at a dose of 45 Gy but with considerable variation in the dose response between studies. Chemotherapy and age were not associated with risk of HT in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Several clinical risk factors for HT were identified. The risk of HT increases with increasing radiation dose...
To provide an overview of developmental and medical benefits of music therapy for preterm infants. Meta-analysis. Empirical music studies with preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Evidence-based NICU music therapy (NICU -MT ) was highly beneficial with an overall large significant effect size (Cohen's d = 0.82). Effects because of music were consistently in a positive direction. Results of the current analysis replicated findings of a prior meta-analysis and included extended use of music.(1) Benefits were greatest for live music therapy (MT ) and for use early in the infant's NICU stay (birth weight music listening for pacification, music reinforcement of sucking, and music pacification as the basis for multilayered, multimodal stimulation.
Chen, Chen; Peng, Fei; Xu, Dahai; Cheng, Qinghua
Laser assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA) is looked as a particularly promising non-suture method in future. However, aneurysm formation is one of the main reasons delay the clinical application of LAVA. Some scientists investigated the incidence of aneurysms in animal model. To systematically analyze the literature on reported incidence of aneurysm formation in LAVA therapy, we performed a meta-analysis comparing LAVA with conventional suture anastomosis (CSA) in animal model. Data were systematically retrieved and selected from PUBMED. In total, 23 studies were retrieved. 18 studies were excluded, and 5 studies involving 647 animals were included. Analysis suggested no statistically significant difference between LAVA and CSA (OR 1.24, 95%CI 0.66-2.32, P=0.51). Result of meta analysis shows that the technology of LAVA is very close to clinical application.
Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph
for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78....../116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella......Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews...
Ding, Hui; Dai, Yu; Ning, Zhongyun; Fan, Ning; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Pei; Zhang, Liyuan; Tao, Yan; Wang, Hanzhang
.83-1.28, P = 0.78; the recessive genetic model: OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.84-1.49, P = 0.45). However, there was positive association between MDM2 SNP309 and kidney cancer risk for the allele contrast (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.01), the GG genotype (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.20, P = 0.01), dominant model contrast (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.68, P = 0.05), the recessive genetic model (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.83, P = 0.04).First, only the data of published studies were included in this meta-analysis. Unpublished studies tend to show more negative results; therefore, publication bias may be present. Second, because of the lack of the original data, we did not perform stratification analysis by age, hormone levels, dietary habit, or other variables. This might have caused confounding bias. Third, because the number of studies was relatively small for kidney cancer, the results might not have enough statistical power for us to investigate the association of the polymorphism with kidney cancer susceptibility, and we could not perform subgroup analyses. Finally, there were no studies about Africans in this meta-analysis.In summary, the results of our meta-analysis suggest an increased risk role of the MDM2 SNP T309G in renal cancer. However, there was no association between the MDM2 SNP T309G and prostate cancer risk or between the MDM2 SNP T309G and bladder cancer risk. Moreover, well-designed studies should estimate different ethnicities, degree of malignancy and clinical progression on the association between MDM2 SNP309 and urinary cancer risk in the future.
Ervasti, Jenni; Joensuu, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna
Knowledge about factors influencing return to work (RTW) after depression-related absence is highly relevant, but the evidence is scattered. We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to February 1, 2016 to retrieve cohort studies on the association between various predictive factors and return to work among employees with depression for review and meta-analysis. We also analyzed unpublished data from the Finnish Public Sector study. Most-adjusted estimates were pooled using fixed effects meta-analysis. Eleven published studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria, representing 22 358 person-observations from five different countries. With the additional unpublished data from the 14 101 person-observations from the Finnish Public Sector study, the total number of person-observations was 36 459. The pooled estimates were derived from 2 to 5 studies, with the number of observations ranging from 260 to 26 348. Older age (pooled relative risk [RR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.87), somatic comorbidity (RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.83), psychiatric comorbidity (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.83-0.88) and more severe depression (RR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98) were associated with a lower rate of return to work, and personality trait conscientiousness with higher (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10) return to work. While older age and clinical factors predicted slower return, significant heterogeneity was observed between the studies. There is a dearth of observational studies on the predictors of RTW after depression. Future research should pay attention to quality aspects and particularly focus on the role of workplace and labor market factors as well as individual and clinical characteristics on RTW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meehan, Sean; Beck, Charles R; Mair-Jenkins, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Puleston, Richard
Despite numerous studies reporting an elevated risk of infant mortality among women who are obese, the magnitude of the association is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the association between maternal overweight or obesity and infant mortality. Four health care databases and gray literature sources were searched and screened against the protocol eligibility criteria. Observational studies reporting on the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed. Twenty-four records were included from 783 screened. Obese mothers (BMI ≥30) had greater odds of having an infant death (odds ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.63; P obese (BMI >35) (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-2.56; P obese mothers and that this risk may increase with greater maternal BMI or weight; however, residual confounding may explain these findings. Given the rising prevalence of maternal obesity, additional high-quality epidemiologic studies to elucidate the actual influence of elevated maternal mass or weight on infant mortality are needed. If a causal link is determined and the biological basis explained, public health strategies to address the issue of maternal obesity will be needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Saltzman, Edward; Must, Aviva; Roberts, Susan B; Parsons, Susan K
Previous studies of survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have drawn heterogeneous conclusions regarding the prevalence of obesity and risk factors for developing obesity in pediatric ALL survivors. We sought to determine the prevalence of obesity in pediatric ALL survivors and examine risk factors for obesity through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A MEDLINE search was performed from its inception through 2013. Studies met the inclusion criteria if they (1) included at least 10 survivors of pediatric ALL; (2) assessed the prevalence or indicators of obesity; and (3) compared obesity among ALL survivors to a reference population or external control group. Extracted data included patient and treatment characteristics, study design, population used for comparison, and prevalence of obesity. Forty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Despite significant heterogeneity among the studies (I(2) = 96%), the mean BMI z score in 1742 pediatric ALL survivors was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.60-1.06), which corresponds to the 80th BMI percentile, indicating a significantly higher BMI in pediatric ALL survivors than the reference population. Subgroup analyses found a high prevalence of obesity in ALL survivors regardless of survivors' receipt of cranial irradiation, gender, or age at diagnosis. Obesity is prevalent in pediatric ALL survivors and is independent of patient- and treatment-related characteristics. Clinicians need to screen for obesity and its associated health conditions early in survivorship.
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hansen, Nina Beck; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinkby
Eating disorders (EDs) comprise a variety of symptoms and have a profound impact on everyday life. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse published data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in EDs so as to compare the results to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and binge eating disorder (BED) and used the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a measure of HRQoL. Of the 102 citations identified, 85 abstracts were reviewed and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. AN patients were included in five studies (n=227), BN in four studies (n=216), EDNOS in two studies (n=166) and BED in four studies (n=148). We tested for between-study variation and significant differences between the diagnostic groups. The results confirmed a significantly lower level of HRQoL in all EDs compared to a population mean. It was not possible to establish any differences between the diagnostic groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Filkowski, Megan M; Olsen, Rachel M; Duda, Bryant; Wanger, Timothy J; Sabatinelli, Dean
Behavioral and physiological sex differences in emotional reactivity are well documented, yet comparatively few neural differences have been identified. Here we apply quantitative activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis across functional brain imaging studies that each reported clusters of activity differentiating men and women as they participated in emotion-evoking tasks in the visual modality. This approach requires the experimental paradigm to be balanced across the sexes, and thus may provide greater clarity than previous efforts. Results across 56 emotion-eliciting studies (n=1907) reveal distinct activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal pole, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in men relative to women. Women show distinct activation in bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and regions of the dorsal midbrain including the periaqueductal gray/superior colliculus and locus coeruleus. While some clusters are consistent with prevailing perspectives on the foundations of sex differences in emotional reactivity, thalamic and brainstem regions have not previously been highlighted as sexually divergent. These data strongly support the need to include sex as a factor in functional brain imaging studies of emotion, and to extend our investigative focus beyond the cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical
McQuay Henry J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual patient meta-analysis to determine the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose rofecoxib in primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods Individual patient information was available from three randomised, double blind, placebo and active controlled trials of rofecoxib. Data were combined through meta-analysis. Number-needed-to-treat (NNT for at least 50% pain relief and the proportion of patients who had taken rescue medication over 12 hours were calculated. Information was collected on adverse effects. Results For single-dose rofecoxib 50 mg compared with placebo, the NNTs (with 95% CI for at least 50% pain relief were 3.2 (2.4 to 4.5 at six, 3.1 (2.4 to 9.0 at eight, and 3.7 (2.8 to 5.6 at 12 hours. For naproxen sodium 550 mg they were 3.1 (2.4 to 4.4 at six, 3.0 (2.3 to 4.2 at eight, and 3.8 (2.7 to 6.1 at 12 hours. The proportion of patients who needed rescue medication within 12 hours was 27% with rofecoxib 50 mg, 29% with naproxen sodium 550 mg, and 50% with placebo. In the single-dose trial, the proportion of patients reporting any adverse effect was 8% (4/49 with rofecoxib 50 mg, 12% (6/49 with ibuprofen 400 mg, and 6% (3/49 with placebo. In the other two multiple dose trials, the proportion of patients reporting any adverse effect was 23% (42/179 with rofecoxib 50 mg, 24% (45/181 with naproxen sodium 550 mg, and 18% (33/178 with placebo. Conclusions Single dose rofecoxib 50 mg provided similar pain relief to naproxen sodium 550 mg over 12 hours. The duration of analgesia with rofecoxib 50 mg was similar to that of naproxen sodium 550 mg. Adverse effects were uncommon suggesting safety in short-term use of rofecoxib and naproxen sodium. Future research should include restriction on daily life and absence from work or school as outcomes.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is likely to start as mild cognitive impairment (MCI several years before the its full-blown clinical manifestation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used to detect a loss in peripapillary retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL and a reduction in macular thickness and volume of people affected by MCI or AD. Here, we performed an aggregate meta-analysis combining results from different studies.Data sources were case-control studies published between January 2001 and August 2014 (identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases that examined the RNFL thickness by means of OCT in AD and MCI patients compared with cognitively healthy controls.11 studies were identified, including 380 patients with AD, 68 with MCI and 293 healthy controls (HC. The studies suggest that the mean RNFL thickness is reduced in MCI (weighted mean differences in μm, WMD = -13.39, 95% CI: -17.34 to -9.45, p = 0.031 and, even more so, in AD (WMD = -15.95, 95% CI: -21.65 to -10.21, p<0.0001 patients compared to HC. RNFL in the 4 quadrants were all significantly thinner in AD superior (superior WMD = -24.0, 95% CI: -34.9 to -13.1, p<0.0001; inferior WMD = -20.8, 95% CI: -32.0 to -9.7, p<0.0001; nasal WMD = -14.7, 95% CI: -23.9 to -5.5, p<0.0001; and temporal WMD = -10.7, 95% CI: -19.9 to -1.4, p<0.0001; the same significant reduction in quadrant RNFL was observed in MCI patients compared with HC (Inferior WMD = -20.22, 95% CI: -30.41 to -10.03, p = 0.0001; nasal WMD = -7.4, 95% CI: -10.08 to -4.7, p = 0.0000; and temporal WMD = -6.88, 95% CI: -12.62 to -1.13, p = 0.01, with the exception of superior quadrant (WMD = -19.45, 95% CI: -40.23 to 1.32, p = 0.06.Results from the meta-analysis support the important role of OCT for RNFL analysis in monitoring the progression of AD and in assessing the effectiveness of purported AD treatments.
Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to present the humor in poems that Vinicius de Moraes left unpublished in books, its types and incidence. It reviews the development of the comic instances in his work, and makes a close analysis of the poems “Mote e contramote” and “Sob o trópico do câncer”.
Wafeu, Guy S; Tankeu, Aurel T; Endomba, Francky Teddy A; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Kaze, Arnaud D; Bigna, Jean Joel; Noubiap, Jean Jacques
Tobacco use significantly increases cardiovascular complications in people living with hypertension and/or diabetes. We aim to summarise data on the prevalence and factors associated with active smoking in these conditions in Africa. We will search PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and African Journals Online for relevant abstracts of studies on active smoking in individuals living with diabetes and/or hypertension published from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016, with no language restriction. Additionally, relevant unpublished papers and conference proceedings will be checked, as well as references of included articles. Two investigators will independently screen, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias in each study. Data will be analysed using Stata software (Stata V.14, Texas, USA). The study-specific estimates will be pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis model to obtain an overall summary estimate of the prevalence of smoking across studies. Also, we will assess factors associated to smoking. Heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated by the χ2 test on Cochrane's Q statistic. Funnel plots analysis and Egger's test will be done to detect publication bias. Results will be presented by geographic region (central, eastern, northern, southern and western Africa). A p value less than 0.05 will be considered significant for factors associated to smoking. This study is based on published data, and therefore ethical approval is not a requirement. This systematic review and meta-analysis is expected to serve as a basis for designing cost-effective interventions to reduce and prevent smoking in patients with diabetes and/or hypertension, and as a guide for future research based on the remaining gaps. The final report of this study in the form of a scientific paper will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings will further be presented at conferences and submitted to relevant health authorities. © Article author(s) (or their employer
Wyatt, M C; Beswick, A D; Kunutsor, S K; Wilson, M J; Whitehouse, M R; Blom, A W
Synovial biomarkers have recently been adopted as diagnostic tools for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), but their utility is uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the evidence on the accuracy of the alpha-defensin immunoassay and leukocyte esterase colorimetric strip test for the diagnosis of PJI compared with the Musculoskeletal Infection Society diagnostic criteria. We performed a systematic review to identify diagnostic technique studies evaluating the accuracy of alpha-defensin or leukocyte esterase in the diagnosis of PJI. MEDLINE and Embase on Ovid, ACM, ADS, arXiv, CERN DS (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire Document Server), CrossRef DOI (Digital Object Identifier), DBLP (Digital Bibliography & Library Project), Espacenet, Google Scholar, Gutenberg, HighWire, IEEE Xplore (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers digital library), INSPIRE, JSTOR (Journal Storage), OAlster (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), Open Content, Pubget, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for appropriate studies indexed from inception until May 30, 2015, along with unpublished or gray literature. The classification of studies and data extraction were performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data extraction permitted meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity with construction of receiver operating characteristic curves for each test. We included 11 eligible studies. The pooled diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of alpha-defensin (6 studies) for PJI were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 1.00) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.99), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) for alpha-defensin and PJI was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.00). The pooled diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of leukocyte esterase (5 studies) for PJI were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.95) and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99), respectively. The AUC for leukocyte esterase and PJI was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95 to 0
Awoh, Abiyemi Benita; Plugge, Emma
The majority of children who die from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) live in low-income and-middle-income countries (LMICs). With the rapid urbanisation and rural-urban migration ongoing in LMICs, available research suggests that migration status might be a determinant of immunisation coverage in LMICs, with rural-urban migrant (RUM) children being less likely to be immunised. To examine and synthesise the data on immunisation coverage in RUM children in LMICs and to compare coverage in these children with non-migrant children. A multiple database search of published and unpublished literature on immunisation coverage for the routine Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines in RUM children aged 5 years and below was conducted. Following a staged exclusion process, studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality and data extracted for meta-analysis. Eleven studies from three countries (China, India and Nigeria) were included in the review. There was substantial statistical heterogeneity between the studies, thus no summary estimate was reported for the meta-analysis. Data synthesis from the studies showed that the proportion of fully immunised RUM children was lower than the WHO bench-mark of 90% at the national level. RUMs were also less likely to be fully immunised than the urban-non-migrants and general population. For the individual EPI vaccines, all but two studies showed lower immunisation coverage in RUMs compared with the general population using national coverage estimates. This review indicates that there is an association between rural-urban migration and immunisation coverage in LMICs with RUMs being less likely to be fully immunised than the urban non-migrants and the general population. Specific efforts to improve immunisation coverage in this subpopulation of urban residents will not only reduce morbidity and mortality from VPDs in migrants but will also reduce health inequity and the risk of infectious disease
Elhenawy, Abdelsalam M; Meyer, Steven R; Bagshaw, Sean M; MacArthur, Roderick G; Carroll, Linda J
Preoperative anemia is a common and potentially serious hematological problem in elective surgery and increases the risk for perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Transfusion is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Preoperative intravenous (IV) iron therapy has been proposed as an intervention to reduce perioperative transfusion; however, studies are generally small, limited, and inconclusive. We propose performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, Cochrane-controlled trial registry, Scopus, registries of health technology assessment and clinical trials, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and conference proceedings in transfusion, hematology, and surgery. We will contact our study drug manufacturer for unpublished trials. Titles and abstracts will be identified and assessed by two reviewers for potential relevance. Eligible studies are: randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials comparing preoperative administration of IV iron with placebo or standard of care to reduce perioperative blood transfusion in anemic patients undergoing major surgery. Screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal will be conducted independently by two authors. Data will be presented in evidence tables and in meta-analytic forest plots. Primary efficacy outcomes are change in hemoglobin concentration and proportion of patients requiring RBC transfusion. Secondary outcomes include number of units of blood or blood products transfused perioperatively, transfusion-related acute lung injury, neurologic complications, adverse events, postoperative infections, cardiopulmonary complications, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/readmission, length of hospital stay, acute kidney injury, and mortality. Dichotomous outcomes will be reported as pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Continuous outcomes will be reported using calculated weighted mean differences. Meta-regression will be
Madsen, Ida E H; Hannerz, Harald; Nyberg, Solja T
scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field. METHODS: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job...... using random effects meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted "job strain") are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom...
Bécares, Laia; Dewey, Michael E; Das-Munshi, Jayati
Despite increased ethnic diversity in more economically developed countries it is unclear whether residential concentration of ethnic minority people (ethnic density) is detrimental or protective for mental health. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis covering the international literature, assessing ethnic density associations with mental health outcomes. We systematically searched Medline, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science from inception to 31 March 2016. We obtained additional data from study authors. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis taking into account clustering of estimates within datasets. Meta-regression assessed heterogeneity in studies due to ethnicity, country, generation, and area-level deprivation. Our main exposure was ethnic density, defined as the residential concentration of own racial/ethnic minority group. Outcomes included depression, anxiety and the common mental disorders (CMD), suicide, suicidality, psychotic experiences, and psychosis. We included 41 studies in the review, with meta-analysis of 12 studies. In the meta-analyses, we found a large reduction in relative odds of psychotic experiences [odds ratio (OR) 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-0.89)] and suicidal ideation [OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.98)] for each 10 percentage-point increase in own ethnic density. For CMD, depression, and anxiety, associations were indicative of protective effects of own ethnic density; however, results were not statistically significant. Findings from narrative review were consistent with those of the meta-analysis. The findings support consistent protective ethnic density associations across countries and racial/ethnic minority populations as well as mental health outcomes. This may suggest the importance of the social environment in patterning detrimental mental health outcomes in marginalized and excluded population groups.
Yang Junle; Xu Min; Wang Peng; Zhang Qiujuan; Guo Youmin; Liu Min
Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) in hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction by using Meta-analysis. Methods: Based on validity criteria for diagnostic research published by the Cochrane Methods Group on Screening and Diagnostic, studies in English and Chinese from 1997 to 2007 were selected from Medline, Cochrane, Springer, Ovid, Elsevier, LWW and CNKI( China National Knowledge Infrastructure). The characteristics of the included articles were appraised and extracted. Statistical analysis was performed with the software Meta-test 0.6 and Comprehensive meta-analysis 2.0. Heterogeneity of the included articles was tested, which was used to select proper effect model to calculate pooled weighted values of sensitivity and specificity and the corresponding 95% CI. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was performed and the area under the curve (Az) was calculated. Publication bias was analyzed by Funnel Plot in Comprehensive Meta- analysis 2.0. A sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: Twelve articles meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed for the value of DWI in hyperacute cerebral infarction. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio was 92%, 87%, 180.37 respectively, Az=0.9717. Novice is a main factor for total diagnostic effect (Q=4.34, P>0.05). Non-asymmetric funnel plot suggested the publication bias. Fifteen articles meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed for the value of DWI in both hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction (≤ 24 h). The pooled sensitivity, specificity diagnostic odds ratio was 92%, 91%, 623.62 respectively, Az=0.9659. Fixed effects model used in Meta-analysis for database suggested homogeneity (Q=2.70,P>0.05). Nonasymmetric funnel plot suggested the publication bias. Conclusions As a noninvasive method, diffusion-weighted imaging is valuable in detecting hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction. More support from multi-center prospective researches is
Jack E T Grimes
Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human
Cheong, Kah Bik; Zhang, Jiping; Huang, Yong
To conduct a systematic review and Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of acupuncture and common acupoint selection for postoperative ileus (POI). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acupuncture and non-acupuncture treatment were identified from the databases PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO (Academic Source Premier and MEDLINE), Ovid (including Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data. The data from eligible studies were extracted and a Meta-analysis performed using a fixed-effects model. Results were expressed as relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data, and 95% CI (confidence intervals) were calculated. Each trial was evaluated using the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) and STRICTA (STandards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture) guideline . The quality of the study was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Of the 69 studies screened, eight RCTs were included for review. Among these, four RCTs (with a total of 123 patients in the intervention groups and 124 patients in the control groups) met the criteria for Meta-analysis. The Meta-analysis results indicated that acupuncture combined with usual care showed a significantly higher total effective rate than the control condition (usual care) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01, 1.18; P = 0.02). Zusanli (ST 36) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) were the most common acupoints selected. However, the quality of the studies was generally low, as they did not emphasize the use of blinding. The results suggested that acupuncture might be effective in improving POI; however, a definite conclusion could not be drawn because of the low quality of trials. Further large-scale, high-quality randomized clinical trials are needed to validate these findings and to develop a standardized method of treatment. We hope that the present results will lead to improved research, resulting in better
Jung, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu; Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Sung Jae
Although medical treatment has advanced, surgical treatment is needed to control symptoms of Takayasu's arteritis (TA), such as angina, stroke, hypertension, or claudication. Endovascular or open surgical intervention is performed; however, there are few comparative studies on these methods. This meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to examine the outcome of surgical treatment of TA. A meta-analysis comparing outcomes of endovascular and open surgical intervention was performed using MEDLINE and Embase. This meta-analysis included only observational studies, and the evidence level was low to moderate. Data were pooled and analysed using a fixed or random effects model with the I 2 statistic. The included studies involved a total of 770 patients and 1363 lesions, with 389 patients treated endovascularly and 420 treated by surgical revascularization. Restenosis was more common with endovascular than open surgical intervention (odds ratio [OR] 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-9.62; p open surgical intervention patients in the coronary artery, supra-aortic branches, and renal artery. In both the active and inactive stages, restenosis was more common in those treated endovascularly than in those treated by open surgery. However, stroke occurred less often with endovascular intervention than with open surgical intervention (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.90; p = .003). Mortality and complications other than stroke and mortality did not differ between endovascular and open surgical intervention. This meta-analysis has shown a lower risk of restenosis with open surgical intervention than with endovascular intervention. Stroke was generally more common with open surgical intervention than with endovascular intervention. However, there were differences according to the location of the lesion, and the risk of stroke in open surgery is higher when the supra-aortic branches are involved rather than the renal arteries. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Vascular
Noels, Eline C; Lapid, Oren; Lindeman, Jan H N; Bastiaannet, Esther
The popularity of cosmetic breast augmentation and the incidence of breast cancer have been increasing worldwide. It has been hypothesized that the risk of breast cancer may be greater among patients who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the available literature on the risk of breast cancer among women with cosmetic breast implants. The study was designed as a meta-analysis of observational studies. A systematic search of the English literature (published by August 28, 2013) was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Eligible reports were those that included relative risk (RR; the increased or decreased risk of breast cancer associated with breast implants) or the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of the observed number of cases of breast cancer to the expected number of cases among patients that previously underwent cosmetic breast augmentation. Seventeen studies representing 7 cohorts were selected. Some of these were follow-up reports of previously published studies; in such cases, only the most recent reports were included in the meta-analysis. Summary SIR and RR rates and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects (SIR) or fixed-effects (RR) model. The overall SIR estimate was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56-0.85), and the overall RR, based on 4 studies, was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.56-0.71). Finding of this meta-analysis suggest that women who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation do not have an increased risk of breast cancer. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Li, Shuang-Jiang; Chen, Da-Li; Zhang, Wen-Biao; Shen, Cheng; Che, Guo-Wei
Numbers of studies have investigated the biological functions of decorin (DCN) in oncogenesis, tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. Although many of them aim to highlight the prognostic value of stromal DCN expression in breast cancer, some controversial results still exist and a consensus has not been reached until now. Therefore, our meta-analysis aims to determine the prognostic significance of stromal DCN expression in breast cancer patients. PubMed, EMBASE, the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched for full-text literatures met out inclusion criteria. We applied the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) as the appropriate summarized statistics. Q-test and I(2) statistic were employed to estimate the level of heterogeneity across the included studies. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to further identify the possible origins of heterogeneity. The publication bias was detected by Begg's test and Egger's test. There were three English literatures (involving 6 studies) included into our meta-analysis. On the one hand, both the summarized outcomes based on univariate analysis (HR: 0.513; 95% CI: 0.406-0.648; Panalysis (HR: 0.544; 95% CI: 0.388-0.763; Panalysis (HR: 0.504; 95% CI: 0.389-0.651; Panalysis (HR: 0.568; 95% CI: 0.400-0.806; P=0.002) also indicated that stromal DCN expression was positively associated with high disease-free survival (DFS) of breast cancer patients. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed within this meta-analysis. The present evidences indicate that high stromal DCN expression can significantly predict the good prognosis in patients with breast cancer. The discoveries from our meta-analysis have better be confirmed in the updated review pooling more relevant investigations in the future.
Salerno, Francesco; Navickis, Roberta J; Wilkes, Mahlon M
Recommended treatment for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome consists of albumin and vasoconstrictor. The optimal albumin dose remains poorly characterized. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the impact of albumin dose on treatment outcomes. Clinical studies of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome treatment with albumin and vasoconstrictor were sought. Search terms included: hepatorenal syndrome; albumin; vasoconstrictor; terlipressin; midodrine; octreotide; noradrenaline; and norepinephrine. A meta-analysis was performed of hepatorenal syndrome reversal and survival in relation to albumin dose. Nineteen clinical studies with 574 total patients were included, comprising 8 randomized controlled trials, 8 prospective studies and 3 retrospective studies. The pooled percentage of patients achieving hepatorenal syndrome reversal was 49.5% (95% confidence interval, 40.0-59.1%). Increments of 100 g in cumulative albumin dose were accompanied by significantly increased survival (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.31; p = 0.023). A non-significant increase of similar magnitude in hepatorenal syndrome reversal was also observed (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.37; p = 0.10). Expected survival rates at 30 days among patients receiving cumulative albumin doses of 200, 400 and 600 g were 43.2% (95% confidence interval, 36.4-51.3%), 51.4% (95% confidence interval, 46.3-57.1%) and 59.0% (95% confidence interval, 51.9-67.2), respectively. Neither survival nor hepatorenal syndrome reversal was significantly affected by vasoconstrictor dose or type, treatment duration, age, baseline serum creatinine, bilirubin or albumin, baseline mean arterial pressure, or study design, size or time period. This meta-analysis suggests a dose-response relationship between infused albumin and survival in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. The meta-analysis provides the best current evidence on the potential role of albumin dose selection in improving outcomes of
Kroese, Leonard F; de Smet, Gijs H J; Jeekel, Johannes; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Lange, Johan F
Parastomal hernia remains a frequent problem after constructing a colostomy. Current research mainly focuses on prophylactic mesh placement as an addition to transperitoneal colostomies. However, for constructing a colostomy, either an extraperitoneal or transperitoneal route can be chosen. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate which technique results in lower parastomal hernia rates in patients undergoing end colostomy. A meta-analysis was conducted according to Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were searched. The study protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews database. Studies comparing extraperitoneal and transperitoneal colostomies were included. Only studies written in English were included. The quality of studies and risk of bias were assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The quality of nonrandomized studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The intervention was colostomy formation. The main outcome measure was parastomal hernia incidence. Secondary outcome measures were stoma prolapse, stoma necrosis, and operating time. Of 401 articles found, a meta-analysis was conducted of 10 studies (2 randomized controlled trials and 8 retrospective studies) composed of 1048 patients (347 extraperitoneal and 701 transperitoneal). Extraperitoneal colostomy led to significantly lower parastomal hernia rates (22 of 347 (6.3%) for extraperitoneal versus 125 of 701 (17.8%) for transperitoneal; risk ratio = 0.36 (95% CI, 0.21-0.62); I = 26%; p colostomy was observed to lead to a lower rate of parastomal hernia and stoma prolapse.
Steinert, Christiane; Hofmann, Mareike; Kruse, Johannes; Leichsenring, Falk
Depression is the most common mental disorder. Effective psychotherapeutic treatments for depression exist; however, data on their long-term effectiveness beyond a time span of two years is still scarce. Our aim was to perform a meta-analysis, investigating (a) overall rates of relapse more than two years after psychotherapy (meta-analysis 1), and (b) if psychotherapy has more enduring effects than non-psychotherapeutic comparison conditions (e.g. pharmacotherapy, treatment as usual), again beyond a time span of two years post-therapy (meta-analysis 2). We searched electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO and the COCHRANE Library. Main selection criteria were (i) RCT of psychotherapy with follow-up interval of more than 2 years, (ii) primary diagnosis of depression, assessed by observer ratings, (iii) report of relapse at follow-up. We identified 11 studies, 6 of which included a non-psychotherapeutic comparison condition. Together they comprised long-term data of 966 patients. Mean follow-up duration was 4.4 years. The overall relapse rate at long-term follow-up was 0.39 (95% CI 0.29, 0.50). Psychotherapy resulted in significantly less relapses (53.1% vs. 71.1%, OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.32, 0.82, p=0.005) than comparison treatments. This finding corresponded to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 5.55. Results can only be preliminary as data was sparse and studies differed methodologically. Heterogeneity in the first meta-analysis was high (I(2)=82%). Results indicated publication bias. The relapse rate more than two years after psychotherapy is relatively high, but significantly lower compared to non-psychotherapeutic treatments. Multiannual follow-ups should routinely be included in future psychotherapy RCTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R
Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2. Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.61). Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73) and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84). Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor. Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human behavior
Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi
Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.
Duan, Haifeng; Deng, Tuo; Chen, Yiwen; Zhao, Zhijian; Wen, Yaoan; Chen, Yeda; Li, Xiaohang; Zeng, Guohua
A number of researchers have reported that vasectomy is a risk factor for testicular cancer. However, this conclusion is inconsistent with a number of other published articles. Hence, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess whether vasectomy increases the risk of testicular cancer. We identified all related studies by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library database from January 01, 1980 to June 01, 2017. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) checklist was used to assess all included non-randomized studies. Summarized odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the difference in outcomes between case and control groups. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the study design and country. A total of eight studies (2176 testicular cancer patients) were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Six articles were case-control studies, and two were cohort studies. The pooled estimate of the OR was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.93-1.30) based on the eight studies in a fixed effects model. Two subgroup analyses were performed according to the study design and country. The results were consistent with the overall findings. Publication bias was detected by Begg's test and Egger's test and p values > 0.05, respectively. Our meta-analysis suggested that there was no association between vasectomy and the development of testicular cancer. More high-quality studies are warranted to further explore the association between vasectomy and risk of testicular cancer.
Jackson, Jamie L; Misiti, Brian; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Daniels, Curt J; Vannatta, Kathryn
This study aimed to quantitatively compare findings of emotional functioning across studies of adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) through meta-analysis. The current meta-analysis included 22 studies of adolescent and adult survivors of CHD who completed measures of emotional functioning. Effect sizes were represented by Hedge's g. Heterogeneity was calculated and possible moderators (i.e., lesion severity, age, study location, study quality) were examined. Overall, adolescent and adult survivors of CHD did not differ in emotional functioning from healthy controls or normative data. However, significant heterogeneity was found, and there was a trend for degree of lesion severity to moderate emotional functioning. Further analysis of lesion severity indicated that individuals with moderate lesions reported better emotional functioning than controls/normative data. Limitations in existing literature precluded examination of patient age as a moderator. Study location and quality did not explain a significant portion of the variance in effects. Findings suggest that differences in emotional functioning may exist across lesion severities, and individuals with moderately severe lesions are emotionally thriving. Given the diversity within CHD lesion classifications, future studies should include other indicators of disease severity, such as measures of morbidity, to determine how disease may affect emotional functioning among survivors of CHD. Furthermore, authors and journals need to ensure that research is reported in enough detail to facilitate meta-analysis, a critically important tool in answering discrepancies in the literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rao, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Zheng-Shui; Cheng, Hua; Shen, Wei; Wang, Xin-Ping
Recently, a wide variety of studies have suggested that elevated platelet counts are associated with survival in patients with colorectal cancer. On one hand several studies suggest a negative connection in colorectal cancer patients with pre-operative thrombocytosis, on the other hand other studies contradicts this. However, it remains unknown whether elevated platelet counts are associated with survival in colorectal cancer patients. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of platelet counts in colorectal cancer. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched from their inception to October 15, 2016 to identify relevant studies that have explored the prognostic role of platelet counts in colorectal cancer. Studies that examined the association between platelet counts and prognoses in colorectal cancer and that provided a hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for overall survival (OS) and/or disease-free survival (DFS) were included. This meta-analysis included 9 retrospective cohort studies involving 3413 patients with colorectal cancer. OS was shorter in patients with elevated platelet counts than in patients with normal counts (HR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.68-2.65). For DFS, an elevated platelet count was also a poor predictor (HR 2.51, 95% CI: 1.84-3.43). In this meta-analysis, we suggest that an elevated platelet count is a negative predictor of survival in both primary colorectal cancer and resectable colorectal liver metastases.
Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A random-effects meta-analysis estimated the effect to r = 0.12 [95% CI -0.13, 0.37] in the presence of heterogeneity and a subjectively estimated moderate to high risk of bias. There was no evidence that apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype was an effect moderator, nor that the ratio of leukocyte telomerase activity to telomere length was a better predictor than leukocyte telomere length for hippocampus volume. This meta-analysis, while not proving a positive relationship, also is not able to disprove the earlier finding of a positive correlation in the one large study included in analyses. We propose that a relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocamus volume may be mediated by transmigrating monocytes which differentiate into microglia in the brain parenchyma.
Dal, Jakob; Leisner, Michelle Z; Hermansen, Kasper
-2010) including 529 acromegaly cases was performed. Incident cancer diagnoses and mortality were compared to national rates estimating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). A meta-analysis of cancer SIRs from 23 studies (including the present one) was performed. Results: The cohort study identified 81 cases...... in acromegaly (SIR 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.6]), cancer-specific mortality was not. The meta-analysis yielded a SIR of overall cancer of 1.5 [95% CI: 1.2-1.8]. SIRs were elevated for colorectal cancer: 2.6 [95% CI: 1.7-4.0], thyroid cancer: 9.2 [95% CI: 4.2-19.9], breast cancer: 1.6 [1.1-2.3], gastric cancer: 2.0 [95......% CI: 1.4-2.9], and urinary tract cancer: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.0-2.3]). In general, cancer SIR was higher in single-center studies and in studies with meta-analysis...
Zamora, Javier; Abraira, Victor; Muriel, Alfonso; Khan, Khalid; Coomarasamy, Arri
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of test accuracy studies are increasingly being recognised as central in guiding clinical practice. However, there is currently no dedicated and comprehensive software for meta-analysis of diagnostic data. In this article, we present Meta-DiSc, a Windows-based, user-friendly, freely available (for academic use) software that we have developed, piloted, and validated to perform diagnostic meta-analysis. Meta-DiSc a) allows exploration of heterogeneity, with a variety of statistics including chi-square, I-squared and Spearman correlation tests, b) implements meta-regression techniques to explore the relationships between study characteristics and accuracy estimates, c) performs statistical pooling of sensitivities, specificities, likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratios using fixed and random effects models, both overall and in subgroups and d) produces high quality figures, including forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic curves that can be exported for use in manuscripts for publication. All computational algorithms have been validated through comparison with different statistical tools and published meta-analyses. Meta-DiSc has a Graphical User Interface with roll-down menus, dialog boxes, and online help facilities. Meta-DiSc is a comprehensive and dedicated test accuracy meta-analysis software. It has already been used and cited in several meta-analyses published in high-ranking journals. The software is publicly available at http://www.hrc.es/investigacion/metadisc_en.htm.
Morelli, Sylvia A.; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Zaki, Jamil
Individuals experience reward not only when directly receiving positive outcomes (e.g., food or money), but also when observing others receive such outcomes. This latter phenomenon, known as vicarious reward, is a perennial topic of interest among psychologists and economists. More recently, neuroscientists have begun exploring the neuroanatomy underlying vicarious reward. Here we present a quantitative whole-brain meta-analysis of this emerging literature. We identified 25 functional neuroimaging studies that included contrasts between vicarious reward and a neutral control, and subjected these contrasts to an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis. This analysis revealed a consistent pattern of activation across studies, spanning structures typically associated with the computation of value (especially ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and mentalizing (including dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus). We further quantitatively compared this activation pattern to activation foci from a previous meta-analysis of personal reward. Conjunction analyses yielded overlapping VMPFC activity in response to personal and vicarious reward. Contrast analyses identified preferential engagement of the nucleus accumbens in response to personal as compared to vicarious reward, and in mentalizing-related structures in response to vicarious as compared to personal reward. These data shed light on the common and unique components of the reward that individuals experience directly and through their social connections. PMID:25554428
Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert
A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.
Full Text Available Objective. Xingnaojing injection (XNJ is a well-known traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM for stroke. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of XNJ for stroke including ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Methods. An extensive search was performed within using eight databases up to November 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs on XNJ for treatment of stroke were collected. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Cochrane standards, and RevMan5.0 was used for meta-analysis. Results. This review included 13 RCTs and a total of 1,514 subjects. The overall methodological quality was poor. The meta-analysis showed that XNJ combined with conventional treatment was more effective for total efficacy, neurological deficit improvement, and reduction of TNF-α levels compared with those of conventional treatment alone. Three trials reported adverse events, of these one trial reported mild impairment of kidney and liver function, whereas the other two studies failed to report specific adverse events. Conclusion. Despite the limitations of this review, we suggest that XNJ in combination with conventional medicines might be beneficial for the treatment of stroke. Currently there are various methodological problems in the studies. Therefore, high-quality, large-scale RCTs are urgently needed.
Hwang, Eunhee; Shin, Sujin
To evaluate the existing data on aromatherapy interventions for improvement of sleep quality. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effects of aromatherapy. Study Sources: Electronic databases, including the Korea Education and Research Information Service (KERIS), Korean studies Information Service System (KISS), National Assembly Library, and eight academies within the Korean Society of Nursing Science, were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and August 2013. Randomized controlled and quasi-experimental trials that included aromatherapy for the improvement of sleep quality. Of the 245 publications identified, 13 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 12 studies were used in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the 12 studies using a random-effects model revealed that the use of aromatherapy was effective in improving sleep quality (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.540-1.745; Z=3.716). Subgroup analysis revealed that inhalation aromatherapy (95% CI, 0.792-1.541; Z=6.107) was more effective than massage therapy (95% CI, 0.128-2.166; Z=2.205) in unhealthy (95% CI, 0.248-1.100; Z=3.100) and healthy (95% CI, 0.393-5.104; Z=2.287) participants, respectively. Readily available aromatherapy treatments appear to be effective and promote sleep. Thus, it is essential to develop specific guidelines for the efficient use of aromatherapy.
Vargas-Ferreira, F; Salas, M M S; Nascimento, G G; Tarquinio, S B C; Faggion, C M; Peres, M A; Thomson, W M; Demarco, F F
Dental caries is the main problem oral health and it is not well established in the literature if the enamel defects are a risk factor for its development. Studies have reported a potential association between developmental defects enamel (DDE) and dental caries occurrence. We investigated the association between DDE and caries in permanent dentition of children and teenagers. A systematic review was carried out using four databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and Science Direct), which were searched from their earliest records until December 31, 2014. Population-based studies assessing differences in dental caries experience according to the presence of enamel defects (and their types) were included. PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the pooled effect, and meta-regression was carried out to identify heterogeneity sources. From the 2558 initially identified papers, nine studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria after checking the titles, abstracts, references, and complete reading. Seven of them were included in the meta-analysis with random model. A positive association between enamel defects and dental caries was identified; meta-analysis showed that individuals with DDE had higher pooled odds of having dental caries experience [OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.3; 3.54)]. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that adjustment for sociodemographic factors, countries' socioeconomic status, and bias (quality of studies) explained the high heterogeneity observed. A higher chance of dental caries should be expected among individuals with enamel defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Benjamin Eric; Chekaluk, Eugene; Bennett, Joanne
Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis of studies investigating post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among North Korean refugees. Selected articles were published in English, and included measures of post-traumatic stress, and/or depression and anxiety. 10 studies were included in the depression meta-analysis, and 6 in the anxiety meta-analysis. A random-effects model revealed strong, significant associations between post-traumatic stress and depression, r=0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72), pstress, depression and anxiety were higher among adults and those with more than five years outside of North Korea. Depression appears to be an important treatment focus for North Korean refugees with post-traumatic stress.
Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan
To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HHO) compared with total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hemihepatic vascular occlusion and total hepatic inflow occlusion were included by a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate blood loss, transfusion requirement, and liver injury based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Either the fixed effects model or random effects model was used. Four RCTs including 338 patients met the predeﬁned inclusion criteria. A total of 167 patients were treated with THO and 171 with HHO. Meta-analysis of AST levels on postoperative day 1 indicated higher levels in the THO group with weighted mean difference (WMD) 342.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 217.28-467.26; P = 0.00 001; I(2) = 16%. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between THO group and HHO group on blood loss, transfusion requirement, mortality, morbidity, operating time, ischemic duration, hospital stay, ALT levels on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 and AST levels on postoperative day 3 and 7. Hemihepatic vascular occlusion does not offer satisfying benefit to the patients undergoing hepatic resection. However, they have less liver injury after liver resections.
McFarland, Lynne V
This article reviews the evidence for efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) for various disease indications in adults based on the peer-reviewed, randomized clinical trials and pre-clinical studies from the published medical literature (Medline, Clinical Trial websites and meeting abstracts) between 1976 and 2009. For meta-analysis, only randomized, blinded controlled trials unrestricted by language were included. Pre-clinical studies, volunteer studies and uncontrolled studies were excluded from the review of efficacy and meta-analysis, but included in the systematic review. Of 31 randomized, placebo-controlled treatment arms in 27 trials (encompassing 5029 study patients), S. boulardii was found to be significantly efficacious and safe in 84% of those treatment arms. A meta-analysis found a significant therapeutic efficacy for S. boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) (RR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35-0.63, P boulardii can be strongly recommended for the prevention of AAD and the traveler's diarrhea. Randomized trials also support the use of this yeast probiotic for prevention of enteral nutrition-related diarrhea and reduction of Helicobacter pylori treatment-related symptoms. S. boulardii shows promise for the prevention of C. difficile disease recurrences; treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, acute adult diarrhea, Crohn's disease, giardiasis, human immunodeficiency virus-related diarrhea; but more supporting evidence is recommended for these indications. The use of S. boulardii as a therapeutic probiotic is evidence-based for both efficacy and safety for several types of diarrhea.
Full Text Available Premedication is important in pediatric anesthesia. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the role of dexmedetomidine as a premedicant for pediatric patients. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials comparing dexmedetomidine premedication with midazolam or ketamine premedication or placebo in children. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, quality assessment and data extraction. The original data were pooled for the meta-analysis with Review Manager 5. The main parameters investigated included satisfactory separation from parents, satisfactory mask induction, postoperative rescue analgesia, emergence agitation and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thirteen randomized controlled trials involving 1190 patients were included. When compared with midazolam, premedication with dexmedetomidine resulted in an increase in satisfactory separation from parents (RD = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.30, p = 0.003 and a decrease in the use of postoperative rescue analgesia (RD = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.29 to -0.09, p = 0.0003. Children treated with dexmedetomidine had a lower heart rate before induction. The incidence of satisfactory mask induction, emergence agitation and PONV did not differ between the groups. Dexmedetomidine was superior in providing satisfactory intravenous cannulation compared to placebo. This meta-analysis suggests that dexmedetomidine is superior to midazolam premedication because it resulted in enhanced preoperative sedation and decreased postoperative pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the dosing schemes and long-term outcomes of dexmedetomidine premedication in pediatric anesthesia.
Lianhui, Yang; Meifei, Lian; Zhongyue, Hu; Yunzhi, Feng
Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between periodontitis and hyperlipidemia risks through Meta-analysis. Methods Two researchers conducted an electronic search on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP databases established until July 2016 for observational studies on the association between periodontitis and hyperlipidemia. The language used was limited to Chinese and English. After data extraction and quality evaluation of included trials, Meta-analysis was conducted using the RevMan 5.3 software. The GRADE 3.6 software was used to evaluate the quality level of the evidence. Results Six case-control studies and one cohort study were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that serum triglyceride (TG) in patients with periodontitis was significantly higher than that of the periodontal health group (MD=50.50, 95% confidence interval=39.57-61.42, Pchronic periodontitis were 4.73 times (OR=4.73, 95% confidence interval=2.74-8.17, Pperiodontal healthy patients. No significant difference was observed between the group with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and that with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Conclusion Current evidence indicates that a correlation exists between chronic periodontitis and hyperlipidemia, and chronic periodontitis is an independent risk factor for hyperlipidemia, especially for TC and TG in serum.
Barnett, Gillian C.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Alsner, Jan; Andreassen, Christian N.; Abdelhay, Osama; Burnet, Neil G.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coles, Charlotte E.; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Fuentes-Raspall, Maria J.; Alonso-Muñoz, Maria C.; Kerns, Sarah; Raabe, Annette; Symonds, R. Paul; Seibold, Petra; Talbot, Chris J.; Wenz, Frederik; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Yarnold, John; Dunning, Alison M.
Background and purpose: Reported associations between risk of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TGFB1, encoding the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), remain controversial. To overcome publication bias, the international Radiogenomics Consortium collected and analysed individual patient level data from both published and unpublished studies. Materials and methods: TGFB1 SNP rs1800469 c.-1347T>C (previously known as C-509T) genotype, treatment-related data, and clinically-assessed fibrosis (measured at least 2 years after therapy) were available in 2782 participants from 11 cohorts. All received adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Associations between late fibrosis or overall toxicity, reported by STAT (Standardised Total Average Toxicity) score, and rs1800469 genotype were assessed. Results: No statistically significant associations between either fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype were observed with univariate or multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), obtained from meta-analysis, for an increase in late fibrosis grade with each additional rare allele of rs1800469 was 0.98 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.85–1.11). This CI is sufficiently narrow to rule out any clinically relevant effect on toxicity risk in carriers vs. non-carriers with a high probability. Conclusion: This meta-analysis has not confirmed previous reports of association between fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype in breast cancer patients. It has demonstrated successful collaboration within the Radiogenomics Consortium.
Nurmatov, Ulugbek B; Lee, Siew H; Nwaru, Bright I; Mukherjee, Mome; Grant, Liz; Pagliari, Claudia
Rates of maternal, newborn and child (MNCH) mortality and morbidity are vastly greater in low- than in high-income countries and represent a major source of global health inequity. A host of systemic, economic, geopolitical and sociocultural factors have been implicated. Mobile information and communication technologies hold potential to ameliorate several of these challenges by supporting coordinated and evidence-based care, facilitating community based health services and enabling citizens to access health information and support. mHealth has attracted considerable attention as a means of supporting maternal, newborn and child health in developing countries and research to assess the impacts of mHealth interventions is increasing. While a number of expert reviews have attempted to summarise this literature, there remains a need for a fully systematic review employing gold standard methods of evidence capture, critical appraisal and meta-analysis, in order to comprehensively map, quality assess and synthesise this body of knowledge. To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the impacts of mobile technology-enabled interventions designed to support maternal, newborn and child health in low- and middle-income countries. 16 online international electronic databases of published scientific abstracts and citations will be interrogated for the period 1990 to 2014 (no language restrictions) in order to identify relevant studies. Ongoing/unpublished studies will be identified through searching international trial repositories and consulting experts in the field. Study quality will be assessed using appropriate critical appraisal tools; including the Cochrane Handbook's 7 evaluation domains for randomised and clinical trials, the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) guidelines for other comparative study types, and the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tools for observational studies
Kapoula, Georgia V; Kontou, Panagiota I; Bagos, Pantelis G
Pneumatic tube system (PTS) is a widely used method of transporting blood samples in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the PTS transport in certain routine laboratory parameters as it has been implicated with hemolysis. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched (up until November 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of PTS transport in hematological, biochemical and coagulation measurements. The random-effects model was used in the meta-analysis utilizing the mean difference (MD). Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the Cohran's Q and the I2 index. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis, cumulative meta-analysis and assessment of publication bias were performed for all outcomes. From a total of 282 studies identified by the searching procedure, 24 were finally included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis yielded statistically significant results for potassium (K) [MD=0.04 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.015-0.065; p=0.002], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (MD=10.343 U/L; 95% CI=6.132-14.554; panalysis and random-effects meta-regression analysis according to the speed and distance of the samples traveled via the PTS revealed that there is relation between the rate and the distance of PTS with the measurements of K, LDH, white blood cells and red blood cells. This meta-analysis suggests that PTS may be associated with alterations in K, LDH and AST measurements. Although these findings may not have any significant clinical effect on laboratory results, it is wise that each hospital validates their PTS.
Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) promoter -2518 A/G polymorphism (rs1024611) is associated with susceptibility to vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or multiple sclerosis (MS). A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and vasculitis, RA, and MS. Fourteen studies from 13 articles, including six on vasculitis, five on RA, and three on MS, consisting of 3,038 patients and 3,545 controls were available for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the MCP-1 -2518 G allele and vasculitis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.990, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.749-1.309, p = 0.943). Stratification by ethnicity indicated no association between the G allele of the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and vasculitis in Asians and Caucasians. Meta-analysis by vasculitis type revealed an association between the GG+GA genotype of the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and Behçet's disease (BD; OR = 1.349, 95% CI = 1.013-1.796, p = 0.040). However, sensitivity analysis showed that the association was not statistically significant after removing a study that was conducted in China (OR = 1.030, 95% CI = 0.667-1.590, p = 0.895), which indicated that the association was not statistically robust. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the MCP-1 -2518 G allele and RA (OR = 0.986, 95% CI = 0.890-1.093, p = 0.793) or MS (OR = 1.281, 95% CI = 0.802-2.046, p = 0.301). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to vasculitis, RA, or MS.
Valipour, Ghazaleh; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
Although several observational studies have investigated the association between vitamin D status and schizophrenia, we are aware of no comprehensive meta-analysis in this regard. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies to summarize the available data on the association between serum vitamin D levels and schizophrenia. A systematic research on all published articles until October 2013 was conducted in PubMed, ISI (Web of science), SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. All observational studies that had measured serum vitamin D levels in schizophrenic patients were included in the systematic review. After considering exclusion criteria, we had 19 studies for the systematic review that were included in three separate meta-analyses: 1) a meta-analysis on mean levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (n = 13); 2) a meta-analysis on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (n = 8); 3) a meta-analysis on odds ratios (n = 8). Findings from a meta-analysis on means revealed that the overall mean difference in serum 25(OH)D levels between schizophrenic patients and control participants was -5.91 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI) -10.68, -1.14]. Subgroup analyses based on study design, the patient's hospitalization status, study quality, and study location did not explain between-study heterogeneity; however, type of biomarker assessed [25-hydroxyvitamin D3 vs 25-hydroxyvitamin D (D2 & D3)] could account for some degree of heterogeneity. RESULTS from the meta-analysis on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency indicated that the overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in schizophrenic patients was 65.3% (95% CI 46.4%-84.2%). Findings from the meta-analysis on odds ratios indicated that vitamin D-deficient persons were 2.16 times (95% CI 1.32, 3.56) more likely to have schizophrenia than those with vitamin D sufficiency. No evidence of heterogeneity was detected. We found a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia
Liu Xiaosheng; Xu Jianrong; Hua Jia; Wang Baisong
Objective: To perform a Meta-analysis to evaluate the overall diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspected meniscal tears. Methods: All the papers concerning the diagnosis of meniscal tears using MRI in both English and Chinese published from 1998 to 2004 had been searched and reviewed, and the studies with the arthroscopy as the gold standard were adopted as eligible. Statistical analysis was performed employing SAS 8.0. Heterogeneity of the included articles was tested, which was used to select proper effect model to calculate pooled weighted sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) analyses were performed for tears of both menisci. Finally, subgroup analysis on magnetic field strength was performed. Results: Totally 11 studies were met the inclusion criteria with a total of 1221 patients. The pooled indexes of diagnostic performance and SROC demonstrated a high discriminatory power for detecting tears of the medial and lateral menisci. The value of TPR * for medial and lateral menisci showed no significant difference (0.90, 0.86, respectively, Z=0.11, P>0.05). Subgroup analysis demonstrated no statistically significant difference on diagnostic performance for various magnetic field strength (P>0.05). Conclusion: MRI is a highly accurate diagnostic tool for detecting tears of the medial and lateral menisci. At present, there is no evidence to ascertain that higher magnetic field strength improves discriminatory power for meniscal tears. (authors)
Local governments are beginning to take steps to address the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and heat events. However, we do not have a clear understanding of what local governments are doing -- the extent to which they expect climate change to affect their community, the types of actions they have in place to address climate change, and the resources at their disposal for implementation. Several studies have been conducted by academics, non-governmental organizations, and public agencies to assess the status of local climate change adaptation. This project collates the findings from dozens of such studies to conduct a meta-analysis of local climate change adaptation actions. The studies will be characterized along several dimensions, including (a) methods used, (b) timing and geographic scope, (c) topics covered, (d) types of adaptation actions identified, (e) implementation status, and (f) public engagement and environmental justice dimensions considered. The poster presents the project's rationale and approach and some illustrative findings from early analyses. [Note: The document being reviewed is an abstract in which a poster is being proposed. The poster will enter clearance if the abstract is accepted] The purpose of this poster is to present the research framework and approaches I am developing for my ORISE postdoctoral project, and to get feedback on early analyses.
Li, Hui; Xi, Zhouhuan; Dai, Xuejiao; Wu, Wenyue; Li, Yanwen; Liu, Yanting; Zhang, Hanwen
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the relationship between CD147 expression in tissues and the clinicopathological features of patients with glioma. We searched PubMed (1966-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), Cochrane Library (1996-2016), Web of Science (1945-2016), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1982-2016), and Wan Fang databases (1988-2016). Quality assessment of the literature was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, with Revman 5.3 and Stata 14.0 for analysis. In total, 1806 glioma patients from 19 studies were included, and patients with CD147 overexpression had poorer overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.211, P CD147 expression when comparing glioma tissues versus non-cancerous brain tissues (OR 20.42; 95% CI 13.94-29.91; P CD147 expression did not differ based on patient's age (young vs. old, P = 0.89) or gender (female vs. male, P = 0.57). CD147 expression may be a potential prognostic biomarker for poorer overall and relapse-free survival, and may affect the 5-year survival rate in glioma patients. CD147 expression is also closely correlated with poor clinical characteristics in glioma patients.
Full Text Available Research on student misbehaviors in classroom have focused on the identification of most frequent misbehaviors and individual practices used by the teachers. However there is still a significant gap about the demographic and other factors that affect teachers’ perceptions of misbehaviors in classrooms. This meta-analysis reviewed the literature in Turkey on student misbehaviors from the views of teachers and demographic factors in theses and published articles between 2000-2012. The sample included 3648 teachers gathered from 16 studies. The results highlight that task avoidance, constant talking with classmates, verbal hostility towards peers and teacher, indifference to study subject during classes, damaging school stuff, and coming late are the most frequent student misbehavior types reported by teachers. Results showed a small relation between perceived student misbehavior and teachers’ teaching field, teacher seniority, educational background of teachers, and number of students in classroom. Gender was not determined as a statistically significant variable in determining teachers’ perceptions of student misbehavior. Practical implications for future research and practices are discussed.
Arnberg, Alexandra; Ost, Lars-Göran
Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of ≤ 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d = 0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d = 1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.
Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E
Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." © The Author(s) 2015.
Poole, Norman A; Wuerz, Axel; Agrawal, Niruj
The value of drug interviews in the treatment of conversion disorder is at present unknown. To review all the available papers published in English that report on the use of drug interviews for treating conversion/dissociative disorder. Databases (including EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) were searched from 1920 to 2009. Selected publications had to report on the use of drug interviews in people diagnosed with a conversion/dissociative disorder. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted. Predictors of a positive response were ascertained using meta-analytic techniques. Fifty-five papers meeting inclusion criteria were identified. No studies compared the intervention with a suitable control group. However, two studies reported high response rates when drug interview was used in individuals with treatment-resistant conversion disorder. In the meta-analysis, the use of suggestion and occurrence of emotional catharsis during the interview were positively associated with recovery. Combining two medications and comorbid psychiatric disorder were negatively associated with recovery. The evidence for effectiveness of drug interviews is of poor quality but it may be of benefit in the treatment of acute and treatment-resistant conversion disorder. A proactive approach during the interview, making suggestions the individual will respond, could influence outcome. Comorbid psychiatric disorder should be treated conventionally. Experimental studies to determine efficacy are required.
Ngoungou, Edgard B; Bhalla, Devender; Nzoghe, Amandine; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Preux, Pierre-Marie
Toxoplasmosis is an important, widespread, parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, usually considered as asymptomatic, is now suspected to be a risk factor for various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to estimate the risk of epilepsy due to toxoplasmosis. A systematic literature search was conducted of several databases and journals to identify studies published in English or French, without date restriction, which looked at toxoplasmosis (as exposure) and epilepsy (as disease) and met certain other inclusion criteria. The search was based on keywords and suitable combinations in English and French. Fixed and random effects models were used to determine odds ratios, and statistical significance was set at 5.0%. Six studies were identified, with an estimated total of 2888 subjects, of whom 1280 had epilepsy (477 positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1608 did not (503 positive for toxoplasmosis). The common odds ratio (calculated) by random effects model was 2.25 (95% CI 1.27-3.9), p = 0.005. Despite the limited number of studies, and a lack of high-quality data, toxoplasmosis should continue to be regarded as an epilepsy risk factor. More and better studies are needed to determine the real impact of this parasite on the occurrence of epilepsy.
The concentration of people, infrastructure, and ecosystem services in urban areas make them prime sites for climate change adaptation. While advances have been made in developing frameworks for adaptation planning and identifying both real and potential barriers to action, empirical work evaluating urban adaptation planning processes has been relatively piecemeal. Existing assessments of current experience with urban adaptation provide necessarily broad generalizations based on the available peer-reviewed literature. This paper uses a meta-analysis of U.S. cities’ current experience with urban adaptation planning drawing from 54 sources that include peer-reviewed literature, government reports, white papers, and reports published by non-governmental organizations. The analysis specifically evaluates the institutional support structures being developed for urban climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that adaptation planning is driven by a desire to reduce vulnerability and often catalyzes new collaborations and coordination mechanisms in urban governance. As a result, building capacity for urban climate change adaptation planning requires a focus not only on city governments themselves but also on the complex horizontal and vertical networks that have arisen around such efforts. Existing adaptation planning often lacks attention to equity issues, social vulnerability, and the influence of non-climatic factors on vulnerability. Engaging city govern
Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui
Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords "tea and osteoporosis," without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I = 94%, P tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
Hulsteijn, Leonie T. van; Corssmit, Eleonora P.M.; Coremans, Ida E.M.; Smit, Johannes W.A.; Jansen, Jeroen C.; Dekkers, Olaf M.
The primary treatment goal of radiotherapy for paragangliomas of the head and neck region (HNPGLs) is local control of the tumor, i.e. stabilization of tumor volume. Interestingly, regression of tumor volume has also been reported. Up to the present, no meta-analysis has been performed giving an overview of regression rates after radiotherapy in HNPGLs. The main objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess regression of tumor volume in HNPGL-patients after radiotherapy. A second outcome was local tumor control. Design of the study is systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, COCHRANE and Academic Search Premier and references of key articles were searched in March 2012 to identify potentially relevant studies. Considering the indolent course of HNPGLs, only studies with ⩾12 months follow-up were eligible. Main outcomes were the pooled proportions of regression and local control after radiotherapy as initial, combined (i.e. directly post-operatively or post-embolization) or salvage treatment (i.e. after initial treatment has failed) for HNPGLs. A meta-analysis was performed with an exact likelihood approach using a logistic regression with a random effect at the study level. Pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Fifteen studies were included, concerning a total of 283 jugulotympanic HNPGLs in 276 patients. Pooled regression proportions for initial, combined and salvage treatment were respectively 21%, 33% and 52% in radiosurgery studies and 4%, 0% and 64% in external beam radiotherapy studies. Pooled local control proportions for radiotherapy as initial, combined and salvage treatment ranged from 79% to 100%. Radiotherapy for jugulotympanic paragangliomas results in excellent local tumor control and therefore is a valuable treatment for these types of tumors. The effects of radiotherapy on regression of tumor volume remain ambiguous, although the data suggest that regression can
Full Text Available Ying Wang,1,2,* Yuelong Huang,2,* Peng Xiang,3 Wei Tian2 1Department of Molecular Orthopaedics, Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, 2Department of Spinal Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, 3Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary bone tumor in children, adolescents, and older adults, typically presenting with poor survival outcomes. In recent years, ample evidence has shown that many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been aberrantly expressed in osteosarcoma, demonstrating their potential to serve as prognostic markers. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis on four lncRNAs (TUG1, UCA1, BCAR4, and HULC to systematically evaluate their prognostic value in osteosarcoma.Materials and methods: The eligible articles were systematically searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Elsevier ScienceDirect (up to September 22, 2017, and one meta-analysis concerning the association between lncRNA expression and the overall survival (OS of osteosarcoma patients was performed. Survival outcomes were analyzed by OS. Subgroup analyses were performed.Results: A total of 1,361 patients with osteosarcoma and 12 lncRNAs from 16 articles were included in the study. Of the listed lncRNAs, the high expression of 10 lncRNAs indicated worse survival outcomes, while only two lncRNAs were shown to positively affect patients’ OS.Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicated that the abnormally expressed lncRNAs might significantly affect the survival of osteosarcoma patients. Combined use of these lncRNAs may serve as potential novel biomarkers for the indication of clinical outcomes of osteosarcoma patients as well as the selection of adjuvant chemotherapy strategies for clinical treatment of this disease. Keywords: lncRNAs, osteosarcoma
Full Text Available Tao Wu,1 Min Jiao,1 Li Jing,1 Min-Cong Wang,1 Hai-Feng Sun,2 Qing Li,1 Yi-Yang Bai,1 Yong-Chang Wei,1 Ke-Jun Nan,1 Hui Guo1 1Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 2Department of Oncology, Shaanxi Cancer Hospital, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Association of Notch-1 expression with prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to reevaluate the association of Notch-1 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of HCC. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched to look for relevant studies. The association between Notch-1 expression and clinicopathological parameters and overall survival (OS was then reassessed using the meta-analysis for odds ratio (OR or hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI. A total of seven studies, including 810 HCC patients, were eligible for the meta-analysis. Our data showed that high Notch-1 expression was able to predict poor OS (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.17–1.83, P=0.0001. The pooled OR showed that high Notch-1 expression was significantly associated with tumor metastasis (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16–0.86, P=0.02 and tumor size >5 cm (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26–0.88, P=0.02. In contrast, there was no association between high Notch-1 expression and tumor differentiation, late TNM stage, tumor number, and portal vein invasion of HCC. In conclusion, Notch-1 overexpression might predict poorer survival and more aggressive behavior in patients with HCC. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, Notch-1, prognosis, clinicopathological features, meta-analysis
Simou, Evangelia; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between alcohol consumption and risk of sleep apnoea in adults. We searched Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from 1985 to 2015 for comparative epidemiological studies assessing the relation between alcohol consumption and sleep apnoea. Two authors independently screened and extracted data. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity was quantified using I 2 and explored using subgroup analyses based on study exposure and outcome measures, quality, design, adjustment for confounders and geographical location. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and Egger's test. We identified 21 studies from which estimates of relative risk could be obtained. Meta-analysis of these estimates demonstrated that higher levels of alcohol consumption increased the risk of sleep apnoea by 25% (RR 1.25, 95%CI 1.13-1.38, I 2 = 82%, p Country locations. We detected evidence of publication bias (p = 0.001). A further eight included studies reported average alcohol consumption in people with and without sleep apnoea. Meta-analysis revealed that mean alcohol intake was two units/week higher in those with sleep apnoea, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.41). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of sleep apnoea, further supporting evidence that reducing alcohol intake is of potential therapeutic and preventive value in this condition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Valeriani, Federica; Protano, Carmela; Vitali, Matteo; Romano Spica, Vincenzo
The association between asthma and swimming pool attendance has not been demonstrated and currently there are conflicting results. In order to clarify the association between asthma diagnosis in children and swimming pool attendance, and to assess the consistency of the available epidemiological studies, we completed a literature analysis on the relationship between the exposure to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pools during childhood and asthma diagnosis. Following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching MEDLINE via PubMed, TOXNET, and Scopus databases (from inception to 20 April 2015) using the key word "Asthma" together with "swimming pool", "disinfection by-products", "indoor air pollution" and "children". Inclusion criteria were: English language, a complete analytic study design involving a cohort of children (0-16 years), a well-defined definition of exposure, and the presence of data on effect and variance. Studies on in vivo, in vitro or professional and accidental exposure were excluded. After a screening process, seven reports (n = 5851 subjects) were included out of a total of 2928 references. The reported OR of the association between swimming pool attendance and asthma prevalence ranged from 0.58 to 2.30. The present meta-analysis failed to identify a significant difference in asthma development between children attending swimming pools and controls (OR, 1.084; 95% CI: 0.89-1.31). Swimming in childhood does not increase the likelihood of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Based on this meta-analysis review, the association of the disease with indoor pool attendance is still unclear. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Claudino, João Gustavo; Cronin, John; Mezêncio, Bruno; McMaster, Daniel Travis; McGuigan, Michael; Tricoli, Valmor; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca
The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to compare countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in studies that reported the highest value as opposed to average value for the purposes of monitoring neuromuscular status (i.e., fatigue and supercompensation). The secondary aim was to determine the sensitivity of the dependent variables. Systematic review with meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was conducted on the highest or average of a number of CMJ variables. Multiple literature searches were undertaken in Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify articles utilizing CMJ to monitor training status. Effect sizes (ES) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using the mean and standard deviation of the pre- and post-testing data. The coefficient of variation (CV) with 95% CI was also calculated to assess the level of instability of each variable. Heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. 151 articles were included providing a total of 531 ESs for the meta-analyses; 85.4% of articles used highest CMJ height, 13.2% used average and 1.3% used both when reporting changes in CMJ performance. Based on the meta-analysis, average CMJ height was more sensitive than highest CMJ height in detecting CMJ fatigue and supercompensation. Furthermore, other CMJ variables such as peak power, mean power, peak velocity, peak force, mean impulse, and power were sensitive in tracking the supercompensation effects of training. The average CMJ height was more sensitive than highest CMJ height in monitoring neuromuscular status; however, further investigation is needed to determine the sensitivity of other CMJ performance variables. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ajmani, Gaurav S; Suh, Helen H; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Pinto, Jayant M
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken, examining the association between tobacco smoking and olfactory function in humans, utilizing PubMed and Web of Science (1970-2015) as data sources. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. This database review of studies of smoking and olfaction, with a focus on identifying high-quality studies (based on modified versions of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale), used validated olfactory tests among the generally healthy population. We identified 11 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Of 10 cross-sectional studies, two were excluded from meta-analysis because the cohorts they studied were included in another article in the review. In meta-analysis, current smokers had substantially higher odds of olfactory dysfunction compared to never smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-1.85). In contrast, former smokers were found to have no difference in risk of impaired olfaction compared to never smokers (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.91-1.21). The single longitudinal study reviewed found a trend toward increased risk of olfactory decline over time in ever smokers; this trend was stronger in current as compared to former smokers. Current smoking, but not former smoking, is associated with significantly increased risk of olfactory dysfunction, suggesting that the effects of smoking on olfaction may be reversible. Future studies that prospectively evaluate the impact of smoking cessation on improvement in olfactory function are warranted. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:1753-1761, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Tobías, Aurelio; Redondo, Daniel; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Sánchez, María José
Meta-analysis is very useful to summarize the effect of a treatment or a risk factor for a given disease. Often studies report results based on log-transformed variables in order to achieve the principal assumptions of a linear regression model. If this is the case for some, but not all studies, the effects need to be homogenized. We derived a set of formulae to transform absolute changes into relative ones, and vice versa, to allow including all results in a meta-analysis. We applied our procedure to all possible combinations of log-transformed independent or dependent variables. We also evaluated it in a simulation based on two variables either normally or asymmetrically distributed. In all the scenarios, and based on different change criteria, the effect size estimated by the derived set of formulae was equivalent to the real effect size. To avoid biased estimates of the effect, this procedure should be used with caution in the case of independent variables with asymmetric distributions that significantly differ from the normal distribution. We illustrate an application of this procedure by an application to a meta-analysis on the potential effects on neurodevelopment in children exposed to arsenic and manganese. The procedure proposed has been shown to be valid and capable of expressing the effect size of a linear regression model based on different change criteria in the variables. Homogenizing the results from different studies beforehand allows them to be combined in a meta-analysis, independently of whether the transformations had been performed on the dependent and/or independent variables.
Zhou, Yi; Gao, Jinxia; Luo, Le; Wang, Yining
Bruxism was usually considered as a contraindication for oral implanting. The causal relationship between bruxism and dental implant failure was remained controversial in existing literatures. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between them. This review conducted an electronic systematic literature search in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EmBase in November 2013 without time and language restrictions. Meanwhile, a hand searching for all the relevant references of included studies was also conducted. Study information extraction and methodological quality assessments were accomplished by two reviewers independently. A discussion ensued if any disagreement occurred, and unresolved issues were solved by consulting a third reviewer. Methodological quality was assessed by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was pooled to estimate the relative effect of bruxism on dental implant failures. Fixed effects model was used initially; if the heterogeneity was high, random effects model was chosen for meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were carried out by using Review Manager 5.1. In this meta-analysis review, extracted data were classified into two groups based on different units. Units were based on the number of prostheses (group A) and the number of patients (group B). In group A, the total pooled OR of bruxers versus nonbruxers for all subgroups was 4.72 (95% CI: 2.66-8.36, p = .07). In group B, the total pooled OR of bruxers versus nonbruxers for all subgroups was 3.83 (95% CI: 2.12-6.94, p = .22). This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between bruxism and dental implant failure. In contrast to nonbruxers, prostheses in bruxers had a higher failure rate. It suggests that bruxism is a contributing factor of causing the occurrence of dental implant technical/biological complications and plays a role in dental implant failure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Palta, Priya; Samuel, Laura J; Miller, Edgar R; Szanton, Sarah L
To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1980 through December 2012. A random-effects model, weighted by inverse variance, was performed to pool standard deviation (Cohen's d) effect size estimates across studies for oxidative stress and antioxidant status measures, separately. Twenty-three studies with 4980 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Depression was most commonly measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A Cohen's d effect size of 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.47-0.63) was found for the association between depression and oxidative stress, indicating a roughly 0.55 of 1-standard-deviation increase in oxidative stress among individuals with depression compared with those without depression. The results of the studies displayed significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 80.0%, p < .001). A statistically significant effect was also observed for the association between depression and antioxidant status markers (Cohen's d = -0.24, 95% confidence interval = -0.33 to -0.15). This meta-analysis observed an association between depression and oxidative stress and antioxidant status across many different studies. Differences in measures of depression and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status markers could account for the observed heterogeneity. These findings suggest that well-established associations between depression and poor heath outcomes may be mediated by high oxidative stress.
Full Text Available It has been reported that gut probiotics play a major role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Probiotics may be essential to people with depression, which remains a global health challenge, as depression is a metabolic brain disorder. However, the efficacy of probiotics for depression is controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the existing evidence on the effect of probiotics-based interventions on depression. Randomized, controlled trials, identified through screening multiple databases and grey literature, were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software using a fixed-effects model. The meta-analysis showed that probiotics significantly decreased the depression scale score (MD (depressive disorder = −0.30, 95% CI (−0.51–−0.09, p = 0.005 in the subjects. Probiotics had an effect on both the healthy population (MD = −0.25, 95% CI (−0.47–−0.03, p = 0.03 and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD (MD = −0.73, 95% CI (−1.37–−0.09, p = 0.03. Probiotics had an effect on the population aged under 60 (MD = −0.43, 95% CI (−0.72–−0.13, p = 0.005, while it had no effect on people aged over 65 (MD = −0.18, 95% CI (−0.47–0.11, p = 0.22. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis with the goal of determining the effect of probiotics on depression. We found that probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in depression, underscoring the need for additional research on this potential preventive strategy for depression.
Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi
Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Huang, Ruixue; Wang, Ke; Hu, Jianan
It has been reported that gut probiotics play a major role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Probiotics may be essential to people with depression, which remains a global health challenge, as depression is a metabolic brain disorder. However, the efficacy of probiotics for depression is controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the existing evidence on the effect of probiotics-based interventions on depression. Randomized, controlled trials, identified through screening multiple databases and grey literature, were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software using a fixed-effects model. The meta-analysis showed that probiotics significantly decreased the depression scale score (MD (depressive disorder) = -0.30, 95% CI (-0.51--0.09), p = 0.005) in the subjects. Probiotics had an effect on both the healthy population (MD = -0.25, 95% CI (-0.47--0.03), p = 0.03) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (MD = -0.73, 95% CI (-1.37--0.09), p = 0.03). Probiotics had an effect on the population aged under 60 (MD = -0.43, 95% CI (-0.72--0.13), p = 0.005), while it had no effect on people aged over 65 (MD = -0.18, 95% CI (-0.47-0.11), p = 0.22). This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis with the goal of determining the effect of probiotics on depression. We found that probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in depression, underscoring the need for additional research on this potential preventive strategy for depression.
Colman, Ruben J; Lawton, Rachel C; Dubinsky, Marla C; Rubin, David T
Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunomodulator used for the treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are currently no RCTs that assess the treatment efficacy of methotrexate within the pediatric IBD patient population. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of MTX therapy among the existing pediatric literature. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane library from inception until March 2016. Synonyms for 'pediatric', 'methotrexate' and 'IBD' were utilized as both free text and MESH search terms. The studies included contained clinical remission (CR) rates for MTX treatment of pediatric IBD patients 18 yrs old, as mono- or combination therapy. Case studies with <10 patients were excluded. Quality assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis calculated pooled CR rates. A random-effects meta-analysis with forest plots was performed using R. Fourteen (11 monotherapy, 1 combination therapy, 2 both; n = 886 patients) observational studies were eligible out of 202 studies. No interventional studies were identified. The pooled achieved CR rate for pediatric CD patients on monotherapy within 3-6 months was 57.7% (95% CI 48.2-66.6%), (P =0.22; I2 = 29.8%). The CR was 37.1% (95% CI 29.5-45.5%), (P = 0.20; I2 = 37.4%) for maintenance therapy at 12 months. Sub-analysis could not identify CR differences between MTX administration types, thiopurine exposure. This meta-analysis demonstrated that, over 50% of pediatric Crohn's disease patients induced with methotrexate achieved clinical remission, while 12-month remission rate was only 37%. Prospective controlled interventional trials should assess treatment efficacy among patient subgroups. 10.1093/ibd/izy078_video1izy078.video15774883936001.
Krop, Emma M; Hetherington, Marion M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Miquel, Sophie; Postelnicu, Luminita; Sarkar, Anwesha
Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically "chewing" and "lubrication", on "appetite" and "food intake". A literature search of six databases (Cochrane library, PubMed, Medline, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus), yielded 12161 articles which were reduced to a set of 40 articles using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. A further two articles were excluded from the meta-analysis due to missing relevant data. From the remaining 38 papers, detailing 40 unique studies with 70 subgroups, raw data were extracted for meta-analysis (food intake n = 65, hunger n = 22 and desire to eat ratings n = 15) and analyzed using random effects modelling. Oral processing parameters, such as number of chews, eating rate and texture manipulation, appeared to influence food intake markedly but appetite ratings to a lesser extent. Meta-analysis confirmed a significant effect of the direct and indirect aspects of oral processing that were related to chewing on both self-reported hunger (-0.20 effect size, 95% confidence interval CI: -0.30, -0.11), and food intake (-0.28 effect size, 95% CI: -0.36, -0.19). Although lubrication is an important aspect of oral processing, few studies on its effects on appetite have been conducted. Future experiments using standardized approaches should provide a clearer understanding of the role of oral processing, including both chewing and lubrication, in promoting satiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiaojian; Shen, Chengwu; Zhai, Shujun; Liu, Yukun; Yue, Wen-Wei; Han, Li
Adrenergic β-blockers are drugs that bind to, but do not activate β-adrenergic receptors. Instead they block the actions of β-adrenergic agonists and are used for the treatment of various diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertension, headache, migraines, stress, anxiety, prostate cancer, and heart failure. Several meta-analysis studies have shown that β-blockers improve the heart function and reduce the risks of cardiovascular events, rate of mortality, and sudden death through chronic heart failure (CHF) of patients. The present study identified results from recent meta-analyses of β-adrenergic blockers and their usefulness in CHF. Databases including Medline/Embase/Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and PubMed were searched for the periods May, 1985 to March, 2011 and June, 2013 to August, 2015, and a number of studies identified. Results of those studies showed that use of β-blockers was associated with decreased sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. However, contradictory results have also been reported. The present meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy of β-blockers on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. The results showed that mortality was significantly reduced by β-blocker treatment prior to the surgery of heart failure patients. The results from the meta-analysis studies showed that β-blocker treatment in heart failure patients correlated with a significant decrease in long-term mortality, even in patients that meet one or more exclusion criteria of the MERIT-HF study. In summary, the findings of the current meta-analysis revealed beneficial effects different β-blockers have on patients with heart failure or related heart disease.
Hew, Khe Foon; Lo, Chung Kwan
The use of flipped classroom approach has become increasingly popular in health professions education. However, no meta-analysis has been published that specifically examines the effect of flipped classroom versus traditional classroom on student learning. This study examined the findings of comparative articles through a meta-analysis in order to summarize the overall effects of teaching with the flipped classroom approach. We focused specifically on a set of flipped classroom studies in which pre-recorded videos were provided before face-to-face class meetings. These comparative articles focused on health care professionals including medical students, residents, doctors, nurses, or learners in other health care professions and disciplines (e.g., dental, pharmacy, environmental or occupational health). Using predefined study eligibility criteria, seven electronic databases were searched in mid-April 2017 for relevant articles. Methodological quality was graded using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Effect sizes, heterogeneity estimates, analysis of possible moderators, and publication bias were computed using the COMPREHENSIVE META-ANALYSIS software. A meta-analysis of 28 eligible comparative studies (between-subject design) showed an overall significant effect in favor of flipped classrooms over traditional classrooms for health professions education (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.33, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.21-0.46, p flipped classroom approach was more effective when instructors used quizzes at the start of each in-class session. More respondents reported they preferred flipped to traditional classrooms. Current evidence suggests that the flipped classroom approach in health professions education yields a significant improvement in student learning compared with traditional teaching methods.
Rosenberg, M S; Garrett, K A; Su, Z; Bowden, R L
ABSTRACT Meta-analysis is a set of statistical procedures for synthesizing research results from a number of different studies. An estimate of a statistical effect, such as the difference in disease severity for plants with or without a management treatment, is collected from each study along with a measure of the variance of the estimate of the effect. Combining results from different studies will generally result in increased statistical power so that it is easier to detect small effects. Combining results from different studies may also make it possible to compare the size of the effect as a function of other predictor variables such as geographic region or pathogen species. We present a review of the basic methodology for meta-analysis. We also present an example of meta-analysis of the relationship between disease severity and yield loss for foliar wheat diseases, based on data collected from a decade of fungicide and nematicide test results.
Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Tannock, Rosemary; Jenkins, Jennifer M.
Meta-analyses were conducted to examine findings on the association between parenting stress and ADHD. Predictors comprising child, parent, and contextual factors, and methodological and demographic moderators of the relationship between parenting stress and ADHD, were examined. Findings from 22 published and 22 unpublished studies were included.…
Valachis, Antonis; Nearchou, Andreas
Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity
Full Text Available AIM: To estimate overall prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in Iran using a systematic review and Meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic review and Meta-analysis was performed of all published studies pertaining to prevalence of ROP using international and national electronic databases (ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, MagIran, and IranMedex from their inception until May 2016 with standard keywords. Begg and Egger tests were used to examine the publication bias and Cochran test and I2 statistics were used to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity. Pooled estimate of the prevalence of ROP were calculated using random effects Meta-analysis. RESULTS: The publication bias assumption was rejected by Egger tests with P-value equal to 0.024. The results of Cochran test and I2 statistics revealed substantial heterogeneity (Q=1099.02, df=25, I2=97.7%, P=0.001. The overall prevalence of ROP using the random effect model in Iran was 26.1% (95% CI: 20.3%-31.8%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ROP is relatively high in Iran. Low birth weight and gestational age are significant risk factors for the disease. Improved care, including oxygen delivery and monitoring, for preterm babies in all facility settings would reduce the number of babies affected with ROP.
Birhane Alem Berihu
Full Text Available Background: People use khat (Catha edulis for its pleasant stimulant effect of physical activity, consciousness, motor, and mental functions. Although there are reports assessing the effect of khat on memory, there was no study based on formal systematic review and meta-analysis. Objective: We have therefore conducted this meta-analysis to determine the level of evidence for the effect of khat (C. edulis Forsk on memory discrepancy. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to retrieve the papers for this review. Keywords utilized across database search were khat, cat, chat, long-term memory, short-term memory, memory deficit, randomized control trial, and cross-sectional survey. The search was limited to studies in humans and rodents; published in English language. Result: Finding of various studies included in our meta-analysis showed that the effect of acute, and subchronic exposure to khat showed that short-term memory appears to be affected depending on the duration of exposure. However, does not have any effect on long-term memory. Conclusion: Although a number of studies regarding the current topic are limited, the evidenced showed that khat (C. edulis induced memory discrepancy.
Dai, Cong; Cao, Qin; Jiang, Min; Sun, Ming-Jun
Differentiation between autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and pancreatic cancer (PC) is a clinical challenge. Emerging published data on the accuracy of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) for the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC are inconsistent. The objective of our study was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the clinical utility of serum IgG4 in the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC. We performed a systematic literature search of multiple electronic databases. The methodological quality of each study was assessed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist. Random-effects model was used to summarize the diagnostic odds ratio and other measures of accuracy. Eleven studies comprising 523 AIP patients and 771 PC patients were included in the meta-analysis. The summary estimates for serum IgG4 in distinguishing AIP from PC were as follows: diagnostic odds ratio, 57.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.17-141.67); sensitivity, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.68-0.76); specificity, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91-0.94). The area under the curve of serum IgG4 in distinguishing AIP from PC was 0.9200. Our meta-analysis found that serum IgG4 has high specificity and relatively low sensitivity in the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC. Therefore, serum IgG4 is useful in distinguishing AIP from PC.
Chen, Pei-Ying; Liu, Ying-Mei; Chen, Mei-Ling
Anxiety is a common form of psychological distress in patients with cancer. One recognized nonpharmacological intervention to reduce anxiety for various populations is hypnotherapy or hypnosis. However, its effect in reducing anxiety in cancer patients has not been systematically evaluated. This meta-analysis was designed to synthesize the immediate and sustained effects of hypnosis on anxiety of cancer patients and to identify moderators for these hypnosis effects. Qualified studies including randomized controlled trials (RCT) and pre-post design studies were identified by searching seven electronic databases: Scopus, Medline Ovidsp, PubMed, PsycInfo-Ovid, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with FT-EBSCO, and SDOL. Effect size (Hedges' g) was computed for each study. Random-effect modeling was used to combine effect sizes across studies. All statistical analyses were conducted with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2 (Biostat, Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Our meta-analysis of 20 studies found that hypnosis had a significant immediate effect on anxiety in cancer patients (Hedges' g: 0.70-1.41, p Hypnosis delivered by a therapist was significantly more effective than self-hypnosis. Hypnosis can reduce anxiety of cancer patients, especially for pediatric cancer patients who experience procedure-related stress. We recommend therapist-delivered hypnosis should be preferred until more effective self-hypnosis strategies are developed. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Zhu, Changtai; Gao, Yulu; Jiang, Ting; Hao, Cao; Gao, Zongshuai; Sun, Yongning
Aplastic anemia therapy remains difficult, due to lack of effective treatment regimens. In recent years, Huangqi injection for the adjunctive therapy of aplastic anemia has been reported in many clinical trials. Considering that Huangqi injection may be a novel approach to aplastic anemia treatment, we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials to assess the clinical value of Huangqi injection in the treatment of aplastic anemia. We searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (VIP), Wanfang Database, PubMed and EMBASE database to collect the data about the trials of Huangqi injection combined with androgens for treating aplastic anemia. A total of ten studies involving 720 patients with aplastic anemia were included in this study. The meta-analysis showed significant increases in the pool effectiveness rate, white blood cells (WBC), haematoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLT), and reticulocytes (Ret) between the experimental group versus the control group. No severe side effects were found in this study. However, the lower Jadad scores and asymmetric funnel plot degrades the validity of the meta-analysis as the clinical evidence. Therefore, Huangqi injection may significantly enhance the efficacy of androgens for aplastic anemia, suggesting that the novel approach of Chinese traditional medicine combined with Western medicine is promising. The exact outcome required confirmation with rigorously well-designed multi-center trials. PMID:26379817
Full Text Available Background: Lipoma preferred partner (LPP and T-cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP polymorphisms might influence the susceptibility to celiac disease. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis by identifying relevant studies to estimate the risks of these polymorphisms on celiac disease. Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases were searched (up to October 2016 for LPP rs1464510 and TAGAP rs1738074 polymorphisms. Results: This meta-analysis included the same 7 studies for LPP rs1464510 and TAGAP rs1738074. The minor risk A allele at both rs1464510 and rs1738074 carried risks (odds ratios of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.22–1.30 and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.14–1.21, respectively, which contributed to increased risks in all celiac disease patients by 10.72% and 6.59%, respectively. The estimated lambdas were 0.512 and 0.496, respectively, suggesting that a co-dominant model would be suitable for both gene effects. Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides robust estimates that polymorphisms in LPP and TAGAP genes are potential risk factors for celiac disease in European and American. Prospective studies and more genome-wide association studies (GWAS are needed to confirm these findings, and some corresponding molecular biology experiments should be carried out to clarify the pathogenic mechanisms of celiac disease.
Sun, M; Feng, W; Wang, F; Li, P; Li, Z; Li, M; Tse, G; Vlaanderen, J; Vermeulen, R; Tse, L A
This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the associations between shift work patterns and risks of specific types of obesity. PubMed was searched until March 2017 for observational studies that examined the relationships between shift work patterns and obesity. Odds ratio for obesity was extracted using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Subgroup meta-analyses were carried out for study design, specific obesity types and characteristics of shift work pattern. A total of 28 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall odds ratio of night shift work was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.29) for risk of obesity/overweight. Cross-sectional studies showed a higher risk of 1.26 than those with the cohort design (risk ratio = 1.10). Shift workers had a higher frequency of developing abdominal obesity (odds ratio = 1.35) than other obesity types. Permanent night workers demonstrated a 29% higher risk than rotating shift workers (odds ratio 1.43 vs. 1.14). This meta-analysis confirmed the risks of night shift work for the development of overweight and obesity with a potential gradient association suggested, especially for abdominal obesity. Modification of working schedules is recommended, particularly for prolonged permanent night work. More accurate and detailed measurements on shift work patterns should be conducted in future research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Shen, Xiaoli; Yang, Huazhen; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Hong
The results from observational studies on the relationship between helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and Parkinson's disease remain controversial. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between helicobacter pylori infection and Parkinson's disease. A comprehensive literature search was performed on relevant studies published from January 1983 to January 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE databases. The fixed or random effects model was used to pool the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval from individual studies. Publication bias was estimated by Egger's test and the funnel plot. Eight eligible studies involving 33 125 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with the no helicobacter pylori infected person, the pooled odds ratio of Parkinson's disease in helicobacter pylori infected person was 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.37-1.85). In subgroup analyzes, the combined odds ratios were 1.96 (1.23-3.12) in Asia, 1.55 (1.32-1.82) in Europe, 1.59 (1.35-1.88) in case-control studies, 1.56 (1.01-2.39) in cross-sectional studies, 1.56 (1.32-1.85) in studies with confounders adjusted, and 1.71 (1.21-2.43) in studies with no confounder adjusted, respectively. This meta-analysis indicated that H. pylori infection might be associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Liu, Yue; Zheng, Guangying
Purpose The relationship between hypothyroidism and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) has attracted intense interest recently, but the reported results have been controversial. This meta-analysis was carried out to determine the association between hypothyroidism and POAG. Methods The literature was identified from three databases (Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed). The meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with results reported as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%). Results A total of 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the final meta-analysis. The pooled OR based on 11 risk estimates showed a statistically significant increased risk of POAG prevalence among individuals with hypothyroidism (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.27–2.13). Substantial heterogeneity among these studies was detected (P hypothyroidism and POAG, which was not observed in cross-sectional studies. There was no significant publication bias in this study. Conclusions The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that individuals with hypothyroidism have an increased risk of developing POAG. PMID:29069095
Mattos, A Z; Mattos, A A
Many different non-invasive methods have been studied with the purpose of staging liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was verifying if transient elastography is superior to aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for staging fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A systematic review with meta-analysis of studies which evaluated both non-invasive tests and used biopsy as the reference standard was performed. A random-effects model was used, anticipating heterogeneity among studies. Diagnostic odds ratio was the main effect measure, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were created. A sensitivity analysis was planned, in which the meta-analysis would be repeated excluding each study at a time. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 11.70 (95% confidence interval = 7.13-19.21) and 8.56 (95% confidence interval = 4.90-14.94) respectively. Concerning the prediction of cirrhosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 66.49 (95% confidence interval = 23.71-186.48) and 7.47 (95% confidence interval = 4.88-11.43) respectively. In conclusion, there was no evidence of significant superiority of transient elastography over aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, but the former proved to be better than the latter concerning prediction of cirrhosis.
Lyssenko, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian; Bockhacker, Laura; Vonderlin, Ruben; Bohus, Martin; Kleindienst, Nikolaus
Dissociation is a complex, ubiquitous construct in psychopathology. Symptoms of dissociation are present in a variety of mental disorders and have been connected to higher burden of illness and poorer treatment response, and not only in disorders with high levels of dissociation. This meta-analysis offers a systematic and evidence-based study of the prevalence and distribution of dissociation, as assessed by the Dissociative Experiences Scale, within different categories of mental disorders, and it updates an earlier meta-analysis. More than 1,900 original publications were screened, and 216 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 15,219 individuals in 19 diagnostic categories. The largest mean dissociation scores were found in dissociative disorders (mean scores >35), followed by posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and conversion disorder (mean scores >25). Somatic symptom disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders, feeding and eating disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, OCD, and most affective disorders also showed mean dissociation scores >15. Bipolar disorders yielded the lowest dissociation scores (mean score, 14.8). The findings underline the importance of careful psychopathological assessment of dissociative symptoms in the entire range of mental disorders.
Heger, Patrick; Probst, Pascal; Hüttner, Felix J; Gooßen, Käthe; Proctor, Tanja; Müller-Stich, Beat P; Strobel, Oliver; Büchler, Markus W; Diener, Markus K
Adrenalectomy can be performed via open and various minimally invasive approaches. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence on surgical techniques of adrenalectomy. Systematic literature searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) were conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing at least two surgical procedures for adrenalectomy. Statistical analyses were performed, and meta-analyses were conducted. Furthermore, an indirect comparison of RCTs and a network meta-analysis of CCTs were carried out for each outcome. Twenty-six trials (1710 patients) were included. Postoperative complication rates did not show differences for open and minimally invasive techniques. Operation time was significantly shorter for open adrenalectomy than for the robotic approach (p meta-analysis showed open adrenalectomy to be the fastest technique. Blood loss was significantly reduced in the robotic arm compared with open and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (p = 0.01). Length of hospital stay (LOS) was significantly lower after conventional laparoscopy than open adrenalectomy in CCTs (p meta-analysis revealed the lowest LOS after retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is safe and should be preferred over open adrenalectomy due to shorter LOS, lower blood loss, and equivalent complication rates. The retroperitoneoscopic access features the shortest LOS and operating time. Further high-quality RCTs are warranted, especially to compare the posterior retroperitoneoscopic and the transperitoneal robotic approach.
Huang, Beilei; Zheng, Liwei; Li, Chunjie; Li, Li; Yu, Haiyang
This article provides a critical overview of problem-based learning (PBL) practice in dental education in China. Because the application of PBL has not been carried out on a large scale in Chinese dental education, this review was performed to investigate its effectiveness. Databases were searched for studies that met the inclusion criteria, with study identification and data extraction performed by two reviewers independently. Meta-analysis was done with Revman 5.1. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included. The meta-analysis found that PBL had a positive effect on gaining higher theoretical (SMD=0.88, 95% CI [0.46, 1.31], peffect on gaining higher pass rates (RR=1.06, 95% CI [0.97, 1.16], p=0.21). This meta-analysis suggests that the PBL pedagogy is considered superior to the traditional lecture-based teaching in this setting. PBL methods could be an optional supplementary method of dental teaching models in China. However, Chinese dental schools should devise PBL curricula according to their own conditions. The effectiveness of PBL should be optimized maximally with all these limitations.
de Almondes, Katie Moraes; Costa, Mônica Vieira; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Diniz, Breno Satler
There are cross-sectional evidences of an association between sleep disorders and cognitive impairment on older adults. However, there are no consensus by means of longitudinal studies data on the increased risk of developing dementia related to insomnia. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of incident all-cause dementia in individuals with insomnia in population-based prospective cohort studies. Five studies of 5.242 retrieved references were included in the meta-analysis. We used the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model to calculate the pooled risk of dementia in older adults with insomnia. We assessed heterogeneity in the meta-analysis by means of the Q-test and I2 index. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale The results showed that Insomnia was associated with a significant risk of all-cause dementia (RR = 1.53 CI95% (1.07-2.18), z = 2.36, p = 0.02). There was evidence for significant heterogeneity in the analysis (q-value = 2.4, p < 0.001 I2 = 82%). Insomnia is associated with an increased risk for dementia. This results provide evidences that future studies should investigate dementia prevention among elderly individuals through screening and proper management of insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valachis, Antonis [Dept. of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala,, (Sweden)], e-mail: Valachis@hotmail.com, Antonis.Valachis@akademiska.uu.se; Nearchou, Andreas [Dept, of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala., Uppsala (Sweden)
Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity.
Liu, Lu; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Wenjing; Yao, Li; Gao, Xin; Chandan, Shah; Lui, Su
Dysphagia is a common problem in stroke patients with unclear pathogenesis. Several recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies had been carried out to explore the cerebral functional changes in dysphagic stroke patients. The aim of this study was to analysis these imaging findings using a meta-analysis. We used seed-based d mapping (SDM) to conduct a meta-analysis for dysphagic stroke patients prior to any kind of special treatment for dysphagia. A systematic search was conducted for the relevant studies. SDM meta-analysis method was used to examine regions of increased and decreased functional activation between dysphagic stroke patients and healthy controls. Finally, six studies including 81 stroke patients with dysphagia and 78 healthy controls met the inclusion standards. When compared with healthy controls, stroke patients with dysphagia showed hyperactivation in left cingulate gyrus, left precentral gyrus and right posterior cingulate gyrus, and hypoactivation in right cuneus and left middle frontal gyrus. The hyperactivity of precentral gyrus is crucial in stroke patients with dysphagia and may be associated with the severity of stroke. Besides the motor areas, the default-mode network regions (DMN) and affective network regions (AN) circuits are also involved in dysphagia after stroke. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Pijls, Bart G; Nieuwenhuijse, Marc J; Schoones, Jan W; Middeldorp, Saskia; Valstar, Edward R; Nelissen, Rob G H H
In a previous radiostereometric (RSA) trial the uncoated, uncemented, Interax tibial components showed excessive migration within 2 years compared to HA-coated and cemented tibial components. It was predicted that this type of fixation would have a high failure rate. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether this RSA prediction was correct. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the revision rate for aseptic loosening of the uncoated and cemented Interax tibial components. 3 studies were included, involving 349 Interax total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) for the comparison of uncoated and cemented fixation. There were 30 revisions: 27 uncoated and 3 cemented components. There was a 3-times higher revision rate for the uncoated Interax components than that for cemented Interax components (OR = 3; 95% CI: 1.4-7.2). This meta-analysis confirms the prediction of a previous RSA trial. The uncoated Interax components showed the highest migration and turned out to have the highest revision rate for aseptic loosening. RSA appears to enable efficient detection of an inferior design as early as 2 years postoperatively in a small group of patients.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A great number of studies regarding the associations between IL-1B-511, IL-1B+3954 and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms within the IL-1gene cluster and coronary heart disease (CHD have been published. However, results have been inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the associations. METHODS: Published literature from PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible publications. Pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random- or fixed- effect model. RESULTS: Thirteen studies (3,219 cases/2,445 controls for IL-1B-511 polymorphism, nine studies (1,828 cases/1,818 controls for IL-1B+3954 polymorphism and twelve studies (2,987 cases/ 2,208 controls for IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism were included in this meta analysis. The results indicated that both IL-1B-511 and IL-1B+3954 polymorphisms were not associated with CHD risk (IL-1B-511 T vs. C: OR = 0.98, 95%CI 0.87-1.09; IL-1B+3954 T vs. C: OR = 1.06, 95%CI 0.95-1.19. Similarly, there was no association between IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism and CHD risk (*2 vs. L: OR = 1.00, 95%CI 0.85-1.17. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that there were no associations between IL-1 gene cluster polymorphisms and CHD.
Virues-Ortega, Javier; Julio, Flávia M; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto
The intervention program for autism known as Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) is considered an emerging practice for autism. In the present study we used state-of-the-art meta-analytical procedures to examine the pooled clinical effects of TEACCH in a variety of outcomes. A total of 13 studies were selected for meta-analysis totaling 172 individuals with autism exposed to TEACCH. Standardized measures of perceptual, motor, adaptive, verbal and cognitive skills were identified as treatment outcomes. We used inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis supplemented with quality assessment, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, and heterogeneity and publication bias tests. The results suggested that TEACCH effects on perceptual, motor, verbal and cognitive skills were of small magnitude in the meta-analyzed studies. Effects over adaptive behavioral repertoires including communication, activities of daily living, and motor functioning were within the negligible to small range. There were moderate to large gains in social behavior and maladaptive behavior. The effects of the TEACCH program were not moderated by aspects of the intervention such as duration (total weeks), intensity (hours per week), and setting (home-based vs. center-based). While the present meta-analysis provided limited support for the TEACCH program as a comprehensive intervention, our results should be considered exploratory owing to the limited pool of studies available. © 2013.
Full Text Available Price elasticity plays a critical role in determining water tariff and its system. Many economic decision makers and researchers have estimated demand function for different cities in order to predict the associated income and price elasticity. In this research we reviewed 20 studies on urban domestic water demand function from which 63 price elasticity values were obtained. Since the price elasticity values obtained from these studies had significant statistical differences, the aim of this research is to determine the effective factors in price elasticity values as well as to analyze differences in such values using meta-analysis technique. The meta-analysis technique focuses on variation in water price elasticity results. The statistical meta-analysis technique focuses on two main objectives of publication bias or publication heterogeneity in reported results. The results indicated that publication bias is negligible while publication heterogeneity is significant. The major factors affecting price elasticity values are classified into 4 categories including theoretical, model, data and socio-geographical specifications. The result indicated that variables such as income, time-series datasets, natural logarithm function and use of stone-geary theory which is the basis for predicting many domestic water demand functions, significantly overestimate the price elasticity values. Also the geographical condition of the region, population density and use of OLS technique to estimate the demand parameters underestimates the price elasticity values.
Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Milton José Max; García-Perdomo, Herney Andrés
Several studies have shown a relationship between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome (MS), but no meta-analysis has been restricted to studies that adjusted for confounders. To determine the association between psoriasis and MS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies on psoriasis and MS in adults was performed from MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and LILACS from inception to January 2016. We performed a random effects model meta-analysis for those studies reporting adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The subgroup analysis was related to geographic location, diagnosis criteria and risk of bias. In all, 14 papers including a total of 25,042 patients with psoriasis were analyzed. We found that MS was present in 31.4% of patients with psoriasis (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28-1.65). Middle Eastern studies (in Israel, Turkey, and Lebanon) (OR, 1.76, 95% CI, 0.86-2.67) reported a greater risk for MS than European studies (in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Denmark) (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.25-1.55). Few adjusted studies existed, and there was inconsistency between publications. Because of the increased risk for MS, clinicians should consider screening patients with psoriasis for metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.
Terracciano, Antonio; Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.
Objectives: Personality traits are associated with risk of dementia; less is known about their association with the trajectory of cognitive functioning. This research examines the association between the 5 major dimensions of personality and cognitive function and decline in older adulthood and includes a meta-analysis of published studies. Method: Personality traits, objective and subjective memory, and cognitive status were collected in a large national sample (N = 13,987) with a 4-year follow-up period. For each trait, the meta-analysis pooled results from up to 5 prospective studies to examine personality and change in global cognition. Results: Higher Neuroticism was associated with worse performance on all cognitive measures and greater decline in memory, whereas higher Conscientiousness and Openness were associated with better memory performance concurrently and less decline over time. All traits were associated with subjective memory. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Extraversion were associated with better cognitive status and less decline. Although modest, these associations were generally larger than that of hypertension, diabetes, history of psychological treatment, obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity. The meta-analysis supported the association between Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and cognitive decline. Discussion: Personality is associated with cognitive decline in older adults, with effects comparable to established clinical and lifestyle risk factors. PMID:25583598
Full Text Available Lanlan He,1,* Yong Wang2,* 1Emergency Department, Zhenjiang First People’s Hospital, Zhenjiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *Both authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Several molecular epidemiological studies have investigated the association between OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the association of this polymorphism with cancer risk. Materials and methods: The related articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. A random-effects model or fixed-effects model was employed depending on the heterogeneity. Results: A total of ten case-control studies involving 2,749 cancer cases and 3,398 controls were included in the meta-analysis. In overall analysis, OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism was not associated with cancer risk. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, no significant association was found between OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism and the risk of glioma, gastric cancer, and other cancers. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility. Keywords: osteopontin, polymorphism, cancer, risk
Zheng, Jinyu; Lu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Penglai; Li, Kai; Li, Lixin
Recently, the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) G1958A polymorphism and neural tube defects (NTD) susceptibility has been widely investigated; however, the results remained inconclusive. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism on NTD. The relative literatures were identified by search of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. The extracted data were statistically analyzed, and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association strength using Stata version 11.0 software. Finally, ten studies met our inclusion criteria, including 2,132/4,082 in NTD infants and controls; 1,402/3,136 in mothers with NTD offspring and controls; and 993/2,879 in fathers with NTD offspring and controls. This meta-analysis showed that, compared with the mothers with GG genotype, the women with AA genotype had an increased risk of NTD in their offspring, with OR values and 95 % CI at 1.39 (1.16-1.68), p < 0.001. Interestingly, fathers with AG genotype had a significant decreased risk of NTD offspring (OR = 0.79, 95 % CI = 0.66-0.94, p = 0.009). However, there was no significant association between the MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism in NTD patients and the risk of NTD. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis provided evidence of the association between maternal MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism and NTD susceptibility.
Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Bergman, Peter; Andersson, Jan; Lindh, Jonatan D.
Background Several studies have reported improved survival in severe bacterial infections among statin treated patients. In addition, statins have been ascribed beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statin-treatment on mortality in patients with bacterial infections, by means of a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies investigating the association between statin use and mortality in patients with bacterial disease were identified in a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis was performed to calculate the overall odds ratio of mortality in statin users. The literature search identified 947 citations from which 40 relevant studies were extracted. In all, 15 studies comprising 113 910 patients were included in the final analysis. Statin use was associated with a significantly (pstatin treatment was no longer significant, with an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.58–1.07). Conclusion/Significance According to the meta-analysis of observational studies presented here, patients on statin therapy seem to have a better outcome in bacterial infections. However, the association did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for apparent publication bias. Thus, there is a great need for randomised controlled trials investigating the possible beneficial effect of statins in bacterial infections. PMID:20502712
Wang, Xin; Yang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Quan; Chen, Zi-Hua
A number of epidemiological studies have explored the association between lycopene or lycopene-rich food intake and the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of these studies have not been consistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to quantitatively assess the association between lycopene consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the summary relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest category indicated no significant association between lycopene consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer [RR = 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-1.10]. However, a significant inverse association was observed between lycopene consumption and the site of cancer in the colon (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96). We also found that the incidence of colon cancer and lycopene intake did not exhibit dose-response relationships. The Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) quality in our study was very low. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that lycopene consumption is not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Further research will be needed in this area to provide conclusive evidence.
Lee, Jeongsoon; Han, Misook; Chung, Younghae; Kim, Jinsun; Choi, Jungsook
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot reflexology on fatigue, sleep and pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Electronic database and manual searches were conducted on all published studies reporting the effects of foot reflexology on fatigue, sleep, and pain. Forty four studies were eligible including 15 studies associated with fatigue, 18 with sleep, and 11 with pain. The effects of foot reflexology were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.0. The homogeneity and the fail-safe N were calculated. Moreover, a funnel plot was used to assess publication bias. The effects on fatigue, sleep, and pain were not homogeneous and ranged from 0.63 to 5.29, 0.01 to 3.22, and 0.43 to 2.67, respectively. The weighted averages for fatigue, sleep, and pain were 1.43, 1.19, and 1.35, respectively. No publication bias was detected as evaluated by fail-safe N. Foot reflexology had a larger effect on fatigue and sleep and a smaller effect on pain. This meta-analysis indicates that foot reflexology is a useful nursing intervention to relieve fatigue and to promote sleep. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on outcome variables other than fatigue, sleep and pain.
Hugo Souza Bittencourt
Full Text Available Abstract Non-invasive ventilation (NIV may perfect respiratory and cardiac performance in patients with heart failure (HF. The objective of the study to establish, through systematic review and meta-analysis, NIV influence on functional capacity of HF patients. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized studies was carried out through research of databases of Cochrane Library, SciELO, Pubmed and PEDro, using the key-words: heart failure, non-invasive ventilation, exercise tolerance; and the free terms: bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, and functional capacity (terms were searched for in English and Portuguese using the Boolean operators AND and OR. Methodological quality was ensured through PEDro scale. Weighted averages and a 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. The meta-analysis was done thorugh the software Review Manager, version 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration. Four randomized clinical trials were included. Individual studies suggest NIV improved functional capacity. NIV resulted in improvement in the distance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT (68.7m 95%CI: 52.6 to 84.9 in comparison to the control group. We conclude that the NIV is an intervention that promotes important effects in the improvement of functional capacity of HF patients. However, there is a gap in literature on which are the most adequate parameters for the application of this technique.
Yuan, Wenzhen; Li Yumin; Yang Kehu; Ma Bin; Guan Quanlin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Lijuan
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent in disadvantaged populations worldwide. The benefit of H. pylori eradiation for iron deficiency anemia has been extensively studied, but data are still equivocal. A search in The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, EBM Review databases, Science Citation Index Expanded, and CMB (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database) was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anti-H. pylori plus oral iron to oral iron alone for the iron deficiency patients in whom H. pylori was positive were selected for meta-analysis. Reviev Manager 5.0 software was used for the performance of meta-analysis. Sixteen randomized controlled trials totaling 956 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that the difference from baseline to endpoint of hemoglobin (Hb), serum iron (SI), and serum ferritin (SF) was statistically significantly different between anti-H. pylori treatment plus oral iron and oral iron alone (SMD, Hb 1.48; 95% CI, 0.96, 2.00; p infection could be effective in improving anemia and iron statue in IDA patients infected by H. pylori, particularly in patients with moderate or severe anemia.
Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuangjie; Wang, Shouqi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Jiao
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize and analyse studies that explored the relationship between the psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of nurses. Nurse turnover is an important cause of staff shortage. Job satisfaction is a major predictor of nurse turnover and is connected to the psychological empowerment of nurses. This systematic review and meta-analysis is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 1,572 articles on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were retrieved from PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science. The articles were written in English and published before or by April 2017. Studies on the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were summarized. The majority of the included studies revealed that psychological empowerment and job satisfaction are significantly correlated. Only two studies showed that the two factors are not significantly correlated. The result of this meta-analysis is consistent with the results of most studies. One study reported that psychological empowerment partially mediates the structural empowerment and job satisfaction of school health nurses. Two studies, however, did not find that the mediating role of psychological empowerment between structural empowerment and job satisfaction. The results of this review provided evidence for the importance of psychological empowerment for the job satisfaction of among nurses. Exploring the correlation between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction can provide guidelines and recommendation for the development of strategies to promote nurse retention and alleviate nursing shortage. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhou, Dongkai; Wang, Weilin; Cheng, Xiaofei; Wei, Jianfeng; Zheng, Shusen
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive, inflammatory disease of pancreas characterized by significant abdominal pain, malabsorption, and diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant therapy has been proposed as an effective treatment for painful chronic pancreatitis. We performed a meta-analysis of trials in which antioxidant therapy was compared with placebo in chronic pancreatitis. We searched six databases to identify relevant trials. Results are expressed as risk ratio (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI). The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to heterogeneity. Eight studies including 573 patients met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies revealed that the intervention of antioxidants was associated with a significant increase in patients with pain relief (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.72-2.69; P chronic pancreatitis patients (SMD: -0.41; 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.10; P = 0.0005). Additionally, antioxidants may cause some adverse reactions (RR, 4.22; 95% CI: 2.17-8.20; P pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis, and administration of antioxidants to patients with painful chronic pancreatitis is effective in relieving pain. Antioxidant supplements may be advocated as one medical therapy for chronic pancreatitis patients with low antioxidant capacity in their blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Li, Li; Gai, Xuesong
Previous reports have suggested a potential association on dietary zinc intake with the risk of pancreatic cancer. Since the associations between different studies were controversial, we therefore conducted a meta-analysis to reassess the relationship between dietary zinc intake and pancreatic cancer risk. A comprehensive search from the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medline was performed until January 31, 2017. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) derived by using random effect model was used. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Our meta-analysis was based on seven studies involving 1659 cases, including two prospective cohort studies and five case-control studies. The total RR of pancreatic cancer risk for the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary zinc intake was 0.798 (0.621-0.984), with its significant heterogeneity among studies ( I 2 =58.2%, P =0.026). The average Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) score was 7.29, suggesting a high quality. There was no publication bias in the meta-analysis about dietary zinc intake on the risk of pancreatic cancer. Subgroup analyses showed that dietary zinc intake could reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer in case-control studies and among American populations. In conclusion, we found that highest category of dietary zinc intake can significantly reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer, especially among American populations. © 2017 The Author(s).
Friese, Malte; Frankenbach, Julius; Job, Veronika; Loschelder, David D
Self-control is positively associated with a host of beneficial outcomes. Therefore, psychological interventions that reliably improve self-control are of great societal value. A prominent idea suggests that training self-control by repeatedly overriding dominant responses should lead to broad improvements in self-control over time. Here, we conducted a random-effects meta-analysis based on robust variance estimation of the published and unpublished literature on self-control training effects. Results based on 33 studies and 158 effect sizes revealed a small-to-medium effect of g = 0.30, confidence interval (CI 95 ) [0.17, 0.42]. Moderator analyses found that training effects tended to be larger for (a) self-control stamina rather than strength, (b) studies with inactive compared to active control groups, (c) males than females, and (d) when proponents of the strength model of self-control were (co)authors of a study. Bias-correction techniques suggested the presence of small-study effects and/or publication bias and arrived at smaller effect size estimates (range: g corrected = .13 to .24). The mechanisms underlying the effect are poorly understood. There is not enough evidence to conclude that the repeated control of dominant responses is the critical element driving training effects.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compute the overall effect size concerning the impact of insurance sector activity on economic growth. The connection of insurance activity and economic growth has been a widely investigated topic due to numerous papers and research attempts performed so far. The results, however, often differ among individual studies. Therefore a comprehensive analysis of the significance of causality from insurance activity, measured by insurance premium, to business cycle fluctuation, is well-required. Using 10 published and unpublished studies, we conduct a meta-analysis of the literature on the impact of insurance activity on economic growth. Insurance premium is taken as the measure of insurance activity. The combined significance test of individual t-statistics is employed. The calculation of the effect size allows understand the true effect relying on synthesis of so far published research with significantly higher amount of observations and better precision. Our results confirm positive effect of insurance activity on economic growth and are particularly important for policy makers who set the policy towards subjects in the insurance market.
Dodell-Feder, David; Tamir, Diana I
Scholars from both the social sciences and the humanities have credited fiction reading with a range of positive real-world social effects. Research in psychology has suggested that readers may make good citizens because fiction reading is associated with better social cognition. But does fiction reading causally improve social cognition? Here, we meta-analyze extant published and unpublished experimental data to address this question. Multilevel random-effects meta-analysis of 53 effect sizes from 14 studies demonstrated that it does: compared to nonfiction reading and no reading, fiction reading leads to a small, statistically significant improvement in social-cognitive performance (g = .15-.16). This effect is robust across sensitivity analyses and does not appear to be the result of publication bias. We recommend that in future work, researchers use more robust reading manipulations, assess whether the effects transfer to improved real-world social functioning, and investigate mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Gustavo Q Romero
Full Text Available Flower-visiting animals are constantly under predation risk when foraging and hence might be expected to evolve behavioural adaptations to avoid predators. We reviewed the available published and unpublished data to assess the overall effects of predators on pollinator behaviour and to examine sources of variation in these effects. The results of our meta-analysis showed that predation risk significantly decreased flower visitation rates (by 36% and time spent on flowers (by 51% by pollinators. The strength of the predator effects depended neither on predator taxa and foraging mode (sit-and-wait or active hunters nor on pollinator lifestyle (social vs. solitary. However, predator effects differed among pollinator taxa: predator presence reduced flower visitation rates and time spent on flowers by Squamata, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, but not by Diptera. Furthermore, larger pollinators showed weaker responses to predation risk, probably because they are more difficult to capture. Presence of live crab spiders on flowers had weaker effects on pollinator behaviour than presence of dead or artificial crab spiders or other objects (e.g. dead bees, spheres, suggesting that predator crypsis may be effective to some extent. These results add to a growing consensus on the importance of considering both predator and pollinator characteristics from a community perspective.
Romero, Gustavo Q; Antiqueira, Pablo A P; Koricheva, Julia
Flower-visiting animals are constantly under predation risk when foraging and hence might be expected to evolve behavioural adaptations to avoid predators. We reviewed the available published and unpublished data to assess the overall effects of predators on pollinator behaviour and to examine sources of variation in these effects. The results of our meta-analysis showed that predation risk significantly decreased flower visitation rates (by 36%) and time spent on flowers (by 51%) by pollinators. The strength of the predator effects depended neither on predator taxa and foraging mode (sit-and-wait or active hunters) nor on pollinator lifestyle (social vs. solitary). However, predator effects differed among pollinator taxa: predator presence reduced flower visitation rates and time spent on flowers by Squamata, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, but not by Diptera. Furthermore, larger pollinators showed weaker responses to predation risk, probably because they are more difficult to capture. Presence of live crab spiders on flowers had weaker effects on