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Sample records for met kinase domain

  1. Identification of Phytochemicals Targeting c-Met Kinase Domain using Consensus Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliebrahimi, Shima; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Karami, Leila

    2018-06-01

    c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase is a proto-oncogene whose aberrant activation is attributed to a lower rate of survival in most cancers. Natural product-derived inhibitors known as "fourth generation inhibitors" constitute more than 60% of anticancer drugs. Furthermore, consensus docking approach has recently been introduced to augment docking accuracy and reduce false positives during a virtual screening. In order to obtain novel small-molecule Met inhibitors, consensus docking approach was performed using Autodock Vina and Autodock 4.2 to virtual screen Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database against active and inactive conformation of c-Met kinase domain structure. Two hit molecules that were in line with drug-likeness criteria, desired docking score, and binding pose were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate intermolecular contacts in protein-ligand complexes. Analysis of molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area studies showed that ZINC08234189 is a plausible inhibitor for the active state of c-Met, whereas ZINC03871891 may be more effective toward active c-Met kinase domain compared to the inactive form due to higher binding energy. Our analysis showed that both the hit molecules formed hydrogen bonds with key residues of the hinge region (P1158, M1160) in the active form, which is a hallmark of kinase domain inhibitors. Considering the pivotal role of HGF/c-Met signaling in carcinogenesis, our results propose ZINC08234189 and ZINC03871891 as the therapeutic options to surmount Met-dependent cancers.

  2. Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met and its complex with the microbial alkaloid K-252a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiering, Nikolaus; Knapp, Stefan; Marconi, Marina; Flocco, Maria M; Cui, Jean; Perego, Rita; Rusconi, Luisa; Cristiani, Cinzia

    2003-10-28

    The protooncogene c-met codes for the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, stimulates receptor autophosphorylation, which leads to pleiotropic downstream signaling events in epithelial cells, including cell growth, motility, and invasion. These events are mediated by interaction of cytoplasmic effectors, generally through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, with two phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs in the unique C-terminal tail of c-Met (supersite). There is a strong link between aberrant c-Met activity and oncogenesis, which makes this kinase an important cancer drug target. The furanosylated indolocarbazole K-252a belongs to a family of microbial alkaloids that also includes staurosporine. It was recently shown to be a potent inhibitor of c-Met. Here we report the crystal structures of an unphosphorylated c-Met kinase domain harboring a human cancer mutation and its complex with K-252a at 1.8-A resolution. The structure follows the well established architecture of protein kinases. It adopts a unique, inhibitory conformation of the activation loop, a catalytically noncompetent orientation of helix alphaC, and reveals the complete C-terminal docking site. The first SH2-binding motif (1349YVHV) adopts an extended conformation, whereas the second motif (1356YVNV), a binding site for Grb2-SH2, folds as a type II Beta-turn. The intermediate portion of the supersite (1353NATY) assumes a type I Beta-turn conformation as in an Shc-phosphotyrosine binding domain peptide complex. K-252a is bound in the adenosine pocket with an analogous binding mode to those observed in previously reported structures of protein kinases in complex with staurosporine.

  3. Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met and its complex with the microbial alkaloid K-252a

    OpenAIRE

    Schiering, Nikolaus; Knapp, Stefan; Marconi, Marina; Flocco, Maria M.; Cui, Jean; Perego, Rita; Rusconi, Luisa; Cristiani, Cinzia

    2003-01-01

    The protooncogene c-met codes for the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, stimulates receptor autophosphorylation, which leads to pleiotropic downstream signaling events in epithelial cells, including cell growth, motility, and invasion. These events are mediated by interaction of cytoplasmic effectors, generally through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, with two phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs in the unique...

  4. Structural Basis for Selective Small Molecule Kinase Inhibition of Activated c-Met

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, Keith W.; Patel, Sangita B.; Allison, Timothy J.; Byrne, Noel J.; Darke, Paul L.; Ford, Rachael E.; Guerin, David J.; Hall, Dawn L.; Kornienko, Maria; Lu, Jun; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Reid, John C.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Stanton, Elizabeth F.; Wilson, Kevin J.; Young, Jonathon R.; Soisson, Stephen M.; Lumb, Kevin J. (Merck)

    2012-03-15

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met is implicated in oncogenesis and is the target for several small molecule and biologic agents in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Binding of the hepatocyte growth factor to the cell surface receptor of c-Met induces activation via autophosphorylation of the kinase domain. Here we describe the structural basis of c-Met activation upon autophosphorylation and the selective small molecule inhibiton of autophosphorylated c-Met. MK-2461 is a potent c-Met inhibitor that is selective for the phosphorylated state of the enzyme. Compound 1 is an MK-2461 analog with a 20-fold enthalpy-driven preference for the autophosphorylated over unphosphorylated c-Met kinase domain. The crystal structure of the unbound kinase domain phosphorylated at Tyr-1234 and Tyr-1235 shows that activation loop phosphorylation leads to the ejection and disorder of the activation loop and rearrangement of helix {alpha}C and the G loop to generate a viable active site. Helix {alpha}C adopts a orientation different from that seen in activation loop mutants. The crystal structure of the complex formed by the autophosphorylated c-Met kinase domain and compound 1 reveals a significant induced fit conformational change of the G loop and ordering of the activation loop, explaining the selectivity of compound 1 for the autophosphorylated state. The results highlight the role of structural plasticity within the kinase domain in imparting the specificity of ligand binding and provide the framework for structure-guided design of activated c-Met inhibitors.

  5. Insights into function of PSI domains from structure of the Met receptor PSI domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Perreault, Audrey; Schrag, Joseph D.; Park, Morag; Cygler, Miroslaw; Gehring, Kalle; Ekiel, Irena

    2004-01-01

    PSI domains are cysteine-rich modules found in extracellular fragments of hundreds of signaling proteins, including plexins, semaphorins, integrins, and attractins. Here, we report the solution structure of the PSI domain from the human Met receptor, a receptor tyrosine kinase critical for proliferation, motility, and differentiation. The structure represents a cysteine knot with short regions of secondary structure including a three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and two α-helices. All eight cysteines are involved in disulfide bonds with the pattern consistent with that for the PSI domain from Sema4D. Comparison with the Sema4D structure identifies a structurally conserved core comprising the N-terminal half of the PSI domain. Interestingly, this part links adjacent SEMA and immunoglobulin domains in the Sema4D structure, suggesting that the PSI domain serves as a wedge between propeller and immunoglobulin domains and is responsible for the correct positioning of the ligand-binding site of the receptor

  6. The autism associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase engages early neuronal growth mechanism and controls glutamatergic circuits development in the forebrain

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Yun; Lu, Zhongming; Li, Guohui; Piechowicz, Mariel; Anderson, Miranda; Uddin, Yasin; Wu, Jie; Qiu, Shenfeng

    2016-01-01

    The human MET gene imparts a replicated risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and is implicated in the structural and functional integrity of brain. MET encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, MET, which plays a pleiotropic role in embryogenesis and modifies a large number of neurodevelopmental events. Very little is known, however, on how MET signaling engages distinct cellular events to collectively affect brain development in ASD-relevant disease domains. Here, we show that MET protein expr...

  7. Kinase impact assessment in the landscape of fusion genes that retain kinase domains: a pan-cancer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pora; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Assessing the impact of kinase in gene fusion is essential for both identifying driver fusion genes (FGs) and developing molecular targeted therapies. Kinase domain retention is a crucial factor in kinase fusion genes (KFGs), but such a systematic investigation has not been done yet. To this end, we analyzed kinase domain retention (KDR) status in chimeric protein sequences of 914 KFGs covering 312 kinases across 13 major cancer types. Based on 171 kinase domain-retained KFGs including 101 kinases, we studied their recurrence, kinase groups, fusion partners, exon-based expression depth, short DNA motifs around the break points and networks. Our results, such as more KDR than 5′-kinase fusion genes, combinatorial effects between 3′-KDR kinases and their 5′-partners and a signal transduction-specific DNA sequence motif in the break point intronic sequences, supported positive selection on 3′-kinase fusion genes in cancer. We introduced a degree-of-frequency (DoF) score to measure the possible number of KFGs of a kinase. Interestingly, kinases with high DoF scores tended to undergo strong gene expression alteration at the break points. Furthermore, our KDR gene fusion network analysis revealed six of the seven kinases with the highest DoF scores (ALK, BRAF, MET, NTRK1, NTRK3 and RET) were all observed in thyroid carcinoma. Finally, we summarized common features of ‘effective’ (highly recurrent) kinases in gene fusions such as expression alteration at break point, redundant usage in multiple cancer types and 3′-location tendency. Collectively, our findings are useful for prioritizing driver kinases and FGs and provided insights into KFGs’ clinical implications. PMID:28013235

  8. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-01-01

    is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain

  9. Recent advances in the discovery of small molecule c-Met Kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Palak K; Ghate, Manjunath D

    2018-01-01

    c-Met is a prototype member of a subfamily of heterodimeric receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and is the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Binding of HGF to its receptor c-Met, initiates a wide range of cellular signalling, including those involved in proliferation, motility, migration and invasion. Importantly, dysregulated HGF/c-Met signalling is a driving factor for numerous malignancies and promotes tumour growth, invasion, dissemination and/or angiogenesis. Dysregulated HGF/c-Met signalling has also been associated with poor clinical outcomes and resistance acquisition to some approved targeted therapies. Thus, c-Met kinase has emerged as a promising target for cancer drug development. Different therapeutic approaches targeting the HGF/c-Met signalling pathway are under development for targeted cancer therapy, among which small molecule inhibitors of c-Met kinase constitute the largest effort within the pharmaceutical industry. The review is an effort to summarize recent advancements in medicinal chemistry development of small molecule c-Met kinase inhibitors as potential anti-cancer agents which would certainly help future researchers to bring further developments in the discovery of small molecule c-Met kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. SH2 domains: modulators of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a sequence-specific phosphotyrosine-binding module present in many signaling molecules. In cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, the SH2 domain is located N-terminally to the catalytic kinase domain (SH1) where it mediates cellular localization, substrate recruitment, and regulation of kinase activity. Initially, structural studies established a role of the SH2 domain stabilizing the inactive state of Src family members. However, biochemical characterization showed ...

  11. SH2 domains: modulators of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a sequence-specific phosphotyrosine-binding module present in many signaling molecules. In cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, the SH2 domain is located N-terminally to the catalytic kinase domain (SH1) where it mediates cellular localization, substrate recruitment, and regulation of kinase activity. Initially, structural studies established a role of the SH2 domain stabilizing the inactive state of Src family members. However, biochemical characterization showed that the presence of the SH2 domain is frequently required for catalytic activity, suggesting a crucial function stabilizing the active state of many nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, the structure of the SH2-kinase domain of Fes revealed that the SH2 domain stabilizes the active kinase conformation by direct interactions with the regulatory helix alphaC. Stabilizing interactions between the SH2 and the kinase domains have also been observed in the structures of active Csk and Abl. Interestingly, mutations in the SH2 domain found in human disease can be explained by SH2 domain destabilization or incorrect positioning of the SH2. Here we summarize our understanding of mechanisms that lead to tyrosine kinase activation by direct interactions mediated by the SH2 domain and discuss how mutations in the SH2 domain trigger kinase inactivation.

  12. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions modulate cellular processes in health and disease. However, tracing weak or rare associations or dissociations of proteins is not a trivial task. Kinases are often regulated through interaction partners and, at the same time, themselves regulate cellular interaction networks. The use of kinase domains for creating a synthetic sensor device that reads low concentration protein-protein interactions and amplifies them to a higher concentration interaction which is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain modules for the reading of kinase activity were assembled and expression protocols for fusion proteins containing Lyn, Src, and Fak kinase domains in bacterial and in cell-free systems were optimized. Also, two non-overlapping methods for measuring the kinase activity of these proteins were stablished and, finally, a protein-fragment complementation assay with the split-kinase constructs was tested. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that features such as codon optimization, vector design and expression conditions have an impact on the expression yield and activity of kinase-based proteins. Furthermore, it has been found that the defined PURE cell-free system is insufficient for the active expression of catalytic kinase domains. In contrast, the bacterial co-expression with phosphatases produced active kinase fusion proteins for two out of the three tested Tyrosine kinase domains.

  13. Structural coupling of SH2-kinase domains links Fes and Abl substrate recognition and kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Kofler, Michael; Hantschel, Oliver; Gish, Gerald D; Grebien, Florian; Salah, Eidarus; Neudecker, Philipp; Kay, Lewis E; Turk, Benjamin E; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pawson, Tony; Knapp, Stefan

    2008-09-05

    The SH2 domain of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases can enhance catalytic activity and substrate recognition, but the molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. We have solved the structure of the prototypic SH2-kinase unit of the human Fes tyrosine kinase, which appears specialized for positive signaling. In its active conformation, the SH2 domain tightly interacts with the kinase N-terminal lobe and positions the kinase alphaC helix in an active configuration through essential packing and electrostatic interactions. This interaction is stabilized by ligand binding to the SH2 domain. Our data indicate that Fes kinase activation is closely coupled to substrate recognition through cooperative SH2-kinase-substrate interactions. Similarly, we find that the SH2 domain of the active Abl kinase stimulates catalytic activity and substrate phosphorylation through a distinct SH2-kinase interface. Thus, the SH2 and catalytic domains of active Fes and Abl pro-oncogenic kinases form integrated structures essential for effective tyrosine kinase signaling.

  14. The Met receptor tyrosine kinase prevents zebrafish primary motoneurons from expressing an incorrect neurotransmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisen Judith S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of correct neurotransmitters is crucial for normal nervous system function. How neurotransmitter expression is regulated is not well-understood; however, previous studies provide evidence that both environmental signals and intrinsic differentiation programs are involved. One environmental signal known to regulate neurotransmitter expression in vertebrate motoneurons is Hepatocyte growth factor, which acts through the Met receptor tyrosine kinase and also affects other aspects of motoneuron differentiation, including axonal extension. Here we test the role of Met in development of motoneurons in embryonic zebrafish. Results We found that met is expressed in all early developing, individually identified primary motoneurons and in at least some later developing secondary motoneurons. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides to knock down Met function and found that Met has distinct roles in primary and secondary motoneurons. Most secondary motoneurons were absent from met morpholino-injected embryos, suggesting that Met is required for their formation. We used chemical inhibitors to test several downstream pathways activated by Met and found that secondary motoneuron development may depend on the p38 and/or Akt pathways. In contrast, primary motoneurons were present in met morpholino-injected embryos. However, a significant fraction of them had truncated axons. Surprisingly, some CaPs in met morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO-injected embryos developed a hybrid morphology in which they had both a peripheral axon innervating muscle and an interneuron-like axon within the spinal cord. In addition, in met MO-injected embryos primary motoneurons co-expressed mRNA encoding Choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme for their normal neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, and mRNA encoding Glutamate decarboxylase 1, the synthetic enzyme for GABA, a neurotransmitter never normally found in these motoneurons, but

  15. Matriptase is required for the active form of hepatocyte growth factor induced Met, focal adhesion kinase and protein kinase B activation on neural stem/progenitor cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jung-Da; Lee, Sheau-Ling

    2014-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a chemoattractant and inducer for neural stem/progenitor (NS/P) cell migration. Although the type II transmembrane serine protease, matriptase (MTP) is an activator of the latent HGF, MTP is indispensable on NS/P cell motility induced by the active form of HGF. This suggests that MTP's action on NS/P cell motility involves mechanisms other than proteolytic activation of HGF. In the present study, we investigate the role of MTP in HGF-stimulated signaling events. Using specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) or focal adhesion kinase (FAK), we demonstrated that in NS/P cells HGF-activated c-Met induces PI3k-Akt signaling which then leads to FAK activation. This signaling pathway ultimately induces MMP2 expression and NS/P cell motility. Knocking down of MTP in NS/P cells with specific siRNA impaired HGF-stimulation of c-Met, Akt and FAK activation, blocked HGF-induced production of MMP2 and inhibited HGF-stimulated NS/P cell motility. MTP-knockdown NS/P cells cultured in the presence of recombinant protein of MTP protease domain or transfected with the full-length wild-type but not the protease-defected MTP restored HGF-responsive events in NS/P cells. In addition to functioning as HGF activator, our data revealed novel function of MTP on HGF-stimulated c-Met signaling activation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase engages early neuronal growth mechanism and controls glutamatergic circuits development in the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y; Lu, Z; Li, G; Piechowicz, M; Anderson, M; Uddin, Y; Wu, J; Qiu, S

    2016-07-01

    The human MET gene imparts a replicated risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and is implicated in the structural and functional integrity of brain. MET encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, MET, which has a pleiotropic role in embryogenesis and modifies a large number of neurodevelopmental events. Very little is known, however, on how MET signaling engages distinct cellular events to collectively affect brain development in ASD-relevant disease domains. Here, we show that MET protein expression is dynamically regulated and compartmentalized in developing neurons. MET is heavily expressed in neuronal growth cones at early developmental stages and its activation engages small GTPase Cdc42 to promote neuronal growth, dendritic arborization and spine formation. Genetic ablation of MET signaling in mouse dorsal pallium leads to altered neuronal morphology indicative of early functional maturation. In contrast, prolonged activation of MET represses the formation and functional maturation of glutamatergic synapses. Moreover, manipulating MET signaling levels in vivo in the developing prefrontal projection neurons disrupts the local circuit connectivity made onto these neurons. Therefore, normal time-delimited MET signaling is critical in regulating the timing of neuronal growth, glutamatergic synapse maturation and cortical circuit function. Dysregulated MET signaling may lead to pathological changes in forebrain maturation and connectivity, and thus contribute to the emergence of neurological symptoms associated with ASD.

  17. Dual Constant Domain-Fab: A novel strategy to improve half-life and potency of a Met therapeutic antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetto, Simona; Modica, Chiara; Chiriaco, Cristina; Fontani, Lara; Milla, Paola; Michieli, Paolo; Comoglio, Paolo M; Vigna, Elisa

    2016-06-01

    The kinase receptor encoded by the Met oncogene is a sensible target for cancer therapy. The chimeric monovalent Fab fragment of the DN30 monoclonal antibody (MvDN30) has an odd mechanism of action, based on cell surface removal of Met via activation of specific plasma membrane proteases. However, the short half-life of the Fab, due to its low molecular weight, is a severe limitation for the deployment in therapy. This issue was addressed by increasing the Fab molecular weight above the glomerular filtration threshold through the duplication of the constant domains, in tandem (DCD-1) or reciprocally swapped (DCD-2). The two newly engineered molecules showed biochemical properties comparable to the original MvDN30 in vitro, acting as full Met antagonists, impairing Met phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling pathways. As a consequence, Met-mediated biological responses were inhibited, including anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth. In vivo DCD-1 and DCD-2 showed a pharmacokinetic profile significantly improved over the original MvDN30, doubling the circulating half-life and reducing the clearance. In pre-clinical models of cancer, generated by injection of tumor cells or implant of patient-derived samples, systemic administration of the engineered molecules inhibited the growth of Met-addicted tumors. Copyright © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  19. A first-in-human phase I study of SAR125844, a selective MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumours with MET amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevin, Eric; Spitaleri, Gianluca; Rodon, Jordi; Dotti, Katia; Isambert, Nicolas; Salvagni, Stefania; Moreno, Victor; Assadourian, Sylvie; Gomez, Corinne; Harnois, Marzia; Hollebecque, Antoine; Azaro, Analia; Hervieu, Alice; Rihawi, Karim; De Marinis, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Dysregulated MET signalling is implicated in oncogenesis. The safety and preliminary efficacy of a highly selective MET kinase inhibitor (SAR125844) was investigated in patients with advanced solid tumours and MET dysregulation. This was a phase I dose-escalation (3 + 3 design [50-740 mg/m 2 ]) and dose-expansion study. In the dose escalation, patients had high total MET (t-MET) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or MET amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. In the dose expansion, patients had MET amplification (including a subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC]) or phosphorylated-MET (p-MET) expression (IHC). Objectives were determination of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of once-weekly intravenous SAR125844 based on dose-limiting toxicities; safety and pharmacokinetic profile; preliminary efficacy of SAR125844 MTD in the expansion cohort. In total, 72 patients were enrolled: dose escalation, N = 33; dose expansion, N = 39; 570 mg/m 2 was established as the MTD. Most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were asthenia/fatigue (58.3%), nausea (31.9%), and abdominal pain, constipation, and dyspnea (27.8% for each); 58.3% of patients reported grade 3 AEs (19.4% were treatment related). Of the 29 evaluable patients with MET amplification treated at 570 mg/m 2 , five achieved a partial response, including four of 22 with NSCLC; 17 patients had stable disease. No response was observed in patients with high p-MET solid tumours. There was no correlation between tumour response and t-MET status or MET gene copy number. The MTD of once-weekly SAR125844 was 570 mg/m 2 ; SAR125844 was well tolerated, with significant antitumour activity in patients with MET-amplified NSCLC. NCT01391533. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. MET receptor tyrosine kinase controls dendritic complexity, spine morphogenesis, and glutamatergic synapse maturation in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shenfeng; Lu, Zhongming; Levitt, Pat

    2014-12-03

    The MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), implicated in risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in functional and structural circuit integrity in humans, is a temporally and spatially regulated receptor enriched in dorsal pallial-derived structures during mouse forebrain development. Here we report that loss or gain of function of MET in vitro or in vivo leads to changes, opposite in nature, in dendritic complexity, spine morphogenesis, and the timing of glutamatergic synapse maturation onto hippocampus CA1 neurons. Consistent with the morphological and biochemical changes, deletion of Met in mutant mice results in precocious maturation of excitatory synapse, as indicated by a reduction of the proportion of silent synapses, a faster GluN2A subunit switch, and an enhanced acquisition of AMPA receptors at synaptic sites. Thus, MET-mediated signaling appears to serve as a mechanism for controlling the timing of neuronal growth and functional maturation. These studies suggest that mistimed maturation of glutamatergic synapses leads to the aberrant neural circuits that may be associated with ASD risk. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416166-14$15.00/0.

  1. Crystal Structure of the FERM Domain of Focal Adhesion Kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccarelli, D.; Song, H.; Poy, F.; Schaller, M.; Eck, M.

    2006-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions in adherent cells. Through phosphorylation of proteins assembled at the cytoplasmic tails of integrins, FAK promotes signaling events that modulate cellular growth, survival, and migration. The amino-terminal region of FAK contains a region of sequence homology with band 4.1 and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins termed a FERM domain. FERM domains are found in a variety of signaling and cytoskeletal proteins and are thought to mediate intermolecular interactions with partner proteins and phospholipids at the plasma membrane and intramolecular regulatory interactions. Here we report two crystal structures of an NH2-terminal fragment of avian FAK containing the FERM domain and a portion of the regulatory linker that connects the FERM and kinase domains. The tertiary folds of the three subdomains (F1, F2, and F3) are similar to those of known FERM structures despite low sequence conservation. Differences in the sequence and relative orientation of the F3 subdomain alters the nature of the interdomain interface, and the phosphoinositide binding site found in ERM family FERM domains is not present in FAK. A putative protein interaction site on the F3 lobe is masked by the proximal region of the linker. Additionally, in one structure the adjacent Src SH3 and SH2 binding sites in the linker associate with the surfaces of the F3 and F1 lobes, respectively. These structural features suggest the possibility that protein interactions of the FAK FERM domain can be regulated by binding of Src kinases to the linker segment

  2. Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PF-2341066, suppresses growth and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhao,1,* Jing Zhang,2,* Ying Tian,1,* Cong Xue,1 Zhihuang Hu,1 Li Zhang1,3 1Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guang Zhou Traditional Chinese Medicine University, 3National Anti-Cancer Drug Research Centre, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: We explored the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/Met signaling pathway on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells in vitro and in vivo, and investigated the ability of Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI to block HGF-induced biological signaling.Experimental design: Met TKI inhibitor PF-2341066 alone, or in combination with cisplatin, was investigated for its ability to block HGF-induced signaling and biological effects in vitro and in vivo. HGF/Met expression and activation of signaling in NPC cells were detected by using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biological evaluation, including wound healing, cell proliferation, and invasion of NPC cells, was also examined, and the correlation between HGF/Met expression of primary and metastatic tumor in NPC patients and clinical prognosis were also analyzed.Results: Met TKI inhibitor, PF-2341066, inhibited growth of NPC cells in vivo with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.79±0.21 µmol/L, and suppressed invasion and migration of NPC cells; also, the inhibition of PF-2341066 was synergized with cisplatin treatment. Compared with the control group, Met TKI inhibited metastasis of transplanted NPC in nude mice (the number of live metastases [mean ± SD]: 5.8±2.2 versus 11.8±2.2, P=0.03; the number of lung metastases: 2.3±1.5 versus

  3. A lipid binding domain in sphingosine kinase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don, Anthony S.; Rosen, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    The lipid second messenger sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a critical mediator of cellular proliferation and survival signals, and is essential for vasculogenesis and neurogenesis. S1P formation is catalysed by sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (Sphk1 and Sphk2). We have found that the endogenous glycolipid sulfatide (3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide) binds to and inhibits the activity of Sphk2 and the closely related ceramide kinase (Cerk), but not Sphk1. Using sulfatide as a probe, we mapped the lipid binding domain to the N-terminus of Sphk2 (residues 1-175), a region of sequence that is absent in Sphk1, but aligns with a pleckstrin homology domain in Cerk. Accordingly, Sphk2 bound to phosphatidylinositol monophosphates but not to abundant cellular phospholipids. Deleting the N-terminal domain reduced Sphk2 membrane localisation in cells. We have therefore identified a lipid binding domain in Sphk2 that is important for the enzyme's sub-cellular localisation.

  4. Discovery of imidazopyridine derivatives as novel c-Met kinase inhibitors: Synthesis, SAR study, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yifei; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, LingYun; Zhao, Leilei; Si, Lianghui; Zhang, Huibin; Liu, Qingsong; Zhou, Jinpei

    2017-02-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met acts as an alternative angiogenic pathway in the process and contents of cancers. A series of imidazopyridine derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the established docking studies as possible c-Met inhibitors. Most of these imidazopyridine derivatives displayed nanomolar potency against c-Met in both biochemical enzymatic screens and cellular pharmacology studies. Especially, compound 7g exhibited the most inhibitory activity against c-Met with IC 50 of 53.4nM and 253nM in enzymatic and cellular level, respectively. Following that, the compound 7g was docked into the protein of c-Met and the structure-activity relationship was analyzed in detail. These findings indicated that the novel imidazopyridine derivative compound 7g was a potential c-Met inhibitor deserving further investigation for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Akt1 binds focal adhesion kinase via the Akt1 kinase domain independently of the pleckstrin homology domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, M D; Zeng, B; Wang, S

    2015-10-01

    Akt1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are protein kinases that play key roles in normal cell signaling. Individually, aberrant expression of these kinases has been linked to a variety of cancers. Together, Akt1/FAK interactions facilitate cancer metastasis by increasing cell adhesion under conditions of increased extracellular pressure. Pathological and iatrogenic sources of pressure arise from tumor growth against constraining stroma or direct perioperative manipulation. We previously reported that 15 mmHg increased extracellular pressure causes Akt1 to both directly interact with FAK and to phosphorylate and activate it. We investigated the nature of the Akt1/FAK binding by creating truncations of recombinant FAK, conjugated to glutathione S-transferase (GST), to pull down full-length Akt1. Western blots probing for Akt1 showed that FAK/Akt1 binding persisted in FAK truncations consisting of only amino acids 1-126, FAK(NT1), which contains the F1 subdomain of its band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin (FERM) domain. Using FAK(NT1) as bait, we then pulled down truncated versions of recombinant Akt1 conjugated to HA (human influenza hemagglutinin). Probes for GST-FAK(NT1) showed Akt1-FAK binding to occur in the absence of the both the Akt1 (N)-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and its adjacent hinge region. The Akt1 (C)-terminal regulatory domain was equally unnecessary for Akt1/FAK co-immunoprecipitation. Truncations involving the Akt1 catalytic domain showed that the domain by itself was enough to pull down FAK. Additionally, a fragment spanning from the PH domain to half way through the catalytic domain demonstrated increased FAK binding compared to full length Akt1. These results begin to delineate the Akt1/FAK interaction and can be used to manipulate their force-activated signal interactions. Furthermore, the finding that the N-terminal half of the Akt1 catalytic domain binds so strongly to FAK when cleaved from the rest of the protein may suggest a means

  6. The Abl SH2-kinase linker naturally adopts a conformation competent for SH3 domain binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shugui; Brier, Sébastien; Smithgall, Thomas E; Engen, John R

    2007-04-01

    The core of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is structurally similar to Src-family kinases where SH3 and SH2 domains pack against the backside of the kinase domain in the down-regulated conformation. Both kinase families depend upon intramolecular association of SH3 with the linker joining the SH2 and kinase domains for suppression of kinase activity. Hydrogen deuterium exchange (HX) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to probe intramolecular interaction of the c-Abl SH3 domain with the linker in recombinant constructs lacking the kinase domain. Under physiological conditions, the c-Abl SH3 domain undergoes partial unfolding, which is stabilized by ligand binding, providing a unique assay for SH3:linker interaction in solution. Using this approach, we observed dynamic association of the SH3 domain with the linker in the absence of the kinase domain. Truncation of the linker before W254 completely prevented cis-interaction with SH3, while constructs containing amino acids past this point showed SH3:linker interactions. The observation that the Abl linker sequence exhibits SH3-binding activity in the absence of the kinase domain is unique to Abl and was not observed with Src-family kinases. These results suggest that SH3:linker interactions may have a more prominent role in Abl regulation than in Src kinases, where the down-regulated conformation is further stabilized by a second intramolecular interaction between the C-terminal tail and the SH2 domain.

  7. Complete or partial reduction of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase in distinct circuits differentially impacts mouse behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara L; Levitt, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Our laboratory discovered that the gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase, MET, contributes to autism risk. Expression of MET is reduced in human postmortem temporal lobe in autism and Rett Syndrome. Subsequent studies revealed a role for MET in human and mouse functional and structural cortical connectivity. To further understand the contribution of Met to brain development and its impact on behavior, we generated two conditional mouse lines in which Met is deleted from select populations of central nervous system neurons. Mice were then tested to determine the consequences of disrupting Met expression. Mating of Emx1 (cre) and Met (fx/fx) mice eliminates receptor signaling from all cells arising from the dorsal pallium. Met (fx/fx) and Nestin (cre) crosses result in receptor signaling elimination from all neural cells. Behavioral tests were performed to assess cognitive, emotional, and social impairments that are observed in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders and that are in part subserved by circuits that express Met. Met (fx/fx) /Emx1 (cre) null mice displayed significant hypoactivity in the activity chamber and in the T-maze despite superior performance on the rotarod. Additionally, these animals showed a deficit in spontaneous alternation. Surprisingly, Met (fx/fx; fx/+) /Nestin (cre) null and heterozygous mice exhibited deficits in contextual fear conditioning, and Met (fx/+) /Nestin (cre) heterozygous mice spent less time in the closed arms of the elevated plus maze. These data suggest a complex contribution of Met in the development of circuits mediating social, emotional, and cognitive behavior. The impact of disrupting developmental Met expression is dependent upon circuit-specific deletion patterns and levels of receptor activity.

  8. Kinase Associated-1 Domains Drive MARK/PAR1 Kinases to Membrane Targets by Binding Acidic Phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Slochower, David; Janmey, Paul A.; Lemmon, Mark A. (UPENN-MED)

    2011-09-28

    Phospholipid-binding modules such as PH, C1, and C2 domains play crucial roles in location-dependent regulation of many protein kinases. Here, we identify the KA1 domain (kinase associated-1 domain), found at the C terminus of yeast septin-associated kinases (Kcc4p, Gin4p, and Hsl1p) and human MARK/PAR1 kinases, as a membrane association domain that binds acidic phospholipids. Membrane localization of isolated KA1 domains depends on phosphatidylserine. Using X-ray crystallography, we identified a structurally conserved binding site for anionic phospholipids in KA1 domains from Kcc4p and MARK1. Mutating this site impairs membrane association of both KA1 domains and intact proteins and reveals the importance of phosphatidylserine for bud neck localization of yeast Kcc4p. Our data suggest that KA1 domains contribute to coincidence detection, allowing kinases to bind other regulators (such as septins) only at the membrane surface. These findings have important implications for understanding MARK/PAR1 kinases, which are implicated in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and autism.

  9. Theoretical Insights Reveal Novel Motions in Csk's SH3 Domain That Control Kinase Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulyman Barkho

    Full Text Available The Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs regulate numerous aspects of cell growth and differentiation and are under the principal control of the C-terminal Src Kinase (Csk. Although Csk and SFKs share conserved kinase, SH2 and SH3 domains, they differ considerably in three-dimensional structure, regulatory mechanism, and the intrinsic kinase activities. Although the SH2 and SH3 domains are known to up- or down-regulate tyrosine kinase function, little is known about the global motions in the full-length kinase that govern these catalytic variations. We use a combination of accelerated Molecular Dynamics (aMD simulations and experimental methods to provide a new view of functional motions in the Csk scaffold. These computational studies suggest that high frequency vibrations in the SH2 domain are coupled through the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain to motions in the SH3 domain. The effects of these reflexive movements on the kinase domain can be viewed using both Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (DXMS and steady-state kinetic methods. Removal of several contacts, including a crystallographically unobserved N-terminal segment, between the SH3 and kinase domains short-circuit these coupled motions leading to reduced catalytic efficiency and stability of N-lobe motifs within the kinase domain. The data expands the model of Csk's activation whereby separate domains productively interact with two diametrically opposed surfaces of the kinase domain. Such reversible transitions may organize the active structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of Csk.

  10. c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase as a molecular target in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Alessandro; Guidetti, Elena; Gramantieri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    c-MET is the membrane receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also known as scatter factor or tumor cytotoxic factor, a mitogenic growth factor for hepatocytes. HGF is mainly produced by cells of mesenchymal origin and it mainly acts on neighboring epidermal and endothelial cells, regulating epithelial growth and morphogenesis. HGF/MET signaling has been identified among the drivers of tumorigenesis in human cancers. As such, c-MET is a recognized druggable target, and against it, targeted agents are currently under clinical investigation. c-MET overexpression is a common event in a wide range of human malignancies, including gastric, lung, breast, ovary, colon, kidney, thyroid, and liver carcinomas. Despite c-MET overexpression being reported by a large majority of studies, no evidence for a c-MET oncogenic addiction exists in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, c-MET amplification is a rare event, accounting for 4%-5% of cases while no mutation has been identified in c-MET oncogene in HCC. Thus, the selection of patient subgroups more likely to benefit from c-MET inhibition is challenging. Notwithstanding, c-MET overexpression was reported to be associated with increased metastatic potential and poor prognosis in patients with HCC, providing a rationale for its therapeutic inhibition. Here we summarize the role of activated HGF/MET signaling in HCC, its prognostic relevance, and the implications for therapeutic approaches in HCC.

  11. Distinct projection targets define subpopulations of mouse brainstem vagal neurons that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitakahara, Anna; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Levitt, Pat

    2017-12-15

    Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract. Using wholemount tissue staining and clearing, or retrograde tracing in a MET EGFP transgenic mouse, we identify three novel subpopulations of EGFP+ vagal brainstem neurons: (a) EGFP+ neurons in the nAmb projecting to the esophagus or laryngeal muscles, (b) EGFP+ neurons in the medial DMV projecting to the stomach, and (b) EGFP+ neurons in the lateral DMV projecting to the cecum and/or proximal colon. Expression of the MET ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), by tissues innervated by vagal motor neurons during fetal development reveal potential sites of HGF-MET interaction. Furthermore, similar cellular expression patterns of MET in the brainstem of both the mouse and nonhuman primate suggests that MET expression at these sites is evolutionarily conserved. Together, the data suggest that MET+ neurons in the brainstem vagal motor nuclei are anatomically positioned to regulate distinct portions of the gastrointestinal tract, with implications for the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal comorbidities of ASD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Dynamic gene and protein expression patterns of the autism-associated met receptor tyrosine kinase in the developing mouse forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Matthew C; Bergman, Mica Y; Campbell, Daniel B; Eagleson, Kathie L; Levitt, Pat

    2009-04-10

    The establishment of appropriate neural circuitry depends on the coordination of multiple developmental events across space and time. These events include proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival-all of which can be mediated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling through the Met receptor tyrosine kinase. We previously found a functional promoter variant of the MET gene to be associated with autism spectrum disorder, suggesting that forebrain circuits governing social and emotional function may be especially vulnerable to developmental disruptions in HGF/Met signaling. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal distribution of Met expression in the forebrain during the development of such circuits. To advance our understanding of the neurodevelopmental influences of Met activation, we employed complementary Western blotting, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry to comprehensively map Met transcript and protein expression throughout perinatal and postnatal development of the mouse forebrain. Our studies reveal complex and dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of expression during this period. Spatially, Met transcript is localized primarily to specific populations of projection neurons within the neocortex and in structures of the limbic system, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and septum. Met protein appears to be principally located in axon tracts. Temporally, peak expression of transcript and protein occurs during the second postnatal week. This period is characterized by extensive neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, supporting a role for the receptor in these processes. Collectively, these data suggest that Met signaling may be necessary for the appropriate wiring of forebrain circuits, with particular relevance to the social and emotional dimensions of behavior. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase as a molecular target in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granito A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Granito,1 Elena Guidetti,1 Laura Gramantieri2,3 1Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Dipartimento dell'Apparato Digerente, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 3Centro di Ricerca Biomedica Applicata (CRBA, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico S Orsola-Malpighi e Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy Abstract: c-MET is the membrane receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, also known as scatter factor or tumor cytotoxic factor, a mitogenic growth factor for hepatocytes. HGF is mainly produced by cells of mesenchymal origin and it mainly acts on neighboring epidermal and endothelial cells, regulating epithelial growth and morphogenesis. HGF/MET signaling has been identified among the drivers of tumorigenesis in human cancers. As such, c-MET is a recognized druggable target, and against it, targeted agents are currently under clinical investigation. c-MET overexpression is a common event in a wide range of human malignancies, including gastric, lung, breast, ovary, colon, kidney, thyroid, and liver carcinomas. Despite c-MET overexpression being reported by a large majority of studies, no evidence for a c-MET oncogenic addiction exists in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. In particular, c-MET amplification is a rare event, accounting for 4%–5% of cases while no mutation has been identified in c-MET oncogene in HCC. Thus, the selection of patient subgroups more likely to benefit from c-MET inhibition is challenging. Notwithstanding, c-MET overexpression was reported to be associated with increased metastatic potential and poor prognosis in patients with HCC, providing a rationale for its therapeutic inhibition. Here we summarize the role of activated HGF/MET signaling in HCC, its prognostic relevance, and the implications for therapeutic approaches in HCC. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, c-MET, clinical trials

  14. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) family proteins contain an inactive guanylate kinase (GK) domain, whose function has been elusive. Here, this domain is revealed as a new type of phospho-peptide-binding module, in which the GMP-binding site has evolved to accommodate phospho-serines or -threonines.

  15. Distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    PASTA domains (penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains) have been identified in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They are believed to bind β-lactam antibiotics, and be involved in peptidoglycan metabolism, although their biological function is not definitively clarified. Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are distinct in that they undergo complex cellular differentiation and produce various antibiotics including β-lactams. This review focuses on the distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases in Actinobacteria. In Actinobacteria, PASTA domains are detectable exclusively in class A but not in class B penicillin-binding proteins, in sharp contrast to the cases in other bacteria. In penicillin-binding proteins, PASTA domains distribute independently from taxonomy with some distribution bias. Particularly interesting thing is that no Streptomyces species have penicillin-binding protein with PASTA domains. Protein kinases in Actinobacteria possess 0 to 5 PASTA domains in their molecules. Protein kinases in Streptomyces can be classified into three groups: no PASTA domain, 1 PASTA domain and 4 PASTA domain-containing groups. The 4 PASTA domain-containing groups can be further divided into two subgroups. The serine/threonine kinases in different groups may perform different functions. The pocket region in one of these subgroup is more dense and extended, thus it may be involved in binding of ligands like β-lactams more efficiently.

  16. PTB domain-directed substrate targeting in a tyrosine kinase from the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prieto-Echagüe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Choanoflagellates are considered to be the closest living unicellular relatives of metazoans. The genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis contains a surprisingly high number and diversity of tyrosine kinases, tyrosine phosphatases, and phosphotyrosine-binding domains. Many of the tyrosine kinases possess combinations of domains that have not been observed in any multicellular organism. The role of these protein interaction domains in M. brevicollis kinase signaling is not clear. Here, we have carried out a biochemical characterization of Monosiga HMTK1, a protein containing a putative PTB domain linked to a tyrosine kinase catalytic domain. We cloned, expressed, and purified HMTK1, and we demonstrated that it possesses tyrosine kinase activity. We used immobilized peptide arrays to define a preferred ligand for the third PTB domain of HMTK1. Peptide sequences containing this ligand sequence are phosphorylated efficiently by recombinant HMTK1, suggesting that the PTB domain of HMTK1 has a role in substrate recognition analogous to the SH2 and SH3 domains of mammalian Src family kinases. We suggest that the substrate recruitment function of the noncatalytic domains of tyrosine kinases arose before their roles in autoinhibition.

  17. The insulin and IGF1 receptor kinase domains are functional dimers in the activated state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabail, M. Zulema; Li, Shiqing; Lemmon, Eric; Bowen, Mark E.; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2015-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly related receptor tyrosine kinases with a disulfide-linked homodimeric architecture. Ligand binding to the receptor ectodomain triggers tyrosine autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains, which stimulates catalytic activity and creates recruitment sites for downstream signalling proteins. Whether the two phosphorylated tyrosine kinase domains within the receptor dimer function independently or cooperatively to phosphorylate protein substrates is not known. Here we provide crystallographic, biophysical and biochemical evidence demonstrating that the phosphorylated kinase domains of IR and IGF1R form a specific dimeric arrangement involving an exchange of the juxtamembrane region proximal to the kinase domain. In this dimer, the active position of α-helix C in the kinase N lobe is stabilized, which promotes downstream substrate phosphorylation. These studies afford a novel strategy for the design of small-molecule IR agonists as potential therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

  18. The Axl kinase domain in complex with a macrocyclic inhibitor offers first structural insights into an active TAM receptor kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Ketan S; Grodsky, Neil; Bolaños, Ben; Feng, Junli; Ferre, RoseAnn; Timofeevski, Sergei; Xu, Meirong; Murray, Brion W; Johnson, Ted W; Stewart, Al

    2017-09-22

    The receptor tyrosine kinase family consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) is one of the most recently identified receptor tyrosine kinase families. TAM receptors are up-regulated postnatally and maintained at high levels in adults. They all play an important role in immunity, but Axl has also been implicated in cancer and therefore is a target in the discovery and development of novel therapeutics. However, of the three members of the TAM family, the Axl kinase domain is the only one that has so far eluded structure determination. To this end, using differential scanning fluorimetry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, we show here that a lower stability and greater dynamic nature of the Axl kinase domain may account for its poor crystallizability. We present the first structural characterization of the Axl kinase domain in complex with a small-molecule macrocyclic inhibitor. The Axl crystal structure revealed two distinct conformational states of the enzyme, providing a first glimpse of what an active TAM receptor kinase may look like and suggesting a potential role for the juxtamembrane region in enzyme activity. We noted that the ATP/inhibitor-binding sites of the TAM members closely resemble each other, posing a challenge for the design of a selective inhibitor. We propose that the differences in the conformational dynamics among the TAM family members could potentially be exploited to achieve inhibitor selectivity for targeted receptors. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Discovery of potent 1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based c-Met kinase inhibitors via mechanism-directed structural optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiao-De; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Zhong-Liang; Jin, Yi; Peng, Xia; Yao, Ying-Ming; Geng, Meiyu; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    Starting from our previously identified novel c-Met kinase inhibitors bearing 1H-imidazo[4,5-h][1,6]naphthyridin-2(3H)-one scaffold, a global structural exploration was conducted to furnish an optimal binding motif for further development, directed by the enzyme inhibitory mechanism. First round SAR study picked two imidazonaphthyridinone frameworks with 1,8- and 3,5-disubstitution pattern as class I and class II c-Met kinase inhibitors, respectively. Further structural optimization on type II inhibitors by truncation of the imidazonaphthyridinone core and incorporation of an N-phenyl cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide pharmacophore led to the discovery of novel imidazopyridine-based c-Met kinase inhibitors, displaying nanomolar enzyme inhibitory activity and improved Met kinase selectivity. More significantly, the new chemotype c-Met kinase inhibitors effectively inhibited Met phosphorylation and its downstream signaling as well as the proliferation of Met-dependent EBC-1 human lung cancer cells at submicromolar concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrophobic interaction between the SH2 domain and the kinase domain is required for the activation of Csk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Esa T; Gahmberg, Carl G

    2010-06-18

    The protein tyrosine kinase C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) is activated by the engagement of its Src homology (SH) 2 domain. However, the molecular mechanism required for this is not completely understood. The crystal structure of the active Csk indicates that Csk could be activated by contact between the SH2 domain and the beta3-alphaC loop in the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain. To study the importance of this interaction for the SH2-domain-mediated activation of Csk, we mutated the amino acid residues forming the contacts between the SH2 domain and the beta3-alphaC loop. The mutation of the beta3-alphaC loop Ala228 to glycine and of the SH2 domain Tyr116, Tyr133, Leu138, and Leu149 to alanine resulted in the inability of the SH2 domain ligand to activate Csk. Furthermore, the overexpressed Csk mutants A228G, Y133A/Y116A, L138A, and L149A were unable to efficiently inactivate endogenous Src in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results suggest that the SH2-domain-mediated activation of Csk is dependent on the binding of the beta3-alphaC loop Ala228 to the hydrophobic pocket formed by the side chains of Tyr116, Tyr133, Leu138, and Leu149 on the surface of the SH2 domain. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of the Met326Ile variant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Katrine; Delahaye, Laurent; Hansen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    . When the four human p85alpha proteins were expressed in yeast, a 27% decrease occurred in the level of protein expression of p85alpha(Ile/Asp) (P = 0.03) and a 43% decrease in p85alpha(Ile/Asn) (P = 0.08) as compared with p85alpha(Met/Asp). Both p85alpha(Ile/Asp) and p85alpha(Ile/Asn) also exhibited...... increased binding to phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 by 41% and 83%, respectively (P substrate-1 slightly increased in brown preadipocytes derived from p85alpha...... knockout mice. Both p85alpha(Met) and p85alpha(Ile) had similar effects on AKT activity and were able to reconstitute differentiation of the preadipocytes, although the triglyceride concentration in fully differentiated adipocytes and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake were slightly lower than...

  2. Coupled motions in the SH2 and kinase domains of Csk control Src phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lilly; Lieser, Scot A; Miyashita, Osamu; Miller, Meghan; Tasken, Kjetil; Onuchic, Josè N; Adams, Joseph A; Woods, Virgil L; Jennings, Patricia A

    2005-08-05

    The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) phosphorylates and down-regulates Src family tyrosine kinases. The Csk-binding protein (Cbp) localizes Csk close to its substrates at the plasma membrane, and increases the specific activity of the kinase. To investigate this long-range catalytic effect, the phosphorylation of Src and the conformation of Csk were investigated in the presence of a high-affinity phosphopeptide derived from Cbp. This peptide binds tightly to the SH2 domain and enhances Src recognition (lowers K(m)) by increasing the apparent phosphoryl transfer rate in the Csk active site, a phenomenon detected in rapid quench flow experiments. Previous studies demonstrated that the regulation of Csk activity is linked to conformational changes in the enzyme that can be probed with hydrogen-deuterium exchange methods. We show that the Cbp peptide impacts deuterium incorporation into its binding partner (the SH2 domain), and into the SH2-kinase linker and several sequences in the kinase domain, including the glycine-rich loop in the active site. These findings, along with computational data from normal mode analyses, suggest that the SH2 domain moves in a cantilever fashion with respect to the small lobe of the kinase domain, ordering the active site for catalysis. The binding of a small Cbp-derived peptide to the SH2 domain of Csk modifies these motions, enhancing Src recognition.

  3. Functional domains of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase: regulation by autoinhibitory and visinin-like domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandiran, S.; Takezawa, D.; Wang, W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A novel calcium-binding calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) with a catalytic domain, calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like domain was cloned and characterized from plants [Patil et al., (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 4797-4801; Takezawa et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 8126-8132]. The mechanisms of CCaMK activation by calcium and calcium/calmodulin were investigated using various deletion mutants. The use of deletion mutants of CCaMK lacking either one, two, or all three calcium-binding EF hands indicated that all three calcium-binding sites in the visinin-like domain were crucial for the full calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity. As each calcium-binding EF hand was deleted, there was a gradual reduction in calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity from 100 to 4%. Another mutant (amino acids 1-322) which lacks both the visinin-like domain containing three EF hands and the calmodulin-binding domain was constitutively active, indicating the presence of an autoinhibitory domain around the calmodulin-binding domain. By using various synthetic peptides and the constitutively active mutant, we have shown that CCaMK contains an autoinhibitory domain within the residues 322-340 which overlaps its calmodulin-binding domain. Kinetic studies with both ATP and the GS peptide substrate suggest that the autoinhibitory domain of CCaMK interacts only with the peptide substrate binding motif of the catalytic domain, but not with the ATP-binding motif.

  4. Novel autophosphorylation sites of Src family kinases regulate kinase activity and SH2 domain-binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Marion E; Mann, Jacqueline E; Corwin, Thomas; Fulton, Zachary W; Hao, Jennifer M; Maniscalco, Jeanine F; Kenney, Marie C; Roman Roque, Kristal M; Chapdelaine, Elizabeth F; Stelzl, Ulrich; Deming, Paula B; Ballif, Bryan A; Hinkle, Karen L

    2016-04-01

    Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are critical players in normal and aberrant biological processes. While phosphorylation importantly regulates SFKs at two known tyrosines, large-scale phosphoproteomics have revealed four additional tyrosines commonly phosphorylated in SFKs. We found these novel tyrosines to be autophosphorylation sites. Mimicking phosphorylation at the C-terminal site to the activation loop decreased Fyn activity. Phosphomimetics and direct phosphorylation at the three SH2 domain sites increased Fyn activity while reducing phosphotyrosine-dependent interactions. While 68% of human SH2 domains exhibit conservation of at least one of these tyrosines, few have been found phosphorylated except when found in cis to a kinase domain. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. The Rapamycin-Binding Domain of the Protein Kinase mTOR is a Destabilizing Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah R.; Wandless, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug that binds simultaneously to the 12-kDa FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein (FKBP12, or FKBP) and the FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB) of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase. The resulting ternary complex has been used to conditionally perturb protein function, and one such method involves perturbation of a protein of interest through its mislocalization. We synthesized two rapamycin derivatives that possess large substituents at the C16 position within the FRB-binding interface, and these derivatives were screened against a library of FRB mutants using a three-hybrid assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several FRB mutants responded to one of the rapamycin derivatives, and twenty of these mutants were further characterized in mammalian cells. The mutants most responsive to the ligand were fused to yellow fluorescent protein, and fluorescence levels in the presence and absence of the ligand were measured to determine stability of the fusion proteins. Wild-type and mutant FRB domains were expressed at low levels in the absence of the rapamycin derivative, and expression levels rose up to ten-fold upon treatment with ligand. The synthetic rapamycin derivatives were further analyzed using quantitative mass spectrometry, and one of the compounds was found to contain contaminating rapamycin. Furthermore, uncontaminated analogs retain the ability to inhibit mTOR, albeit with diminished potency relative to rapamycin. The ligand-dependent stability displayed by wildtype FRB and FRB mutants as well as the inhibitory potential and purity of the rapamycin derivatives should be considered as potentially confounding experimental variables when using these systems. PMID:17350953

  6. Novel receptor-like kinases in cacao contain PR-1 extracellular domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2013-08-01

    Members of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family are well-known markers of plant defence responses, forming part of the arsenal of the secreted proteins produced on pathogen recognition. Here, we report the identification of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) PR-1s that are fused to transmembrane regions and serine/threonine kinase domains, in a manner characteristic of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). These proteins (TcPR-1f and TcPR-1g) were named PR-1 receptor kinases (PR-1RKs). Phylogenetic analysis of RLKs and PR-1 proteins from cacao indicated that PR-1RKs originated from a fusion between sequences encoding PR-1 and the kinase domain of a LecRLK (Lectin Receptor-Like Kinase). Retrotransposition marks surround TcPR-1f, suggesting that retrotransposition was involved in the origin of PR-1RKs. Genes with a similar domain architecture to cacao PR-1RKs were found in rice (Oryza sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and a nonphototrophic bacterium (Herpetosiphon aurantiacus). However, their kinase domains differed from those found in LecRLKs, indicating the occurrence of convergent evolution. TcPR-1g expression was up-regulated in the biotrophic stage of witches' broom disease, suggesting a role for PR-1RKs during cacao defence responses. We hypothesize that PR-1RKs transduce a defence signal by interacting with a PR-1 ligand. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. CBL is frequently altered in lung cancers: its relationship to mutations in MET and EGFR tyrosine kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Carol Tan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is a heterogeneous group of disorders with a number of genetic and proteomic alterations. c-CBL is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and adaptor molecule important in normal homeostasis and cancer. We determined the genetic variations of c-CBL, relationship to receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR and MET, and functionality in NSCLC.Using archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE extracted genomic DNA, we show that c-CBL mutations occur in somatic fashion for lung cancers. c-CBL mutations were not mutually exclusive of MET or EGFR mutations; however they were independent of p53 and KRAS mutations. In normal/tumor pairwise analysis, there was significant loss of heterozygosity (LOH for the c-CBL locus (22%, n = 8/37 and none of these samples revealed any mutation in the remaining copy of c-CBL. The c-CBL LOH also positively correlated with EGFR and MET mutations observed in the same samples. Using select c-CBL somatic mutations such as S80N/H94Y, Q249E and W802* (obtained from Caucasian, Taiwanese and African-American samples, respectively transfected in NSCLC cell lines, there was increased cell viability and cell motility.Taking the overall mutation rate of c-CBL to be a combination as somatic missense mutation and LOH, it is clear that c-CBL is highly mutated in lung cancers and may play an essential role in lung tumorigenesis and metastasis.

  8. Structural Insights into the HWE Histidine Kinase Family: The Brucella Blue Light-Activated Histidine Kinase Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Jimena; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; Sycz, Gabriela; Cerutti, María Laura; Berguer, Paula M; Paris, Gastón; Estrín, Darío Ariel; Martí, Marcelo Adrián; Klinke, Sebastián; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto

    2016-03-27

    In response to light, as part of a two-component system, the Brucella blue light-activated histidine kinase (LOV-HK) increases its autophosphorylation, modulating the virulence of this microorganism. The Brucella histidine kinase (HK) domain belongs to the HWE family, for which there is no structural information. The HWE family is exclusively present in proteobacteria and usually coupled to a wide diversity of light sensor domains. This work reports the crystal structure of the Brucella HK domain, which presents two different dimeric assemblies in the asymmetric unit: one similar to the already described canonical parallel homodimers (C) and the other, an antiparallel non-canonical (NC) dimer, each with distinct relative subdomain orientations and dimerization interfaces. Contrary to these crystallographic structures and unlike other HKs, in solution, the Brucella HK domain is monomeric and still active, showing an astonishing instability of the dimeric interface. Despite this instability, using cross-linking experiments, we show that the C dimer is the functionally relevant species. Mutational analysis demonstrates that the autophosphorylation activity occurs in cis. The different relative subdomain orientations observed for the NC and C states highlight the large conformational flexibility of the HK domain. Through the analysis of these alternative conformations by means of molecular dynamics simulations, we also propose a catalytic mechanism for Brucella LOV-HK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematic characterization of the specificity of the SH2 domains of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Tan, Pauline H; Li, Shawn S C; Pei, Dehua

    2013-04-09

    Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases (CTK) generally contain a Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain, whose role in the CTK family is not fully understood. Here we report the determination of the specificity of 25 CTK SH2 domains by screening one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) peptide libraries. Based on the peptide sequences selected by the SH2 domains, we built Support Vector Machine (SVM) models for the prediction of binding ligands for the SH2 domains. These models yielded support for the progressive phosphorylation model for CTKs in which the overlapping specificity of the CTK SH2 and kinase domains has been proposed to facilitate targeting of the CTK substrates with at least two potential phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites. We curated 93 CTK substrates with at least two pTyr sites catalyzed by the same CTK, and showed that 71% of these substrates had at least two pTyr sites predicted to bind a common CTK SH2 domain. More importantly, we found 34 instances where there was at least one pTyr site predicted to be recognized by the SH2 domain of the same CTK, suggesting that the SH2 and kinase domains of the CTKs may cooperate to achieve progressive phosphorylation of a protein substrate. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From protein structures to clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential sensitivity of Src-family kinases to activation by SH3 domain displacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A Moroco

    Full Text Available Src-family kinases (SFKs are non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in a variety of signaling pathways in virtually every cell type. The SFKs share a common negative regulatory mechanism that involves intramolecular interactions of the SH3 domain with the PPII helix formed by the SH2-kinase linker as well as the SH2 domain with a conserved phosphotyrosine residue in the C-terminal tail. Growing evidence suggests that individual SFKs may exhibit distinct activation mechanisms dictated by the relative strengths of these intramolecular interactions. To elucidate the role of the SH3:linker interaction in the regulation of individual SFKs, we used a synthetic SH3 domain-binding peptide (VSL12 to probe the sensitivity of downregulated c-Src, Hck, Lyn and Fyn to SH3-based activation in a kinetic kinase assay. All four SFKs responded to VSL12 binding with enhanced kinase activity, demonstrating a conserved role for SH3:linker interaction in the control of catalytic function. However, the sensitivity and extent of SH3-based activation varied over a wide range. In addition, autophosphorylation of the activation loops of c-Src and Hck did not override regulatory control by SH3:linker displacement, demonstrating that these modes of activation are independent. Our results show that despite the similarity of their downregulated conformations, individual Src-family members show diverse responses to activation by domain displacement which may reflect their adaptation to specific signaling environments in vivo.

  11. Requirement of Sequences outside the Conserved Kinase Domain of Fission Yeast Rad3p for Checkpoint Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Carolyn Riley; Evans, Sarah Tyler; Carr, Antony M.; Enoch, Tamar

    1999-01-01

    The fission yeast Rad3p checkpoint protein is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related family of protein kinases, which includes human ATMp. Mutation of the ATM gene is responsible for the disease ataxia-telangiectasia. The kinase domain of Rad3p has previously been shown to be essential for function. Here, we show that although this domain is necessary, it is not sufficient, because the isolated kinase domain does not have kinase activity in vitro and cannot complement a rad3 deletion strain. Using dominant negative alleles of rad3, we have identified two sites N-terminal to the conserved kinase domain that are essential for Rad3p function. One of these sites is the putative leucine zipper, which is conserved in other phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related family members. The other is a novel motif, which may also mediate Rad3p protein–protein interactions. PMID:10512862

  12. Phase I dose-escalation study of the c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor SAR125844 in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors, including patients with MET-amplified gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shitara, Kohei; Kim, Tae Min; Yokota, Tomoya; Goto, Masahiro; Satoh, Taroh; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hyo Song; Assadourian, Sylvie; Gomez, Corinne; Harnois, Marzia; Hamauchi, Satoshi; Kudo, Toshihiro; Doi, Toshihido; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-01-01

    SAR125844 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the c-Met kinase receptor. This was an open-label, phase I, multicenter, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion trial of SAR125844 in Asian patients with solid tumors, a subgroup of whom had gastric cancer and MET amplification (NCT01657214). SAR125844 was administered by intravenous infusion (260–570 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each 28-day cycle. Objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate SAR125844 safety...

  13. Effect of the SH3-SH2 domain linker sequence on the structure of Hck kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiselbach, Heike; Sticht, Heinrich

    2011-08-01

    The coordination of activity in biological systems requires the existence of different signal transduction pathways that interact with one another and must be precisely regulated. The Src-family tyrosine kinases, which are found in many signaling pathways, differ in their physiological function despite their high overall structural similarity. In this context, the differences in the SH3-SH2 domain linkers might play a role for differential regulation, but the structural consequences of linker sequence remain poorly understood. We have therefore performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations of wildtype Hck and of a mutant Hck in which the SH3-SH2 domain linker is replaced by the corresponding sequence from the homologous kinase Lck. These simulations reveal that linker replacement not only affects the orientation of the SH3 domain itself, but also leads to an alternative conformation of the activation segment in the Hck kinase domain. The sequence of the SH3-SH2 domain linker thus exerts a remote effect on the active site geometry and might therefore play a role in modulating the structure of the inactive kinase or in fine-tuning the activation process itself.

  14. The JH2 domain and SH2-JH2 linker regulate JAK2 activity: A detailed kinetic analysis of wild type and V617F mutant kinase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Sanz, Arturo; Niranjan, Yashavanthi; Hammarén, Henrik; Ungureanu, Daniela; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Touw, Ivo P; Silvennoinen, Olli; Hilhorst, Riet

    2014-10-01

    JAK2 tyrosine kinase regulates many cellular functions. Its activity is controlled by the pseudokinase (JH2) domain by still poorly understood mechanisms. The V617F mutation in the pseudokinase domain activates JAK2 and causes myeloproliferative neoplasms. We conducted a detailed kinetic analysis of recombinant JAK2 tyrosine kinase domain (JH1) and wild-type and V617F tandem kinase (JH1JH2) domains using peptide microarrays to define the functions of the kinase domains. The results show that i) JAK2 follows a random Bi-Bi reaction mechanism ii) JH2 domain restrains the activity of the JH1 domain by reducing the affinity for ATP and ATP competitive inhibitors iii) V617F decreases affinity for ATP but increases catalytic activity compared to wild-type and iv) the SH2-JH2 linker region participates in controlling activity by reducing the affinity for ATP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystal complexes of a predicted S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase reveal a typical AdoMet binding domain and a substrate recognition domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.J.; Ouellette, N.; Evodokimova, E.; Savchenko, A.; Edwards, A.; Anderson, W.F. (Toronto); (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases (MTs) are abundant, and highly conserved across phylogeny. These enzymes use the cofactor AdoMet to methylate a wide variety of molecular targets, thereby modulating important cellular and metabolic activities. Thermotoga maritima protein 0872 (TM0872) belongs to a large sequence family of predicted MTs, ranging phylogenetically from relatively simple bacteria to humans. The genes for many of the bacterial homologs are located within operons involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division. Despite preliminary biochemical studies in E. coli and B. subtilis, the substrate specificity of this group of more than 150 proteins is unknown. As part of the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics initiative (www.mcsg.anl.gov), we have determined the structure of TM0872 in complexes with AdoMet and with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). As predicted, TM0872 has a typical MT domain, and binds endogenous AdoMet, or co-crystallized AdoHcy, in a manner consistent with other known MT structures. In addition, TM0872 has a second domain that is novel among MTs in both its location in the sequence and its structure. The second domain likely acts in substrate recognition and binding, and there is a potential substrate-binding cleft spanning the two domains. This long and narrow cleft is lined with positively charged residues which are located opposite the S{sup +}-CH{sub 3} bond, suggesting that a negatively charged molecule might be targeted for catalysis. However, AdoMet and AdoHcy are both buried, and access to the methyl group would presumably require structural rearrangement. These TM0872 crystal structures offer the first structural glimpses at this phylogenetically conserved sequence family.

  16. Selective anticancer activity of a hexapeptide with sequence homology to a non-kinase domain of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwala Usha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 4 and 6 (Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 are closely structurally homologous proteins which are classically understood to control the transition from the G1 to the S-phases of the cell cycle by combining with their appropriate cyclin D or cyclin E partners to form kinase-active holoenzymes. Deregulation of Cdk4 is widespread in human cancer, CDK4 gene knockout is highly protective against chemical and oncogene-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis, despite the continued presence of CDK2 and CDK6; and overexpresssion of Cdk4 promotes skin carcinogenesis. Surprisingly, however, Cdk4 kinase inhibitors have not yet fulfilled their expectation as 'blockbuster' anticancer agents. Resistance to inhibition of Cdk4 kinase in some cases could potentially be due to a non-kinase activity, as recently reported with epidermal growth factor receptor. Results A search for a potential functional site of non-kinase activity present in Cdk4 but not Cdk2 or Cdk6 revealed a previously-unidentified loop on the outside of the C'-terminal non-kinase domain of Cdk4, containing a central amino-acid sequence, Pro-Arg-Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro (PRGPRP. An isolated hexapeptide with this sequence and its cyclic amphiphilic congeners are selectively lethal at high doses to a wide range of human cancer cell lines whilst sparing normal diploid keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Treated cancer cells do not exhibit the wide variability of dose response typically seen with other anticancer agents. Cancer cell killing by PRGPRP, in a cyclic amphiphilic cassette, requires cells to be in cycle but does not perturb cell cycle distribution and is accompanied by altered relative Cdk4/Cdk1 expression and selective decrease in ATP levels. Morphological features of apoptosis are absent and cancer cell death does not appear to involve autophagy. Conclusion These findings suggest a potential new paradigm for the development of broad-spectrum cancer specific therapeutics with

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of SH2- and PTB-Domain-Containing Proteins in Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Melany J.; Stacey, Melissa M.; Liu, Bernard A.; Pawson, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular signaling is mediated by reversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation, among others. In response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) typically dimerize and initiate signaling through phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and downstream scaffolds. Signaling effectors are recruited to these phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites primarily through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and pTyr-binding (PTB) domains. This review describes how these conserved domains specifically recognize pTyr residues and play a major role in mediating precise downstream signaling events. PMID:24296166

  18. Molecular mechanisms of SH2- and PTB-domain-containing proteins in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Melany J; Stacey, Melissa M; Liu, Bernard A; Pawson, Tony

    2013-12-01

    Intracellular signaling is mediated by reversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation, among others. In response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) typically dimerize and initiate signaling through phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and downstream scaffolds. Signaling effectors are recruited to these phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites primarily through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and pTyr-binding (PTB) domains. This review describes how these conserved domains specifically recognize pTyr residues and play a major role in mediating precise downstream signaling events.

  19. The Janus Kinase (JAK) FERM and SH2 Domains: Bringing Specificity to JAK-Receptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrao, Ryan; Lupardus, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    The Janus kinases (JAKs) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases essential for signaling in response to cytokines and interferons and thereby control many essential functions in growth, development, and immune regulation. JAKs are unique among tyrosine kinases for their constitutive yet non-covalent association with class I and II cytokine receptors, which upon cytokine binding bring together two JAKs to create an active signaling complex. JAK association with cytokine receptors is facilitated by N-terminal FERM and SH2 domains, both of which are classical mediators of peptide interactions. Together, the JAK FERM and SH2 domains mediate a bipartite interaction with two distinct receptor peptide motifs, the proline-rich "Box1" and hydrophobic "Box2," which are present in the intracellular domain of cytokine receptors. While the general sidechain chemistry of Box1 and Box2 peptides is conserved between receptors, they share very weak primary sequence homology, making it impossible to posit why certain JAKs preferentially interact with and signal through specific subsets of cytokine receptors. Here, we review the structure and function of the JAK FERM and SH2 domains in light of several recent studies that reveal their atomic structure and elucidate interaction mechanisms with both the Box1 and Box2 receptor motifs. These crystal structures demonstrate how evolution has repurposed the JAK FERM and SH2 domains into a receptor-binding module that facilitates interactions with multiple receptors possessing diverse primary sequences.

  20. An Adaptor Domain-Mediated Auto-Catalytic Interfacial Kinase Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaoli; Su, Jing; Mrksich, Milan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a model system for studying the auto-catalytic phosphorylation of an immobilized substrate by a kinase enzyme. This work uses self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold to present the peptide substrate on a planar surface. Treatment of the monolayer with Abl kinase results in phosphorylation of the substrate. The phosphorylated peptide then serves as a ligand for the SH2 adaptor domain of the kinase and thereby directs the kinase activity to nearby peptide substrates. This directed reaction is intramolecular and proceeds with a faster rate than does the initial, intermolecular reaction, making this an auto-catalytic process. The kinetic non-linearity gives rise to properties that have no counterpart in the corresponding homogeneous phase reaction: in one example, the rate for phosphorylation of a mixture of two peptides is faster than the sum of the rates for phosphorylation of each peptide when presented alone. This work highlights the use of an adaptor domain in modulating the activity of a kinase enzyme for an immobilized substrate and offers a new approach for studying biochemical reactions in spatially inhomogeneous settings. PMID:19821459

  1. Transcriptional regulation of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase gene by MeCP2 and sex-specific expression in autism and Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, J T; Evgrafov, O V; Bergman, M Y; Friez, M; Haiman, C A; Levitt, P; Aldinger, K A

    2013-10-22

    Single nucleotide variants (SNV) in the gene encoding the MET receptor tyrosine kinase have been associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The MET promoter SNV rs1858830 C 'low activity' allele is enriched in ASD, associated with reduced protein expression, and impacts functional and structural circuit connectivity in humans. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of MET on ASD-risk etiology, we examined an interaction between the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and the MET 5' promoter region. Mutations in MeCP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a predominantly female neurodevelopmental disorder sharing some ASD clinical symptoms. MeCP2 binds to a region of the MET promoter containing the ASD-risk SNV, and displays rs1858830 genotype-specific binding in human neural progenitor cells derived from the olfactory neuroepithelium. MeCP2 binding enhances MET expression in the presence of the rs1858830 C allele, but MET transcription is attenuated by RTT-specific mutations in MeCP2. In the postmortem temporal cortex, a region normally enriched in MET, gene expression is reduced dramatically in females with RTT, although not due to enrichment of the rs1858830 C 'low activity' allele. We newly identified a sex-based reduction in MET expression, with male ASD cases, but not female ASD cases compared with sex-matched controls. The experimental data reveal a prominent allele-specific regulation of MET transcription by MeCP2. The mechanisms underlying the pronounced reduction of MET in ASD and RTT temporal cortex are distinct and likely related to factors unique to each disorder, including a noted sex bias.

  2. Her4 and Her2/neu tyrosine kinase domains dimerize and activate in a reconstituted in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsey, John; Shen, Wei; Schlesinger, Paul; Bose, Ron

    2010-03-05

    Her4 (ErbB-4) and Her2/neu (ErbB-2) are receptor-tyrosine kinases belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Crystal structures of EGFR and Her4 kinase domains demonstrate kinase dimerization and activation through an allosteric mechanism. The kinase domains form an asymmetric dimer, where the C-lobe surface of one monomer contacts the N-lobe of the other monomer. EGFR kinase dimerization and activation in vitro was previously reported using a nickel-chelating lipid-liposome system, and we now apply this system to all other members of the EGFR family. Polyhistidine-tagged Her4, Her2/neu, and Her3 kinase domains are bound to these nickel-liposomes and are brought to high local concentration, mimicking what happens to full-length receptors in vivo following ligand binding. Addition of nickel-liposomes to Her4 kinase domain results in 40-fold activation in kinase activity and marked enhancement of C-terminal tail autophosphorylation. Activation of Her4 shows a sigmoidal dependence on kinase concentration, consistent with a cooperative process requiring kinase dimerization. Her2/neu kinase activity is also activated by nickel-liposomes, and is increased further by heterodimerization with Her3 or Her4. The ability of Her3 and Her4 to heterodimerize and activate other family members is studied in vitro. Her3 kinase domain readily activates Her2/neu but is a poor activator of Her4, which differs from the prediction made by the asymmetric dimer model. Mutation of Her3 residues (952)ENI(954) to the corresponding sequence in Her4 enhanced the ability of Her3 to activate Her4, demonstrating that sequence differences on the C-lobe surface influence the heterodimerization and activation of ErbB kinase domains.

  3. SH2 domains of the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulate binding to growth factor receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, C J; Ellis, C; Reedijk, M; Anderson, D; Mbamalu, G; Reith, A D; Panayotou, G; End, P; Bernstein, A; Kazlauskas, A

    1992-01-01

    The binding of cytoplasmic signaling proteins such as phospholipase C-gamma 1 and Ras GTPase-activating protein to autophosphorylated growth factor receptors is directed by their noncatalytic Src homology region 2 (SH2) domains. The p85 alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, which associates with several receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, also contains two SH2 domains. Both p85 alpha SH2 domains, when expressed individually as fusion proteins in bacteria, bound stably to the activated beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Complex formation required PDGF stimulation and was dependent on receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The bacterial p85 alpha SH2 domains recognized activated beta PDGF receptor which had been immobilized on a filter, indicating that SH2 domains contact autophosphorylated receptors directly. Several receptor tyrosine kinases within the PDGF receptor subfamily, including the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and the Steel factor receptor (Kit), also associate with PI 3-kinase in vivo. Bacterially expressed SH2 domains derived from the p85 alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase bound in vitro to the activated colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and to Kit. We infer that the SH2 domains of p85 alpha bind to high-affinity sites on these receptors, whose creation is dependent on receptor autophosphorylation. The SH2 domains of p85 are therefore primarily responsible for the binding of PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372092

  4. Selective Targeting of SH2 Domain-Phosphotyrosine Interactions of Src Family Tyrosine Kinases with Monobodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kükenshöner, Tim; Schmit, Nadine Eliane; Bouda, Emilie; Sha, Fern; Pojer, Florence; Koide, Akiko; Seeliger, Markus; Koide, Shohei; Hantschel, Oliver

    2017-05-05

    The binding of Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains to phosphotyrosine (pY) sites is critical for the autoinhibition and substrate recognition of the eight Src family kinases (SFKs). The high sequence conservation of the 120 human SH2 domains poses a significant challenge to selectively perturb the interactions of even the SFK SH2 family against the rest of the SH2 domains. We have developed synthetic binding proteins, termed monobodies, for six of the SFK SH2 domains with nanomolar affinity. Most of these monobodies competed with pY ligand binding and showed strong selectivity for either the SrcA (Yes, Src, Fyn, Fgr) or SrcB subgroup (Lck, Lyn, Blk, Hck). Interactome analysis of intracellularly expressed monobodies revealed that they bind SFKs but no other SH2-containing proteins. Three crystal structures of monobody-SH2 complexes unveiled different and only partly overlapping binding modes, which rationalized the observed selectivity and enabled structure-based mutagenesis to modulate inhibition mode and selectivity. In line with the critical roles of SFK SH2 domains in kinase autoinhibition and T-cell receptor signaling, monobodies binding the Src and Hck SH2 domains selectively activated respective recombinant kinases, whereas an Lck SH2-binding monobody inhibited proximal signaling events downstream of the T-cell receptor complex. Our results show that SFK SH2 domains can be targeted with unprecedented potency and selectivity using monobodies. They are excellent tools for dissecting SFK functions in normal development and signaling and to interfere with aberrant SFK signaling networks in cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Blue Light-excited Light-Oxygen-Voltage-sensing Domain 2 (LOV2) Triggers a Rearrangement of the Kinase Domain to Induce Phosphorylation Activity in Arabidopsis Phototropin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oide, Mao; Okajima, Koji; Kashojiya, Sachiko; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-09-16

    Phototropin1 is a blue light (BL) receptor in plants and shows BL-dependent kinase activation. The BL-excited light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domain 2 (LOV2) is primarily responsible for the activation of the kinase domain; however, the molecular mechanism by which conformational changes in LOV2 are transmitted to the kinase domain remains unclear. Here, we investigated BL-induced structural changes of a minimum functional fragment of Arabidopsis phototropin1 composed of LOV2, the kinase domain, and a linker connecting the two domains using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The fragment existed as a dimer and displayed photoreversible SAXS changes reflected in the radii of gyration of 42.9 Å in the dark and 48.8 Å under BL irradiation. In the dark, the molecular shape reconstructed from the SAXS profiles appeared as two bean-shaped lobes in a twisted arrangement that was 170 Å long, 80 Å wide, and 50 Å thick. The molecular shape under BL became slightly elongated from that in the dark. By fitting the crystal structure of the LOV2 dimer and a homology model of the kinase domain to their inferred shapes, the BL-dependent change could be interpreted as the positional shift in the kinase domain relative to that of the LOV2 dimer. In addition, we found that lysine 475, a functionally important residue, in the N-terminal region of LOV2 plays a critical role in transmitting the structural changes in LOV2 to the kinase domain. The interface between the domains is critical for signaling, suitably changing the structure to activate the kinase in response to conformational changes in the adjoining LOV2. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The Structural Basis for Activation and Inhibition of ZAP-70 Kinase Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Roland G; Fan, Hao; Bond, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    ZAP-70 (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70) is a tyrosine kinase that interacts directly with the activated T-cell receptor to transduce downstream signals, and is hence a major player in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Dysfunction of ZAP-70 causes selective T cell deficiency that in turn results in persistent infections. ZAP-70 is activated by a variety of signals including phosphorylation of the kinase domain (KD), and binding of its regulatory tandem Src homology 2 (SH2) domains to the T cell receptor. The present study investigates molecular mechanisms of activation and inhibition of ZAP-70 via atomically detailed molecular dynamics simulation approaches. We report microsecond timescale simulations of five distinct states of the ZAP-70 KD, comprising apo, inhibited and three phosphorylated variants. Extensive analysis of local flexibility and correlated motions reveal crucial transitions between the states, thus elucidating crucial steps in the activation mechanism of the ZAP-70 KD. Furthermore, we rationalize previously observed staurosporine-bound crystal structures, suggesting that whilst the KD superficially resembles an "active-like" conformation, the inhibitor modulates the underlying protein dynamics and restricts it in a compact, rigid state inaccessible to ligands or cofactors. Finally, our analysis reveals a novel, potentially druggable pocket in close proximity to the activation loop of the kinase, and we subsequently use its structure in fragment-based virtual screening to develop a pharmacophore model. The pocket is distinct from classical type I or type II kinase pockets, and its discovery offers promise in future design of specific kinase inhibitors, whilst mutations in residues associated with this pocket are implicated in immunodeficiency in humans.

  7. The Structural Basis for Activation and Inhibition of ZAP-70 Kinase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland G Huber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ZAP-70 (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 is a tyrosine kinase that interacts directly with the activated T-cell receptor to transduce downstream signals, and is hence a major player in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Dysfunction of ZAP-70 causes selective T cell deficiency that in turn results in persistent infections. ZAP-70 is activated by a variety of signals including phosphorylation of the kinase domain (KD, and binding of its regulatory tandem Src homology 2 (SH2 domains to the T cell receptor. The present study investigates molecular mechanisms of activation and inhibition of ZAP-70 via atomically detailed molecular dynamics simulation approaches. We report microsecond timescale simulations of five distinct states of the ZAP-70 KD, comprising apo, inhibited and three phosphorylated variants. Extensive analysis of local flexibility and correlated motions reveal crucial transitions between the states, thus elucidating crucial steps in the activation mechanism of the ZAP-70 KD. Furthermore, we rationalize previously observed staurosporine-bound crystal structures, suggesting that whilst the KD superficially resembles an "active-like" conformation, the inhibitor modulates the underlying protein dynamics and restricts it in a compact, rigid state inaccessible to ligands or cofactors. Finally, our analysis reveals a novel, potentially druggable pocket in close proximity to the activation loop of the kinase, and we subsequently use its structure in fragment-based virtual screening to develop a pharmacophore model. The pocket is distinct from classical type I or type II kinase pockets, and its discovery offers promise in future design of specific kinase inhibitors, whilst mutations in residues associated with this pocket are implicated in immunodeficiency in humans.

  8. Hierarchical modeling of activation mechanisms in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains: thermodynamic and mechanistic catalysts of kinase activation by cancer mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural and functional studies of the ABL and EGFR kinase domains have recently suggested a common mechanism of activation by cancer-causing mutations. However, dynamics and mechanistic aspects of kinase activation by cancer mutations that stimulate conformational transitions and thermodynamic stabilization of the constitutively active kinase form remain elusive. We present a large-scale computational investigation of activation mechanisms in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains by a panel of clinically important cancer mutants ABL-T315I, ABL-L387M, EGFR-T790M, and EGFR-L858R. We have also simulated the activating effect of the gatekeeper mutation on conformational dynamics and allosteric interactions in functional states of the ABL-SH2-SH3 regulatory complexes. A comprehensive analysis was conducted using a hierarchy of computational approaches that included homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, protein stability analysis, targeted molecular dynamics, and molecular docking. Collectively, the results of this study have revealed thermodynamic and mechanistic catalysts of kinase activation by major cancer-causing mutations in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains. By using multiple crystallographic states of ABL and EGFR, computer simulations have allowed one to map dynamics of conformational fluctuations and transitions in the normal (wild-type and oncogenic kinase forms. A proposed multi-stage mechanistic model of activation involves a series of cooperative transitions between different conformational states, including assembly of the hydrophobic spine, the formation of the Src-like intermediate structure, and a cooperative breakage and formation of characteristic salt bridges, which signify transition to the active kinase form. We suggest that molecular mechanisms of activation by cancer mutations could mimic the activation process of the normal kinase, yet exploiting conserved structural catalysts to accelerate a conformational transition

  9. A novel disulfide bond in the SH2 Domain of the C-terminal Src kinase controls catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jamie E; Whitford, Paul C; Shaffer, Jennifer; Onuchic, Jose N; Adams, Joseph A; Jennings, Patricia A

    2007-02-02

    The SH2 domain of the C-terminal Src kinase [Csk] contains a unique disulfide bond that is not present in other known SH2 domains. To investigate whether this unusual disulfide bond serves a novel function, the effects of disulfide bond formation on catalytic activity of the full-length protein and on the structure of the SH2 domain were investigated. The kinase activity of full-length Csk decreases by an order of magnitude upon formation of the disulfide bond in the distal SH2 domain. NMR spectra of the fully oxidized and fully reduced SH2 domains exhibit similar chemical shift patterns and are indicative of similar, well-defined tertiary structures. The solvent-accessible disulfide bond in the isolated SH2 domain is highly stable and far from the small lobe of the kinase domain. However, reduction of this bond results in chemical shift changes of resonances that map to a cluster of residues that extend from the disulfide bond across the molecule to a surface that is in direct contact with the small lobe of the kinase domain in the intact molecule. Normal mode analyses and molecular dynamics calculations suggest that disulfide bond formation has large effects on residues within the kinase domain, most notably within the active-site cleft. Overall, the data indicate that reversible cross-linking of two cysteine residues in the SH2 domain greatly impacts catalytic function and interdomain communication in Csk.

  10. Synthesis of Tc-99m labeled 1,2,3-triazole-4-yl c-met binding peptide as a potential c-met receptor kinase positive tumor imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Joung, Min-Hee; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Kim, Dong Wook

    2010-07-15

    The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met), which is related to tumor cell growth, angiogenesis and metastases, is known to be overexpressed in several tumor types. In this study, we synthesized technetium-99m labeled 1,2,3-triazole-4-yl c-Met binding peptide (cMBP) derivatives, prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis and the 'click-to-chelate' protocol for the introduction of tricarbonyl technetium-99m, as a potential c-Met receptor kinase positive tumor imaging agent, and evaluated their in vitro c-Met binding affinity, cellular uptake, and stability. The (99m)Tc labeled cMBP derivatives ([(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]12, [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]13, and [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]14) were prepared in 85-90% radiochemical yields. The cold surrogate cMBP derivatives, [Re(CO)(3)]12, [Re(CO)(3)]13, and [Re(CO)(3)]14, were shown to have high binding affinities (0.13 microM, 0.06 microM, and 0.16 microM, respectively) to a purified cMet/Fc chimeric recombinant protein. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and inhibition studies demonstrated the high specific binding of these (99m)Tc labeled cMBP derivatives ([(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]12-14) to c-Met receptor positive U87MG cells. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of PAX8 in the regulation of MET and RON receptor tyrosine kinases in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanteti, Rajani; El-Hashani, Essam; Dhanasingh, Immanuel; Tretiakova, Maria; Husain, Aliya N; Sharma, Sherven; Sharma, Jay; Vokes, Everett E; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are highly heterogeneous at the molecular level and comprise 75% of all lung tumors. We have previously shown that the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) MET frequently suffers gain-of-function mutations that significantly promote lung tumorigenesis. Subsequent studies from our lab also revealed that PAX5 transcription factor is preferentially expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and promotes MET transcription. PAX8, however, is also expressed in NSCLC cell lines. We therefore investigated the role of PAX8 in NSCLC. Using IHC analysis, PAX8 protein expression was determined in archival NSCLC tumor tissues (n = 254). In order to study the effects of PAX8 knockdown on NSCLC cellular functions such as apoptosis and motility, siRNA against PAX8 was used. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor the localization of MET, RON and PAX8. The combinatorial effect of PAX8 knockdown and MET inhibition using SU11274 was investigated in NSCLC cell viability assay. Relative levels of PAX8 protein were elevated (≥ + 2 on a scale of 0–3) in adenocarcinoma (58/94), large cell carcinoma (50/85), squamous cell carcinoma (28/47), and metastatic NSCLC (17/28; lymph node). Utilizing early progenitors isolated from NSCLC cell lines and fresh tumor tissues, we observed robust overexpression of PAX8, MET, and RON. PAX8 knockdown A549 cells revealed abrogated PAX8 expression with a concomitant loss in MET and the related RON kinase expression. A dramatic colocalization between the active form of MET (also RON) and PAX8 upon challenging A549 cells with HGF was visualized. A similar colocalization of MET and EGL5 (PAX8 ortholog) proteins was found in embryos of C. elegans. Most importantly, knockdown of PAX8 in A549 cells resulted in enhanced apoptosis (~6 fold) and decreased cell motility (~45%), thereby making PAX8 a potential therapeutic target. However, the combinatorial approach of PAX8 knockdown and treatment with MET inhibitor, SU

  12. Phosphopeptide occupancy and photoaffinity cross-linking of the v-Src SH2 domain attenuates tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P; Shoelson, S E; Drew, J S; Miller, W T

    1994-12-02

    Phosphorylation of c-Src at carboxyl-terminal Tyr-527 suppresses tyrosine kinase activity and transforming potential, presumably by facilitating the intramolecular interaction of the C terminus of Src with its SH2 domain. In addition, it has been shown previously that occupancy of the c-Src SH2 domain with a phosphopeptide stimulates c-Src kinase catalytic activity. We have performed analogous studies with v-Src, the transforming protein from Rous sarcoma virus, which has extensive homology with c-Src. v-Src lacks an autoregulatory phosphorylation site, and its kinase domain is constitutively active. Phosphopeptides corresponding to the sequences surrounding c-Src Tyr-527 and a Tyr-Glu-Glu-Ile motif from the hamster polyoma virus middle T antigen inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of baculovirus-expressed v-Src 2- and 4-fold, respectively. To determine the mechanism of this regulation, the Tyr-527 phosphopeptide was substituted with the photoactive amino acid p-benzoylphenylalanine at the adjacent positions (N- and C-terminal) to phosphotyrosine. These peptides photoinactivate the v-Src tyrosine kinase 5-fold in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the peptides cross-link an isolated Src SH2 domain with similar rates and specificity. These data indicate that occupancy of the v-Src SH2 domain induces a conformational change that is transmitted to the kinase domain and attenuates tyrosine kinase activity.

  13. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Joshua D; Kiupel, Matti; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors. In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16–20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations. No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16–20 of any of the MCTs examined. In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs

  14. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon; Eom, Soo Hyun; Chun, ChangJu; Im, Young Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering

  15. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Soo Hyun [School of Life Sciences, Steitz Center for Structural Biology, and Department of Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, ChangJu, E-mail: cchun1130@jnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Young Jun, E-mail: imyoungjun@jnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-12

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering.

  16. Structural Characterization of Maize SIRK1 Kinase Domain Reveals an Unusual Architecture of the Activation Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aquino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kinases are primary regulators of plant metabolism and excellent targets for plant breeding. However, most kinases, including the abundant receptor-like kinases (RLK, have no assigned role. SIRK1 is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK, the largest family of RLK. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SIRK1 (AtSIRK1 is phosphorylated after sucrose is resupplied to sucrose-starved seedlings and it modulates the sugar response by phosphorylating several substrates. In maize, the ZmSIRK1 expression is altered in response to drought stress. In neither Arabidopsis nor in maize has the function of SIRK1 been completely elucidated. As a first step toward the biochemical characterization of ZmSIRK1, we obtained its recombinant kinase domain, demonstrated that it binds AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolysable ATP-analog, and solved the structure of ZmSIRK1- AMP-PNP co-crystal. The ZmSIRK1 crystal structure revealed a unique conformation for the activation segment. In an attempt to find inhibitors for ZmSIRK1, we screened a focused small molecule library and identified six compounds that stabilized ZmSIRK1 against thermal melt. ITC analysis confirmed that three of these compounds bound to ZmSIRK1 with low micromolar affinity. Solving the 3D structure of ZmSIRK1-AMP-PNP co-crystal provided information on the molecular mechanism of ZmSIRK1 activity. Furthermore, the identification of small molecules that bind this kinase can serve as initial backbone for development of new potent and selective ZmSIRK1 antagonists.

  17. Evolutionary divergence in the catalytic activity of the CAM-1, ROR1 and ROR2 kinase domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W Bainbridge

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptors (ROR 1 and 2 are atypical members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family and have been associated with several human diseases. The vertebrate RORs contain an ATP binding domain that deviates from the consensus amino acid sequence, although the impact of this deviation on catalytic activity is not known and the kinase function of these receptors remains controversial. Recently, ROR2 was shown to signal through a Wnt responsive, β-catenin independent pathway and suppress a canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal. In this work we demonstrate that both ROR1 and ROR2 kinase domains are catalytically deficient while CAM-1, the C. elegans homolog of ROR, has an active tyrosine kinase domain, suggesting a divergence in the signaling processes of the ROR family during evolution. In addition, we show that substitution of the non-consensus residues from ROR1 or ROR2 into CAM-1 and MuSK markedly reduce kinase activity, while restoration of the consensus residues in ROR does not restore robust kinase function. We further demonstrate that the membrane-bound extracellular domain alone of either ROR1 or ROR2 is sufficient for suppression of canonical Wnt3a signaling, and that this domain can also enhance Wnt5a suppression of Wnt3a signaling. Based on these data, we conclude that human ROR1 and ROR2 are RTK-like pseudokinases.

  18. Synthesis of Pyridine and Spiropyridine Derivatives Derived from 2-aminoprop- 1-ene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile Together with their c-Met Kinase and Antiproliferative Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Rafat M; Abouzied, Amr S; Abbas, Nermeen S

    2018-02-07

    Among a wide range of pyridines, 3-cyanopyridines acquired a special attention due to their wide range of pharmacological activities especially the therapeutic activities. Many pharmacological drugs containing the pyridine nucleus were known in the market. The aim of this work was to synthesize target molecules not only possess anti-tumor activities but also kinase inhibitors. To achieve this goal, our strategy was to synthesize a series of 3-cyanopyridine derivatives using 2-aminoprop-1-ene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile (1) as the key starting material for many heterocyclization reactions. Muticoponent reactions were adopted using compound 1 to get different pyridine derivatives that were capable for different heterocyclization reactions. Antiproliferative evaluations and c-Met kinase, Pim-1 kinse inhibitions were perform where some compounds gave high activities. Compounds that showed high antiprolifeative activity were tested gor c-Met-independent and the results showed that compounds 5c, 5e, 5f, 7c, 7f and 16d were more active than foretinib. The Pim-1 kinase inhibition activity of some selected compounds showed that compounds 5e and 16c were high potent to inhibit Pim-1 activity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Crystal structure of an SH2-kinase construct of c-Abl and effect of the SH2 domain on kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Sonja; Deng, Patricia; Hantschel, Oliver; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Kuriyan, John

    2015-06-01

    Constitutive activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl (cellular Abelson tyrosine protein kinase 1, Abl1) in the Bcr (breakpoint cluster region)-Abl1 fusion oncoprotein is the molecular cause of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Recent studies have indicated that an interaction between the SH2 (Src-homology 2) domain and the N-lobe (N-terminal lobe) of the c-Abl kinase domain (KD) has a critical role in leukaemogenesis [Grebien et al. (2011) Cell 147, 306-319; Sherbenou et al. (2010) Blood 116, 3278-3285]. To dissect the structural basis of this phenomenon, we studied c-Abl constructs comprising the SH2 and KDs in vitro. We present a crystal structure of an SH2-KD construct bound to dasatinib, which contains the relevant interface between the SH2 domain and the N-lobe of the KD. We show that the presence of the SH2 domain enhances kinase activity moderately and that this effect depends on contacts in the SH2/N-lobe interface and is abrogated by specific mutations. Consistently, formation of the interface decreases slightly the association rate of imatinib with the KD. That the effects are small compared with the dramatic in vivo consequences suggests an important function of the SH2-N-lobe interaction might be to help disassemble the auto-inhibited conformation of c-Abl and promote processive phosphorylation, rather than substantially stimulate kinase activity.

  20. Enhanced Prediction of Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domain Binding Potentials Using a Fluorescence Polarization-derived c-Met, c-Kit, ErbB, and Androgen Receptor Interactome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kin K.; Hause, Ronald J.; Barkinge, John L.; Ciaccio, Mark F.; Chuu, Chih-Pin; Jones, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases are associated with aberrant regulation of phosphoprotein signaling networks. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains represent the major class of protein domains in metazoans that interact with proteins phosphorylated on the amino acid residue tyrosine. Although current SH2 domain prediction algorithms perform well at predicting the sequences of phosphorylated peptides that are likely to result in the highest possible interaction affinity in the context of random peptide library screens, these algorithms do poorly at predicting the interaction potential of SH2 domains with physiologically derived protein sequences. We employed a high throughput interaction assay system to empirically determine the affinity between 93 human SH2 domains and phosphopeptides abstracted from several receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling proteins. The resulting interaction experiments revealed over 1000 novel peptide-protein interactions and provided a glimpse into the common and specific interaction potentials of c-Met, c-Kit, GAB1, and the human androgen receptor. We used these data to build a permutation-based logistic regression classifier that performed considerably better than existing algorithms for predicting the interaction potential of several SH2 domains. PMID:24728074

  1. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-11-25

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are a large family of scaffold proteins that play essential roles in tissue developments, cell-cell communications, cell polarity control, and cellular signal transductions. Despite extensive studies over the past two decades, the functions of the signature guanylate kinase domain (GK) of MAGUKs are poorly understood. Here we show that the GK domain of DLG1/SAP97 binds to asymmetric cell division regulatory protein LGN in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The structure of the DLG1 SH3-GK tandem in complex with a phospho-LGN peptide reveals that the GMP-binding site of GK has evolved into a specific pSer/pThr-binding pocket. Residues both N- and C-terminal to the pSer are also critical for the specific binding of the phospho-LGN peptide to GK. We further demonstrate that the previously reported GK domain-mediated interactions of DLGs with other targets, such as GKAP/DLGAP1/SAPAP1 and SPAR, are also phosphorylation dependent. Finally, we provide evidence that other MAGUK GKs also function as phospho-peptide-binding modules. The discovery of the phosphorylation-dependent MAGUK GK/target interactions indicates that MAGUK scaffold-mediated signalling complex organizations are dynamically regulated.

  2. A novel mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of ERBB2 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Williams, Nita; Plass, Christoph; Calero, Miguel Villalona; Eng, Charis

    2006-01-01

    Several studies showed that gain-of-function somatic mutations affecting the catalytic domain of EGFR in non-small cell lung carcinomas were associated with response to gefitinib and erlotinib, both EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In addition, 4% of non-small cell lung carcinomas were shown to have ERBB2 mutations in the kinase domain. In our study, we sought to determine if similar respective gain-of-function EGFR and ERBB2 mutations were present in hepatoma and/or biliary cancers. We extracted genomic DNA from 40 hepatoma (18) and biliary cancers (22) samples, and 44 adenocarcinomas of the lung, this latter as a positive control for mutation detection. We subjected those samples to PCR-based semi-automated double stranded nucleotide sequencing targeting exons 18–21 of EGFR and ERBB2. All samples were tested against matched normal DNA. We found 11% of hepatoma, but no biliary cancers, harbored a novel ERBB2 H878Y mutation in the activating domain. These newly described mutations may play a role in predicting response to EGFR-targeted therapy in hepatoma and their role should be explored in prospective studies

  3. Domain interaction in rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase. II. Small angle neutron scattering and computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consler, T G; Uberbacher, E C; Bunick, G J; Liebman, M N; Lee, J C

    1988-02-25

    The effects of ligands on the structure of rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase were studied by small angle neutron scattering. The radius of gyration, RG, decreases by about 1 A in the presence of the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate, but increases by about the same magnitude in the presence of the allosteric inhibitor phenylalanine. With increasing pH or in the absence of Mg2+ and K+, the RG of pyruvate kinase increases. Hence, there is a 2-A difference in RG between two alternative conformations. Length distribution analysis indicates that, under all experimental conditions which increase the radius of gyration, there is a pronounced increase observed in the probability for interatomic distance between 80 and 110 A. These small angle neutron scattering results indicate a "contraction" and "expansion" of the enzyme when it transforms between its active and inactive forms. Using the alpha-carbon coordinates of crystalline cat muscle pyruvate kinase, a length distribution profile was calculated, and it matches the scattering profile of the inactive form. These observations are expected since the crystals were grown in the absence of divalent cations (Stuart, D. I., Levine, M., Muirhead, H., and Stammers, D. K. (1979) J. Mol. Biol. 134, 109-142). Hence, results from neutron scattering, x-ray crystallographic, and sedimentation studies (Oberfelder, R. W., Lee, L. L.-Y., and Lee, J.C. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 3813-3821) are totally consistent with each other. With the aid of computer modeling, the crystal structure has been manipulated in order to effect changes that are consistent with the conformational change described by the solution scattering data. The structural manipulation involves the rotation of the B domain relative to the A domain, leading to the closure of the cleft between these domains. These manipulations resulted in the generation of new sets of atomic (C-alpha) coordinates, which were utilized in calculations, the result of which compared favorably with the

  4. Alternative splicing, gene localization, and binding of SH2-B to the insulin receptor kinase domain

    OpenAIRE

    Nelms, Keats; O'Neill, Thomas J.; Li, Shiqing; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Gustafson, Thomas A.; Paul, William E.

    1999-01-01

    . The SH2-B protein is an SH2-domain-containing molecule that interacts with a number of phosphorylated kinase and receptor molecules including the insulin receptor. Two isoforms of the SH2-B have been identified and have been proposed to arise through alternate splicing. Here we have identified a third isoform of the SH2-B protein, SH2-Bγ, that interacts specifically with the insulin receptor. This interaction required phosphorylation of residue Y1146 in the triple tyrosine motif within the ...

  5. Involvement of c-Met- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent pathways in arsenite-induced downregulation of catalase in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohee; Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Sukmo; Lee, Lyon; Park, Jung-Duck; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2011-01-01

    Catalase protects cells from reactive oxygen species-induced damage by catalyzing the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Arsenite decreases catalase activity; it activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its key downstream effector Akt in a variety of cells. The PI3K pathway is known to inhibit catalase expression. c-Met, an upstream regulator of PI3K and Akt, is also involved in the regulation of catalase expression. To examine the involvement of c-Met and PI3K pathways in the arsenite-induced downregulation of catalase, catalase mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 treated with arsenite and either an inhibitor of c-Met (PHA665752 (PHA)) or of PI3K (LY294002 (LY)). Arsenite treatment markedly activated Akt and decreased the levels of both catalase mRNA and protein. Both PHA and LY attenuated arsenite-induced activation of Akt. PHA and LY treatment also prevented the inhibitory effect of arsenite on catalase protein expression but did not affect the level of catalase mRNA. These findings suggest that arsenite-induced inhibition of catalase expression is regulated at the mRNA and post-transcriptional levels in HepG2 cells, and that the post-transcriptional regulation is mediated via c-Met- and PI3K-dependent mechanisms.

  6. Phase I dose-escalation study of the c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor SAR125844 in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors, including patients with MET-amplified gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Kohei; Kim, Tae Min; Yokota, Tomoya; Goto, Masahiro; Satoh, Taroh; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hyo Song; Assadourian, Sylvie; Gomez, Corinne; Harnois, Marzia; Hamauchi, Satoshi; Kudo, Toshihiro; Doi, Toshihido; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-10-03

    SAR125844 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the c-Met kinase receptor. This was an open-label, phase I, multicenter, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion trial of SAR125844 in Asian patients with solid tumors, a subgroup of whom had gastric cancer and MET amplification (NCT01657214). SAR125844 was administered by intravenous infusion (260-570 mg/m 2 ) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each 28-day cycle. Objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate SAR125844 safety and pharmacokinetic profile. Antitumor activity was also assessed. Of 38 patients enrolled (median age 64.0 years), 22 had gastric cancer, including 14 with MET amplification. In the dose-escalation cohort ( N = 19; unselected population, including three patients with MET -amplification [two with gastric cancer and one with lung cancer]), the MTD was not reached, and the recommended dose was established at 570 mg/m 2 . Most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were nausea (36.8%), vomiting (34.2%), decreased appetite (28.9%), and fatigue or asthenia, constipation, and abdominal pains (each 21.1%); none appeared to be dose-dependent. Grade ≥ 3 AEs were observed in 39.5% of patients and considered drug-related in 7.9%. SAR125844 exposure increased slightly more than expected by dose proportionality; dose had no significant effect on clearance. No objective responses were observed in the dose-escalation cohort, with seven patients (three gastric cancer, two colorectal cancer, one breast cancer, and one with cancer of unknown primary origin) having stable disease. Modest antitumor activity was observed at 570 mg/m 2 in the dose-expansion cohort, comprising patients with MET -amplified tumors ( N = 19). Two gastric cancer patients had partial responses, seven patients had stable disease (six gastric cancer and one kidney cancer), and 10 patients had progressive disease. Single-agent SAR125844 administered up to 570 mg/m 2 has acceptable tolerability and modest

  7. Roles of the SH2 and SH3 domains in the regulation of neuronal Src kinase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groveman, Bradley R; Xue, Sheng; Marin, Vedrana; Xu, Jindong; Ali, Mohammad K; Bienkiewicz, Ewa A; Yu, Xian-Min

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that intra-domain interactions between Src family kinases (SFKs), stabilized by binding of the phosphorylated C-terminus to the SH2 domain and/or binding of the SH2 kinase linker to the SH3 domain, lock the molecules in a closed conformation, disrupt the kinase active site, and inactivate SFKs. Here we report that the up-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) induced by expression of constitutively active neuronal Src (n-Src), in which the C-terminus tyrosine is mutated to phenylalanine (n-Src/Y535F), is significantly reduced by dysfunctions of the SH2 and/or SH3 domains of the protein. Furthermore, we found that dysfunctions of SH2 and/or SH3 domains reduce auto-phosphorylation of the kinase activation loop, depress kinase activity, and decrease NMDAR phosphorylation. The SH2 domain plays a greater regulatory role than the SH3 domain. Our data also show that n-Src binds directly to the C-terminus of the NMDAR NR2A subunit in vitro, with a K(D) of 108.2 ± 13.3 nM. This binding is not Src kinase activity-dependent, and dysfunctions of the SH2 and/or SH3 domains do not significantly affect the binding. These data indicate that the SH2 and SH3 domains may function to promote the catalytic activity of active n-Src, which is important in the regulation of NMDAR functions. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  8. Integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP-1) interacts with the ROCK-I kinase at the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeken, Peter J. M.; Alvarez, Belén; van Rheenen, Jacco; Wijnands, Yvonne M.; Geerts, Dirk; Jalink, Kees; Roos, Ed

    2006-01-01

    The integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP-1) binds via its C-terminal PTB (phosphotyrosine-binding) domain to the cytoplasmic tails of beta1 but not other integrins. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that ICAP-1 binds the ROCK-I kinase, an effector of the RhoA GTPase. By

  9. Distal loop flexibility of a regulatory domain modulates dynamics and activity of C-terminal SRC kinase (csk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulyman Barkho

    Full Text Available The Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs regulate numerous aspects of cell growth and differentiation and are under the principal control of the C-terminal Src Kinase (Csk. Csk and SFKs share a modular design with the kinase domain downstream of the N-terminal SH2 and SH3 domains that regulate catalytic function and membrane localization. While the function of interfacial segments in these multidomain kinases are well-investigated, little is known about how surface sites and long-range, allosteric coupling control protein dynamics and catalytic function. The SH2 domain of Csk is an essential component for the down-regulation of all SFKs. A unique feature of the SH2 domain of Csk is the tight turn in place of the canonical CD loop in a surface site far removed from kinase domain interactions. In this study, we used a combination of experimental and computational methods to probe the importance of this difference by constructing a Csk variant with a longer SH2 CD loop to mimic the flexibility found in homologous kinase SH2 domains. Our results indicate that while the fold and function of the isolated domain and the full-length kinase are not affected by loop elongation, native protein dynamics that are essential for efficient catalysis are perturbed. We also identify key motifs and routes through which the distal SH2 site might influence catalysis at the active site. This study underscores the sensitivity of intramolecular signaling and catalysis to native protein dynamics that arise from modest changes in allosteric regions while providing a potential strategy to alter intrinsic activity and signaling modulation.

  10. Semi-synthesis of a HGF/SF kringle one (K1) domain scaffold generates a potent in vivo MET receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Claire; Bérénice Leclercq; Mougel, Alexandra; Adriaenssens, Eric; Paquet, Charlotte; Raibaut, Laurent; Ollivier, Nathalie; Drobecq, Hervé; Marcoux, Julien; Cianférani, Sarah; Tulasne, David; de Jonge, Hugo; Melnyk, Oleg; Vicogne, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The development of MET receptor agonists is an important goal in regenerative medicine, but is limited by the complexity and incomplete understanding of its interaction with HGF/SF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor). NK1 is a natural occurring agonist comprising the N-terminal (N) and the first kringle (K1) domains of HGF/SF. In the presence of heparin, NK1 can self-associate into a "head to tail" dimer which is considered as the minimal structural module able to trigger MET dimerization and activation whereas isolated K1 and N domains showed a weak or a complete lack of agonistic activity respectively. Starting from these structural and biological observations, we investigated whether it was possible to recapitulate the biological properties of NK1 using a new molecular architecture of isolated N or K1 domains. Therefore, we engineered multivalent N or K1 scaffolds by combining synthetic and homogeneous site-specifically biotinylated N and K1 domains (NB and K1B) and streptavidin (S). NB alone or in complex failed to activate MET signaling and to trigger cellular phenotypes. Importantly and to the contrary of K1B alone, the semi-synthetic K1B/S complex mimicked NK1 MET agonist activity in cell scattering, morphogenesis and survival phenotypic assays. Impressively, K1B/S complex stimulated in vivo angiogenesis and, when injected in mice, protected the liver against fulminant hepatitis in a MET dependent manner whereas NK1 and HGF were substantially less potent. These data reveal that without N domain, proper multimerization of K1 domain is a promising strategy for the rational design of powerful MET agonists.

  11. Differential Roles of the Glycogen-Binding Domains of β Subunits in Regulation of the Snf1 Kinase Complex▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Simmanjeet; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Elbing, Karin; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AMP-activated protein kinase family, including the Snf1 kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated under conditions of nutrient stress. AMP-activated protein kinases are heterotrimeric complexes composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits. In this study, the role of the β subunits in the regulation of Snf1 activity was examined. Yeasts express three isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase consisting of Snf1 (α), Snf4 (γ), and one of three alternative β subunits, either Sip1, Sip2, or Gal83. The Gal83 isoform of the Snf1 complex is the most abundant and was analyzed in the greatest detail. All three β subunits contain a conserved domain referred to as the glycogen-binding domain. The deletion of this domain from Gal83 results in a deregulation of the Snf1 kinase, as judged by a constitutive activity independent of glucose availability. In contrast, the deletion of this homologous domain from the Sip1 and Sip2 subunits had little effect on Snf1 kinase regulation. Therefore, the different Snf1 kinase isoforms are regulated through distinct mechanisms, which may contribute to their specialized roles in different stress response pathways. In addition, the β subunits are subjected to phosphorylation. The responsible kinases were identified as being Snf1 and casein kinase II. The significance of the phosphorylation is unclear since the deletion of the region containing the phosphorylation sites in Gal83 had little effect on the regulation of Snf1 in response to glucose limitation. PMID:19897735

  12. Differential roles of the glycogen-binding domains of beta subunits in regulation of the Snf1 kinase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Simmanjeet; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini; McCartney, Rhonda R; Elbing, Karin; Schmidt, Martin C

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AMP-activated protein kinase family, including the Snf1 kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated under conditions of nutrient stress. AMP-activated protein kinases are heterotrimeric complexes composed of a catalytic alpha subunit and regulatory beta and gamma subunits. In this study, the role of the beta subunits in the regulation of Snf1 activity was examined. Yeasts express three isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase consisting of Snf1 (alpha), Snf4 (gamma), and one of three alternative beta subunits, either Sip1, Sip2, or Gal83. The Gal83 isoform of the Snf1 complex is the most abundant and was analyzed in the greatest detail. All three beta subunits contain a conserved domain referred to as the glycogen-binding domain. The deletion of this domain from Gal83 results in a deregulation of the Snf1 kinase, as judged by a constitutive activity independent of glucose availability. In contrast, the deletion of this homologous domain from the Sip1 and Sip2 subunits had little effect on Snf1 kinase regulation. Therefore, the different Snf1 kinase isoforms are regulated through distinct mechanisms, which may contribute to their specialized roles in different stress response pathways. In addition, the beta subunits are subjected to phosphorylation. The responsible kinases were identified as being Snf1 and casein kinase II. The significance of the phosphorylation is unclear since the deletion of the region containing the phosphorylation sites in Gal83 had little effect on the regulation of Snf1 in response to glucose limitation.

  13. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simarro, Maria [Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo [Department of Cancer Biology at Dana Farber Institute, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kedersha, Nancy [Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A. [Department of Cancer Biology at Dana Farber Institute, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rhee, Kirsten [Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika [Department of Cancer Biology at Dana Farber Institute, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Benarafa, Charaf [Theodor Kocher Institute, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Orduna, Anonio [Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Anderson, Paul, E-mail: panderson@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. {yields} The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. {yields} Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  14. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simarro, Maria; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Kedersha, Nancy; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rhee, Kirsten; Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika; Benarafa, Charaf; Orduna, Anonio; Anderson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. → The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. → Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  15. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chan, Lai-Sheung [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Poon, Po-Ying [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun, E-mail: rnswong@hkbu.edu.hk [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  16. Investigation of phosphotyrosine recognition by the SH2 domain of the Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J M; Mitaxov, V; Waksman, G

    1999-11-05

    The binding of tyrosine phosphorylated targets by SH2 domains is required for propagation of many cellular signals in higher eukaryotes; however, the determinants of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) recognition by SH2 domains are not well understood. In order to identify the attributes of pTyr required for high affinity interaction with SH2 domains, the binding of the SH2 domain of the Src kinase (Src SH2 domain) to a dephosphorylated peptide, a phosphoserine-containing peptide, and the amino acid pTyr was studied using titration calorimetry and compared with the binding of a high affinity tyrosyl phosphopeptide. The dephosphorylated peptide and the phosphoserine containing peptide both bind extremely weakly to the Src SH2 domain (DeltaGo (dephosphorylated)=-3.6 kcal/mol, DeltaGo (phosphoserine) >-3.7 kcal/mol); however, the DeltaGo value of pTyr binding is more favorable (-4.7 kcal/mol, or 50 % of the entire binding free energy of a high affinity tyrosyl phosphopeptide). These results indicate that both the phosphate and the tyrosine ring of the pTyr are critical determinants of high affinity binding. Alanine mutagenesis was also used to evaluate the energetic contribution to binding of ten residues located in the pTyr-binding site. Mutation of the strictly conserved Arg betaB5 resulted in a large increase in DeltaGo (DeltaDeltaGo=3.2 kcal/mol) while elimination of the other examined residues each resulted in a significantly smaller (DeltaDeltaGoSH2 domain, surprisingly increased affinity by eightfold (DeltaDeltaGo=-1.1 kcal/mol). Using a double mutant cycle analysis, it was revealed that residues of the pTyr-binding pocket are not coupled to the peptide residues C-terminal to the pTyr. In addition, comparison of each residue's DeltaDeltaGo value upon mutation with that residue's sequence conservation among SH2 domains revealed only a modest correlation between a residue's energetic contribution to pTyr recognition and its conservation throughout evolution. The results of

  17. Development of diacyltetrol lipids as activators for the C1 domain of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Narsimha; Gorai, Sukhamoy; Mukherjee, Rakesh; Manna, Debasis

    2012-04-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases is an attractive drug target for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Diacylglycerol (DAG), phorbol esters and others act as ligands for the C1 domain of PKC isoforms. Inspection of the crystal structure of the PKCδ C1b subdomain in complex with phorbol-13-O-acetate shows that one carbonyl group and two hydroxyl groups play pivotal roles in recognition of the C1 domain. To understand the importance of two hydroxyl groups of phorbol esters in PKC binding and to develop effective PKC activators, we synthesized DAG like diacyltetrols (DATs) and studied binding affinities with C1b subdomains of PKCδ and PKCθ. DATs, with the stereochemistry of natural DAGs at the sn-2 position, were synthesized from (+)-diethyl L-tartrate in four to seven steps as single isomers. The calculated EC(50) values for the short and long chain DATs varied in the range of 3-6 μM. Furthermore, the fluorescence anisotropy values of the proteins were increased in the presence of DATs in a similar manner to that of DAGs. Molecular docking of DATs (1b-4b) with PKCδ C1b showed that the DATs form hydrogen bonds with the polar residues and backbone of the protein, at the same binding site, as that of DAG and phorbol esters. Our findings reveal that DATs represent an attractive group of C1 domain ligands that can be used as research tools or further structurally modified for potential drug development.

  18. The rapamycin-binding domain of the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin is a destabilizing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah R; Wandless, Thomas J

    2007-05-04

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug that binds simultaneously to the 12-kDa FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein (FKBP12, or FKBP) and the FKBP-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase. The resulting ternary complex has been used to conditionally perturb protein function, and one such method involves perturbation of a protein of interest through its mislocalization. We synthesized two rapamycin derivatives that possess large substituents at the C-16 position within the FRB-binding interface, and these derivatives were screened against a library of FRB mutants using a three-hybrid assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several FRB mutants responded to one of the rapamycin derivatives, and twenty of these mutants were further characterized in mammalian cells. The mutants most responsive to the ligand were fused to yellow fluorescent protein, and fluorescence levels in the presence and absence of the ligand were measured to determine stability of the fusion proteins. Wild-type and mutant FRB domains were expressed at low levels in the absence of the rapamycin derivative, and expression levels rose up to 10-fold upon treatment with ligand. The synthetic rapamycin derivatives were further analyzed using quantitative mass spectrometry, and one of the compounds was found to contain contaminating rapamycin. Furthermore, uncontaminated analogs retained the ability to inhibit mTOR, although with diminished potency relative to rapamycin. The ligand-dependent stability displayed by wild-type FRB and FRB mutants as well as the inhibitory potential and purity of the rapamycin derivatives should be considered as potentially confounding experimental variables when using these systems.

  19. Molecular dissection of the interaction between the SH3 domain and the SH2-Kinase Linker region in PTK6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Ie; Jung, Jinwon; Lee, Eun-Saem; Kim, Yong-Chul; Lee, Weontae; Lee, Seung-Taek

    2007-11-03

    PTK6 (also known as Brk) is an intracellular tyrosine kinase that contains SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase catalytic (Kinase) domains. The SH3 domain of PTK6 interacts with the N-terminal half of the linker (Linker) region between the SH2 and Kinase domains. Site-directed mutagenesis and surface plasmon resonance studies showed that a tryptophan residue (Trp44) in the SH3 domain and proline residues in the Linker region, in the order of Pro177, Pro175, and Pro179, contribute to the interaction. The three-dimensional modeled structure of the SH3-Linker complex was in agreement with the biochemical data. Disruption of the intramolecular interaction between the SH3 domain and the Linker region by mutation of Trp44, Pro175, Pro177, and Pro179 markedly increased the catalytic activity of PTK6 in HEK 293 cells. These results demonstrate that Trp44 in the SH3 domain and Pro177, Pro175, and Pro179 in the N-terminal half of the Linker region play important roles in the SH3-Linker interaction to maintain the protein in an inactive conformation along with the phosphorylated Tyr447-SH2 interaction.

  20. Structural and functional characterization of the recombinant death domain from death-associated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioletis, Evangelos; Dingley, Andrew J; Driscoll, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) is a calcium/calmodulin-regulated Ser/Thr-protein kinase that functions at an important point of integration for cell death signaling pathways. DAPk has a structurally unique multi-domain architecture, including a C-terminally positioned death domain (DD) that is a positive regulator of DAPk activity. In this study, recombinant DAPk-DD was observed to aggregate readily and could not be prepared in sufficient yield for structural analysis. However, DAPk-DD could be obtained as a soluble protein in the form of a translational fusion protein with the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G. In contrast to other DDs that adopt the canonical six amphipathic α-helices arranged in a compact fold, the DAPk-DD was found to possess surprisingly low regular secondary structure content and an absence of a stable globular fold, as determined by circular dichroism (CD), NMR spectroscopy and a temperature-dependent fluorescence assay. Furthermore, we measured the in vitro interaction between extracellular-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) and various recombinant DAPk-DD constructs. Despite the low level of structural order, the recombinant DAPk-DD retained the ability to interact with ERK2 in a 1∶1 ratio with a K d in the low micromolar range. Only the full-length DAPk-DD could bind ERK2, indicating that the apparent 'D-motif' located in the putative sixth helix of DAPk-DD is not sufficient for ERK2 recognition. CD analysis revealed that binding of DAPk-DD to ERK2 is not accompanied by a significant change in secondary structure. Taken together our data argue that the DAPk-DD, when expressed in isolation, does not adopt a classical DD fold, yet in this state retains the capacity to interact with at least one of its binding partners. The lack of a stable globular structure for the DAPk-DD may reflect either that its folding would be supported by interactions absent in our experimental set-up, or a limitation in the structural bioinformatics

  1. Analysis of the complexity of protein kinases within the phloem sieve tube system. Characterization of Cucurbita maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lucas, William J

    2002-05-03

    In angiosperms, functional, mature sieve elements lack nuclei, vacuoles, ribosomes, and most of the endomembrane network. In this study, the complexity, number, and nature of protein kinases within the phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima were investigated to test the hypothesis that the enucleate sieve tube system utilizes a simplified signal transduction network. Supporting evidence was obtained in that only five putative protein kinases (three calcium-independent and two calcium-dependent protein kinases) were detected within the phloem sap extracted from stem tissues. Biochemical methods were used to purify one such calcium-dependent protein kinase. The gene for this C. maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1 (CmCPK1), was cloned using peptide microsequences. A combination of mass spectrometry, peptide fingerprinting, and amino-terminal sequencing established that, in the phloem sap, CmCPK1 exists as an amino-terminally cleaved protein. A second highly homologous isoform, CmCPK2, was identified, but although transcripts could be detected in the companion cells, peptide fingerprint analysis suggested that CmCPK2 does not enter the phloem sap. Potential substrates for CmCPK1, within the phloem sap, were also detected using an on-membrane phosphorylation assay. Entry of CmCPK1 into sieve elements via plasmodesmata and the potential roles played by these phloem protein kinases are discussed.

  2. Light-induced conformational changes of LOV1 (light oxygen voltage-sensing domain 1) and LOV2 relative to the kinase domain and regulation of kinase activity in Chlamydomonas phototropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Koji; Aihara, Yusuke; Takayama, Yuki; Nakajima, Mihoko; Kashojiya, Sachiko; Hikima, Takaaki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Tomomi; Nagatani, Akira; Nakasako, Masayoshi; Tokutomi, Satoru

    2014-01-03

    Phototropin (phot), a blue light (BL) receptor in plants, has two photoreceptive domains named LOV1 and LOV2 as well as a Ser/Thr kinase domain (KD) and acts as a BL-regulated protein kinase. A LOV domain harbors a flavin mononucleotide that undergoes a cyclic photoreaction upon BL excitation via a signaling state in which the inhibition of the kinase activity by LOV2 is negated. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the BL-dependent activation of the kinase, the photochemistry, kinase activity, and molecular structure were studied with the phot of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Full-length and LOV2-KD samples of C. reinhardtii phot showed cyclic photoreaction characteristics with the activation of LOV- and BL-dependent kinase. Truncation of LOV1 decreased the photosensitivity of the kinase activation, which was well explained by the fact that the signaling state lasted for a shorter period of time compared with that of the phot. Small angle x-ray scattering revealed monomeric forms of the proteins in solution and detected BL-dependent conformational changes, suggesting an extension of the global molecular shapes of both samples. Constructed molecular model of full-length phot based on the small angle x-ray scattering data proved the arrangement of LOV1, LOV2, and KD for the first time that showed a tandem arrangement both in the dark and under BL irradiation. The models suggest that LOV1 alters its position relative to LOV2-KD under BL irradiation. This finding demonstrates that LOV1 may interact with LOV2 and modify the photosensitivity of the kinase activation through alteration of the duration of the signaling state in LOV2.

  3. Interactions of polyomavirus middle T with the SH2 domains of the pp85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoakim, M; Hou, W; Liu, Y; Carpenter, C L; Kapeller, R; Schaffhausen, B S

    1992-01-01

    The binding of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase to the polyomavirus middle T antigen is facilitated by tyrosine phosphorylation of middle T on residue 315. The pp85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase contains two SH2 domains, one in the middle of the molecule and one at the C terminus. When assayed by blotting with phosphorylated middle T, the more N-terminal SH2 domain is responsible for binding to middle T. When assayed in solution with glutathione S transferase fusions, both SH2s are ca...

  4. Disruption of PH–kinase domain interactions leads to oncogenic activation of AKT in human cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Chaitali; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Wu, Wen-I; Foo, Catherine K.; Kljavin, Noelyn M.; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Stawiski, Eric; Lee, Brian; Lin, Jie; Li, Hong; Lorenzo, Maria N.; Yuan, Wenlin; Guillory, Joseph; Jackson, Marlena; Rondon, Jesus; Franke, Yvonne; Bowman, Krista K.; Sagolla, Meredith; Stinson, Jeremy; Wu, Thomas D.; Wu, Jiansheng; Stokoe, David; Stern, Howard M.; Brandhuber, Barbara J.; Lin, Kui; Skelton, Nicholas J.; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2012-01-01

    The protein kinase v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT), a key regulator of cell survival and proliferation, is frequently hyperactivated in human cancers. Intramolecular pleckstrin homology (PH) domain–kinase domain (KD) interactions are important in maintaining AKT in an inactive state. AKT activation proceeds after a conformational change that dislodges the PH from the KD. To understand these autoinhibitory interactions, we generated mutations at the PH–KD interface and found that most of them lead to constitutive activation of AKT. Such mutations are likely another mechanism by which activation may occur in human cancers and other diseases. In support of this likelihood, we found somatic mutations in AKT1 at the PH–KD interface that have not been previously described in human cancers. Furthermore, we show that the AKT1 somatic mutants are constitutively active, leading to oncogenic signaling. Additionally, our studies show that the AKT1 mutants are not effectively inhibited by allosteric AKT inhibitors, consistent with the requirement for an intact PH–KD interface for allosteric inhibition. These results have important implications for therapeutic intervention in patients with AKT mutations at the PH–KD interface. PMID:23134728

  5. Determination and validation of mTOR kinase-domain 3D structure by homology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhlili W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wiame Lakhlili,1 Gwénaël Chevé,2 Abdelaziz Yasri,2 Azeddine Ibrahimi1 1Laboratoire de Biotechnologie (MedBiotech, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Université Mohammed V de Rabat, Rabat, Morroco; 2OriBase Pharma, Cap Gamma, Parc Euromédecine, Montpellier, France Abstract: The AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway is considered as one of the commonly activated and deregulated signaling pathways in human cancer. mTOR is associated with other proteins in two molecular complexes: mTOR complex 1/Raptor and the mTOR complex 2/Rictor. Using the crystal structure of the related lipid kinase PI3Kγ, we built a model of the catalytic region of mTOR. The modeling of the three-dimensional (3D structure of the mTOR was performed by homology modeling program SWISS-MODEL. The quality and validation of the obtained model were performed using PROCHECK and PROVE softwares. The overall stereochemical property of the protein was assessed by the Ramachandran plot. The model validation was also done by docking of known inhibitors. In this paper, we describe and validate a 3D model for the mTOR catalytic site.Keywords: mTOR, homology modeling, mTOR kinase-domain, docking

  6. Intracellular Catalytic Domain of Symbiosis Receptor Kinase Hyperactivates Spontaneous Nodulation in Absence of Rhizobia1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudip; Dutta, Ayan; Bhattacharya, Avisek; DasGupta, Maitrayee

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SYMRK), a member of the Nod factor signaling pathway, is indispensible for both nodule organogenesis and intracellular colonization of symbionts in rhizobia-legume symbiosis. Here, we show that the intracellular kinase domain of a SYMRK (SYMRK-kd) but not its inactive or full-length version leads to hyperactivation of the nodule organogenic program in Medicago truncatula TR25 (symrk knockout mutant) in the absence of rhizobia. Spontaneous nodulation in TR25/SYMRK-kd was 6-fold higher than rhizobia-induced nodulation in TR25/SYMRK roots. The merged clusters of spontaneous nodules indicated that TR25 roots in the presence of SYMRK-kd have overcome the control over both nodule numbers and their spatial position. In the presence of rhizobia, SYMRK-kd could rescue the epidermal infection processes in TR25, but colonization of symbionts in the nodule interior was significantly compromised. In summary, ligand-independent deregulated activation of SYMRK hyperactivates nodule organogenesis in the absence of rhizobia, but its ectodomain is required for proper symbiont colonization. PMID:25304318

  7. Domains of the growth hormone receptor required for association and activation of JAK2 tyrosine kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanderKuur, J A; Wang, X; Zhang, L

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has recently been shown to activate the GH receptor (GHR)-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. In the present study, regions of the GHR required for JAK2 association with GHR were identified. GH-dependent JAK2 association with GHR was detected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...... and RIN-5AH cells, the ability of JAK2 to associate with the mutated GHR was found to correlate with GH-dependent activation of JAK2, tyrosyl phosphorylation of GHR (in the case of GHR1-638 and GHR1-454), and the ability of the GHR to copurify with tyrosine kinase activity. In CHO cells expressing mutated......, and that tyrosines in the N-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of the GHR are phosphorylated by JAK2. The finding that a specific interaction with the C-terminal half of GHR appears to be necessary for p97 phosphorylation indicates that while JAK2 activation may be necessary for a full biological response to GH...

  8. Itk tyrosine kinase substrate docking is mediated by a nonclassical SH2 domain surface of PLCgamma1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Lie; Joseph, Raji E; Fulton, D Bruce; Andreotti, Amy H

    2009-12-15

    Interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase (Itk) is a Tec family tyrosine kinase that mediates signaling processes after T cell receptor engagement. Activation of Itk requires recruitment to the membrane via its pleckstrin homology domain, phosphorylation of Itk by the Src kinase, Lck, and binding of Itk to the SLP-76/LAT adapter complex. After activation, Itk phosphorylates and activates phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), leading to production of two second messengers, DAG and IP(3). We have previously shown that phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 by Itk requires a direct, phosphotyrosine-independent interaction between the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of PLC-gamma1 and the kinase domain of Itk. We now define this docking interface using a combination of mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy and show that disruption of the Itk/PLCgamma1 docking interaction attenuates T cell signaling. The binding surface on PLCgamma1 that mediates recognition by Itk highlights a nonclassical binding activity of the well-studied SH2 domain providing further evidence that SH2 domains participate in important signaling interactions beyond recognition of phosphotyrosine.

  9. The selectivity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling is controlled by a secondary SH2 domain binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Lew, Erin Denise; Yuzawa, Satoru; Tomé, Francisco; Lax, Irit; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2009-08-07

    SH2 domain-mediated interactions represent a crucial step in transmembrane signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases. SH2 domains recognize phosphotyrosine (pY) in the context of particular sequence motifs in receptor phosphorylation sites. However, the modest binding affinity of SH2 domains to pY containing peptides may not account for and likely represents an oversimplified mechanism for regulation of selectivity of signaling pathways in living cells. Here we describe the crystal structure of the activated tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR1 in complex with a phospholipase Cgamma fragment. The structural and biochemical data and experiments with cultured cells show that the selectivity of phospholipase Cgamma binding and signaling via activated FGFR1 are determined by interactions between a secondary binding site on an SH2 domain and a region in FGFR1 kinase domain in a phosphorylation independent manner. These experiments reveal a mechanism for how SH2 domain selectivity is regulated in vivo to mediate a specific cellular process.

  10. Integration of an In Situ MALDI-Based High-Throughput Screening Process: A Case Study with Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-MET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Katrin; Baumgärtner, Jens; Laubenheimer, Manuel; Hergesell, Karlheinz; Hoffmann, Martin; Pehl, Ulrich; Fischer, Frank; Pieck, Jan-Carsten

    2017-12-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is known for its label-free detection of substrates and products from a variety of enzyme reactions. Recent hardware improvements have increased interest in the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS for high-throughput drug discovery. Despite interest in this technology, several challenges remain and must be overcome before MALDI-MS can be integrated as an automated "in-line reader" for high-throughput drug discovery. Two such hurdles include in situ sample processing and deposition, as well as integration of MALDI-MS for enzymatic screening assays that usually contain high levels of MS-incompatible components. Here we adapt our c-MET kinase assay to optimize for MALDI-MS compatibility and test its feasibility for compound screening. The pros and cons of the Echo (Labcyte) as a transfer system for in situ MALDI-MS sample preparation are discussed. We demonstrate that this method generates robust data in a 1536-grid format. We use the MALDI-MS to directly measure the ratio of c-MET substrate and phosphorylated product to acquire IC50 curves and demonstrate that the pharmacology is unaffected. The resulting IC50 values correlate well between the common label-based capillary electrophoresis and the label-free MALDI-MS detection method. We predict that label-free MALDI-MS-based high-throughput screening will become increasingly important and more widely used for drug discovery.

  11. Mechanism of c-Met and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance through epithelial mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Ichwaku; Rajanna, Supriya; Webb, Andrew; Chhabra, Gagan; Foster, Brad [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Illinois (United States); Webb, Brian [Thermo Fisher Scientific, Rockford, Illinois (United States); Puri, Neelu, E-mail: neelupur@uic.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Illinois (United States)

    2016-09-02

    According to currently available estimates from Cancer Research UK, 14.1 million new lung cancer cases were diagnosed and a staggering 8.2 million people worldwide died from lung cancer in 2012. EGFR and c-Met are two tyrosine kinase receptors most commonly overexpressed or mutated in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) resulting in increased proliferation and survival of lung cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, approved by the FDA as first/second line therapy for NSCLC patients have limited clinical efficacy due to acquired resistance. In this manuscript, we investigate and discuss the role of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the development of resistance against EGFR and c-Met TKIs in NSCLC. Our findings show that Zeb-1, a transcriptional repressor of E-Cadherin, is upregulated in TKI-resistant cells causing EMT. We observed that TKI-resistant cells have increased gene and protein expression of EMT related proteins such as Vimentin, N-Cadherin, β-Catenin and Zeb-1, while expression of E-Cadherin, an important cell adhesion molecule, was suppressed. We also confirmed that TKI-resistant cells display mesenchymal cell type morphology, and have upregulation of β-Catenin which may regulate expression of Zeb-1, a transcriptional repressor of E-Cadherin in TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Finally, we show that down-regulating Zeb-1 by inducing miR-200a or β-Catenin siRNA can increase drug sensitivity of TKI-resistant cells. - Highlights: • Resistance to TKIs in NSCLC cells is mediated via modulation in EMT related proteins. • EMT may induce c-Met mediated TKI resistance, similar to EGFR TKI resistance. • Role of β-catenin and cadherins in TKI resistance was validated by FACS and qPCR. • Knockdown of β-catenin or Zeb-1 can increase TKI sensitivity in TKI-resistant cells. • Targeting key EMT related proteins may overcome TKI resistance in NSCLC.

  12. Specific phosphopeptide binding regulates a conformational change in the PI 3-kinase SH2 domain associated with enzyme activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoelson, S E; Sivaraja, M; Williams, K P; Hu, P; Schlessinger, J; Weiss, M A

    1993-01-01

    SH2 (src-homology 2) domains define a newly recognized binding motif that mediates the physical association of target phosphotyrosyl proteins with downstream effector enzymes. An example of such phosphoprotein-effector coupling is provided by the association of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) with specific phosphorylation sites within the PDGF receptor, the c-Src/polyoma virus middle T antigen complex and the insulin receptor substrate IRS-1. Notably, phosphoprotein association with the SH2 domains of p85 also stimulates an increase in catalytic activity of the PI 3-kinase p110 subunit, which can be mimicked by phosphopeptides corresponding to targeted phosphoprotein phosphorylation sites. To investigate how phosphoprotein binding to the p85 SH2 domain stimulates p110 catalytic activation, we have examined the differential effects of phosphotyrosine and PDGF receptor-, IRS-1- and c-Src-derived phosphopeptides on the conformation of an isolated SH2 domain of PI 3-kinase. Although phosphotyrosine and both activating and non-activating phosphopeptides bind to the SH2 domain, activating phosphopeptides bind with higher affinity and induce a qualitatively distinct conformational change as monitored by CD and NMR spectroscopy. Amide proton exchange and protease protection assays further show that high affinity, specific phosphopeptide binding induces non-local dynamic SH2 domain stabilization. Based on these findings we propose that specific phosphoprotein binding to the p85 subunit induces a change in SH2 domain structure which is transmitted to the p110 subunit and regulates enzymatic activity by an allosteric mechanism. Images PMID:8382612

  13. A protein-binding domain, EH, identified in the receptor tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 and conserved in evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, W T; Schumacher, C; Salcini, A E

    1995-01-01

    In this report we structurally and functionally define a binding domain that is involved in protein association and that we have designated EH (for Eps15 homology domain). This domain was identified in the tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 on the basis of regional conservation with several heteroge......In this report we structurally and functionally define a binding domain that is involved in protein association and that we have designated EH (for Eps15 homology domain). This domain was identified in the tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 on the basis of regional conservation with several...... heterogeneous proteins of yeast and nematode. The EH domain spans about 70 amino acids and shows approximately 60% overall amino acid conservation. We demonstrated the ability of the EH domain to specifically bind cytosolic proteins in normal and malignant cells of mesenchymal, epithelial, and hematopoietic...... (for Eps15-related). Structural comparison of Eps15 and Eps15r defines a family of signal transducers possessing extensive networking abilities including EH-mediated binding and association with Src homology 3-containing proteins....

  14. Physical and functional interactions between SH2 and SH3 domains of the Src family protein tyrosine kinase p59fyn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panchamoorthy, G.; Fukazawa, T.; Stolz, L.; Payne, G.; Reedquist, K.; Shoelson, S.; Songyang, Z.; Cantley, L.; Walsh, C.; Band, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Src family protein tyrosine kinases participate in signalling through cell surface receptors that lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase domains. All nine members of this family possess adjacent Src homology (SH2 and SH3) domains, both of which are essential for repression of the enzymatic activity. The

  15. Frequency-domain lifetime fluorometry of double-labeled creatine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, M; Kubala, M; Amler, E; Mejsnar, J

    2003-01-01

    Myofibril-bound creatine kinase EC 2.7.3.2 (CK), a key enzyme of muscle energy metabolism, has been selected for studies of conformational changes that underlie the cellular control of enzyme activity. For fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, the CK molecule was double-labeled with IAF (5-iodoacetamidofluorescein) and ErITC (erythrosin 5'-isothiocyanate). Measurement of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from fluorescein to erythrosin was used to obtain information about the donor-acceptor pair distance. Frequency-domain lifetime measurements evaluate the donor-acceptor distance in the native CK molecule as 7.8 nm. The Förster radius equals 5.3 nm with the resolution range from 0.2 to 1.0 nm. Erythrosin-fluorescein labeling (EFL) was tested for artificial conformational changes of the CK molecule with high-salt concentration treatment. The transition distance, defined by His-97 and Cys-283 and derived from a 3D model equals 0.766 nm for the open (inactive) form and 0.277 nm for the closed (reactive) form of the CK molecule. In this way, the resolution range of the used spectroscopy method is significant, concerning the difference of 0.489 nm. Nevertheless, the CK enzyme activity, assessed by the hexokinase-coupled assay, was diminished down to 1 % of the activity of the native enzyme. EFL is suitable for description of conformational behavior implied from the regulation of creatine kinase. However, the observed inhibition restricts EFL to studies of conformational changes during natural catalytic activity.

  16. An open library of human kinase domain constructs for automated bacterial expression

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Laureano, Lucelenie; Işık, Mehtap; Chodera, John; Seeliger, Markus; Jeans, Chris; Gradia, Scott; Hanson, Sonya; Parton, Daniel; Albanese, Steven; Levinson, Nicholas; Behr, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Kinases play a critical role in many cellular signaling pathways and are dysregulated in a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Since the FDA approval of imatinib in 2001, therapeutics targeting kinases now account for roughly 50% of current cancer drug discovery efforts. The ability to explore human kinase biochemistry, biophysics, and structural biology in the laboratory is essential to making rapid progress in understanding kinase regulation, designing selec...

  17. Tyrosine kinase domain mutations of EGFR gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatte C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chittibabu Vatte,1 Ali M Al Amri,2 Cyril Cyrus,1 Shahanas Chathoth,1 Sadananda Acharya,3 Tariq Mohammad Hashim,4 Zhara Al Ali,2 Saleh Tawfeeq Alshreadah,2 Ahmed Alsayyah,4 Amein K Al-Ali5 1Department of Genetic Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultation, University of Dammam, Dammam, 2Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahd Hospital of the University, University of Dammam, Al-Khobar, 3Department of Stemcell Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultation, 4Department of Pathology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, University of Dammam, Al-Khobar, 5Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a commonly altered gene that is identified in various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Therefore, EGFR is a promising molecular marker targeted by monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase (TK domain. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the spectrum of mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene in HNSCC patients. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 47 confirmed HNSCC cases. Mutations in the TK domain, exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene, were detected by Scorpion® chemistry and ARMS® technologies on Rotor-Gene Q real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: The tumors exhibited EGFR-TK domain mutations in 57% of cases. Four cases of T790M mutations were reported for the first time among HNSCC patients. Out of the total mutations, L861Q (exon 21, exon 20 insertions and deletions of exon 19 accounted for the majority of mutations (21%, 19%, and 17%, respectively. EGFR mutation status was correlated with the higher grade (P=0.026 and advanced stage (P=0.034 of HNSCC tumors.Conclusion: Higher frequency of EGFR-TK domain mutations together with the presence of the T790M mutation suggests

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) cytoplasmic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jian; Ma, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yuna; Zhao, Huadong; Hong, Dapeng; Yan, Liming; Lou, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of BRI1-associated kinase 1 from A. thaliana has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution. BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) is a member of the plant receptor-like kinase (RLK) superfamily. BAK1 has been shown to initiate brassinosteroid (BR) signalling and innate immune responses in plants by forming receptor complexes with both brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) and flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2). To gain a better understanding of the structural details and the mechanism of action of the BAK1 kinase domain, recombinant BAK1 cytoplasmic domain has been expressed, purified and crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. A 2.6 Å resolution data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal at 100 K. This crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.3, b = 75.6, c = 71.9 Å, β = 93.1°. Assuming the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å 3 Da −1

  19. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.

    2014-11-11

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  20. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.; Arold, Stefan T.; Chauhan, Gaurav B.; Blachno, Korina V.; Deng, Nanfu; Chang, Wei-Chao; Jin, Quanri; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Brady, Samuel W.; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Ladbury, John E.; Stone, Steve; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie; Esteva, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  1. An SH2 domain-based tyrosine kinase assay using biotin ligase modified with a terbium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Shinji; Shinboku, Yuki; Kusaba, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are modules of approximately 100 amino acids and are known to bind phosphotyrosine-containing sequences with high affinity and specificity. In the present work, we developed an SH2 domain-based assay for Src tyrosine kinase using a unique biotinylation reaction from archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. S. tokodaii biotinylation has a unique property that biotin protein ligase (BPL) forms a stable complex with its biotinylated substrate protein (BCCP). Here, an SH2 domain from lymphocyte-specific tyrosine kinase was genetically fused to a truncated BCCP, and the resulting fusion protein was labeled through biotinylation with BPL carrying multiple copies of a luminescent Tb(3+) complex. The labeled SH2 fusion proteins were employed to detect a phosphorylated peptide immobilized on the surface of the microtiter plate, where the phosphorylated peptide was produced by phosphorylation to the substrate peptide by Src tyrosine kinase. Our assay allows for a reliable determination of the activity of Src kinase lower than 10 pg/μL by a simple procedure.

  2. SAM domain-dependent activity of PfTKL3, an essential tyrosine kinase-like kinase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Abdirahman; Eschenlauer, Sylvain; Reininger, Luc; Doerig, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, several protein kinases inhibitors have reached the market for cancer chemotherapy. The kinomes of pathogens represent potentially attractive targets in infectious diseases. The functions of the majority of protein kinases of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasitic protist responsible for the most virulent form of human malaria, remain unknown. Here we present a thorough characterisation of PfTKL3 (PF13_0258), an enzyme that belongs to the tyrosine kinase-like kinase (TKL) group. We demonstrate by reverse genetics that PfTKL3 is essential for asexual parasite proliferation in human erythrocytes. PfTKL3 is expressed in both asexual and gametocytes stages, and in the latter the protein co-localises with cytoskeleton microtubules. Recombinant PfTKL3 displays in vitro autophosphorylation activity and is able to phosphorylate exogenous substrates, and both activities are dramatically dependent on the presence of an N-terminal "sterile alpha-motif" domain. This study identifies PfTKL3 as a validated drug target amenable to high-throughput screening.

  3. Recognition of ERK MAP kinase by PEA-15 reveals a common docking site within the death domain and death effector domain

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Justine M.; Vaidyanathan, Hema; Ramos, Joe W.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Werner, Milton H.

    2002-01-01

    PEA-15 is a multifunctional protein that modulates signaling pathways which control cell proliferation and cell death. In particular, PEA-15 regulates the actions of the ERK MAP kinase cascade by binding to ERK and altering its subcellular localization. The three-dimensional structure of PEA-15 has been determined using NMR spectroscopy and its interaction with ERK defined by characterization of mutants that modulate ERK function. PEA-15 is composed of an N-terminal death effector domain (DED...

  4. Interactions between the S-Domain Receptor Kinases and AtPUB-ARM E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Suggest a Conserved Signaling Pathway in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Marcus A.; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Salt, Jennifer N.; Delmas, Frédéric; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Chilelli, Andrea; Goring, Daphne R.

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encompasses multiple receptor kinase families with highly variable extracellular domains. Despite their large numbers, the various ligands and the downstream interacting partners for these kinases have been deciphered only for a few members. One such member, the S-receptor kinase, is known to mediate the self-incompatibility (SI) response in Brassica. S-receptor kinase has been shown to interact and phosphorylate a U-box/ARM-repeat-containing E3 ligase, ARC1, which, in turn, acts as a positive regulator of the SI response. In an effort to identify conserved signaling pathways in Arabidopsis, we performed yeast two-hybrid analyses of various S-domain receptor kinase family members with representative Arabidopsis plant U-box/ARM-repeat (AtPUB-ARM) E3 ligases. The kinase domains from S-domain receptor kinases were found to interact with ARM-repeat domains from AtPUB-ARM proteins. These kinase domains, along with M-locus protein kinase, a positive regulator of SI response, were also able to phosphorylate the ARM-repeat domains in in vitro phosphorylation assays. Subcellular localization patterns were investigated using transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and changes were detected in the presence of interacting kinases. Finally, potential links to the involvement of these interacting modules to the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. Interestingly, AtPUB9 displayed redistribution to the plasma membrane of BY-2 cells when either treated with ABA or coexpressed with the active kinase domain of ARK1. As well, T-DNA insertion mutants for ARK1 and AtPUB9 lines were altered in their ABA sensitivity during germination and acted at or upstream of ABI3, indicating potential involvement of these proteins in ABA responses. PMID:18552232

  5. Interactions between the S-domain receptor kinases and AtPUB-ARM E3 ubiquitin ligases suggest a conserved signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Marcus A; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Salt, Jennifer N; Delmas, Frédéric; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Chilelli, Andrea; Goring, Daphne R

    2008-08-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encompasses multiple receptor kinase families with highly variable extracellular domains. Despite their large numbers, the various ligands and the downstream interacting partners for these kinases have been deciphered only for a few members. One such member, the S-receptor kinase, is known to mediate the self-incompatibility (SI) response in Brassica. S-receptor kinase has been shown to interact and phosphorylate a U-box/ARM-repeat-containing E3 ligase, ARC1, which, in turn, acts as a positive regulator of the SI response. In an effort to identify conserved signaling pathways in Arabidopsis, we performed yeast two-hybrid analyses of various S-domain receptor kinase family members with representative Arabidopsis plant U-box/ARM-repeat (AtPUB-ARM) E3 ligases. The kinase domains from S-domain receptor kinases were found to interact with ARM-repeat domains from AtPUB-ARM proteins. These kinase domains, along with M-locus protein kinase, a positive regulator of SI response, were also able to phosphorylate the ARM-repeat domains in in vitro phosphorylation assays. Subcellular localization patterns were investigated using transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and changes were detected in the presence of interacting kinases. Finally, potential links to the involvement of these interacting modules to the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. Interestingly, AtPUB9 displayed redistribution to the plasma membrane of BY-2 cells when either treated with ABA or coexpressed with the active kinase domain of ARK1. As well, T-DNA insertion mutants for ARK1 and AtPUB9 lines were altered in their ABA sensitivity during germination and acted at or upstream of ABI3, indicating potential involvement of these proteins in ABA responses.

  6. Tyr721 regulates specific binding of the CSF-1 receptor kinase insert to PI 3'-kinase SH2 domains: a model for SH2-mediated receptor-target interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, M; Liu, X; van der Geer, P; Letwin, K; Waterfield, M D; Hunter, T; Pawson, T

    1992-01-01

    Efficient binding of active phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase to the autophosphorylated macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (CSF-1R) requires the noncatalytic kinase insert (KI) region of the receptor. To test whether this region could function independently to bind PI 3'-kinase, the isolated CSF-1R KI was expressed in Escherichia coli, and was inducibly phosphorylated on tyrosine. The tyrosine phosphorylated form of the CSF-1R KI bound PI 3'-kinase in vitro, whereas the unphosphorylated form had no binding activity. The p85 alpha subunit of PI 3'-kinase contains two Src homology (SH)2 domains, which are implicated in the interactions of signalling proteins with activated receptors. Bacterially expressed p85 alpha SH2 domains complexed in vitro with the tyrosine phosphorylated CSF-1R KI. Binding of the CSF-1R KI to PI 3'-kinase activity, and to the p85 alpha SH2 domains, required phosphorylation of Tyr721 within the KI domain, but was independent of phosphorylation at Tyr697 and Tyr706. Tyr721 was also critical for the association of activated CSF-1R with PI 3'-kinase in mammalian cells. Complex formation between the CSF-1R and PI 3'-kinase can therefore be reconstructed in vitro in a specific interaction involving the phosphorylated receptor KI and the SH2 domains of p85 alpha. Images PMID:1314163

  7. Domain swapping reveals that the N-terminal domain of the sensor kinase KdpD in Escherichia coli is important for signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert Marie-Luise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The KdpD/KdpE two-component system of Escherichia coli regulates expression of the kdpFABC operon encoding the high affinity K+ transport system KdpFABC. The input domain of KdpD comprises a domain that belongs to the family of universal stress proteins (Usp. It has been previously demonstrated that UspC binds to this domain, resulting in KdpD/KdpE scaffolding under salt stress. However the mechanistic significance of this domain for signaling remains unclear. Here, we employed a "domain swapping" approach to replace the KdpD-Usp domain with four homologous domains or with the six soluble Usp proteins of E. coli. Results Full response to salt stress was only achieved with a chimera that contains UspC, probably due to unaffected scaffolding of the KdpD/KdpE signaling cascade by soluble UspC. Unexpectedly, chimeras containing either UspF or UspG not only prevented kdpFABC expression under salt stress but also under K+ limiting conditions, although these hybrid proteins exhibited kinase and phosphotransferase activities in vitro. These are the first KdpD derivatives that do not respond to K+ limitation due to alterations in the N-terminal domain. Analysis of the KdpD-Usp tertiary structure revealed that this domain has a net positively charged surface, while UspF and UspG are characterized by net negative surface charges. Conclusion The Usp domain within KdpD not only functions as a binding surface for the scaffold UspC, but it is also important for KdpD signaling. We propose that KdpD sensing/signaling involves alterations of electrostatic interactions between the large N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains.

  8. The PH Domain of PDK1 Exhibits a Novel, Phospho-Regulated Monomer-Dimer Equilibrium With Important Implications for Kinase Domain Activation: Single Molecule and Ensemble Studies†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Brian P.; Pilling, Carissa; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé; Falke, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 (PDK1) is an essential master kinase recruited to the plasma membrane by the binding of its C-terminal PH domain to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,4-5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Membrane binding leads to PDK1 phospho-activation, but despite the central role of PDK1 in signaling and cancer biology this activation mechanism remains poorly understood. PDK1 has been shown to exist as a dimer in cells, and one crystal structure of its isolated PH domain exhibits a putative dimer interface. It has been proposed that phosphorylation of PH domain residue T513 (or the phospho-mimetic T513E mutation) may regulate a novel PH domain dimer-monomer equilibrium, thereby converting an inactive PDK1 dimer to an active monomer. However, the oligomeric state(s) of the PH domain on the membrane have not yet been determined, nor whether a negative charge at position 513 is sufficient to regulate its oligomeric state. The present study investigates the binding of purified WT and T513E PDK1 PH domains to lipid bilayers containing the PIP3 target lipid, using both single molecule and ensemble measurements. Single molecule analysis of the brightness of fluorescent PH domain shows that the PIP3-bound WT PH domain on membranes is predominantly dimeric, while the PIP3-bound T513E PH domain is monomeric, demonstrating that negative charge at the T513 position is sufficient to dissociate the PH domain dimer and is thus likely to play a central role in PDK1 monomerization and activation. Single molecule analysis of 2-D diffusion of PH domain-PIP3 complexes reveals that the dimeric WT PH domain diffuses at the same rate a single lipid molecule, indicating that only one of its two PIP3 binding sites is occupied and there is little protein penetration into the bilayer as observed for other PH domains. The 2-D diffusion of T513E PH domain is slower, suggesting the negative charge disrupts local structure in a way that enables greater protein insertion into

  9. Combining biophysical methods to analyze the disulfide bond in SH2 domain of C-terminal Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Cowburn, David

    2016-01-01

    The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain is a structurally conserved protein domain that typically binds to a phosphorylated tyrosine in a peptide motif from the target protein. The SH2 domain of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) contains a single disulfide bond, which is unusual for most SH2 domains. Although the global motion of SH2 domain regulates Csk function, little is known about the relationship between the disulfide bond and binding of the ligand. In this study, we combined X-ray crystallography, solution NMR, and other biophysical methods to reveal the interaction network in Csk. Denaturation studies have shown that disulfide bond contributes significantly to the stability of SH2 domain, and crystal structures of the oxidized and C122S mutant showed minor conformational changes. We further investigated the binding of SH2 domain to a phosphorylated peptide from Csk-binding protein upon reduction and oxidation using both NMR and fluorescence approaches. This work employed NMR, X-ray cryptography, and other biophysical methods to study a disulfide bond in Csk SH2 domain. In addition, this work provides in-depth understanding of the structural dynamics of Csk SH2 domain.

  10. Two amino acid residues confer different binding affinities of Abelson family kinase SRC homology 2 domains for phosphorylated cortactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Stacey M; Liu, Weizhi; Mader, Christopher C; Halo, Tiffany L; Machida, Kazuya; Boggon, Titus J; Koleske, Anthony J

    2014-07-11

    The closely related Abl family kinases, Arg and Abl, play important non-redundant roles in the regulation of cell morphogenesis and motility. Despite similar N-terminal sequences, Arg and Abl interact with different substrates and binding partners with varying affinities. This selectivity may be due to slight differences in amino acid sequence leading to differential interactions with target proteins. We report that the Arg Src homology (SH) 2 domain binds two specific phosphotyrosines on cortactin, a known Abl/Arg substrate, with over 10-fold higher affinity than the Abl SH2 domain. We show that this significant affinity difference is due to the substitution of arginine 161 and serine 187 in Abl to leucine 207 and threonine 233 in Arg, respectively. We constructed Abl SH2 domains with R161L and S187T mutations alone and in combination and find that these substitutions are sufficient to convert the low affinity Abl SH2 domain to a higher affinity "Arg-like" SH2 domain in binding to a phospho-cortactin peptide. We crystallized the Arg SH2 domain for structural comparison to existing crystal structures of the Abl SH2 domain. We show that these two residues are important determinants of Arg and Abl SH2 domain binding specificity. Finally, we expressed Arg containing an "Abl-like" low affinity mutant Arg SH2 domain (L207R/T233S) and find that this mutant, although properly localized to the cell periphery, does not support wild type levels of cell edge protrusion. Together, these observations indicate that these two amino acid positions confer different binding affinities and cellular functions on the distinct Abl family kinases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Glycogen synthase kinase 3-{beta} phosphorylates novel S/T-P-S/T domains in Notch1 intracellular domain and induces its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiangzi [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Preventive Medicine, Yanbian University College of Medicine, Yanji (China); Ju, Ji-hyun [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Incheol, E-mail: incheol@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel S/T-P-S/T domains were identified in NICD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of NICD on the S/T-P-S/T domains induced nuclear localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSK-3{beta} phosphorylated S and T residues in NICD S/T-P-S/T domains. -- Abstract: We identified two S/T-P-S/T domains (2122-2124, 2126-2128) inducing Notch intracellular domain (NICD) nuclear localization. The GFP-NICD (1963-2145) fusion protein deletion mutant without classical NLS was localized in the nucleus like the full length GFP-NICD. However, quadruple substitution mutant (T2122A T2124A S2126A T2128A) showed increased cytoplasmic localization. GSK-3{beta} enhanced nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of WT NICD but not of quadruple substitution mutant. In vitro kinase assays revealed that GSK-3{beta} phosphorylated S and T residues in NICD S/T-P-S/T domains. These results suggest that the novel S/T-P-S/T domain, phosphorylated by GSK-3{beta} is also involved in the nuclear localization of NICD as well as classical NLS.

  12. OsBRI1 Activates BR Signaling by Preventing Binding between the TPR and Kinase Domains of OsBSK3 via Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baowen; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhiying; Wang, Ruiju; Huang, Xiahe; Zhu, Yali; Yuan, Li; Wang, Yingchun; Xu, Xiaodong; Burlingame, Alma L; Gao, Yingjie; Sun, Yu; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-02-01

    Many plant receptor kinases transduce signals through receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs); however, the molecular mechanisms that create an effective on-off switch are unknown. The receptor kinase BR INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) transduces brassinosteroid (BR) signal by phosphorylating members of the BR-signaling kinase (BSK) family of RLCKs, which contain a kinase domain and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. Here, we show that the BR signaling function of BSKs is conserved in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) and that the TPR domain of BSKs functions as a "phospho-switchable" autoregulatory domain to control BSKs' activity. Genetic studies revealed that OsBSK3 is a positive regulator of BR signaling in rice, while in vivo and in vitro assays demonstrated that OsBRI1 interacts directly with and phosphorylates OsBSK3. The TPR domain of OsBSK3, which interacts directly with the protein's kinase domain, serves as an autoinhibitory domain to prevent OsBSK3 from interacting with bri1-SUPPRESSOR1 (BSU1). Phosphorylation of OsBSK3 by OsBRI1 disrupts the interaction between its TPR and kinase domains, thereby increasing the binding between OsBSK3's kinase domain and BSU1. Our results not only demonstrate that OsBSK3 plays a conserved role in regulating BR signaling in rice, but also provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which BSK family proteins are inhibited under basal conditions but switched on by the upstream receptor kinase BRI1. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. The external PASTA domain of the essential serine/threonine protein kinase PknB regulates mycobacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turapov, Obolbek; Loraine, Jessica; Jenkins, Christopher H; Barthe, Philippe; McFeely, Daniel; Forti, Francesca; Ghisotti, Daniela; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Bottrill, Andrew R; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mobashery, Shahriar; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Mukamolova, Galina V

    2015-07-01

    PknB is an essential serine/threonine protein kinase required for mycobacterial cell division and cell-wall biosynthesis. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of the external PknB_PASTA domain in mycobacteria results in delayed regrowth, accumulation of elongated bacteria and increased sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. These changes are accompanied by altered production of certain enzymes involved in cell-wall biosynthesis as revealed by proteomics studies. The growth inhibition caused by overexpression of the PknB_PASTA domain is completely abolished by enhanced concentration of magnesium ions, but not muropeptides. Finally, we show that the addition of recombinant PASTA domain could prevent regrowth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and therefore offers an alternative opportunity to control replication of this pathogen. These results suggest that the PknB_PASTA domain is involved in regulation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and maintenance of cell-wall architecture.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the SH2 domain of IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Raji E.; Ginder, Nathaniel D.; Hoy, Julie A.; Nix, Jay C.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Andreotti, Amy H.

    2011-01-01

    Crystallization conditions are described for the cis- and trans-imide bond-containing SH2 domain of IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase. Proline is a unique amino acid owing to the relatively small energy difference between the cis and trans conformations of its peptide bond. The X–Pro imide bond readily undergoes cis–trans isomerization in the context of short peptides as well as some proteins. However, the direct detection of cis–trans proline isomerization in folded proteins is technically challenging. NMR spectroscopy is well suited to the direct detection of proline isomerization in folded proteins. It is less clear how well X-ray crystallography can reveal this conformational exchange event in folded proteins. Conformational heterogeneity owing to cis–trans proline isomerization in the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) has been extensively characterized by NMR. Using the ITK SH2 domain as a test system, an attempt was made to determine whether proline isomerization could be detected in a crystal structure of the ITK SH2 domain. As a first step towards this goal, the purification, crystallization and preliminary characterization of the ITK SH2 domain are described

  15. Structures of Staphylococcus aureus D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase implicate domain motions in specificity and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miallau, Linda; Hunter, William N; McSweeney, Sean M; Leonard, Gordon A

    2007-07-06

    High resolution structures of Staphylococcus aureus d-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase (LacC) in two crystal forms are herein reported. The structures define LacC in apoform, in binary complexes with ADP or the co-factor analogue AMP-PNP, and in a ternary complex with AMP-PNP and D-tagatose-6-phosphate. The tertiary structure of the LacC monomer, which is closely related to other members of the pfkB subfamily of carbohydrate kinases, is composed of a large alpha/beta core domain and a smaller, largely beta "lid." Four extended polypeptide segments connect these two domains. Dimerization of LacC occurs via interactions between lid domains, which come together to form a beta-clasp structure. Residues from both subunits contribute to substrate binding. LacC adopts a closed structure required for phosphoryl transfer only when both substrate and co-factor are bound. A reaction mechanism similar to that used by other phosphoryl transferases is proposed, although unusually, when both substrate and co-factor are bound to the enzyme two Mg(2+) ions are observed in the active site. A new motif of amino acid sequence conservation common to the pfkB subfamily of carbohydrate kinases is identified.

  16. The kinase domain residue serine 173 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chk1 kinase is critical for the response to DNA replication stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Coulton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While mammalian Chk1 kinase regulates replication origins, safeguards fork integrity and promotes fork progression, yeast Chk1 acts only in G1 and G2. We report here that the mutation of serine 173 (S173A in the kinase domain of fission yeast Chk1 abolishes the G1-M and S-M checkpoints with little impact on the G2-M arrest. This separation-of-function mutation strongly reduces the Rad3-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 at serine 345 during logarithmic growth, but not when cells experience exogenous DNA damage. Loss of S173 lowers the restrictive temperature of a catalytic DNA polymerase epsilon mutant (cdc20.M10 and is epistatic with a mutation in DNA polymerase delta (cdc6.23 when DNA is alkylated by methyl-methanesulfate (MMS. The chk1-S173A allele is uniquely sensitive to high MMS concentrations where it displays a partial checkpoint defect. A complete checkpoint defect occurs only when DNA replication forks break in cells without the intra-S phase checkpoint kinase Cds1. Chk1-S173A is also unable to block mitosis when the G1 transcription factor Cdc10 (cdc10.V50 is impaired. We conclude that serine 173, which is equivalent to lysine 166 in the activation loop of human Chk1, is only critical in DNA polymerase mutants or when forks collapse in the absence of Cds1.

  17. Identification of Ser/Thr kinase and forkhead associated domains in Mycobacterium ulcerans: characterization of novel association between protein kinase Q and MupFHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Arora

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer in humans, is unique among the members of Mycobacterium genus due to the presence of the virulence determinant megaplasmid pMUM001. This plasmid encodes multiple virulence-associated genes, including mup011, which is an uncharacterized Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK PknQ.In this study, we have characterized PknQ and explored its interaction with MupFHA (Mup018c, a FHA domain containing protein also encoded by pMUM001. MupFHA was found to interact with PknQ and suppress its autophosphorylation. Subsequent protein-protein docking and molecular dynamic simulation analyses showed that this interaction involves the FHA domain of MupFHA and PknQ activation loop residues Ser170 and Thr174. FHA domains are known to recognize phosphothreonine residues, and therefore, MupFHA may be acting as one of the few unusual FHA-domain having overlapping specificity. Additionally, we elucidated the PknQ-dependent regulation of MupDivIVA (Mup012c, which is a DivIVA domain containing protein encoded by pMUM001. MupDivIVA interacts with MupFHA and this interaction may also involve phospho-threonine/serine residues of MupDivIVA.Together, these results describe novel signaling mechanisms in M. ulcerans and show a three-way regulation of PknQ, MupFHA, and MupDivIVA. FHA domains have been considered to be only pThr specific and our results indicate a novel mechanism of pSer as well as pThr interaction exhibited by MupFHA. These results signify the need of further re-evaluating the FHA domain -pThr/pSer interaction model. MupFHA may serve as the ideal candidate for structural studies on this unique class of modular enzymes.

  18. The PH domain of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 exhibits a novel, phospho-regulated monomer-dimer equilibrium with important implications for kinase domain activation: single-molecule and ensemble studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Brian P; Pilling, Carissa; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé; Falke, Joseph J

    2013-07-16

    Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) is an essential master kinase recruited to the plasma membrane by the binding of its C-terminal PH domain to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Membrane binding leads to PDK1 phospho-activation, but despite the central role of PDK1 in signaling and cancer biology, this activation mechanism remains poorly understood. PDK1 has been shown to exist as a dimer in cells, and one crystal structure of its isolated PH domain exhibits a putative dimer interface. It has been proposed that phosphorylation of PH domain residue T513 (or the phospho-mimetic T513E mutation) may regulate a novel PH domain dimer-monomer equilibrium, thereby converting an inactive PDK1 dimer to an active monomer. However, the oligomeric states of the PH domain on the membrane have not yet been determined, nor whether a negative charge at position 513 is sufficient to regulate its oligomeric state. This study investigates the binding of purified wild-type (WT) and T513E PDK1 PH domains to lipid bilayers containing the PIP3 target lipid, using both single-molecule and ensemble measurements. Single-molecule analysis of the brightness of the fluorescent PH domain shows that the PIP3-bound WT PH domain on membranes is predominantly dimeric while the PIP3-bound T513E PH domain is monomeric, demonstrating that negative charge at the T513 position is sufficient to dissociate the PH domain dimer and is thus likely to play a central role in PDK1 monomerization and activation. Single-molecule analysis of two-dimensional (2D) diffusion of PH domain-PIP3 complexes reveals that the dimeric WT PH domain diffuses at the same rate as a single lipid molecule, indicating that only one of its two PIP3 binding sites is occupied and there is little penetration of the protein into the bilayer as observed for other PH domains. The 2D diffusion of T513E PH domain is slower, suggesting the negative charge disrupts local structure in a way that allows

  19. In vivo binding properties of SH2 domains from GTPase-activating protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J A; Kashishian, A

    1993-01-01

    We have used a transient expression system and mutant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors to study the binding specificities of the Src homology 2 (SH2) regions of the Ras GTPase-activator protein (GAP) and the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase). A number of fusion proteins, each tagged with an epitope allowing recognition by a monoclonal antibody, were expressed at levels comparable to those of endogenous GAP. Fusion proteins containing the central SH2-SH3-SH2 region of GAP or the C-terminal region of p85 alpha, which includes two SH2 domains, bound to PDGF receptors in response to PDGF stimulation. Both fusion proteins showed the same requirements for tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the PDGF receptor as the full-length proteins from which they were derived, i.e., binding of the GAP fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-771, and binding of the p85 fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-740, Tyr-751, or both residues. Fusion proteins containing single SH2 domains from either GAP or p85 alpha did not bind detectably to PDGF receptors in this system, suggesting that two SH2 domains in a single polypeptide cooperate to raise the affinity of binding. The sequence specificities of individual SH2 domains were deduced from the binding properties of fusion proteins containing one SH2 domain from GAP and another from p85. The results suggest that the C-terminal GAP SH2 domain specifies binding to Tyr-771, the C-terminal p85 alpha SH2 domain binds to either Tyr-740 or Tyr-751, and each protein's N-terminal SH2 domain binds to unidentified phosphorylation sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8382774

  20. c-Met Overexpression Contributes to the Acquired Apoptotic Resistance of Nonadherent Ovarian Cancer Cells through a Cross Talk Mediated by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie K.S. Tang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer mainly because of widespread peritoneal dissemination and malignant ascites. Key to this is the capacity of tumor cells to escape suspension-induced apoptosis (anoikis, which also underlies their resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we used a nonadherent cell culture model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of apoptotic resistance of ovarian cancer cells that may mimic the chemoresistance found in solid tumors. We found that ovarian cancer cells acquired a remarkable resistance to anoikis and apoptosis induced by exposure to clinically relevant doses of two front-line chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel when grown in three-dimensional than monolayer cultures. Inhibition of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor c-Met, which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer, by a specific inhibitor or small interfering RNA blocked the acquired anoikis resistance and restored chemosensitivity in three-dimensional not in two-dimensional cultures. These effects were found to be dependent on both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2 signaling pathways. Inhibitors of PI3K/Akt abrogated ERK1/2 activation and its associated anoikis resistance in response to HGF, suggesting a signaling relay between these two pathways. Furthermore, we identified a central role of Ras as a mechanism of this cross talk. Interestingly, Ras did not lie upstream of PI3K/Akt, whereas PI3K/Akt signaling to ERK1/2 involved Ras. These findings shed new light on the apoptotic resistance mechanism of nonadherent ovarian cancer ascites cells and may have important clinical implications.

  1. Activation of the JNK pathway is essential for transformation by the Met oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G A; Park, M; Schlessinger, J

    1997-05-15

    The Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase is oncogenically activated through a rearrangement that creates a hybrid gene Tpr-Met. The resultant chimeric p65(Tpr-Met) protein is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo and associates with a number of SH2-containing signaling molecules including the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase and the Grb2 adaptor protein, which couples receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway. Mutation of the binding site for Grb2 impairs the ability of Tpr-Met oncoprotein to transform fibroblasts, suggesting that the activation of the Ras/MAP kinase signaling pathway through Grb2 may be essential for cellular transformation. To test this hypothesis dominant-negative mutants of Grb2 with deletions of the SH3 domains were introduced into Tpr-Met transformed fibroblasts. Cells overexpressing the mutants were found to be morphologically reverted and exhibited reduced growth in soft agar. Surprisingly, the Grb2 mutants blocked activation of the JNK/SAPK but not MAP kinase activity induced by the Tpr-Met oncoprotein. Additionally, cells expressing dominant-negative Grb2 mutants had reduced PI-3-kinase activity and dominant-negative mutants of Rac1 blocked both Tpr-Met-induced transformation and activation of JNK. These experiments reveal a novel link between Met and the JNK pathway, which is essential for transformation by this oncogene.

  2. The Src SH2 domain interacts dynamically with the focal adhesion kinase binding site as demonstrated by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Hanna E; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between the tyrosine kinases Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a key step in signaling processes from focal adhesions. The phosphorylated tyrosine residue 397 in FAK is able to bind the Src SH2 domain. To establish the extent of the FAK binding motif, the binding affinity of the SH2 domain for phosphorylated and unphosphorylated FAK-derived peptides of increasing length was determined and compared with that of the internal Src SH2 binding site. It is shown that the FAK peptides have higher affinity than the internal binding site and that seven negative residues adjacent to the core SH2 binding motif increase the binding constant 30-fold. A rigid spin-label incorporated in the FAK peptides was used to establish on the basis of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement whether the peptide-protein complex is well defined. A large spread of the paramagnetic effects on the surface of the SH2 domain suggests that the peptide-protein complex exhibits dynamics, despite the high affinity of the peptide. The strong electrostatic interaction between the positive side of the SH2 domain and the negative peptide results in a high affinity but may also favor a dynamic interaction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Interactions of polyomavirus middle T with the SH2 domains of the pp85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoakim, M; Hou, W; Liu, Y; Carpenter, C L; Kapeller, R; Schaffhausen, B S

    1992-01-01

    The binding of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase to the polyomavirus middle T antigen is facilitated by tyrosine phosphorylation of middle T on residue 315. The pp85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase contains two SH2 domains, one in the middle of the molecule and one at the C terminus. When assayed by blotting with phosphorylated middle T, the more N-terminal SH2 domain is responsible for binding to middle T. When assayed in solution with glutathione S transferase fusions, both SH2s are capable of binding phosphorylated middle T. While both SH2 fusions can compete with intact pp85 for binding to middle T, the C-terminal SH2 is the more efficient of the two. Interaction between pp85 or its SH2 domains and middle T can be blocked by a synthetic peptide comprising the tyrosine phosphorylation sequence around middle T residue 315. Despite the fact that middle T can interact with both SH2s, these domains are not equivalent. Only the C-terminal SH2-middle T interaction was blocked by anti-SH2 antibody; the two SH2 fusions also interact with different cellular proteins. Images PMID:1380095

  4. The pseudokinase domain of JAK2 is a dual-specificity protein kinase that negatively regulates cytokine signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungureanu, Daniela; Wu, Jinhua; Pekkala, Tuija

    2011-01-01

    Human JAK2 tyrosine kinase mediates signaling through numerous cytokine receptors. The JAK2 JH2 domain functions as a negative regulator and is presumed to be a catalytically inactive pseudokinase, but the mechanism(s) for its inhibition of JAK2 remains unknown. Mutations in JH2 lead to increased...... JAK2 activity, contributing to myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Here we show that JH2 is a dual-specificity protein kinase that phosphorylates two negative regulatory sites in JAK2: Ser523 and Tyr570. Inactivation of JH2 catalytic activity increased JAK2 basal activity and downstream signaling....... Notably, different MPN mutations abrogated JH2 activity in cells, and in MPN (V617F) patient cells phosphorylation of Tyr570 was reduced, suggesting that loss of JH2 activity contributes to the pathogenesis of MPNs. These results identify the catalytic activity of JH2 as a previously unrecognized...

  5. Intramolecular interactions stabilizing compact conformations of the intrinsically disordered kinase-inhibitor domain of Sic1: a molecular dynamics investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLambrughi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs are key regulatory proteins of the eukaryotic cell cycle, which modulate cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk activity. CKIs perform their inhibitory effect by the formation of ternary complexes with a target kinase and its cognate cyclin. These regulators generally belong to the class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs, which lack a well-defined and organized three-dimensional structure in their free state, undergoing folding upon binding to specific partners. Unbound IDPs are not merely random-coil structures, but can present intrinsically folded structural units (IFSUs and collapsed conformations. These structural features can be relevant to protein function in vivo.The yeast CKI Sic1 is a 284-amino acid IDP that binds to Cdk1 in complex with the Clb5,6 cyclins, preventing phosphorylation of G1 substrates and, therefore, entrance to the S phase. Sic1 degradation, triggered by multiple phosphorylation events, promotes cell-cycle progression. Previous experimental studies pointed out a propensity of Sic1 and its isolated domains to populate both extended and compact conformations. The present contribution provides models of the compact conformations of the Sic1 kinase-inhibitory domain (KID by all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent and in the absence of interactors. The results are integrated by spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Helical IFSUs are identified, along with networks of intramolecular interactions. The results identify a group of hub residues and electrostatic interactions which are likely to be involved in the stabilization of globular states.

  6. Conformational Dynamics of the Focal Adhesion Targeting Domain Control Specific Functions of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kadaré, Gress

    2015-01-02

    Focal adhesion (FA) kinase (FAK) regulates cell survival and motility by transducing signals from membrane receptors. The C-terminal FA targeting (FAT) domain of FAK fulfils multiple functions, including recruitment to FAs through paxillin binding. Phosphorylation of FAT on Tyr925 facilitates FA disassembly and connects to the MAPK pathway through Grb2 association, but requires dissociation of the first helix (H1) of the four-helix bundle of FAT. We investigated the importance of H1 opening in cells by comparing the properties of FAK molecules containing wild-type or mutated FAT with impaired or facilitated H1 openings. These mutations did not alter the activation of FAK, but selectively affected its cellular functions, including self-association, Tyr925 phosphorylation, paxillin binding, and FA targeting and turnover. Phosphorylation of Tyr861, located between the kinase and FAT domains, was also enhanced by the mutation that opened the FAT bundle. Similarly phosphorylation of Ser910 by ERK in response to bombesin was increased by FAT opening. Although FAK molecules with the mutation favoring FAT opening were poorly recruited at FAs, they efficiently restored FA turnover and cell shape in FAK-deficient cells. In contrast, the mutation preventing H1 opening markedly impaired FAK function. Our data support the biological importance of conformational dynamics of the FAT domain and its functional interactions with other parts of the molecule.

  7. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-10-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is required for Grb2 binding to FAK. Using a tryptic phosphopeptide mapping approach, the in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 binding site on FAK (Tyr-925) was detected after fibronectin stimulation of NIH 3T3 cells and was constitutively phosphorylated in v-Src-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. In vitro, c-Src phosphorylated FAK Tyr-925 in a glutathione S-transferase-FAK C-terminal domain fusion protein, whereas FAK did not. Using epitope-tagged FAK constructs, transiently expressed in human 293 cells, we determined the effect of site-directed mutations on c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK. Mutation of FAK Tyr-925 disrupted Grb2 binding, whereas mutation of the c-Src binding site on FAK (Tyr-397) disrupted both c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK in vivo. These results support a model whereby Src-family PTKs are recruited to FAK and focal adhesions following integrin-induced autophosphorylation and exposure of FAK Tyr-397. Src-family binding and phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-925 creates a Grb2 SH2-domain binding site and provides a link to the activation of the Ras signal transduction pathway. In Src-transformed cells, this pathway may be constitutively activated as a result of FAK Tyr-925 phosphorylation in the absence of integrin stimulation.

  8. Disruption of Fyn SH3 domain interaction with a proline-rich motif in liver kinase B1 results in activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijiro Yamada

    Full Text Available Fyn-deficient mice display increased AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK activity as a result of Fyn-dependent regulation of Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1 in skeletal muscle. Mutation of Fyn-specific tyrosine sites in LKB1 results in LKB1 export into the cytoplasm and increased AMPK activation site phosphorylation. This study characterizes the structural elements responsible for the physical interaction between Fyn and LKB1. Effects of point mutations in the Fyn SH2/SH3 domains and in the LKB1 proline-rich motif on 1 Fyn and LKB1 binding, 2 LKB1 subcellular localization and 3 AMPK phosphorylation were investigated in C2C12 muscle cells. Additionally, novel LKB1 proline-rich motif mimicking cell permeable peptides were generated to disrupt Fyn/LKB1 binding and investigate the consequences on AMPK activity in both C2C12 cells and mouse skeletal muscle. Mutation of either Fyn SH3 domain or the proline-rich motif of LKB1 resulted in the disruption of Fyn/LKB1 binding, re-localization of 70% of LKB1 signal in the cytoplasm and a 2-fold increase in AMPK phosphorylation. In vivo disruption of the Fyn/LKB1 interaction using LKB1 proline-rich motif mimicking cell permeable peptides recapitulated Fyn pharmacological inhibition. We have pinpointed the structural elements within Fyn and LKB1 that are responsible for their binding, demonstrating the functionality of this interaction in regulating AMPK activity.

  9. Identification of Ser/Thr kinase and Forkhead Associated Domains in Mycobacterium ulcerans: Characterization of Novel Association between Protein Kinase Q and MupFHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anshika; Joshi, Jayadev; Virmani, Richa; Gupta, Meetu; Verma, Nupur; Maji, Abhijit; Misra, Richa; Baronian, Grégory; Pandey, Amit K.; Molle, Virginie; Singh, Yogendra

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer in humans, is unique among the members of Mycobacterium genus due to the presence of the virulence determinant megaplasmid pMUM001. This plasmid encodes multiple virulence-associated genes, including mup011, which is an uncharacterized Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK) PknQ. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have characterized PknQ and explored its interaction with MupFHA (Mup018c), a FHA domain containing protein also encoded by pMUM001. MupFHA was found to interact with PknQ and suppress its autophosphorylation. Subsequent protein-protein docking and molecular dynamic simulation analyses showed that this interaction involves the FHA domain of MupFHA and PknQ activation loop residues Ser170 and Thr174. FHA domains are known to recognize phosphothreonine residues, and therefore, MupFHA may be acting as one of the few unusual FHA-domain having overlapping specificity. Additionally, we elucidated the PknQ-dependent regulation of MupDivIVA (Mup012c), which is a DivIVA domain containing protein encoded by pMUM001. MupDivIVA interacts with MupFHA and this interaction may also involve phospho-threonine/serine residues of MupDivIVA. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results describe novel signaling mechanisms in M. ulcerans and show a three-way regulation of PknQ, MupFHA, and MupDivIVA. FHA domains have been considered to be only pThr specific and our results indicate a novel mechanism of pSer as well as pThr interaction exhibited by MupFHA. These results signify the need of further re-evaluating the FHA domain –pThr/pSer interaction model. MupFHA may serve as the ideal candidate for structural studies on this unique class of modular enzymes. PMID:25412098

  10. Targeting oncoprotein stability overcomes drug resistance caused by FLT3 kinase domain mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjiang Yu

    Full Text Available FLT3 is the most frequently mutated kinase in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Internal tandem duplications (ITDs in the juxta-membrane region constitute the majority of activating FLT3 mutations. Several FLT3 kinase inhibitors were developed and tested in the clinic with significant success. However, recent studies have reported the development of secondary drug resistance in patients treated with FLT3 inhibitors. Since FLT3-ITD is an HSP90 client kinase, we here explored if targeting the stability of drug-resistant FLT3 mutant protein could be a potential therapeutic option. We observed that HSP90 inhibitor treatment resulted in the degradation of inhibitor-resistant FLT3-ITD mutants and selectively induced toxicity in cells expressing FLT3-ITD mutants. Thus, HSP90 inhibitors provide a potential therapeutic choice to overcome secondary drug resistance following TKI treatment in FLT3-ITD positive AML.

  11. The Regulatory and Kinase Domains but Not the Interdomain Linker Determine Human Double-stranded RNA-activated Kinase (PKR) Sensitivity to Inhibition by Viral Non-coding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, S; Schwartz, Samantha L; Conn, Graeme L

    2015-11-20

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) is an important component of the innate immune system that presents a crucial first line of defense against viral infection. PKR has a modular architecture comprising a regulatory N-terminal dsRNA binding domain and a C-terminal kinase domain interposed by an unstructured ∼80-residue interdomain linker (IDL). Guided by sequence alignment, we created IDL deletions in human PKR (hPKR) and regulatory/kinase domain swap human-rat chimeric PKRs to assess the contributions of each domain and the IDL to regulation of the kinase activity by RNA. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy, limited proteolysis, kinase assays, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that each PKR protein is properly folded with similar domain boundaries and that each exhibits comparable polyinosinic-cytidylic (poly(rI:rC)) dsRNA activation profiles and binding affinities for adenoviral virus-associated RNA I (VA RNAI) and HIV-1 trans-activation response (TAR) RNA. From these results we conclude that the IDL of PKR is not required for RNA binding or mediating changes in protein conformation or domain interactions necessary for PKR regulation by RNA. In contrast, inhibition of rat PKR by VA RNAI and TAR RNA was found to be weaker than for hPKR by 7- and >300-fold, respectively, and each human-rat chimeric domain-swapped protein showed intermediate levels of inhibition. These findings indicate that PKR sequence or structural elements in the kinase domain, present in hPKR but absent in rat PKR, are exploited by viral non-coding RNAs to accomplish efficient inhibition of PKR. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Identification of the kinase that activates a nonmetazoan STAT gives insights into the evolution of phosphotyrosine-SH2 domain signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kawata, Takefumi; Williams, Jeffrey G

    2012-07-10

    SH2 domains are integral to many animal signaling pathways. By interacting with specific phosphotyrosine residues, they provide regulatable protein-protein interaction domains. Dictyostelium is the only nonmetazoan with functionally characterized SH2 domains, but the cognate tyrosine kinases are unknown. There are no orthologs of the animal tyrosine kinases, but there are very many tyrosine kinase-like kinases (TKLs), a group of kinases which, despite their family name, are classified mainly as serine-threonine kinases. STATs are transcription factors that dimerize via phosphotyrosine-SH2 domain interactions. STATc is activated by phosphorylation on Tyr922 when cells are exposed to the prestalk inducer differentiation inducing factor (DIF-1), a chlorinated hexaphenone. We show that in a null mutant for Pyk2, a tyrosine-specific TKL, exposure to DIF-1 does not activate STATc. Conversely, overexpression of Pyk2 causes constitutive STATc activation. Pyk2 phosphorylates STATc on Tyr922 in vitro and complexes with STATc both in vitro and in vivo. This demonstration that a TKL directly activates a STAT has significant implications for understanding the evolutionary origins of SH2 domain-phosphotyrosine signaling. It also has mechanistic implications. Our previous work suggested that a predicted constitutive STATc tyrosine kinase activity is counterbalanced in vivo by the DIF-1-regulated activity of PTP3, a Tyr922 phosphatase. Here we show that the STATc-Pyk2 complex is formed constitutively by an interaction between the STATc SH2 domain and phosphotyrosine residues on Pyk2 that are generated by autophosphorylation. Also, as predicted, Pyk2 is constitutively active as a STATc kinase. This observation provides further evidence for this highly atypical, possibly ancestral, STAT regulation mechanism.

  13. Peptidomimetic ligands for the tandem SH2 domain of Syk kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) protein functions as a switch in a number of receptor signaling cascades. One of these cascades is the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI) signaling pathway. Fc?RI consists of an ?-, ?- and two ?-chains. The ?- and ?-chains have intracellular an Immunoreceptor

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the SH2 domain of IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Raji E; Ginder, Nathaniel D; Hoy, Julie A; Nix, Jay C; Honzatko, Richard B; Andreotti, Amy H

    2011-02-01

    Proline is a unique amino acid owing to the relatively small energy difference between the cis and trans conformations of its peptide bond. The X-Pro imide bond readily undergoes cis-trans isomerization in the context of short peptides as well as some proteins. However, the direct detection of cis-trans proline isomerization in folded proteins is technically challenging. NMR spectroscopy is well suited to the direct detection of proline isomerization in folded proteins. It is less clear how well X-ray crystallography can reveal this conformational exchange event in folded proteins. Conformational heterogeneity owing to cis-trans proline isomerization in the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) has been extensively characterized by NMR. Using the ITK SH2 domain as a test system, an attempt was made to determine whether proline isomerization could be detected in a crystal structure of the ITK SH2 domain. As a first step towards this goal, the purification, crystallization and preliminary characterization of the ITK SH2 domain are described.

  15. Solution structure of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 SAM domain and identification of two distinct homotypic interaction sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Smalla, M.; Schmieder, P.; Kelly, M.; Ter Laak, A.; Krause, G.; Ball, L.; Wahl, M.; Bork, P.; Oschkinat, H.

    1999-01-01

    The sterile alpha motif (SAM) is a protein interaction domain of around 70 amino acids present predominantly in the N- and C-termini of more than 60 diverse proteins that participate in signal transduction and transcriptional repression. SAM domains have been shown to homo- and hetero-oligomerize and to mediate specific protein-protein interactions. A highly conserved subclass of SAM domains is present at the intracellular C-terminus of more than 40 Eph receptor tyrosine kinases that are invo...

  16. OSI-930: a novel selective inhibitor of Kit and kinase insert domain receptor tyrosine kinases with antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, Andrew J; Crew, Andrew P A; Franklin, Maryland; Cooke, Andrew R; Wynne, Graham M; Castaldo, Linda; Kahler, Jennifer; Winski, Shannon L; Franks, April; Brown, Eric N; Bittner, Mark A; Keily, John F; Briner, Paul; Hidden, Chris; Srebernak, Mary C; Pirrit, Carrie; O'Connor, Matthew; Chan, Anna; Vulevic, Bojana; Henninger, Dwight; Hart, Karen; Sennello, Regina; Li, An-Hu; Zhang, Tao; Richardson, Frank; Emerson, David L; Castelhano, Arlindo L; Arnold, Lee D; Gibson, Neil W

    2006-01-15

    OSI-930 is a novel inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases Kit and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), which is currently being evaluated in clinical studies. OSI-930 selectively inhibits Kit and KDR with similar potency in intact cells and also inhibits these targets in vivo following oral dosing. We have investigated the relationships between the potency observed in cell-based assays in vitro, the plasma exposure levels achieved following oral dosing, the time course of target inhibition in vivo, and antitumor activity of OSI-930 in tumor xenograft models. In the mutant Kit-expressing HMC-1 xenograft model, prolonged inhibition of Kit was achieved at oral doses between 10 and 50 mg/kg and this dose range was associated with antitumor activity. Similarly, prolonged inhibition of wild-type Kit in the NCI-H526 xenograft model was observed at oral doses of 100 to 200 mg/kg, which was the dose level associated with significant antitumor activity in this model as well as in the majority of other xenograft models tested. The data suggest that antitumor activity of OSI-930 in mouse xenograft models is observed at dose levels that maintain a significant level of inhibition of the molecular targets of OSI-930 for a prolonged period. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic evaluation of the plasma exposure levels of OSI-930 at these effective dose levels provides an estimate of the target plasma concentrations that may be required to achieve prolonged inhibition of Kit and KDR in humans and which would therefore be expected to yield a therapeutic benefit in future clinical evaluations of OSI-930.

  17. A Study Of Oral PF-02341066, A C-Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, In Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-29

    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer ALK-positive; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer c-Met Dependent; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer ROS Marker Positive; Systemic Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma; Advanced Malignancies Except Leukemia

  18. The HTLV-1 Tax protein binding domain of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4 includes the regulatory PSTAIRE helix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassmann Ralph

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tax oncoprotein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is leukemogenic in transgenic mice and induces permanent T-cell growth in vitro. It is found in active CDK holoenzyme complexes from adult T-cell leukemia-derived cultures and stimulates the G1- to-S phase transition by activating the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK CDK4. The Tax protein directly and specifically interacts with CDK4 and cyclin D2 and binding is required for enhanced CDK4 kinase activity. The protein-protein contact between Tax and the components of the cyclin D/CDK complexes increases the association of CDK4 and its positive regulatory subunit cyclin D and renders the complex resistant to p21CIP inhibition. Tax mutants affecting the N-terminus cannot bind cyclin D and CDK4. Results To analyze, whether the N-terminus of Tax is capable of CDK4-binding, in vitro binding -, pull down -, and mammalian two-hybrid analyses were performed. These experiments revealed that a segment of 40 amino acids is sufficient to interact with CDK4 and cyclin D2. To define a Tax-binding domain and analyze how Tax influences the kinase activity, a series of CDK4 deletion mutants was tested. Different assays revealed two regions which upon deletion consistently result in reduced binding activity. These were isolated and subjected to mammalian two-hybrid analysis to test their potential to interact with the Tax N-terminus. These experiments concurrently revealed binding at the N- and C-terminus of CDK4. The N-terminal segment contains the PSTAIRE helix, which is known to control the access of substrate to the active cleft of CDK4 and thus the kinase activity. Conclusion Since the N- and C-terminus of CDK4 are neighboring in the predicted three-dimensional protein structure, it is conceivable that they comprise a single binding domain, which interacts with the Tax N-terminus.

  19. Purification, crystallization, small-angle X-ray scattering and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the SH2 domain of the Csk-homologous kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, Natalie J.; Gorman, Michael A.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Parker, Michael W.; Mulhern, Terrence D.

    2011-01-01

    The Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain of Csk-family protein tyrosine kinases acts as a conformational switch to regulate their catalytic activity, which in turn promotes the inhibition of their proto-oncogenic targets, the Src-family kinases. Here, the expression, purification, small-angle X-ray scattering and preliminary diffraction analysis of the SH2 domain of the Csk-homologous kinase is reported. The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk-homologous kinase (CHK) are endogenous inhibitors of the proto-oncogenic Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Phosphotyrosyl peptide binding to their Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains activates Csk and CHK, enhancing their ability to suppress SFK signalling; however, the detailed mechanistic basis of this activation event is unclear. The CHK SH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was characterized as monomeric by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering in-line with size-exclusion chromatography. The CHK SH2 crystallized in 0.2 M sodium bromide, 0.1 M bis-Tris propane pH 6.5 and 20% polyethylene glycol 3350 and the best crystals diffracted to ∼1.6 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 25.8, b = 34.6, c = 63.2 Å, β = 99.4°

  20. Involvement of the N-terminal unique domain of Chk tyrosine kinase in Chk-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yuji; Kawana, Akiko; Igarashi, Asae; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2006-01-01

    Chk tyrosine kinase phosphorylates Src-family kinases and suppresses their kinase activity. We recently showed that Chk localizes to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and inhibits cell proliferation. In this study, we explored the role of the N-terminal unique domain of Chk in nuclear localization and Chk-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the nucleus. In situ binding experiments showed that the N-terminal domain of Chk was associated with the nucleus and the nuclear matrix. The presence of the N-terminal domain of Chk led to a fourfold increase in cell population exhibiting Chk-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the nucleus. Expression of Chk but not kinase-deficient Chk induced tyrosine phosphorylation of a variety of proteins ranging from 23 kDa to ∼200 kDa, especially in Triton X-100-insoluble fraction that included chromatin and the nuclear matrix. Intriguingly, in situ subnuclear fractionations revealed that Chk induced tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins that were associated with the nuclear matrix. These results suggest that various unidentified substrates of Chk, besides Src-family kinases, may be present in the nucleus. Thus, our findings indicate that the importance of the N-terminal domain to Chk-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the nucleus, implicating that these nuclear tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins may contribute to inhibition of cell proliferation

  1. A New Transgenic Mouse Model of Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia Raised by Sustained Activation of Met Tyrosine Kinase in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other diseases characterized by the onset of cachexia, congestive heart failure takes a place of relevance, considering the high prevalence of this pathology in most European countries and in the United States, and is undergoing a rapid increase in developing countries. Actually, only few models of cardiac cachexia exist. Difficulties in the recruitment and follow-up of clinical trials implicate that new reproducible and well-characterized animal models are pivotal in developing therapeutic strategies for cachexia. We generated a new model of cardiac cachexia: a transgenic mouse expressing Tpr-Met receptor, the activated form of c-Met receptor of hepatocyte growth factor, specifically in the heart. We showed that the cardiac-specific induction of Tpr-Met raises a cardiac hypertrophic remodelling, which progresses into concentric hypertrophy with concomitant increase in Gdf15 mRNA levels. Hypertrophy progresses to congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, characterized by reduced body weight gain and food intake and skeletal muscle wasting. Prevention trial by suppressing Tpr-Met showed that loss of body weight could be prevented. Skeletal muscle wasting was also associated with altered gene expression profiling. We propose transgenic Tpr-Met mice as a new model of cardiac cachexia, which will constitute a powerful tool to understand such complex pathology and test new drugs/approaches at the preclinical level.

  2. Cdc42 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase drive Rac-mediated actin polymerization downstream of c-Met in distinct and common pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosse, Tanja; Ehinger, Julia; Czuchra, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    -WASP. Instead, actin polymerization was driven by Arp2/3 complex activation through the WAVE complex downstream of Rac. Together, our data establish an intricate signaling network comprising as key molecules Cdc42 and PI3-kinase, which converge on Rac-mediated actin reorganization essential for Listeria...

  3. Amino substituted nitrogen heterocycle ureas as kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR inhibitors: Performance of structure–activity relationship approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR study was performed on a set of amino-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic urea derivatives. Two novel approaches were applied: (1 the simplified molecular input-line entry systems (SMILES based optimal descriptors approach; and (2 the fragment-based simplex representation of molecular structure (SiRMS approach. Comparison with the classic scheme of building up the model and balance of correlation (BC for optimal descriptors approach shows that the BC scheme provides more robust predictions than the classic scheme for the considered pIC50 of the heterocyclic urea derivatives. Comparison of the SMILES-based optimal descriptors and SiRMS approaches has confirmed good performance of both techniques in prediction of kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR inhibitory activity, expressed as a logarithm of inhibitory concentration (pIC50 of studied compounds.

  4. Linker length dependent binding of a focal adhesion kinase derived peptide to the Src SH3-SH2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Hanna E; Venkata, Bharat Somireddy; Drijfhout, Jan W; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2011-02-18

    The interaction between a peptide encompassing the SH3 and SH2 binding motifs of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Src SH3-SH2 domains has been investigated with NMR spectroscopy and calorimetry. The binding to both motifs is anti-cooperative. Reduction of the long linker connecting the motifs does not lead to cooperativity. Short linkers that do not allow simultaneous intramolecular binding of the peptide to both motifs cause peptide-mediated dimerisation, even with a linker of only three amino acids. The role of the SH3 binding motif is discussed in view of the independent nature of the SH interactions. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Blue light-excited LOV1 and LOV2 domains cooperatively regulate the kinase activity of full-length phototropin2 from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oide, Mao; Okajima, Koji; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Kato, Takayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2018-01-19

    Phototropin2 (phot2) is a blue-light (BL) receptor that regulates BL-dependent activities for efficient photosynthesis in plants. phot2 comprises two BL-receiving light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domains (LOV1 and LOV2) and a kinase domain. BL-excited LOV2 is thought to be primarily responsible for the BL-dependent activation of the kinase. However, the molecular mechanisms by which small BL-induced conformational changes in the LOV2 domain are transmitted to the kinase remain unclear. Here, we used full-length wild-type and mutant phot2 proteins from Arabidopsis to study their molecular properties in the dark and under BL irradiation. Phosphorylation assays and absorption measurements indicated that the LOV1 domain assists the thermal relaxation of BL-excited LOV2 and vice versa. Using small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy, we observed that phot2 forms a dimer and has a rod shape with a maximum length of 188 Å and a radius of gyration of 44 Å. Under BL, phot2 displayed large conformational changes that bent the rod shape. By superimposing the crystal structures of the LOV1 dimer, LOV2, and a homology model of the kinase to the observed changes, we inferred that the BL-dependent change consisted of positional shifts of both LOV2 and the kinase relative to LOV1. Furthermore, phot2 mutants lacking the photocycle in LOV1 or LOV2 still exhibited conformational changes under BL, suggesting that LOV1 and LOV2 cooperatively contribute to the conformational changes that activate the kinase. These results suggest that BL-activated LOV1 contributes to the kinase activity of phot2. We discuss the possible intramolecular interactions and signaling mechanisms in phot2. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. ATP forms a stable complex with the essential histidine kinase WalK (YycG) domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celikel, Reha; Veldore, Vidya Harini [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Mathews, Irimpan [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Devine, Kevin M., E-mail: kdevine@tcd.ie [Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Varughese, Kottayil I., E-mail: kdevine@tcd.ie [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The histidine WalK (YycG) plays a crucial role in coordinating murein synthesis with cell division and the crystal structure of its ATP binding domain has been determined. Interestingly the bound ATP was not hydrolyzed during crystallization and remains intact in the crystal lattice. In Bacillus subtilis, the WalRK (YycFG) two-component system coordinates murein synthesis with cell division. It regulates the expression of autolysins that function in cell-wall remodeling and of proteins that modulate autolysin activity. The transcription factor WalR is activated upon phosphorylation by the histidine kinase WalK, a multi-domain homodimer. It autophosphorylates one of its histidine residues by transferring the γ-phosphate from ATP bound to its ATP-binding domain. Here, the high-resolution crystal structure of the ATP-binding domain of WalK in complex with ATP is presented at 1.61 Å resolution. The bound ATP remains intact in the crystal lattice. It appears that the strong binding interactions and the nature of the binding pocket contribute to its stability. The triphosphate moiety of ATP wraps around an Mg{sup 2+} ion, providing three O atoms for coordination in a near-ideal octahedral geometry. The ATP molecule also makes strong interactions with the protein. In addition, there is a short contact between the exocyclic O3′ of the sugar ring and O2B of the β-phosphate, implying an internal hydrogen bond. The stability of the WalK–ATP complex in the crystal lattice suggests that such a complex may exist in vivo poised for initiation of signal transmission. This feature may therefore be part of the sensing mechanism by which the WalRK two-component system is so rapidly activated when cells encounter conditions conducive for growth.

  7. Focal adhesion kinase-dependent focal adhesion recruitment of SH2 domains directs SRC into focal adhesions to regulate cell adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Chung; Chen, Yu-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Wenshin Yu, Helen; Chen, Yin-Quan; Chiou, Arthur; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2015-12-18

    Directed cell migration requires dynamical control of the protein complex within focal adhesions (FAs) and this control is regulated by signaling events involving tyrosine phosphorylation. We screened the SH2 domains present in tyrosine-specific kinases and phosphatases found within FAs, including SRC, SHP1 and SHP2, and examined whether these enzymes transiently target FAs via their SH2 domains. We found that the SRC_SH2 domain and the SHP2_N-SH2 domain are associated with FAs, but only the SRC_SH2 domain is able to be regulated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The FAK-dependent association of the SRC_SH2 domain is necessary and sufficient for SRC FA targeting. When the targeting of SRC into FAs is inhibited, there is significant suppression of SRC-mediated phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK; this results in an inhibition of FA formation and maturation and a reduction in cell migration. This study reveals an association between FAs and the SRC_SH2 domain as well as between FAs and the SHP2_N-SH2 domains. This supports the hypothesis that the FAK-regulated SRC_SH2 domain plays an important role in directing SRC into FAs and that this SRC-mediated FA signaling drives cell migration.

  8. SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 regulates pyruvate kinase M2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Tien; Hung, Man-Hsin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Yao-Li; Chen, Li-Ju; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Min-Husan; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Boo, Yin-Pin; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2016-04-19

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is known to promote tumourigenesis through dimer formation of p-PKM2Y105. Here, we investigated whether SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) decreases p-PKM2Y105 expression and, thus, determines the sensitivity of sorafenib through inhibiting the nuclear-related function of PKM2. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot confirmed the effect of SHP-1 on PKM2Y105 dephosphorylation. Lactate production was assayed in cells and tumor samples to determine whether sorafenib reversed the Warburg effect. Clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor samples were assessed for PKM2 expression. SHP-1 directly dephosphorylated PKM2 at Y105 and further decreased the proliferative activity of PKM2; similar effects were found in sorafenib-treated HCC cells. PKM2 was also found to determine the sensitivity of targeted drugs, such as sorafenib, brivanib, and sunitinib, by SHP-1 activation. Significant sphere-forming activity was found in HCC cells stably expressing PKM2. Clinical findings suggest that PKM2 acts as a predicting factor of early recurrence in patients with HCC, particularly those without known risk factors (63.6%). SHP-1 dephosphorylates PKM2 at Y105 to inhibit nuclear function of PKM2 and determines the efficacy of targeted drugs. Targeting PKM2 by SHP-1 might provide new therapeutic insights for patients with HCC.

  9. A protein-tyrosine phosphatase with sequence similarity to the SH2 domain of the protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S H; Bastien, L; Posner, B I; Chrétien, P

    1991-08-22

    The phosphorylation of proteins at tyrosine residues is critical in cellular signal transduction, neoplastic transformation and control of the mitotic cycle. These mechanisms are regulated by the activities of both protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). As in the PTKs, there are two classes of PTPases: membrane associated, receptor-like enzymes and soluble proteins. Here we report the isolation of a complementary DNA clone encoding a new form of soluble PTPase, PTP1C. The enzyme possesses a large noncatalytic region at the N terminus which unexpectedly contains two adjacent copies of the Src homology region 2 (the SH2 domain) found in various nonreceptor PTKs and other cytoplasmic signalling proteins. As with other SH2 sequences, the SH2 domains of PTP1C formed high-affinity complexes with the activated epidermal growth factor receptor and other phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. These results suggest that the SH2 regions in PTP1C may interact with other cellular components to modulate its own phosphatase activity against interacting substrates. PTPase activity may thus directly link growth factor receptors and other signalling proteins through protein-tyrosine phosphorylation.

  10. The SH2 Domain Regulates c-Abl Kinase Activation by a Cyclin-Like Mechanism and Remodulation of the Hinge Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölker, Nicole; Górna, Maria W.; Sutto, Ludovico; Torralba, Antonio S.; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Gervasio, Francesco L.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the c-Abl (ABL1) tyrosine kinase is important because of its role in cellular signaling, and its relevance in the leukemiogenic counterpart (BCR-ABL). Both auto-inhibition and full activation of c-Abl are regulated by the interaction of the catalytic domain with the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain. The mechanism by which this interaction enhances catalysis is not known. We combined computational simulations with mutagenesis and functional analysis to find that the SH2 domain conveys both local and global effects on the dynamics of the catalytic domain. Locally, it regulates the flexibility of the αC helix in a fashion reminiscent of cyclins in cyclin-dependent kinases, reorienting catalytically important motifs. At a more global level, SH2 binding redirects the hinge motion of the N and C lobes and changes the conformational equilibrium of the activation loop. The complex network of subtle structural shifts that link the SH2 domain with the activation loop and the active site may be partially conserved with other SH2-domain containing kinases and therefore offer additional parameters for the design of conformation-specific inhibitors. PMID:25299346

  11. The SH2 domain regulates c-Abl kinase activation by a cyclin-like mechanism and remodulation of the hinge motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölker, Nicole; Górna, Maria W; Sutto, Ludovico; Torralba, Antonio S; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Gervasio, Francesco L

    2014-10-01

    Regulation of the c-Abl (ABL1) tyrosine kinase is important because of its role in cellular signaling, and its relevance in the leukemiogenic counterpart (BCR-ABL). Both auto-inhibition and full activation of c-Abl are regulated by the interaction of the catalytic domain with the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain. The mechanism by which this interaction enhances catalysis is not known. We combined computational simulations with mutagenesis and functional analysis to find that the SH2 domain conveys both local and global effects on the dynamics of the catalytic domain. Locally, it regulates the flexibility of the αC helix in a fashion reminiscent of cyclins in cyclin-dependent kinases, reorienting catalytically important motifs. At a more global level, SH2 binding redirects the hinge motion of the N and C lobes and changes the conformational equilibrium of the activation loop. The complex network of subtle structural shifts that link the SH2 domain with the activation loop and the active site may be partially conserved with other SH2-domain containing kinases and therefore offer additional parameters for the design of conformation-specific inhibitors.

  12. The SH2 domain regulates c-Abl kinase activation by a cyclin-like mechanism and remodulation of the hinge motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dölker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the c-Abl (ABL1 tyrosine kinase is important because of its role in cellular signaling, and its relevance in the leukemiogenic counterpart (BCR-ABL. Both auto-inhibition and full activation of c-Abl are regulated by the interaction of the catalytic domain with the Src Homology 2 (SH2 domain. The mechanism by which this interaction enhances catalysis is not known. We combined computational simulations with mutagenesis and functional analysis to find that the SH2 domain conveys both local and global effects on the dynamics of the catalytic domain. Locally, it regulates the flexibility of the αC helix in a fashion reminiscent of cyclins in cyclin-dependent kinases, reorienting catalytically important motifs. At a more global level, SH2 binding redirects the hinge motion of the N and C lobes and changes the conformational equilibrium of the activation loop. The complex network of subtle structural shifts that link the SH2 domain with the activation loop and the active site may be partially conserved with other SH2-domain containing kinases and therefore offer additional parameters for the design of conformation-specific inhibitors.

  13. Keratin 8 phosphorylation in vitro by cAMP-dependent protein kinase occurs within the amino- and carboxyl-terminal end domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, S; Tokui, T; Yano, T; Inagaki, M

    1996-04-05

    We reported earlier that phosphorylation in vitro of keratin filaments reconstituted from rat type I keratin 18 and type II keratin 8 by cAPM-dependent protein kinase induces disassembly of the keratin filament structure. Keratin 8 rather than keratin 18 was the major target of the kinase. We have now identified the sites on rat keratin 8 for cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Sequential analysis of the purified phosphoropeptides, together with the known primary sequence, revealed that four major sites, Ser-12, Ser-23, Ser-36, and Ser-50, and three minor sites, Ser-8, Ser-33, Ser-42, are located in the amino-terminal head domain, while three minor sites, Ser-416, Ser-423 and Ser-425 locate in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain.

  14. Dynamic coupling between the LID and NMP domain motions in the catalytic conversion of ATP and AMP to ADP by adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Biman; Adkar, Bharat V; Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-01-21

    The catalytic conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by adenylate kinase (ADK) involves large amplitude, ligand induced domain motions, involving the opening and the closing of ATP binding domain (LID) and AMP binding domain (NMP) domains, during the repeated catalytic cycle. We discover and analyze an interesting dynamical coupling between the motion of the two domains during the opening, using large scale atomistic molecular dynamics trajectory analysis, covariance analysis, and multidimensional free energy calculations with explicit water. Initially, the LID domain must open by a certain amount before the NMP domain can begin to open. Dynamical correlation map shows interesting cross-peak between LID and NMP domain which suggests the presence of correlated motion between them. This is also reflected in our calculated two-dimensional free energy surface contour diagram which has an interesting elliptic shape, revealing a strong correlation between the opening of the LID domain and that of the NMP domain. Our free energy surface of the LID domain motion is rugged due to interaction with water and the signature of ruggedness is evident in the observed root mean square deviation variation and its fluctuation time correlation functions. We develop a correlated dynamical disorder-type theoretical model to explain the observed dynamic coupling between the motion of the two domains in ADK. Our model correctly reproduces several features of the cross-correlation observed in simulations.

  15. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 overexpression in solid cancers promotes cancer cell growth by activating Src family kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, C; Shen, Q; Strande, V; Meyer, R; McLaughlin, M E; Lezan, E; Bentires-Alj, M; Voshol, H; Bonenfant, D; Alex Gaither, L

    2015-10-29

    The transmembrane glycoprotein, CUB (complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1) domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is overexpressed in several cancer types and is a predictor of poor prognosis for patients on standard of care therapies. Phosphorylation of CDCP1 tyrosine sites is induced upon loss of cell adhesion and is thought to be linked to metastatic potential of tumor cells. Using a tyrosine-phosphoproteomics screening approach, we characterized the phosphorylation state of CDCP1 across a panel of breast cancer cell lines. We focused on two phospho-tyrosine pTyr peptides of CDCP1, containing Tyr707 and Tyr806, which were identified in all six lines, with the human epidermal growth factor 2-positive HCC1954 cells showing a particularly high phosphorylation level. Pharmacological modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation indicated that, the Src family kinases (SFKs) were found to phosphorylate CDCP1 at Tyr707 and Tyr806 and play a critical role in CDCP1 activity. We demonstrated that CDCP1 overexpression in HEK293 cells increases global phosphotyrosine content, promotes anchorage-independent cell growth and activates several SFK members. Conversely, CDCP1 downregulation in multiple solid cancer cell lines decreased both cell growth and SFK activation. Analysis of primary human tumor samples demonstrated a correlation between CDCP1 expression, SFK and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Taken together, our results suggest that CDCP1 overexpression could be an interesting therapeutic target in multiple solid cancers and a good biomarker to stratify patients who could benefit from an anti-SFK-targeted therapy. Our data also show that multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites of CDCP1 are important for the functional regulation of SFKs in several tumor types.

  16. Structure of the interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase Src homology 2 domain; comparison between X-ray and NMR-derived structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Raji E.; Ginder, Nathaniel D.; Hoy, Julie A.; Nix, Jay C.; Fulton, D. Bruce; Honzatko, Richard B.; Andreotti, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    The interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase Src homology 2 domain was crystallized and its structure was solved to 2.35 Å resolution. The structure reveals a domain-swapped dimer that is related to other dimeric SH2 domains solved previously. The cis–trans-prolyl isomerization that is evident from solution studies of Itk SH2 cannot be observed in the crystal structure. The crystal structure of the interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase Src homology domain (Itk SH2) is described and it is found that unlike in studies of this domain using NMR spectroscopy, cis–trans-prolyl isomerization is not readily detected in the crystal structure. Based on similarities between the Itk SH2 crystal form and the cis form of the Itk SH2 NMR structure, it is concluded that it is likely that the prolyl imide bond at least in part adopts the cis conformation in the crystal form. However, the lack of high-resolution data and the dynamic nature of the proline-containing loop mean that the precise imide-bond conformation cannot be determined and prolyl cis–trans isomerization in the crystal cannot be ruled out. Given the preponderance of structures that have been solved by X-ray crystallography in the Protein Data Bank, this result supports the notion that prolyl isomerization in folded proteins has been underestimated among known structures. Interestingly, while the precise status of the proline residue is ambiguous, Itk SH2 crystallizes as a domain-swapped dimer. The domain-swapped structure of Itk SH2 is similar to the domain-swapped SH2 domains of Grb2 and Nck, with domain swapping occurring at the β-meander region of all three SH2 domains. Thus, for Itk SH2 structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography revealed very different structural features: proline isomerization versus domain-swapped dimerization, respectively

  17. Nuclear localization of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) and its role in regulating LIM domain only 2 (Lmo2) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Chueh, Fu-Yu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, H. M. Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); Yu, Chao-Lan, E-mail: chaolan.yu@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, H. M. Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lmo2 expression is elevated in Lck-transformed cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both endogenous and exogenous Lck localize in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear Lck is active in Lck-transformed cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lck binds to the promoter region of Lmo2 gene in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In contrast to JAK2, Lck does not increase histone H3 phosphorylation on Tyr 41. -- Abstract: LIM domain only protein 2 (Lmo2) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). A previous report established a link between Lmo2 expression and the nuclear presence of oncogenic Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase. The oncogenic JAK2 kinase phosphorylates histone H3 on Tyr 41 that leads to the relief of Lmo2 promoter repression and subsequent gene expression. Similar to JAK2, constitutive activation of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) has been implicated in lymphoid malignancies. However, it is not known whether oncogenic Lck regulates Lmo2 expression through a similar mechanism. We show here that Lmo2 expression is significantly elevated in T cell leukemia LSTRA overexpressing active Lck kinase and in HEK 293 cells expressing oncogenic Y505FLck kinase. Nuclear localization of active Lck kinase was confirmed in both Lck-transformed cells by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy. More importantly, in contrast to oncogenic JAK2, oncogenic Lck kinase does not result in significant increase in histone H3 phosphorylation on Tyr 41. Instead, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment shows that oncogenic Y505FLck kinase binds to the Lmo2 promoter in vivo. This result raises the possibility that oncogenic Lck may activate Lmo2 promoter through direct interaction.

  18. The SH2 Domain Regulates c-Abl Kinase Activation by a Cyclin-Like Mechanism and Remodulation of the Hinge Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Dölker, N.; Górna, M. W.; Sutto, L.; Torralba, A. S.; Superti-Furga, G.; Gervasio, F. L.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the c-Abl (ABL1) tyrosine kinase is important because of its role in cellular signaling, and its relevance in the leukemiogenic counterpart (BCR-ABL). Both auto-inhibition and full activation of c-Abl are regulated by the interaction of the catalytic domain with the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain. The mechanism by which this interaction enhances catalysis is not known. We combined computational simulations with mutagenesis and functional analysis to find that the SH2 domain conveys...

  19. Plasticity of the PAS domain and a potential role for signal transduction in the histidine kinase DcuS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etzkorn, M.; Kneuper, H.; Dünnwald, P.; Vijayan, V.; Krämer, J.; Griesinger, C.; Becker, S.; Unden, G.; Baldus, M.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of how membrane-embedded sensor kinases recognize signals and regulate kinase activity is currently limited. Here we report structure-function relationships of the multidomain membrane sensor kinase DcuS using solidstate NMR, structural modeling and mutagenesis.

  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the BRI1 receptor kinase occurs via a posttranslational modification and is activated by the juxtamembrane domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    In metazoans, receptor kinases control many essential processes related to growth and development and response to the environment. The receptor kinases in plants and animals are structurally similar but evolutionarily distinct from one another, and thus while most animal receptor kinases are tyrosin...

  1. SH3 domain-mediated binding of the Drk protein to Dos is an important step in signaling of Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Stephan M; Wecklein, Heike; Lewitzky, Marc; Kibler, Eike; Raabe, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Activation of the Sevenless (Sev) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in the developing Drosophila eye is required for the specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell fate. Daughter of Sevenless (Dos), a putative multi-site adaptor protein, is a substrate of the Sev kinase and is known to associate with the tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (Csw). Binding of Csw to Dos depends on the Csw Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and is an essential step for signaling by the Sev RTK. Dos, however, lacks a recognizable phosphotyrosine interaction domain and it was previously unclear how it is recruited to the Sev receptor. Here it is shown that the SH2/SH3 domain adaptor protein Drk can provide this link. Drk binds with its SH2 domain to the autophosphorylated Sev receptor while the C-terminal SH3 domain is able to associate with Dos. The Drk SH3 domain binding motifs on Dos were mapped to two sites which do not conform the known Drk SH3 domain binding motif (PxxPxR) but instead have the consensus PxxxRxxKP. Mutational analysis in vitro and in vivo provided evidence that both Drk binding sites fulfil an important function in the context of Sev and Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor mediated signaling processes.

  2. A conserved mechanism of autoinhibition for the AMPK kinase domain: ATP-binding site and catalytic loop refolding as a means of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littler, Dene R.; Walker, John R.; Davis, Tara; Wybenga-Groot, Leanne E.; Finerty, Patrick J. Jr; Newman, Elena; Mackenzie, Farell; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2010-01-01

    A 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the α2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved trimeric protein complex that is responsible for energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Here, a 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the α2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. This human form adopts a catalytically inactive state with distorted ATP-binding and substrate-binding sites. The ATP site is affected by changes in the base of the activation loop, which has moved into an inhibited DFG-out conformation. The substrate-binding site is disturbed by changes within the AMPKα2 catalytic loop that further distort the enzyme from a catalytically active form. Similar structural rearrangements have been observed in a yeast AMPK homologue in response to the binding of its auto-inhibitory domain; restructuring of the kinase catalytic loop is therefore a conserved feature of the AMPK protein family and is likely to represent an inhibitory mechanism that is utilized during function

  3. Insulin Resistance Induced by Hyperinsulinemia Coincides with a Persistent Alteration at the Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Karyn J.; Maddux, Betty A.; Szary, Jaroslaw; Youngren, Jack F.; Goldfine, Ira D.; Schaufele, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance, the diminished response of target tissues to insulin, is associated with the metabolic syndrome and a predisposition towards diabetes in a growing proportion of the worldwide population. Under insulin resistant states, the cellular response of the insulin signaling pathway is diminished and the body typically responds by increasing serum insulin concentrations to maintain insulin signaling. Some evidence indicates that the increased insulin concentration may itself further dampen insulin response. If so, insulin resistance would worsen as the level of circulating insulin increases during compensation, which could contribute to the transition of insulin resistance to more severe disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of excess insulin exposure to insulin receptor (IR) activity. Cells chronically exposed to insulin show a diminished the level of IR tyrosine and serine autophosphorylation below that observed after short-term insulin exposure. The diminished IR response did not originate with IR internalization since IR amounts at the cell membrane were similar after short- and long-term insulin incubation. Förster resonance energy transfer between fluorophores attached to the IR tyrosine kinase (TK) domain showed that a change in the TK domain occurred upon prolonged, but not short-term, insulin exposure. Even though the altered ‘insulin refractory’ IR TK FRET and IR autophosphorylation levels returned to baseline (non-stimulated) levels after wash-out of the original insulin stimulus, subsequent short-term exposure to insulin caused immediate re-establishment of the insulin-refractory levels. This suggests that some cell-based ‘memory’ of chronic hyperinsulinemic exposure acts directly at the IR. An improved understanding of that memory may help define interventions to reset the IR to full insulin responsiveness and impede the progression of insulin resistance to more severe disease states. PMID:25259572

  4. The transmembrane domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor stimulates phosphorylation of the TrkB tyrosine kinase receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadipour, Khalil; MacLean, Michael; Pirkle, Sean; Ali, Solav; Lopez-Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Stokes, David L; Chao, Moses V

    2017-10-06

    The function of protein products generated from intramembraneous cleavage by the γ-secretase complex is not well defined. The γ-secretase complex is responsible for the cleavage of several transmembrane proteins, most notably the amyloid precursor protein that results in Aβ, a transmembrane (TM) peptide. Another protein that undergoes very similar γ-secretase cleavage is the p75 neurotrophin receptor. However, the fate of the cleaved p75 TM domain is unknown. p75 neurotrophin receptor is highly expressed during early neuronal development and regulates survival and process formation of neurons. Here, we report that the p75 TM can stimulate the phosphorylation of TrkB (tyrosine kinase receptor B). In vitro phosphorylation experiments indicated that a peptide representing p75 TM increases TrkB phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, mutagenesis analyses revealed that a valine residue at position 264 in the rat p75 neurotrophin receptor is necessary for the ability of p75 TM to induce TrkB phosphorylation. Because this residue is just before the γ-secretase cleavage site, we then investigated whether the p75(αγ) peptide, which is a product of both α- and γ-cleavage events, could also induce TrkB phosphorylation. Experiments using TM domains from other receptors, EGFR and FGFR1, failed to stimulate TrkB phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation and biochemical fractionation data suggested that p75 TM stimulates TrkB phosphorylation at the cell membrane. Altogether, our results suggest that TrkB activation by p75(αγ) peptide may be enhanced in situations where the levels of the p75 receptor are increased, such as during brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Insulin resistance induced by hyperinsulinemia coincides with a persistent alteration at the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn J Catalano

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance, the diminished response of target tissues to insulin, is associated with the metabolic syndrome and a predisposition towards diabetes in a growing proportion of the worldwide population. Under insulin resistant states, the cellular response of the insulin signaling pathway is diminished and the body typically responds by increasing serum insulin concentrations to maintain insulin signaling. Some evidence indicates that the increased insulin concentration may itself further dampen insulin response. If so, insulin resistance would worsen as the level of circulating insulin increases during compensation, which could contribute to the transition of insulin resistance to more severe disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of excess insulin exposure to insulin receptor (IR activity. Cells chronically exposed to insulin show a diminished the level of IR tyrosine and serine autophosphorylation below that observed after short-term insulin exposure. The diminished IR response did not originate with IR internalization since IR amounts at the cell membrane were similar after short- and long-term insulin incubation. Förster resonance energy transfer between fluorophores attached to the IR tyrosine kinase (TK domain showed that a change in the TK domain occurred upon prolonged, but not short-term, insulin exposure. Even though the altered 'insulin refractory' IR TK FRET and IR autophosphorylation levels returned to baseline (non-stimulated levels after wash-out of the original insulin stimulus, subsequent short-term exposure to insulin caused immediate re-establishment of the insulin-refractory levels. This suggests that some cell-based 'memory' of chronic hyperinsulinemic exposure acts directly at the IR. An improved understanding of that memory may help define interventions to reset the IR to full insulin responsiveness and impede the progression of insulin resistance to more severe disease states.

  6. Disulfide-mediated stabilization of the IκB kinase binding domain of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Yeo, Alan T; Ballarano, Carmine; Weber, Urs; Allen, Karen N; Gilmore, Thomas D; Whitty, Adrian

    2014-12-23

    Human NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) is a 419 residue scaffolding protein that, together with catalytic subunits IKKα and IKKβ, forms the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, a key regulator of NF-κB pathway signaling. NEMO is an elongated homodimer comprising mostly α-helix. It has been shown that a NEMO fragment spanning residues 44-111, which contains the IKKα/β binding site, is structurally disordered in the absence of bound IKKβ. Herein we show that enforcing dimerization of NEMO1-120 or NEMO44-111 constructs through introduction of one or two interchain disulfide bonds, through oxidation of the native Cys54 residue and/or at position 107 through a Leu107Cys mutation, induces a stable α-helical coiled-coil structure that is preorganized to bind IKKβ with high affinity. Chemical and thermal denaturation studies showed that, in the context of a covalent dimer, the ordered structure was stabilized relative to the denatured state by up to 3 kcal/mol. A full-length NEMO-L107C protein formed covalent dimers upon treatment of mammalian cells with H2O2. Furthermore, NEMO-L107C bound endogenous IKKβ in A293T cells, reconstituted TNF-induced NF-κB signaling in NEMO-deficient cells, and interacted with TRAF6. Our results indicate that the IKKβ binding domain of NEMO possesses an ordered structure in the unbound state, provided that it is constrained within a dimer as is the case in the constitutively dimeric full-length NEMO protein. The stability of the NEMO coiled coil is maintained by strong interhelix interactions in the region centered on residue 54. The disulfide-linked constructs we describe herein may be useful for crystallization of NEMO's IKKβ binding domain in the absence of bound IKKβ, thereby facilitating the structural characterization of small-molecule inhibitors.

  7. Crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction study of the three PASTA domains of the Ser/Thr kinase Stk1 from the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracuellos, Patricia; Ballandras, Allison; Robert, Xavier; Cozzone, Alain J.; Duclos, Bertrand; Gouet, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization conditions have been determined for an extracellular portion of the Ser/Thr kinase Stk1 from the human pathogen S. aureus that contains three PASTA subunits. Synchrotron data have been collected to a resolution of 2.9 Å. Phasing is in progress. PASTA subunits (∼70 amino acids) are specific to bacterial serine/threonine kinases and to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and are involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus contains a serine/threonine kinase, Stk1, which plays a major role in virulence. A recombinant His-tagged portion of the extracellular domain of Stk1 containing three PASTA subunits has been crystallized using zinc sulfate as a crystallizing agent. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.0, b = 68.0, c = 158.1 Å. Structure determination by the MAD method is now in progress

  8. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is req...

  9. WW domains of the yes-kinase-associated-protein (YAP transcriptional regulator behave as independent units with different binding preferences for PPxY motif-containing ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias-Bexiga

    Full Text Available YAP is a WW domain-containing effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the object of heightened interest as a potent oncogene and stemness factor. YAP has two major isoforms that differ in the number of WW domains they harbor. Elucidating the degree of co-operation between these WW domains is important for a full understanding of the molecular function of YAP. We present here a detailed biophysical study of the structural stability and binding properties of the two YAP WW domains aimed at investigating the relationship between both domains in terms of structural stability and partner recognition. We have carried out a calorimetric study of the structural stability of the two YAP WW domains, both isolated and in a tandem configuration, and their interaction with a set of functionally relevant ligands derived from PTCH1 and LATS kinases. We find that the two YAP WW domains behave as independent units with different binding preferences, suggesting that the presence of the second WW domain might contribute to modulate target recognition between the two YAP isoforms. Analysis of structural models and phage-display studies indicate that electrostatic interactions play a critical role in binding specificity. Together, these results are relevant to understand of YAP function and open the door to the design of highly specific ligands of interest to delineate the functional role of each WW domain in YAP signaling.

  10. The HGF Receptor c-Met Is Overexpressed in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Herrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor, Met, has established oncogenic properties; however, its expression and function in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA remain poorly understood. We aimed to determine the expression and potential alterations in Met expression in EA. Met expression was investigated in surgical specimens of EA, Barrett's esophagus (BE, and normal esophagus (NE using immunohistochemistry (IHC and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Met expression, phosphorylation, and the effect of COX-2 inhibition on expression were examined in EA cell lines. IHC demonstrated intense Met immunoreactivity in all (100% EA and dysplastic BE specimens. In contrast, minimal immunostaining was observed in BE without dysplasia or NE specimens. Met mRNA and protein levels were increased in three EA cell lines, and Met protein was phosphorylated in the absence of serum. Sequence analysis found the kinase domain of c-met to be wild type in all three EA cell lines. HGF mRNA expression was identified in two EA cell lines. In COX-2-overexpressing cells, COX-2 inhibition decreased Met expression. Met is consistently overexpressed in EA surgical specimens and in three EA cell lines. Met dysregulation occurs early in Barrett's dysplasia to adenocarcinoma sequence. Future study of Met inhibition as a potential biologic therapy for EA is warranted.

  11. HCV NS5A protein containing potential ligands for both Src homology 2 and 3 domains enhances autophosphorylation of Src family kinase Fyn in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kenji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Horiguchi, Tomoko; Sun, Xuedong; Deng, Lin; Shoji, Ikuo; Hotta, Hak; Sada, Kiyonao

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects B lymphocytes and induces mixed cryoglobulinemia and B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of HCV infection-mediated B cell disorders remains obscure. To identify the possible role for HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein in B cells, we generated the stable B cell lines expressing Myc-His tagged NS5A. Immunoprecipitation study in the presence or absence of pervanadate (PV) implied that NS5A was tyrosine phosphorylated by pervanadate (PV) treatment of the cells. Therefore we examined pull-down assay by using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins of various Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, which associates with phosphotyrosine within a specific amino acid sequence. The results showed that NS5A specifically bound to SH2 domain of Fyn from PV-treated B cells in addition to Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Substitution of Arg(176) to Lys in the SH2 domain of Fyn abrogated this interaction. Deletion mutational analysis demonstrated that N-terminal region of NS5A was not required for the interaction with the SH2 domain of Fyn. Tyr(334) was identified as a tyrosine phosphorylation site in NS5A. Far-western analysis revealed that SH2 domain of Fyn directly bound to NS5A. Fyn and NS5A were colocalized in the lipid raft. These results suggest that NS5A directly binds to the SH2 domain of Fyn in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. Lastly, we showed that the expression of NS5A in B cells increased phosphorylation of activation loop tyrosine in the kinase domain of Fyn. NS5A containing ligand for both SH2 and SH3 domains enhances an aberrant autophosphorylation and kinase activity of Fyn in B cells.

  12. HCV NS5A protein containing potential ligands for both Src homology 2 and 3 domains enhances autophosphorylation of Src family kinase Fyn in B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakashima

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infects B lymphocytes and induces mixed cryoglobulinemia and B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of HCV infection-mediated B cell disorders remains obscure. To identify the possible role for HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A protein in B cells, we generated the stable B cell lines expressing Myc-His tagged NS5A. Immunoprecipitation study in the presence or absence of pervanadate (PV implied that NS5A was tyrosine phosphorylated by pervanadate (PV treatment of the cells. Therefore we examined pull-down assay by using glutathione S-transferase (GST-fusion proteins of various Src homology 2 (SH2 domains, which associates with phosphotyrosine within a specific amino acid sequence. The results showed that NS5A specifically bound to SH2 domain of Fyn from PV-treated B cells in addition to Src homology 3 (SH3 domain. Substitution of Arg(176 to Lys in the SH2 domain of Fyn abrogated this interaction. Deletion mutational analysis demonstrated that N-terminal region of NS5A was not required for the interaction with the SH2 domain of Fyn. Tyr(334 was identified as a tyrosine phosphorylation site in NS5A. Far-western analysis revealed that SH2 domain of Fyn directly bound to NS5A. Fyn and NS5A were colocalized in the lipid raft. These results suggest that NS5A directly binds to the SH2 domain of Fyn in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. Lastly, we showed that the expression of NS5A in B cells increased phosphorylation of activation loop tyrosine in the kinase domain of Fyn. NS5A containing ligand for both SH2 and SH3 domains enhances an aberrant autophosphorylation and kinase activity of Fyn in B cells.

  13. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase by nerve growth factor involves indirect coupling of the trk proto-oncogene with src homology 2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, M; Decker, S J; Saltiel, A R

    1992-10-01

    Growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases can form stable associations with intracellular proteins that contain src homology (SH) 2 domains, including the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase. The activation of this enzyme by growth factors is evaluated in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts expressing the pp140c-trk nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor (3T3-c-trk). NGF causes the rapid stimulation of PI-3 kinase activity detected in anti-phosphotyrosine, but not in anti-trk, immunoprecipitates. This effect coincides with the tyrosine phosphorylation of two proteins, with molecular masses of of 100 kd and 110 kd, that coimmunoprecipitate with p85. Similar phosphorylation patterns are induced when an immobilized fusion protein containing the amino-terminal SH2 domain of p85 is used to precipitate tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Thus, although NGF produces the rapid activation of PI-3 kinase through a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation, there is no evidence for tyrosine phosphorylation of p85, or for its ligand-dependent association with the NGF receptor. Perhaps another phosphoprotein may link the NGF receptor to this enzyme.

  14. Small-angle scattering studies show distinct conformations of calmodulin in its complexes with two peptides based on the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trewhella, J.; Blumenthal, D.K.; Rokop, S.E.; Seeger, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to study the solution structures of calmodulin complexed with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 342-366 and 301-326, designated PhK5 and PhK13, respectively, in the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase. The scattering data show that binding of PhK5 to calmodulin induces a dramatic contraction of calmodulin, similar to that previously observed when calmodulin is complexed with the calmodulin-binding domain peptide from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. In contrast, calmodulin remains extended upon binding PhK13. In the presence of both peptides, calmodulin also remains extended. Apparently, the presence of PhK13 inhibits calmodulin from undergoing the PhK5-induced contraction. These data indicate that there is a fundamentally different type of calmodulin-target enzyme interaction in the case of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase compared with that for myosin light chain kinase

  15. Recognition of peptidoglycan and beta-lactam antibiotics by the extracellular domain of the Ser/Thr protein kinase StkP from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maestro, B.; Nováková, Linda; Hesek, D.; Lee, M.; Leyva, E.; Mobashery, S.; Sanz, J.M.; Branny, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 585, č. 2 (2011), s. 357-363 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/07/P082; GA ČR GA204/08/0783; GA AV ČR IAA600200801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Signal transduction * Penicillin-binding protein and Ser/Thr protein kinase-associated domain * Peptidoglycan Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.538, year: 2011

  16. Application of oxime-diversification to optimize ligand interactions within a cryptic pocket of the polo-like kinase 1 polo-box domain | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    By a process involving initial screening of a set of 87 aldehydes using an oxime ligation-based strategy, we were able to achieve a several-fold affinity enhancement over one of the most potent previously known polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo-box domain (PBD) binding inhibitors. This improved binding may result by accessing a newly identified auxiliary region proximal to a key

  17. Peptoid–Peptide Hybrid Ligands Targeting the Polo Box Domain of Polo-Like Kinase 1k | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cover picture shows the binding of a PLHSpT derivative, 6q, to the polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo-box domain (PBD), thereby uncovering a new hydrophobic channel (magnified upper right), which is absent in the unliganded protein (magnified lower left). The authors explain how, as a consequence of the additional interaction with the channel, the peptide binds to the Plk1 PBD

  18. Serine 77 in the PDZ domain of PICK1 is a protein kinase Cα phosphorylation site regulated by lipid membrane binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) contains an N-terminal protein binding PDZ domain and a C-terminal lipid binding BAR domain. PICK1 plays a key role in several physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms governing the a...... lipid binding and/or polymerization capacity. We propose that PICK1 is phosphorylated at Ser77 by PKCα preferentially when bound to membrane vesicles and that this phosphorylation in turn modulates its cellular distribution....

  19. Alcohol binding in the C1 (C1A + C1B) domain of protein kinase C epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pany, Satyabrata; Das, Joydip

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol regulates the expression and function of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). In a previous study we identified an alcohol binding site in the C1B, one of the twin C1 subdomains of PKCε. Methods In this study, we investigated alcohol binding in the entire C1 domain (combined C1A and C1B) of PKCε. Fluorescent phorbol ester, SAPD and fluorescent diacylglycerol (DAG) analog, dansyl-DAG were used to study the effect of ethanol, butanol, and octanol on the ligand binding using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). To identify alcohol binding site(s), PKCεC1 was photolabeled with 3-azibutanol and 3-azioctanol, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of alcohols and the azialcohols on PKCε were studied in NG108-15 cells. Results In the presence of alcohol, SAPD and dansyl-DAG showed different extent of FRET, indicating differential effects of alcohol on the C1A and C1B subdomains. Effects of alcohols and azialcohols on PKCε in NG108-15 cells were comparable. Azialcohols labeled Tyr-176 of C1A and Tyr-250 of C1B. Inspection of the model structure of PKCεC1 reveals that these residues are 40 Å apart from each other indicating that these residues form two different alcohol binding sites. Conclusions The present results provide evidence for the presence of multiple alcohol-binding sites on PKCε and underscore the importance of targeting this PKC isoform in developing alcohol antagonists. PMID:26210390

  20. SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 and focal adhesion kinase protein interactions regulate pulmonary endothelium barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichger, Havovi; Braza, Julie; Duong, Huetran; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced protein tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with changes in vascular permeability through formation and dissolution of adherens junctions and regulation of stress fiber formation. Inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphorylase SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) increases tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin and β-catenin, resulting in disruption of the endothelial monolayer and edema formation in the pulmonary endothelium. Vascular permeability is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI); thus, enhanced SHP2 activity offers potential therapeutic value for the pulmonary vasculature in diseases such as ALI, but this has not been characterized. To assess whether SHP2 activity mediates protection against edema in the endothelium, we assessed the effect of molecular activation of SHP2 on lung endothelial barrier function in response to the edemagenic agents LPS and thrombin. Both LPS and thrombin reduced SHP2 activity, correlated with decreased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation (Y(397) and Y(925)) and diminished SHP2 protein-protein associations with FAK. Overexpression of constitutively active SHP2 (SHP2(D61A)) enhanced baseline endothelial monolayer resistance and completely blocked LPS- and thrombin-induced permeability in vitro and significantly blunted pulmonary edema formation induced by either endotoxin (LPS) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposure in vivo. Chemical inhibition of FAK decreased SHP2 protein-protein interactions with FAK concomitant with increased permeability; however, overexpression of SHP2(D61A) rescued the endothelium and maintained FAK activity and FAK-SHP2 protein interactions. Our data suggest that SHP2 activation offers the pulmonary endothelium protection against barrier permeability mediators downstream of the FAK signaling pathway. We postulate that further studies into the promotion of SHP2 activation in the pulmonary endothelium may offer a therapeutic approach for patients

  1. Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Duanwu; Lin, Juan; Han, Jiahuai

    2010-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases are a group of threonine/serine protein kinases with a relatively conserved kinase domain but distinct non-kinase regions. A number of different domain structures, such as death and caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domains, were found in different RIP family members, and these domains should be keys in determining the specific function of each RIP kinase. It is known that RIP kinases participate in different biological processes, incl...

  2. Anomalous inhibition of c-Met by the kinesin inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Mina; Radtke, Simone; Peel, Nick; Howell, Michael; Carrière, Virginie; Joffre, Carine; Kermorgant, Stéphanie; Parker, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    c-Met [the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor] is a receptor tyrosine kinase playing a role in various biological events. Overexpression of the receptor has been observed in a number of cancers, correlating with increased metastatic tendency and poor prognosis. Additionally, activating mutations in c-Met kinase domain have been reported in a subset of familial cancers causing resistance to treatment. Receptor trafficking, relying on the integrity of the microtubule network, plays an important role in activation of downstream targets and initiation of signalling events. Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) is a triphenylmethane derivative that has been reported to inhibit microtubule motor proteins kinesins. Additional reported properties of this inhibitor include inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases, nucleases and members of the Jak family. Here we demonstrate that ATA prevents HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation, internalisation, subsequent receptor trafficking and degradation. In addition, ATA prevented HGF-induced downstream signalling which also affected cellular function, as assayed by collective cell migration of A549 cells. Surprisingly, the inhibitory effect of ATA on HGF-induced phosphorylation and signalling in vivo was associated with an increase in basal c-Met kinase activity in vitro. It is concluded that the inhibitory effects of ATA on c-Met in vivo is an allosteric effect mediated through the kinase domain of the receptor. As the currently tested adenosine triphosphate competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may lead to tumor resistance (McDermott U, et al., Cancer Res 2010;70:1625-34), our findings suggest that novel anti-c-Met therapies could be developed in the future for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  3. Mutational analysis of EGFR and related signaling pathway genes in lung adenocarcinomas identifies a novel somatic kinase domain mutation in FGFR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer L Marks

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifty percent of lung adenocarcinomas harbor somatic mutations in six genes that encode proteins in the EGFR signaling pathway, i.e., EGFR, HER2/ERBB2, HER4/ERBB4, PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS. We performed mutational profiling of a large cohort of lung adenocarcinomas to uncover other potential somatic mutations in genes of this signaling pathway that could contribute to lung tumorigenesis.We analyzed genomic DNA from a total of 261 resected, clinically annotated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC specimens. The coding sequences of 39 genes were screened for somatic mutations via high-throughput dideoxynucleotide sequencing of PCR-amplified gene products. Mutations were considered to be somatic only if they were found in an independent tumor-derived PCR product but not in matched normal tissue. Sequencing of 9MB of tumor sequence identified 239 putative genetic variants. We further examined 22 variants found in RAS family genes and 135 variants localized to exons encoding the kinase domain of respective proteins. We identified a total of 37 non-synonymous somatic mutations; 36 were found collectively in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA. One somatic mutation was a previously unreported mutation in the kinase domain (exon 16 of FGFR4 (Glu681Lys, identified in 1 of 158 tumors. The FGFR4 mutation is analogous to a reported tumor-specific somatic mutation in ERBB2 and is located in the same exon as a previously reported kinase domain mutation in FGFR4 (Pro712Thr in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line.This study is one of the first comprehensive mutational analyses of major genes in a specific signaling pathway in a sizeable cohort of lung adenocarcinomas. Our results suggest the majority of gain-of-function mutations within kinase genes in the EGFR signaling pathway have already been identified. Our findings also implicate FGFR4 in the pathogenesis of a subset of lung adenocarcinomas.

  4. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity......S phosphorylation can be carried out by at least two B. subtilis Hanks-type kinases in vitro, and this stimulates the phosphate transfer towards DegU. The consequences of this process were studied in vivo, using phosphomimetic (Ser76Asp) and non-phosphorylatable (Ser76Ala) mutants of DegS. In a number...

  5. Computational analysis of phosphopeptide binding to the polo-box domain of the mitotic kinase PLK1 using molecular dynamics simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Huggins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1 acts as a central regulator of mitosis and is over-expressed in a wide range of human tumours where high levels of expression correlate with a poor prognosis. PLK1 comprises two structural elements, a kinase domain and a polo-box domain (PBD. The PBD binds phosphorylated substrates to control substrate phosphorylation by the kinase domain. Although the PBD preferentially binds to phosphopeptides, it has a relatively broad sequence specificity in comparison with other phosphopeptide binding domains. We analysed the molecular determinants of recognition by performing molecular dynamics simulations of the PBD with one of its natural substrates, CDC25c. Predicted binding free energies were calculated using a molecular mechanics, Poisson-Boltzmann surface area approach. We calculated the per-residue contributions to the binding free energy change, showing that the phosphothreonine residue and the mainchain account for the vast majority of the interaction energy. This explains the very broad sequence specificity with respect to other sidechain residues. Finally, we considered the key role of bridging water molecules at the binding interface. We employed inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory to consider the free energy of water molecules on the protein surface with respect to bulk water molecules. Such an analysis highlights binding hotspots created by elimination of water molecules from hydrophobic surfaces. It also predicts that a number of water molecules are stabilized by the presence of the charged phosphate group, and that this will have a significant effect on the binding affinity. Our findings suggest a molecular rationale for the promiscuous binding of the PBD and highlight a role for bridging water molecules at the interface. We expect that this method of analysis will be very useful for probing other protein surfaces to identify binding hotspots for natural binding partners and small molecule inhibitors.

  6. The extracytoplasmic domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB binds specific muropeptides and is required for PknB localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mushtaq; Asong, Jinkeng; Li, Xiuru; Cardot, Jessica; Boons, Geert-Jan; Husson, Robert N

    2011-07-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and morphology in this organism. The extracytoplasmic domain of this membrane protein comprises four penicillin binding protein and Ser/Thr kinase associated (PASTA) domains, which are predicted to bind stem peptides of peptidoglycan. Using a comprehensive library of synthetic muropeptides, we demonstrate that the extracytoplasmic domain of PknB binds muropeptides in a manner dependent on the presence of specific amino acids at the second and third positions of the stem peptide, and on the presence of the sugar moiety N-acetylmuramic acid linked to the peptide. We further show that PknB localizes strongly to the mid-cell and also to the cell poles, and that the extracytoplasmic domain is required for PknB localization. In contrast to strong growth stimulation by conditioned medium, we observe no growth stimulation of M. tuberculosis by a synthetic muropeptide with high affinity for the PknB PASTAs. We do find a moderate effect of a high affinity peptide on resuscitation of dormant cells. While the PASTA domains of PknB may play a role in stimulating growth by binding exogenous peptidoglycan fragments, our data indicate that a major function of these domains is for proper PknB localization, likely through binding of peptidoglycan fragments produced locally at the mid-cell and the cell poles. These data suggest a model in which PknB is targeted to the sites of peptidoglycan turnover to regulate cell growth and cell division.

  7. The extracytoplasmic domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB binds specific muropeptides and is required for PknB localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Mir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and morphology in this organism. The extracytoplasmic domain of this membrane protein comprises four penicillin binding protein and Ser/Thr kinase associated (PASTA domains, which are predicted to bind stem peptides of peptidoglycan. Using a comprehensive library of synthetic muropeptides, we demonstrate that the extracytoplasmic domain of PknB binds muropeptides in a manner dependent on the presence of specific amino acids at the second and third positions of the stem peptide, and on the presence of the sugar moiety N-acetylmuramic acid linked to the peptide. We further show that PknB localizes strongly to the mid-cell and also to the cell poles, and that the extracytoplasmic domain is required for PknB localization. In contrast to strong growth stimulation by conditioned medium, we observe no growth stimulation of M. tuberculosis by a synthetic muropeptide with high affinity for the PknB PASTAs. We do find a moderate effect of a high affinity peptide on resuscitation of dormant cells. While the PASTA domains of PknB may play a role in stimulating growth by binding exogenous peptidoglycan fragments, our data indicate that a major function of these domains is for proper PknB localization, likely through binding of peptidoglycan fragments produced locally at the mid-cell and the cell poles. These data suggest a model in which PknB is targeted to the sites of peptidoglycan turnover to regulate cell growth and cell division.

  8. Cooperativity in the two-domain arginine kinase from the sea anemone Anthopleura japonicus. II. Evidence from site-directed mutagenesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2010-08-01

    The arginine kinase (AK) from the sea anemone Anthopleura japonicus has an unusual two-domain structure (contiguous dimer; denoted by D1-D2). In a previous report, we suggested cooperativity in the contiguous dimer, which may be a result of domain-domain interactions, using MBP-fused enzymes. To further understand this observation, we inserted six-Lys residues into the linker region of the two-domain AK (D1-K6-D2 mutant) using His-tagged enzyme. The dissociation constants, K(a) and K(ia), of the mutant were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme but the catalytic constant, k(cat), was decreased to 28% that of the wild-type, indicating that some of the domain-domain interactions are lost due to the six-Lys insertion. Y68 plays a major role in arginine binding in the catalytic pocket in Limulus AK, and introduction of mutation at the Y68 position virtually abolishes catalytic activity. Thus, the constructed D1(Y68G)-D2 and D1-D2(Y68G) mutants mimic the D1(inactive)-D2(active) and D1(active)-D2(inactive) enzymes, respectively. The k(cat) values of both Y68 mutants were decreased to 13-18% that of the wild-type enzyme, which is much less than the 50% level of the two-domain enzyme. Thus, it is clear that substrate-binding to both domains is necessary for full expression of activity. In other words, substrate-binding appears to act as the trigger of the functional cooperativity in two-domain AK. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The PAS domains of the major sporulation kinase in Bacillus subtilis play a role in tetramer formation that is essential for the autokinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehler, Brittany; Haggett, Lindsey; Fujita, Masaya

    2017-08-01

    Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is induced upon starvation. In a widely accepted model, an N-terminal "sensor" domain of the major sporulation kinase KinA recognizes a hypothetical starvation signal(s) and autophosphorylates a histidine residue to activate the master regulator Spo0A via a multicomponent phosphorelay. However, to date no confirmed signal has been found. Here, we demonstrated that PAS-A, the most N-terminal of the three PAS domains (PAS-ABC), is dispensable for the activity, contrary to a previous report. Our data indicated that the autokinase activity is dependent on the formation of a functional tetramer, which is mediated by, at least, PAS-B and PAS-C. Additionally, we ruled out the previously proposed notion that NAD + /NADH ratio controls KinA activity through the PAS-A domain by demonstrating that the cofactors show no effects on the kinase activity in vitro. In support of these data, we found that the cofactors exist in approximately 1000-fold excess of KinA in the cell and the cofactors' ratio does not change significantly during growth and sporulation, suggesting that changes in the cofactor ratio might not play a role in controlling KinA activity. These data may refute the widely-held belief that the activity of KinA is regulated in response to an unknown starvation signal(s). © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Structure of lipid kinase p110β/p85β elucidates an unusual SH2-domain-mediated inhibitory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuxiao; Vadas, Oscar; Perisic, Olga; Anderson, Karen E; Clark, Jonathan; Hawkins, Phillip T; Stephens, Len R; Williams, Roger L

    2011-03-04

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are essential for cell growth, migration, and survival. The structure of a p110β/p85β complex identifies an inhibitory function for the C-terminal SH2 domain (cSH2) of the p85 regulatory subunit. Mutagenesis of a cSH2 contact residue activates downstream signaling in cells. This inhibitory contact ties up the C-terminal region of the p110β catalytic subunit, which is essential for lipid kinase activity. In vitro, p110β basal activity is tightly restrained by contacts with three p85 domains: the cSH2, nSH2, and iSH2. RTK phosphopeptides relieve inhibition by nSH2 and cSH2 using completely different mechanisms. The binding site for the RTK's pYXXM motif is exposed on the cSH2, requiring an extended RTK motif to reach and disrupt the inhibitory contact with p110β. This contrasts with the nSH2 where the pY-binding site itself forms the inhibitory contact. This establishes an unusual mechanism by which p85 SH2 domains contribute to RTK signaling specificities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Roles for SH2 and SH3 domains in Lyn kinase association with activated FcepsilonRI in RBL mast cells revealed by patterned surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Stephanie; Wagenknecht-Wiesner, Alice; Veatch, Sarah L; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    In mast cells, antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE bound to its high-affinity surface receptor, FcepsilonRI, initiates a signaling cascade that culminates in degranulation and release of allergic mediators. Antigen-patterned surfaces, in which the antigen is deposited in micron-sized features on a silicon substrate, were used to examine the spatial relationship between clustered IgE-FcepsilonRI complexes and Lyn, the signal-initiating tyrosine kinase. RBL mast cells expressing wild-type Lyn-EGFP showed co-redistribution of this protein with clustered IgE receptors on antigen-patterned surfaces, whereas Lyn-EGFP containing an inhibitory point mutation in its SH2 domain did not significantly accumulate with the patterned antigen, and Lyn-EGFP with an inhibitory point mutation in its SH3 domain exhibited reduced interactions. Our results using antigen-patterned surfaces and quantitative cross-correlation image analysis reveal that both the SH2 and SH3 domains contribute to interactions between Lyn kinase and cross-linked IgE receptors in stimulated mast cells.

  12. Expression, purification and preliminary biochemical and structural characterization of the leucine rich repeat namesake domain of leucine rich repeat kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancraenenbroeck, Renée; Lobbestael, Evy; Weeks, Stephen D; Strelkov, Sergei V; Baekelandt, Veerle; Taymans, Jean-Marc; De Maeyer, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease. Much research effort has been directed towards the catalytic core region of LRRK2 composed of GTPase (ROC, Ras of complex proteins) and kinase domains and a connecting COR (C-terminus of ROC) domain. In contrast, the precise functions of the protein-protein interaction domains, such as the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, are not known. In the present study, we modeled the LRRK2 LRR domain (LRR(LRRK2)) using a template assembly approach, revealing the presence of 14 LRRs. Next, we focused on the expression and purification of LRR(LRRK2) in Escherichia coli. Buffer optimization revealed that the protein requires the presence of a zwitterionic detergent, namely Empigen BB, during solubilization and the subsequent purification and characterization steps. This indicates that the detergent captures the hydrophobic surface patches of LRR(LRRK2) thereby suppressing its aggregation. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy measured 18% α-helices and 21% β-sheets, consistent with predictions from the homology model. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and dynamic light scattering measurements showed the presence of a single species, with a Stokes radius corresponding to the model dimensions of a protein monomer. Furthermore, no obvious LRR(LRRK2) multimerization was detected via cross-linking studies. Finally, the LRR(LRRK2) clinical mutations did not influence LRR(LRRK2) secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure as determined via SEC and CD spectroscopy. We therefore conclude that these mutations are likely to affect putative LRR(LRRK2) inter- and intramolecular interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Binding of influenza A virus NS1 protein to the inter-SH2 domain of p85 suggests a novel mechanism for phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Benjamin G; Batty, Ian H; Downes, C Peter; Randall, Richard E

    2008-01-18

    Influenza A virus NS1 protein stimulates host-cell phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling by binding to the p85beta regulatory subunit of PI3K. Here, in an attempt to establish a mechanism for this activation, we report further on the functional interaction between NS1 and p85beta. Complex formation was found to be independent of NS1 RNA binding activity and is mediated by the C-terminal effector domain of NS1. Intriguingly, the primary direct binding site for NS1 on p85beta is the inter-SH2 domain, a coiled-coil structure that acts as a scaffold for the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K. In vitro kinase activity assays, together with protein binding competition studies, reveal that NS1 does not displace p110 from the inter-SH2 domain, and indicate that NS1 can form an active heterotrimeric complex with PI3K. In addition, it was established that residues at the C terminus of the inter-SH2 domain are essential for mediating the interaction between p85beta and NS1. Equivalent residues in p85alpha have previously been implicated in the basal inhibition of p110. However, such p85alpha residues were unable to substitute for those in p85beta with regards NS1 binding. Overall, these data suggest a model by which NS1 activates PI3K catalytic activity by masking a normal regulatory element specific to the p85beta inter-SH2 domain.

  14. Application of oxime-diversification to optimize ligand interactions within a cryptic pocket of the polo-like kinase 1 polo-box domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Zhi; Hymel, David; Burke, Terrence R

    2016-10-15

    By a process involving initial screening of a set of 87 aldehydes using an oxime ligation-based strategy, we were able to achieve a several-fold affinity enhancement over one of the most potent previously known polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo-box domain (PBD) binding inhibitors. This improved binding may result by accessing a newly identified auxiliary region proximal to a key hydrophobic cryptic pocket on the surface of the protein. Our findings could have general applicability to the design of PBD-binding antagonists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Purification, crystallization, small-angle X-ray scattering and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the SH2 domain of the Csk-homologous kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Natalie J; Gorman, Michael A; Dobson, Renwick C J; Parker, Michael W; Mulhern, Terrence D

    2011-03-01

    The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk-homologous kinase (CHK) are endogenous inhibitors of the proto-oncogenic Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Phosphotyrosyl peptide binding to their Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains activates Csk and CHK, enhancing their ability to suppress SFK signalling; however, the detailed mechanistic basis of this activation event is unclear. The CHK SH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was characterized as monomeric by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering in-line with size-exclusion chromatography. The CHK SH2 crystallized in 0.2 M sodium bromide, 0.1 M bis-Tris propane pH 6.5 and 20% polyethylene glycol 3350 and the best crystals diffracted to ∼1.6 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a=25.8, b=34.6, c=63.2 Å, β=99.4°.

  16. Contributions of F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase for coupling to the FcepsilonRI pathway in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Victor A; Everingham, Stephanie; Karisch, Robert; Smith, Julie A; Udell, Christian M; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao; Craig, Andrew W B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of Fer-CIP4 homology (FCH)-Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase in regulating its activation and signaling downstream of the high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgE) receptor (FcepsilonRI) in mast cells. Homology modeling of the Fes F-BAR domain revealed conservation of some basic residues implicated in phosphoinositide binding (R113/K114). The Fes F-BAR can bind phosphoinositides and induce tubulation of liposomes in vitro. Mutation of R113/K114 to uncharged residues (RK/QQ) caused a significant reduction in phosphoinositide binding in vitro and a more diffuse cytoplasmic localization in transfected COS-7 cells. RBL-2H3 mast cells expressing full-length Fes carrying the RK/QQ mutation show defects in FcepsilonRI-induced Fes tyrosine phosphorylation and degranulation compared to cells expressing wild-type Fes. This correlated with reduced localization to Lyn kinase-containing membrane fractions for the RK/QQ mutant compared to wild-type Fes in mast cells. The Fes SH2 domain also contributes to Fes signaling in mast cells, via interactions with the phosphorylated FcepsilonRI beta chain and the actin regulatory protein HS1. We show that Fes phosphorylates C-terminal tyrosine residues in HS1 implicated in actin stabilization. Thus, coordinated actions of the F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes allow for coupling to FcepsilonRI signaling and potential regulation the actin reorganization in mast cells.

  17. Characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk, a bifunctional DNA/RNA end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2',3' -phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5' -OH polynucleotide kinase domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Annum; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-11-28

    5' and 3' end healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5' -OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase and 3' -PO 4 or 2',3' -cyclic-PO 4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate the 5' -PO 4 and 3' -OH termini required for sealing by classic polynucleotide ligases. End healing and sealing enzymes are present in diverse bacterial taxa, often organized as modular units within a single multifunctional polypeptide or as subunits of a repair complex. Here we identify and characterize Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as a novel bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2',3' -phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5' -OH polynucleotide kinase P-loop domain. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5' -OH polynucleotides (9-mers or longer) in the presence of magnesium and any NTP donor. HD-Pnk dephosphorylates RNA 2',3' -cyclic phosphate, RNA 3' -phosphate, RNA 2' -phosphate, and DNA 3' -phosphate ends in the presence of a transition metal cofactor, which can be nickel, copper or cobalt. HD-Pnkp homologs are present in genera from eleven bacterial phyla and are often encoded in an operon with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase. The present study provides insights to the diversity of nucleic acid repair strategies via the characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnkp as the exemplar of a novel clade of dual 5' and 3' end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5' -OH termini and dephosphorylate 2',3' -cyclic-PO 4 , 3' -PO 4 , and 2' -PO 4 ends. The distinctive feature of HD-Pnk is its domain composition: a fusion of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module to a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Homologs of Runella HD-Pnk with the same domain composition, domain order, and similar polypeptide size are distributed widely among genera from eleven bacterial phyla. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Crystallization of the glycogen-binding domain of the AMP-activated protein kinase β subunit and preliminary X-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polekhina, Galina, E-mail: gpolekhina@svi.edu.au; Feil, Susanne C.; Gupta, Abhilasha [St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); O’Donnell, Paul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Stapleton, David; Parker, Michael W. [St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2005-01-01

    The glycogen-binding domain of the AMP-activated kinase β subunit has been crystallized in the presence of β-cyclodextrin. The structure has been determined by single isomorphous replacement and threefold averaging using in-house X-ray data collected from selenomethionine-substituted protein. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular energy sensor that regulates metabolism in response to energy demand and supply by adjusting the ATP-generating and ATP-consuming pathways. AMPK potentially plays a critical role in diabetes and obesity as it is known to be activated by metforin and rosiglitazone, drugs used for the treatment of type II diabetes. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of a catalytic α subunit and two regulatory subunits, β and γ. Mutations in the γ subunit are known to cause glycogen accumulation, leading to cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, a functional glycogen-binding domain (GBD) has been identified in the β subunit. Here, the crystallization of GBD in the presence of β-cyclodextrin is reported together with preliminary X-ray data analysis allowing the determination of the structure by single isomorphous replacement and threefold averaging using in-house X-ray data collected from a selenomethionine-substituted protein.

  19. Crystallization of the glycogen-binding domain of the AMP-activated protein kinase β subunit and preliminary X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polekhina, Galina; Feil, Susanne C.; Gupta, Abhilasha; O’Donnell, Paul; Stapleton, David; Parker, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    The glycogen-binding domain of the AMP-activated kinase β subunit has been crystallized in the presence of β-cyclodextrin. The structure has been determined by single isomorphous replacement and threefold averaging using in-house X-ray data collected from selenomethionine-substituted protein. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular energy sensor that regulates metabolism in response to energy demand and supply by adjusting the ATP-generating and ATP-consuming pathways. AMPK potentially plays a critical role in diabetes and obesity as it is known to be activated by metforin and rosiglitazone, drugs used for the treatment of type II diabetes. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of a catalytic α subunit and two regulatory subunits, β and γ. Mutations in the γ subunit are known to cause glycogen accumulation, leading to cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, a functional glycogen-binding domain (GBD) has been identified in the β subunit. Here, the crystallization of GBD in the presence of β-cyclodextrin is reported together with preliminary X-ray data analysis allowing the determination of the structure by single isomorphous replacement and threefold averaging using in-house X-ray data collected from a selenomethionine-substituted protein

  20. Scaffold hopping from (5-hydroxymethyl) isophthalates to multisubstituted pyrimidines diminishes binding affinity to the C1 domain of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzani, Riccardo; Tarvainen, Ilari; Brandoli, Giulia; Lempinen, Antti; Artes, Sanna; Turku, Ainoleena; Jäntti, Maria Helena; Talman, Virpi; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Tuominen, Raimo K; Boije Af Gennäs, Gustav

    2018-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms play a pivotal role in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, making them extensively studied and highly attractive drug targets. Utilizing the crystal structure of the PKCδ C1B domain, we have developed hydrophobic isophthalic acid derivatives that modify PKC functions by binding to the C1 domain of the enzyme. In the present study, we aimed to improve the drug-like properties of the isophthalic acid derivatives by increasing their solubility and enhancing the binding affinity. Here we describe the design and synthesis of a series of multisubstituted pyrimidines as analogs of C1 domain-targeted isophthalates and characterize their binding affinities to the PKCα isoform. In contrast to our computational predictions, the scaffold hopping from phenyl to pyrimidine core diminished the binding affinity. Although the novel pyrimidines did not establish improved binding affinity for PKCα compared to our previous isophthalic acid derivatives, the present results provide useful structure-activity relationship data for further development of ligands targeted to the C1 domain of PKC.

  1. Computational dissection of allosteric inhibition of the SH2 domain of Bcr-Abl kinase by the monobody inhibitor AS25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mingfei; Zheng, Guodong; Li, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhongqin; Jv, Guanqun; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Jialin

    2017-06-01

    The deregulated breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) fusion protein represents an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The high affinity of monobody AS25 was designed to target the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Bcr-Abl, leading to allosteric inhibition of Bcr-Abl through formation of protein-protein interactions. An I164E mutation in the SH2 domain disrupts AS25 binding to the SH2 domain of Bcr-Abl. The detailed mechanisms, however, remain to be unresolved. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations were performed to explore the conformational and energetic differences between the wild-type (WT) complexes of Bcr-Abl SH2 domain and AS25 (SH2 WT -AS25) as well as the mutated complexes (SH2 I164E -AS25). The results revealed that I164E mutation not only caused an increase in the conformational flexibility of SH2-AS25 complexes, but also weakened the binding affinity of AS25 to SH2. The comparative binding modes of SH2-AS25 complexes between WT and the I164E mutant were comprehensively analyzed to unravel the disruption of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions in the interface of the SH2-AS25 complex triggered by the I164E mutation. The results obtained may help to design the next generation of higher affinity Bcr-Abl SH2-specific peptide inhibitors.

  2. The TRPM6 Kinase Domain Determines the Mg·ATP Sensitivity of TRPM7/M6 Heteromeric Ion Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Haijie; Huang, Junhao; Faouzi, Malika; Schmitz, Carsten; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential melastatin member 7 (TRPM7) and member 6 (TRPM6) are divalent cation channel kinases essential for magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis in vertebrates. It remains unclear how TRPM6 affects divalent cation transport and whether this involves functional homomeric TRPM6 plasma membrane channels or heteromeric channel assemblies with TRPM7. We show that homomeric TRPM6 is highly sensitive to intracellular free Mg2+ and therefore unlikely to be active at physiological levels of [Mg2+]i. Co-expression of TRPM7 and TRPM6 produces heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels with altered pharmacology and sensitivity to intracellular Mg·ATP compared with homomeric TRPM7. Strikingly, the activity of heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels is independent of intracellular Mg·ATP concentrations, essentially uncoupling channel activity from cellular energy status. Disruption of TRPM6 kinase phosphorylation activity re-introduces Mg·ATP sensitivity to the heteromeric channel similar to that of TRPM7. Thus, TRPM6 modulates the functionality of TRPM7, and the TRPM6 kinase plays a critical role in tuning the phenotype of the TRPM7·M6 channel complex. PMID:24385424

  3. The TRPM6 kinase domain determines the Mg·ATP sensitivity of TRPM7/M6 heteromeric ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Haijie; Huang, Junhao; Faouzi, Malika; Schmitz, Carsten; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2014-02-21

    The transient receptor potential melastatin member 7 (TRPM7) and member 6 (TRPM6) are divalent cation channel kinases essential for magnesium (Mg(2+)) homeostasis in vertebrates. It remains unclear how TRPM6 affects divalent cation transport and whether this involves functional homomeric TRPM6 plasma membrane channels or heteromeric channel assemblies with TRPM7. We show that homomeric TRPM6 is highly sensitive to intracellular free Mg(2+) and therefore unlikely to be active at physiological levels of [Mg(2+)]i. Co-expression of TRPM7 and TRPM6 produces heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels with altered pharmacology and sensitivity to intracellular Mg·ATP compared with homomeric TRPM7. Strikingly, the activity of heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels is independent of intracellular Mg·ATP concentrations, essentially uncoupling channel activity from cellular energy status. Disruption of TRPM6 kinase phosphorylation activity re-introduces Mg·ATP sensitivity to the heteromeric channel similar to that of TRPM7. Thus, TRPM6 modulates the functionality of TRPM7, and the TRPM6 kinase plays a critical role in tuning the phenotype of the TRPM7·M6 channel complex.

  4. Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding domains and lineage-specific duplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dever Thomas E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double-stranded (ds RNA, generated during viral infection, binds and activates the mammalian anti-viral protein kinase PKR, which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general inhibition of protein synthesis. Although PKR-like activity has been described in fish cells, the responsible enzymes eluded molecular characterization until the recent discovery of goldfish and zebrafish PKZ, which contain Z-DNA-binding domains instead of dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs. Fish and amphibian PKR genes have not been described so far. Results Here we report the cloning and identification of 13 PKR genes from 8 teleost fish and amphibian species, including zebrafish, demonstrating the coexistence of PKR and PKZ in this latter species. Analyses of their genomic organization revealed up to three tandemly arrayed PKR genes, which are arranged in head-to-tail orientation. At least five duplications occurred independently in fish and amphibian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the kinase domains of fish PKR genes are more closely related to those of fish PKZ than to the PKR kinase domains of other vertebrate species. The duplication leading to fish PKR and PKZ genes occurred early during teleost fish evolution after the divergence of the tetrapod lineage. While two dsRBDs are found in mammalian and amphibian PKR, one, two or three dsRBDs are present in fish PKR. In zebrafish, both PKR and PKZ were strongly upregulated after immunostimulation with some tissue-specific expression differences. Using genetic and biochemical assays we demonstrate that both zebrafish PKR and PKZ can phosphorylate eIF2α in yeast. Conclusion Considering the important role for PKR in host defense against viruses, the independent duplication and fixation of PKR genes in different lineages probably provided selective advantages by leading to the recognition of an extended spectrum of viral nucleic acid structures, including both ds

  5. Oxidative Unfolding of the Rubredoxin Domain and the Natively Disordered N-terminal Region Regulate the Catalytic Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Kinase G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Matthias; Luo, Qi; Kaila, Ville R I; Dames, Sonja A

    2016-12-30

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis escapes killing in human macrophages by secreting protein kinase G (PknG). PknG intercepts host signaling to prevent fusion of the phagosome engulfing the mycobacteria with the lysosome and, thus, their degradation. The N-terminal NORS (no regulatory secondary structure) region of PknG (approximately residues 1-75) has been shown to play a role in PknG regulation by (auto)phosphorylation, whereas the following rubredoxin-like metal-binding motif (RD, residues ∼74-147) has been shown to interact tightly with the subsequent catalytic domain (approximately residues 148-420) to mediate its redox regulation. Deletions or mutations in NORS or the redox-sensitive RD significantly decrease PknG survival function. Based on combined NMR spectroscopy, in vitro kinase assay, and molecular dynamics simulation data, we provide novel insights into the regulatory roles of the N-terminal regions. The NORS region is indeed natively disordered and rather dynamic. Consistent with most earlier data, autophosphorylation occurs in our assays only when the NORS region is present and, thus, in the NORS region. Phosphorylation of it results only in local conformational changes and does not induce interactions with the subsequent RD. Although the reduced, metal-bound RD makes tight interactions with the following catalytic domain in the published crystal structures, it can also fold in its absence. Our data further suggest that oxidation-induced unfolding of the RD regulates substrate access to the catalytic domain and, thereby, PknG function under different redox conditions, e.g. when exposed to increased levels of reactive oxidative species in host macrophages. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. p56Lck and p59Fyn Regulate CD28 Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Growth Factor Receptor-Bound Protein GRB-2, and T Cell-Specific Protein-Tyrosine Kinase ITK: Implications for T-Cell Costimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Monika; Cai, Yun-Cai; Bunnell, Stephen C.; Heyeck, Stephanie D.; Berg, Leslie J.; Rudd, Christopher E.

    1995-09-01

    T-cell activation requires cooperative signals generated by the T-cell antigen receptor ξ-chain complex (TCRξ-CD3) and the costimulatory antigen CD28. CD28 interacts with three intracellular proteins-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), T cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase ITK (formerly TSK or EMT), and the complex between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 and son of sevenless guanine nucleotide exchange protein (GRB-2-SOS). PI 3-kinase and GRB-2 bind to the CD28 phosphotyrosine-based Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif by means of intrinsic Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains. The requirement for tyrosine phosphorylation of the Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif for SH2 domain binding implicates an intervening protein-tyrosine kinase in the recruitment of PI 3-kinase and GRB-2 by CD28. Candidate kinases include p56Lck, p59Fyn, ξ-chain-associated 70-kDa protein (ZAP-70), and ITK. In this study, we demonstrate in coexpression studies that p56Lck and p59Fyn phosphorylate CD28 primarily at Tyr-191 of the Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif, inducing a 3- to 8-fold increase in p85 (subunit of PI 3-kinase) and GRB-2 SH2 binding to CD28. Phosphatase digestion of CD28 eliminated binding. In contrast to Src kinases, ZAP-70 and ITK failed to induce these events. Further, ITK binding to CD28 was dependent on the presence of p56Lck and is thus likely to act downstream of p56Lck/p59Fyn in a signaling cascade. p56Lck is therefore likely to be a central switch in T-cell activation, with the dual function of regulating CD28-mediated costimulation as well as TCR-CD3-CD4 signaling.

  7. Phorbol ester and hydrogen peroxide synergistically induce the interaction of diacylglycerol kinase gamma with the Src homology 2 and C1 domains of beta2-chimaerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Kai, Masahiro; Imai, Shin-ichi; Kanoh, Hideo; Sakane, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    DGKgamma (diacylglycerol kinase gamma) was reported to interact with beta2-chimaerin, a GAP (GTPase-activating protein) for Rac, in response to epidermal growth factor. Here we found that PMA and H2O2 also induced the interaction of DGKgamma with beta2-chimaerin. It is noteworthy that simultaneous addition of PMA and H2O2 synergistically enhanced the interaction. In this case, PMA was replaceable by DAG (diacylglycerol). The beta2-chimaerin translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane caused by PMA plus H2O2 was further enhanced by the expression of DGKgamma. Moreover, DGKgamma apparently enhanced the beta2-chimaerin GAP activity upon cell stimulation with PMA. PMA was found to be mainly required for a conversion of beta2-chimaerin into an active form. On the other hand, H2O2 was suggested to induce a release of Zn2+ from the C1 domain of beta2-chimaerin. By stepwise deletion analysis, we demonstrated that the SH2 (Src homology 2) and C1 domains of beta2-chimaerin interacted with the N-terminal half of catalytic region of DGKgamma. Unexpectedly, the SH2 domain of beta2-chimaerin contributes to the interaction independently of phosphotyrosine. Taken together, these results suggest that the functional link between DGKgamma and beta2-chimaerin has a broad significance in response to a wide range of cell stimuli. Our work offers a novel mechanism of protein-protein interaction, that is, the phosphotyrosine-independent interaction of the SH2 domain acting in co-operation with the C1 domain.

  8. Electrostatic effects in the folding of the SH3 domain of the c-Src tyrosine kinase: pH-dependence in 3D-domain swapping and amyloid formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Bacarizo

    Full Text Available The SH3 domain of the c-Src tyrosine kinase (c-Src-SH3 aggregates to form intertwined dimers and amyloid fibrils at mild acid pHs. In this work, we show that a single mutation of residue Gln128 of this SH3 domain has a significant effect on: (i its thermal stability; and (ii its propensity to form amyloid fibrils. The Gln128Glu mutant forms amyloid fibrils at neutral pH but not at mild acid pH, while Gln128Lys and Gln128Arg mutants do not form these aggregates under any of the conditions assayed. We have also solved the crystallographic structures of the wild-type (WT and Gln128Glu, Gln128Lys and Gln128Arg mutants from crystals obtained at different pHs. At pH 5.0, crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6₅22 and the asymmetric unit is formed by one chain of the protomer of the c-Src-SH3 domain in an open conformation. At pH 7.0, crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2₁, with two molecules at the asymmetric unit showing the characteristic fold of the SH3 domain. Analysis of these crystallographic structures shows that the residue at position 128 is connected to Glu106 at the diverging β-turn through a cluster of water molecules. Changes in this hydrogen-bond network lead to the displacement of the c-Src-SH3 distal loop, resulting also in conformational changes of Leu100 that might be related to the binding of proline rich motifs. Our findings show that electrostatic interactions and solvation of residues close to the folding nucleation site of the c-Src-SH3 domain might play an important role during the folding reaction and the amyloid fibril formation.

  9. Cloning of a novel phosphotyrosine binding domain containing molecule, Odin, involved in signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A.; Blagoev, B.; Kratchmarova, I.

    2002-01-01

    . Deletion analysis showed that the phosphotyrosine binding domain of Odin is not required for its tyrosine phosphorylation. Overexpression of Odin, but not an unrelated adapter protein, Grb2, inhibited EGF-induced activation of c-Fos promoter. Microinjection of wild-type or a mutant version lacking the PTB...

  10. Time-resolved multimodal analysis of Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain binding in signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwin, Joshua A; Oh, Dongmyung; Curran, Timothy G; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Jia, Lin; White, Forest M; Machida, Kazuya; Yu, Ji; Mayer, Bruce J

    2016-04-12

    While the affinities and specificities of SH2 domain-phosphotyrosine interactions have been well characterized, spatio-temporal changes in phosphosite availability in response to signals, and their impact on recruitment of SH2-containing proteins in vivo, are not well understood. To address this issue, we used three complementary experimental approaches to monitor phosphorylation and SH2 binding in human A431 cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF): 1) phospho-specific mass spectrometry; 2) far-Western blotting; and 3) live cell single-molecule imaging of SH2 membrane recruitment. Far-Western and MS analyses identified both well-established and previously undocumented EGF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and binding events, as well as dynamic changes in binding patterns over time. In comparing SH2 binding site phosphorylation with SH2 domain membrane recruitment in living cells, we found in vivo binding to be much slower. Delayed SH2 domain recruitment correlated with clustering of SH2 domain binding sites on the membrane, consistent with membrane retention via SH2 rebinding.

  11. Rapid Evolution to Blast Crisis Associated with a Q252H ABL1 Kinase Domain Mutation in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. McCarron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A minority of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients express variant transcripts of which the e19a2 BCR-ABL1 fusion is the most common. Instances of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI resistance in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML patients have rarely been reported. A case of e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML is described in whom imatinib resistance, associated with a Q252H ABL1 kinase domain mutation, became apparent soon after initiation of TKI therapy. The patient rapidly transformed to myeloid blast crisis (BC with considerable bone marrow fibrosis and no significant molecular response to a second generation TKI. The clinical course was complicated by comorbidities with the patient rapidly succumbing to advanced disease. This scenario of Q252H-associated TKI resistance with rapid BC transformation has not been previously documented in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML. This case highlights the considerable challenges remaining in the management of TKI-resistant BC CML, particularly in the elderly patient.

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome: association of a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism at tyrosine kinase domain of insulin receptor gene with pathogenesis among lean Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Katsunori; Yahata, Tetsuro; Fujita, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether the insulin receptor (INSR) gene contributes to genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a Japanese population. We ex-amined the frequency of the His 1058 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) found in exon 17 of the INSR gene in 61 Japanese PCOS patients and 99 Japanese healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed the association between the genotype of this SNP and the clinical phenotypes. The frequency of the C/C genotype was not significantly different between all PCOS patients (47.5%) and controls (35.4%). However, among the lean cases (body mass index PCOS patients (65.0%) as compared with controls (36.6%). We concluded that the His 1058 C/T polymorphism at the tyrosine kinase domain of the INSR gene had a relationship to the pathogenesis of lean PCOS patients in a Japanese population.

  13. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain of the Human Protein Kinase B (PKB/Akt). Interaction with Inositol Phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auguin, Daniel; Barthe, Philippe; Auge-Senegas, Marie-Therese; Stern, Marc-Henri; Noguchi, Masayuki; Roumestand, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The programmed cell death occurs as part of normal mammalian development. The induction of developmental cell death is a highly regulated process and can be suppressed by a variety of extracellular stimuli. Recently, the ability of trophic factors to promote survival have been attributed, at least in part, to the phosphatidylinositide 3'-OH kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B (PKB, also named Akt) cascade. Several targets of the PI3K/PKB signaling pathway have been identified that may underlie the ability of this regulatory cascade to promote cell survival. PKB possesses a N-terminal Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain that binds specifically and with high affinity to PtIns(3,4,5)P 3 and PtIns(3,4)P 2 , the PI3K second messengers. PKB is then recruited to the plasma membrane by virtue of its interaction with 3'-OH phosphatidylinositides and activated. Recent evidence indicates that PKB is active in various types of human cancer; constitutive PKB signaling activation is believed to promote proliferation and increased cell survival, thereby contributing to cancer progression. Thus, it has been shown that induction of PKB activity is augmented by the TCL1/MTCP1 oncoproteins through a physical association requiring the PKB PH domain. Here we present the three-dimensional solution structure of the PH domain of the human protein PKB (isoform β). PKBβ-PH is an electrostatically polarized molecule that adopts the same fold and topology as other PH-domains, consisting of a β-sandwich of seven strands capped on one top by an α-helix. The opposite face presents three variable loops that appear poorly defined in the NMR structure. Measurements of 15 N spin relaxation times and heteronuclear 15 N{ 1 H}NOEs showed that this poor definition is due to intrinsic flexibility, involving complex motions on different time scales. Chemical shift mapping studies correctly defined the binding site of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 (the head group of PtIns(3,4,5)P 3 ), as was previously proposed from a

  14. The C-terminal SH2 domain of p85 accounts for the high affinity and specificity of the binding of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to phosphorylated platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, A; Escobedo, J A; Fantl, W J; Williams, L T

    1992-01-01

    Upon stimulation by its ligand, the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor associates with the 85-kDa subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. The 85-kDa protein (p85) contains two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and one SH3 domain. To define the part of p85 that interacts with the PDGF receptor, a series of truncated p85 mutants was analyzed for association with immobilized PDGF receptor in vitro. We found that a fragment of p85 that contains a single Src homology domain, the C-terminal SH2 domain (SH2-C), was sufficient for directing the high-affinity interaction with the receptor. Half-maximal binding of SH2-C to the receptor was observed at an SH2-C concentration of 0.06 nM. SH2-C, like full-length p85, was able to distinguish between wild-type PDGF receptor and a mutant receptor lacking the PI 3-kinase binding site. An excess of SH2-C blocked binding of full-length p85 and PI 3-kinase to the receptor but did not interfere with the binding of two other SH2-containing proteins, phospholipase C-gamma and GTPase-activating protein. These results demonstrate that a region of p85 containing a single SH2 domain accounts both for the high affinity and specificity of binding of PI 3-kinase to the PDGF receptor. Images PMID:1312663

  15. TGFβ1-mediated PI3K/Akt and p38 MAP kinase dependent alternative splicing of fibronectin extra domain A in human podocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madne, Tarunkumar Hemraj; Dockrell, Mark Edward Carl

    2018-04-30

    Alternative splicing is an important gene regulation process to distribute proteins in health and diseases. Extra Domain A+ Fibronectin (EDA+Fn) is an alternatively spliced form of fibronectin (Fn) protein, present in the extra cellular matrix (ECM) and a recognised marker of various pathologies. TGFβ1 has been shown to induce alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in many cell types. Podocytes are spectacular cell type and play a key role in filtration and synthesise ECM proteins in renal physiology and pathology. In our previous study we have demonstrated expression and alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in basal condition in human podocytes culture. TGFβ1 further induced the basal expression and alternative splicing of EDA+Fn through Alk5 receptor and SR proteins. In this study, we have investigated TGFβ1 mediated signalling involved in alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in human podocytes. We have performed western blotting to characterise the expression of the EDA+Fn protein and other signalling proteins and RT-PCR to look for signalling pathways involved in regulation of alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in conditionally immortalised human podocytes culture.We have used TGFβ1 as a stimulator and SB431542, SB202190 and LY294002 for inhibitory studies. In this work, we have demonstrated in human podocytes culture TGFβ1 2.5ng/ml induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, Smad2 and Smad3 via the ALK5 receptor. TGFβ1 significantly induced the PI3K/Akt pathway and the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 significantly downregulated basal as well as TGFβ1 induced alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in human podocytes. In addition to this, TGFβ1 significantly induced the p38 MAP kinase signalling pathway and p38 MAP kinase signalling pathway inhibitor SB202190 downregulated the TGFβ1-mediated alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in human podocytes. The results with PI3K and p38 MAP kinase signalling pathway suggest that inhibiting PI3K signalling pathway downregulated the basal alternative

  16. Amino Acid Activation of mTORC1 by a PB1-Domain-Driven Kinase Complex Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Juan F; Duran, Angeles; Reina-Campos, Miguel; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Campos, Alex; Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, Maria T

    2015-08-25

    The mTORC1 complex is central to the cellular response to changes in nutrient availability. The signaling adaptor p62 contributes to mTORC1 activation in response to amino acids and interacts with TRAF6, which is required for the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosome and the subsequent K63 polyubiquitination and activation of mTOR. However, the signal initiating these p62-driven processes was previously unknown. Here, we show that p62 is phosphorylated via a cascade that includes MEK3/6 and p38δ and is driven by the PB1-containing kinase MEKK3. This phosphorylation results in the recruitment of TRAF6 to p62, the ubiquitination and activation of mTOR, and the regulation of autophagy and cell proliferation. Genetic inactivation of MEKK3 or p38δ mimics that of p62 in that it leads to inhibited growth of PTEN-deficient prostate organoids. Analysis of human prostate cancer samples showed upregulation of these three components of the pathway, which correlated with enhanced mTORC1 activation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Amino Acid Activation of mTORC1 by a PB1-Domain-Driven Kinase Complex Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Linares

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mTORC1 complex is central to the cellular response to changes in nutrient availability. The signaling adaptor p62 contributes to mTORC1 activation in response to amino acids and interacts with TRAF6, which is required for the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosome and the subsequent K63 polyubiquitination and activation of mTOR. However, the signal initiating these p62-driven processes was previously unknown. Here, we show that p62 is phosphorylated via a cascade that includes MEK3/6 and p38δ and is driven by the PB1-containing kinase MEKK3. This phosphorylation results in the recruitment of TRAF6 to p62, the ubiquitination and activation of mTOR, and the regulation of autophagy and cell proliferation. Genetic inactivation of MEKK3 or p38δ mimics that of p62 in that it leads to inhibited growth of PTEN-deficient prostate organoids. Analysis of human prostate cancer samples showed upregulation of these three components of the pathway, which correlated with enhanced mTORC1 activation.

  18. pH-dependent structural change of the extracellular sensor domain of the DraK histidine kinase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eun Hye; Hwang, Eunha; Han, Young-Hyun; Eo, Yumi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Ohsuk; Hong, Young-Soo; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cheong, Hae-Kap

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We described the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK histidine kinase. ► The ESD of DraK showed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change in a wide pH range. ► The E83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. -- Abstract: Recently, the DraR/DraK (Sco3063/Sco3062) two-component system (TCS) of Streptomycescoelicolor has been reported to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. However, it has not been shown that under which conditions and how the DraR/DraK TCS is activated to initiate the signal transduction process. Therefore, to understand the sensing mechanism, structural study of the sensory domain of DraK is highly required. Here, we report the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK. We observed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change of the ESD in a pH range of 2.5–10. Size-exclusion chromatography and AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) data indicated that the ESD is predominantly monomeric in solution and exists in equilibrium between monomer and dimer states in acidic condition. Using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy, our findings suggest that the structure of the ESD at low pH is more structured than that at high pH. In particular, the glutamate at position 83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. These results suggest that this pH-dependent conformational change of ESD may be involved in signal transduction process of DraR/DraK TCS

  19. Structural characterization of the interactions between calmodulin and skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase: Effect of peptide (576-594)G binding on the Ca2+-binding domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeholzer, S.H.; Wand, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Calcium-containing calmodulin (CaM) and its complex with a peptide corresponding to the calmodulin-binding domain of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase [skMLCK(576-594)G] have been studied by one- and two-dimensional 1 H NMR techniques. Resonances arising from the antiparallel β-sheet structures associated with the calcium-binding domains of CaM and their counterparts in the CaM-skMLCK(576-594)G complex have been assigned. The assignments were initiated by application of the main chain directed assignment strategy. It is found that, despite significant changes in chemical shifts of resonances arising from amino acid residues in this region upon binding of the peptide, the β-sheets have virtually the same structure in the complex as in CaM. Hydrogen exchange rates of amide NH within the β-sheet structures are significantly slowed upon binding of peptide. These data, in conjunction with the observed nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) patterns and relative intensities and the downfield shifts of associated amide and α resonances upon binding of peptide, show that the peptide stabilizes the Ca 2+ -bound state of calmodulin. The observed pattern of NOEs within the β-sheets and their structural similarity correspond closely to those predicted by the crystal structure. These findings imply that the apparent inconsistency of the crystal structure with recently reported low-angle X-ray scattering profiles of CaM may lie within the putative central helix bridging the globular domains

  20. pH-dependent structural change of the extracellular sensor domain of the DraK histidine kinase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Kwon Joo [Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 16 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Hye [Systems and Synthetic Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Eunha; Han, Young-Hyun; Eo, Yumi; Kim, Hyun Jung [Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 16 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ohsuk [Systems and Synthetic Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Young-Soo [Chemical Biology Research Center, KRIBB, 30 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Chaejoon, E-mail: cheong@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 16 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hae-Kap, E-mail: haekap@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 16 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We described the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK histidine kinase. ► The ESD of DraK showed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change in a wide pH range. ► The E83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. -- Abstract: Recently, the DraR/DraK (Sco3063/Sco3062) two-component system (TCS) of Streptomycescoelicolor has been reported to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. However, it has not been shown that under which conditions and how the DraR/DraK TCS is activated to initiate the signal transduction process. Therefore, to understand the sensing mechanism, structural study of the sensory domain of DraK is highly required. Here, we report the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK. We observed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change of the ESD in a pH range of 2.5–10. Size-exclusion chromatography and AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) data indicated that the ESD is predominantly monomeric in solution and exists in equilibrium between monomer and dimer states in acidic condition. Using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy, our findings suggest that the structure of the ESD at low pH is more structured than that at high pH. In particular, the glutamate at position 83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. These results suggest that this pH-dependent conformational change of ESD may be involved in signal transduction process of DraR/DraK TCS.

  1. SH2 Ligand-Like Effects of Second Cytosolic Domain of Na/K-ATPase α1 Subunit on Src Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Moumita; Duan, Qiming; Xie, Zijian

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that the α1 Na/K-ATPase interacts with Src to form a receptor complex. In vitro binding assays indicate an interaction between second cytosolic domain (CD2) of Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit and Src SH2 domain. Since SH2 domain targets Src to specific signaling complexes, we expressed CD2 as a cytosolic protein and studied whether it could act as a Src SH2 ligand in LLC-PK1 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses indicated a direct binding of CD2 to Src, consistent with the in vitro binding data. Functionally, CD2 expression increased basal Src activity, suggesting a Src SH2 ligand-like property of CD2. Consistently, we found that CD2 expression attenuated several signaling pathways where Src plays an important role. For instance, although it increased surface expression of Na/K-ATPase, it decreased ouabain-induced activation of Src and ERK by blocking the formation of Na/K-ATPase/Src complex. Moreover, it also attenuated cell attachment-induced activation of Src/FAK. Consequently, CD2 delayed cell spreading, and inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, these effects appear to be Src-specific because CD2 expression had no effect on EGF-induced activation of EGF receptor and ERK. Hence, the new findings indicate the importance of Na/K-ATPase/Src interaction in ouabain-induced signal transduction, and support the proposition that the CD2 peptide may be utilized as a Src SH2 ligand capable of blocking Src-dependent signaling pathways via a different mechanism from a general Src kinase inhibitor.

  2. SH2 Ligand-Like Effects of Second Cytosolic Domain of Na/K-ATPase α1 Subunit on Src Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Banerjee

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have suggested that the α1 Na/K-ATPase interacts with Src to form a receptor complex. In vitro binding assays indicate an interaction between second cytosolic domain (CD2 of Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit and Src SH2 domain. Since SH2 domain targets Src to specific signaling complexes, we expressed CD2 as a cytosolic protein and studied whether it could act as a Src SH2 ligand in LLC-PK1 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses indicated a direct binding of CD2 to Src, consistent with the in vitro binding data. Functionally, CD2 expression increased basal Src activity, suggesting a Src SH2 ligand-like property of CD2. Consistently, we found that CD2 expression attenuated several signaling pathways where Src plays an important role. For instance, although it increased surface expression of Na/K-ATPase, it decreased ouabain-induced activation of Src and ERK by blocking the formation of Na/K-ATPase/Src complex. Moreover, it also attenuated cell attachment-induced activation of Src/FAK. Consequently, CD2 delayed cell spreading, and inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, these effects appear to be Src-specific because CD2 expression had no effect on EGF-induced activation of EGF receptor and ERK. Hence, the new findings indicate the importance of Na/K-ATPase/Src interaction in ouabain-induced signal transduction, and support the proposition that the CD2 peptide may be utilized as a Src SH2 ligand capable of blocking Src-dependent signaling pathways via a different mechanism from a general Src kinase inhibitor.

  3. Isolation and characterization of anti c-met single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamsari, Elmira Safaie; Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Bagheri, Salman; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Sepideh Safaei; Baradaran, Behzad; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) involved in invasive growth programs during embryogenesis and tumorgenesis. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for c-Met in colorectal cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Hence, a molecular inhibitor of an extracellular domain of c-Met receptor that blocks c-Met-cell surface interactions could be of great thera-peutic importance. In an attempt to develop molecular inhibitors of c-Met, single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries Tomlinson I + J against a specific synthetic oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of c-Met receptor were screened; selected scFv were then characterized using various immune techniques. Three c-Met specific scFv (ES1, ES2, and ES3) were selected following five rounds of panning procedures. The scFv showed specific binding to c-Met receptor, and significantly inhibited proliferation responses of a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116). Moreover, anti- apoptotic effects of selected scFv antibodies on the HCT-116 cell line were also evaluated using Annexin V/PI assays. The results demonstrated rates of apoptotic cell death of 46.0, 25.5, and 37.8% among these cells were induced by use of ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The results demonstrated ability to successfully isolate/char-acterize specific c-Met scFv that could ultimately have a great therapeutic potential in immuno-therapies against (colorectal) cancers.

  4. Alanine rich peptide from Populus trichocarpa inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus via targetting its extracellular domain of Sensor Histidine Kinase YycGex protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Akeel, Raid; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed S; Alqahtani, A

    2018-05-11

    Due to growing concern towards microbial resistance, ongoing search for developing novel bioactive compounds such as peptides is on rise. The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of Populus trichocarpa extract, chemically identify the active peptide fraction and finds its target in Staphylococcus aureus. In this study the active fraction of P. trichocarpa crude extract was purified and characterized using MS/MS. This peptide PT13 antimicrobial activity was confirmed by in-vitro agar based disk diffusion and in-vivo infection model of G. mellonella. The proteomic expression analysis of S. aureus under influence of PT13 was studied using LTQ-Orbitrap-MS in-solution digestion and identity of target protein was acquired with their quantified expression using label-free approach of Progenesis QI software. Docking study was performed with peptide PT13 and its target YycG protein using CABS-dock. The active fraction PT13 sequence was identified as KVPVAAAAAAAAAVVASSMVVAAAK, with 25 amino acid including 13 alanine having M/Z 2194.2469. PT13 was uniformly inhibited growth S. aureus SA91 and MIC was determined 16 μg/mL for SA91 S. aureus strain. Sensor histidine kinase (YycG) was most significant target found differentially expressed under influence of PT13. G. mellonella larvae were killed rapidly due to S aureus infection, whereas death in protected group was insignificant in compare to control. The docking models showed ten docking models with RMSD value 1.89 for cluster 1 and RMSD value 3.95 for cluster 2 which is predicted to be high quality model. Alanine rich peptide could be useful in constructing as antimicrobial peptide for targeting extracellular Domain of Sensor Histidine Kinase YycG from S. aureus used in the study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Domain-specific phosphomimetic mutation allows dissection of different protein kinase C (PKC) isotype-triggered activities of the RNA binding protein HuR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sebastian; Doller, Anke; Pendini, Nicole R; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The ubiquitous mRNA binding protein human antigen R (HuR) participates in the post-transcriptional regulation of many AU-rich element (ARE)-bearing mRNAs. Previously, by using in vitro kinase assay, we have identified serines (Ser) 158, 221 and 318 as targets of protein kinase C (PKC)-triggered phosphorylation. In this study, we tested whether GFP- or GST-tagged HuR constructs bearing a phosphomimetic Ser (S)-to-Asp (D) substitution at the different PKC target sites, would affect different HuR functions including HuR nucleo-cytoplasmic redistribution and binding to different types of ARE-containing mRNAs. The phosphomimetic GFP-tagged HuR protein bearing a phosphomimetic substitution in the hinge region of HuR (HuR-S221D) showed an increased cytoplasmic abundance when compared to wild-type HuR. Conversely, data from in vitro kinase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), implicates that phosphorylation at Ser 221 is not relevant for mRNA binding of HuR. Quantification of in vitro binding affinities of GST-tagged wild-type HuR and corresponding HuR proteins bearing a phosphomimetic substitution in either RRM2 (HuR-S158D) or in RRM3 (HuR-S318D) by microscale thermophoresis (MST) indicates a specific binding of wild-type HuR to type I, II or type III-ARE-oligonucleotides in the high nanomolar range. Interestingly, phosphomimetic mutation at position 158 or 318 had a negative influence on HuR binding to type I- and type II-ARE-mRNAs whereas it significantly enhanced HuR affinity to a type III-ARE substrate. Our data suggest that differential phosphorylation of HuR by PKCs at different HuR domains coordinates subcellular HuR distribution and leads to a preferential binding to U-rich bearing target mRNA. © 2013.

  6. Isoprenoid biosynthesis and mevalonate kinase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Mevalonaat Kinase Deficiëntie (MKD) is een aangeboren ziekte geassocieerd met heftige koortsaanvallen die drie tot vier dagen aanhouden en gepaard gaan met koude rillingen, gewrichtsklachten, huiduitslag, hoofdpijn, duizeligheid, buikpijn, braken en diarree. De koortsaanvallen treden gemiddeld eens

  7. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Chapuis, Sophie [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Revers, Frédéric [INRA, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 1332 de Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon (France); Ziegler-Graff, Véronique [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Brault, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.brault@colmar.inra.fr [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France)

    2015-12-15

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT{sub Cter} in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.

  8. Characterization of the immersion properties of the peripheral membrane anchor of the FATC domain of the kinase "target of rapamycin" by NMR, oriented CD spectroscopy, and MD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Lisa A M; Janke, J Joel; Bennett, W F Drew; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S; Tieleman, D Peter; Dames, Sonja A

    2014-05-08

    The multidomain ser/thr kinase "target of rapamycin" (TOR) centrally controls eukaryotic growth and metabolism. The C-terminal FATC domain is important for TOR regulation and was suggested to directly mediate TOR-membrane interactions. Here, we present a detailed characterization of the membrane immersion properties of the oxidized and reduced yeast TOR1 FATC domain (2438-2470 = y1fatc). The immersion depth was characterized by NMR-monitored interaction studies with DPC micelles containing paramagnetically tagged 5- or 16-doxyl stearic acid (5-/16-SASL) and by analyzing the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) from Mn(2+) in the solvent. Complementary MD-simulations of micellar systems in the absence and presence of protein showed that 5-/16-SASL can move in the micelle and that 16-SASL can bend such that the doxyl group is close to the headgroup region and not deep in the interior as commonly assumed. Based on oriented CD (OCD) data, the single α-helix of oxidized/reduced y1fatc has an angle to the membrane normal of ∼30-60°/∼35-65° in neutral and ∼5-35°/∼0-30° in negatively charged bilayers. The presented experimentally well-founded models help to better understand how this redox-sensitive peripheral membrane anchor may be part of a network of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions regulating TOR localization at different cellular membranes. Moreover, the presented work provides a good methodological reference for the structural characterization of other peripherally membrane associating proteins.

  9. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT_C_t_e_r) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT_C_t_e_r. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT_C_t_e_r in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.

  10. Four-channel asymmetric Real-Time PCR hybridization probe assay: a rapid pre-screening method for critical BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Marcús, Toni F; Soverini, Simona; Amat, Juan Carlos; Navarro-Palou, María; Ros, Teresa; Bex, Teresa; Ballester, Carmen; Bauça, Josep Miquel; SanFelix, Sara; Novo, Andrés; Vidal, Carmen; Santos, Carmen; Besalduch, Joan

    2012-03-01

    Within the laboratory protocols, used for the study of BCR-ABL resistance mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with Imatinib, direct sequencing remains the reference method. Since the incidence of patients with a mutation-related loss of response is not very high, it is very useful in the routine laboratory to perform a fast pre-screening method. With this in mind, we have designed a new technique, based on a single Real-Time FRET-based PCR, followed by a study of melting peaks. This new tool, developed in a LightCycler 2.0, combines four different fluorescence channels for the simultaneous detection, in a single close tube, of critical mutations within the ABL kinase domain. Assay evaluation performed on 33 samples, previously genotyped by sequentiation, resulted in full concordance of results. This new methodology detects in a few steps the presence of critical mutations associated to Imatinib resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RTCter) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RTCter. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Complementary roles of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and receptor interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) in T-cell homeostasis and antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer V; Weist, Brian M; van Raam, Bram J; Marro, Brett S; Nguyen, Long V; Srinivas, Prathna; Bell, Bryan D; Luhrs, Keith A; Lane, Thomas E; Salvesen, Guy S; Walsh, Craig M

    2011-09-13

    Caspase-8 (casp8) is required for extrinsic apoptosis, and mice deficient in casp8 fail to develop and die in utero while ultimately failing to maintain the proliferation of T cells, B cells, and a host of other cell types. Paradoxically, these failures are not caused by a defect in apoptosis, but by a presumed proliferative function of this protease. Indeed, following mitogenic stimulation, T cells lacking casp8 or its adaptor protein FADD (Fas-associated death domain protein) develop a hyperautophagic morphology, and die a programmed necrosis-like death process termed necroptosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPKs) RIPK1 and RIPK3 together facilitate TNF-induced necroptosis, but the precise role of RIPKs in the demise of T cells lacking FADD or casp8 activity is unknown. Here we demonstrate that RIPK3 and FADD have opposing and complementary roles in promoting T-cell clonal expansion and homeostasis. We show that the defective proliferation of T cells bearing an interfering form of FADD (FADDdd) is rescued by crossing with RIPK3(-/-) mice, although such rescue ultimately leads to lymphadenopathy. Enhanced recovery of these double-mutant T cells following stimulation demonstrates that FADD, casp8, and RIPK3 are all essential for clonal expansion, contraction, and antiviral responses. Finally, we demonstrate that caspase-mediated cleavage of RIPK1-containing necrosis inducing complexes (necrosomes) is sufficient to prevent necroptosis in the face of death receptor signaling. These studies highlight the "two-faced" nature of casp8 activity, promoting clonal expansion in some situations and apoptotic demise in others.

  13. Human NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activity is regulated by and potentially targetable through Bruton tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Pichulik, Tica; Wolz, Olaf-Oliver; Dang, Truong-Minh; Stutz, Andrea; Dillen, Carly; Delmiro Garcia, Magno; Kraus, Helene; Dickhöfer, Sabine; Daiber, Ellen; Münzenmayer, Lisa; Wahl, Silke; Rieber, Nikolaus; Kümmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Yazdi, Amir; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Macek, Boris; Radsak, Markus; Vogel, Sebastian; Schulte, Berit; Walz, Juliane Sarah; Hartl, Dominik; Latz, Eicke; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Grimbacher, Bodo; Miller, Lloyd; Brunner, Cornelia; Wolz, Christiane; Weber, Alexander N R

    2017-10-01

    The Nod-like receptor NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) are protagonists in innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. NLRP3 senses exogenous and endogenous insults, leading to inflammasome activation, which occurs spontaneously in patients with Muckle-Wells syndrome; BTK mutations cause the genetic immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). However, to date, few proteins that regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activity in human primary immune cells have been identified, and clinically promising pharmacologic targeting strategies remain elusive. We sought to identify novel regulators of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human cells with a view to exploring interference with inflammasome activity at the level of such regulators. After proteome-wide phosphoproteomics, the identified novel regulator BTK was studied in human and murine cells by using pharmacologic and genetic BTK ablation. Here we show that BTK is a critical regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation: pharmacologic (using the US Food and Drug Administration-approved inhibitor ibrutinib) and genetic (in patients with XLA and Btk knockout mice) BTK ablation in primary immune cells led to reduced IL-1β processing and secretion in response to nigericin and the Staphylococcus aureus toxin leukocidin AB (LukAB). BTK affected apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation and caspase-1 cleavage and interacted with NLRP3 and ASC. S aureus infection control in vivo and IL-1β release from cells of patients with Muckle-Wells syndrome were impaired by ibrutinib. Notably, IL-1β processing and release from immune cells isolated from patients with cancer receiving ibrutinib therapy were reduced. Our data suggest that XLA might result in part from genetic inflammasome deficiency and that NLRP3 inflammasome-linked inflammation could potentially be targeted pharmacologically through BTK. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy

  14. The -271 G>A polymorphism of kinase insert domain-containing receptor gene regulates its transcription level in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, She-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Su, Jian; Chen, Hua-Jun; Lin, Jia-Ying; Wu, Yi-Long

    2009-01-01

    Kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) plays a critical role in the metastasis of cancer and is used as a molecular target in cancer therapy. We investigated the characteristics of the -271 G>A polymorphism of the KDR gene to gain information that may benefit the development of individualized therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The -271 G>A polymorphism of the KDR gene in 106 lung cancer patients and 203 healthy control individuals was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate KDR mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively, in frozen tumor specimens. The -271 G>A polymorphism was associated with the mRNA expression level of the KDR gene in tumor tissues (t = 2.178, P = 0.032, independent samples t-test). Compared with the AG/GG genotype, the AA genotype was associated with higher KDR mRNA expression in tumor tissues. We found no relationship between the genotype and the KDR protein expression level and no significant difference in the distribution of the KDR gene polymorphism genotypes between lung cancer patients and the control group (χ 2 = 1.269, P = 0.264, Fisher's exact test). This study is the first to show that the -271 G>A polymorphism of the KDR gene may be a functional polymorphism related to the regulation of gene transcription. These findings may have important implications for therapies targeting KDR in patients with NSCLC

  15. Sereniteit met een dip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Ed de Jonge

    2015-01-01

    Boekbespreking van Serendipiteit. De ongezochte vondst. Het boek opent met een verzameling van citaten die direct of indirect met het onderwerp samenhangen. Daarna volgt een kort voorwoord van Hans Clevers, de toenmalige president van de KNAW, die een lans breekt voor serendipiteit in de biologie.

  16. Identification of a New Interaction Mode between the Src Homology 2 Domain of C-terminal Src Kinase (Csk) and Csk-binding Protein/Phosphoprotein Associated with Glycosphingolipid Microdomains♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Oneyama, Chitose; Tanaka, Masakazu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Kanou, Takashi; Lee, Young-Ho; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Dobenecker, Marc-Werner; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okada, Masato; Ikegami, Takahisa

    2013-01-01

    Proteins with Src homology 2 (SH2) domains play major roles in tyrosine kinase signaling. Structures of many SH2 domains have been studied, and the regions involved in their interactions with ligands have been elucidated. However, these analyses have been performed using short peptides consisting of phosphotyrosine followed by a few amino acids, which are described as the canonical recognition sites. Here, we report the solution structure of the SH2 domain of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) in complex with a longer phosphopeptide from the Csk-binding protein (Cbp). This structure, together with biochemical experiments, revealed the existence of a novel binding region in addition to the canonical phosphotyrosine 314-binding site of Cbp. Mutational analysis of this second region in cells showed that both canonical and novel binding sites are required for tumor suppression through the Cbp-Csk interaction. Furthermore, the data indicate an allosteric connection between Cbp binding and Csk activation that arises from residues in the βB/βC loop of the SH2 domain. PMID:23548896

  17. Interaction of the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase and its N-terminal SH2 domain with a PDGF receptor phosphorylation site: structural features and analysis of conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotou, G; Bax, B; Gout, I; Federwisch, M; Wroblowski, B; Dhand, R; Fry, M J; Blundell, T L; Wollmer, A; Waterfield, M D

    1992-01-01

    Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the p85 alpha subunit of the PI 3-kinase, a closely related p85 beta protein, and a recombinant SH2 domain-containing fragment of p85 alpha. Significant spectral changes, indicative of a conformational change, were observed on formation of a complex with a 17 residue peptide containing a phosphorylated tyrosine residue. The sequence of this peptide is identical to the sequence surrounding Tyr751 in the kinase-insert region of the platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor (beta PDGFR). The rotational correlation times measured by fluorescence anisotropy decay indicated that phosphopeptide binding changed the shape of the SH2 domain-containing fragment. The CD and fluorescence spectroscopy data support the secondary structure prediction based on sequence analysis and provide evidence for flexible linker regions between the various domains of the p85 proteins. The significance of these results for SH2 domain-containing proteins is discussed. Images PMID:1330535

  18. dependent/calmodulin- stimulated protein kinase from moss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    stimulated protein kinase; CDPK, calmodulin domain-like protein kinase; KM14, 14 amino acid synthetic peptide; .... used were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company, USA, ..... Plant chimeric Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.

  19. Ervaringen met beeldverwerking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, J.

    1989-01-01

    Verslag van een werkbezoek aan het Franse instituut Cemagref, met nadruk op beeldverwerking. Toepassingen van beeldverwerking zijn onder andere: een plukrobot voor appels; het detecteren van oppervlaktebeschadigingen bij appels; het detecteren van breuk in eieren; remote sensing

  20. Nisine geholpen met hordentechnologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Een combinatie van nisine met carvacrol, thymol of carvon leidde tot een synergistische reductie van het aantal levensvatbare cellen van Listeria monocytogenes en Bacillus cereus. Verslag van een promotieonderzoek

  1. Autorijden met ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; de Vries, Stefanie M.; Koerts, Janneke; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Tucha, Oliver

    Volwassenen met attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) hebben uiteenlopende cognitieve beperkingen, die een aanzienlijke invloed kunnen hebben op verschillende aspecten van het dagelijks leven. Een van deze aspecten is het besturen van een auto. Autorijden is een belangrijke activiteit in

  2. When Historiography Met Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Stoffel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Bordoni, Stefano. When historiography met epistemology: Sophisticated histories and philosophies of science in French-speaking countries in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reviewed by Jean-François Stoffel.

  3. Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duanwu; Lin, Juan; Han, Jiahuai

    2010-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases are a group of threonine/serine protein kinases with a relatively conserved kinase domain but distinct non-kinase regions. A number of different domain structures, such as death and caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domains, were found in different RIP family members, and these domains should be keys in determining the specific function of each RIP kinase. It is known that RIP kinases participate in different biological processes, including those in innate immunity, but their downstream substrates are largely unknown. This review will give an overview of the structures and functions of RIP family members, and an update of recent progress in RIP kinase research. PMID:20383176

  4. Identification of quercitrin as an inhibitor of the p90 S6 ribosomal kinase (RSK): structure of its complex with the N-terminal domain of RSK2 at 1.8 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derewenda, Urszula; Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Szukalska, Gabriela; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Olekhnovich, Natalya [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States); Parikh, Hardik I.; Kellogg, Glen E. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0540 (United States); Somlyo, Avril V.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S., E-mail: zsd4n@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The crystal structure of quercitrin, a naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, has been determined in a complex with the N-terminal kinase domain of murine RSK2. The structure revealed that quercitrin inhibits the RSK2 kinase in the same fashion as another known inhibitor, SL0101. Members of the RSK family of kinases constitute attractive targets for drug design, but a lack of structural information regarding the mechanism of selective inhibitors impedes progress in this field. The crystal structure of the N-terminal kinase domain (residues 45–346) of mouse RSK2, or RSK2{sup NTKD}, has recently been described in complex with one of only two known selective inhibitors, a rare naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-(3′′,4′′-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside), known as SL0101. Based on this structure, it was hypothesized that quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside), a related but ubiquitous and inexpensive compound, might also act as an RSK inhibitor. Here, it is demonstrated that quercitrin binds to RSK2{sup NTKD} with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 5.8 µM as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a crystal structure of the binary complex at 1.8 Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure reveals a very similar mode of binding to that recently reported for SL0101. Closer inspection shows a number of small but significant differences that explain the slightly higher K{sub d} for quercitrin compared with SL0101. It is also shown that quercitrin can effectively substitute for SL0101 in a biological assay, in which it significantly suppresses the contractile force in rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle in response to Ca{sup 2+}.

  5. Identification of quercitrin as an inhibitor of the p90 S6 ribosomal kinase (RSK): structure of its complex with the N-terminal domain of RSK2 at 1.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derewenda, Urszula; Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Szukalska, Gabriela; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Parikh, Hardik I.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of quercitrin, a naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, has been determined in a complex with the N-terminal kinase domain of murine RSK2. The structure revealed that quercitrin inhibits the RSK2 kinase in the same fashion as another known inhibitor, SL0101. Members of the RSK family of kinases constitute attractive targets for drug design, but a lack of structural information regarding the mechanism of selective inhibitors impedes progress in this field. The crystal structure of the N-terminal kinase domain (residues 45–346) of mouse RSK2, or RSK2 NTKD , has recently been described in complex with one of only two known selective inhibitors, a rare naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-(3′′,4′′-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside), known as SL0101. Based on this structure, it was hypothesized that quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside), a related but ubiquitous and inexpensive compound, might also act as an RSK inhibitor. Here, it is demonstrated that quercitrin binds to RSK2 NTKD with a dissociation constant (K d ) of 5.8 µM as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a crystal structure of the binary complex at 1.8 Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure reveals a very similar mode of binding to that recently reported for SL0101. Closer inspection shows a number of small but significant differences that explain the slightly higher K d for quercitrin compared with SL0101. It is also shown that quercitrin can effectively substitute for SL0101 in a biological assay, in which it significantly suppresses the contractile force in rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle in response to Ca 2+

  6. Sensitive detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells of newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients is associated with imatinib resistance: implications in the post-imatinib era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations are infrequently detected in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients. Recent studies indicate the presence of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations in a higher percentage of CML patients when CD34+ stem/progenitor cells are investigated using sensitive techniques, and these mutations are associated with imatinib resistance and disease progression. However, such studies were limited to smaller number of patients. METHODS: We investigated BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells from 100 chronic-phase CML patients by multiplex allele-specific PCR and sequencing at diagnosis. Mutations were re-investigated upon manifestation of imatinib resistance using allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domain. RESULTS: Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations were detected in 32/100 patients and included F311L, M351T, and T315I. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-48, all patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations exhibited imatinib resistance. Of the 68 patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, 24 developed imatinib resistance; allele-specific PCR and BCR-ABL kinase domain sequencing detected mutations in 22 of these patients. All 32 patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations had the same mutations after manifestation of imatinib-resistance. In imatinib-resistant patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, we detected F311L, M351T, Y253F, and T315I mutations. All imatinib-resistant patients except T315I and Y253F mutations responded to imatinib dose escalation. CONCLUSION: Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can be detected in a substantial number of chronic-phase CML patients by sensitive allele-specific PCR technique using CD34+ cells. These mutations are associated with imatinib resistance if affecting drug binding directly or indirectly. After the recent approval of nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib for treatment of chronic myeloid

  7. Lysine 356 is a critical residue for binding the C-6 phospho group of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Lin, K; Correia, J J; Pilkis, S J

    1992-08-15

    Lysine 356 has been implicated by protein modification studies as a fructose-2,6-bisphosphate binding site residue in the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase domain of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (Kitajima, S., Thomas, H., and Uyeda, K. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13995-14002). However, Lys-356 is found in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain (Bazan, F., Fletterick, R., and Pilkis, S. J. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9642-9646). In order to ascertain whether Lys-356 is involved in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase catalysis and/or domain/domain interactions of the bifunctional enzyme, Lys-356 was mutated to Ala, expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified to homogeneity. Circular dichroism experiments indicated that the secondary structure of the Lys-356-Ala mutant was not significantly different from that of the wild-type enzyme. The Km for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and the Ki for the noncompetitive inhibitor, fructose 6-phosphate, for the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase of the Lys-356-Ala mutant were 2700- and 2200-fold higher, respectively, than those of the wild-type enzyme. However, the maximal velocity and the Ki for the competitive product inhibitor, inorganic phosphate, were unchanged compared to the corresponding values of the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, in contrast to the wild-type enzyme, which exhibits substrate inhibition, there was no inhibition by substrate of the Lys-356-Ala mutant. In the presence of saturating substrate, inorganic phosphate, which acts by relieving fructose-6-phosphate and substrate inhibition, is an activator of the bisphosphatase. The Ka for inorganic phosphate of the Lys-356-Ala mutant was 1300-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. The kinetic properties of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase of the Lys-356-Ala mutant were essentially identical with that of the wild-type enzyme. The results demonstrate that: 1) Lys-356 is a critical residue in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase for binding the 6

  8. Crystal structure of the EphA4 protein tyrosine kinase domain in the apo-and dasantinib-bound state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenc, C; Celie, C; Tensen, P.H.N; de Esch, I.J.P.; Siegal, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases regulates diverse cellular processes while the over-expression of a member of this family, EphA4, has been reported in a variety of malignant carcinomas. To gain insight into molecular mechanisms and to facilitate structure-based inhibitor design, we

  9. Hybrid and rogue kinases encoded in the genomes of model eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Rakshambikai

    Full Text Available The highly modular nature of protein kinases generates diverse functional roles mediated by evolutionary events such as domain recombination, insertion and deletion of domains. Usually domain architecture of a kinase is related to the subfamily to which the kinase catalytic domain belongs. However outlier kinases with unusual domain architectures serve in the expansion of the functional space of the protein kinase family. For example, Src kinases are made-up of SH2 and SH3 domains in addition to the kinase catalytic domain. A kinase which lacks these two domains but retains sequence characteristics within the kinase catalytic domain is an outlier that is likely to have modes of regulation different from classical src kinases. This study defines two types of outlier kinases: hybrids and rogues depending on the nature of domain recombination. Hybrid kinases are those where the catalytic kinase domain belongs to a kinase subfamily but the domain architecture is typical of another kinase subfamily. Rogue kinases are those with kinase catalytic domain characteristic of a kinase subfamily but the domain architecture is typical of neither that subfamily nor any other kinase subfamily. This report provides a consolidated set of such hybrid and rogue kinases gleaned from six eukaryotic genomes-S.cerevisiae, D. melanogaster, C.elegans, M.musculus, T.rubripes and H.sapiens-and discusses their functions. The presence of such kinases necessitates a revisiting of the classification scheme of the protein kinase family using full length sequences apart from classical classification using solely the sequences of kinase catalytic domains. The study of these kinases provides a good insight in engineering signalling pathways for a desired output. Lastly, identification of hybrids and rogues in pathogenic protozoa such as P.falciparum sheds light on possible strategies in host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Jeugd met beperkingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd Kooiker

    2006-01-01

    Voor kinderen en jongeren met een lichamelijke of verstandelijke beperking is 'gewoon meedoen' in de samenleving geen vanzelfsprekendheid.  Zij ervaren vaak meer obstakels bij het naar school gaan, het vinden van een baan en in hun vrijetijdsbesteding dan andere kinderen en jongeren. Ook

  11. Studeren met Hans Rosenberg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Hoe was het om in de jaren zestig te studeren? Laat ik een terugblik ophangen aan een studiemakker, Hans Rosenberg. We vormden samen de sterrekundejaar- gang 1961. Hans studeerde af in 1966 met hoofdvak wiskunde, promoveerde op radiostralingsprocessen in de zonnecorona in 1973, verliet de

  12. SPSS met syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Visscher, C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dit boekje wijkt af van de gebruikelijke statistiekboeken omdat het sec gaat over het bekende statistische computerprogramma SPSS, en dan alleen nog de oorspronkelijke variant waarin wordt gewerkt met syntax (intypen commando's -zoals bij DOS) i.p.v. de later ontwikkelde 'Windows-schil' (aanklikken

  13. Insights into the Inhibition of the p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) by the Flavonol Glycoside SL0101 from the 1.5 Å Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of RSK2 with Bound Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Derewenda, Urszula; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Szukalska, Gabriela; Banerjee, Budhaditya; Hilinski, Michael K.; Lannigan, Deborah A.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (Lodz - Poland); (UV)

    2012-09-11

    The p90 ribosomal S6 family of kinases (RSK) are potential drug targets, due to their involvement in cancer and other pathologies. There are currently only two known selective inhibitors of RSK, but the basis for selectivity is not known. One of these inhibitors is a naturally occurring kaempferol-a-l-diacetylrhamnoside, SL0101. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of the N-terminal kinase domain of the RSK2 isoform with SL0101 at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. The refined atomic model reveals unprecedented structural reorganization of the protein moiety, as compared to the nucleotide-bound form. The entire N-lobe, the hinge region, and the aD-helix undergo dramatic conformational changes resulting in a rearrangement of the nucleotide binding site with concomitant formation of a highly hydrophobic pocket spatially suited to accommodate SL0101. These unexpected results will be invaluable in further optimization of the SL0101 scaffold as a promising lead for a novel class of kinase inhibitors.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of the diacylglycerol kinase family of proteins and identification of multiple highly-specific conserved inserts and deletions within the catalytic domain that are distinctive characteristics of different classes of DGK homologs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey S Gupta

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK family of proteins, which phosphorylates diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid, play important role in controlling diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Most vertebrate species contain 10 different DGK isozymes, which are grouped into 5 different classes based on the presence or absence of specific functional domains. However, the relationships among different DGK isozymes or how they have evolved from a common ancestor is unclear. The catalytic domain constitutes the single largest sequence element within the DGK proteins that is commonly and uniquely shared by all family members, but there is limited understanding of the overall function of this domain. In this work, we have used the catalytic domain sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree for the DGK family members from representatives of the main vertebrate classes and have also examined the distributions of various DGK isozymes in eukaryotic phyla. In a tree based on catalytic domain sequences, the DGK homologs belonging to different classes formed strongly supported clusters which were separated by long branches, and the different isozymes within each class also generally formed monophyletic groupings. Further, our analysis of the sequence alignments of catalytic domains has identified >10 novel sequence signatures consisting of conserved signature indels (inserts or deletions, CSIs that are distinctive characteristics of either particular classes of DGK isozymes, or are commonly shared by members of two or more classes of DGK isozymes. The conserved indels in protein sequences are known to play important functional roles in the proteins/organisms where they are found. Thus, our identification of multiple highly specific CSIs that are distinguishing characteristics of different classes of DGK homologs points to the existence of important differences in the catalytic domain function among the DGK isozymes. The identified CSIs in conjunction with

  15. The fibronectin III-1 domain activates a PI3-Kinase/Akt signaling pathway leading to αvβ5 integrin activation and TRAIL resistance in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Christina; Horzempa, Carol; Jones, David; McKeown-Longo, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    Fibronectin is a mechanically sensitive protein which is organized in the extracellular matrix as a network of interacting fibrils. The lung tumor stroma is enriched for fibronectin which is thought to contribute to metastasis and drug resistance. Fibronectin is an elastic, multi-modular protein made up of individually folded domains, some of which can stretch in response to increased mechanical tension. Very little is known about the relationship of fibronectin’s unfolded domains to lung cancer resistance to chemotherapy. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of unfolding the first Type III domain of fibronectin (FnIII-1c) on TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance. NCI-H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells were treated with FnIII-1c then assessed for TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Subsequent analysis of FnIII-1c-mediated signaling pathways was also completed. Human non-small cell lung cancer tissue sections were assessed for the expression of vitronectin by immunohistochemistry. FnIII-1c inhibited TRAIL-induced activation of caspase 8 and subsequent apoptosis in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. FnIII-1c treatment was associated with the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/alpha serine/threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway and the αvβ5 integrin receptor for vitronectin, both of which were required for TRAIL resistance. Immunohistochemical staining of sections from non-small cell lung cancers showed that vitronectin was localized around blood vessels and in the tumor-stroma interface. Unfolding of Type III domains within the fibronectin matrix may promote TRAIL resistance through the activation of a PI3K/Akt/αvβ5 signaling axis and point to a novel mechanism by which changes in secondary structure of fibronectin contribute to cancer cell resistance to apoptosis

  16. Research progress in c-Met and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Changqing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available c-Met plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, which can lead to proliferation, survival, cytoskeleton reorganization, separation and diffusion, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Moreover, c-Met is an important prognostic factor for HCC. In HCC, c-Met acts as an activator of a series of signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, ERK/MAPK, and Rac-Pak. In recent years, it has been reported that small-molecule kinase inhibitors can abolish phosphorylation at the intracellular carboxyl terminal of c-Met, and then inhibit the recruitment of signal convertors and downstream signaling pathways, which finally achieve anti-tumor activities. Based on the carcinogenic activity of c-Met in HCC, this paper points out that selective inhibitors of c-Met hold promise for targeted therapies for HCC.

  17. Insulin-Independent GABAA Receptor-Mediated Response in the Barrel Cortex of Mice with Impaired Met Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Powell, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by genetic variants, susceptibility alleles, and environmental perturbations. The autism associated geneMETtyrosine kinase has been implicated in many behavioral domains and endophenotypes of autism, including abnormal neural signaling in human sensory cortex. We investigated somatosensory thalamocortical synaptic communication in mice deficient in Met activity in cortical excitatory neurons to gain insights into aberrant somatosensation characteristic of ASD. The ratio of excitation to inhibition is dramatically increased due to decreased postsynaptic GABAAreceptor-mediated inhibition in the trigeminal thalamocortical pathway of mice lacking active Met in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type mice, insulin failed to increase GABAAreceptor-mediated response in the barrel cortex of mice with compromised Met signaling. Thus, lacking insulin effects may be a risk factor in ASD pathogenesis. A proposed common cause of neurodevelopmental disorders is an imbalance in excitatory neural transmission, provided by the glutamatergic neurons, and the inhibitory signals from the GABAergic interneurons. Many genes associated with autism spectrum disorders impair synaptic transmission in the expected cell type. Previously, inactivation of the autism-associated Met tyrosine kinase receptor in GABAergic interneurons led to decreased inhibition. In thus report, decreased Met signaling in glutamatergic neurons had no effect on excitation, but decimated inhibition. Further experiments indicate that loss of Met activity downregulates GABAAreceptors on glutamatergic neurons in an insulin independent manner. These data provide a new mechanism for the loss of inhibition and subsequent abnormal excitation/inhibition balance and potential molecular candidates for treatment or prevention. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363691-07$15.00/0.

  18. Mechanism of the pH-induced conformational change in the sensor domain of the DraK Histidine kinase via the E83, E105, and E107 residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kwon Joo; Hong, Young-Soo; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Jin-Wan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hwang, Eunha; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Kwon, Ohsuk; Cheong, Hae-Kap

    2014-01-01

    The DraR/DraK two-component system was found to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in a medium-dependent manner; however, its function and signaling and sensing mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we describe the solution structure of the extracellular sensor domain of DraK and suggest a mechanism for the pH-dependent conformational change of the protein. The structure contains a mixed alpha-beta fold, adopting a fold similar to the ubiquitous sensor domain of histidine kinase. A biophysical study demonstrates that the E83, E105, and E107 residues have abnormally high pKa values and that they drive the pH-dependent conformational change for the extracellular sensor domain of DraK. We found that a triple mutant (E83L/E105L/E107A) is pH independent and mimics the low pH structure. An in vivo study showed that DraK is essential for the recovery of the pH of Streptomyces coelicolor growth medium after acid shock. Our findings suggest that the DraR/DraK two-component system plays an important role in the pH regulation of S. coelicolor growth medium. This study provides a foundation for the regulation and the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces.

  19. Mechanism of the pH-induced conformational change in the sensor domain of the DraK Histidine kinase via the E83, E105, and E107 residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Joo Yeo

    Full Text Available The DraR/DraK two-component system was found to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in a medium-dependent manner; however, its function and signaling and sensing mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we describe the solution structure of the extracellular sensor domain of DraK and suggest a mechanism for the pH-dependent conformational change of the protein. The structure contains a mixed alpha-beta fold, adopting a fold similar to the ubiquitous sensor domain of histidine kinase. A biophysical study demonstrates that the E83, E105, and E107 residues have abnormally high pKa values and that they drive the pH-dependent conformational change for the extracellular sensor domain of DraK. We found that a triple mutant (E83L/E105L/E107A is pH independent and mimics the low pH structure. An in vivo study showed that DraK is essential for the recovery of the pH of Streptomyces coelicolor growth medium after acid shock. Our findings suggest that the DraR/DraK two-component system plays an important role in the pH regulation of S. coelicolor growth medium. This study provides a foundation for the regulation and the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces.

  20. The novel RAF1 mutation p.(Gly361Ala) located outside the kinase domain of the CR3 region in two patients with Noonan syndrome, including one with a rare brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Frederike L; Alawi, Malik; Amor, David J; Tan, Tiong Y; Cuturilo, Goran; Lissewski, Christina; Brinkmann, Julia; Schanze, Denny; Kutsche, Kerstin; Zenker, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Noonan syndrome is characterized by typical craniofacial dysmorphism, postnatal growth retardation, congenital heart defect, and learning difficulties and belongs to the RASopathies, a group of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes encoding components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. Mutations in the RAF1 gene are associated with Noonan syndrome, with a high prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). RAF1 mutations cluster in exons encoding the conserved region 2 (CR2), the kinase activation segment of the CR3 domain, and the C-terminus. We present two boys with Noonan syndrome and the identical de novo RAF1 missense variant c.1082G>C/p.(Gly361Ala) affecting the CR3, but located outside the kinase activation segment. The p.(Gly361Ala) mutation has been identified as a RAF1 allele conferring resistance to RAF inhibitors. This amino acid change favors a RAF1 conformation that allows for enhanced RAF dimerization and increased intrinsic kinase activity. Both patients with Noonan syndrome showed typical craniofacial dysmorphism, macrocephaly, and short stature. One individual developed HCM and was diagnosed with a disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor (DOLT) of childhood at the age of 9 years. While there is a well-established association of NS with malignant tumors, especially childhood hemato-oncological diseases, brain tumors have rarely been reported in Noonan syndrome. Our data demonstrate that mutation scanning of the entire coding region of genes associated with Noonan syndrome is mandatory not to miss rare variants located outside the known mutational hotspots. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biophysical and Structural Characterization of the Thioredoxin-binding Domain of Protein Kinase ASK1 and Its Interaction with Reduced Thioredoxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košek, Dalibor; Kylarová, Salome; Pšenáková, Katarína; Řežábková, L.; Herman, P.; Večeř, J.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 35 (2014), s. 24463-24474 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10061S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ASK1 * thioredoxin * AUC * SAXS * coiled-coiled domain Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.573, year: 2014

  2. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2) Phosphorylation Sites and Docking Domain on the Nuclear Pore Complex Protein Tpr Cooperatively Regulate ERK2-Tpr Interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vomastek, Tomáš; Iwanicky, M. P.; Burack, W. R.; Tiwari, D.; Kumar, D.; Parsons, J. T.; Weber, M. J.; Nandicoori, V. K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 22 (2008), s. 6954-6966 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200716 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : erk * docking domain * cell growth Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.942, year: 2008

  3. Met kerse op met -konstruksies 1 : 'n Verwysingspuntperspektief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Met kerse op met-konstruksies1: 'n Verwysingspuntperspektief. Johanna Messerschmidt, Luna Bergh. Abstract. This article analyses the usage of the Afrikaans preposition met ('with'). The analysis is done within the framework of Cognitive Linguistics and more specifically within the model proposed by Langacker (1993) ...

  4. Characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk, a Bifunctional DNA/RNA End-Healing Enzyme Composed of an N-Terminal 2′,3′-Phosphoesterase HD Domain and a C-Terminal 5′-OH Polynucleotide Kinase Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Annum

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT 5′- and 3′-end-healing reactions are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5′-OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase (Pnk) and 3′-PO4 or 2′,3′-cyclic-PO4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate the 5′-PO4 and 3′-OH termini required for sealing by classic polynucleotide ligases. End-healing and sealing enzymes are present in diverse bacterial taxa, often organized as modular units within a single multifunctional polypeptide or as subunits of a repair complex. Here we identify and characterize Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as a novel bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2′,3′-phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5′-OH polynucleotide kinase P-loop domain. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5′-OH polynucleotides (9-mers or longer) in the presence of magnesium and any nucleoside triphosphate donor. HD-Pnk dephosphorylates RNA 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate, RNA 3′-phosphate, RNA 2′-phosphate, and DNA 3′-phosphate ends in the presence of a transition metal cofactor, which can be nickel, copper, or cobalt. HD-Pnk homologs are present in genera from 11 bacterial phyla and are often encoded in an operon with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase. IMPORTANCE The present study provides insights regarding the diversity of nucleic acid repair strategies via the characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as the exemplar of a novel clade of dual 5′- and 3′-end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5′-OH termini and dephosphorylate 2′,3′-cyclic-PO4, 3′-PO4, and 2′-PO4 ends. The distinctive feature of HD-Pnk is its domain composition, i.e., a fusion of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module and a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Homologs of Runella HD-Pnk with the same domain composition, same domain order, and similar polypeptide sizes are distributed widely among genera from 11 bacterial phyla. PMID:27895092

  5. Signaling network of the Btk family kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y; Kung, H J

    2000-11-20

    The Btk family kinases represent new members of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, which include Btk/Atk, Itk/Emt/Tsk, Bmx/Etk, and Tec. They are characterized by having four structural modules: PH (pleckstrin homology) domain, SH3 (Src homology 3) domain, SH2 (Src homology 2) domain and kinase (Src homology 1) domain. Increasing evidence suggests that, like Src-family kinases, Btk family kinases play central but diverse modulatory roles in various cellular processes. They participate in signal transduction in response to virtually all types of extracellular stimuli which are transmitted by growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors, G-protein coupled receptors, antigen-receptors and integrins. They are regulated by many non-receptor tyrosine kinases such as Src, Jak, Syk and FAK family kinases. In turn, they regulate many of major signaling pathways including those of PI3K, PLCgamma and PKC. Both genetic and biochemical approaches have been used to dissect the signaling pathways and elucidate their roles in growth, differentiation and apoptosis. An emerging new role of this family of kinases is cytoskeletal reorganization and cell motility. The physiological importance of these kinases was amply demonstrated by their link to the development of immunodeficiency diseases, due to germ-line mutations. The present article attempts to review the structure and functions of Btk family kinases by summarizing our current knowledge on the interacting partners associated with the different modules of the kinases and the diverse signaling pathways in which they are involved.

  6. Changes in the structure of calmodulin induced by a peptide based on the calmodulin-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidorn, D.B.; Seeger, P.A.; Rokop, S.E.; Blumenthal, D.K.; Means, A.R.; Crespi, H.; Trewhella, J.

    1989-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data were used to study the solution structure of calmodulin complexed with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 577-603 of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. The X-ray data indicate that, in the presence of Ca 2+ , the calmodulin-peptide complex has a structure that is considerably more compact than uncomplexed calmodulin. The radius of gyration, R g , for the complex is approximately 20% smaller than that of uncomplexed Ca 2+ ·calmodulin, and the maximum dimension, d max , for the complex is also about 20% smaller. The peptide-induced conformational rearrangement of calmodulin is [Ca 2+ ] dependent. The length distribution function for the complex is more symmetric than that for uncomplexed Ca 2+ ·calmodulin, indicating that more of the mass is distributed toward the center of mass for the complex, compared with the dumbbell-shaped Ca 2+ ·calmodulin. The solvent contrast dependence of R g for neutron scattering indicates that the peptide is located more toward the center of the complex, while the calmodulin is located more peripherally, and that the centers of mass of the calmodulin and the peptide are not coincident. The scattering data support the hypothesis that the interconnecting helix region observed in the crystal structure for calmodulin is quite flexible in solution, allowing the two lobes of calmodulin to form close contacts on binding the peptide. This flexibility of the central helix may play a critical role in activating target enzymes such as myosin light chain kinase

  7. Protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A binds within the oligomerization domain of striatin and regulates the phosphorylation and activation of the mammalian Ste20-Like kinase Mst3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Candace A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striatin, a putative protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A B-type regulatory subunit, is a multi-domain scaffolding protein that has recently been linked to several diseases including cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM, which causes symptoms ranging from headaches to stroke. Striatin association with the PP2A A/C (structural subunit/catalytic subunit heterodimer alters PP2A substrate specificity, but targets and roles of striatin-associated PP2A are not known. In addition to binding the PP2A A/C heterodimer to form a PP2A holoenzyme, striatin associates with cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3 protein, the mammalian Mps one binder (MOB homolog, Mob3/phocein, the mammalian sterile 20-like (Mst kinases, Mst3, Mst4 and STK25, and several other proteins to form a large signaling complex. Little is known about the molecular architecture of the striatin complex and the regulation of these sterile 20-like kinases. Results To help define the molecular organization of striatin complexes and to determine whether Mst3 might be negatively regulated by striatin-associated PP2A, a structure-function analysis of striatin was performed. Two distinct regions of striatin are capable of stably binding directly or indirectly to Mob3--one N-terminal, including the coiled-coil domain, and another more C-terminal, including the WD-repeat domain. In addition, striatin residues 191-344 contain determinants necessary for efficient association of Mst3, Mst4, and CCM3. PP2A associates with the coiled-coil domain of striatin, but unlike Mob3 and Mst3, its binding appears to require striatin oligomerization. Deletion of the caveolin-binding domain on striatin abolishes striatin family oligomerization and PP2A binding. Point mutations in striatin that disrupt PP2A association cause hyperphosphorylation and activation of striatin-associated Mst3. Conclusions Striatin orchestrates the regulation of Mst3 by PP2A. It binds Mst3 likely as a dimer with CCM3 via

  8. Structures of the N-acetyltransferase domain of Xylella fastidiosa N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase/kinase with and without a His tag bound to N-acetyl-L-glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gengxiang; Jin, Zhongmin; Allewell, Norma M; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang

    2015-01-01

    Structures of the catalytic N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain of the bifunctional N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase/kinase (NAGS/K) from Xylella fastidiosa bound to N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) with and without an N-terminal His tag have been solved and refined at 1.7 and 1.4 Å resolution, respectively. The NAT domain with an N-terminal His tag crystallized in space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a=b=51.72, c=242.31 Å. Two subunits form a molecular dimer in the asymmetric unit, which contains ∼41% solvent. The NAT domain without an N-terminal His tag crystallized in space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a=63.48, b=122.34, c=75.88 Å, β=107.6°. Eight subunits, which form four molecular dimers, were identified in the asymmetric unit, which contains ∼38% solvent. The structures with and without the N-terminal His tag provide an opportunity to evaluate how the His tag affects structure and function. Furthermore, multiple subunits in different packing environments allow an assessment of the plasticity of the NAG binding site, which might be relevant to substrate binding and product release. The dimeric structure of the X. fastidiosa N-acetytransferase (xfNAT) domain is very similar to that of human N-acetyltransferase (hNAT), reinforcing the notion that mammalian NAGS is evolutionally derived from bifunctional bacterial NAGS/K.

  9. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Ryan, Michelle; Buckley, Deirdre; O'Connor, Rosemary; Clarkson, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4+ T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy. PMID:21463297

  10. The roles of the RIIβ linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain in determining the unique structures of the type IIβ protein kinase A: a small angle x-ray and neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Donald K; Copps, Jeffrey; Smith-Nguyen, Eric V; Zhang, Ping; Heller, William T; Taylor, Susan S

    2014-10-10

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed and is responsible for regulating many important cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular cAMP concentrations. The PKA holoenzyme is a tetramer (R2:C2), with a regulatory subunit homodimer (R2) that binds and inhibits two catalytic (C) subunits; binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit homodimer causes activation of the catalytic subunits. Four different R subunit isoforms exist in mammalian cells, and these confer different structural features, subcellular localization, and biochemical properties upon the PKA holoenzymes they form. The holoenzyme containing RIIβ is structurally unique in that the type IIβ holoenzyme is much more compact than the free RIIβ homodimer. We have used small angle x-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering to study the solution structure and subunit organization of a holoenzyme containing an RIIβ C-terminal deletion mutant (RIIβ(1-280)), which is missing the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain to better understand the structural organization of the type IIβ holoenzyme and the RIIβ domains that contribute to stabilizing the holoenzyme conformation. Our results demonstrate that compaction of the type IIβ holoenzyme does not require the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain but rather involves large structural rearrangements within the linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of the RIIβ homodimer. The structural rearrangements are significantly greater than seen previously with RIIα and are likely to be important in mediating short range and long range interdomain and intersubunit interactions that uniquely regulate the activity of the type IIβ isoform of PKA. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cao, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy.

  12. Antibodies against CKI1(RD), a receiver domain of the sensor histidine kinase in Arabidopsis thaliana: From antigen preparation to in planta immunolocalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borkovcová, P.; Pekárová, B.; Válková, M.; Dopitová, R.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav; Janda, L.; Hejatko, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 100, APR 2014 (2014), s. 6-15 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1150; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-25280S Program:GA; GA Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Receiver domain * Polyclonal antibodies * Immunoprecipitation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2014

  13. A short in-frame deletion in NTRK1 tyrosine kinase domain caused by a novel splice site mutation in a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístegui Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by the lack of reaction to noxious stimuli and anhidrosis. It is caused by mutations in the NTRK1 gene, which encodes the high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor I for Neurotrophic Growth Factor (NGF. Case Presentation We present the case of a female patient diagnosed with CIPA at the age of 8 months. The patient is currently 6 years old and her psychomotor development conforms to her age (RMN, SPECT and psychological study are in the range of normality. PCR amplification of DNA, followed by direct sequencing, was used to investigate the presence of NTRK1 gene mutations. Reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR amplification of RNA, followed by cloning and sequencing of isolated RT-PCR products was used to characterize the effect of the mutations on NTRK1 mRNA splicing. The clinical diagnosis of CIPA was confirmed by the detection of two splice-site mutations in NTRK1, revealing that the patient was a compound heterozygote at this gene. One of these alterations, c.574+1G>A, is located at the splice donor site of intron 5. We also found a second mutation, c.2206-2 A>G, not previously reported in the literature, which is located at the splice acceptor site of intron 16. Each parent was confirmed to be a carrier for one of the mutations by DNA sequencing analysis. It has been proposed that the c.574+1G>A mutation would cause exon 5 skipping during NTRK1 mRNA splicing. We could confirm this prediction and, more importantly, we provide evidence that the novel c.2206-2A>G mutation also disrupts normal NTRK1 splicing, leading to the use of an alternative splice acceptor site within exon 17. As a consequence, this mutation would result in the production of a mutant NTRK1 protein with a seven aminoacid in-frame deletion in its tyrosine kinase domain. Conclusions We present the first description of a CIPA-associated NTRK1 mutation

  14. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hisato [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Okamoto, Isamu, E-mail: okamotoi@kokyu.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okamoto, Wataru [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Division of Transrlational Research, Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8577 (Japan); Tanizaki, Junko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, HIM223, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Nakagawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Nishio, Kazuto [Department of Genome Biology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan)

    2014-07-22

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy.

  15. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hisato; Okamoto, Isamu; Okamoto, Wataru; Tanizaki, Junko; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy

  16. The EGFR/ErbB3 Pathway Acts as a Compensatory Survival Mechanism upon c-Met Inhibition in Human c-Met+ Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven N Steinway

    Full Text Available c-Met, a high-affinity receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with activated HGF/c-Met signaling have a significantly worse prognosis. Targeted therapies using c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for HCC, although receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition in other cancers has demonstrated early success. Unfortunately, therapeutic effect is frequently not durable due to acquired resistance.We utilized the human MHCC97-H c-Met positive (c-Met+ HCC cell line to explore the compensatory survival mechanisms that are acquired after c-Met inhibition. MHCC97-H cells with stable c-Met knockdown (MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells were generated using a c-Met shRNA vector with puromycin selection and stably transfected scrambled shRNA as a control. Gene expression profiling was conducted, and protein expression was analyzed to characterize MHCC97-H cells after blockade of the c-Met oncogene. A high-throughput siRNA screen was performed to find putative compensatory survival proteins, which could drive HCC growth in the absence of c-Met. Findings from this screen were validated through subsequent analyses.We have previously demonstrated that treatment of MHCC97-H cells with a c-Met inhibitor, PHA665752, results in stasis of tumor growth in vivo. MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells demonstrate slower growth kinetics, similar to c-Met inhibitor treated tumors. Using gene expression profiling and siRNA screening against 873 kinases and phosphatases, we identified ErbB3 and TGF-α as compensatory survival factors that are upregulated after c-Met inhibition. Suppressing these factors in c-Met KD MHCC97-H cells suppresses tumor growth in vitro. In addition, we found that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway serves as a negative feedback signal responsible for the ErbB3 upregulation after c-Met inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate that

  17. Confinement of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells is mediated by selective interactions with PDZ domain and A-kinase anchoring proteins but not caveolae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Cathleen D.; Haggie, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system regulates cardiac output by activating adrenergic receptors (ARs) in cardiac myocytes. The predominant cardiac ARs, β1- and β2AR, are structurally similar but mediate distinct signaling responses. Scaffold protein–mediated compartmentalization of ARs into discrete, multiprotein complexes has been proposed to dictate differential signaling responses. To test the hypothesis that βARs integrate into complexes in live cells, we measured receptor diffusion and interactions by single-particle tracking. Unstimulated β1- and β2AR were highly confined in the membrane of H9c2 cardiomyocyte-like cells, indicating that receptors are tethered and presumably integrated into protein complexes. Selective disruption of interactions with postsynaptic density protein 95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ)–domain proteins and A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) increased receptor diffusion, indicating that these scaffold proteins participate in receptor confinement. In contrast, modulation of interactions between the putative scaffold caveolae and β2AR did not alter receptor dynamics, suggesting that these membrane domains are not involved in β2AR confinement. For both β1- and β2AR, the receptor carboxy-terminus was uniquely responsible for scaffold interactions. Our data formally demonstrate that distinct and stable protein complexes containing β1- or β2AR are formed in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocyte-like cells and that selective PDZ and AKAP interactions are responsible for the integration of receptors into complexes. PMID:21680711

  18. Confinement of β(1)- and β(2)-adrenergic receptors in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells is mediated by selective interactions with PDZ domain and A-kinase anchoring proteins but not caveolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Cathleen D; Haggie, Peter M

    2011-08-15

    The sympathetic nervous system regulates cardiac output by activating adrenergic receptors (ARs) in cardiac myocytes. The predominant cardiac ARs, β(1)- and β(2)AR, are structurally similar but mediate distinct signaling responses. Scaffold protein-mediated compartmentalization of ARs into discrete, multiprotein complexes has been proposed to dictate differential signaling responses. To test the hypothesis that βARs integrate into complexes in live cells, we measured receptor diffusion and interactions by single-particle tracking. Unstimulated β(1)- and β(2)AR were highly confined in the membrane of H9c2 cardiomyocyte-like cells, indicating that receptors are tethered and presumably integrated into protein complexes. Selective disruption of interactions with postsynaptic density protein 95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ)-domain proteins and A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) increased receptor diffusion, indicating that these scaffold proteins participate in receptor confinement. In contrast, modulation of interactions between the putative scaffold caveolae and β(2)AR did not alter receptor dynamics, suggesting that these membrane domains are not involved in β(2)AR confinement. For both β(1)- and β(2)AR, the receptor carboxy-terminus was uniquely responsible for scaffold interactions. Our data formally demonstrate that distinct and stable protein complexes containing β(1)- or β(2)AR are formed in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocyte-like cells and that selective PDZ and AKAP interactions are responsible for the integration of receptors into complexes.

  19. Effective implementation of novel MET pharmacodynamic assays in translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Apurva K; Navas, Tony; Herrick, William G; Hollingshead, Melinda G; Bottaro, Donald P; Doroshow, James H; Parchment, Ralph E

    2017-01-01

    MET tyrosine kinase (TK) dysregulation is significantly implicated in many types of cancer. Despite over 20 years of drug development to target MET in cancers, a pure anti-MET therapeutic has not yet received market approval. The failure of two recently concluded phase III trials point to a major weakness in biomarker strategies to identify patients who will benefit most from MET therapies. The capability to interrogate oncogenic mutations in MET via circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) provides an important advancement in identification and stratification of patients for MET therapy. However, a wide range in type and frequency of these mutations suggest there is a need to carefully link these mutations to MET dysregulation, at least in proof-of-concept studies. In this review, we elaborate how we can utilize recently developed and validated pharmacodynamic biomarkers of MET not only to show target engagement, but more importantly to quantitatively measure MET dysregulation in tumor tissues. The MET assay endpoints provide evidence of both canonical and non-canonical MET signaling, can be used as "effect markers" to define biologically effective doses (BEDs) for molecularly targeted drugs, confirm mechanism-of-action in testing combination of drugs, and establish whether a diagnostic test is reporting MET dysregulation. We have established standard operating procedures for tumor biopsy collections to control pre-analytical variables that have produced valid results in proof-of-concept studies. The reagents and procedures are made available to the research community for potential implementation on multiple platforms such as ELISA, quantitative immunofluorescence assay (qIFA), and immuno-MRM assays.

  20. pH-dependent structural change of the extracellular sensor domain of the DraK histidine kinase from Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eun Hye; Hwang, Eunha; Han, Young-Hyun; Eo, Yumi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Ohsuk; Hong, Young-Soo; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cheong, Hae-Kap

    2013-02-15

    Recently, the DraR/DraK (Sco3063/Sco3062) two-component system (TCS) of Streptomycescoelicolor has been reported to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. However, it has not been shown that under which conditions and how the DraR/DraK TCS is activated to initiate the signal transduction process. Therefore, to understand the sensing mechanism, structural study of the sensory domain of DraK is highly required. Here, we report the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK. We observed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change of the ESD in a pH range of 2.5-10. Size-exclusion chromatography and AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) data indicated that the ESD is predominantly monomeric in solution and exists in equilibrium between monomer and dimer states in acidic condition. Using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy, our findings suggest that the structure of the ESD at low pH is more structured than that at high pH. In particular, the glutamate at position 83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. These results suggest that this pH-dependent conformational change of ESD may be involved in signal transduction process of DraR/DraK TCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. AarF Domain Containing Kinase 3 (ADCK3 Mutant Cells Display Signs of Oxidative Stress, Defects in Mitochondrial Homeostasis and Lysosomal Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K Cullen

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive ataxias are a clinically diverse group of syndromes that in some cases are caused by mutations in genes with roles in the DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation or mitochondrial function. One of these ataxias, known as Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia Type-2 (ARCA-2, also known as SCAR9/COQ10D4; OMIM: #612016, arises due to mutations in the ADCK3 gene. The product of this gene (ADCK3 is an atypical kinase that is thought to play a regulatory role in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 biosynthesis. Although much work has been performed on the S. cerevisiae orthologue of ADCK3, the cellular and biochemical role of its mammalian counterpart, and why mutations in this gene lead to human disease is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that ADCK3 localises to mitochondrial cristae and is targeted to this organelle via the presence of an N-terminal localisation signal. Consistent with a role in CoQ10 biosynthesis, ADCK3 deficiency decreased cellular CoQ10 content. In addition, endogenous ADCK3 was found to associate in vitro with recombinant Coq3, Coq5, Coq7 and Coq9, components of the CoQ10 biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, cell lines derived from ARCA-2 patients display signs of oxidative stress, defects in mitochondrial homeostasis and increases in lysosomal content. Together, these data shed light on the possible molecular role of ADCK3 and provide insight into the cellular pathways affected in ARCA-2 patients.

  2. Aptamers Binding to c-Met Inhibiting Tumor Cell Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Piater

    Full Text Available The human receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays an important role in the control of critical cellular processes. Since c-Met is frequently over expressed or deregulated in human malignancies, blocking its activation is of special interest for therapy. In normal conditions, the c-Met receptor is activated by its bivalent ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Also bivalent antibodies can activate the receptor by cross linking, limiting therapeutic applications. We report the generation of the RNA aptamer CLN64 containing 2'-fluoro pyrimidine modifications by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. CLN64 and a previously described single-stranded DNA (ssDNA aptamer CLN3 exhibited high specificities and affinities to recombinant and cellular expressed c-Met. Both aptamers effectively inhibited HGF-dependent c-Met activation, signaling and cell migration. We showed that these aptamers did not induce c-Met activation, revealing an advantage over bivalent therapeutic molecules. Both aptamers were shown to bind overlapping epitopes but only CLN3 competed with HGF binding to cMet. In addition to their therapeutic and diagnostic potential, CLN3 and CLN64 aptamers exhibit valuable tools to further understand the structural and functional basis for c-Met activation or inhibition by synthetic ligands and their interplay with HGF binding.

  3. Role of Met Axis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiru, E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu; Fisher, Gary J., E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-26

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer worldwide. Despite advances in aggressive multidisciplinary treatments, the 5-year survival rate for this dreadful disease is only 50%, mostly due to high rate of recurrence and early involvement of regional lymph nodes and subsequent metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for invasion and metastasis is one of the most pressing goals in the field of head and neck cancer. Met, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK) family. There is compelling evidence that Met axis is dysregulated and plays important roles in tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance in head and neck cancer. We describe in this review current understanding of Met axis in head and neck cancer biology and development of therapeutic inhibitors targeting Met axis.

  4. Gezondheidsrisico's in verband met het werken met Pentachloorfenol : een onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, R.B.M.; Nossent, S.M.; Koëter, H.B.W.M.; Dreef-van der Meulen, H.C.; Stijkel, A.; Zielhuis, R.l.

    1989-01-01

    De gezondheidsrisico's i.v.m. het werken met pentachloorfenol (PCP) wordt geevalueerd. Het gebruik van PCP in Nederlandse arbeidssituaties neemt sterk af en is beperkt tot de formulering van emeltenkorrels en de, met name preventieve, houtverduurzaming. De totale risicopopulatie is niet omvangrijk

  5. A proteomic approach for comprehensively screening substrates of protein kinases such as Rho-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuki Amano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein kinases are major components of signal transduction pathways in multiple cellular processes. Kinases directly interact with and phosphorylate downstream substrates, thus modulating their functions. Despite the importance of identifying substrates in order to more fully understand the signaling network of respective kinases, efficient methods to search for substrates remain poorly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined mass spectrometry and affinity column chromatography of the catalytic domain of protein kinases to screen potential substrates. Using the active catalytic fragment of Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK as the model bait, we obtained about 300 interacting proteins from the rat brain cytosol fraction, which included the proteins previously reported as Rho-kinase substrates. Several novel interacting proteins, including doublecortin, were phosphorylated by Rho-kinase both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method would enable identification of novel specific substrates for kinases such as Rho-kinase with high sensitivity.

  6. Magic-factor 1, a partial agonist of Met, induces muscle hypertrophy by protecting myogenic progenitors from apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cassano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF is a pleiotropic cytokine of mesenchymal origin that mediates a characteristic array of biological activities including cell proliferation, survival, motility and morphogenesis. Its high affinity receptor, the tyrosine kinase Met, is expressed by a wide range of tissues and can be activated by either paracrine or autocrine stimulation. Adult myogenic precursor cells, the so called satellite cells, express both HGF and Met. Following muscle injury, autocrine HGF-Met stimulation plays a key role in promoting activation and early division of satellite cells, but is shut off in a second phase to allow myogenic differentiation. In culture, HGF stimulation promotes proliferation of muscle precursors thereby inhibiting their differentiation.Magic-Factor 1 (Met-Activating Genetically Improved Chimeric Factor-1 or Magic-F1 is an HGF-derived, engineered protein that contains two Met-binding domains repeated in tandem. It has a reduced affinity for Met and, in contrast to HGF it elicits activation of the AKT but not the ERK signaling pathway. As a result, Magic-F1 is not mitogenic but conserves the ability to promote cell survival. Here we show that Magic-F1 protects myogenic precursors against apoptosis, thus increasing their fusion ability and enhancing muscular differentiation. Electrotransfer of Magic-F1 gene into adult mice promoted muscular hypertrophy and decreased myocyte apoptosis. Magic-F1 transgenic mice displayed constitutive muscular hypertrophy, improved running performance and accelerated muscle regeneration following injury. Crossing of Magic-F1 transgenic mice with alpha-sarcoglycan knock-out mice -a mouse model of muscular dystrophy- or adenovirus-mediated Magic-F1 gene delivery resulted in amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype as measured by both anatomical/histological analysis and functional tests.Because of these features Magic-F1 represents a novel molecular tool to counteract muscle wasting in major

  7. Microbewerking met behulp van lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, M.M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Het bewerken van materialen met behulp van lasers staat momenteel enorm in de belangstelling, en terecht. De ontwikkeling van bestaande en nieuwe typen lasers staat alles behalve stil. Ontwikkelingen bevinden zich met name in het gebied van hogere vermogens, betere bundelkwaliteit en hogere

  8. Physiological Signaling and Structure of the HGF Receptor MET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Baldanzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The “hepatocyte growth factor” also known as “scatter factor”, is a multifunctional cytokine with the peculiar ability of simultaneously triggering epithelial cell proliferation, movement and survival. The combination of those proprieties results in the induction of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in target cells, fundamental for embryogenesis but also exploited by tumor cells during metastatization. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor, MET, is a proto-oncogene and a prototypical transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. Inhere we discuss the MET molecular structure and the hepatocyte growth factor driven physiological signaling which coordinates epithelial proliferation, motility and morphogenesis.

  9. Triple-resonance multidimensional NMR study of calmodulin complexed with the binding domain of skeletal muscle myosin light-chain kinase: Indication of a conformational change in the central helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Kay, L.E.; Bax, A.; Krinks, M.

    1991-01-01

    Heteronuclear 3D and 4D NMR experiments have been used to obtain 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N backbone chemical shift assignments in Ca 2+ -loaded clamodulin complexed with a 26-residue synthetic peptide (M13) corresponding to the calmodulin-bionding domain (residues 577-602) of rabbit skeletal muscle muosin light-chain kinase. Comparison of the chemical shift values with those observed in peptide-free calmodulin shows that binding of M13 peptide induces substantial chemical shift changes that are not localized in one particular region of the protein. The largest changes are found in the first helix of the Ca 2+ -binding site 1 (E11-E14), the N-terminal portion of the central helix (M72-D78), and the second helix of the Ca 2+ -binding site 4 (F141-M145). Analysis of backbone NOE connectivities indicates a change from α-helical to an extended conformation for residues 75-77 upon complexation with M13. Upon complexation with M13, a significant decrease in the amide exchange rate is observed for residues T110, L112, G113, and E114 at the end of the second helix of site 3

  10. Gezondheidsrisico's in verband met het werken met Polychloorbifenylen : een onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, R.B.M.; Nossent, S.M.; Koëter, H.B.W.M.; Dreef-van der Meulen, H.C.; Stijkel, A.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Met behulp van gegevens verkregen uit een werkplekinventarisatie naar gegevens over produktie/gebruik, risicopopulatie en (mogelijke) blootstelling aan polychloorbifenylen (PCB's), en een literatuurstudie naar mogelijke schadelijke eigenschappen van PCB's op het reproductiesysteem en/of nageslacht

  11. Protein kinase C activation decreases cell surface expression of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter. Requirement of a carboxyl-terminal domain and partial dependence on serine 486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandadze, Avtandil; Wu, Ying; Robinson, Michael B

    2002-11-29

    Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters are required for the clearance of extracellular glutamate and influence both physiological and pathological effects of this excitatory amino acid. In the present study, the effects of a protein kinase C (PKC) activator on the cell surface expression and activity of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter were examined in two model systems, primary co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes that endogenously express GLT-1 and C6 glioma cells transfected with GLT-1. In both systems, activation of PKC with phorbol ester caused a decrease in GLT-1 cell surface expression. This effect is opposite to the one observed for the EAAC1 subtype of glutamate transporter (Davis, K. E., Straff, D. J., Weinstein, E. A., Bannerman, P. G., Correale, D. M., Rothstein, J. D., and Robinson, M. B. (1998) J. Neurosci. 18, 2475-2485). Several recombinant chimeric proteins between GLT-1 and EAAC1 transporter subtypes were generated to identify domains required for the subtype-specific redistribution of GLT-1. We identified a carboxyl-terminal domain consisting of 43 amino acids (amino acids 475-517) that is required for PKC-induced GLT-1 redistribution. Mutation of a non-conserved serine residue at position 486 partially attenuated but did not completely abolish the PKC-dependent redistribution of GLT-1. Although we observed a phorbol ester-dependent incorporation of (32)P into immunoprecipitable GLT-1, mutation of serine 486 did not reduce this signal. We also found that chimeras containing the first 446 amino acids of GLT-1 were not functional unless amino acids 475-517 of GLT-1 were also present. These non-functional transporters were not as efficiently expressed on the cell surface and migrated to a smaller molecular weight, suggesting that a subtype-specific interaction is required for the formation of functional transporters. These studies demonstrate a novel effect of PKC on GLT-1 activity and define a unique carboxyl-terminal domain as an

  12. Protein Kinases in Human Breast Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cane, William

    1998-01-01

    .... Rak is a novel nuclear tyrosine that our group has identified in breast cancer tissues and cell lines that has structural homology to the Src tyrosine kinase, with SH2 and SH3 domains at its amino terminus...

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael [San Diego, CA; Hibi, Masahiko [San Diego, CA; Lin, Anning [La Jolla, CA

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  14. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present review on casein kinases focuses mainly on the possible metabolic role of CK-2, with special emphasis on its behavior in pathological tissues. From these data at least three ways to regulate CK-2 activity emerge: (i) CK-2 activity changes during embryogenesis, being high at certain...

  15. Kinases and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Cicenas; Egle Zalyte; Amos Bairoch; Pascale Gaudet

    2018-01-01

    Protein kinases are a large family of enzymes catalyzing protein phosphorylation. The human genome contains 518 protein kinase genes, 478 of which belong to the classical protein kinase family and 40 are atypical protein kinases [...

  16. Up-regulated Ectonucleotidases in Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein- and Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1-Deficient Jurkat Leukemia Cells Counteract Extracellular ATP/AMP Accumulation via Pannexin-1 Channels during Chemotherapeutic Drug-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Tressler, Andrea M; Lane, Graham S; Dubyak, George R

    2017-07-01

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels mediate the efflux of ATP and AMP from cancer cells in response to induction of extrinsic apoptosis by death receptors or intrinsic apoptosis by chemotherapeutic agents. We previously described the accumulation of extracellular ATP /AMP during chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in Jurkat human leukemia cells. In this study, we compared how different signaling pathways determine extracellular nucleotide pools in control Jurkat cells versus Jurkat lines that lack the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) or receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) cell death regulatory proteins. Tumor necrosis factor- α induced extrinsic apoptosis in control Jurkat cells and necroptosis in FADD-deficient cells; treatment of both lines with chemotherapeutic drugs elicited similar intrinsic apoptosis. Robust extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation was observed in the FADD-deficient cells during necroptosis, but not during apoptotic activation of Panx1 channels. Accumulation of extracellular ATP/AMP was similarly absent in RIP1-deficient Jurkat cells during apoptotic responses to chemotherapeutic agents. Apoptotic activation triggered equivalent proteolytic gating of Panx1 channels in all three Jurkat cell lines. The differences in extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation correlated with cell-line-specific expression of ectonucleotidases that metabolized the released ATP/AMP. CD73 mRNA, and α β -methylene-ADP-inhibitable ecto-AMPase activity were elevated in the FADD-deficient cells. In contrast, the RIP1-deficient cells were defined by increased expression of tartrate-sensitive prostatic acid phosphatase as a broadly acting ectonucleotidase. Thus, extracellular nucleotide accumulation during regulated tumor cell death involves interplay between ATP/AMP efflux pathways and different cell-autonomous ectonucleotidases. Differential expression of particular ectonucleotidases in tumor cell variants will determine whether chemotherapy-induced activation of Panx1 channels

  17. Src protein-tyrosine kinase structure and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Src and Src-family protein kinases are proto-oncogenes that play key roles in cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and survival. v-Src (a viral protein) is encoded by the chicken oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus, and Src (the cellular homologue) is encoded by a physiological gene, the first of the proto-oncogenes. From the N- to C-terminus, Src contains an N-terminal 14-carbon myristoyl group, a unique segment, an SH3 domain, an SH2 domain, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory tail. The chief phosphorylation sites of Src include tyrosine 416 that results in activation from autophosphorylation and tyrosine 527 that results in inhibition from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase. In the restrained state, the SH2 domain forms a salt bridge with phosphotyrosine 527, and the SH3 domain binds to the kinase domain via a polyproline type II left-handed helix. The SH2 and SH3 domains occur on the backside of the kinase domain away from the active site where they stabilize a dormant enzyme conformation. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases such as PTPα displace phosphotyrosine 527 from the Src SH2 domain and mediate its dephosphorylation leading to Src kinase activation. C-terminal Src kinase consists of an SH3, SH2, and kinase domain; it lacks an N-terminal myristoyl group and a C-terminal regulatory tail. Its X-ray structure has been determined, and the SH2 lobe occupies a position that is entirely different from that of Src. Unlike Src, the C-terminal Src kinase SH2 and SH3 domains stabilize an active enzyme conformation. Amino acid residues in the αD helix near the catalytic loop in the large lobe of C-terminal Src kinase serve as a docking site for the physiological substrate (Src) but not for an artificial substrate (polyGlu 4 Tyr)

  18. The Role of PAS Kinase in PASsing the Glucose Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne H. Grose

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PAS kinase is an evolutionarily conserved nutrient responsive protein kinase that regulates glucose homeostasis. Mammalian PAS kinase is activated by glucose in pancreatic beta cells, and knockout mice are protected from obesity, liver triglyceride accumulation, and insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet. Yeast PAS kinase is regulated by both carbon source and cell integrity stress and stimulates the partitioning of glucose toward structural carbohydrate biosynthesis. In our current model for PAS kinase regulation, a small molecule metabolite binds the sensory PAS domain and activates the enzyme. Although bona fide PAS kinase substrates are scarce, in vitro substrate searches provide putative targets for exploration.

  19. Single-molecule photobleaching reveals increased MET receptor dimerization upon ligand binding in intact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Marina S; Haße, Daniel; Ferraris, Davide M; Göhler, Antonia; Niemann, Hartmut H; Heilemann, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The human receptor tyrosine kinase MET and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are essential during embryonic development and play an important role during cancer metastasis and tissue regeneration. In addition, it was found that MET is also relevant for infectious diseases and is the target of different bacteria, amongst them Listeria monocytogenes that induces bacterial uptake through the surface protein internalin B. Binding of ligand to the MET receptor is proposed to lead to receptor dimerization. However, it is also discussed whether preformed MET dimers exist on the cell membrane. To address these issues we used single-molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. Our photobleaching experiments show that MET exists in dimers on the membrane of cells in the absence of ligand and that the proportion of MET dimers increases significantly upon ligand binding. Our results indicate that partially preformed MET dimers may play a role in ligand binding or MET signaling. The addition of the bacterial ligand internalin B leads to an increase of MET dimers which is in agreement with the model of ligand-induced dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases.

  20. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase a-a-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341566551; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Scholten, Arjen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313939780

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  1. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase A-A-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P; van der Heyden, MAG; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  2. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  3. Comparative kinomics of human and chimpanzee reveal unique kinship and functional diversity generated by new domain combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation by protein kinases is a common event in many cellular processes. Further, many kinases perform specialized roles and are regulated by non-kinase domains tethered to kinase domain. Perturbation in the regulation of kinases leads to malignancy. We have identified and analysed putative protein kinases encoded in the genome of chimpanzee which is a close evolutionary relative of human. Result The shared core biology between chimpanzee and human is characterized by many orthologous protein kinases which are involved in conserved pathways. Domain architectures specific to chimp/human kinases have been observed. Chimp kinases with unique domain architectures are characterized by deletion of one or more non-kinase domains in the human kinases. Interestingly, counterparts of some of the multi-domain human kinases in chimp are characterized by identical domain architectures but with kinase-like non-kinase domain. Remarkably, out of 587 chimpanzee kinases no human orthologue with greater than 95% sequence identity could be identified for 160 kinases. Variations in chimpanzee kinases compared to human kinases are brought about also by differences in functions of domains tethered to the catalytic kinase domain. For example, the heterodimer forming PB1 domain related to the fold of ubiquitin/Ras-binding domain is seen uniquely tethered to PKC-like chimpanzee kinase. Conclusion Though the chimpanzee and human are evolutionary very close, there are chimpanzee kinases with no close counterpart in the human suggesting differences in their functions. This analysis provides a direction for experimental analysis of human and chimpanzee protein kinases in order to enhance our understanding on their specific biological roles.

  4. La metáfora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2007-01-01

    2002 y principios de 2003, anteriores a la proclamación de las Juntas de Buen Gobierno. Nuestro objetivo es comprobar cómo las metáforas crean nuevas significaciones, que intentan deshacer una lógica comúnmente asumida, y promover otros modos de comprender la acción y la realidad político-social. Este...

  5. Activated HGF-c-Met Axis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Arnold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is a highly morbid disease. Recent developments including Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved molecular targeted agent’s pembrolizumab and cetuximab show promise but did not improve the five-year survival which is currently less than 40%. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor; also known as mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor (c-Met and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF are overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC; and regulates tumor progression and response to therapy. The c-Met pathway has been shown to regulate many cellular processes such as cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The c-Met pathway is involved in cross-talk, activation, and perpetuation of other signaling pathways, curbing the cogency of a blockade molecule on a single pathway. The receptor and its ligand act on several downstream effectors including phospholipase C gamma (PLCγ, cellular Src kinase (c-Src, phosphotidylinsitol-3-OH kinase (PI3K alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt, mitogen activate protein kinase (MAPK, and wingless-related integration site (Wnt pathways. They are also known to cross-talk with other receptors; namely epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and specifically contribute to treatment resistance. Clinical trials targeting the c-Met axis in HNSCC have been undertaken because of significant preclinical work demonstrating a relationship between HGF/c-Met signaling and cancer cell survival. Here we focus on HGF/c-Met impact on cellular signaling in HNSCC to potentiate tumor growth and disrupt therapeutic efficacy. Herein we summarize the current understanding of HGF/c-Met signaling and its effects on HNSCC. The intertwining of c-Met signaling with other signaling pathways provides opportunities for more robust and specific therapies, leading to better clinical outcomes.

  6. Phase I Trial of Anti-MET Monoclonal Antibody in MET-Overexpressed Refractory Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyun; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Sungju; Lee, Sujin; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Ho Yeong; Ahn, Hongmo; Bok, Haesook; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Ahn, Myung Ju; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Young Suk

    2018-06-01

    Samsung Advance Institute of Technology-301 (SAIT301) is a human immunoglobulin G2 antibody that can specifically target mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (c-MET). This novel antibody has higher priority over hepatocyte growth factors when binding to the Sema domain of c-MET and accelerates the internalization and degradation of c-MET, proving its powerful antitumor activities in intra- as well as extracellular areas. SAIT301 was administered intravenously once every 3 weeks in c-MET overexpressed solid tumor patients, focusing on metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) according to common clinical phase I criteria. Dose escalation was performed according to a modified Fibonacci design, following the conventional 3+3 design. The purpose of this phase I study was to assess the safety profile, to establish the recommended dose for clinical phase II studies and to assess potential anticancer activity of the compound. Sixteen patients with a median age of 56 (range, 39-69) years were enrolled in the study. The most common adverse events were decreased appetite (50.0%), hypophosphatemia, fatigue and dizziness (25.0%, respectively), and diarrhea, blood alkaline phosphatase increased and dyspnea (18.8%, respectively). For tumor response, no patients achieved complete response. One (9.1%) CRC patient had a partial response in the 1.23 mg/kg group, 4 (36.4%) patients achieved stable disease (2 in the 0.41 mg/kg group, 2 in the 1.23 mg/kg group, 0 in the 3.69 mg/kg group, and 1 in the 8.61 mg/kg group). Because of the increase in dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at 8.61 mg/kg, the 3.69 mg/kg dose was considered the maximum tolerated dose and selected for further assessment in phase II. We successfully completed a phase I trial with MET antibody in a MET-overexpressed patient population focusing on CRC, and found that the DLTs were alkaline phosphatase elevation or hypophosphatemia. The recommended dose of SAIT301 for phase II is the dose of 3.69 mg/kg. Copyright © 2018

  7. Leren vermenigvuldigen met meercijferige getallen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, C.

    2008-01-01

    The reason for this study lies in the fact that efforts to create a learning trajectory for the domain of multidigit multiplication based on the realistic approach of mathematics education and building on children’s own informal strategies with the aim of transforming these strategies into efficient

  8. Erlotinib e metástases cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Barata

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Relatamos dois casos de carcinoma pulmonar de não pequenas células (CPNPC com metástases cerebrais que após quimioterapia sistémica receberam em segunda e terceira linha erlotinib 150 mg/dia, oral, com resposta completa das lesões secundárias cerebrais e franca resposta parcial das lesões torácicas.A metastização cerebral, bastante prevalente no contexto do CPNPC, está associada a escassas opções terapêuticas eficazes e, consequentemente, a uma sobre-vida mediana de 4 a 6 meses.Estes casos alertam para o erlotinib como uma excelente opção terapêutica para estes doentes. Os autores propõem um ensaio clínico com este fármaco neste grupo de doentes, procurando determinar da resposta objectiva.Rev Port Pneumol 2008; XIV (Supl 3: S35-S42 Abstract: We report two cases of brain metastases in context of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. After having progressed to chemotherapy they received erlotinib 150 mg/m2 orally daily, with complete response of brain metastasis and partial response of thoracic lesions.Brain metastases are both prevalent and a major cause of mortality in NSCLC, with few systemic treatment options. Median survival after whole brain radiotherapy is 4-6 months and the role of systemic therapy for brain metastases is limited with the most drugs use to stage IV disease ineffective in this setting.This case demonstrates that brain metastases may be sensitive to erlotinib and give to us growing body of evidence that EGFR-associated tyrosine kinase inhibition is a feasible strategy in the management of NSCLC patients with brain metastasesWe propose further study into the continued use of this drug in the situation where there is a differential response.Rev Port Pneumol 2008; XIV (Supl 3: S35-S42 Palavras-chave: Erlotinib, metástase cerebral, cancro do pulmão, Key-words: Erlotinib, brain metastasis, lung cancer

  9. In vivo detection of c-Met expression in a rat C6 glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, R A; Smith, N; Doblas, S; Tesiram, Y; Garteiser, P; Saunders, D; Cranford, R; Silasi-Mansat, R; Herlea, O; Ivanciu, L; Wu, D; Lupu, F

    2008-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor, c-Met, and its substrate, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are implicated in the malignant progression of glioblastomas. In vivo detection of c-Met expression may be helpful in the diagnosis of malignant tumours. The C6 rat glioma model is a widely used intracranial brain tumour model used to study gliomas experimentally. We used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) molecular targeting agent to specifically tag the cell surface receptor, c-Met, with an anti-c-Met antibody (Ab) linked to biotinylated Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-albumin in rat gliomas to detect overexpression of this antigen in vivo. The anti-c-Met probe (anti-c-Met-Gd-DTPA-albumin) was administered intravenously, and as determined by an increase in MRI signal intensity and a corresponding decrease in regional T(1) relaxation values, this probe was found to detect increased expression of c-Met protein levels in C6 gliomas. In addition, specificity for the binding of the anti-c-Met contrast agent was determined by using fluorescence microscopic imaging of the biotinylated portion of the targeting agent within neoplastic and 'normal'brain tissues following in vivo administration of the anti-c-Met probe. Controls with no Ab or with a normal rat IgG attached to the contrast agent component indicated no non-specific binding to glioma tissue. This is the first successful visualization of in vivo overexpression of c-Met in gliomas.

  10. PHA665752, a small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met, inhibits hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration and proliferation of c-Met-positive neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosswell, Hal E; Dasgupta, Anindya; Alvarado, Carlos S; Watt, Tanya; Christensen, James G; De, Pradip; Durden, Donald L; Findley, Harry W

    2009-01-01

    c-Met is a tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), and both c-Met and its ligand are expressed in a variety of tissues. C-Met/HGF/SF signaling is essential for normal embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Abnormal c-Met/HGF/SF signaling has been demonstrated in different tumors and linked to aggressive and metastatic tumor phenotypes. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated inhibition of c-Met/HGF/SF signaling by the small-molecule inhibitor PHA665752. This study investigated c-Met and HGF expression in two neuroblastoma (NBL) cell lines and tumor tissue from patients with NBL, as well as the effects of PHA665752 on growth and motility of NBL cell lines. The effect of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN on migration and proliferation of tumor cells treated with PHA665752 was also evaluated. Expression of c-Met and HGF in NBL cell lines SH-EP and SH-SY5Y and primary tumor tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of PHA665752 on c-Met/HGF signaling involved in NBL cell proliferation and migration was evaluated in c-Met-positive cells and c-Met-transfected cells. The transwell chemotaxis assay and the MTT assay were used to measure migration and proliferation/cell-survival of tumor cells, respectively. The PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone was used to assess the effect of PTEN on PHA665752-induced inhibition of NBL cell proliferation/cell-survival and migration High c-Met expression was detected in SH-EP cells and primary tumors from patients with advanced-stage disease. C-Met/HGF signaling induced both migration and proliferation of SH-EP cells. Migration and proliferation/cell-survival were inhibited by PHA665752 in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that induced overexpression of PTEN following treatment with rosiglitazone significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of PHA665752 on NBL-cell migration and proliferation. c-Met is highly expressed in most tumors from

  11. Reactions of Met-Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.; Guo, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of metal-carbon complexes, termed metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), have been discovered to form in a plasma reactor in which early transition metals are vaporized into a stream carrying small hydrocarbon molecules. The initial discovery involved the species Ti 8 c 12 + , while subsequent studies revealed the stability of the anion and, most importantly, the neutral species. Subsequent investigations show that similar molecules, predicted to have a pentagonal dodecahedral structure, can also be formed with vanadium, hafnium, and zirconium. In the case of the latter, more recent investigations have displaced an interesting growth pattern. In particular, pentagonal dodecahedrons with dangling carbon atoms can undergo further growth, adding at least a second and third cage. The latest results on the properties and reactivities of these new cage-like molecular clusters will be discussed

  12. SH2-dependent autophosphorylation within the Tec family kinase Itk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Raji E; Severin, Andrew; Min, Lie; Fulton, D Bruce; Andreotti, Amy H

    2009-08-07

    The Tec family kinase, Itk (interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase), undergoes an in cis autophosphorylation on Y180 within its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Autophosphorylation of the Itk SH3 domain by the Itk kinase domain is strictly dependent on the presence of the intervening Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. A direct docking interaction between the Itk kinase and SH2 domains brings the Itk SH3 domain into the active site where Y180 is then phosphorylated. We now identify the residues on the surface of the Itk SH2 domain responsible for substrate docking and show that this SH2 surface mediates autophosphorylation in the full-length Itk molecule. The canonical phospholigand binding site on the SH2 domain is not involved in substrate docking, instead the docking site consists of side chains from three loop regions (AB, EF and BG) and part of the betaD strand. These results are extended into Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase), a Tec family kinase linked to the B-cell deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Our results suggest that some XLA-causing mutations might impair Btk phosphorylation.

  13. Proef met duurzaam watergebruik in de bollenstreek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliegenthart, F.; Dik, P.E.; Groenendijk, P.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 begon in de Wieringermeer een praktijkproef met alternatieve waterbeheersystemen voor de bollenteelt. Met drie verschillende teeltsystemen wordt onderzoek verricht naar zo optimaal mogelijk gebruik van zoet water door recirculatie en hergebruik. Ook loopt onderzoek naar de emissie van

  14. The potential roles of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-MET pathway inhibitors in cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh RA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rahul A Parikh,1 Peng Wang,2 Jan H Beumer,3 Edward Chu,1 Leonard J Appleman11Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Cancer Therapeutics Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Division of Medical Oncology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USA; 3University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Cancer Therapeutics Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: MET is located on chromosome 7q31 and is a proto-oncogene that encodes for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. HGF, also known as scatter factor (SF, is the only known ligand for MET. MET is a master regulator of cell growth and division (mitogenesis, mobility (motogenesis, and differentiation (morphogenesis; it plays an important role in normal development and tissue regeneration. The HGF-MET axis is frequently dysregulated in cancer by MET gene amplification, translocation, and mutation, or by MET or HGF protein overexpression. MET dysregulation is associated with an increased propensity for metastatic disease and poor overall prognosis across multiple tumor types. Targeting the dysregulated HGF-MET pathway is an area of active research; a number of monoclonal antibodies to HGF and MET, as well as small molecule inhibitors of MET, are under development. This review summarizes the key biological features of the HGF-MET axis, its dysregulation in cancer, and the therapeutic agents targeting the HGF-MET axis, which are in development.Keywords: MET inhibitor, HGF inhibitor, cancer

  15. Data driven polypharmacological drug design for lung cancer: analyses for targeting ALK, MET, and EGFR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narayanan, Dilip; Gani, Osman ABSM; Gruber, Franz XE

    2017-01-01

    encoded into molecular mechanics force fields. Cheminformatics analyses of binding data show EGFR to be dissimilar to ALK and MET, but its structure shows how it may be co-targeted with the addition of a covalent trap. This suggests a strategy for the design of a focussed chemical library based on a pan......Drug design of protein kinase inhibitors is now greatly enabled by thousands of publicly available X-ray structures, extensive ligand binding data, and optimized scaffolds coming off patent. The extensive data begin to enable design against a spectrum of targets (polypharmacology); however...... consider polypharmacological targeting of protein kinases ALK, MET, and EGFR (and its drug resistant mutant T790M) in non small cell lung cancer as an example. Both EGFR and ALK represent sources of primary oncogenic lesions, while drug resistance arises from MET amplification and EGFR mutation. A drug...

  16. Characterization of HGF/Met Signaling in Cell Lines Derived From Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young H. [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Apolo, Andrea B. [Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Agarwal, Piyush K.; Bottaro, Donald P., E-mail: dbottaro@helix.nih.gov [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-11-25

    There is mounting evidence of oncogenic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/Met signaling in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. The effects of three kinase inhibitors, cabozantinib, crizotinib and EMD1214063, on HGF-driven signaling and cell growth, invasion and tumorigenicity were analyzed in cultured UC cell lines. SW780 xenograft growth in SCID and human HGF knock-in SCID (hHGF/SCID) mice treated with cabozantinib or vehicle, as well as tumor levels of Met and pMet, were also determined. Met content was robust in most UC-derived cell lines. Basal pMet content and effector activation state in quiescent cells were low, but significantly enhanced by added HGF, as were cell invasion, proliferation and anchorage independent growth. These HGF-driven effects were reversed by Met inhibitor treatment. Tumor xenograft growth was significantly higher in hHGF/SCID mice vs. SCID mice and significantly inhibited by cabozantinib, as was tumor phospho-Met content. These studies indicate the prevalence and functionality of the HGF/Met signaling pathway in UC cells, suggest that paracrine HGF may contribute to UC tumor growth and progression, and that support further preclinical investigation of Met inhibitors for the treatment of UC is warranted.

  17. The YARHG domain: an extracellular domain in search of a function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Coggill

    Full Text Available We have identified a new bacterial protein domain that we hypothesise binds to peptidoglycan. This domain is called the YARHG domain after the most highly conserved sequence-segment. The domain is found in the extracellular space and is likely to be composed of four alpha-helices. The domain is found associated with protein kinase domains, suggesting it is associated with signalling in some bacteria. The domain is also found associated with three different families of peptidases. The large number of different domains that are found associated with YARHG suggests that it is a useful functional module that nature has recombined multiple times.

  18. OTULIN antagonizes LUBAC signaling by specifically hydrolyzing met1-linked polyubiquitin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keusekotten, K.; Elliott, P.R.; Kulathu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The linear ubiquitin (Ub) chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is an E3 ligase that specifically assembles Met1-linked (also known as linear) Ub chains that regulate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are key regulators of Ub signaling, but a dedicated DUB for Met1 linkages has...... not been identified. Here, we reveal a previously unannotated human DUB, OTULIN (also known as FAM105B), which is exquisitely specific for Met1 linkages. Crystal structures of the OTULIN catalytic domain in complex with diubiquitin reveal Met1-specific Ub-binding sites and a mechanism of substrate...

  19. Oncogenic Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Directly Phosphorylate Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a Resistance Mechanism to FAK-Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Timothy A; Lenzo, Felicia L; Figel, Sheila A; Grapes, Abigail T; Cance, William G

    2016-12-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a major drug target in cancer and current inhibitors targeted to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain have entered clinical trials. However, preliminary results have shown limited single-agent efficacy in patients. Despite these unfavorable data, the molecular mechanisms that drive intrinsic and acquired resistance to FAK-kinase inhibitors are largely unknown. We have demonstrated that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) can directly bypass FAK-kinase inhibition in cancer cells through phosphorylation of FAK's critical tyrosine 397 (Y397). We also showed that HER2 forms a direct protein-protein interaction with the FAK-FERM-F1 lobe, promoting direct phosphorylation of Y397. In addition, FAK-kinase inhibition induced two forms of compensatory RTK reprogramming: (i) the rapid phosphorylation and activation of RTK signaling pathways in RTK High cells and (ii) the long-term acquisition of RTKs novel to the parental cell line in RTK Low cells. Finally, HER2 +: cancer cells displayed resistance to FAK-kinase inhibition in 3D growth assays using a HER2 isogenic system and HER2 + cancer cell lines. Our data indicate a novel drug resistance mechanism to FAK-kinase inhibitors whereby HER2 and other RTKs can rescue and maintain FAK activation (pY397) even in the presence of FAK-kinase inhibition. These data may have important ramifications for existing clinical trials of FAK inhibitors and suggest that individual tumor stratification by RTK expression would be important to predict patient response to FAK-kinase inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3028-39. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Anti-c-MET Nanobody - a new potential drug in multiple myeloma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slørdahl, Tobias Schmidt; Denayer, Tinneke; Moen, Siv Helen; Standal, Therese; Børset, Magne; Ververken, Cedric; Rø, Torstein Baade

    2013-11-01

    c-MET is the tyrosine kinase receptor of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). HGF-c-MET signaling is involved in many human malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, multiple agents have been developed directed to interfere at different levels in HGF-c-MET signaling pathway. Nanobodies are therapeutic proteins based on the smallest functional fragments of heavy-chain-only antibodies. In this study, we wanted to determine the anticancer effect of a novel anti-c-MET Nanobody in MM. We examined the effects of an anti-c-MET Nanobody on thymidine incorporation, migration, adhesion of MM cells, and osteoblastogenesis in vitro. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of the Nanobody on HGF-dependent c-MET signaling by Western blotting. We show that the anti-c-MET Nanobody effectively inhibited thymidine incorporation of ANBL-6 MM cells via inhibition of an HGF autocrine growth loop and thymidine incorporation in INA-6 MM cells induced by exogenous HGF. HGF-induced migration and adhesion of INA-6 were completely and specifically blocked by the Nanobody. Furthermore, the Nanobody abolished the inhibiting effect of HGF on bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and the mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, we show that the Nanobody reduced phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in c-MET, MAPK, and Akt. We also compared the Nanobody with anti-c-MET monoclonal antibodies and revealed the similar or better effect. The anti-c-MET Nanobody inhibited MM cell migration, thymidine incorporation, and adhesion, and blocked the HGF-mediated inhibition of osteoblastogenesis. The anti-c-MET Nanobody might represent a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of MM and other cancers driven by HGF-c-MET signaling. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  2. Differences in MetS marker prevalence between black African and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis, independent of covariates, showed that the albumin:creatinine ratio is explained only by glucose in Africans. Conclusion: African women, as a group, present with few MetS risk factors, and glucose is associated with renal function risk in Africans. Keywords: MetS, metabolic syndrome, ...

  3. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  4. Metsämaisema ulkoilijoiden kokemana

    OpenAIRE

    Vuohijoki, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Työn aiheena oli tutkia, miten ulkoilijat kokevat metsämaiseman Tampereella. Tavoitteena oli selvittää ulkoilijoiden maisema-arvostuksia sekä suhtautumista metsänhoidon toimenpiteisiin. Tutkimus toteutettiin maastohaastatteluina Tampereella kolmella eri asuinalueella: Hallilassa, Leinolassa ja Tesomajärvellä. Otoskooksi muodostui kymmenen haastattelua aluetta kohti, mutta yhdeltä vastaajalta ei ehditty kysyä kaikkia kysymyksiä. Vastaajat olivat yleisesti ottaen tyytyväisiä alueiden metsän...

  5. Thymidine kinases in archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, A.R.; Matakos, A.; Sandrini, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-six fully sequenced archaeal genomes were searched for genes coding for putative deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). We identified only 5 human-like thymidine kinase 1 genes (TK1s) and none for non-TK1 kinases. Four TK1s were identified in the Euryarchaea and one was found in the Crenarcha...

  6. SH2/SH3 adaptor proteins can link tyrosine kinases to a Ste20-related protein kinase, HPK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafi, M; Kiefer, F; Gish, G D; Mbamalu, G; Iscove, N N; Pawson, T

    1997-10-31

    Ste20-related protein kinases have been implicated as regulating a range of cellular responses, including stress-activated protein kinase pathways and the control of cytoskeletal architecture. An important issue involves the identities of the upstream signals and regulators that might control the biological functions of mammalian Ste20-related protein kinases. HPK1 is a protein-serine/threonine kinase that possesses a Ste20-like kinase domain, and in transfected cells activates a protein kinase pathway leading to the stress-activated protein kinase SAPK/JNK. Here we have investigated candidate upstream regulators that might interact with HPK1. HPK1 possesses an N-terminal catalytic domain and an extended C-terminal tail with four proline-rich motifs. The SH3 domains of Grb2 bound in vitro to specific proline-rich motifs in the HPK1 tail and functioned synergistically to direct the stable binding of Grb2 to HPK1 in transfected Cos1 cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation did not affect the binding of Grb2 to HPK1 but induced recruitment of the Grb2.HPK1 complex to the autophosphorylated EGF receptor and to the Shc docking protein. Several activated receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, including the EGF receptor, stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the HPK1 serine/threonine kinase. These results suggest that HPK1, a mammalian Ste20-related protein-serine/threonine kinase, can potentially associate with protein-tyrosine kinases through interactions mediated by SH2/SH3 adaptors such as Grb2. Such interaction may provide a possible mechanism for cross-talk between distinct biochemical pathways following the activation of tyrosine kinases.

  7. Concrete domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  8. Protein kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates cytokine-dependent cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    Full Text Available The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting

  9. The lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin confers protection from neutrophil-mediated tissue damage by suppressing adhesion molecule expression via nuclear factor kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conway, Edward M.; van de Wouwer, Marlies; Pollefeyt, Saskia; Jurk, Kerstin; van Aken, Hugo; de Vriese, Astrid; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Weiler, Hartmut; Hellings, Peter W.; Schaeffer, Paul; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Collen, Désiré; Theilmeier, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is a vascular endothelial cell (EC) receptor that is a cofactor for thrombin-mediated activation of the anticoagulant protein C. The extracellular NH(2)-terminal domain of TM has homology to C-type lectins that are involved in immune regulation. Using transgenic mice that lack

  10. The SH3 domain-binding T cell tyrosyl phosphoprotein p120. Demonstration of its identity with the c-cbl protooncogene product and in vivo complexes with Fyn, Grb2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukazawa, T.; Reedquist, K. A.; Trub, T.; Soltoff, S.; Panchamoorthy, G.; Druker, B.; Cantley, L.; Shoelson, S. E.; Band, H.

    1995-01-01

    Previously, we have identified p120 as a Fyn/Lck SH3 and SH2 domain-binding protein that is tyrosine phosphorylated rapidly after T cell receptor triggering. Here, we used direct protein purification, amino acid sequence analysis, reactivity with antibodies, and two-dimensional gel analyses to

  11. Domain Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  12. Is neurofeedback effectief bij kinderen met ADHD?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hen, M.H.; Geurts, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Kan neurofeedback verantwoord ingezet worden bij de behandeling van kinderen met ADHD? Omdeze vraag te beantwoorden worden zeven recente onderzoeken naar de effectiviteit van neurofeedback bij kinderen met ADHD geanalyseerd. Ondanks dat de resultaten in eerste instantie lijken te suggereren dat

  13. Structural insight into the mechanism of synergistic autoinhibition of SAD kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Jue; Chen, Lei; Ding, Mei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2015-12-02

    The SAD/BRSK kinases participate in various important life processes, including neural development, cell cycle and energy metabolism. Like other members of the AMPK family, SAD contains an N-terminal kinase domain followed by the characteristic UBA and KA1 domains. Here we identify a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS) in SAD kinases, which exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Structural studies of mouse SAD-A revealed that UBA binds to the kinase domain in a distinct mode and, more importantly, AIS nestles specifically into the KD-UBA junction. The cooperative action of AIS and UBA results in an 'αC-out' inactive kinase, which is conserved across species and essential for presynaptic vesicle clustering in C. elegans. In addition, the AIS, along with the KA1 domain, is indispensable for phospholipid binding. Taken together, these data suggest a model for synergistic autoinhibition and membrane activation of SAD kinases.

  14. Molecular determinants for the complex binding specificity of the PDZ domain in PICK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kenneth L; Beuming, Thijs; Niv, Masha Y

    2005-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) contains a single PDZ domain known to mediate interaction with the C termini of several receptors, transporters, ion channels, and kinases. In contrast to most PDZ domains, the PICK1 PDZ domain interacts with binding sequences classifiable as type I (te...

  15. Role of cMET in the Development and Progression of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Bossi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET is a member of a distinct subfamily of heterodimeric receptor tyrosine kinase receptors that specifically binds the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Binding to HGF leads to receptor dimerization/multimerization and phosphorylation, resulting in its catalytic activation. MET activation drives the malignant progression of several tumor types, including colorectal cancer (CRC, by promoting signaling cascades that mainly result in alterations of cell motility, survival, and proliferation. MET is aberrantly activated in many human cancers through various mechanisms, including point mutations, gene amplification, transcriptional up-regulation, or ligand autocrine loops. MET promotes cell scattering, invasion, and protection from apoptosis, thereby acting as an adjuvant pro-metastatic gene for many tumor types. In CRC, MET expression confers more aggressiveness and worse clinical prognosis. With all of this rationale, inhibitors that target the HGF/MET axis with different types of response have been developed. HGF and MET are new promising targets to understand the pathogenesis of CRC and for the development of new, targeted therapies.

  16. Word je met Donkey Konga een betere muzikant? : Muziek leren spelen met de spelcomputer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tom Langhorst

    2010-01-01

    Kan de spelcomputer behulpzaam zijn bij de ontwikkeling van het muzikale gevoel? Met die vraag in het achterhoofd bekijkt Tom Langhorst hier kritisch het Nintendo-spel Donkey Konga, waarin de speler mee kan drummen met bekende popsongs.

  17. Mice with GFAP-targeted loss of neurofibromin demonstrate increased axonal MET expression with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weiping; Xing, Rubing; Guha, Abhijit; Gutmann, David H; Sherman, Larry S

    2007-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disease that predisposes patients to peripheral nerve tumors and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities including low-grade astrocytomas and cognitive disabilities. Using mice with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-targeted Nf1 loss (Nf1(GFAP)CKO mice), we found that Nf1(-/-) astrocytes proliferate faster and are more invasive than wild-type astrocytes. In light of our previous finding that aberrant expression of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase contributes to the invasiveness of human NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, we sought to determine whether MET expression is aberrant in the brains of Nf1 mutant mice. We found that Nf1(-/-) astrocytes express slightly more MET than wild-type cells in vitro, but do not express elevated MET in situ. However, fiber tracts containing myelinated axons in the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum express higher than normal levels of MET in older (> or =6 months) Nf1(GFAP)CKO mice. Both Nf1(GFAP)CKO and wild-type astrocytes induced MET expression in neurites of wild-type hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that astrocyte-derived signals may induce MET in Nf1 mutant mice. Because the Nf1 gene product functions as a RAS GTPase, we examined MET expression in the brains of mice with GFAP-targeted constitutively active forms of RAS. MET was elevated in axonal fiber tracts in mice with active K-RAS but not H-RAS. Collectively, these data suggest that loss of Nf1 in either astrocytes or GFAP(+) neural progenitor cells results in increased axonal MET expression, which may contribute to the CNS abnormalities in children and adults with NF1. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aurelia Ball

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well.

  19. DNA Damage-Induced Acetylation of Lysine 3016 of ATM Activates ATM Kinase Activity▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yingli; Xu, Ye; Roy, Kanaklata; Price, Brendan D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATM protein kinase is essential for cells to repair and survive genotoxic events. The activation of ATM's kinase activity involves acetylation of ATM by the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase. In this study, systematic mutagenesis of lysine residues was used to identify regulatory ATM acetylation sites. The results identify a single acetylation site at lysine 3016, which is located in the highly conserved C-terminal FATC domain adjacent to the kinase domain. Antibodies specific for acetyl-ly...

  20. The PIM kinases in hematological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Yesid; Giles, Francis J; Swords, Ronan T

    2012-02-01

    The PIM genes represent a family of proto-oncogenes that encode three different serine/threonine protein kinases (PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3) with essential roles in the regulation of signal transduction cascades, which promote cell survival, proliferation and drug resistance. PIM kinases are overexpressed in several hematopoietic tumors and support in vitro and in vivo malignant cell growth and survival, through cell cycle regulation and inhibition of apoptosis. PIM kinases do not have an identified regulatory domain, which means that these proteins are constitutively active once transcribed. They appear to be critical downstream effectors of important oncoproteins and, when overexpressed, can mediate drug resistance to available agents, such as rapamycin. Recent crystallography studies reveal that, unlike other kinases, they possess a hinge region, which creates a unique binding pocket for ATP, offering a target for an increasing number of potent small-molecule PIM kinase inhibitors. Preclinical studies in models of various hematologic cancers indicate that these novel agents show promising activity and some of them are currently being evaluated in a clinical setting. In this review, we profile the PIM kinases as targets for therapeutics in hematologic malignancies.

  1. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  2. Structure-function similarities between a plant receptor-like kinase and the human interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus-Heisen, Dörte; Nurisso, Alessandra; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, Anna; Mbengue, Malick; Camut, Sylvie; Timmers, Ton; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Imberty, Anne; Lefebvre, Benoit; Cullimore, Julie V

    2011-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has previously shown that plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are monophyletic with respect to the kinase domain and share an evolutionary origin with the animal interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase/Pelle-soluble kinases. The lysin motif domain-containing receptor-like kinase-3 (LYK3) of the legume Medicago truncatula shows 33% amino acid sequence identity with human IRAK-4 over the kinase domain. Using the structure of this animal kinase as a template, homology modeling revealed that the plant RLK contains structural features particular to this group of kinases, including the tyrosine gatekeeper and the N-terminal extension α-helix B. Functional analysis revealed the importance of these conserved features for kinase activity and suggests that kinase activity is essential for the biological role of LYK3 in the establishment of the root nodule nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia bacteria. The kinase domain of LYK3 has dual serine/threonine and tyrosine specificity, and mass spectrometry analysis identified seven serine, eight threonine, and one tyrosine residue as autophosphorylation sites in vitro. Three activation loop serine/threonine residues are required for biological activity, and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Thr-475 is the prototypical phosphorylated residue that interacts with the conserved arginine in the catalytic loop, whereas Ser-471 and Thr-472 may be secondary sites. A threonine in the juxtamembrane region and two threonines in the C-terminal lobe of the kinase domain are important for biological but not kinase activity. We present evidence that the structure-function similarities that we have identified between LYK3 and IRAK-4 may be more widely applicable to plant RLKs in general.

  3. Abl N-terminal Cap stabilization of SH3 domain dynamics†

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shugui; Dumitrescu, Teodora Pene; Smithgall, Thomas E.; Engen, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Crystal structures and other biochemical data indicate that the N-terminal cap (NCap) region of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is important for maintaining the downregulated conformation of the kinase domain. The exact contributions that NCap makes in stabilizing the various intramolecular interactions within c-Abl are less clear. While the NCap appears important for locking the SH3/SH2 domains to the back of the kinase domain, there may be other more subtle elements of regulation. Hydro...

  4. SH2 dependent autophosphorylation within the Tec family kinase Itk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Raji E.; Severin, Andrew; Min, Lie; Fulton, D. Bruce; Andreotti, Amy H.

    2009-01-01

    The Tec family kinase, Itk, undergoes an in cis autophosphorylation on Y180 within its SH3 domain. Autophosphorylation of the Itk SH3 domain by the Itk kinase domain is strictly dependent on the presence of the intervening SH2 domain. A direct docking interaction between the Itk kinase and SH2 domains brings the Itk SH3 domain into the active site where Y180 is then phosphorylated. We now identify the residues on the surface of the Itk SH2 domain responsible for substrate docking and show that this SH2 surface mediates autophosphorylation in the full length Itk molecule. The canonical phospholigand binding site on the SH2 domain is not involved in substrate docking, instead the docking site consists of side chains from three loop regions (AB, EF and BG) and part of the βD strand. These results are extended into Btk, a Tec family kinase linked to the B cell deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Our results suggest that some XLA causing mutations might impair Btk phosphorylation. PMID:19523959

  5. Met1-linked Ubiquitination in Immune Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Methionine 1-linked ubiquitin chains (Met1-Ub), or linear ubiquitin, has emerged as a central post-translational modification in innate immune signalling. Molecular machinery that assembles, senses and, more recently, disassembles Met1-Ub has been identified, and technical advances have enabled...... identification of physiological substrates for Met1-Ub in response to activation of innate immune receptors. These discoveries have significantly advanced our understanding of how non-degradative ubiquitin modifications control pro-inflammatory responses mediated by nuclear factor κB and mitogen...

  6. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  7. The Pim kinases: new targets for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan; Kelly, Kevin; Carew, Jennifer; Nawrocki, Stefan; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Sarantopoulos, John; Bearss, David; Giles, Francis

    2011-12-01

    The three Pim kinases are a small family of serine/threonine kinases regulating several signaling pathways that are fundamental to cancer development and progression. They were first recognized as pro-viral integration sites for the Moloney Murine Leukemia virus. Unlike other kinases, they possess a hinge region which creates a unique binding pocket for ATP. Absence of a regulatory domain means that these proteins are constitutively active once transcribed. Pim kinases are critical downstream effectors of the ABL (ableson), JAK2 (janus kinase 2), and Flt-3 (FMS related tyrosine kinase 1) oncogenes and are required by them to drive tumorigenesis. Recent investigations have established that the Pim kinases function as effective inhibitors of apoptosis and when overexpressed, produce resistance to the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor, rapamycin . Overexpression of the PIM kinases has been reported in several hematological and solid tumors (PIM 1), myeloma, lymphoma, leukemia (PIM 2) and adenocarcinomas (PIM 3). As such, the Pim kinases are a very attractive target for pharmacological inhibition in cancer therapy. Novel small molecule inhibitors of the human Pim kinases have been designed and are currently undergoing preclinical evaluation.

  8. {sup 89}Zr-Onartuzumab PET imaging of c-MET receptor dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, Martin; Kol, Arjan; Giesen, Danique; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University of Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G.T. [University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N. [University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    c-MET and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor are often dysregulated in human cancers. Dynamic changes in c-MET expression occur and might predict drug efficacy or emergence of resistance. Noninvasive visualization of c-MET dynamics could therefore potentially guide c-MET-directed therapies. We investigated the feasibility of {sup 89}Zr-labelled one-armed c-MET antibody onartuzumab PET for detecting relevant changes in c-MET levels induced by c-MET-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib resistance or heat shock protein-90 (HSP90) inhibitor NVP-AUY-922 treatment in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenografts. In vitro membrane c-MET levels were determined by flow cytometry. HCC827ErlRes, an erlotinib-resistant clone with c-MET upregulation, was generated from the exon-19 EGFR-mutant human NSCLC cell line HCC827. Mice bearing HCC827 and HCC827ErlRes tumours in opposite flanks underwent {sup 89}Zr-onartuzumab PET scans. The HCC827-xenografted mice underwent {sup 89}Zr-onartuzumab PET scans before treatment and while receiving biweekly intraperitoneal injections of 100 mg/kg NVP-AUY-922 or vehicle. Ex vivo, tumour c-MET immunohistochemistry was correlated with the imaging results. In vitro, membrane c-MET was upregulated in HCC827ErlRes tumours by 213 ± 44% in relation to the level in HCC827 tumours, while c-MET was downregulated by 69 ± 9% in HCC827 tumours following treatment with NVP-AUY-922. In vivo, {sup 89}Zr-onartuzumab uptake was 26% higher (P < 0.05) in erlotinib-resistant HCC827ErlRes than in HCC827 xenografts, while HCC827 tumour uptake was 33% lower (P < 0.001) following NVP-AUY-922 treatment. The results show that {sup 89}Zr-onartuzumab PET effectively discriminates relevant changes in c-MET levels and could potentially be used clinically to monitor c-MET status. (orig.)

  9. Gesloten kringloop met omgekeerde osmose of membraandestilatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijger, H.; Os, van E.A.

    2011-01-01

    TNO heeft samen met Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw een inventarisatie uitgevoerd naar geschikte zuiveringstechnieken om de waterstroom op tuinbouwbedrijven gesloten te krijgen. Uit de haalbaarheidstudie komen twee veelbelovende technieken naar voren die op vrij korte termijn inzetbaar zijn: omgekeerde

  10. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  11. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  12. Bio-composiet : Thermoplastische kunsstof met natuurvezels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Goselink, E.A. (Erik)

    2013-01-01

    Een biocomposiet wordt samengesteld uit een vezel en een hars. In dit document worden twee verwerkingsvormen van biocomposieten behandeld: - Vezel/poeder versterkt kunststof (granulaat); - Kunststof plaatmateriaal versterkt met een weefsel (laminaat), ook wel Sizopreg® genoemd. Door een

  13. Intern transport beter te plannen met computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Verbetering van intern transport in de potplantenteelt. Door getoetste vuistregels te combineren met toegepaste wiskunde is automatische planning van het intern transport binnen handbereik. Dit leidt tot minder transportbewegingen en tijdsbesparing bij het plannen

  14. Fosfaatwerking ogranische meststoffen vergelijkbaar met kunstmest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Pasterkamp, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    Gegevens in bijgaande tabel: Indicatieve fosfaatgehalten en de relatieve verdeling over mineraalfosfaat en organisch gebonden fosfaat in meststoffen met per mestsoort gegevens over het totaal fosfaatgehalte, het percentage mineraal fosfaat en het percentage organisch fosfaat

  15. Technisch lego met een Duplo-interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.; Schipper, D.

    2008-01-01

    Daedalus is een ontwerpflow op systeemniveau waarmee techneuten snel kunnen experimenteren met verschillende multiprocessorarchitecturen tijdens de vroege stadia van het ontwerptraject. Het is het resultaat van tien jaar onderzoek en ontwikkeling binnen de Progress-projecten Artemis en Artemisia.

  16. Extraboard performance : TriMet case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This paper examines extraboard operations and management at TriMet, the transit provider for the Portland Oregon metropolitan area. The : extraboard consists of a pool of operators who fill open work resulting from absences and other causes. The pape...

  17. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  18. Td4IN2: A drought-responsive durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene coding for a resistance like protein with serine/threonine protein kinase, nucleotide binding site and leucine rich domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Patrizia; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; De Caroli, Monica; Luvisi, Andrea; De Bellis, Luigi; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla

    2017-11-01

    Wheat, the main food source for a third of world population, appears strongly under threat because of predicted increasing temperatures coupled to drought. Plant complex molecular response to drought stress relies on the gene network controlling cell reactions to abiotic stress. In the natural environment, plants are subjected to the combination of abiotic and biotic stresses. Also the response of plants to biotic stress, to cope with pathogens, involves the activation of a molecular network. Investigations on combination of abiotic and biotic stresses indicate the existence of cross-talk between the two networks and a kind of overlapping can be hypothesized. In this work we describe the isolation and characterization of a drought-related durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene, identified in a previous study, coding for a protein combining features of NBS-LRR type resistance protein with a S/TPK domain, involved in drought stress response. This is one of the few examples reported where all three domains are present in a single protein and, to our knowledge, it is the first report on a gene specifically induced by drought stress and drought-related conditions, with this particular structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  20. Operational Use of OGC Web Services at the Met Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    graphs, and combined with the WMS pre-rendered images and text, in a FLEX application, to provide sophisticated, user impact-based view of the weather. The OGC web services supporting these applications have been developed in collaboration with commercial companies. Visual Weather was originally a desktop application for forecasters, but IBL have developed it to expose the full range of forecast and observation data through standard web services (WCS and WMS). Forecasts and observations relating to specific locations and geographic features are held in an Oracle Database, and exposed as a WFS using Snowflake Software's GO-Publisher application. The Met Office has worked closely with both IBL and Snowflake Software to ensure that the web services provided strike a balance between conformance to the standards and performance in an operational environment. This has proved challenging in areas where the standards are rapidly evolving (e.g. WCS) or do not allow adequate description of the Met-Ocean domain (e.g. multiple time coordinates and parametric vertical coordinates). It has also become clear that careful selection of the features to expose, based on the way in which you expect users to query those features, in necessary in order to deliver adequate performance. These experiences are providing useful 'real-world' input in to the recently launched OGC MetOcean Domain Working Group and World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) initiatives in this area.

  1. The c-Met Inhibitor MSC2156119J Effectively Inhibits Tumor Growth in Liver Cancer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, Friedhelm, E-mail: Friedhelm.Bladt@merckgroup.com; Friese-Hamim, Manja; Ihling, Christian; Wilm, Claudia; Blaukat, Andree [EMD Serono, and Merck Serono Research and Development, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt 64293 (Germany)

    2014-08-19

    The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as its only high-affinity ligand. Aberrant activation of c-Met is associated with many human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the in vivo antitumor and antimetastatic efficacy of the c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J (EMD 1214063) in patient-derived tumor explants. BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with MHCC97H cells or with tumor fragments of 10 patient-derived primary liver cancer explants selected according to c-Met/HGF expression levels. MSC2156119J (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and sorafenib (50 mg/kg) were administered orally as single-agent treatment or in combination, with vehicle as control. Tumor response, metastases formation, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured. MSC2156119J inhibited tumor growth and induced complete regression in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MHCC97H tumors. AFP levels were undetectable after 5 weeks of MSC2156119J treatment, and the number of metastatic lung foci was reduced. Primary liver explant models with strong c-Met/HGF activation showed increased responsiveness to MSC2156119J, with MSC2156119J showing similar or superior activity to sorafenib. Tumors characterized by low c-Met expression were less sensitive to MSC2156119J. MSC2156119J was better tolerated than sorafenib, and combination therapy did not improve efficacy. These findings indicate that selective c-Met/HGF inhibition with MSC2156119J is associated with marked regression of c-Met high-expressing tumors, supporting its clinical development as an antitumor treatment for HCC patients with active c-Met signaling.

  2. The Pleiotropic MET Receptor Network: Circuit Development and the Neural-Medical Interface of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleson, Kathie L; Xie, Zhihui; Levitt, Pat

    2017-03-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are behaviorally and medically heterogeneous. The combination of polygenicity and gene pleiotropy-the influence of one gene on distinct phenotypes-raises questions of how specific genes and their protein products interact to contribute to NDDs. A preponderance of evidence supports developmental and pathophysiological roles for the MET receptor tyrosine kinase, a multifunctional receptor that mediates distinct biological responses depending upon cell context. MET influences neuron architecture and synapse maturation in the forebrain and regulates homeostasis in gastrointestinal and immune systems, both commonly disrupted in NDDs. Peak expression of synapse-enriched MET is conserved across rodent and primate forebrain, yet regional differences in primate neocortex are pronounced, with enrichment in circuits that participate in social information processing. A functional risk allele in the MET promoter, enriched in subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder, reduces transcription and disrupts socially relevant neural circuits structurally and functionally. In mice, circuit-specific deletion of Met causes distinct atypical behaviors. MET activation increases dendritic complexity and nascent synapse number, but synapse maturation requires reductions in MET. MET mediates its specific biological effects through different intracellular signaling pathways and has a complex protein interactome that is enriched in autism spectrum disorder and other NDD candidates. The interactome is coregulated in developing human neocortex. We suggest that a gene as pleiotropic and highly regulated as MET, together with its interactome, is biologically relevant in normal and pathophysiological contexts, affecting central and peripheral phenotypes that contribute to NDD risk and clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  4. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinases are important targets for drug development because many proteins in the PI3 kinase signaling pathway are mutated, hyperactivated, or overexpressed in human cancers. Here, the authors coexpressed the human class Ia PI3 kinase p110alpha catalytic domain with an N-terminal....... In parallel, a second assay format using the AlphaScreen technology was optimized to measure PI3 kinase activity. Both assay formats used should be suitable for high-throughput screening for the identification of PI3 kinase inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening XXXX:xx-xx)....

  5. Targeting the MET oncogene by concomitant inhibition of receptor and ligand via an antibody-"decoy" strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilico, Cristina; Modica, Chiara; Maione, Federica; Vigna, Elisa; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2018-04-25

    MET, a master gene sustaining "invasive growth," is a relevant target for cancer precision therapy. In the vast majority of tumors, wild-type MET behaves as a "stress-response" gene and relies on the ligand (HGF) to sustain cell "scattering," invasive growth and apoptosis protection (oncogene "expedience"). In this context, concomitant targeting of MET and HGF could be crucial to reach effective inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we combined an anti-MET antibody (MvDN30) inducing "shedding" (i.e., removal of MET from the cell surface), with a "decoy" (i.e., the soluble extracellular domain of the MET receptor) endowed with HGF-sequestering ability. To avoid antibody/decoy interaction-and subsequent neutralization-we identified a single aminoacid in the extracellular domain of MET-lysine 842-that is critical for MvDN30 binding and engineered the corresponding recombinant decoyMET (K842E). DecoyMET K842E retains the ability to bind HGF with high affinity and inhibits HGF-induced MET phosphorylation. In HGF-dependent cellular models, MvDN30 antibody and decoyMET K842E used in combination cooperate in restraining invasive growth, and synergize in blocking cancer cell "scattering." The antibody and the decoy unbridle apoptosis of colon cancer stem cells grown in vitro as spheroids. In a preclinical model, built by orthotopic transplantation of a human pancreatic carcinoma in SCID mice engineered to express human HGF, concomitant treatment with antibody and decoy significantly reduces metastatic spread. The data reported indicate that vertical targeting of the MET/HGF axis results in powerful inhibition of ligand-dependent MET activation, providing proof of concept in favor of combined target therapy of MET "expedience." © 2018 UICC.

  6. PAK4 crystal structures suggest unusual kinase conformational movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Eric Y; Ha, Byung Hak; Boggon, Titus J

    2018-02-01

    In order for protein kinases to exchange nucleotide they must open and close their catalytic cleft. These motions are associated with rotations of the N-lobe, predominantly around the 'hinge region'. We conducted an analysis of 28 crystal structures of the serine-threonine kinase, p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), including three newly determined structures in complex with staurosporine, FRAX486, and fasudil (HA-1077). We find an unusual motion between the N-lobe and C-lobe of PAK4 that manifests as a partial unwinding of helix αC. Principal component analysis of the crystal structures rationalizes these movements into three major states, and analysis of the kinase hydrophobic spines indicates concerted movements that create an accessible back pocket cavity. The conformational changes that we observe for PAK4 differ from previous descriptions of kinase motions, and although we observe these differences in crystal structures there is the possibility that the movements observed may suggest a diversity of kinase conformational changes associated with regulation. Protein kinases are key signaling proteins, and are important drug targets, therefore understanding their regulation is important for both basic research and clinical points of view. In this study, we observe unusual conformational 'hinging' for protein kinases. Hinging, the opening and closing of the kinase sub-domains to allow nucleotide binding and release, is critical for proper kinase regulation and for targeted drug discovery. We determine new crystal structures of PAK4, an important Rho-effector kinase, and conduct analyses of these and previously determined structures. We find that PAK4 crystal structures can be classified into specific conformational groups, and that these groups are associated with previously unobserved hinging motions and an unusual conformation for the kinase hydrophobic core. Our findings therefore indicate that there may be a diversity of kinase hinging motions, and that these may

  7. Moonlighting kinases with guanylate cyclase activity can tune regulatory signal networks

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.; Kwezi, Lusisizwe; Wheeler, Janet I.; Gehring, Christoph A

    2012-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in plants. One family of plant GCs contains the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases such as the phytosulfokine and brassinosteroid receptors. In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples of moonlighting proteins with dual catalytic function. The natural ligands for both receptors increase intracellular cGMP levels in isolated mesophyll protoplast assays suggesting that the GC activity is functionally relevant. cGMP production may have an autoregulatory role on receptor kinase activity and/or contribute to downstream cell expansion responses. We postulate that the receptors are members of a novel class of receptor kinases that contain functional moonlighting GC domains essential for complex signaling roles.

  8. Moonlighting kinases with guanylate cyclase activity can tune regulatory signal networks

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.

    2012-02-01

    Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in plants. One family of plant GCs contains the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases such as the phytosulfokine and brassinosteroid receptors. In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples of moonlighting proteins with dual catalytic function. The natural ligands for both receptors increase intracellular cGMP levels in isolated mesophyll protoplast assays suggesting that the GC activity is functionally relevant. cGMP production may have an autoregulatory role on receptor kinase activity and/or contribute to downstream cell expansion responses. We postulate that the receptors are members of a novel class of receptor kinases that contain functional moonlighting GC domains essential for complex signaling roles.

  9. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  10. Growth- and Stress-Induced PASTA Kinase Phosphorylation in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Benjamin D; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes Such PASTA kinases regulate critical processes, including antibiotic resistance, cell division, toxin production, and virulence, and are essential for viability in certain organisms. Based on in vitro studies with purified extracellular and intracellular fragments of PASTA kinases, a model for signaling has been proposed, in which the extracellular PASTA domains bind currently undefined ligands (typically thought to be peptidoglycan, or fragments thereof) to drive kinase dimerization, which leads to enhanced kinase autophosphorylation and enhanced phosphorylation of substrates. However, this model has not been rigorously tested in vivo Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive intestinal commensal and major antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogen. In E. faecalis , the PASTA kinase IreK drives intrinsic resistance to cell wall-active antimicrobials, suggesting that such antimicrobials may trigger IreK signaling. Here we show that IreK responds to cell wall stress in vivo by enhancing its phosphorylation and that of a downstream substrate. This response requires both the extracellular PASTA domains and specific phosphorylatable residues in the kinase domain. Thus, our results provide in vivo evidence, with an intact full-length PASTA kinase in its native physiological environment, that supports the prevailing model of PASTA kinase signaling. In addition, we show that IreK responds to a signal associated with growth and/or cell division, in the absence of cell wall-active antimicrobials. Surprisingly, the ability of IreK to respond to growth and/or division does not require the extracellular PASTA domains, suggesting that IreK monitors multiple parameters for sensory input in vivo IMPORTANCE Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and regulate critical processes. The

  11. Src homology domain 2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) binds and dephosphorylates G(alpha)-interacting, vesicle-associated protein (GIV)/Girdin and attenuates the GIV-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Yash; Pavlova, Yelena; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2011-09-16

    GIV (Gα-interacting vesicle-associated protein, also known as Girdin) is a bona fide enhancer of PI3K-Akt signals during a diverse set of biological processes, e.g. wound healing, macrophage chemotaxis, tumor angiogenesis, and cancer invasion/metastasis. We recently demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV by receptor and non-receptor-tyrosine kinases is a key step that is required for GIV to directly bind and enhance PI3K activity. Here we report the discovery that Src homology 2-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is the major protein-tyrosine phosphatase that targets two critical phosphotyrosines within GIV and antagonizes phospho-GIV-dependent PI3K enhancement in mammalian cells. Using phosphorylation-dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that SHP-1 is the major and specific protein-tyrosine phosphatase that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of tyrosine-phosphorylated GIV in vitro and inhibits ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV downstream of both growth factor receptors and GPCRs in cells. In vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that SHP-1 and GIV interact directly and constitutively and that this interaction occurs between the SH2 domain of SHP-1 and the C terminus of GIV. Overexpression of SHP-1 inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV and formation of phospho-GIV-PI3K complexes, and specifically suppresses GIV-dependent activation of Akt. Consistently, depletion of SHP-1 enhances peak tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV, which coincides with an increase in peak Akt activity. We conclude that SHP-1 antagonizes the action of receptor and non-receptor-tyrosine kinases on GIV and down-regulates the phospho-GIV-PI3K-Akt axis of signaling.

  12. MetBaro - Pressure Device for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Polkko, Jouni; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Leinonen, Jussi; Genzer, Maria; Mäkinen, Teemu

    2010-05-01

    MetNet Mars Mission focused for Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure sensor of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitive type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 4 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  13. MetHumi - Humidity Device for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Polkko, Jouni; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Leinonen, Jussi; Mäkinen, Teemu; Haukka, Harri

    2010-05-01

    MetNet Mars Mission focused for Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetHumi is the humidity sensor of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Humicap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetHumi is a capacitive type of sensing device where an active polymer film changes capacitance as function of relative humidity. One MetHumi device package consists of one humidity transducer including three Humicap® sensor heads, an accurate temperature sensor head (Thermocap® by Vaisala, Inc.) and constant reference channels. MetHumi is very small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs only about 15 g without wires, and consumes 15 mW of power. MetHumi can make meaningful relative humidity measurements in range of 0 - 100%RH down to -70°C ambient temperature, but it survives even -135°C ambient temperature.

  14. Constitutive Activity in an Ancestral Form of Abl Tyrosine Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat U Aleem

    Full Text Available The c-abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is found in all metazoans, and is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues. The Abl tyrosine kinase plays important roles in the regulation of mammalian cell physiology. Abl-like kinases have been identified in the genomes of unicellular choanoflagellates, the closest relatives to the Metazoa, and in related unicellular organisms. Here, we have carried out the first characterization of a premetazoan Abl kinase, MbAbl2, from the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The enzyme possesses SH3, SH2, and kinase domains in a similar arrangement to its mammalian counterparts, and is an active tyrosine kinase. MbAbl2 lacks the N-terminal myristoylation and cap sequences that are critical regulators of mammalian Abl kinase activity, and we show that MbAbl2 is constitutively active. When expressed in mammalian cells, MbAbl2 strongly phosphorylates cellular proteins on tyrosine, and transforms cells much more potently than mammalian Abl kinase. Thus, MbAbl2 appears to lack the autoinhibitory mechanism that tightly constrains the activity of mammalian Abl kinases, suggesting that this regulatory apparatus arose more recently in metazoan evolution.

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-MET signaling in neural crest-derived melanocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, L; Aronzon, A; Takayama, H; Maina, F; Ponzetto, C; Merlino, G; Pavan, W

    1999-02-01

    The mechanisms governing development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, and how alterations in these pathways lead to hypopigmentation disorders, are not completely understood. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) signaling through the tyrosine-kinase receptor, MET, is capable of promoting the proliferation, increasing the motility, and maintaining high tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis of melanocytes in vitro. In addition, transgenic mice that ubiquitously overexpress HGF/SF demonstrate hyperpigmentation in the skin and leptomenigenes and develop melanomas. To investigate whether HGF/ SF-MET signaling is involved in the development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, transgenic embryos, ubiquitously overexpressing HGF/SF, were analyzed. In HGF/SF transgenic embryos, the distribution of melanoblasts along the characteristic migratory pathway was not affected. However, additional ectopically localized melanoblasts were also observed in the dorsal root ganglia and neural tube, as early as 11.5 days post coitus (p.c.). We utilized an in vitro neural crest culture assay to further explore the role of HGF/SF-MET signaling in neural crest development. HGF/SF added to neural crest cultures increased melanoblast number, permitted differentiation into pigmented melanocytes, promoted melanoblast survival, and could replace mast-cell growth factor/Steel factor (MGF) in explant cultures. To examine whether HGF/SF-MET signaling is required for the proper development of melanocytes, embryos with a targeted Met null mutation (Met-/-) were analysed. In Met-/- embryos, melanoblast number and location were not overtly affected up to 14 days p.c. These results demonstrate that HGF/SF-MET signaling influences, but is not required for, the initial development of neural crest-derived melanocytes in vivo and in vitro.

  16. Pharmacogenetics of telatinib, a VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, used in patients with solid tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Steeghs (Neeltje); A.J. Gelderblom (Hans); J.A.M. Wessels (Judith); F.A.L.M. Eskens (Ferry); N. de Bont (Natasja); J.W. Nortier (Johan); H.J. Guchelaar (Henk Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSummary: Purpose Telatinib is an orally active small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR; VEGFR-2) and fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4; VEGFR-3). This study aims at the identification of relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

  17. Structural analysis of the Csk homologous kinase CHK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhern, T.; Chong, Y.-P.; Cheng, H.-C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: CHK (Csk homologous kinase) is an intracellular protein tyrosine kinase, which is highly expressed in the haematopoietic system and the brain. The in vivo role of CHK is to specifically phosphorylate and deactivate the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases. The members of the Src family: Src, Blk, Fyn, Fgr, Hck, Lck, Lyn, Yes and Yrk are major players in numerous cell signalling pathways and exquisitely tuned control of Src family activity is fundamental to many processes in normal cells (reviewed in Lowell and Soriano, 1996). For example, the Src family kinase Fyn is highly expressed in the brain and its activity is vital for memory and learning. In the haematopoietic system, the Src family kinase Hck controls cytoskeletal reorganization, cell motility and immunologic activation. While the Csk family enzymes are closely related to the Src proteins (∼37% identity), the x-ray crystal structures of Src (Xu et al., 1997) and Csk (Ogawa et al., 2002) do display several important differences. Unlike Src, the Csk the SH2 and SH3 domains do not bind intramolecular ligands and they adopt a strikingly different disposition to that observed in Src. Another interesting feature is that the linkers between the SH3 and SH2 domains and between the SH2 and kinase domains, are in intimate contact with the N-lobe of kinase and both appear to play important roles in regulation of the kinase activity. However, the structural and functional basis of how this can be altered is still unclear. We describe the results of biochemical analyses of CHK mediated deactivation of Hck, which suggest that in addition to direct tail-phosphorylation, protein-protein interactions are important. We also describe heteronuclear NMR studies of the structure and ligand binding properties of the CHK SH2 and SH3 domains with a particular emphasis on the transmission of regulatory signals from the ligand binding sites to the interdomain linkers

  18. C-MET overexpression and amplification in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonjin; Kim, Seong-Ik; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Soon-Tae; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    We investigated c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification in gliomas to determine their incidence and prognostic significance. c-Met immunohistochemistry and MET gene fluorescence in situ hybridization were carried out on tissue microarrays from 250 patients with gliomas (137 grade IV GBMs and 113 grade II and III diffuse gliomas). Clinicopathological features of these cases were reviewed. c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification were detected in 13.1% and 5.1% of the GBMs, respectively. All the MET-amplified cases showed c-Met overexpression, but MET amplification was not always concordant with c-Met overexpression. None of grade II and III gliomas demonstrated c-Met overexpression or MET gene amplification. Mean survival of the GBM patients with MET amplification was not significantly different from patients without MET amplification (P=0.155). However, GBM patients with c-Met overexpression survived longer than patients without c-Met overexpression (P=0.035). Although MET amplification was not related to poor GBM prognosis, it is partially associated with the aggressiveness of gliomas, as MET amplification was found only in grade IV, not in grade II and III gliomas. We suggest that MET inhibitor therapy may be beneficial in about 5% GBMs, which was the incidence of MET gene amplification found in the patients included in this study.

  19. A photoaffinity scan maps regions of the p85 SH2 domain involved in phosphoprotein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K P; Shoelson, S E

    1993-03-15

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are modular phosphotyrosine binding pockets found within a wide variety of cytoplasmic signaling molecules. Here we develop a new approach to analyzing protein-protein interfaces termed photoaffinity scanning, and apply the method to map regions of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 SH2 domain that participate in phospho-protein binding. Each residue except phosphotyrosine (pY) within a tightly binding, IRS-1-derived phosphopeptide (GNGDpYMPMSPKS) was substituted with the photoactive amino acid, benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa). Whereas most substitutions had little effect on binding affinity, Bpa substitution of either Met (+1 and +3 with respect to pY) reduced affinity 50-100-fold to confirm their importance in the pYMXM recognition motif. In three cases photolysis of SH2 domain/Bpa phosphopeptide complexes led to cross-linking of > 50% of the SH2 domain; cross-link positions were identified by microsequence, amino acid composition, and electrospray mass spectrometric analyses. Bpa-1 cross-links within alpha-helix I, whereas Bpa+1 and Bpa+4 cross-link the SH2 domain within the flexible loop C-terminal to alpha-helix II. Moreover, cross-linking at any position prevents SH2 domain cleavage at a trypsin-sensitive site within the flexible loop between beta-strands 1 and 2. Therefore, at least three distinct SH2 regions in addition to the beta-sheet participate in phosphoprotein binding; the loop cross-linked by phosphopeptide residues C-terminal to pY appears to confer specificity to the phosphoprotein/SH2 domain interaction.

  20. Metazoan-like signaling in a unicellular receptor tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultheiss Kira P

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs are crucial components of signal transduction systems in multicellular animals. Surprisingly, numerous RTKs have been identified in the genomes of unicellular choanoflagellates and other protists. Here, we report the first biochemical study of a unicellular RTK, namely RTKB2 from Monosiga brevicollis. Results We cloned, expressed, and purified the RTKB2 kinase, and showed that it is enzymatically active. The activity of RTKB2 is controlled by autophosphorylation, as in metazoan RTKs. RTKB2 possesses six copies of a unique domain (designated RM2 in its C-terminal tail. An isolated RM2 domain (or a synthetic peptide derived from the RM2 sequence served as a substrate for RTKB2 kinase. When phosphorylated, the RM2 domain bound to the Src homology 2 domain of MbSrc1 from M. brevicollis. NMR structural studies of the RM2 domain indicated that it is disordered in solution. Conclusions Our results are consistent with a model in which RTKB2 activation stimulates receptor autophosphorylation within the RM2 domains. This leads to recruitment of Src-like kinases (and potentially other M. brevicollis proteins and further phosphorylation, which may serve to increase or dampen downstream signals. Thus, crucial features of signal transduction circuitry were established prior to the evolution of metazoans from their unicellular ancestors.

  1. No association of the BDNF val66met polymorphism with implicit associative vocabulary and motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Freundlieb

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been suggested to play a major role in plasticity, neurogenesis and learning in the adult brain. The BDNF gene contains a common val66met polymorphism associated with decreased activity-dependent excretion of BDNF and a potential influence on behaviour, more specifically, on motor learning. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the BDNF val66met polymorphism on short-term implicit associative learning and whether its influence is cognitive domain-specific (motor vs. language. A sample of 38 young healthy participants was genotyped, screened for background and neuropsychological differences, and tested with two associative implicit learning paradigms in two different cognitive domains, i.e., motor and vocabulary learning. Subjects performed the serial reaction time task (SRTT to determine implicit motor learning and a recently established associative vocabulary learning task (AVL for implicit learning of action and object words. To determine the influence of the BDNF polymorphism on domain-specific implicit learning, behavioural improvements in the two tasks were compared between val/val (n = 22 and met carriers (val/met: n = 15 and met/met: n = 1. There was no evidence for an impact of the BDNF val66met polymorphism on the behavioural outcome in implicit short-term learning paradigms in young healthy subjects. Whether this polymorphism plays a relevant role in long-term training paradigms or in subjects with impaired neuronal plasticity or reduced learning capacity, such as aged individuals, demented patients or patients with brain lesions, has to be determined in future studies.

  2. A dynamically coupled allosteric network underlies binding cooperativity in Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Zachariah H; Shan, Yibing; Kim, Eric T; Shaw, David E; Seeliger, Markus A

    2015-01-20

    Protein tyrosine kinases are attractive drug targets because many human diseases are associated with the deregulation of kinase activity. However, how the catalytic kinase domain integrates different signals and switches from an active to an inactive conformation remains incompletely understood. Here we identify an allosteric network of dynamically coupled amino acids in Src kinase that connects regulatory sites to the ATP- and substrate-binding sites. Surprisingly, reactants (ATP and peptide substrates) bind with negative cooperativity to Src kinase while products (ADP and phosphopeptide) bind with positive cooperativity. We confirm the molecular details of the signal relay through the allosteric network by biochemical studies. Experiments on two additional protein tyrosine kinases indicate that the allosteric network may be largely conserved among these enzymes. Our work provides new insights into the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases and establishes a potential conduit by which resistance mutations to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors can affect their activity.

  3. Samen in Zee met Zelfregulatie: Een Design-Based Aanpak met Vmbo Leraren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jossberger, Helen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els; Van de Wiel, Margje

    2010-01-01

    Jossberger, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Van der Wiel, M. (2010, June). Samen in Zee met Zelfregulatie: Een Design-Based Aanpak met Vmbo Leraren. Poster presented at the 37th Onderwijs Research Dagen (ORD), Enschede, Nederland.

  4. MetBaro - Pressure Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkko, J.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitic type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 6 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  5. Second-generation inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK is a critical effector molecule for B cell development and plays a major role in lymphoma genesis. Ibrutinib is the first-generation BTK inhibitor. Ibrutinib has off-target effects on EGFR, ITK, and Tec family kinases, which explains the untoward effects of ibrutinib. Resistance to ibrutinib was also reported. The C481S mutation in the BTK kinase domain was reported to be a major mechanism of resistance to ibrutinib. This review summarizes the clinical development of novel BTK inhibitors, ACP-196 (acalabrutinib, ONO/GS-4059, and BGB-3111.

  6. Inhaken met sociale media in 60 minuten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs Waardenburg; Komala Mazerant

    2018-01-01

    Met creatieve content die slim inhaakt op actuele gebeurtenissen kun je elke dag nieuwe mensen bereiken. Goedkoper dan adverteren op sociale media, en sympathieker bovendien.Thijs Waardenburg en Komala Mazerant leggen uit hoe je kansrijke inhakers bedenkt en communiceert om je bereik op sociale

  7. Varroabestrijding met bijenbroed als mijtenval (2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.; Beetsma, J.; Boot, W.J.; Eijnde, van den J.; Ruijter, de A.

    1994-01-01

    Bij deze bestrijdingsmethode worden belegde darreraten uit een moergoede veger overgehangen naar het moerloze en later broedloze hoofdvolk. Hier worden de mijten die zich op de bijen bevinden gevangen. Nadat de laatste darreraat uit een hoofdvolk is verwijderd, wordt het bijenvolk met Perizine

  8. Beeldverwerking met de Micron Automatic Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Goyens, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Deze thesis is een onderzoek naar toepassingen binnen beeldverwerking op de Micron Automata Processor hardware. De hardware wordt vergeleken met populaire hedendaagse hardware. Ook bevat dit onderzoek nuttige informatie en strategieën voor het ontwikkelen van nieuwe toepassingen. Bevindingen in dit onderzoek omvatten proof of concept algoritmes en een praktische toepassing.

  9. Groen proceswater: zuivering brouwerijprocesafvalwater met microalgen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Kroon, A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 is het project Groen Proceswater gestart. Hierin worden de mogelijkheden van zuivering van brouwerijprocesafvalwater met behulp van microalgen onderzocht. Dit is gedaan in een samenwerkingsverband van Heineken Nederland BV, Algae Food & Fuel en WUR-ACRRES. De resultaten behaald in 2012

  10. Evangelisch Commando, onze omgamg met de buitenkerkelijke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Of J. en E. dus interkerklik is, bly 'n vraag! Die gedeelte oor die „Oorzaken van buitenkerklijkheid is prikkelend en interessant. Die vraag is net of dit nie nog dieper gesoek moet word, nl. in die herontwaking van die Heidendom wat sig sins die Renaissance hardnekkig deur sit met die outonomie van die mens in die sentrum.

  11. Risicoanalyse voor buisleidingen met brandbare vloeistoffen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet AAC; Laheij GMH; Wolting AG; CEV

    2006-01-01

    De minimale veiligheidsafstanden tussen buisleidingen met brandbare vloeistoffen en bebouwingen kunnen gelijk blijven of iets verkleind worden. Dit is de conclusie na een herberekening van de afstanden uit een circulaire uit 1991. In Nederland ligt zo'n 1850 kilometer aan ondergrondse buisleiding

  12. A brief report on mets system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.

    Mets system is basically a gas monitoring system, used for the detection of underwater gas. The system consists of a sensor, datalogger and energy module. The sensor works on the diffusion techniques. The system can be deployed to a water depth...

  13. Kinetic properties of ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Sean C; Fribourgh, Jennifer L; Donohoue, Paul D; Segel, Irwin H; Fisher, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    The Thiobacillus denitrificans genome contains two sequences corresponding to ATP sulfurylase (Tbd_0210 and Tbd_0874). Both genes were cloned and expressed protein characterized. The larger protein (Tbd_0210; 544 residues) possesses an N-terminal ATP sulfurylase domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain and was therefore annotated as a bifunctional enzyme. But, the protein was not bifunctional because it lacked ATP sulfurylase activity. However, the enzyme did possess APS kinase activity and displayed substrate inhibition by APS. Truncated protein missing the N-terminal domain had APS kinase activity suggesting the function of the inactive sulfurylase domain is to promote the oligomerization of the APS kinase domains. The smaller gene product (Tbd_0874; 402 residues) possessed strong ATP sulfurylase activity with kinetic properties that appear to be kinetically optimized for the direction of APS utilization and ATP+sulfate production, which is consistent with an enzyme that functions physiologically to produce inorganic sulfate.

  14. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  15. Interaction between focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate p130Cas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, T R; Hanks, S K

    1995-11-07

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated in integrin-mediated signaling events and in the mechanism of cell transformation by the v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. To gain further insight into FAK signaling pathways, we used a two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with mouse FAK. The screen identified two proteins that interact with FAK via their Src homology 3 (SH3) domains: a v-Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate (Cas), p130Cas, and a still uncharacterized protein, FIPSH3-2, which contains an SH3 domain closely related to that of p130Cas. These SH3 domains bind to the same proline-rich region of FAK (APPKPSR) encompassing residues 711-717. The mouse p130Cas amino acid sequence was deduced from cDNA clones, revealing an overall high degree of similarity to the recently reported rat sequence. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that p130Cas and FAK are associated in mouse fibroblasts. The stable interaction between p130Cas and FAK emerges as a likely key element in integrin-mediated signal transduction and further represents a direct molecular link between the v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. The Src family kinase Fyn, whose Src homology 2 (SH2) domain binds to the major FAK autophosphorylation site (tyrosine 397), was also identified in the two-hybrid screen.

  16. Signaling by Kit protein-tyrosine kinase--the stem cell factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-11-11

    Signaling by stem cell factor and Kit, its receptor, plays important roles in gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, mast cell development and function, and melanogenesis. Moreover, human and mouse embryonic stem cells express Kit transcripts. Stem cell factor exists as both a soluble and a membrane-bound glycoprotein while Kit is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. The complete absence of stem cell factor or Kit is lethal. Deficiencies of either produce defects in red and white blood cell production, hypopigmentation, and sterility. Gain-of-function mutations of Kit are associated with several human neoplasms including acute myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and mastocytomas. Kit consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, and a protein kinase domain that contains an insert of about 80 amino acid residues. Binding of stem cell factor to Kit results in receptor dimerization and activation of protein kinase activity. The activated receptor becomes autophosphorylated at tyrosine residues that serve as docking sites for signal transduction molecules containing SH2 domains. The adaptor protein APS, Src family kinases, and Shp2 tyrosyl phosphatase bind to phosphotyrosine 568. Shp1 tyrosyl phosphatase and the adaptor protein Shc bind to phosphotyrosine 570. C-terminal Src kinase homologous kinase and the adaptor Shc bind to both phosphotyrosines 568 and 570. These residues occur in the juxtamembrane segment of Kit. Three residues in the kinase insert domain are phosphorylated and attract the adaptor protein Grb2 (Tyr703), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Tyr721), and phospholipase Cgamma (Tyr730). Phosphotyrosine 900 in the distal kinase domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which in turn binds the adaptor protein Crk. Phosphotyrosine 936, also in the distal kinase domain, binds the adaptor proteins APS, Grb2, and Grb7. Kit has the potential to participate in multiple signal transduction pathways as a result of

  17. In vivo detection of c-MET expression in a rat hepatocarcinogenesis model using molecularly targeted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Rheal A; Smith, Nataliya; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Abbott, Andrew; Saunders, Debbie; Blindauer, Rebecca; Herlea, Oana; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Lupu, Florea

    2007-01-01

    The multifunctional growth factor scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor and its tyrosine kinase receptor, c-MET, have been implicated in the genesis and malignant progression of numerous human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinomas. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in the United States has increased noticeably over the past two decades and is listed as the fifth major cancer in men worldwide. In this study, we used a choline-deficient l-amino acid (CDAA)-defined rat hepatocarcinogenesis model to visualize increased in vivo expression of the c-MET antigen in neoplastic lesion formation with the use of a super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-anti-c-MET molecularly targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. SPIO-anti-c-MET was used for the first time to detect overexpression of c-MET in neoplastic nodules and tumors within the livers of CDAA-treated rats, as determined by a decrease in MRI signal intensity and a decrease in regional T(2) values. Specificity for the binding of the molecularly targeted anti-c-MET contrast agent was determined using rat hepatoma (H4-II-E-C3) cell cultures and immunofluorescence microscopic imaging of the targeting agents within neoplastic liver tissue 1 to 2 hours following intravenous administration of SPIO-anti-c-MET and MRI investigation. This method has the ability to visualize in vivo the overexpression of c-MET at early developmental stages of tumor formation.

  18. In Vivo Detection of c-MET Expression in a Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis Model Using Molecularly Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheal A. Towner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The multifunctional growth factor scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor and its tyrosine kinase receptor, c-MET, have been implicated in the genesis and malignant progression of numerous human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinomas. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in the United States has increased noticeably over the past two decades and is listed as the fifth major cancer in men worldwide. In this study, we used a choline-deficient l-amino acid (CDAA-defined rat hepatocarcinogenesis model to visualize increased in vivo expression of the c-MET antigen in neoplastic lesion formation with the use of a super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO–anti-c-MET molecularly targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. SPIO–anti-c-MET was used for the first time to detect overexpression of c-MET in neoplastic nodules and tumors within the livers of CDAA-treated rats, as determined by a decrease in MRI signal intensity and a decrease in regional T2 values. Specificity for the binding of the molecularly targeted anti-c-MET contrast agent was determined using rat hepatoma (H4-II-E-C3 cell cultures and immunofluorescence microscopic imaging of the targeting agents within neoplastic liver tissue 1 to 2 hours following intravenous administration of SPIO–anti-c-MET and MRI investigation. This method has the ability to visualize in vivo the overexpression of c-MET at early developmental stages of tumor formation.

  19. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 interacts with oncogenic lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Chueh, Fu-Yu; Leong, King-Fu; Pabich, Samantha; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2011-03-01

    Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) plays a key role in T cell signal transduction and is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Lck can function as an oncoprotein when overexpressed or constantly activated by mutations. Our previous studies showed that Lck-induced cellular transformation could be suppressed by enforced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a SOCS family member involved in the negative feedback control of cytokine signaling. We observed attenuated Lck kinase activity in SOCS1-expressing cells, suggesting an important role of SOCS in regulating Lck functions. It remains largely unknown whether and how SOCS proteins interact with the oncogenic Lck kinase. Here, we report that among four SOCS family proteins, SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CIS (cytokine-inducible SH2 domain containing protein), SOCS1 has the highest affinity in binding to the oncogenic Lck kinase. We identified the positive regulatory phosphotyrosine 394 residue in the kinase domain as the key interacting determinant in Lck. Additionally, the Lck kinase domain alone is sufficient to bind SOCS1. While the SH2 domain in SOCS1 is important in its association with the oncogenic Lck kinase, other functional domains may also contribute to overall binding affinity. These findings provide important mechanistic insights into the role of SOCS proteins as tumor suppressors in cells transformed by oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases.

  20. Dynamically Coupled Residues within the SH2 Domain of FYN Are Key to Unlocking Its Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huculeci, Radu; Cilia, Elisa; Lyczek, Agatha; Buts, Lieven; Houben, Klaartje; Seeliger, Markus A; van Nuland, Nico; Lenaerts, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Src kinase activity is controlled by various mechanisms involving a coordinated movement of kinase and regulatory domains. Notwithstanding the extensive knowledge related to the backbone dynamics, little is known about the more subtle side-chain dynamics within the regulatory domains and their role

  1. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc-deficiency-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Susan S; Clegg, Michael S; Momma, Tony Y; Niles, Brad J; Duffy, Jodie Y; Daston, George P; Keen, Carl L

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are critical for signal transduction pathways involved in growth, differentiation and cell death. All PKC isoforms have four conserved domains, C1-C4. The C1 domain contains cysteine-rich finger-like motifs, which bind two zinc atoms. The zinc-finger motifs modulate diacylglycerol binding; thus, intracellular zinc concentrations could influence the activity and localization of PKC family members. 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented medium for up to 32 h. Cells cultured in zinc-deficient medium had decreased zinc content, lowered cytosolic classical PKC activity, increased caspase-3 processing and activity, and reduced cell number. Zinc-deficient cytosols had decreased activity and expression levels of PKC-alpha, whereas PKC-alpha phosphorylation was not altered. Inhibition of PKC-alpha with Gö6976 had no effect on cell number in the zinc-deficient group. Proteolysis of the novel PKC family member, PKC-delta, to its 40-kDa catalytic fragment occurred in cells cultured in the zinc-deficient medium. Occurrence of the PKC-delta fragment in mitochondria was co-incident with caspase-3 activation. Addition of the PKC-delta inhibitor, rottlerin, or zinc to deficient medium reduced or eliminated proteolysis of PKC-delta, activated caspase-3 and restored cell number. Inhibition of caspase-3 processing by Z-DQMD-FMK (Z-Asp-Gln-Met-Asp-fluoromethylketone) did not restore cell number in the zinc-deficient group, but resulted in processing of full-length PKC-delta to a 56-kDa fragment. These results support the concept that intracellular zinc concentrations influence PKC activity and processing, and that zinc-deficiency-induced apoptosis occurs in part through PKC-dependent pathways.

  2. Structural and Functional Aspects of the Sensor Histidine Kinase PrrB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowak, E.; Panjikar, S.; Morth, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the solution structures of two- and three-domain constructs of the sensor histidine kinase PrrB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which allow us to locate the HAMP linker relative to the ATP binding and dimerization domains. We show that the three-domain construct is active both...

  3. AKT-ions with a TWIST between EMT and MET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huifang; Massi, Daniela; Hemmings, Brian A; Mandalà, Mario; Hu, Zhengqiang; Wicki, Andreas; Xue, Gongda

    2016-09-20

    The transcription factor Twist is an important regulator of cranial suture during embryogenesis. Closure of the neural tube is achieved via Twist-triggered cellular transition from an epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype, a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by a remarkable increase in cell motility. In the absence of Twist activity, EMT and associated phenotypic changes in cell morphology and motility can also be induced, albeit moderately, by other transcription factor families, including Snail and Zeb. Aberrant EMT triggered by Twist in human mammary tumour cells was first reported to drive metastasis to the lung in a metastatic breast cancer model. Subsequent analysis of many types of carcinoma demonstrated overexpression of these unique EMT transcription factors, which statistically correlated with worse outcome, indicating their potential as biomarkers in the clinic. However, the mechanisms underlying their activation remain unclear. Interestingly, increasing evidence indicates they are selectively activated by distinct intracellular kinases, thereby acting as downstream effectors facilitating transduction of cytoplasmic signals into nucleus and reprogramming EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) transcription to control cell plasticity. Understanding these relationships and emerging data indicating differential phosphorylation of Twist leads to complex and even paradoxical functionalities, will be vital to unlocking their potential in clinical settings.

  4. cMET in NSCLC: Can We Cut off the Head of the Hydra? From the Pathway to the Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Steen, Nele [Center for Oncological Research Antwerp, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Wilrijk 2610 (Belgium); Pauwels, Patrick [Center for Oncological Research Antwerp, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Wilrijk 2610 (Belgium); Molecular Pathology Unit, Pathology Department, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, Edegem 2650 (Belgium); Gil-Bazo, Ignacio [Department of Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain); Castañon, Eduardo [Department of Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain); Phase I-Early Clinical Trials Unit, Oncology Department, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, Edegem 2650 (Belgium); Raez, Luis [Thoracic Oncology Program, Memorial Cancer Institute, Memorial Health Care System, Pembroke Pines, FL 33024 (United States); Cappuzzo, Federico [4Thoracic Oncology Program, Memorial Cancer Institute, Memorial Health Care System, Pembroke Pines, FL 33024 (United States); Rolfo, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Rolfo@uza.be [Center for Oncological Research Antwerp, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Wilrijk 2610 (Belgium); Phase I-Early Clinical Trials Unit, Oncology Department, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, Edegem 2650 (Belgium)

    2015-03-25

    In the last decade, the tyrosine kinase receptor cMET, together with its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has become a target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Signalization via cMET stimulates several oncological processes amongst which are cell motility, invasion and metastasis. It also confers resistance against several currently used targeted therapies, e.g., epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. In this review, we will discuss the basic structure of cMET and the most important signaling pathways. We will also look into aberrations in the signaling and the effects thereof in cancer growth, with the focus on NSCLC. Finally, we will discuss the role of cMET as resistance mechanism.

  5. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  6. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important

  7. De Doop met de Heilige Geest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C.W. Duvenage.

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available Ds. Molenaar begin sy boek, waarvan hy self die publikasienie beleef het nie, deur te wys op 'n groot tekort, ’n manko,nie alleen in die Gereformeerde vroomheid of lewe nie maarook in die Gereformeerde teologie. Hy beskou dit as hoogsmerkwaardig dat die Gereformeerde teologie in die verledeso goed as niks raakgesien het van die groot betekenis vandie sogenaamde doop met die Heilige Gees nie. Daarby meenhy dat die Gereformeerde predikante verleë sit met die Pinkterfees.Talle probleme meen hy vir die Gereformeerde teoloograak te sien, veral ten aansien van die moontlikhede van dieGees teenoor die so tasbare „onmoontIikhede” in ons lewe. Dieprobleme is syns insiens nie onoplosbaar nie, as mens maardie moontlikhede van die Gees nie beperk tot die verlede nie.

  8. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  9. Transcriptional activation of the Axl and PDGFR-α by c-Met through a ras- and Src-independent mechanism in human bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chen-Yun; Tseng, Vincent S; Lee, Yuan-Chii G; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Chow, Nan-Haw; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Shin, Shin-Mei; Yeh, Hsuan-Heng; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Raghavaraju, Giri; Lee, Chung-Ta; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    A cross-talk between different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Both NIH-Met5 and T24-Met3 cell lines harboring an inducible human c-Met gene were established. C-Met-related RTKs were screened by RTK microarray analysis. The cross-talk of RTKs was demonstrated by Western blotting and confirmed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing, followed by elucidation of the underlying mechanism. The impact of this cross-talk on biological function was demonstrated by Trans-well migration assay. Finally, the potential clinical importance was examined in a cohort of 65 cases of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer patients. A positive association of Axl or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α) with c-Met expression was demonstrated at translational level, and confirmed by specific siRNA knock-down. The transactivation of c-Met on Axl or PDGFR-α in vitro was through a ras- and Src-independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) pathway. In human bladder cancer, co-expression of these RTKs was associated with poor patient survival (p < 0.05), and overexpression of c-Met/Axl/PDGFR-α or c-Met alone showed the most significant correlation with poor survival (p < 0.01). In addition to c-Met, the cross-talk with Axl and/or PDGFR-α also contributes to the progression of human bladder cancer. Evaluation of Axl and PDGFR-α expression status may identify a subset of c-Met-positive bladder cancer patients who may require co-targeting therapy

  10. Metáfora y estructura conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Castaño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La lingüística cognitiva siempre ha argumentado que la metáfora no pertenece exclusivamente al lenguaje, sino que es una competencia que se basa en la habilidad humana de concebir un dominio de experiencia en términos de otro. Entendida así, la metáfora no puede ser otra cosa que un fenómeno conceptual. No obstante, pocos adeptos de la lingüística cognitiva han concentrados sus esfuerzos en catalogar manifestaciones metafóricas en ámbitos no lingüísticos. En este trabajo, sugerimos que es factible encontrar pruebas de que la metáfora es un proceso conceptual y, como tal, se manifiesta en esferas que no son estrictamente lingüísticas. Para ello, aportamos un seguido de evidencias muy diversas, como por ejemplo su papel en el razonamiento lógico-matemático de los niños en la fase preoperacional del desarrollo cognitivo, la programación de interfaces para aplicaciones informáticas y los resultados de tres estudios empíricos realizados recientemente en el campo  de la psicología cognitiva que analizan los efectos whorfianos en la conceptualización del tiempo y los efectos del espacio en la memoria emocional.

  11. A cGMP kinase mutant with increased sensitivity to the protein kinase inhibitor peptide PKI(5-24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, P; Kamm, S; Nau, U; Pfeifer, A; Hofmann, F

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic peptides corresponding to the active domain of the heat-stable inhibitor protein PKI are very potent inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but are extremely weak inhibitors of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. In this study, we tried to confer PKI sensitivity to cGMP kinase by site-directed mutagenesis. The molecular requirements for high affinity inhibition by PKI were deduced from the crystal structure of the cAMP kinase/PKI complex. A prominent site of interaction are residues Tyr235 and Phe239 in the catalytic subunit, which from a sandwich-like structure with Phe10 of the PKI(5-24) peptide. To increase the sensitivity for PKI, the cGMP kinase codons at the corresponding sites, Ser555 and Ser559, were changed to Tyr and Phe. The mutant cGMP kinase was stimulated half maximally by cGMP at 3-fold higher concentrations (240 nM) than the wild type (77 nM). Wild type and mutant cGMP kinase did not differ significantly in their Km and Vmax for three different substrate peptides. The PKI(5-24) peptide inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the mutant cGMP kinase with higher potency than that of wild type, with Ki values of 42 +/- .3 microM and 160 +/- .7 microM, respectively. The increased affinity of the mutant cGMP kinase was specific for the PKI(5-24) peptide. Mutation of the essential Phe10 in the PKI(5-24) sequence to an Ala yielded a peptide that inhibited mutant and wild type cGMP kinase with similar potency, with Ki values of 160 +/- 11 and 169 +/- 27 microM, respectively. These results suggest that the mutations Ser555Tyr and Ser559Phe are required, but not sufficient, for high affinity inhibition of cGMP kinase by PKI.

  12. PAK1 is a breast cancer oncogene that coordinately activates MAPK and MET signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Y; Schafer, E J; Boehm, J S; Thomas, S R; He, F; Du, J; Wang, S; Barretina, J; Weir, B A; Zhao, J J; Polyak, K; Golub, T R; Beroukhim, R; Hahn, W C

    2012-07-19

    Activating mutations in the RAS family or BRAF frequently occur in many types of human cancers but are rarely detected in breast tumors. However, activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK pathway is commonly observed in human breast cancers, suggesting that other genetic alterations lead to activation of this signaling pathway. To identify breast cancer oncogenes that activate the MAPK pathway, we screened a library of human kinases for their ability to induce anchorage-independent growth in a derivative of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). We identified p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a kinase that permitted HMLE cells to form anchorage-independent colonies. PAK1 is amplified in several human cancer types, including 30--33% of breast tumor samples and cancer cell lines. The kinase activity of PAK1 is necessary for PAK1-induced transformation. Moreover, we show that PAK1 simultaneously activates MAPK and MET signaling; the latter via inhibition of merlin. Disruption of these activities inhibits PAK1-driven anchorage-independent growth. These observations establish PAK1 amplification as an alternative mechanism for MAPK activation in human breast cancer and credential PAK1 as a breast cancer oncogene that coordinately regulates multiple signaling pathways, the cooperation of which leads to malignant transformation.

  13. Csk Homologous Kinase, a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-mediated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    SH2 ) and SH3 domains and lacks the consensus tyrosine phosphorylation and myristylation sites found in Src family kinases . CHK has been shown to...0350 TITLE: Csk Homologous Kinase , a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-mediated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Byeong-Chel...1 AUG 2009 - 31 JUL 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0350 Csk Homologous Kinase , a Potential Regulator

  14. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  15. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  16. Acquired MET expression confers resistance to EGFR inhibition in a mouse model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, H J; Acquaviva, J; Chi, D; Lessard, J; Zhu, H; Woolfenden, S; Bronson, R T; Pfannl, R; White, F; Housman, D E; Iyer, L; Whittaker, C A; Boskovitz, A; Raval, A; Charest, A

    2012-06-21

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor for which there is no cure. Overexpression of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of the tumor suppressor genes Ink4a/Arf and PTEN are salient features of this deadly cancer. Surprisingly, targeted inhibition of EGFR has been clinically disappointing, demonstrating an innate ability for GBM to develop resistance. Efforts at modeling GBM in mice using wild-type EGFR have proven unsuccessful to date, hampering endeavors at understanding molecular mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. Here, we describe a unique genetically engineered mouse model of EGFR-driven gliomagenesis that uses a somatic conditional overexpression and chronic activation of wild-type EGFR in cooperation with deletions in the Ink4a/Arf and PTEN genes in adult brains. Using this model, we establish that chronic activation of wild-type EGFR with a ligand is necessary for generating tumors with histopathological and molecular characteristics of GBMs. We show that these GBMs are resistant to EGFR kinase inhibition and we define this resistance molecularly. Inhibition of EGFR kinase activity using tyrosine kinase inhibitors in GBM tumor cells generates a cytostatic response characterized by a cell cycle arrest, which is accompanied by a substantial change in global gene expression levels. We demonstrate that an important component of this pattern is the transcriptional activation of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase and that pharmacological inhibition of MET overcomes the resistance to EGFR inhibition in these cells. These findings provide important new insights into mechanisms of resistance to EGFR inhibition and suggest that inhibition of multiple targets will be necessary to provide therapeutic benefit for GBM patients.

  17. Quantitative and Dynamic Imaging of ATM Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Shyam; Young, Grant; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events facilitating DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. Traditionally, protein kinases have been analyzed in vitro using biochemical methods (kinase assays using purified proteins or immunological assays) requiring a large number of cells and cell lysis. Genetically encoded biosensors based on optical molecular imaging such as fluorescence or bioluminescence have been developed to enable interrogation of kinase activities in live cells with a high signal to background. We have genetically engineered a hybrid protein whose bioluminescent activity is dependent on the ATM-mediated phosphorylation of a substrate. The engineered protein consists of the split luciferase-based protein complementation pair with a CHK2 (a substrate for ATM kinase activity) target sequence and a phospho-serine/threonine-binding domain, FHA2, derived from yeast Rad53. Phosphorylation of the serine residue within the target sequence by ATM would lead to its interaction with the phospho-serine-binding domain, thereby preventing complementation of the split luciferase pair and loss of reporter activity. Bioluminescence imaging of reporter expressing cells in cultured plates or as mouse xenografts provides a quantitative surrogate for ATM kinase activity and therefore the cellular DNA damage response in a noninvasive, dynamic fashion.

  18. Diacylglycerol kinase theta and zeta isoforms : regulation of activity, protein binding partners and physiological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, Alrik Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) phosphorylate the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) yielding phosphatidic acid (PA). In this thesis, we investigated which structural domains of DGKtheta are required for DGK activity. Furthermore, we showed that DGKzeta binds to and is activated by the

  19. Receptor-type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase β Regulates Met Phosphorylation and Function in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiru Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer and has a high rate of mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that hepatocyte growth factor receptor (or Met pathway plays a pivotal role in HNSCC metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Met function is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation that is under direct control by receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase β (RPTP-β. We report here that RPTP-β expression is significantly downregulated in HNSCC cells derived from metastatic tumors compared to subject-matched cells from primary tumors. Knockdown of endogenous RPTP-β in HNSCC cells from primary tumor potentiated Met tyrosine phosphorylation, downstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathway activation, cell migration, and invasion. Conversely, restoration of RPTP-β expression in cells from matched metastatic tumor decreased Met tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream functions. Furthermore, we observed that six of eight HNSCC tumors had reduced levels of RPTP-β protein in comparison with normal oral tissues. Collectively, the results demonstrate the importance of RPTP-β in tumor biology of HNSCC through direct dephosphorylation of Met and regulation of downstream signal transduction pathways. Reduced RPTP-β levels, with or without Met overexpression, could promote Met activation in HNSCC tumors.

  20. Gain of chromosome 7 by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in chordomas is correlated to c-MET expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Beatriz A; Begnami, Maria; Valera, Vladimir A; Santi, Mariarita; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Quezado, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Chordomas are low to intermediate grade malignancies that arise from remnants of embryonic notochord. They often recur after surgery and are highly resistant to conventional adjuvant therapies. Recently, the development of effective targeted molecular therapy has been investigated in chordomas that show receptors for tyrosine kinase (RTKs) activation. Expression of specific RTKs such as Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-MET) in chordomas may offer valuable therapeutic options. We investigated changes in copy number of chromosome 7 and correlated it with EGFR gene status and EGFR and c-MET protein expression in 22 chordoma samples. Chromosome 7 copy number was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and protein expression of EGFR and c-MET by immunohistochemistry. Tumors mostly showed conventional histopathologic features and were found mainly in sacral (41%) and cranial sites (54.5%). Aneusomy of chromosome 7 was seen in 73% of the samples, 62% of primary tumors and in all recurrent chordomas. EGFR and c-MET were both expressed, but only c-MET protein expression was significantly correlated with chromosome 7 aneusomy (P ≤ 0.001). c-MET overexpression may represent an early chromosome 7 alteration that could play an important role during chordoma pathogenesis. c-MET overexpression shows promise as a molecular marker of response to targeted molecular therapy in the treatment of chordomas.

  1. Enterococcus faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doun, Stephanie S.; Burgner, John W.; Briggs, Scott D.; Rodwell, Victor W.

    2005-01-01

    The six enzymes of the mevalonate pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis represent potential for addressing a pressing human health concern, the development of antibiotics against resistant strains of the Gram-positive streptococci. We previously characterized the first four of the mevalonate pathway enzymes of Enterococcus faecalis, and here characterize the fifth, phosphomevalonate kinase (E.C. 2.7.4.2). E. faecalis genomic DNA and the polymerase chain reaction were used to clone DNA thought to encode phosphomevalonate kinase into pET28b(+). Double-stranded DNA sequencing verified the sequence of the recombinant gene. The encoded N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged protein was expressed in Escherichia coli with induction by isopropylthiogalactoside and purified by Ni++ affinity chromatography, yield 20 mg protein per liter. Analysis of the purified protein by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established it as E. faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase. Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that the kinase exists in solution primarily as a dimer. Assay for phosphomevalonate kinase activity used pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase to couple the formation of ADP to the oxidation of NADH. Optimal activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 37°C. The activation energy was ~5.6 kcal/mol. Activity with Mn++, the preferred cation, was optimal at about 4 mM. Relative rates using different phosphoryl donors were 100 (ATP), 3.6 (GTP), 1.6 (TTP), and 0.4 (CTP). Km values were 0.17 mM for ATP and 0.19 mM for (R,S)-5-phosphomevalonate. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 3.9 μmol substrate converted per minute per milligram protein. Applications to an immobilized enzyme bioreactor and to drug screening and design are discussed. PMID:15802646

  2. From Phosphosites to Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a pivotal role in propagating the phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks in living cells. With the overwhelming quantities of phosphoproteomics data being generated, the number of identified phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) is ever increasing. Often, proteomics investigations...... sequence motifs, mostly based on large scale in vivo and in vitro experiments. The context of the kinase and the phosphorylated proteins in a biological system is equally important for predicting association between the enzymes and substrates, an aspect that is also being tackled with available...

  3. Lipid ratio as a suitable tool to identify individuals with MetS risk: A case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Delvarianzadeh, Mehri; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Khosravi, Farideh

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the serum lipids ratio in staff with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were working in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. This case-control study was conducted in 2015 on 499 personnel aged 30-60 years old. ATP III criteria were used to diagnose patients with MetS. The data were analyzed by using logistic regression and ROC curve. Mean lipid ratio was higher in individuals having the MetS in both sexes compared with those without. In addition, the mean levels of lipid ratios significantly increased with increasing number of MetS components in both sexes. Also it could be concluded that TG/HDL-C ratio is the best marker for the diagnosis of MetS in men and women. Moreover, the cut-off point for the TG/HDL-C was 2.86 in women and 4.03 in men. It was found that for any unit of increases in the TG/HDL-C, the risk of developing the MetS will increase by 2.12 times. TG/HDL-C ratio is found to be the best clinical marker for the diagnosis of MetS compare with other lipid ratios, therefore it is recommended to be used as a feasible tool to identify individuals with MetS risk. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Allosteric Inhibition of Bcr-Abl Kinase by High Affinity Monobody Inhibitors Directed to the Src Homology 2 (SH2)-Kinase Interface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, John; Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Grabe, Grzegorz; Koide, Akiko; Akin, Louesa; Gerig, Barbara; Hantschel, Oliver; Koide, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Bcr-Abl is a constitutively active kinase that causes chronic myelogenous leukemia. We have shown that a tandem fusion of two designed binding proteins, termed monobodies, directed to the interaction interface between the Src homology 2 (SH2) and kinase domains and to the phosphotyrosine-binding site of the SH2 domain, respectively, inhibits the Bcr-Abl kinase activity. Because the latter monobody inhibits processive phosphorylation by Bcr-Abl and the SH2-kinase interface is occluded in the active kinase, it remained undetermined whether targeting the SH2-kinase interface alone was sufficient for Bcr-Abl inhibition. To address this question, we generated new, higher affinity monobodies with single nanomolar KD values targeting the kinase-binding surface of SH2. Structural and mutagenesis studies revealed the molecular underpinnings of the monobody-SH2 interactions. Importantly, the new monobodies inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity in vitro and in cells, and they potently induced cell death in chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines. This work provides strong evidence for the SH2-kinase interface as a pharmacologically tractable site for allosteric inhibition of Bcr-Abl. PMID:26912659

  5. Allosteric Inhibition of Bcr-Abl Kinase by High Affinity Monobody Inhibitors Directed to the Src Homology 2 (SH2)-Kinase Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, John; Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Grabe, Grzegorz; Koide, Akiko; Akin, Louesa; Gerig, Barbara; Hantschel, Oliver; Koide, Shohei

    2016-04-15

    Bcr-Abl is a constitutively active kinase that causes chronic myelogenous leukemia. We have shown that a tandem fusion of two designed binding proteins, termed monobodies, directed to the interaction interface between the Src homology 2 (SH2) and kinase domains and to the phosphotyrosine-binding site of the SH2 domain, respectively, inhibits the Bcr-Abl kinase activity. Because the latter monobody inhibits processive phosphorylation by Bcr-Abl and the SH2-kinase interface is occluded in the active kinase, it remained undetermined whether targeting the SH2-kinase interface alone was sufficient for Bcr-Abl inhibition. To address this question, we generated new, higher affinity monobodies with single nanomolar KD values targeting the kinase-binding surface of SH2. Structural and mutagenesis studies revealed the molecular underpinnings of the monobody-SH2 interactions. Importantly, the new monobodies inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity in vitro and in cells, and they potently induced cell death in chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines. This work provides strong evidence for the SH2-kinase interface as a pharmacologically tractable site for allosteric inhibition of Bcr-Abl. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Metáfora y conceptos abstractos

    OpenAIRE

    Danesi, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    La gran cantidad de datos recolectados sobre la metáfora sugiere enfáticamente que muchos de los conceptos abstractos, si no la mayoría, son codificables y reconocibles primordialmente como «ideas metaforizadas», es decir como conceptos que se derivan cognitivamente mediante el razonamiento metafórico y un proceso de asociación metafórica que en este artículo se denominará estratificación [layering] (Gibbs, 1994; Goatley, 1997). La literatura más actualizada sobre lo que se ha denominado Teor...

  7. Interactions between Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon and two substrates from disparate signaling pathways reveal mechanisms for substrate-kinase specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lund Dahlberg

    Full Text Available Members of the Casein Kinase I (CKI family of serine/threonine kinases regulate diverse biological pathways. The seven mammalian CKI isoforms contain a highly conserved kinase domain and divergent amino- and carboxy-termini. Although they share a preferred target recognition sequence and have overlapping expression patterns, individual isoforms often have specific substrates. In an effort to determine how substrates recognize differences between CKI isoforms, we have examined the interaction between CKIepsilon and two substrates from different signaling pathways.CKIepsilon, but not CKIalpha, binds to and phosphorylates two proteins: Period, a transcriptional regulator of the circadian rhythms pathway, and Disheveled, an activator of the planar cell polarity pathway. We use GST-pull-down assays data to show that two key residues in CKIalpha's kinase domain prevent Disheveled and Period from binding. We also show that the unique C-terminus of CKIepsilon does not determine Dishevelled's and Period's preference for CKIepsilon nor is it essential for binding, but instead plays an auxillary role in stabilizing the interactions of CKIepsilon with its substrates. We demonstrate that autophosphorylation of CKIepsilon's C-terminal tail prevents substrate binding, and use mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking to reveal how a phosphorylation-dependent interaction between the C-terminal tail and the kinase domain prevents substrate phosphorylation and binding.The biochemical interactions between CKIepsilon and Disheveled, Period, and its own C-terminus lead to models that explain CKIepsilon's specificity and regulation.

  8. TFG-MET fusion in an infantile spindle cell sarcoma with neural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flucke, Uta; van Noesel, Max M; Wijnen, Marc; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Sung, Yun-Shao; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of congenital and infantile sarcomas displaying a primitive, monomorphic spindle cell phenotype have been characterized to harbor recurrent gene fusions, including infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we report an unusual spindle cell sarcoma presenting as a large and infiltrative pelvic soft tissue mass in a 4-month-old girl, which revealed a novel TFG-MET gene fusion by whole transcriptome RNA sequencing. The tumor resembled the morphology of an infantile fibrosarcoma with both fascicular and patternless growth, however, it expressed strong S100 protein immunoreactivity, while lacking SOX10 staining and retaining H3K27me3 expression. Although this immunoprofile suggested partial neural/neuroectodermal differentiation, overall features were unusual and did not fit into any known tumor types (cellular schwannoma, MPNST), raising the possibility of a novel pathologic entity. The TFG-MET gene fusion expands the genetic spectrum implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital spindle cell sarcomas, with yet another example of kinase oncogenic activation through chromosomal translocation. The discovery of this new fusion is significant since the resulting MET activation can potentially be inhibited by targeted therapy, as MET inhibitors are presently available in clinical trials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An active form of calcium and calmodulin dependant protein kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of the auto-inhibitory domain that negatively regulates the kinase activity in M. truncatula results in a constitutively-active form, inducing symbiotic responses in the absence of bacterial signals. In this study, we verified the functionality of a DMI3 variant and its ability to induce spontaneous nodules in M.

  10. Met inactivation by S-allylcysteine suppresses the migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal cancer cells induced by hepatocyte growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, O Yeon; Hwang, Hye Sook; Lee, Bok Soon; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Chul Ho; Chun, Mi Son [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Past studies have reported that S-allylcysteine (SAC) inhibits the migration and invasion of cancer cells through the restoration of E-cadherin, the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and Slug protein expression, and inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, evidence is emerging that shows that ROS induced by radiation could increase Met activation. Following on these reports of SAC and Met, we investigated whether SAC could suppress Met activation. Wound healing, invasion, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), soft agar colony forming, western blotting, and gelatin zymography assays were performed in the human nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines HNE1 and HONE1 treated with SAC (0, 10, 20, or 40 mM) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). This study showed that SAC could suppress the migration and invasion of HNE1 and HONE1 cell lines by inhibiting p-Met. An increase of migration and invasion induced by HGF and its decrease in a dose dependent manner by SAC in wound healing and invasion assays was observed. The reduction of p-Met by SAC was positively correlated with p-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and p-extracellular related kinase (p-ERK in both cell lines). SAC reduced Slug, MMP2, and MMP9 involved in migration and invasion with the inhibition of Met-FAK signaling. These results suggest that SAC inhibited not only Met activation but also the downstream FAK, Slug, and MMP expression. Finally, SAC may be a potent anticancer compound for nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy.

  11. In Vitro Anti-Echinococcal and Metabolic Effects of Metformin Involve Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Larval Stages of Echinococcus granulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Julia A.; Cumino, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Metformin (Met) is a biguanide anti-hyperglycemic agent, which also exerts antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. This drug inhibits the complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain inducing a fall in the cell energy charge and leading 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. AMPK is a highly conserved heterotrimeric complex that coordinates metabolic and growth pathways in order to maintain energy homeostasis and cell survival, mainly under nutritional stress conditions, in a Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1)-dependent manner. This work describes for the first time, the in vitro anti-echinococcal effect of Met on Echinococcus granulosus larval stages, as well as the molecular characterization of AMPK (Eg-AMPK) in this parasite of clinical importance. The drug exerted a dose-dependent effect on the viability of both larval stages. Based on this, we proceeded with the identification of the genes encoding for the different subunits of Eg-AMPK. We cloned one gene coding for the catalytic subunit (Eg-ampkɑ) and two genes coding for the regulatory subunits (Eg-ampkβ and Eg-ampkγ), all of them constitutively transcribed in E. granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes. Their deduced amino acid sequences show all the conserved functional domains, including key amino acids involved in catalytic activity and protein-protein interactions. In protoscoleces, the drug induced the activation of AMPK (Eg-AMPKɑ-P176), possibly as a consequence of cellular energy charge depletion evidenced by assays with the fluorescent indicator JC-1. Met also led to carbohydrate starvation, it increased glucogenolysis and homolactic fermentation, and decreased transcription of intermediary metabolism genes. By in toto immunolocalization assays, we detected Eg-AMPKɑ-P176 expression, both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells as in the larval tegument, the posterior bladder and the calcareous corpuscles of control and Met-treated protoscoleces. Interestingly, expression of Eg

  12. Protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI): a family of endogenous neuropeptides that modulate neuronal cAMP-dependent protein kinase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, George D; Dewey, William L

    2006-02-01

    Signal transduction cascades involving cAMP-dependent protein kinase are highly conserved among a wide variety of organisms. Given the universal nature of this enzyme it is not surprising that cAMP-dependent protein kinase plays a critical role in numerous cellular processes. This is particularly evident in the nervous system where cAMP-dependent protein kinase is involved in neurotransmitter release, gene transcription, and synaptic plasticity. Protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI) is an endogenous thermostable peptide that modulates cAMP-dependent protein kinase function. PKI contains two distinct functional domains within its amino acid sequence that allow it to: (1) potently and specifically inhibit the activity of the free catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and (2) export the free catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from the nucleus. Three distinct PKI isoforms (PKIalpha, PKIbeta, PKIgamma) have been identified and each isoform is expressed in the brain. PKI modulates neuronal synaptic activity, while PKI also is involved in morphogenesis and symmetrical left-right axis formation. In addition, PKI also plays a role in regulating gene expression induced by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Future studies should identify novel physiological functions for endogenous PKI both in the nervous system and throughout the body. Most interesting will be the determination whether functional differences exist between individual PKI isoforms which is an intriguing possibility since these isoforms exhibit: (1) cell-type specific tissue expression patterns, (2) different potencies for the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and (3) expression patterns that are hormonally, developmentally and cell-cycle regulated. Finally, synthetic peptide analogs of endogenous PKI will continue to be invaluable tools that are used to elucidate the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in a variety of cellular processes throughout the nervous

  13. Dissection of combinatorial control by the Met4 transcriptional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Traci A; Jorgensen, Paul; Bognar, Andrew L; Peyraud, Caroline; Thomas, Dominique; Tyers, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Met4 is the transcriptional activator of the sulfur metabolic network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lacking DNA-binding ability, Met4 must interact with proteins called Met4 cofactors to target promoters for transcription. Two types of DNA-binding cofactors (Cbf1 and Met31/Met32) recruit Met4 to promoters and one cofactor (Met28) stabilizes the DNA-bound Met4 complexes. To dissect this combinatorial system, we systematically deleted each category of cofactor(s) and analyzed Met4-activated transcription on a genome-wide scale. We defined a core regulon for Met4, consisting of 45 target genes. Deletion of both Met31 and Met32 eliminated activation of the core regulon, whereas loss of Met28 or Cbf1 interfered with only a subset of targets that map to distinct sectors of the sulfur metabolic network. These transcriptional dependencies roughly correlated with the presence of Cbf1 promoter motifs. Quantitative analysis of in vivo promoter binding properties indicated varying levels of cooperativity and interdependency exists between members of this combinatorial system. Cbf1 was the only cofactor to remain fully bound to target promoters under all conditions, whereas other factors exhibited different degrees of regulated binding in a promoter-specific fashion. Taken together, Met4 cofactors use a variety of mechanisms to allow differential transcription of target genes in response to various cues.

  14. MiR-181a-5p is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and suppresses motility, invasion and branching-morphogenesis by directly targeting c-Met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Peyda; Erdal, Esra; Atabey, Neşe

    2014-08-08

    c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase has been regarded as a promising therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown as a novel mechanism to control c-Met expression in cancer. In this study, we investigate the potential contribution of miR-181a-5p dysregulation to the biology of c-Met overexpression in HCC. Herein, we found an inverse expression pattern between miR-181a-5p and c-Met expression in normal, cirrhotic and HCC liver tissues. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-181a-5p binding to the 3'-UTR of c-Met downregulated the expression of c-Met in HCC cells. Overexpression of miR-181a-5p suppressed both HGF-independent and -dependent activation of c-Met and consequently diminished branching-morphogenesis and invasion. Combined treatment with miR-181a-5p and c-Met inhibitor led to a further inhibition of c-Met-driven cellular activities. Knockdown of miR-181a-5p promoted HGF-independent/-dependent signaling of c-Met and accelerated migration, invasion and branching-morphogenesis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time that c-Met is a functional target gene of miR-181a-5p and the loss of miR-181a-5p expression led to the activation of c-Met-mediated oncogenic signaling in hepatocarcinogenesis. These findings display a novel molecular mechanism of c-Met regulation in HCC and strategies to increase miR-181a5p level might be an alternative approach for the enhancement of the inhibitory effects of c-Met inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Saving energy with paint. Coating with ceramic globules; Energie besparen met verf. Coating met keramische bolletjes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemse, R. [Coateq Coatings, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    The special paint coating of ThermoShield saves energy. The coating consists for 50% of hollow, vacuum ceramic globules. The waterborne damp-open coating with capillary function resists rain water and removes redundant water in case of draught and it reflects sunlight. [Dutch] Met de speciale verfcoating ThermoShield kan energie worden bespaard. De coating bestaat voor 50% uit holle, vacuum getrokken keramische bolletjes. De watergedragen damp-open coating met capillaire werking stoot bij regen water af en voert bij droogte overtollig vocht af en reflecteert zonlicht.

  16. The East Asian Atmospheric Water Cycle and Monsoon Circulation in the Met Office Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José M.; Milton, Sean F.; Marzin, Charline

    2017-10-01

    In this study the low-level monsoon circulation and observed sources of moisture responsible for the maintenance and seasonal evolution of the East Asian monsoon are examined, studying the detailed water budget components. These observational estimates are contrasted with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) climate simulation performance in capturing the circulation and water cycle at a variety of model horizontal resolutions and in fully coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations. We study the role of large-scale circulation in determining the hydrological cycle by analyzing key systematic errors in the model simulations. MetUM climate simulations exhibit robust circulation errors, including a weakening of the summer west Pacific Subtropical High, which leads to an underestimation of the southwesterly monsoon flow over the region. Precipitation and implied diabatic heating biases in the South Asian monsoon and Maritime Continent region are shown, via nudging sensitivity experiments, to have an impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. By inference, the improvement of these tropical biases with increased model horizontal resolution is hypothesized to be a factor in improvements seen over East Asia with increased resolution. Results from the annual cycle of the hydrological budget components in five domains show a good agreement between MetUM simulations and ERA-Interim reanalysis in northern and Tibetan domains. In simulations, the contribution from moisture convergence is larger than in reanalysis, and they display less precipitation recycling over land. The errors are closely linked to monsoon circulation biases.

  17. MET Standards for Electro-Technical Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the most important changes in the STCW 1978 as amended in 2010 Convention, from the point of view of the watchkeeping officers responsible for control, maintenance, diagnostic and repair of electrical and electronic installations on board of ships. Some reasons, why the MET Standards for Electro-Technical had to be developed and implemented are shortly analyzed and described. A legislative way towards and a short description of the minimum standards competence for ETO are presented. Next, new tools supporting ETO’s standards implementation are appointed. Finally, the future works as well as the concluding remarks concerning discussed issue are formulated and commented on.

  18. Tidal analysis of Met rocket wind data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing Met Rocket wind data is described. Modern tidal theory and specialized analytical techniques were used to resolve specific tidal modes and prevailing components in observed wind data. A representation of the wind which is continuous in both space and time was formulated. Such a representation allows direct comparison with theory, allows the derivation of other quantities such as temperature and pressure which in turn may be compared with observed values, and allows the formation of a wind model which extends over a broader range of space and time. Significant diurnal tidal modes with wavelengths of 10 and 7 km were present in the data and were resolved by the analytical technique.

  19. Metástasis hipofisaria Hypophyseal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Yanes Quesada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mayoría son lesiones silentes descubiertas accidentalmente en las autopsia. La aparición de metástasis sintomáticas es, en cambio, excepcional. DESARROLLO: se describen aquí los hallazgos clínicos y radiológicos de una paciente femenina de 69 años, con un carcinoma indiferenciado del pulmón, diagnosticado hace 2 años y medio, que comenzó con cefalea y trastornos visuales sin hipopituitarismo ni diabetes insípida. Se le realizó resonancia magnética nuclear y se le diagnosticó una lesión hipofisaria, que fue operada por vía tranesfenoidal, y se informó por anatomía patológica una metástasis del carcinoma del pulmón. CONCLUSIONES: la paciente se encuentra en estos momentos recibiendo quimioterapia, radioterapia y anticuerpo monoclonal con evolución favorable.INTRODUCTION: metastatic tumors of hypophyseal gland are infrequent. Most are silent lesions discovered accidentally in necropsy. Appearance of symptomatic metastasis is however, exceptional. DEVELOPMENT: we describe here clinical and radiological findings in a female patient aged 69, presenting with a non-differential carcinoma of lung, diagnosed two years a half ago, starting with headache and visual disorders without hypopituitarism and insipidus diabetes. We made a nuclear magnetic resonance and diagnosis was a hypophyseal lesion operated on by trans-esphenoidal route, and Pathological Anatomy Service reports a metastasis of lung carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: patient receives chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and monoclonal antibody with a favorable evolution.

  20. Differential impact of Met receptor gene interaction with early-life stress on neuronal morphology and behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heun-Johnson, Hanke; Levitt, Pat

    2018-02-01

    Early adversity in childhood increases the risk of anxiety, mood, and post-traumatic stress disorders in adulthood, and specific gene-by-environment interactions may increase risk further. A common functional variant in the promoter region of the gene encoding the human MET receptor tyrosine kinase (rs1858830 ' C' allele) reduces expression of MET and is associated with altered cortical circuit function and structural connectivity. Mice with reduced Met expression exhibit changes in anxiety-like and conditioned fear behavior, precocious synaptic maturation in the hippocampus, and reduced neuronal arbor complexity and synaptogenesis. These phenotypes also can be produced independently by early adversity in wild-type mice. The present study addresses the outcome of combining early-life stress and genetic influences that alter timing of maturation on enduring functional and structural phenotypes. Using a model of reduced Met expression ( Met +/- ) and early-life stress from postnatal day 2-9, social, anxiety-like, and contextual fear behaviors in later life were measured. Mice that experienced early-life stress exhibited impairments in social interaction, whereas alterations in anxiety-like behavior and fear learning were driven by Met haploinsufficiency, independent of rearing condition. Early-life stress or reduced Met expression decreased arbor complexity of ventral hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons projecting to basolateral amygdala. Paradoxically, arbor complexity in Met +/- mice was increased following early-life stress, and thus not different from arbors in wild-type mice raised in control conditions. The changes in dendritic morphology are consistent with the hypothesis that the physiological state of maturation of CA1 neurons in Met +/- mice influences their responsiveness to early-life stress. The dissociation of behavioral and structural changes suggests that there may be phenotype-specific sensitivities to early-life stress.

  1. Substrate-specific reorganization of the conformational ensemble of CSK implicates novel modes of kinase function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Jamros

    Full Text Available Protein kinases use ATP as a phosphoryl donor for the posttranslational modification of signaling targets. It is generally thought that the binding of this nucleotide induces conformational changes leading to closed, more compact forms of the kinase domain that ideally orient active-site residues for efficient catalysis. The kinase domain is oftentimes flanked by additional ligand binding domains that up- or down-regulate catalytic function. C-terminal Src kinase (Csk is a multidomain tyrosine kinase that is up-regulated by N-terminal SH2 and SH3 domains. Although the X-ray structure of Csk suggests the enzyme is compact, X-ray scattering studies indicate that the enzyme possesses both compact and open conformational forms in solution. Here, we investigated whether interactions with the ATP analog AMP-PNP and ADP can shift the conformational ensemble of Csk in solution using a combination of small angle x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We find that binding of AMP-PNP shifts the ensemble towards more extended rather than more compact conformations. Binding of ADP further shifts the ensemble towards extended conformations, including highly extended conformations not adopted by the apo protein, nor by the AMP-PNP bound protein. These ensembles indicate that any compaction of the kinase domain induced by nucleotide binding does not extend to the overall multi-domain architecture. Instead, assembly of an ATP-bound kinase domain generates further extended forms of Csk that may have relevance for kinase scaffolding and Src regulation in the cell.

  2. Csk Homologous Kinase, a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-Medicated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and a second member of the Csk family. Like Csk, CHK has Src homology 2 ( SH2 ) and SH3 domains and lacks the...MSCV-retroviral vectors encoding either wild-type CHK or kinase -dead CHK or wild type SH2 domain or SH2 -R147A or SH2 -G129A. All these constructs were... Kinase , a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-Medicated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis Byeong-Chel Lee The University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15213

  3. Resultaten boomkorsurvey 2013: BTS met onderzoeksvaartuigen Isis en Tridens (interview met Ingeborg de Boois)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boois, de I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Van begin augustus tot half september heeft IMARES de boomkorsurvey (BTS) uitgevoerd met de onderzoeksschepen Isis en Tridens. Op 29 maart 2014 wordt een bijeenkomst georganiseerd voor geinteresseerden, waar de resultaten van zowel de BTS als de bedrijfssurvey gepresenteerd worden. De BTS wordt