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Sample records for met ercc1 p16

  1. Radiotherapy modulates expression of EGFR, ERCC1 and p53 in cervical cancer

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    Almeida, V.H. de; Melo, A.C. de; Nogueira-Rodrigues, A.; Pimenta-Inada, H.K.; Alves, F.G.; Moralez, G.; Thiago, L.S.; Ferreira, C.G.; Sternberg, C., E-mail: diretoriaexecutiva@sboc.org.br [Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Meira, D.D. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES (Brazil); Pires, A.C. [Fonte Medicina Diagnóstica, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a public health problem and the molecular mechanisms underlying radioresistance are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the modulation of key molecules involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle and DNA repair in cervical cancer cell lines (CASKI and C33A) and in malignant tissues biopsied from 10 patients before and after radiotherapy. The expression patterns of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and p53 were evaluated in cancer cell lines by quantitative PCR and western blotting, and in human malignant tissues by immunohistochemistry. The mutation status of TP53 gene was evaluated by direct sequencing. Among cell lines, absent or weak modulations of EGFR, ERCC1 and p53 were observed after exposure to 1.8 Gy. Conversely, increased expressions of p53 (5/10 patients; P=0.0239), ERCC1 (5/10 patients; P=0.0294) and EGFR (4/10 patients; P=0.1773) were observed in malignant tissues after radiotherapy with the same radiation dose. TP53 mutations were found only in one patient. Here we show that a single dose of radiotherapy induced EGFR, ERCC1 and p53 expression in malignant tissues from cervical cancer patients but not in cancer cell lines, highlighting the gap between in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Studies on larger patient cohorts are needed to allow an interpretation that an up regulation of p53, EGFR and ERCC1 may be part of a radioresistance mechanism. (author)

  2. MMP9 but Not EGFR, MET, ERCC1, P16, and P-53 Is Associated with Response to Concomitant Radiotherapy, Cetuximab, and Weekly Cisplatin in Patients with Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

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    George Fountzilas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant administration of radiotherapy with cisplatin or radiotherapy with cetuximab appear to be the treatment of choice for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. In the present retrospective analysis, we investigated the predictive role of several biomarkers in an unselected cohort of patients treated with concomitant radiotherapy, weekly cisplatin, and cetuximab (CCRT. We identified 37 patients treated with this approach, of which 13 (35% achieved a complete response and 10 (27% achieved a partial response. Severe side effects were mainly leucopenia, dysphagia, rash, and anemia. Tumor EGFR, MET, ERCC1, and p-53 protein and/or gene expression were not associated with treatment response. In contrast, high MMP9 mRNA expression was found to be significantly associated with objective response. In conclusion, CCRT is feasible and active. MMP9 was the only biomarker tested that appears to be of predictive value in cetuximab treated patients. However, this is a hypothesis generating study and the results should not be viewed as definitive evidence until they are validated in a larger cohort.

  3. Expression and clinical implication of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, BRCA1 and ERCC1 in epithelial ovarian tumor tissues.

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    Ju, L-L; Zhao, C Y; Ye, K-F; Yang, H; Zhang, J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the differential expression of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, ERCC1 and BRCA1 protein in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to evaluate the relationship between autophagy and platinum resistance of EOC patients during platinum-based chemotherapy with the protein expression. Expression of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, ERCC1 and BRCA1 were detected with immunohistochemistry in 60 patients, including 39 with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), 13 benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissue (BET) and 8 borderline ovarian tumor tissue. Beclin, p62 and ERCC1 expression was significantly higher in the EOC than the BET (p0.05). BRCA1 expression was lower in EOC than BET (pepithelial ovarian cancer.

  4. ERCC1 and TS Expression as Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Metastatic Colon Cancer.

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    Michel B Choueiri

    Full Text Available In patients with metastatic colon cancer, response to first line chemotherapy is a strong predictor of overall survival (OS. Currently, oncologists lack diagnostic tests to determine which chemotherapy regimen offers the greatest chance for response in an individual patient. Here we present the results of gene expression analysis for two genes, ERCC1 and TS, measured with the commercially available ResponseDX: Colon assay (Response Genetics, Los Angeles, CA in 41 patients with de novo metastatic colon cancer diagnosed between July 2008 and August 2013 at the University of California, San Diego. In addition ERCC1 and TS expression levels as determined by RNAseq and survival data for patients in TCGA were downloaded from the TCGA data portal. We found that patients with low expression of ERCC1 (n = 33 had significantly longer median OS (36.0 vs. 10.1 mo, HR 0.29, 95% CI .095 to .84, log-rank p = 9.0x10-6 and median time to treatment to failure (TTF following first line chemotherapy (14.1 vs. 2.4 mo, HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.048 to 0.58, log-rank p = 5.3x10-4 relative to those with high expression (n = 4. After accounting for the covariates age, sex, tumor grade and ECOG performance status in a Cox proportional hazard model the association of low ERCC1 with longer OS (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.26, p = 0.0448 and TTF (HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.21, p = 0.0053 remained significant. Patients with low TS expression (n = 29 had significantly longer median OS (36.0 vs. 14.8 mo, HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.074 to 0.82, log-rank p = 0.022 relative to those with high expression (n = 12. The combined low expression of ERCC1/TS was predictive of response in patients treated with FOLFOX (40% vs. 91%, RR 2.3, Fisher's exact test p = 0.03, n = 27, but not with FOLFIRI (71% vs. 71%, RR 1.0, Fisher's exact test p = 1, n = 14. Overall, these findings suggest that measurement of ERCC1 and TS expression has potential clinical utility in managing patients with metastatic colorectal

  5. ERCC1 as a biomarker for bladder cancer patients likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy

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    Sun, Jong-Mu; Choi, Han Yong; Lim, Ho Yeong; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Se Hoon; Kwon, Ghee Young; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Jo, Jisuk

    2012-01-01

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy and the value of molecular biomarkers in bladder cancer have not been determined. We aimed to assess the predictive and prognostic values of excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) in identifying appropriate patients who may potentially benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed on 93 patients with completely resected transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. ERCC1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ERCC1 expression was analyzed in 57 patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy and 36 who were not treated. Among 93 patients, ERCC1 expression was positive in 54 (58.1%) and negative in 39 (41.9%). ERCC1 positivity was significantly associated with longer survival (adjusted hazard ratio for death, 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.014-0.99; P = 0.049) in the group without adjuvant chemotherapy while ERCC1 positivity was associated with shorter survival among patients who have received adjuvant chemotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio for death, 2.64; 95% CI 1.01-6.85; P = 0.047). Therefore, clinical benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with ERCC1 negativity as measured by overall survival (test for interaction, P = 0.034) and by disease-free survival (test for interaction, P = 0.20). Among patients with completely resected transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, those with ERCC1-negative tumors seemed to benefit more from adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy than those with ERCC1-positive tumors. Future prospective, randomized studies are warranted to confirm our findings

  6. The prognostic value of ERCC1 and RRM1 gene expression in completely resected non-small cell lung cancer: tumor recurrence and overall survival

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    Tantraworasin, Apichat; Saeteng, Somcharoen; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Arayawudhikul, Nuttapon; Kasemsarn, Choosak; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2013-01-01

    The roles of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 gene (ERCC1) expression and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 gene (RRM1) expression in completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still debatable. Previous studies have shown that both genes affected the overall survival and outcomes of patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy; however, some studies did not show this correlation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic values of ERCC1 and RRM1 gene expression in predicting tumor recurrence and overall survival in patients with completely resected NSCLC who received adjuvant chemotherapy and in those who did not. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 247 patients with completely resected NSCLC. All patients had been treated with anatomic resection (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) with systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy between January 2002 and December 2011 at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand. They were divided into two groups: recurrence and no recurrence. Protein expression of ERCC1 and RRM1 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between clinicopathologic variables, including ERCC1 and RRM1 expression and tumor recurrence, were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by nodal involvement, tumor staging, intratumoral blood vessel invasion, intratumoral lymphatic invasion, and tumor necrosis was used to identify the prognostic roles of ERCC1 and RRM1. ERCC1 and RRM1 expression did not demonstrate prognostic value for tumor recurrence and overall survival in patients with completely resected NSCLC. In patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy treatment, those with high ERCC1 and high RRM1 expression seemed to have greater potential for tumor recurrence and shorter overall survival than did those who had low ERCC1 and low RRM1 (hazard ratio [HR] =1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.6–4.3, P=0.292 and HR =1.6, 95% CI

  7. ERCC1 and XRCC1 but not XPA single nucleotide polymorphisms correlate with response to chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma

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    Chen L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liang Chen,1 Mei-Mei Liu,1 Hui Liu,1 Dan Lu,2 Xiao-Dan Zhao,3 Xue-Jing Yang4 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Oncology, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, 4Nursing Department, Harbin Chest Hospital, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Our study aimed to investigate the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms of ERCC1/XRCC1/XPA genes and postoperative chemotherapy efficacy and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma. Our study included 108 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 100 healthy participants. ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487/XPA rs1800975 gene polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Then the chemotherapy efficacy and toxic effects of the patients were assessed. The genotype and allele frequency of ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487 in the case group were significantly different from that in the control group (all P<0.05. The patients with AA + GA in ERCC1 rs11615 had an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma than those with GG, and the risk of endometrial carcinoma for patients with AA + GA was also higher in comparison with patients with GG genotype in XRCC1 rs25487 (all P<0.05. GG on both ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487 had a higher effective rate of chemotherapy than GA + AA (all P<0.05. ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487 gene polymorphisms were linked with toxic effects in liver, kidney, and nervous system. ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487, muscular invasion, and tumor stage were independent risk factors for the prognosis of endometrial carcinoma (all P<0.05. However, no significant associations were observed between XPA rs1800975 polymorphism and chemotherapy efficacy and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma (all P>0.05. These results indicated that ERCC1 and XRCC1 but not XPA polymorphisms correlate with response to chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma. Keywords: ERCC1, XRCC1, XPA, single nucleotide

  8. The significance of tumoral ERCC1 status in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy: a multicenter clinicopathologic analysis.

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    Doll, Corinne M; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Pintilie, Melania; Klimowicz, Alexander C; Petrillo, Stephanie K; Milosevic, Michael; Craighead, Peter S; Clarke, Blaise; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Fyles, Anthony W; Magliocco, Anthony M

    2013-03-01

    ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) expression has been shown to be a molecular marker of cisplatin resistance in many tumor sites, but has not been well studied in cervical cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to measure tumoral ERCC1 in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in a large multicenter cohort, and to correlate expression with clinical outcome parameters. A total of 264 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated with curative-intent radical CRT from 3 major Canadian cancer centers were evaluated. Pretreatment formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were retrieved, and tissue microarrays were constructed. Tumoral ERCC1 (FL297 antibody) was measured using AQUA (R) technology. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the significance of clinical factors and ERCC1 status with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. The majority of patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II disease (n=119, 45%); median tumor size was 5 cm. OS was associated with tumor size (HR 1.16, P=.018), pretreatment hemoglobin status (HR 2.33, P=.00027), and FIGO stage. In addition, tumoral ERCC1 status (nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio) was associated with PFS (HR 2.33 [1.05-5.18], P=.038) and OS (HR 3.13 [1.27-7.71], P=.013). ERCC1 status was not significant on multivariate analysis when the model was adjusted for the clinical factors: for PFS (HR 1.49 [0.61-3.6], P=.38); for OS (HR 2.42 [0.94-6.24] P=.067). In this large multicenter cohort of locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with radical CRT, stage, tumor size, and pretreatment hemoglobin status were significantly associated with PFS and OS. ERCC1 status appears to have prognostic impact on univariate analysis in these patients, but was not independently associated with outcome on multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier

  9. The Significance of Tumoral ERCC1 Status in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy: A Multicenter Clinicopathologic Analysis

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    Doll, Corinne M., E-mail: Corinne.Doll@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aquino-Parsons, Christina [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Pintilie, Melania [Department of Biostatistics, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Klimowicz, Alexander C. [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Petrillo, Stephanie K. [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Milosevic, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Craighead, Peter S. [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Clarke, Blaise [Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Lees-Miller, Susan P. [Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Fyles, Anthony W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Magliocco, Anthony M. [Department of Pathology, Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) expression has been shown to be a molecular marker of cisplatin resistance in many tumor sites, but has not been well studied in cervical cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to measure tumoral ERCC1 in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in a large multicenter cohort, and to correlate expression with clinical outcome parameters. Methods and Materials: A total of 264 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated with curative-intent radical CRT from 3 major Canadian cancer centers were evaluated. Pretreatment formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were retrieved, and tissue microarrays were constructed. Tumoral ERCC1 (FL297 antibody) was measured using AQUA (R) technology. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the significance of clinical factors and ERCC1 status with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. Results: The majority of patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II disease (n=119, 45%); median tumor size was 5 cm. OS was associated with tumor size (HR 1.16, P=.018), pretreatment hemoglobin status (HR 2.33, P=.00027), and FIGO stage. In addition, tumoral ERCC1 status (nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio) was associated with PFS (HR 2.33 [1.05-5.18], P=.038) and OS (HR 3.13 [1.27-7.71], P=.013). ERCC1 status was not significant on multivariate analysis when the model was adjusted for the clinical factors: for PFS (HR 1.49 [0.61-3.6], P=.38); for OS (HR 2.42 [0.94-6.24] P=.067). Conclusions: In this large multicenter cohort of locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with radical CRT, stage, tumor size, and pretreatment hemoglobin status were significantly associated with PFS and OS. ERCC1 status appears to have prognostic impact on univariate analysis in these patients, but was not independently associated with outcome on

  10. The Significance of Tumoral ERCC1 Status in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy: A Multicenter Clinicopathologic Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Corinne M.; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Pintilie, Melania; Klimowicz, Alexander C.; Petrillo, Stephanie K.; Milosevic, Michael; Craighead, Peter S.; Clarke, Blaise; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Fyles, Anthony W.; Magliocco, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) expression has been shown to be a molecular marker of cisplatin resistance in many tumor sites, but has not been well studied in cervical cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to measure tumoral ERCC1 in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in a large multicenter cohort, and to correlate expression with clinical outcome parameters. Methods and Materials: A total of 264 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated with curative-intent radical CRT from 3 major Canadian cancer centers were evaluated. Pretreatment formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were retrieved, and tissue microarrays were constructed. Tumoral ERCC1 (FL297 antibody) was measured using AQUA (R) technology. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the significance of clinical factors and ERCC1 status with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. Results: The majority of patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II disease (n=119, 45%); median tumor size was 5 cm. OS was associated with tumor size (HR 1.16, P=.018), pretreatment hemoglobin status (HR 2.33, P=.00027), and FIGO stage. In addition, tumoral ERCC1 status (nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio) was associated with PFS (HR 2.33 [1.05-5.18], P=.038) and OS (HR 3.13 [1.27-7.71], P=.013). ERCC1 status was not significant on multivariate analysis when the model was adjusted for the clinical factors: for PFS (HR 1.49 [0.61-3.6], P=.38); for OS (HR 2.42 [0.94-6.24] P=.067). Conclusions: In this large multicenter cohort of locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with radical CRT, stage, tumor size, and pretreatment hemoglobin status were significantly associated with PFS and OS. ERCC1 status appears to have prognostic impact on univariate analysis in these patients, but was not independently associated with outcome on

  11. Low ERCC1 mRNA and protein expression are associated with worse survival in cervical cancer patients treated with radiation alone

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    Doll, Corinne M.; Prystajecky, Michael; Eliasziw, Misha; Klimowicz, Alexander C.; Petrillo, Stephanie K.; Craighead, Peter S.; Hao, Desiree; Diaz, Roman; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Magliocco, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression, using both mRNA and protein expression analysis, with clinical outcome in cervical cancer patients treated with radical radiation therapy (RT). Experimental design: Patients (n = 186) with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated with radical RT alone from a single institution were evaluated. Pre-treatment FFPE biopsy specimens were retrieved from 112 patients. ERCC1 mRNA level was determined by real-time PCR, and ERCC1 protein expression (FL297, 8F1) was measured using quantitative immunohistochemistry (AQUA (registered) ). The association of ERCC1 status with local response, 10-year disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: ERCC1 protein expression levels using both FL297 and 8F1 antibodies were determined for 112 patients; mRNA analysis was additionally performed in 32 patients. Clinical and outcome factors were comparable between the training and validation sets. Low ERCC1 mRNA expression status was associated with worse OS (17.9% vs 50.1%, p = 0.046). ERCC1 protein expression using the FL297 antibody, but not the 8F1 antibody, was significantly associated with both OS (p = 0.002) and DFS (p = 0.010). After adjusting for pre-treatment hemoglobin in a multivariate analysis, ERCC1 FL297 expression status remained statistically significant for OS [HR 1.9 (1.1-3.3), p = 0.031]. Conclusions: Pre-treatment tumoral ERCC1 mRNA and protein expression, using the FL297 antibody, are predictive factors for survival in cervical cancer patients treated with RT, with ERCC1 FL297 expression independently associated with survival. These results identify a subset of patients who may derive the greatest benefit from the addition of cisplatin chemotherapy.

  12. Mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 nuclease contributes to reduced DNA repair in XP-F patients.

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    Anwaar Ahmad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is caused by defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway. NER removes helix-distorting DNA lesions, such as UV-induced photodimers, from the genome. Patients suffering from XP exhibit exquisite sun sensitivity, high incidence of skin cancer, and in some cases neurodegeneration. The severity of XP varies tremendously depending upon which NER gene is mutated and how severely the mutation affects DNA repair capacity. XPF-ERCC1 is a structure-specific endonuclease essential for incising the damaged strand of DNA in NER. Missense mutations in XPF can result not only in XP, but also XPF-ERCC1 (XFE progeroid syndrome, a disease of accelerated aging. In an attempt to determine how mutations in XPF can lead to such diverse symptoms, the effects of a progeria-causing mutation (XPF(R153P were compared to an XP-causing mutation (XPF(R799W in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant XPF harboring either mutation was purified in a complex with ERCC1 and tested for its ability to incise a stem-loop structure in vitro. Both mutant complexes nicked the substrate indicating that neither mutation obviates catalytic activity of the nuclease. Surprisingly, differential immunostaining and fractionation of cells from an XFE progeroid patient revealed that XPF-ERCC1 is abundant in the cytoplasm. This was confirmed by fluorescent detection of XPF(R153P-YFP expressed in Xpf mutant cells. In addition, microinjection of XPF(R153P-ERCC1 into the nucleus of XPF-deficient human cells restored nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Intriguingly, in all XPF mutant cell lines examined, XPF-ERCC1 was detected in the cytoplasm of a fraction of cells. This demonstrates that at least part of the DNA repair defect and symptoms associated with mutations in XPF are due to mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 into the cytoplasm of cells, likely due to protein misfolding. Analysis of these patient cells therefore reveals a novel mechanism to potentially

  13. ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA expression levels in metastatic malignant effusions is associated with chemosensitivity to cisplatin and/or docetaxel

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    Wang Tingting

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major challenges in currently chemotherapeutic theme is lacking effective biomarkers for drug response and sensitivity. Our current study focus on two promising biomarkers, ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementing group 1 and BRCA1 (breast cancer susceptibility gene 1. To investigate their potential role in serving as biomarkers for drug sensitivity in cancer patients with metastases, we statistically measure the mRNA expression level of ERCC1 and BRCA1 in tumor cells isolated from malignant effusions and correlate them with cisplatin and/or docetaxel chemosensitivity. Methods Real-time quantitative PCR is used to analysis related genes expression in forty-six malignant effusions prospectively collected from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, gastric and gynecology cancer patients. Viable tumor cells obtained from malignant effusions are tested for their sensitivity to cisplatin and docetaxel using ATP-TCA assay. Results ERCC1 expression level is negatively correlated with the sensitivity to cisplatin in NSCLC patients (P = 0.001. In NSCLC and gastric group, BRCA1 expression level is negatively correlated with the sensitivity to cisplatin (NSCLC: P = 0.014; gastric: P = 0.002 while positively correlated with sensitivity to docetaxel (NSCLC: P = 0.008; gastric: P = 0.032. A significant interaction is found between ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA expressions on sensitivity to cisplatin (P = 0.010, n = 45. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA expression levels are correlated with in vitro chemosensitivity to cisplatin and/or docetaxel in malignant effusions of NSCLC and gastric cancer patients. And combination of ERCC1 and BRCA1 may have a better role on predicting the sensitivity to cisplatin than the single one is considered.

  14. Alkaline transition of pseudoazurin Met16X mutant proteins: protein stability influenced by the substitution of Met16 in the second sphere coordination.

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    Abdelhamid, Rehab F; Obara, Yuji; Kohzuma, Takamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Several blue copper proteins are known to change the active site structure at alkaline pH (alkaline transition). Spectroscopic studies of Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, Met16Trp, and Met16Val pseudoazurin variants were performed to investigate the second sphere role through alkaline transition. The visible electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, and Met16Trp variants showed the increasing of axial component at pH approximately 11 like wild-type PAz. The visible electronic absorption and far-UV CD spectra of Met16Val demonstrated that the destabilization of the protein structure was triggered at pH>11. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of PAz showed that the intensity-weighted averaged Cu-S(Cys) stretching frequency was shifted to higher frequency region at pH approximately 11. The higher frequency shift of Cu-S(Cys) bond is implied the stronger Cu-S(Cys) bond at alkaline transition pH approximately 11. The visible electronic absorption and far-UV CD spectra of Met16X PAz revealed that the Met16Val variant is denatured at pH>11, but Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, and Met16Trp mutant proteins are not denatured even at pH>11. These observations suggest that Met16 is important to maintain the protein structure through the possible weak interaction between methionine -SCH3 part and coordinated histidine imidazole moiety. The introduction of pi-pi interaction in the second coordination sphere may be contributed to the enhancement of protein structure stability.

  15. Supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 prevents Decline of Mucus Barrier in Colon of Accelerated Aging Ercc1-/Δ7 Mice

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    Adriaan A Van Beek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-wk bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20wk, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice was characterized by a thin (<10µm mucus layer. L. plantarum prevented this decline in mucus integrity in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, whereas B. breve exacerbated it. Bacterial supplementations affected the expression of immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4. Regulatory T cell frequencies were increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice showed increased specific antibody production in a T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. By contrast, the effects of bacterial supplementation on wild-type control mice were negligible. Thus, supplementation with L. plantarum – but not with L. casei and B. breve – prevented the decline in the mucus barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. Our data indicate that age is an important factor influencing beneficial or detrimental effects of candidate probiotics. These findings also highlight the need for caution in translating beneficial effects of probiotics observed in young animals or humans to the elderly.

  16. A Review of ERCC1 Gene in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Carcinogenesis and Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy

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    Atsunari Kawashima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1 gene performs a critical incision step in DNA repair and is reported to be correlated with carcinogenesis and resistance to drug or ionizing radiation therapy. We reviewed the correlation between ERCC1 and bladder cancer. In carcinogenesis, several reports discussed the relation between ERCC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and carcinogenesis in bladder cancer only in case-control studies. Regarding the relation between ERCC1 and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, in vitro and clinical studies indicate that ERCC1 might be related to resistance to radiation therapy rather than cisplatin therapy. It is controversial whether ERCC1 predicts prognosis of bladder cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Tyrosine kinase receptors or endothelial-mesenchymal transition are reported to regulate the expression of ERCC1, and further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of ERCC1 expression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy in vitro and to discover novel therapies for advanced and metastatic bladder cancer.

  17. A Review of ERCC1 Gene in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Carcinogenesis and Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy.

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    Kawashima, Atsunari; Takayama, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) gene performs a critical incision step in DNA repair and is reported to be correlated with carcinogenesis and resistance to drug or ionizing radiation therapy. We reviewed the correlation between ERCC1 and bladder cancer. In carcinogenesis, several reports discussed the relation between ERCC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and carcinogenesis in bladder cancer only in case-control studies. Regarding the relation between ERCC1 and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, in vitro and clinical studies indicate that ERCC1 might be related to resistance to radiation therapy rather than cisplatin therapy. It is controversial whether ERCC1 predicts prognosis of bladder cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Tyrosine kinase receptors or endothelial-mesenchymal transition are reported to regulate the expression of ERCC1, and further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of ERCC1 expression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy in vitro and to discover novel therapies for advanced and metastatic bladder cancer.

  18. Systematic immunohistochemical screening for mismatch repair and ERCC1 gene expression from colorectal cancers in China: Clinicopathological characteristics and effects on survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Li

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic screening of colorectal cancer (CRC tissues to investigate whether mismatch repair (MMR status and ERCC1 protein expression could be predictive of clinical outcomes for these patients following the recommendation of The Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice of Prevention (EGAPP.The expression of four MMR genes and ERCC1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC from cancer tissue samples of 2233 consecutive CRC patients.We observed that most CRC patients with a proficient MMR (pMMR status tended to have simultaneous ERCC1 protein expression (P< 0.001. Stage III CRC patients with deficient MMR (dMMR had higher prognoses than the same stage patients with pMMR (DFS: 74% vs 65%, P = 0.04; OS: 79% vs 69%, P = 0.04. Here, dMMR is also associated with poorer survival for stage II patients after chemotherapy (DFS: 66% vs 78%, P = 0.04. Stage II and III patients that were shown to express ERCC1 protein had higher DFS and OS than those that were deficient in expression (stage II, DFS: 83% vs 70%, P = 0.006; OS 85% vs 73%, P = 0.02. Stage III, DFS: 67% vs56%, P = 0.03; OS: 71% vs 57%, P = 0.04.Our results indicate that dMMR appeared to predictive of a survival benefit for stage III CRC patients. We also found the determination of ERCC1 expression to be useful for predicting DFS or OS for stage II and III CRC patients. In addition, the expression of MMR genes and ERCC1 showed a significant relationship.

  19. Correlation analysis and prognostic impact of 18F-FDG PET and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC-1) expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hyu; Lee, Choong Kun; Jo, Kwan Hyeong; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Cha, Jong Tae; Lee, Jeong Won; Yun, Mi Jin; Cho, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between [ 18 ]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC-1) expression and to evaluate the prognostic effect of these two factors in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients with resectable NSCLC who underwent FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan for cancer staging and ERCC-1 expression analysis between January 2008 to December 2011. All patients were then followed-up for survival analysis. Semiquantitative evaluation of ERCC-1 was performed with the H-scoring system and was correlated with maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of NSCLC. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate for FDG uptake and ERCC-1 expression predicting overall survival. In 212 patients (139 male, median age 68 ± 9.11), 112 patients had ERCC-positive tumors and 100 patients had ERCC-negative tumors. There was no significant difference in SUV max between ERCC-1-positive tumors (8.02 ±5.40) and ERCC-1-negative tumors (7.57 ± 6.56, p = 0.584). All patients were followed-up for a median of 40.5 months (95 % confidence interval [CI], 38.5–42.2 months). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for all patients showed that both ERCC-1 expression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.78; 95 % CI, 1.20–6.47) and FDG uptake (HR, 4.50; 95 % CI, 2.07–9.77) independently predicted overall survival. We have found no statistical correlation between FDG uptake and ERCC-1 expression in NSCLC. However, both higher FDG uptake and positive ERCC-1 expression are independent predictive markers of prognosis, suggesting that both should be obtained during patient workup

  20. ERCC1 Cys8092Ala and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms predict progression-free survival after curative radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekun Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in DNA repair genes can alter gene expression and activity and affect response to cancer treatment and, correspondingly, survival. The present study was designed to evaluate the utility of the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and ERCC1 Cys8092Ala SNPs, measured in pretreatment biopsy samples, as predictors of response to radiotherapy in patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 75 consecutive patients with stage II-IVA-B NPC. XRCC1 Arg399Glu and ERCC1 Cys8092Ala SNPs were identified from paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens via Sanger sequencing. Expression of p53 and pAkt protein was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Potential relationships between genetic polymorphisms and progression-free survival (PFS were analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards model, the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that carriers of the ERCC1 8092 Ala/Ala genotype [hazard ratio (HR 1.882; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.031-3.438; P = 0.039] and heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years carrying the XRCC1 Arg/Arg genotype (HR 2.019; 95% CI 1.010-4.036; P = 0.047 had significantly lower PFS rates. Moreover, combined positive expression of p53 and pAkt led to significantly increased PFS in subgroups carrying the XRCC1 Gln allele (HR 7.057; 95% CI 2.073-24.021; P = 0.002 or the ERCC1 Cys allele (HR 2.568; 95% CI 1.056-6.248; P = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: The ERCC1 Cys8092Ala polymorphism is an independent predictor of response to radiotherapy for NPC, and the XRCC1 Arg399Glu mutation combined with smoking status seems to predict PFS as well. Our results further suggest a possible correlation between these genetic polymorphisms and p53 protein status on survival.

  1. Correlation analysis and prognostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC-1) expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Hyu; Lee, Choong Kun; Jo, Kwan Hyeong; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Cha, Jong Tae; Lee, Jeong Won; Yun, Mi Jin; Cho, Arthur [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between [{sup 18}]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC-1) expression and to evaluate the prognostic effect of these two factors in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients with resectable NSCLC who underwent FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan for cancer staging and ERCC-1 expression analysis between January 2008 to December 2011. All patients were then followed-up for survival analysis. Semiquantitative evaluation of ERCC-1 was performed with the H-scoring system and was correlated with maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of NSCLC. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate for FDG uptake and ERCC-1 expression predicting overall survival. In 212 patients (139 male, median age 68 ± 9.11), 112 patients had ERCC-positive tumors and 100 patients had ERCC-negative tumors. There was no significant difference in SUV{sub max} between ERCC-1-positive tumors (8.02 ±5.40) and ERCC-1-negative tumors (7.57 ± 6.56, p = 0.584). All patients were followed-up for a median of 40.5 months (95 % confidence interval [CI], 38.5–42.2 months). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for all patients showed that both ERCC-1 expression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.78; 95 % CI, 1.20–6.47) and FDG uptake (HR, 4.50; 95 % CI, 2.07–9.77) independently predicted overall survival. We have found no statistical correlation between FDG uptake and ERCC-1 expression in NSCLC. However, both higher FDG uptake and positive ERCC-1 expression are independent predictive markers of prognosis, suggesting that both should be obtained during patient workup.

  2. RPA activates the XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease to initiate processing of DNA interstrand crosslinks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdullah, Ummi B

    2017-06-13

    During replication‐coupled DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair, the XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease is required for the incisions that release, or “unhook”, ICLs, but the mechanism of ICL unhooking remains largely unknown. Incisions are triggered when the nascent leading strand of a replication fork strikes the ICL. Here, we report that while purified XPF‐ERCC1 incises simple ICL‐containing model replication fork structures, the presence of a nascent leading strand, modelling the effects of replication arrest, inhibits this activity. Strikingly, the addition of the single‐stranded DNA (ssDNA)‐binding replication protein A (RPA) selectively restores XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease activity on this structure. The 5′–3′ exonuclease SNM1A can load from the XPF‐ERCC1‐RPA‐induced incisions and digest past the crosslink to quantitatively complete the unhooking reaction. We postulate that these collaborative activities of XPF‐ERCC1, RPA and SNM1A might explain how ICL unhooking is achieved in vivo.

  3. RPA activates the XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease to initiate processing of DNA interstrand crosslinks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdullah, Ummi B; McGouran, Joanna F; Brolih, Sanja; Ptchelkine, Denis; El‐Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom; McHugh, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    During replication‐coupled DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair, the XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease is required for the incisions that release, or “unhook”, ICLs, but the mechanism of ICL unhooking remains largely unknown. Incisions are triggered when the nascent leading strand of a replication fork strikes the ICL. Here, we report that while purified XPF‐ERCC1 incises simple ICL‐containing model replication fork structures, the presence of a nascent leading strand, modelling the effects of replication arrest, inhibits this activity. Strikingly, the addition of the single‐stranded DNA (ssDNA)‐binding replication protein A (RPA) selectively restores XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease activity on this structure. The 5′–3′ exonuclease SNM1A can load from the XPF‐ERCC1‐RPA‐induced incisions and digest past the crosslink to quantitatively complete the unhooking reaction. We postulate that these collaborative activities of XPF‐ERCC1, RPA and SNM1A might explain how ICL unhooking is achieved in vivo.

  4. Transcriptional profiling reveals progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mice as a model system for glomerular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging-related kidney diseases are a major health concern. Currently, models to study renal aging are lacking. Due to a reduced life-span progeroid models hold the promise to facilitate aging studies and allow examination of tissue-specific changes. Defects in genome maintenance in the Ercc1-/Δ progeroid mouse model result in premature aging and typical age-related pathologies. Here, we compared the glomerular transcriptome of young and aged Ercc1-deficient mice to young and aged WT mice in order to establish a novel model for research of aging-related kidney disease. Results In a principal component analysis, age and genotype emerged as first and second principal components. Hierarchical clustering of all 521 genes differentially regulated between young and old WT and young and old Ercc1-/Δ mice showed cluster formation between young WT and Ercc1-/Δ as well as old WT and Ercc1-/Δ samples. An unexpectedly high number of 77 genes were differentially regulated in both WT and Ercc1-/Δ mice (p aging glomerulus. At the level of the transcriptome, the pattern of gene activities is similar in the progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mouse model constituting a valuable tool for future studies of aging-associated glomerular pathologies. PMID:23947592

  5. Transcriptional profiling reveals progeroid Ercc1(-/Δ) mice as a model system for glomerular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Bernhard; Bartels, Valerie; Frommolt, Peter; Habermann, Bianca; Braun, Fabian; Schultze, Joachim L; Roodbergen, Marianne; Hoeijmakers, Jan Hj; Schumacher, Björn; Nürnberg, Peter; Dollé, Martijn Et; Benzing, Thomas; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Kurschat, Christine E

    2013-08-16

    Aging-related kidney diseases are a major health concern. Currently, models to study renal aging are lacking. Due to a reduced life-span progeroid models hold the promise to facilitate aging studies and allow examination of tissue-specific changes. Defects in genome maintenance in the Ercc1(-/Δ) progeroid mouse model result in premature aging and typical age-related pathologies. Here, we compared the glomerular transcriptome of young and aged Ercc1-deficient mice to young and aged WT mice in order to establish a novel model for research of aging-related kidney disease. In a principal component analysis, age and genotype emerged as first and second principal components. Hierarchical clustering of all 521 genes differentially regulated between young and old WT and young and old Ercc1(-/Δ) mice showed cluster formation between young WT and Ercc1(-/Δ) as well as old WT and Ercc1(-/Δ) samples. An unexpectedly high number of 77 genes were differentially regulated in both WT and Ercc1(-/Δ) mice (p aging glomerulus. At the level of the transcriptome, the pattern of gene activities is similar in the progeroid Ercc1(-/Δ) mouse model constituting a valuable tool for future studies of aging-associated glomerular pathologies.

  6. Assessment of ERCC1 and XPF Protein Expression Using Quantitative Immunohistochemistry in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Curative Intent Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagdis, Amanda [Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Phan, Tien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Klimowicz, Alexander C. [Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Laskin, Janessa J. [Department of Medical Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Lau, Harold Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Petrillo, Stephanie K. [Functional Tissue Imaging Unit, Translational Research Laboratory, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Siever, Jodi E. [Department of Biostatistics, Public Health Innovation and Decision Support Population and Public Health, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Thomson, Thomas A. [Department of Pathology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Magliocco, Anthony M. [Department of Pathology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Hao, Desirée, E-mail: Desiree.Hao@albertahealthservices.ab.ca [Department of Medical Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate the prognostic/predictive value of ERCC1 and XPF in patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with curative intent. Methods and Materials: ERCC1 and XPF protein expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence combined with automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) using the FL297 and 3F2 antibodies, respectively. ERCC1 and XPF protein expression levels were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: Patient characteristics were as follows: mean age 52 years (range, 18-85 years), 67% male, 72% Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥90%, World Health Organization (WHO) type 1/2/3 = 12%/28%/60%, stage III/IV 65%. With a median follow-up time of 50 months (range, 2.9 to 120 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 70.8%. Median standardized nuclear AQUA scores were used as cutpoints for ERCC1 (n=138) and XPF (n=130) protein expression. Agreement between dichotomized ERCC1 and XPF scores was high at 79.4% (kappa = 0.587, P<.001). Neither biomarker predicted locoregional recurrence, DFS, or OS after adjustment for age and KPS, irrespective of stratification by stage, WHO type, or treatment. Conclusions: Neither ERCC1 nor XPF, analyzed by quantitative immunohistochemistry using the FL297 and 3F2 antibodies, was prognostic or predictive in this cohort of NPC patients.

  7. Assessment of ERCC1 and XPF Protein Expression Using Quantitative Immunohistochemistry in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Curative Intent Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagdis, Amanda; Phan, Tien; Klimowicz, Alexander C.; Laskin, Janessa J.; Lau, Harold Y.; Petrillo, Stephanie K.; Siever, Jodi E.; Thomson, Thomas A.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Hao, Desirée

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate the prognostic/predictive value of ERCC1 and XPF in patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with curative intent. Methods and Materials: ERCC1 and XPF protein expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence combined with automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) using the FL297 and 3F2 antibodies, respectively. ERCC1 and XPF protein expression levels were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: Patient characteristics were as follows: mean age 52 years (range, 18-85 years), 67% male, 72% Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥90%, World Health Organization (WHO) type 1/2/3 = 12%/28%/60%, stage III/IV 65%. With a median follow-up time of 50 months (range, 2.9 to 120 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 70.8%. Median standardized nuclear AQUA scores were used as cutpoints for ERCC1 (n=138) and XPF (n=130) protein expression. Agreement between dichotomized ERCC1 and XPF scores was high at 79.4% (kappa = 0.587, P<.001). Neither biomarker predicted locoregional recurrence, DFS, or OS after adjustment for age and KPS, irrespective of stratification by stage, WHO type, or treatment. Conclusions: Neither ERCC1 nor XPF, analyzed by quantitative immunohistochemistry using the FL297 and 3F2 antibodies, was prognostic or predictive in this cohort of NPC patients

  8. The Predictive and Prognostic Significance of c-erb-B2, EGFR, PTEN, mTOR, PI3K, p27, and ERCC1 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassullu, Nuray; Turkmen, Ilknur; Dayangac, Murat; Yagiz Korkmaz, Pinar; Yasar, Reyhan; Akyildiz, Murat; Yaprak, Onur; Tokat, Yaman; Yuzer, Yildiray; Bulbul Dogusoy, Gulen

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common fatal cancer and an important healthcare problem worldwide. There are many studies describing the prognostic and predictive effects of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (c-erb-B2) and epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR), transmembrane tyrosine kinases that influence cell growth and proliferation in many tumors. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the expression levels of c-erb-B2, EGFR, PTEN, mTOR, PI3K, p27, and ERCC1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their correlation with other clinicopathologic features. Patients and Methods Fifty HCC cases were stained immunohistochemically with these markers. Correlations between the markers and clinicopathologic characteristics and survival rates were analyzed. Results No membranous c-erb-B2 staining was seen, whereas cytoplasmic positivity was present in 92% of HCC samples, membranous EGFR was observed in 40%, PI3K was found in all samples, and mTOR was seen in 30%, whereas reduced or absent PTEN expression was observed in 56% of samples and loss of p27 was seen in 92% of the cases. c-erb-B2 and mTOR overexpression, as well as reduced expression of p27, all correlated with multiple tumors (P = 0.041, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). P27 loss, and mTOR and EGFR positivity were significantly correlated with AFP (P = 0.047, P = 0.004, and P = 0.008, respectively). Angiolymphatic invasion was more commonly seen in EGFR- and ERCC1-positive cases (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005). EGFR was also correlated with histological grade (P = 0.039). No significant correlations were found among PTEN , PI3K, and the clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free or overall survival rates showed significant differences among therapy modalities, AFP levels, angiolymphatic or lymph node invasions, and ERCC1 and p27 expression levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions c-erb-B2, EGFR, mTOR, ERCC1 overexpression levels, and loss of p27 may play roles in

  9. Measuring ERCC1 protein expression in cancer specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David Hersi; Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Fogh, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Platinum chemotherapy remains part of standard therapies in the management of a variety of cancers. Severe side effects and a high degree of resistance to platinum drugs have led numerous researchers to search for predictive biomarkers, which could aid in identifying patients that are the most......, the specificity of antibody 4F9 was tested by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Scoring guidelines to aid in the evaluation of ERCC1 tumor expression were developed and evaluated in archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded colorectal cancer specimens. Antibody 4F9 was found...... to be specific by all methods applied and it was possible to evaluate the ERCC1 expression in the majority (85%) of colorectal cancer tumor specimens....

  10. RPA activates the XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease to initiate processing of DNA interstrand crosslinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ummi B; McGouran, Joanna F; Brolih, Sanja; Ptchelkine, Denis; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom; McHugh, Peter J

    2017-07-14

    During replication-coupled DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair, the XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease is required for the incisions that release, or "unhook", ICLs, but the mechanism of ICL unhooking remains largely unknown. Incisions are triggered when the nascent leading strand of a replication fork strikes the ICL Here, we report that while purified XPF-ERCC1 incises simple ICL-containing model replication fork structures, the presence of a nascent leading strand, modelling the effects of replication arrest, inhibits this activity. Strikingly, the addition of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding replication protein A (RPA) selectively restores XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease activity on this structure. The 5'-3' exonuclease SNM1A can load from the XPF-ERCC1-RPA-induced incisions and digest past the crosslink to quantitatively complete the unhooking reaction. We postulate that these collaborative activities of XPF-ERCC1, RPA and SNM1A might explain how ICL unhooking is achieved in vivo . © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Analysis list: ERCC3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ERCC3 Bone + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERCC3.1.ts...v http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERCC3.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERC...C3.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/ERCC3.Bone.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Bone.gml ...

  12. Analysis list: ERCC6 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ERCC6 Others + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERCC6.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERCC6.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERC...C6.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/ERCC6.Others.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Others.gml ...

  13. Analysis list: ERCC2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ERCC2 Bone + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERCC2.1.ts...v http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERCC2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERC...C2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/ERCC2.Bone.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Bone.gml ...

  14. ERCC1 protein as a guide for individualized therapy of late-stage advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Han, Baohui; Shen, Jie; Gu, Aiqin; Qi, Dajiang; Huang, Jinsu; Shi, Chunlei; Xiong, Liwen; Zhao, Yizhuo; Jiang, Liyan; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Yurong

    2011-09-01

    Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) protein has been associated with cisplatin resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between ERCC1 protein levels and the therapeutic effect of individualized therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 190 advanced NSCLC patients were included in this study. Patients were randomized into either the individualized therapy group or the standard therapy group at a ratio of 2:1. Patients in the standard therapy group were treated with either gemcitabine plus cisplatin or vinorelbine plus cisplatin. The expression of ERCC1 protein in lung cancer tissues of patients from the individualized therapy group was detected with immunohistochemistry. Patients with low ERCC1 levels received either gemcitabine plus cisplatin or vinorelbine plus cisplatin, and patients with high levels received gemcitabine plus vinorelbine. The main outcome assessments were response rate (RR), overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). Follow-up data were recorded until September 30, 2010. RR, 1-year survival rate and TTP were not statistically significant. The median survival time was 10.10 months in the standard therapy group (95% CI 8.48-11.92) and 13.59 months in the individualized therapy group (95% CI 11.86-14.74). The difference in median survival time was significantly different between these groups (P=0.036). The median survival time was longer in the individualized group compared to the standard therapy group. ERCC1 protein expression in advanced NSCLC patients, however, was not significantly correlated with RR, OS and TTP in the individualized therapy group. Therefore, this study suggests that ERCC1 protein levels should be assessed in combination with additional biomarkers to determine an optimal index for individualized therapy in advanced NSCLC patients.

  15. Letter regarding Li JS et al. entitled "ERCC polymorphisms and prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yuekui; Tian, Xiaobin; Li, Bo; Zhou, Zhuojia; Wu, Xinglin

    2015-05-01

    With great interest, we read the article "ERCC polymorphisms and prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma" (by Li JS et al.), which has reached important conclusions about the relationship between ERCC polymorphisms and osteosarcoma prognosis. Through quantitative analysis, the meta-analysis showed that ERCC2 Lys751Gln (ORGG vs. AA = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.1-0.86), P heterogeneity = 0.502; I (2) = 0 %) and ERCC5 His46His (ORCC vs. TT = 0.37 (95%CI = 0.15-0.93), P heterogeneity = 0.569; I (2) = 0 %) polymorphisms might influence the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma [1]. The meta-analysis results are encouraging. Nevertheless, some deficiencies still existed that we would like to raise.

  16. Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy; Loustaunau, Cristy; Facista, Alexander; Ramsey, Lois; Hassounah, Nadia; Taylor, Hilary; Krouse, Robert; Payne, Claire M; Tsikitis, V Liana; Goldschmid, Steve; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Perini, Rafael F; Bernstein, Carol

    2010-07-28

    surrounding a colonic neoplasia, while frequency of crypts deficient in Ku86 has a median value of 2% and frequency of crypts deficient in CcOI has a median value of 16% in these areas. The entire colon is 150 cm long (about 5 feet) and has about 10 million crypts in its mucosal layer. The defect in Pms2 and ERCC1 surrounding a colon cancer thus may include 1 million crypts. It is from a defective crypt that colon cancer arises.

  17. ERCC1, toxicity and quality of life in advanced NSCLC patients randomized in a large multicentre phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, Adam Christian; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2010-01-01

    Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a promising biomarker in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, current evidence regarding the impact of ERCC1 on toxicity and quality of life (QOL) is limited.......Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a promising biomarker in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, current evidence regarding the impact of ERCC1 on toxicity and quality of life (QOL) is limited....

  18. ERCC1 and Ki67 in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Other Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung Distribution and Impact on Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Holm, B.; Erreboe, A.

    2010-01-01

    .001). The difference between TC and AC was significant (p = 0.02), as was the difference between low grade (TC + AC) and high grade NE (LCNEC + SCLC) (p ... with platinum-based chemotherapy has no impact on survival. High expression of ERCC1 in TC might represent a clue to the failure of platinum-based therapy in these patients. ERCC1 expression has prognostic impact in lung carcinoids. Ki 67 might be considered as a supplementary test to the histopatologic...... classification of NE tumors...

  19. Association studies of ERCC1 polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excision repair cross-complimentary group 1 (ERCC1 is an essential component of the nucleotide excision repair system that is responsible for repairing damaged DNA. Functional genetic variations in the ERCC1 gene may alter DNA repair capacity and modulate cancer risk. The putative roles of ERCC1 gene polymorphisms in lung cancer susceptibility have been widely investigated. However, the results remain controversial. OBJECTIVES: An updated meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether lung cancer risk could be attributed to the following ERCC1 polymorphisms: rs11615 (T>C, rs3212986 (C>A, rs3212961 (A>C, rs3212948 (G>C, rs2298881 (C>A. METHODS: Several major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus and the Chinese Biomedical database were searched for eligible studies. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to measure the strength of associations. RESULTS: Sixteen studies with 10,106 cases and 13,238 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled ORs from 11 eligible studies (8,215 cases vs. 11,402 controls suggested a significant association of ERCC1 rs11615 with increased risk for lung cancer (homozygous: CC versus TT, OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48, P = 0.02. However, such an association was disproportionately driven by a single study. Removal of that study led to null association. Moreover, initial analyses suggested that ERCC1 rs11615 exerts a more profound effect on the susceptibility of non-smokers to lung cancer than that of smokers. Moreover, no statistically significant association was found between remaining ERCC1 polymorphisms of interest and lung cancer risk, except for rs3212948 variation (heterozygous: CG vs.GG, OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90, P = 0.001; dominant: CG/CC vs.GG, OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91, P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Overall, this meta-analysis suggests that ERCC1 rs3212948 G>C, but not others, is a lung cancer risk-associated polymorphism. Carefully

  20. ERCC1 and histopathology in advanced NSCLC patients randomized in a large multicenter phase III trial

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    Vilmar, Adam Christian; Santoni-Rugiu, E; Sørensen, J B

    2010-01-01

    Customized chemotherapy is likely to improve outcome in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a promising biomarker; however, current evidence is inadequate. Impact of ERCC1 status was evaluated among patients participa...

  1. Mutation analysis of the ERCC4/FANCQ gene in hereditary breast cancer.

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    Sandra Kohlhase

    Full Text Available The ERCC4 protein forms a structure-specific endonuclease involved in the DNA damage response. Different cancer syndromes such as a subtype of Xeroderma pigmentosum, XPF, and recently a subtype of Fanconi Anemia, FA-Q, have been attributed to biallelic ERCC4 gene mutations. To investigate whether monoallelic ERCC4 gene defects play some role in the inherited component of breast cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the whole ERCC4 coding region and flanking untranslated portions in a series of 101 Byelorussian and German breast cancer patients selected for familial disease (set 1, n = 63 or for the presence of the rs1800067 risk haplotype (set 2, n = 38. This study confirmed six known and one novel exonic variants, including four missense substitutions but no truncating mutation. Missense substitution p.R415Q (rs1800067, a previously postulated breast cancer susceptibility allele, was subsequently screened for in a total of 3,698 breast cancer cases and 2,868 controls from Germany, Belarus or Russia. The Gln415 allele appeared protective against breast cancer in the German series, with the strongest effect for ductal histology (OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.49; 0.92; p = 0.003, but this association was not confirmed in the other two series, with the combined analysis yielding an overall Mantel-Haenszel OR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.81; 1.08. There was no significant effect of p.R415Q on breast cancer survival in the German patient series. The other three detected ERCC4 missense mutations included two known rare variants as well as a novel substitution, p.E17V, that we identified on a p.R415Q haplotype background. The p.E17V mutation is predicted to be probably damaging but was present in just one heterozygous patient. We conclude that the contribution of ERCC4/FANCQ coding mutations to hereditary breast cancer in Central and Eastern Europe is likely to be small.

  2. Association between polymorphisms in ERCC2 gene and oral cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Enjiao; Cui, Zhigang; Xu, Zhongfei; Duan, Weiyi; Huang, Shaohui; Tan, Xuexin; Yin, Zhihua; Sun, Changfu; Lu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) plays important roles in the repair of DNA damage and adducts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ERCC2 gene are suspected to influence the risks of oral cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to systematically summarize the possible association of ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181 polymorphisms with oral cancer risks. We retrieved the relevant articles from PubMed and Embase databases. Studies were selected using specific criteria. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated to assess the association. All analyses were performed using the Stata software. Six studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were no significant associations between ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181 polymorphism with overall oral cancer risk. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, no significant associations were found. In the stratified analysis by tumor type, the risk of oral leukoplakia was significant associated with rs13181 polymorphism (AC vs. AA: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.62, P = 0.546 for heterogeneity, I 2 = 0.0%; CC vs. AA: OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 0.99-3.79, P = 0.057 for heterogeneity, I 2 = 60.1%; dominant model AC + CC vs. AA: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.08–1.69, P = 0.303 for heterogeneity, I 2 = 17.6%; allele C vs. A: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.04–1.82. P = 0.043 for heterogeneity, I 2 = 56.4%). Rs13181 in ERCC2 gene might be associated with oral leukoplakia risk

  3. A human repair gene ERCC5 is involved in group G xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Tadahiro

    1994-01-01

    In E. coli, ultraviolet-induced DNA damage is removed by the coordinated action of UVR A, B, C, and D proteins (1). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, more than ten genes have been reported to be involved in excision repair (2). The nucleotide excision repair pathway has been extensively studied in these organisms. To facilitate studying nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells. Ultraviolet-sensitive rodent cell mutants have been isolated and classified into 11 complementation groups (9,10). The human nucleotide excision repair genes which complement the defects of the mutants have been designated as the ERCC (excision repair cross-complementing) genes; a number is added to refer to the particular rodent complementation group that is corrected by the gene. Recently, several human DNA repair genes have been cloned using rodent cell lines sensitive to ultraviolet. These include ERCC2 (3), ERCC3 (4), and ERCC6 (5), which correspond to the defective genes in the ultraviolet-sensitive human disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group D (6) and group B (4), and Cockayne's syndrome (CS) group B (7), respectively. The human excision repair gene ERCC5 was cloned after DNA-mediated gene transfer of human HeLa cell genomic DNA into the ultraviolet-sensitive mouse mutant XL216, a member of rodent complementation group 5 (11,12) and the gene was mapped on human chromosome 13q32.3-q33.1 by the replication R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization method (13). The ERCC5 cDNA encodes a predicted 133 kDa nuclear protein that shares some homology with product of the yeast DNA repair gene RAD 2. Transfection with mouse ERCC5 cDNA restored normal levels of ultraviolet-resistance to XL216 cells. Microinjection of ERCC5 cDNA specifically restored the defect of XP group G cells (XP-G) as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), and XP-G cells stably transformed with ERCC5 cDNA showed nearly normal ultraviolet resistance. (J.P.N.)

  4. ABCC5, ERCC2, XPA and XRCC1 transcript abundance levels correlate with cisplatin chemoresistance in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

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    Khuder Sadik A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although 40–50% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tumors respond to cisplatin chemotherapy, there currently is no way to prospectively identify potential responders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether transcript abundance (TA levels of twelve selected DNA repair or multi-drug resistance genes (LIG1, ERCC2, ERCC3, DDIT3, ABCC1, ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCC10, GTF2H2, XPA, XPC and XRCC1 were associated with cisplatin chemoresistance and could therefore contribute to the development of a predictive marker. Standardized RT (StaRT-PCR, was employed to assess these genes in a set of NSCLC cell lines with a previously published range of sensitivity to cisplatin. Data were obtained in the form of target gene molecules relative to 106 β-actin (ACTB molecules. To cancel the effect of ACTB variation among the different cell lines individual gene expression values were incorporated into ratios of one gene to another. Each two-gene ratio was compared as a single variable to chemoresistance for each of eight NSCLC cell lines using multiple regression. In an effort to validate these results, six additional lines then were evaluated. Results Following validation, single variable models best correlated with chemoresistance (p ERCC2/XPC, ABCC5/GTF2H2, ERCC2/GTF2H2, XPA/XPC and XRCC1/XPC. All single variable models were examined hierarchically to achieve two variable models. The two variable model with the highest correlation was (ABCC5/GTF2H2, ERCC2/GTF2H2 with an R2 value of 0.96 (p Conclusion These results provide markers suitable for assessment of small fine needle aspirate biopsies in an effort to prospectively identify cisplatin resistant tumors.

  5. The interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with PGC and ERCC6 gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis.

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    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with pepsinogen C (PGC and excision repair cross complementing group 6 (ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and its association with the risks of gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. We hoped to identify miRNA polymorphism or a combination of several polymorphisms that could serve as biomarkers for predicting the risk of gastric cancer and its precancerous diseases. METHODS: Sequenom MassARRAY platform method was used to detect polymorphisms of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G → A, PGC rs4711690 C → G, PGC rs6458238 G → A, PGC rs9471643 G → C, and ERCC6 rs1917799 in 471 gastric cancer patients, 645 atrophic gastritis patients and 717 controls. RESULTS: An interaction effect of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with ERCC6 rs1917799 polymorphism was observed for the risk of gastric cancer (P interaction = 0.026; and interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with PGC rs6458238 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.012 and PGC rs9471643 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.039 were observed for the risk of atrophic gastritis. CONCLUSION: The combination of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and ERCC6 and PGC polymorphisms could provide a greater prediction potential than a single polymorphism on its own. Large-scale studies and molecular mechanism research are needed to confirm our findings.

  6. High ERCC1 expression predicts cisplatin-based chemotherapy resistance and poor outcome in unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in a betel-chewing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Chih-Yen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was to evaluate the effect of excision repair cross-complementation group 1(ERCC1 expression on response to cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy (IC followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT in locally advanced unresectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC patients. Methods Fifty-seven patients with locally advanced unresectable HNSCC who received cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT from January 1, 2006 through January 1, 2008. Eligibility criteria included presence of biopsy-proven HNSCC without a prior history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess ERCC1 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens from paraffin blocks. Clinical parameters, including smoking, alcohol consumption and betel nuts chewing, were obtained from the medical records. Results The 12-month progression-free survival (PFS and 2-year overall survival (OS rates of fifty-seven patients were 61.1% and 61.0%, respectively. Among these patients, thirty-one patients had low ERCC1 expression and forty-one patients responded to IC followed by CCRT. Univariate analyses showed that patients with low expression of ERCC1 had a significantly higher 12-month PFS rates (73.3% vs. 42.3%, p Conclusions Our study suggest that a high expression of ERCC1 predict a poor response and survival to cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT in patients with locally advanced unresectable HNSCC in betel nut chewing area.

  7. Malfunction of nuclease ERCC1-XPF results in diverse clinical manifestations and causes Cockayne syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and Fanconi anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiyama, Kazuya; Nakazawa, Yuka; Pilz, Daniela T; Guo, Chaowan; Shimada, Mayuko; Sasaki, Kensaku; Fawcett, Heather; Wing, Jonathan F; Lewin, Susan O; Carr, Lucinda; Li, Tao-Sheng; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Utani, Atsushi; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Greenblatt, Danielle; Nardo, Tiziana; Stefanini, Miria; McGibbon, David; Sarkany, Robert; Fassihi, Hiva; Takahashi, Yoshito; Nagayama, Yuji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Lehmann, Alan R; Ogi, Tomoo

    2013-05-02

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a genetic disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities and photodermatosis resulting from the lack of transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair, which is responsible for the removal of photodamage from actively transcribed genes. To date, all identified causative mutations for CS have been in the two known CS-associated genes, ERCC8 (CSA) and ERCC6 (CSB). For the rare combined xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and CS phenotype, all identified mutations are in three of the XP-associated genes, ERCC3 (XPB), ERCC2 (XPD), and ERCC5 (XPG). In a previous report, we identified several CS cases who did not have mutations in any of these genes. In this paper, we describe three CS individuals deficient in ERCC1 or ERCC4 (XPF). Remarkably, one of these individuals with XP complementation group F (XP-F) had clinical features of three different DNA-repair disorders--CS, XP, and Fanconi anemia (FA). Our results, together with those from Bogliolo et al., who describe XPF alterations resulting in FA alone, indicate a multifunctional role for XPF. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recruitment and positioning determine the specific role of the XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease in interstrand crosslink repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Douwel, Daisy; Hoogenboom, Wouter S; Boonen, Rick Acm; Knipscheer, Puck

    2017-07-14

    XPF-ERCC1 is a structure-specific endonuclease pivotal for several DNA repair pathways and, when mutated, can cause multiple diseases. Although the disease-specific mutations are thought to affect different DNA repair pathways, the molecular basis for this is unknown. Here we examine the function of XPF-ERCC1 in DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair. We used Xenopus egg extracts to measure both ICL and nucleotide excision repair, and we identified mutations that are specifically defective in ICL repair. One of these separation-of-function mutations resides in the helicase-like domain of XPF and disrupts binding to SLX4 and recruitment to the ICL A small deletion in the same domain supports recruitment of XPF to the ICL, but inhibited the unhooking incisions most likely by disrupting a second, transient interaction with SLX4. Finally, mutation of residues in the nuclease domain did not affect localization of XPF-ERCC1 to the ICL but did prevent incisions on the ICL substrate. Our data support a model in which the ICL repair-specific function of XPF-ERCC1 is dependent on recruitment, positioning and substrate recognition. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  9. Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, ERCC1, and thymidine phosphorylase gene expression in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma tissue in patients treated on a phase I trial of oxaliplatin and capecitabine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Kazumi; Danenberg, Peter V; Danenberg, Kathleen D; Grem, Jean L

    2008-01-01

    Over-expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in tumor tissue is associated with insensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Over-expression of ERCC1 correlates with insensitivity to oxaliplatin (OX) therapy, while high thymidine phosphorylase (TP) levels predict for increased sensitivity to capecitabine (Xel). Biopsies of metastatic tumor were taken before OX (130 mg/m 2 day 1) given with Xel (1200–3000 mg/m 2 in two divided doses days 1–5 and 8–12) every 3-weeks. Micro-dissected metastatic and primary tumors were analyzed for relative gene expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The clinical protocol prospectively identified the molecular targets of interest that would be tested. Endpoints for the molecular analyses were correlation of median, first and third quartiles for relative gene expression of each target with response, time to treatment failure (TTF), and survival. Among 91 patients participating in this trial; 97% had colorectal cancer. The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens was 2, and most had prior 5-FU and irinotecan. In paired samples, median mRNA levels were significantly higher in metastatic versus primary tumor (-fold): TS (1.9), DPD (3.8), ERCC1 (2.1) and TP (1.6). A strong positive correlation was noted between DPD and TP mRNA levels in both primary (r = 0.693, p < 0.0005) and metastatic tissue (r = 0.697, p < 0.00001). There was an association between TS gene expression and responsive and stable disease: patients whose intratumoral TS mRNA levels were above the median value had significantly greater risk of early disease progression (43% vs 17%), but this did not translate into a significant difference in TTF. ERCC1 gene expression above the third quartile was associated with a shorter TTF (median 85 vs 162 days, p = 0.046). Patients whose TS mRNA levels in metastatic tumor tissue were below the median had a longer overall survival (median 417 vs 294 days, p = 0

  10. Dietary restriction but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade improves DNA damage-related vasodilator dysfunction in rapidly aging Ercc1Δ/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; van Thiel, Bibi S; Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Reiling, Erwin; Durik, Matej; Leijten, Frank P J; Ridwan, Yanto; Brandt, Renata M C; van Steeg, Harry; Dollé, Martijn E T; Vermeij, Wilbert P; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Essers, Jeroen; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2017-08-01

    DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model ( Ercc1 Δ/- mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ercc1 Δ/- mice showed increased blood pressure and decreased aortic relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) in organ bath experiments. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling and phospho-Ser 1177 -eNOS were compromised in Ercc1 Δ / - DR improved relaxations by increasing prostaglandin-mediated responses. Increase of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and decrease of phosphodiesterase 4B were identified as potential mechanisms. DR also prevented loss of NO signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells and normalized angiotensin II (Ang II) vasoconstrictions, which were increased in Ercc1 Δ/- mice. Ercc1 Δ/ - mutants showed a loss of Ang II type 2 receptor-mediated counter-regulation of Ang II type 1 receptor-induced vasoconstrictions. Chronic losartan treatment effectively decreased blood pressure, but did not improve endothelium-dependent relaxations. This result might relate to the aging-associated loss of treatment efficacy of RAS blockade with respect to endothelial function improvement. In summary, DR effectively prevents endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction by augmenting prostaglandin-mediated responses, whereas chronic Ang II type 1 receptor blockade is ineffective. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of the human excision repair gene ERCC-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeda, G.; van Ham, R.C.; Masurel, R.; Westerveld, A.; Odijk, H.; de Wit, J.; Bootsma, D.; van der Eb, A.J.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this report we present the cloning, partial characterization, and preliminary studies of the biological activity of a human gene, designated ERCC-3, involved in early steps of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The gene was cloned after genomic DNA transfection of human (HeLa) chromosomal DNA together with dominant marker pSV3gptH to the UV-sensitive, incision-defective Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant 27-1. This mutant belongs to complementation group 3 of repair-deficient rodent mutants. After selection of UV-resistant primary and secondary 27-1 transformants, human sequences associated with the induced UV resistance were rescued in cosmids from the DNA of a secondary transformant by using a linked dominant marker copy and human repetitive DNA as probes. From coinheritance analysis of the ERCC-3 region in independent transformants, we deduce that the gene has a size of 35 to 45 kilobases, of which one essential segment has so far been refractory to cloning. Conserved unique human sequences hybridizing to a 3.0-kilobase mRNA were used to isolate apparently full-length cDNA clones. Upon transfection to 27-1 cells, the ERCC-3 cDNA, inserted in a mammalian expression vector, induced specific and (virtually) complete correction of the UV sensitivity and unscheduled DNA synthesis of mutants of complementation group 3 with very high efficiency. Mutant 27-1 is, unlike other mutants of complementation group 3, also very sensitive toward small alkylating agents. This unique property of the mutant is not corrected by introduction of the ERCC-3 cDNA, indicating that it may be caused by an independent second mutation in another repair function. By hybridization to DNA of a human x rodent hybrid cell panel, the ERCC-3 gene was assigned to chromosome 2, in agreement with data based on cell fusion

  12. The relationship of platinum resistance and ERCC1 protein expression in epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Jakobsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    : Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 101 patients with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer were used for immunohistochemical staining for the ERCC1 protein. All patients received carboplatin-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy. RESULTS: Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 enzyme...

  13. Association of ERCC1 protein expression to platinum resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Jakobsen, Anders

    was to investigate if immunohistochemical expression of ERCC1 protein was associated with resistance to standard combination carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 101 patients with newly diagnosed ovarian...

  14. An explorative analysis of ERCC1-19q13 copy number aberrations in a chemonaive stage III colorectal cancer cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David Hersi; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jensen, Niels Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background: Platinum-based chemotherapy has long been used in the treatment of a variety of cancers and functions by inducing DNA damage. ERCC1 and ERCC4 are involved in the removal of this damage and have previously been implicated in resistance to platinum compounds. The aim of the current inve...

  15. Newly identified CHO ERCC3/XPB mutations and phenotype characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybanská, Ivana; Gurský, Ján; Fašková, Miriam; Salazar, Edmund P.; Kimlíčková-Polakovičová, Erika; Kleibl, Karol; Thompson, Larry H.; Piršel, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a complex multistage process involving many interacting gene products to repair a wide range of DNA lesions. Genetic defects in NER cause human hereditary diseases including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), trichothiodystrophy and a combined XP/CS overlapping symptom. One key gene product associated with all these disorders is the excision repair cross-complementing 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB) DNA helicase, a subunit of the transcription factor IIH complex. ERCC3 is involved in initiation of basal transcription and global genome repair as well as in transcription-coupled repair (TCR). The hamster ERCC3 gene shows high degree of homology with the human ERCC3/XPB gene. We identified new mutations in the Chinese hamster ovary cell ERCC3 gene and characterized the role of hamster ERCC3 protein in DNA repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced and oxidative DNA damage. All but one newly described mutations are located in the protein C-terminal region around the last intron–exon boundary. Due to protein truncations or frameshifts, they lack amino acid Ser751, phosphorylation of which prevents the 5′ incision of the UV-induced lesion during NER. Thus, despite the various locations of the mutations, their phenotypes are similar. All ercc3 mutants are extremely sensitive to UV-C light and lack recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS), confirming a defect in TCR of UV-induced damage. Their limited global genome NER capacity averages ∼8%. We detected modest sensitivity of ercc3 mutants to the photosensitizer Ro19-8022, which primarily introduces 8-oxoguanine lesions into DNA. Ro19-8022-induced damage interfered with RRS, and some of the ercc3 mutants had delayed kinetics. All ercc3 mutants showed efficient base excision repair (BER). Thus, the positions of the mutations have no effect on the sensitivity to, and repair of, Ro19-8022-induced DNA damage, suggesting that the ERCC3 protein is not involved in BER. PMID:19942596

  16. Cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumour cells is due to deficiency in interstrand-crosslink repair and low ERCC1-XPF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaina Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin based chemotherapy cures over 80% of metastatic testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT. In contrast, almost all other solid cancers in adults are incurable once they have spread beyond the primary site. Cell lines derived from TGCTs are hypersensitive to cisplatin reflecting the clinical response. Earlier findings suggested that a reduced repair capacity might contribute to the cisplatin hypersensitivity of testis tumour cells (TTC, but the critical DNA damage has not been defined. This study was aimed at investigating the formation and repair of intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by cisplatin in TTC and their contribution to TTC hypersensitivity. Results We observed that repair of intrastrand crosslinks is similar in cisplatin sensitive TTC and resistant bladder cancer cells, whereas repair of ICLs was significantly reduced in TTC. γH2AX formation, which serves as a marker of DNA breaks formed in response to ICLs, persisted in cisplatin-treated TTC and correlated with sustained phosphorylation of Chk2 and enhanced PARP-1 cleavage. Expression of the nucleotide excision repair factor ERCC1-XPF, which is implicated in the processing of ICLs, is reduced in TTC. To analyse the causal role of ERCC1-XPF for ICL repair and cisplatin sensitivity, we over-expressed ERCC1-XPF in TTC by transient transfection. Over-expression increased ICL repair and rendered TTC more resistant to cisplatin, which suggests that ERCC1-XPF is rate-limiting for repair of ICLs resulting in the observed cisplatin hypersensitivity of TTC. Conclusion Our data indicate for the first time that the exceptional sensitivity of TTC and, therefore, very likely the curability of TGCT rests on their limited ICL repair due to low level of expression of ERCC1-XPF.

  17. The Polymorphism of DNA Repair Gene ERCC2/XPD Arg156Arg and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, J. Y.; Liang, D. H.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes are good candidates for modifying cancer risk. ERCC2/XPD, a gene involved in nucleotide excision repair and basal transcription, may influence individual DNA repair capacity, particularly of bulky adducts. This is implicated in cancer susceptibility. To detect...... found between ERCC2/XPD Arg156Arg and risk of breast cancer (AA/AC versus CC: OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.49-1.28, P = 0.33; AA versus CC: OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.49-1.63, P = 0.72; AC versus CC: OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.44-1.24, P = 0.25). Breast cancer cases with the variant AA genotype were marginally younger...

  18. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    on carboplatin based on the current literature. Research on the development of a reliable methodology is warranted followed by validation in large, prospective, randomized trials as ERCC1 may possibly play an important role as tumour marker in tailored chemotherapy for NSCLC Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5......-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has shown potential as a predictive marker in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Carboplatin has gained widespread use in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and its mechanisms of action are likely similar to that of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature...... review on ERCC1 was conducted as predictor in NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based treatment with emphasis on carboplatin. English language publications from January 1996 to February 2008 were eligible and data on methodology and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Eight preclinical articles, 25 clinical...

  19. A Novel Mutation in ERCC8 Gene Causing Cockayne Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Taghdiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by impaired neurological and sensory functions, cachectic dwarfism, microcephaly, and photosensitivity. This syndrome shows a variable age of onset and rate of progression, and its phenotypic spectrum include a wide range of severity. Due to the progressive nature of this disorder, diagnosis can be more important when additional signs and symptoms appear gradually and become steadily worse over time. Therefore, mutation analysis of genes involved in CS pathogenesis can be helpful to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Here, we report a novel mutation in ERCC8 gene in a 16-year-old boy who suffers from poor weight gain, short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity. The patient was born to consanguineous family with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify disease-causing mutation in the patient, whole exome sequencing utilizing next-generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. Results revealed a novel homozygote mutation in ERCC8 gene (NM_000082: exon 11, c.1122G>C in our patient. Another gene (ERCC6, which is also involved in CS did not have any disease-causing mutations in the proband. The new identified mutation was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband, his parents, and extended family members, confirming co-segregation with the disease. In addition, different bioinformatics programs which included MutationTaster, I-Mutant v2.0, NNSplice, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion, The PhastCons, Genomic Evolutationary Rate Profiling conservation score, and T-Coffee Multiple Sequence Alignment predicted the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified a rare novel mutation in ERCC8 gene and help to provide accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to minimize new affected individuals in this family.

  20. A Novel Mutation in ERCC8 Gene Causing Cockayne Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghdiri, Maryam; Dastsooz, Hassan; Fardaei, Majid; Mohammadi, Sanaz; Farazi Fard, Mohammad Ali; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by impaired neurological and sensory functions, cachectic dwarfism, microcephaly, and photosensitivity. This syndrome shows a variable age of onset and rate of progression, and its phenotypic spectrum include a wide range of severity. Due to the progressive nature of this disorder, diagnosis can be more important when additional signs and symptoms appear gradually and become steadily worse over time. Therefore, mutation analysis of genes involved in CS pathogenesis can be helpful to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Here, we report a novel mutation in ERCC8 gene in a 16-year-old boy who suffers from poor weight gain, short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity. The patient was born to consanguineous family with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify disease-causing mutation in the patient, whole exome sequencing utilizing next-generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. Results revealed a novel homozygote mutation in ERCC8 gene (NM_000082: exon 11, c.1122G>C) in our patient. Another gene ( ERCC6 ), which is also involved in CS did not have any disease-causing mutations in the proband. The new identified mutation was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband, his parents, and extended family members, confirming co-segregation with the disease. In addition, different bioinformatics programs which included MutationTaster, I-Mutant v2.0, NNSplice, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion, The PhastCons, Genomic Evolutationary Rate Profiling conservation score, and T-Coffee Multiple Sequence Alignment predicted the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified a rare novel mutation in ERCC8 gene and help to provide accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to minimize new affected individuals in this family.

  1. File list: Oth.Oth.50.ERCC6.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.50.ERCC6.AllCell hg19 TFs and others ERCC6 Others SRX338979,SRX352046,SRX33...8978,SRX147681 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Oth.50.ERCC6.AllCell.bed ...

  2. A phase II single institution single arm prospective study with paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (TIP) as first-line chemotherapy in high-risk germ cell tumor patients with more than ten years follow-up and retrospective correlation with ERCC1, Topoisomerase 1, 2A, p53 and HER-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligia Cebotaru, Cristina; Zenovia Antone, Nicoleta; Diana Olteanu, Elena; Bejinariu, Nona; Buiga, Rares; Todor, Nicolae; Ioana Iancu, Dana; Eliade Ciuleanu, Tudor; Nagy, Viorica

    2016-01-01

    One half of high-risk germ cell tumor (HRGCT) patients relapse after standard chemotherapy. This phase II study evaluated prospectively the toxicity and efficacy in first-line of the paclitaxel-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination (TIP) in HRGCT patients and tried to identify biomarkers that may allow patient-tailored treatments. Between October 1997- September 2000, 28 chemo-naive HRGCT patients were enrolled. Patients received 4 cycles of TIP (paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) day 1/; ifosfamide 1.2 g/m(2)/day, days 1-5; Mesna 1.2 g/m(2)/day, days 1-5; and cisplatin 20 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5 every 3 weeks). A non-randomized comparison was made between HRGCT patients treated in the same period with first-line TIP and bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin (BEP) (28 patients vs 20). In 17 HRGCT patients treated between 1998-2006, ERCC1, Topoisomerase 1 and 2A, p53 and HER-2 expression was retrospectively analysed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) (7 patients with TIP, 10 with BEP), and correlations were made with response to chemotherapy and survival. With a median follow-up of 72 months [range 48+...89+], 5-year disease free survival (DFS) was 55%, with 95% CI 36-72, and the overall survival (OS) was 63%, with 95% CI 44-78. In June 2015, with a median follow-up of 196.47 months (range 177.30-209.27) (>15 years), 12 [%?] patients were alive and disease-free, and 16 [%?] had died (12 specific causes). There was no significant correlation between the expression of ERCC1, Topoisomerase 1 and 2A, HER-2 and p53 and response to treatment. Long-term follow-up showed no difference in OS between TIP vs BEP as first-line therapy. Both regimens had mild toxicity.

  3. File list: Oth.ALL.10.ERCC6.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.ERCC6.AllCell hg19 TFs and others ERCC6 All cell types SRX338979,SRX3520...46,SRX147681,SRX338978 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.ERCC6.AllCell.bed ...

  4. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  5. Computational Characterization of Small Molecules Binding to the Human XPF Active Site and Virtual Screening to Identify Potential New DNA Repair Inhibitors Targeting the ERCC1-XPF Endonuclease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gentile

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA excision repair protein ERCC-1-DNA repair endonuclease XPF (ERCC1-XPF is a heterodimeric endonuclease essential for the nucleotide excision repair (NER DNA repair pathway. Although its activity is required to maintain genome integrity in healthy cells, ERCC1-XPF can counteract the effect of DNA-damaging therapies such as platinum-based chemotherapy in cancer cells. Therefore, a promising approach to enhance the effect of these therapies is to combine their use with small molecules, which can inhibit the repair mechanisms in cancer cells. Currently, there are no structures available for the catalytic site of the human ERCC1-XPF, which performs the metal-mediated cleavage of a DNA damaged strand at 5′. We adopted a homology modeling strategy to build a structural model of the human XPF nuclease domain which contained the active site and to extract dominant conformations of the domain using molecular dynamics simulations followed by clustering of the trajectory. We investigated the binding modes of known small molecule inhibitors targeting the active site to build a pharmacophore model. We then performed a virtual screening of the ZINC Is Not Commercial 15 (ZINC15 database to identify new ERCC1-XPF endonuclease inhibitors. Our work provides structural insights regarding the binding mode of small molecules targeting the ERCC1-XPF active site that can be used to rationally optimize such compounds. We also propose a set of new potential DNA repair inhibitors to be considered for combination cancer therapy strategies.

  6. Low ERCC1 expression in malignant pleural mesotheliomas treated with cisplatin and vinorelbine predicts prolonged progression-free survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimling, Zarah Glad; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression and outcome, in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), treated with cisplatin/vinorelbine combination-therapy, was retrospectively evaluated in a patient population from a previously published...

  7. Meiotic and pedigree segregation analyses in carriers of t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) differing in localization of breakpoint positions at 4p subband 4p16.3 and 4p16.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, Alina T; Zollino, Marcella; Wiland, Ewa; Panasiuk, Barbara; Iwanowski, Piotr S; Murdolo, Marina; Śmigiel, Robert; Sąsiadek, Maria; Pilch, Jacek; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare meiotic segregation in sperm cells from two carriers with t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) reciprocal chromosome translocations (RCTs), differing in localization of the breakpoint positions at the 4p subband-namely, 4p16.3 (carrier 1) and 4p16.1 (carrier 2)-and to compare data of the pedigree analyses performed by direct method. Three-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm cells and FISH mapping for the evaluation of the breakpoint positions, data from pedigrees, and direct segregation analysis of the pedigrees were performed. Similar proportions of normal/balanced and unbalanced sperm cells were found in both carriers. The most common was an alternate type of segregation (about 52 % and about 48 %, respectively). Unbalanced adjacent I and adjacent II karyotypes were found in similar proportions about 15 %. The direct segregation analysis (following Stengel-Rutkowski) of the pedigree of carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was performed and results were compared with the data of the pedigree segregation analysis obtained earlier through the indirect method. The probability of live-born progeny with unbalanced karyotype for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was moderately high at 18.8 %-comparable to the value obtained using the indirect method for the same carriership, which was 12 %. This was, however, markedly lower than the value of 41.2 % obtained through the pedigree segregation indirect analysis estimated for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.3;p23.1), perhaps due to the unique composition of genes present within the 4p16.1-4p 16.3 region. Revealed differences in pedigree segregation analysis did not correspond to the very similar profile of meiotic segregation patterns presented by carrier 1 and carrier 2. Most probably, such discordances may be due to differences in embryo survival rates arising from different genetic backgrounds.

  8. The structure-specific endonuclease Ercc1-Xpf is required for targeted gene replacement in embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Niedernhofer (Laura); J. Essers (Jeroen); G. Weeda (Geert); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); J. de Wit (Jan); M. Muijtjens (Manja); H. Odijk (Hanny); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe Ercc1-Xpf heterodimer, a highly conserved structure-specific endonuclease, functions in multiple DNA repair pathways that are pivotal for maintaining genome stability, including nucleotide excision repair, interstrand crosslink repair and homologous recombination. Erccl-Xpf incises

  9. Molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of Ercc6l in Sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One important protein family that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER factors is the SNF2 family. A newly identified mouse ERCC6-like gene, Ercc6l (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 6-like, has been shown to be another developmentally related member of the SNF2 family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, Sika deer Ercc6l cDNA was first cloned and then sequenced. The full-length cDNA of the Sika deer Ercc6l gene is 4197 bp and contains a 3732 bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 1243 amino acids. The similarity of Sika deer Ercc6l to Bos taurus Ercc6l is 94.05% at the amino acid sequence level. The similarity, however, is reduced to 68.42-82.21% when compared to Ercc6l orthologs in other mammals and to less than 50% compared to orthologs in Gallus gallus and Xenopus. Additionally, the expression of Ercc6l mRNA was investigated in the organs of fetal and adult Sika deer (FSD and ASD, respectively by quantitative RT-PCR. The common expression level of Ercc6l mRNA in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and stomach from six different developmental stages of 18 Sika deer were examined, though the expression levels in each organ varied among individual Sika deer. During development, there was a slight trend toward decreased Ercc61 mRNA expression. The highest Ercc6l expression levels were seen at 3 months old in every organ and showed the highest level of detection in the spleen of FSD. The lowest Ercc6l expression levels were seen at 3 years old. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We are the first to successfully clone Sika deer Ercc6l mRNA. Ercc6l transcript is present in almost every organ. During Sika deer development, there is a slight trend toward decreased Ercc61 mRNA expression. It is possible that Ercc6l has other roles in embryonic development and in maintaining the growth of animals.

  10. A de-novo interstitial microduplication involving 2p16.1-p15 and mirroring 2p16.1-p15 microdeletion syndrome: Clinical and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Yeshaya, Josepha; Kahana, Sarit; Maya, Idit; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina

    2015-11-01

    Microdeletions of various sizes in the 2p16.1-p15 chromosomal region have been grouped together under the 2p16.1-p15 microdeletion syndrome. Children with this syndrome generally share certain features including microcephaly, developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, urogenital and skeletal abnormalities. We present a child with a de-novo interstitial 1665 kb duplication of 2p16.1-p15. Clinical features of this child are distinct from those of children with the 2p16.1-p15 microdeletion syndrome, specifically the head circumference which is within the normal range and mild intellectual disability with absence of autistic behaviors. Microduplications many times bear milder clinical phenotypes in comparison with corresponding microdeletion syndromes. Indeed, as compared to the microdeletion syndrome patients, the 2p16.1-p15 microduplication seems to have a milder cognitive effect and no effect on other body systems. Limited information available in genetic databases about cases with overlapping duplications indicates that they all have abnormal developmental phenotypes. The involvement of genes in this location including BCL11A, USP34 and PEX13, affecting fundamental developmental processes both within and outside the nervous system may explain the clinical features of the individual described in this report. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A haplotype of polymorphisms in ASE-1, RAI and ERCC1 and the effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on risk of colorectal cancer: a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke D; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent type of genetic variation in the human genome, and are of interest for the study of susceptibility to and protection from diseases. The haplotype at chromosome 19q13.2-3 encompassing the three SNPs ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G...... and ERCC1 Asn118Asn have been associated with risk of breast cancer and lung cancer. Haplotype carriers are defined as the homozygous carriers of RAI IVS1 A4364GA, ERCC1 Asn118AsnT and ASE-1 G-21AG. We aimed to evaluate whether the three polymorphisms and the haplotype are associated to risk of colorectal...... of colorectal cancer were found. No statistically significant interactions between the genotypes and the lifestyle exposures smoking or alcohol consumption were observed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn polymorphisms and the previously identified...

  12. ERCC2 2251A>C genetic polymorphism was highly correlated with early relapse in high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer patients: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su-Chen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early relapse in colorectal cancer (CRC patients is attributed mainly to the higher malignant entity (such as an unfavorable genotype, deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and advance cancer stage and poor response to chemotherapy. Several investigations have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms in drug-targeted genes, metabolizing enzymes, and DNA-repairing enzymes are all strongly correlated with inter-individual differences in the efficacy and toxicity of many treatment regimens. This preliminary study attempts to identify the correlation between genetic polymorphisms and clinicopathological features of CRC, and evaluates the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and chemotherapeutic susceptibility of Taiwanese CRC patients. To our knowledge, this study discusses, for the first time, early cancer relapse and its indication by multiple genes. Methods Six gene polymorphisms functional in drug-metabolism – GSTP1 Ile105Val, ABCB1 Ile1145Ile, MTHFR Ala222Val, TYMS double (2R or triple (3R tandem repeat – and DNA-repair genes – ERCC2 Lys751Gln and XRCC1 Arg399Gln – were assessed in 201 CRC patients using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique and DNA sequencing. Patients were diagnosed as either high-risk stage II (T2 and 3 N0 M0 or III (any T N1 and 2 M0 and were administered adjuvant chemotherapy regimens that included 5-fluorouracil (5FU and leucovorin (LV. The correlations between genetic polymorphisms and patient clinicopathological features and relapses were investigated. Results In this study, the distributions of GSTP1 (P = 0.003, ABCB1 (P = 0.001, TYMS (P ERCC2 (P XRCC1 (P = 0.006 genotypes in the Asian population, with the exception of MTHFR (P = 0.081, differed significantly from their distributions in a Caucasian population. However, the unfavorable genotype ERCC2 2251A>C (P = 0.006, tumor invasion depth (P = 0.025, lymph node metastasis (P = 0

  13. ERCC2 polymorphisms and radiation-induced adverse effects on normal tissue: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yu-Zhe; Duan, Mei-Na; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Shi, Wei-Yan; Xia, Cheng-Cheng; Dong, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between ERCC2 polymorphisms and the risk of radiotoxicity remains inconclusive. The aim of our study is to systematically evaluate the association between ERCC2 polymorphisms and the risk of radiotoxicity. Publications were identified through a search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases up to August 15, 2015. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between ERCC2 polymorphisms and radiotoxicity. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) and power calculation were performed to evaluate the type 1 and type 2 errors. Eleven studies involving 2584 patients were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. Conventional meta-analysis identified a significant association between ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphism and radiotoxicity (OR = 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.93, P = 0.01), but this association failed to get the confirmation of TSA. The minor allele of rs13181 polymorphism may confer a protect effect against radiotoxicity. To confirm this correlation at the level of OR = 0.71, an overall information size of approximate 2800 patients were needed. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0558-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  14. Localization of the xeroderma pigmentosum group B-correcting gene ERCC-3 to human chromosome 2q21.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Weeda (Geert); J. Wiegant; M. van der Ploeg; A.H.M. Geurts van Kessel (Ad); A.J. van der Eb; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe human excision-repair gene ERCC3 was cloned after DNA-mediated gene transfer to the uv-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line 27-1, a member of complementation group 3 of the excision-defective rodent cell lines. The ERCC3 gene specifically corrects the DNA repair defect of

  15. Inter-individual variation, seasonal variation and close correlation of OGG1 and ERCC1 mRNA levels in full blood from healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Møller, Peter; Dragsted, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The mRNA levels of the nucleotide excision DNA repair gene ERCC1 and the base excision DNA repair gene OGG1 were quantified in 43 healthy volunteers in a dietary intervention trial as markers for the DNA repair capacity. Nine samples were collected from each subject over a period of 52 days. Samp...

  16. LDR reverses DDP resistance in ovarian cancer cells by affecting ERCC-1, Bcl-2, Survivin and Caspase-3 expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xingyan; Yu, Hongsheng; Liang, Donghai; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Yuanwei; Chen, Ling; Dong, Qing; Liu, Xiaoran

    2018-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death resulting from malignant gynecological tumors. After surgical intervention, cisplatin (DDP) is a major chemotherapy drug for ovarian cancer, but the ovarian cancer cells tend to develop DDP resistance in the clinical setting. Tumor cells are sensitive to low-dose radiation (LDR). However, how the LDR therapy improves the effects of chemotherapy drugs on ovarian cancer is not well understood. This study aimed to explore this issue. The SKOV3/DDP cells were divided into 3 groups, including low-dose group, conventional-dose group, and control group (no radiation). Cell counting kit-8 assay was performed to measure cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis was then utilized to quantify the apoptosis with classical Annexin V/propidium iodide co-staining. And Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot were eventually used to analyze the mRNA and protein levels of excision repair cross complementing-group 1 (ERCC1), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Survivin and Caspase-3, respectively. The IC50 value of DDP in the low-dose group was significantly lower compared with the other two groups. Compared with the conventional-dose group and control group, LDR treatment resulted in significantly more apoptosis. Besides, LDR treatment significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of ERCC1, Bcl-2, and Survivin, and enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of Caspase-3 compared with the other two groups. LDR reversed DDP resistance in SKOV3/DDP cells possibly by suppressing ERCC1, Bcl-2, and Survivin expressions, and increasing Caspase-3 expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacogenetic predictors of toxicity to platinum based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Cristina; Cañadas-Garre, Marisa; Alnatsha, Ahmed; Villar, Eduardo; Delgado, Juan Ramón; Faus-Dáder, María José; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ÿngel

    2016-09-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for NSCLC patients with EGFR wild-type, and as alternative to failure to EGFR inhibitors. However, this treatment is aggressive and most patients experience grade 3-4 toxicities. ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC5, XRCC1, MDM2, ABCB1, MTHFR, MTR, SLC19A1, IL6 and IL16 gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual variation in toxicity to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these polymorphisms on platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. A prospective cohorts study was conducted, including 141 NSCLC patients. Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR Real-Time with Taqman(®) probes and sequencing. Patients with ERCC1 C118T-T allele (p=0.00345; RR=26.05; CI95%=4.33, 515.77) and ERCC2 rs50872-CC genotype (p=0.00291; RR=4.06; CI95%=1.66, 10.65) had higher risk of general toxicity for platinum-based chemotherapy. ERCC2 Asp312Asn G-alelle, ABCB1 C1236T-TT and the IL1B rs12621220-CT/TT genotypes conferred a higher risk to present multiple adverse events. The subtype toxicity analysis also revealed that ERCC2 rs50872-CC genotype (p=0.01562; OR=3.23; CI95%=1.29, 8.82) and IL16 rs7170924-T allele (p=0.01007; OR=3.19; CI95%=1.35, 7.97) were associated with grade 3-4 hematological toxicity. We did not found the influence of ERCC1 C8092A, ERCC2 Lys751Gln, ERCC2 Asp312Asn, ERCC5 Asp1104His, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, MDM2 rs1690924, ABCB1 C3435T, ABCB1 Ala893Ser/Thr, MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T, IL1B rs1143623, IL1B rs16944, and IL1B rs1143627 on platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity. In conclusion, ERCC1 C118T, ERCC2 rs50872, ERCC2 Asp312Asn, ABCB1 C1236T, IL1B rs12621220 and IL16 rs7170924 polymorphisms may substantially act as prognostic factors in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polymorphisms in the genes ERCC2, XRCC3 and CD3EAP influence treatment outcome in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette; Gimsing, Peter; Klausen, Tobias W

    2007-01-01

    ) of polymorphism in the DNA repair genes ERCC1, ERCC2 and XRCC3, and in the apoptotic genes PPP1R13L and CD3EAP in 348 patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation. Carriers of the variant C-allele of ERCC2 K751Q, the variant T-allele of XRCC3 T241M and the variant A...... the outcome for patients treated with autologous stem cell transplantation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-1...

  19. A haplotype of polymorphisms in ASE-1, RAI and ERCC1 and the effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on risk of colorectal cancer: a danish prospective case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Rikke D; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Wallin, Håkan; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Vogel, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent type of genetic variation in the human genome, and are of interest for the study of susceptibility to and protection from diseases. The haplotype at chromosome 19q13.2-3 encompassing the three SNPs ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn have been associated with risk of breast cancer and lung cancer. Haplotype carriers are defined as the homozygous carriers of RAI IVS1 A4364G A , ERCC1 Asn118Asn T and ASE-1 G-21A G . We aimed to evaluate whether the three polymorphisms and the haplotype are associated to risk of colorectal cancer, and investigated gene-environment associations between the polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking status at enrolment, smoking duration, average smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. Associations between the three individual polymorphisms, the haplotype and risk of colorectal cancer were examined, as well as gene-environment interaction, in a Danish case-cohort study including 405 cases and a comparison group of 810 persons. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) were estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model stratified according to gender, and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-values were calculated based on robust estimates of the variance-covariance matrix and Wald's test of the Cox regression parameter. No consistent associations between the three individual polymorphisms, the haplotype and risk of colorectal cancer were found. No statistically significant interactions between the genotypes and the lifestyle exposures smoking or alcohol consumption were observed. Our results suggest that the ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn polymorphisms and the previously identified haplotype are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We found no evidence of gene-environment interaction between the three polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking intensity and alcohol consumption

  20. Xeroderma Pigmentosum-Trichothiodystrophy overlap patient with novel XPD/ERCC2 mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralund, Henrik H.; Ousager, Lilian; Jaspers, Nicolaas G.; Raams, Anja; Pedersen, Erling B.; Gade, Else; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP), Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) and Cockayne Syndrome (CS) are rare, recessive disorders caused by mutational defects in the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway and/or disruption of basic cellular DNA transcription. To date, a multitude of mutations in the XPD/ERCC2 gene have been described, many of which give rise to NER- and DNA transcription related diseases, which share certain diagnostic features and few overlap patients have been described. Despite increasing understanding of the roles of XPD/ERCC2 in mammalian cells, there is still weak predictability of somatic outcome from many of these mutations. We demonstrate a patient, believed to represent an overlap between XP and TTD/CS. In addition to other organ dysfunctions, the young man presented with Photosensitivity, Ichthyosis, Brittle hair, Impaired physical and mental development, Decreased fertility and Short stature (PIBIDS) suggestive of TTD, but lacking the almost patognomonic “tiger tail” banding of the hair under polarized light. Additionally, he developed basal cell carcinoma aged 28, as well as adult onset kidney failure, features normally not associated with TTD but rather XP/CS. His freckled appearance also suggested XP, but fibroblast cultures only demonstrated x2 UV-sensitivity with expected NER and TFIIH-activity decrease. Genetic sequencing of the XPD/ERCC2 gene established the patient as heterozygote compound with a novel, N-terminal Y18H mutation and a known C-terminal (TTD) mutation, A725P. The possible interplay between gene products and the patient phenotype is discussed. PMID:25002996

  1. Clinical heterogeneity within xeroderma pigmentosum associated with mutations in the DNA repair and transcription gene ERCC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, W.; Kleijer, W.J.; Bootsma, D.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; Weeda, G. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Scott, R.J.; Rodgers, S.; Mueller, H.J. (Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)); Cole, J.; Arlett, C.F. (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1994-02-01

    The human DNA excision repair gene ERCC3 specifically corrects the nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group B. In addition to its function in NER, the ERCC3 DNA helicase was recently identified as one of the components of the human BTF2/TFIIH transcription factor complex, which is required for initiation of transcription of class II genes. To date, a single patient (XP11BE) has been assigned to this XP group B (XP-B), with the remarkable conjunction of two autosomal recessive DNA repair deficiency disorders: XP and Cockayne syndrome (CS). The intriguing involvement of the ERCC3 protein in the vital process of transcription may provide an explanation for the rarity, severity, and wide spectrum of clinical features in this complementation group. Here the authors report the identification of two new XP-B patients: XPCS1BA and XPCS2BA (siblings), by microneedle injection of the cloned ERCC3 repair gene as well as by cell hybridization. Molecular analysis of the ERCC3 gene in both patients revealed a single base substitution causing a missense mutation in a region that is completely conserved in yeast, Drosophila, mouse, and human ERCC3. As in patient XP11BE, the expression of only one allele (paternal) is detected. The mutation causes a virtually complete inactivation of the NER function of the protein. Despite this severe NER defect, both patients display a late onset of neurologic impairment, mild cutaneous symptoms, and a striking absence of skin tumors even at an age of >40 years. Analysis of the frequency of hprt[sup [minus

  2. Isolation of the functional human excision repair gene ERCC5 by intercosmid recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudgett, J.S.; MacInnes, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The complete human nucleotide exicision repair gene ERCC5 was isolated as a functional gene on overlapping cosmids. ERCC5 corrects the excision repair deficiency of Chinese hamster ovary cell line UV135, of complementation group 5. Cosmids that contained human sequences were obtained from a UV-resistant cell line derived from UV135 cells transformed with human genomic DNA. Individually, none of the cosmids complemented the UV135 repair defect; cosmid groups were formed to represent putative human genomic regions, and specific pairs of cosmids that effectively transformed UV135 cells to UV resistance were identified. Analysis of transformants derived from the active cosmid pairs showed that the functional 32-kbp ERCC5 gene was reconstructed by homologous intercosmid recombination. The cloned human sequences exhibited 100% concordance with the locus designated genetically as ERCC5 located on human chromosome 13q. Cosmid-transformed UV135 host cells repaired cytotoxic damage to levels about 70% of normal and repaired UV-irradiated shuttle vector DNA to levels about 82% of normal

  3. Identification and Functional Testing of ERCC2 Mutations in a Multi-national Cohort of Patients with Familial Breast- and Ovarian Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rump

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing application of gene panels for familial cancer susceptibility disorders will probably lead to an increased proposal of susceptibility gene candidates. Using ERCC2 DNA repair gene as an example, we show that proof of a possible role in cancer susceptibility requires a detailed dissection and characterization of the underlying mutations for genes with diverse cellular functions (in this case mainly DNA repair and basic cellular transcription. In case of ERCC2, panel sequencing of 1345 index cases from 587 German, 405 Lithuanian and 353 Czech families with breast and ovarian cancer (BC/OC predisposition revealed 25 mutations (3 frameshift, 2 splice-affecting, 20 missense, all absent or very rare in the ExAC database. While 16 mutations were unique, 9 mutations showed up repeatedly with population-specific appearance. Ten out of eleven mutations that were tested exemplarily in cell-based functional assays exert diminished excision repair efficiency and/or decreased transcriptional activation capability. In order to provide evidence for BC/OC predisposition, we performed familial segregation analyses and screened ethnically matching controls. However, unlike the recently published RECQL example, none of our recurrent ERCC2 mutations showed convincing co-segregation with BC/OC or significant overrepresentation in the BC/OC cohort. Interestingly, we detected that some deleterious founder mutations had an unexpectedly high frequency of > 1% in the corresponding populations, suggesting that either homozygous carriers are not clinically recognized or homozygosity for these mutations is embryonically lethal. In conclusion, we provide a useful resource on the mutational landscape of ERCC2 mutations in hereditary BC/OC patients and, as our key finding, we demonstrate the complexity of correct interpretation for the discovery of "bonafide" breast cancer susceptibility genes.

  4. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 induces apoptosis and tumor growth delay in small cell lung cancer expressing mutant p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Selivanova, Galina; Christensen, Camilla Laulund

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, necessitating the need to develop new and efficient treatment modalities. PRIMA-1(Met) (p53-dependent reactivation of massive apoptosis), also known as APR-246, is a small molecule, which restores tumor suppressor...... function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Since p53 is mutated in more than 90% of SCLC, we investigated the ability of PRIMA-1(Met) to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in SCLC with different p53 mutations....

  5. Mutation update for the CSB/ERCC6 and CSA/ERCC8 genes involved in Cockayne syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugel, V; Dalloz, C; Durand, M; Sauvanaud, F; Kristensen, U; Vincent, M C; Pasquier, L; Odent, S; Cormier-Daire, V; Gener, B; Tobias, E S; Tolmie, J L; Martin-Coignard, D; Drouin-Garraud, V; Heron, D; Journel, H; Raffo, E; Vigneron, J; Lyonnet, S; Murday, V; Gubser-Mercati, D; Funalot, B; Brueton, L; Sanchez Del Pozo, J; Muñoz, E; Gennery, A R; Salih, M; Noruzinia, M; Prescott, K; Ramos, L; Stark, Z; Fieggen, K; Chabrol, B; Sarda, P; Edery, P; Bloch-Zupan, A; Fawcett, H; Pham, D; Egly, J M; Lehmann, A R; Sarasin, A; Dollfus, H

    2010-02-01

    Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized principally by neurological and sensory impairment, cachectic dwarfism, and photosensitivity. This rare disease is linked to mutations in the CSB/ERCC6 and CSA/ERCC8 genes encoding proteins involved in the transcription-coupled DNA repair pathway. The clinical spectrum of Cockayne syndrome encompasses a wide range of severity from severe prenatal forms to mild and late-onset presentations. We have reviewed the 45 published mutations in CSA and CSB to date and we report 43 new mutations in these genes together with the corresponding clinical data. Among the 84 reported kindreds, 52 (62%) have mutations in the CSB gene. Many types of mutations are scattered along the whole coding sequence of both genes, but clusters of missense mutations can be recognized and highlight the role of particular motifs in the proteins. Genotype-phenotype correlation hypotheses are considered with regard to these new molecular and clinical data. Additional cases of molecular prenatal diagnosis are reported and the strategy for prenatal testing is discussed. Two web-based locus-specific databases have been created to list all identified variants and to allow the inclusion of future reports (www.umd.be/CSA/ and www.umd.be/CSB/). (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Met kerse op met -konstruksies 1 : 'n Verwysingspuntperspektief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Met kerse op met-konstruksies1: 'n Verwysingspuntperspektief. Johanna Messerschmidt, Luna Bergh. Abstract. This article analyses the usage of the Afrikaans preposition met ('with'). The analysis is done within the framework of Cognitive Linguistics and more specifically within the model proposed by Langacker (1993) ...

  7. Inter-individual variation in nucleotide excision repair pathway is modulated by non-synonymous polymorphisms in ERCC4 and MBD4 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allione, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.allione@hugef-torino.org [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Guarrera, Simonetta; Russo, Alessia [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Ricceri, Fulvio [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Via Santena 19, 10126 Turin (Italy); Purohit, Rituraj [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Bioinformatics Division, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Pagnani, Andrea; Rosa, Fabio; Polidoro, Silvia; Voglino, Floriana [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Matullo, Giuseppe [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Via Santena 19, 10126 Turin (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We reported a large inter-individual variability of NER capacity. • ERCC4 rs1800124 and MBD4 rs10342 nsSNP variants were associated with DNA repair capacity. • DNA–protein interaction analyses showed alteration of binding for ERCC4 and MBD4 variants. • A new possible cross-talk between NER and BER pathways has been reported. - Abstract: Inter-individual differences in DNA repair capacity (DRC) may lead to genome instability and, consequently, modulate individual cancer risk. Among the different DNA repair pathways, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the most versatile, as it can eliminate a wide range of helix-distorting DNA lesions caused by ultraviolet light irradiation and chemical mutagens. We performed a genotype–phenotype correlation study in 122 healthy subjects in order to assess if any associations exist between phenotypic profiles of NER and DNA repair gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Individuals were genotyped for 768 SNPs with a custom Illumina Golden Gate Assay, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the same subjects were tested for a NER comet assay to measure DRC after challenging cells by benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE). We observed a large inter-individual variability of NER capacity, with women showing a statistically significant lower DRC (mean ± SD: 6.68 ± 4.76; p = 0.004) than men (mean ± SD: 8.89 ± 5.20). Moreover, DRC was significantly lower in individuals carrying a variant allele for the ERCC4 rs1800124 non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) (p = 0.006) and significantly higher in subjects with the variant allele of MBD4 rs2005618 SNP (p = 0.008), in linkage disequilibrium (r{sup 2} = 0.908) with rs10342 nsSNP. Traditional in silico docking approaches on protein–DNA and protein–protein interaction showed that Gly875 variant in ERCC4 (rs1800124) decreases the DNA–protein interaction and that Ser273 and Thr273 variants in MBD4 (rs10342) indicate complete loss of protein

  8. Significant association between ERCC2 and MTHR polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility in Moroccan population: genotype and haplotype analysis in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardi, Hanaa; Melki, Rahma; Boughaleb, Zouhour; El Harroudi, Tijani; Aissaoui, Souria; Boukhatem, Noureddine

    2018-03-15

    Genetic determinants of breast cancer (BC) remained largely unknown in the majority of Moroccan patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the association of ERCC2 and MTHFR polymorphisms with genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in Moroccan population. We genotyped ERCC2 polymorphisms (rs1799793 (G934A) and rs13181 (A2251C)) and MTHFR polymorphisms (rs1801133 (C677T) and rs1801131 (A1298C)) using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypes were compared in 151 BC cases and 156 population-matched controls. Allelic, genotypic and haplotype associations with the risk and clinicopathological features of BC were assessed using logistic regression analyses. ERCC2-rs1799793-AA genotype was associated with high risk of BC compared to wild type genotype (recessive model: OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.34-6.26, p = 0.0069) even after Bonferroni correction (p < 0,0125). MTHFR rs1801133-TT genotype was associated with increased risk of BC (recessive model, OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.17-5.29, p = 0.017) but the association turned insignificant after Bonferroni correction. For the rest of SNPs, no statistical associations to BC risk were detected. Significant association with clinical features was detected for MTHFR-rs1801133-TC genotype with early age at diagnosis and familial BC. Following Bonferroni correction, only association with familial BC remained significant. MTHFR-rs1801131-CC genotype was associated with sporadic BC. ERCC2-rs1799793-AA genotype correlated with ER+ and PR+ breast cancer. ERCC2-rs13181-CA genotype was significantly associated large tumors (T ≥ 3) in BC patients. None of these associations passed Bonferroni correction. Haplotype analysis showed that ERCC2 A-C haplotype was significantly associated with increased BC risk (OR: 3.71, 95% CI: 1.7-8.12, p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0008 before and after Bonferroni correction, respectively) and positive expression of ER and PR in BC patients. ERCC2 G-C haplotype was correlated with PR negative and

  9. New mutation in the mouse Xpd/Ercc2 gene leads to recessive cataracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kunze

    Full Text Available Cataracts are the major eye disorder and have been associated mainly with mutations in lens-specific genes, but cataracts are also frequently associated with complex syndromes. In a large-scale high-throughput ENU mutagenesis screen we analyzed the offspring of paternally treated C3HeB/FeJ mice for obvious dysmorphologies. We identified a mutant suffering from rough coat and small eyes only in homozygotes; homozygous females turned out to be sterile. The mutation was mapped to chromosome 7 between the markers 116J6.1 and D7Mit294;4 other markers within this interval did not show any recombination among 160 F2-mutants. The critical interval (8.6 Mb contains 3 candidate genes (Apoe, Six5, Opa3; none of them showed a mutation. Using exome sequencing, we identified a c.2209T>C mutation in the Xpd/Ercc2 gene leading to a Ser737Pro exchange. During embryonic development, the mutant eyes did not show major changes. Postnatal histological analyses demonstrated small cortical vacuoles; later, cortical cataracts developed. Since XPD/ERCC2 is involved in DNA repair, we checked also for the presence of the repair-associated histone γH2AX in the lens. During the time, when primary lens fiber cell nuclei are degraded, γH2AX was strongly expressed in the cell nuclei; later, it demarcates clearly the border of the lens cortex to the organelle-free zone. Moreover, we analyzed also whether seemingly healthy heterozygotes might be less efficient in repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation than wild types. Peripheral lymphocytes irradiated by 1Gy Cs137 showed 6 hrs after irradiation significantly more γH2AX foci in heterozygotes than in wild types. These findings demonstrate the importance of XPD/ERCC2 not only for lens fiber cell differentiation, but also for the sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that variations in the human XPD/ERCC2 gene might increase the susceptibility for several disorders besides Xeroderma

  10. HapMap-based study of the DNA repair gene ERCC2 and lung cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jiaoyang; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Yegang

    2009-01-01

    -nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) (rs238403, rs50871, rs3916840, rs238415, rs3916874 and rs1799787) from HapMap database were analyzed, which provide an almost complete coverage of the genetic variations in the ERCC2 gene. Although none of the six htSNPs was individually associated with lung cancer risk, we found that two...... ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI) = 2.62 (1.53–4.50), P = 0.0003 for hap4; OR (95% CI) = 3.01 (1.36–6.63), P = 0.004 for hap7]. Furthermore, diplotype analyses also strengthened the significant associations of risk haplotype 4 [OR (95% CI) = 3.56 (2.12–5.87), P

  11. Small molecule inhibitors of ERCC1-XPF protein-protein interaction synergize alkylating agents in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordheim, Lars Petter; Barakat, Khaled H; Heinrich-Balard, Laurence; Matera, Eva-Laure; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Bouledrak, Karima; El Sabeh, Rana; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Wishart, David S; Cohen, Richard; Tuszynski, Jack; Dumontet, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The benefit of cancer chemotherapy based on alkylating agents is limited because of the action of DNA repair enzymes, which mitigate the damage induced by these agents. The interaction between the proteins ERCC1 and XPF involves two major components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Here, novel inhibitors of this interaction were identified by virtual screening based on available structures with use of the National Cancer Institute diversity set and a panel of DrugBank small molecules. Subsequently, experimental validation of the in silico screening was undertaken. Top hits were evaluated on A549 and HCT116 cancer cells. In particular, the compound labeled NSC 130813 [4-[(6-chloro-2-methoxy-9-acridinyl)amino]-2-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl

  12. Evaluation of the Emergency Response Command Center. Development of a method for evaluating the performance of the ERCC during exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.

    1997-02-01

    The report describes the development of a structured method for evaluation and analysis of staff performance in the Emergency Response Command Centre (ERCC) during exercises. A comprehensive literature search including current research and theoretical bases in the area of group dynamics has been carried out. To supplement this, ERCC activities during an emergency exercise were observed and responsible staff individuals and others involved were interviewed. From this material, two evaluation instruments were constructed: An Evaluation form for the function of ERCC, which addresses: Activation, information handling, teamwork and overall critique of the exercise; and an Evaluation form for responsible personnel in ERCC, which addresses: Activation, procedures-checklists etc, information handling, teamwork, personnel qualifications, and overall critique of the exercise. The method has been tested in two actual exercises at Ringhals NPP and has been found to effectively fulfill its purpose. 7 refs

  13. Clinicopathologic Significance of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation 1 Expression in Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Sharad; Parikh, Rahul R.; Green, Camille; Schiff, Devora B.S.; Moran, Meena S.; Yang Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) enzyme plays a rate-limiting role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and is associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in cancers of the head and neck and the lung. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of ERCC1 expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast conservation therapy. Methods and Materials: Paraffin specimens from 504 women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy were constructed into tissue microarrays. The array was stained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and ERCC1. This was then correlated with clinicopathologic factors and outcomes data. Results: ERCC-1 expression was evaluable in 366 cases (72%). In this group, 32% and 38% of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, respectively. Increased ERCC-1 expression was found to be correlated with ER positivity (p 50 (p 50. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating ERCC1 expression in patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer.

  14. Clinicopathological significance of p16, cyclin D1, Rb and MIB-1 levels in skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-qi Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression of p16, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb and MIB-1 in skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma tissues, and to determine the clinicopathological significance of the above indexes in these diseases. Methods: A total of 100 skull base chordoma, 30 chondrosarcoma, and 20 normal cartilage tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of p16, cyclinD1, Rb and MIB-1 proteins were assessed for potential correlation with the clinicopathological features. Results: As compared to normal cartilage specimen (control, there was decreased expression of p16, and increased expression of cyclin D1, Rb and MIB-1 proteins, in both skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma specimens. MIB-1 LI levels were significantly increased in skull base chordoma specimens with negative expression of p16, and positive expression of cyclin D1 and Rb (P  0.05. However, p16 and MIB-1 levels correlated with the intradural invasion, and expression of p16, Rb and MIB-1 correlated with the number of tumor foci (P < 0.05. Further, the expression of p16 and MIB-1 appeared to correlate with the prognosis of patients with skull base chordoma. Conclusions: The abnormal expression of p16, cyclin D1 and Rb proteins might be associated with the tumorigenesis of skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma. Keywords: p16, Cyclin D1, Rb, MIB-1, Skull base chordoma, Skull base chondrosarcoma

  15. Effect of ERCC8 tagSNPs and their association with H. pylori infection, smoking, and alcohol consumption on gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing-Jing; Sun, Li-Ping; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Excision repair cross-complementing group 8 (ERCC8) plays a critical role in DNA repair. Genetic polymorphisms in ERCC8 may contribute to the risk of cancer development. We selected tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in Chinese patients from the HapMap database to investigate associations with gastric cancer and its precursors. Genomic DNA was extracted from 394 controls, 394 atrophic gastritis, and 394 gastric cancer cases in northern Chinese patients, and genotypes were identified using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. We found that the ERCC8 rs158572 GG+GA genotype showed a 1.651-fold (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.109-2.457, P = 0.013) increased risk of gastric cancer compared with the AA genotype, especially in diffuse type. Stratified analysis comparing the common genotype revealed significantly increased gastric cancer risk in males and individuals older than 50 years with rs158572 GA/GG/GG+GA genotypes, while individuals older than 50 years with rs158916 CT/CC+CT genotypes were less susceptible to atrophic gastritis. Haplotype analysis showed that the G-T haplotype was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Statistically significant interactions between the two ERCC8 tagSNPs and Helicobacter pylori infection were observed for gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk (P cancer compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers homozygous for AA. Our findings suggested that ERCC8 rs158572 and rs158916, alone or together with environmental factors, might be associated with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis susceptibility. Further validation of our results in larger populations along with additional studies evaluating the underlying molecular function is required.

  16. Characterization of the Met326Ile variant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Katrine; Delahaye, Laurent; Hansen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    . When the four human p85alpha proteins were expressed in yeast, a 27% decrease occurred in the level of protein expression of p85alpha(Ile/Asp) (P = 0.03) and a 43% decrease in p85alpha(Ile/Asn) (P = 0.08) as compared with p85alpha(Met/Asp). Both p85alpha(Ile/Asp) and p85alpha(Ile/Asn) also exhibited...... increased binding to phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 by 41% and 83%, respectively (P substrate-1 slightly increased in brown preadipocytes derived from p85alpha...... knockout mice. Both p85alpha(Met) and p85alpha(Ile) had similar effects on AKT activity and were able to reconstitute differentiation of the preadipocytes, although the triglyceride concentration in fully differentiated adipocytes and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake were slightly lower than...

  17. p44 and p34 subunits of the BTF2/TFIIH transcription factor have homologies with SSL1, a yeast protein involved in DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Humbert; H. van Vuuren; Y. Lutz; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc); V. Moncollin

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe human BTF2 (TFIIH) transcription factor is a multisubunit protein involved in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (B) as well as in DNA repair. In addition to the previously characterized p62 and p89/ERCC3 subunits, we have cloned two other subunits of BTF2, p44 and p34.

  18. Shell model description of 16O(p,γ)17F and 16O(p,p)16O reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, K.; Michel, N.; Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.; Bennaceur, K.; Nowacki, F.; Okolowicz, J.

    2000-01-01

    We present shell model calculations of both the structure of 17 F and the reactions 16 O(p,γ) 17 F, 16 O(p,p) 16 O. We use the ZBM interaction which provides a fair description of the properties of 16 O and neighbouring nuclei and, in particular it takes account for the complicated correlations in coexisting low-lying states of 16 O. (authors)

  19. Stathmin 1 and p16(INK4A) are sensitive adjunct biomarkers for serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Marián; Lester, Jenny; Karst, Alison M; Parkash, Vinita; Hirsch, Michelle S; Crum, Christopher P; Karlan, Beth Y; Drapkin, Ronny

    2015-10-01

    To credential Stathmin 1 (STMN1) and p16(INK4A) (p16) as adjunct markers for the diagnosis of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), and to compare STMN1 and p16 expression in p53-positive and p53-negative STIC and invasive high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to examine STMN1 and p16 expression in fallopian tube specimens (n=31) containing p53-positive and p53-negative STICs, invasive HGSCs, and morphologically normal FTE (fallopian tube epithelium). STMN1 and p16 expression was scored semiquantitatively by four individuals. The semiquantitative scores were dichotomized, and reported as positive or negative. Pooled siRNA was used to knockdown p53 in a panel of cell lines derived from immortalized FTE and HGSC. STMN1 and p16 were expressed in the majority of p53-positive and p53-negative STICs and concomitant invasive HGSCs, but only scattered positive cells were present in morphologically normal FTE. Both proteins were expressed consistently across multiple STICs from the same patient and in concomitant invasive HGSC. Knockdown of p53 in immortalized FTE cells and in four HGSC-derived cell lines expressing different missense p53 mutations did not affect STMN1 protein levels. This study demonstrates that STMN1 and p16 are sensitive and specific adjunct biomarkers that, when used with p53 and Ki-67, improve the diagnostic accuracy of STIC. The addition of STMN1 and p16 helps to compensate for practical limitations of p53 and Ki-67 that complicate the diagnosis in up to one third of STICs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stathmin 1 and p16INK4A are sensitive adjunct biomarkers for serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Marián; Lester, Jenny; Karst, Alison M.; Parkash, Vinita; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Crum, Christopher P.; Karlan, Beth Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To credential Stathmin 1 (STMN1) and p16INK4A (p16) as adjunct markers for the diagnosis of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), and to compare STMN1 and p16 expression in p53-positive and p53-negative STIC and invasive high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). Methods Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to examine STMN1 and p16 expression in fallopian tube specimens (n=31) containing p53-positive and p53-negative STICs, invasive HGSCs, and morphologically normal FTE (fallopian tube epithelium). STMN1 and p16 expression was scored semiquantitatively by four individuals. The semiquantitative scores were dichotomized, and reported as positive or negative. Pooled siRNA was used to knockdown p53 in a panel of cell lines derived from immortalized FTE and HGSC. Results STMN1 and p16 were expressed in the majority of p53-positive and p53-negative STICs and concomitant invasive HGSCs, but only scattered positive cells were positive in morphologically normal FTE. Both proteins were expressed consistently across multiple STICs from the same patient and in concomitant invasive HGSC. Knockdown of p53 in immortalized FTE cells and in four HGSC-derived cell lines expressing different missense p53 mutations did not affect STMN1 protein levels. Conclusions This study demonstrates that STMN1 and p16 are sensitive and specific adjunct biomarkers that, when used with p53 and Ki-67, improve the diagnostic accuracy of STIC. The addition of STMN1 and p16 helps to compensate for practical limitations of p53 and Ki-67 that complicate the diagnosis in up to one third of STICs. PMID:26206555

  1. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G

    2009-01-01

    Background:In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.Methods:We have geno...

  2. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R. L.; Pita, G.; Peterlongo, P.; Heikkinen, T.; Simard, J.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Spurdle, A. B.; Beesley, J.; Chen, X.; Healey, S.; Neuhausen, S. L.; Ding, Y. C.; Couch, F. J.; Wang, X.; Lindor, N.; Manoukian, S.; Barile, M.; Viel, A.; Tizzoni, L.; Szabo, C. I.; Foretova, L.; Zikan, M.; Claes, K.; Greene, M. H.; Mai, P.; Rennert, G.; Lejbkowicz, F.; Barnett-Griness, O.; Andrulis, I. L.; Ozcelik, H.; Weerasooriya, N.; Gerdes, A.-M.; Thomassen, M.; Cruger, D. G.; Caligo, M. A.; Friedman, E.; Kaufman, B.; Laitman, Y.; Cohen, S.; Kontorovich, T.; Gershoni-Baruch, R.; Dagan, E.; Jernström, H.; Askmalm, M. S.; Arver, B.; Malmer, B.; Domchek, S. M.; Nathanson, K. L.; Brunet, J.; Ramón Y Cajal, T.; Yannoukakos, D.; Hamann, U.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Gómez García, E. B.; Wijnen, J. T.; van den Ouweland, A.; Easton, D. F.; Peock, S.; Cook, M.; Oliver, C. T.; Frost, D.; Luccarini, C.; Evans, D. G.; Lalloo, F.; Eeles, R.; Pichert, G.; Cook, J.; Hodgson, S.; Morrison, P. J.; Douglas, F.; Godwin, A. K.; Sinilnikova, O. M.; Barjhoux, L.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Moncoutier, V.; Giraud, S.; Cassini, C.; Olivier-Faivre, L.; Révillion, F.; Peyrat, J.-P.; Muller, D.; Fricker, J.-P.; Lynch, H. T.; John, E. M.; Buys, S.; Daly, M.; Hopper, J. L.; Terry, M. B.; Miron, A.; Yassin, Y.; Goldgar, D.; Singer, C. F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.; Pfeiler, G.; Spiess, A.-C.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Johannsson, O. T.; Kirchhoff, T.; Offit, K.; Kosarin, K.; Piedmonte, M.; Rodriguez, G. C.; Wakeley, K.; Boggess, J. F.; Basil, J.; Schwartz, P. E.; Blank, S. V.; Toland, A. E.; Montagna, M.; Casella, C.; Imyanitov, E. N.; Allavena, A.; Schmutzler, R. K.; Versmold, B.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Ditsch, N.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Deissler, H.; Fiebig, B.; Varon-Mateeva, R.; Schaefer, D.; Froster, U. G.; Caldes, T.; de la Hoya, M.; McGuffog, L.; Antoniou, A. C.; Nevanlinna, H.; Radice, P.; Benítez, J.; Simard, Jacques; Durocher, Francine; Laframboise, Rachel; Plante, Marie; Bridge, Peter; Parboosingh, Jilian; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Lesperance, Bernard; Karlsson, Per; Nordling, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Ake; Loman, Niklas; Olsson, Hakan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Jernstrom, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Liljegren, Annelie; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Malmer, Beatrice; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Brandell, Richard Rosenquist; Dahl, Niklas; Hogervorst, Frans; Verhoef, Senno; Pijpe, Anouk; van 't Veer, Laura; van Leeuwen, Flora; Rookus, Matti; Collée, Margriet; van den Ouweland, Ans; Kriege, Mieke; Schutte, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob; van Asperen, Christi; Wijnen, Juul; Vreeswijk, Maaike; Devilee, Peter; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Ausems, Margreet; van der Luijt, Rob; Aalfs, Cora; van Os, Theo; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Gille, Hans; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna; Blok, Rien; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Cole, Trevor; McKeown, Carole; Taylor, Amy; Donaldson, Alan; Paterson, Joan; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark; McCann, Emma; Kennedy, John; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Davidson, Rosemarie; Murday, Murday; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Izatt, Louise; Pichert, Gabriella; Langman, Caroline; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Chu, Carol; Bishop, Tim; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Holt, Felicity; Male, Alison; Robinson, Anne; Gardiner, Carol; Douglas, Fiona; Claber, Oonagh; Walker, Lisa; Durell, Sarah; Eeles, Ros; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancrof, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Mitra, Anita; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Cook, Jackie; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Hodgson, Shirley; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eccles, Diana; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; Tyler, Emma; McBride, Donna; Sinilnikova, Olga; Barjhoux, Laure; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrde, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bourdon, Violaine; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Cassini, Cécile; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Frénay, Marc; Lynch, Henry T.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We have genotyped rs744154 in

  3. Malignant transformation of neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis 1 is associated with CDKN2A/p16 inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G P; Stemmer-Rachamimov, A O; Ino, Y

    1999-01-01

    examined the CDKN2A/p16 gene and p16 protein in NFs and MPNSTs from patients with NF1. On immunohistochemical analysis, all NFs expressed p16 protein. The MPNSTs, however, were essentially immunonegative for p16, with striking transitions in cases that contained both benign and malignant elements. None...

  4. Treament Response in the neck: p16+ versus p16- oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Daisy; Hicks, Rodney J.; Rischin, Danny; Solomon, Ben; Peters, Lester; Corry, June; Bressel, Mathias; Young, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    To compare nodal response rates following chemoradiotherapy in patients with p16+ and p16− oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Patients with node-positive OPSCC treated at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre on the published phase I–III tirapazamine trials were identified. All patients had conventional assessment (clinical examination (CA), CT and/or MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) at both baseline and 2–4 months post-treatment. There were 30 p16+ and 18 p16− patients, the former group having significantly higher stage nodal disease (P=0.016). The mean overall reduction in nodal size at post-treatment assessment was similar in p16+ and p16− patients (78% vs. 75%), and no statistically significant difference in nodal complete response (CR) rates was detected by either CA (50% vs. 39%, P=0.35) or PET/PET-CT (93% vs. 83%, P=0.19). PET was significantly more accurate in determining the true nodal CR rate in both groups, with a negative predictive value of 96%. Nodal response rates following chemoradiotherapy appear to be similar in p16+ and p16− patients when assessed by either CA or PET/PET-CT. However, higher nodal CR was seen in PET/PET-CT compared with CA in both groups. Metabolic imaging is more accurate than CA in assessing nodal response post-treatment.

  5. Impact of 9p deletion and p16, Cyclin D1, and Myc hyperexpression on the outcome of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Michaud

    Full Text Available To study the presence of 9p deletion and p16, cyclin D1 and Myc expression and their respective diagnostic and prognostic interest in oligodendrogliomas.We analyzed a retrospective series of 40 consecutive anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (OIII from a single institution and compared them to a control series of 10 low grade oligodendrogliomas (OII. Automated FISH analysis of chromosome 9p status and immunohistochemistry for p16, cyclin D1 and Myc was performed for all cases and correlated with clinical and histological data, event free survival (EFS and overall survival (OS.Chromosome 9p deletion was observed in 55% of OIII (22/40 but not in OII. Deletion was highly correlated to EFS (median = 29 versus 53 months, p<0.0001 and OS (median = 48 versus 83 months, p<0.0001 in both the total cohort and the OIII population. In 9p non-deleted oligodendrogliomas, p16 hyperexpression correlated with a shorter OS (p = 0.02 in OII and p = 0.0001 in OIII whereas lack of p16 expression was correlated to a shorter EFS and OS in 9p deleted OIII (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively. Expression of Cyclin D1 was significantly higher in OIII (median expression 45% versus 14% for OII, p = 0.0006 and was correlated with MIB-1 expression (p<0.0001, vascular proliferation (p = 0.002, tumor necrosis (p = 0.04 and a shorter EFS in the total cohort (p = 0.05. Hyperexpression of Myc was correlated to grade (median expression 27% in OII versus 35% in OIII, p = 0.03, and to a shorter EFS in 9p non-deleted OIII (p = 0.01.Chromosome 9p deletion identifies a subset of OIII with significantly worse prognosis. The combination of 9p status and p16 expression level identifies two distinct OIII populations with divergent prognosis. Hyperexpression of Bcl1 and Myc appears highly linked to anaplasia but the prognostic value is unclear and should be investigated further.

  6. Comparative modeling and docking studies of p16ink4/Cyclin D1/Rb pathway genes in lung cancer revealed functionally interactive residue of RB1 and its functional partner E2F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e Zahra Syeda Naqsh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Major signalling pathways that could play significant role in lung cancer therapy include (1 Growth promoting pathways (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Ras/ PhosphatidylInositol 3-Kinase (2 Growth inhibitory pathways (p53/Rb/P14ARF, STK11 (3 Apoptotic pathways (Bcl-2/Bax/Fas/FasL. Insilico strategy was implemented to solve the mystery behind selected lung cancer pathway by applying comparative modeling and molecular docking studies. Results YASARA [v 12.4.1] was utilized to predict structural models of P16-INK4 and RB1 genes using template 4ELJ-A and 1MX6-B respectively. WHAT CHECK evaluation tool demonstrated overall quality of predicted P16-INK4 and RB1 with Z-score of −0.132 and −0.007 respectively which showed a strong indication of reliable structure prediction. Protein-protein interactions were explored by utilizing STRING server, illustrated that CDK4 and E2F1 showed strong interaction with P16-INK4 and RB1 based on confidence score of 0.999 and 0.999 respectively. In order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions between candidate genes with their functional interactors, GRAMM-X server was used. Protein-protein docking investigation of P16-INK4 revealed four ionic bonds illustrating Arg47, Arg80,Cys72 and Met1 residues as actively participating in interactions with CDK4 while docking results of RB1 showed four hydrogen bonds involving Glu864, Ser567, Asp36 and Arg861 residues which interact strongly with its respective functional interactor E2F1. Conclusion This research may provide a basis for understanding biological insights of P16-INK4 and RB1 proteins which will be helpful in future to design a suitable drug to inhibit the disease pathogenesis as we have determined the interacting amino acids which can be targeted in order to design a ligand in-vitro to propose a drug for clinical trials. Protein -protein docking of

  7. Expression of Anion Exchanger 1 Sequestrates p16 in the Cytoplasm in Gastric, Colonic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Shen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available p16INK4A (p16 binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, negatively regulates cell growth. Recent studies have led to an understanding of additional biologic functions for p16; however, the detailed mechanisms involved are still elusive. In this article, we show an unexpected expression of anion exchanger 1 (AEi in the cytoplasm in poorly, moderately differentiated gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma cells, in its interaction with p16, thereby sequestrating the protein in the cytoplasm. Genetic alterations of p16, AEi were not detectable. Forced expression of AEi in these cells sequestrated more p16 in the cytoplasm, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of AEi in the cells induced the release of p16 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, leading to cell death, growth inhibition of tumor cells. By analyzing tissue samples obtained from patients with gastric, colonic cancers, we found that 83.33% of gastric cancers, 56.52% of colonic cancers coexpressed AEi, p16 in the cytoplasm. We conclude that AEi plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma, that p16 dysfunction is a novel pathway of carcinogenesis.

  8. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R.L.; Pita, G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We have...... genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. RESULTS: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk...... for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.04, P = 0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06, P = 0.5) mutation carriers. CONCLUSION: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out Udgivelsesdato: 2009/12/15...

  9. Polimorfismos em genes de reparo do DNA (XPC, ERCC1, XRCC7) em mulheres com câncer do colo do útero

    OpenAIRE

    Saffar, Issamir Farias [UNIFESP

    2010-01-01

    Estudos demonstram que polimorfismos em genes relacionados ao reparo do DNA estão envolvidos na patogênese de diversas doenças neoplásicas, como o câncer ginecológico, particularmente o câncer do colo do útero. O presente estudo, caso-controle, compara os polimorfismos dos genes XPC, ERCC1 e XRCC7 em 77 mulheres com câncer cervical (70 casos de carcinoma espinocelular e 7 casos de adenocarcinoma do colo do útero) e 73 mulheres saudáveis atendidas no Hospital do Câncer Alfredo Abrão, entre Jun...

  10. The Differential Expression of Core Genes in Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway Indicates Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nucleotide excision repair (NER plays a critical role in maintaining genome integrity. This study aimed to investigate the expression of NER genes and their associations with colorectal cancer (CRC development. Method. Expressions of NER genes in CRC and normal tissues were analysed by ONCOMINE. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA data were downloaded to explore relationship of NER expression with clinicopathological parameters and survival of CRC. Results. ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC5, and DDB2 were upregulated while ERCC4 was downregulated in CRC. For colon cancer, high ERCC3 expression was related to better T stage; ERCC5 expression indicated deeper T stage and distant metastasis; DDB2 expression suggested earlier TNM stage. For rectal cancer, ERCC2 expression correlated with favourable T stage; XPA expression predicted worse TNM stage. ERCC2 expression was associated with worse overall survival (OS in colon cancer (HR=1.53, P=0.043. Colon cancer patients with high ERCC4 expression showed favorable OS in males (HR=0.54, P=0.035. High XPC expression demonstrated decreased death hazards in rectal cancer (HR=0.40, P=0.026. Conclusion. ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, and DDB2 were differently expressed in CRC and normal tissues; ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC5, XPA, and DDB2 correlated with clinicopathological parameters of CRC, while ERCC2, ERCC4, and XPC might predict CRC prognosis.

  11. Immunohistochemical comparison of cyclin D1 and P16 in odontogenic keratocyst and unicystic ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Cyclin D1 did show a higher staining intensity in UAs compared to the keratocysts, although the expression of P16 was similar in the studied groups. The invasive growth of OKC might be related to the state of expression of cyclin D1 and P16 in the epithelium of this cyst.

  12. Met1-linked Ubiquitination in Immune Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Methionine 1-linked ubiquitin chains (Met1-Ub), or linear ubiquitin, has emerged as a central post-translational modification in innate immune signalling. Molecular machinery that assembles, senses and, more recently, disassembles Met1-Ub has been identified, and technical advances have enabled...... identification of physiological substrates for Met1-Ub in response to activation of innate immune receptors. These discoveries have significantly advanced our understanding of how non-degradative ubiquitin modifications control pro-inflammatory responses mediated by nuclear factor κB and mitogen...

  13. Placental promoter methylation of DNA repair genes and prenatal exposure to particulate air pollution: an ENVIRONAGE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Y Neven, MSc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked with risk of carcinogenesis. Damage to repair pathways might have long-term adverse health effects. We aimed to investigate the association of prenatal exposure to air pollution with placental mutation rate and the DNA methylation of key placental DNA repair genes. Methods: This cohort study used data from the ongoing ENVironmental Influence ON early AGEing (ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, which enrols pairs of mothers and neonates (singleton births only at the East-Limburg Hospital (Genk, Belgium. Placental DNA samples were collected after birth. We used bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing to investigate the mutation rate of Alu (a marker for overall DNA mutation and DNA methylation in the promoter genes of key DNA repair and tumour suppressor genes (APEX1, OGG1, PARP1, ERCC1, ERCC4, p53, and DAPK1. We used a high-resolution air pollution model to estimate exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5, black carbon, and NO2 over the entire pregnancy on the basis of maternal address. Alu mutation was analysed with a linear regression model, and methylation values of the selected genes were analysed in mixed-effects models. Effect estimates are presented as the relative percentage change in methylation for an ambient air pollution increment of one IQR (ie, the difference between the first and third quartiles of exposure in the entire cohort. Findings: 500 biobanked placental DNA samples were randomly selected from 814 pairs of mothers and neonates who were recruited to the cohort between Feb 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2014, of which 463 samples met the pyrosequencing quality control criteria. IQR exposure increments were 3·84 μg/m3 for PM2·5, 0·36 μg/m3 for black carbon, and 5·34 μg/m3 for NO2. Among these samples, increased Alu mutation rate was associated with greater exposure to PM2·5 (r=0·26, p<0·0001 and black carbon (r=0·33, p<0·0001, but not NO2

  14. HAT-P-16b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-16b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the V = 10.8 mag F8 dwarf GSC 2792-01700, with a period P = 2.775960 ± 0.000003 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455027.59293 ± 0.00031 (BJD10), and transit duration 0.1276 ± 0.0013 days. The host star has a mass of 1.22 ± 0.0...

  15. Energy expenditure during common sitting and standing tasks: examining the 1.5 MET definition of sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoubi, Maedeh; Pearson, Natalie; Clemes, Stacy A; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Tolfrey, Keith; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Yates, Thomas

    2015-05-29

    Sedentary behavior is defined as any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure of 1.5 METS or less while in a sitting or reclining posture. This study examines this definition by assessing the energy cost (METs) of common sitting, standing and walking tasks. Fifty one adults spent 10 min during each activity in a variety of sitting tasks (watching TV, Playing on the Wii, Playing on the PlayStation Portable (PSP) and typing) and non-sedentary tasks (standing still, walking at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mph). Activities were completed on the same day in a random order following an assessment of resting metabolic rate (RMR). A portable gas analyzer was used to measure oxygen uptake, and data were converted to units of energy expenditure (METs). Average of standardized MET values for screen-based sitting tasks were: 1.33 (SD: 0.24) METS (TV), 1.41 (SD: 0.28) (PSP), and 1.45 (SD: 0.32) (Typing). The more active, yet still seated, games on the Wii yielded an average of 2.06 (SD: 0.5) METS. Standing still yielded an average of 1.59 (SD: 0.37) METs. Walking MET values increased incrementally with speed from 2.17 to 2.99 (SD: 0.5 - 0.69) METs. The suggested 1.5 MET threshold for sedentary behaviors seems reasonable however some sitting based activities may be classified as non-sedentary. The effect of this on the definition of sedentary behavior and associations with metabolic health needs further investigation.

  16. COMT (Val158Met and BDNF (Val66Met Genes Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ramin saravani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effects of human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF Val66Met (G>A and the human Catechol-O-methylTransferase (COMT Val158Met (G>A polymorphisms on Schizophrenia (SCZ risk were evaluated.Methods: This case control study included 92 SCZ patients and 92 healthy controls (HCs. Genotyping of both variants were conducted using Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR.Results: The findings showed that BDNF Val66Met (G>A variant increased the risk of SCZ (OR=2.008 95%CI=1.008-4.00, P=0.047, GA vs. GG, OR=3.876 95%CI=1.001-14.925, P=0.049. AA vs. GG, OR=2.272. 95%CI=1.204-4.347, P=0.011, GA+AA vs. GG, OR=2.22 95%CI=1.29-3.82. P=0.005, A vs. G. COMT Val158Met (G>A polymorphism was not associated with the risk/protective of SCZ.Conclusion: The results proposed that BDNF Val66Met (G>A polymorphism may increase the risk of SCZ development and did not support an association between COMT Val158Met (G>A variant and risk/protective of SCZ. Further studies and different ethnicities are recommended to confirm the findings.

  17. The chromatin remodelling factor BRG1 is a novel binding partner of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Graham J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CDKN2A/p16INK4a is frequently altered in human cancers and it is the most important melanoma susceptibility gene identified to date. p16INK4a inhibits pRb phosphorylation and induces cell cycle arrest, which is considered its main tumour suppressor function. Nevertheless, additional activities may contribute to the tumour suppressor role of p16INK4a and could help explain its specific association with melanoma predisposition. To identify such functions we conducted a yeast-two-hybrid screen for novel p16INK4a binding partners. Results We now report that p16INK4a interacts with the chromatin remodelling factor BRG1. We investigated the cooperative roles of p16INK4a and BRG1 using a panel of cell lines and a melanoma cell model with inducible p16INK4a expression and BRG1 silencing. We found evidence that BRG1 is not required for p16INK4a-induced cell cycle inhibition and propose that the p16INK4a-BRG1 complex regulates BRG1 chromatin remodelling activity. Importantly, we found frequent loss of BRG1 expression in primary and metastatic melanomas, implicating this novel p16INK4a binding partner as an important tumour suppressor in melanoma. Conclusion This data adds to the increasing evidence implicating the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex in tumour development and the association of p16INK4a with chromatin remodelling highlights potentially new functions that may be important in melanoma predisposition and chemoresistance.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of p53, pRb, p16 in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zo, Jae Ill; Zo, Kyung Ja; Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Mi Hee

    1998-01-01

    To confirm the expression of molecular genetic alterations of p53, pRb, p16 in esophageal cancer and to investigate the expression of p53, pRb, p16 in esophageal cancer according to the pathologic steps of carcinogenesis, immuno-histochemistry was performed in 15 resected esophageal cancer specimens with multiple separated lesions after pathologic mapping. The accumulation of mutant p53 was observed in 60 % of dysplasia and 47 % of invasive cancer, while pRb was not detected in 91 % of dysplasia and 72.7 % of invasive cancer. But p16 was not observed in 0 % in dysplasia and 7 % of invasive cancer. But p16 was not observed in 0 % in dysplasia and 28.6 % in invasive cancer. There was no simultaneous negative pRb and p16 expression. There was no relations between p53 and p16, pRb. As a results, the expression of p53, pRb, p16 was co-related well with molecular genetic changes and inactivation of p53, pRb, p16 was co-related well with molecular genetic changes and inactivation of p53 and pRb was common and early event in esophageal carcinogenesis in Korea, but inactivation of p16 was a infrequent change. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Discovery of potent 1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based c-Met kinase inhibitors via mechanism-directed structural optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiao-De; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Zhong-Liang; Jin, Yi; Peng, Xia; Yao, Ying-Ming; Geng, Meiyu; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    Starting from our previously identified novel c-Met kinase inhibitors bearing 1H-imidazo[4,5-h][1,6]naphthyridin-2(3H)-one scaffold, a global structural exploration was conducted to furnish an optimal binding motif for further development, directed by the enzyme inhibitory mechanism. First round SAR study picked two imidazonaphthyridinone frameworks with 1,8- and 3,5-disubstitution pattern as class I and class II c-Met kinase inhibitors, respectively. Further structural optimization on type II inhibitors by truncation of the imidazonaphthyridinone core and incorporation of an N-phenyl cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide pharmacophore led to the discovery of novel imidazopyridine-based c-Met kinase inhibitors, displaying nanomolar enzyme inhibitory activity and improved Met kinase selectivity. More significantly, the new chemotype c-Met kinase inhibitors effectively inhibited Met phosphorylation and its downstream signaling as well as the proliferation of Met-dependent EBC-1 human lung cancer cells at submicromolar concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of p53/HGF/c-met/STAT3 signal in fetuses with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Maria; D'Armiento, Maria; Lavra, Luca; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Dominici, Roberto; Vitarelli, Enrica; Grosso, Maddalena; Vecchione, Raffaella; Barresi, Gaetano; Sciacchitano, Salvatore

    2007-02-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are morphogenetic alterations due to a defective closure of neural tube. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met system plays a role in morphogenesis of nervous system, lung, and kidney. HGF/c-met morphogenetic effects are mediated by signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)3 and both HGF and c-met genes are regulated from p53. The aim of our study was to analyze mRNA and protein expressions of p53, HGF, c-met, and STAT3 in fetuses with NTD. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we analyzed neural tissues from four NTD fetuses and the corresponding non-malformed lungs, kidneys and placentas. We found a reduced mRNA expression of HGF/c-met/STAT3 pathway, in the malformed nervous systems and placentas. The reduced expression of this pathway correlated with the absence of p53 in all these samples. On the contrary, detectable expression levels of p53, HGF, c-met, and STAT3 were observed in non-malformed lungs and kidneys obtained from the same fetuses. Comparable results were obtained by immunohistochemistry, with the exception of p53, which was undetected in all fetal tissues. In conclusion, in NTD fetuses, both the defective neural tube tissue and the placenta have a reduction in all components of the p53/HGF/c-met/STAT3 cascade. This raises the possibility of using the suppression of these genes for early diagnosis of NTD especially on chorionic villus sampling.

  1. C-MET overexpression and amplification in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonjin; Kim, Seong-Ik; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Soon-Tae; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    We investigated c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification in gliomas to determine their incidence and prognostic significance. c-Met immunohistochemistry and MET gene fluorescence in situ hybridization were carried out on tissue microarrays from 250 patients with gliomas (137 grade IV GBMs and 113 grade II and III diffuse gliomas). Clinicopathological features of these cases were reviewed. c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification were detected in 13.1% and 5.1% of the GBMs, respectively. All the MET-amplified cases showed c-Met overexpression, but MET amplification was not always concordant with c-Met overexpression. None of grade II and III gliomas demonstrated c-Met overexpression or MET gene amplification. Mean survival of the GBM patients with MET amplification was not significantly different from patients without MET amplification (P=0.155). However, GBM patients with c-Met overexpression survived longer than patients without c-Met overexpression (P=0.035). Although MET amplification was not related to poor GBM prognosis, it is partially associated with the aggressiveness of gliomas, as MET amplification was found only in grade IV, not in grade II and III gliomas. We suggest that MET inhibitor therapy may be beneficial in about 5% GBMs, which was the incidence of MET gene amplification found in the patients included in this study.

  2. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study subjects consisted of 75 healthy ... that p16 protein expression was significantly lower in ToF group compared to ... in p16 promoters in ToF patients was negatively correlated with p16 protein ... studies, human foetal ventricular cardiomyocytes (HFCs) are ..... oral epithelial dysplasia: a prospective cohort study.

  3. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was employed to detect CpG island methylation in p16 promoter region andWestern blotting was used to detect p16 expression of all subjects. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) was performed to test p16 mRNA expression.

  4. Phosphodiesterase 1 regulation is a key mechanism in vascular aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño, Paula K Bautista; Durik, Matej; Danser, A H Jan

    2015-01-01

    Reduced nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signalling is observed in age-related vascular disease. We hypothesize that this disturbed signalling involves effects of genomic instability, a primary causal factor in aging, on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and that the underlying mechanism plays a role...... in human age-related vascular disease. To test our hypothesis, we combined experiments in mice with genomic instability resulting from the defective nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1 (Ercc1(d/-) mice), human VSMC cultures and population genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Aortic rings of Ercc1(d...... in lungs was higher in Ercc1(d/-) mice. No differences in activity or levels of cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 or sGC were observed in Ercc1(d/-) mice compared with WT. Senescent human VSMC showed elevated PDE1A and PDE1C and PDE5 mRNA levels (11.6-, 9- and 2.3-fold respectively), which associated...

  5. Dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway provokes an aging-associated decline of submandibular gland function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Kimi; Katano, Satoshi; Iida, Mayu; Kimura, Hiromi; Okuma, Atsushi; Ikemoto-Uezumi, Madoka; Ohtani, Naoko; Hara, Eiji; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 prevents stem cell aging, at least partly, by blocking expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16Ink4a. Therefore, dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway is considered key to the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of associated degenerative diseases during aging. However, because Bmi-1 knockout (KO) mice die within 20 weeks after birth, it is difficult to determine exactly where and when dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway occurs during aging in vivo. Using real-time in vivo imaging of p16Ink4a expression in Bmi-1-KO mice, we uncovered a novel function of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway in controlling homeostasis of the submandibular glands (SMGs), which secrete saliva into the oral cavity. This pathway is dysregulated during aging in vivo, leading to induction of p16Ink4a expression and subsequent declined SMG function. These findings will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the aging-related decline of SMG function and associated salivary gland hypofunction, which is particularly problematic among the elderly. PMID:25832744

  6. DrugMetZ DB: an anthology of human drug metabolizing Chytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Tresa Remya Thomas; Nagarajan, Shanthi

    2006-11-14

    Understandings the basics of Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) will help to discern drug metabolism. CYP, a super-family of heme-thiolate proteins, are found in almost all living organisms and is involved in the biotransformation of a diverse range of xenobiotics, therapeutic drugs and toxins. Here, we describe DrugMetZ DB, a database for CYP metabolizing drugs. The DB is implemented in MySQL, PHP and HTML. www.bicpu.edu.in/DrugMetZDB/

  7. Expression of Bmi-1, P16, and CD44v6 in Uterine Cervical Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Mei-ying; Li, Lin; Feng, Shu-ying; Hong, Shun-jia

    2012-01-01

    Bmi-1, a putative proto-oncogene, is a core member of the polycomb gene family, which is expressed in many human tumors. The p16 protein negatively regulated cell proliferation, whereas CD44v6 is associated with proliferation as an important protein. Additionally, CD44v6 is an important nuclear antigen closely correlated to tumor metastasis. The present study aims to investigate the expression and significance of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 in uterine cervical carcinoma (UCC). A total of 62 UCC, 30 cervical neoplasic, and 20 normal cervical mucosal tissues were used in the current study. The expression of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 in these tissues was determined using immunohistochemical assay. The relationships among the expression of these indices, the clinicopathologic features of UCC, and the survival rate of UCC patients were also discussed. The correlation between Bmi-1 protein expression and p16 or CD44v6 protein in UCC was analyzed. The expression of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 was significantly high in cervical carcinoma compared with that in the cervical neoplasia and normal colorectal mucosa (P<0.05). The over-expression of Bmi-1 protein in UCC was apparently related to the distant metastasis (P<0.01) and the tumor, nodes and metastasis-classification, i.e. the TNM staging, World Health Organization (P<0.05). Nevertheless, the positive expression of p16 protein in UCC was not significantly associated with the clinicopathologic features (P>0.05). The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the over-expression of Bmi-1 significantly decreased the survival rate of UCC patients (P<0.05). A strong correlation indicated that there was statistical significance between the expression of Bmi-1 and CD44V6 proteins in UCC (r=0.419, P=0.001). The over-expression of Bmi-1 and CD44v6 protein closely correlate to the tumorigenesis, metastasis, and prognosis of UCC. Bmi-1 and CD44v6 may be used to predict the prognosis of cervical carcinoma. Bmi-1 may indirectly regulate the

  8. Investigation of the reaction 16O(p,n)16F at Esub(p)=135 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Ershov, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The 16 O(p,n) 16 F reaction at 135 MeV has been analyzed the framework of the distorted-wave impulse-approximation (DWIA). Both direct and exchange mechanisms of nucleon knock-out are taken into account. Including the n-particle n-hole (n=0, 1, 2) correlations in the wave functions of A=16 nuclei improves the description of experimental data: diminishes the absolute value of the cross sections about twice as compared with the calculations using the simple particle-hole structure models

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of the sl1p pipeline for 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Fiona J; Surette, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed for detailed, molecular-based studies of microbial communities such as the human gut, soil, and ocean waters. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, specific to prokaryotes, using universal PCR primers has become a common approach to studying the composition of these microbiota. However, the bioinformatic processing of the resulting millions of DNA sequences can be challenging, and a standardized protocol would aid in reproducible analyses. The short-read library 16S rRNA gene sequencing pipeline (sl1p, pronounced "slip") was designed with the purpose of mitigating this lack of reproducibility by combining pre-existing tools into a computational pipeline. This pipeline automates the processing of raw 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to create human-readable tables, graphs, and figures to make the collected data more readily accessible. Data generated from mock communities were compared using eight OTU clustering algorithms, two taxon assignment approaches, and three 16S rRNA gene reference databases. While all of these algorithms and options are available to sl1p users, through testing with human-associated mock communities, AbundantOTU+, the RDP Classifier, and the Greengenes 2011 reference database were chosen as sl1p's defaults based on their ability to best represent the known input communities. sl1p promotes reproducible research by providing a comprehensive log file, and reduces the computational knowledge needed by the user to process next-generation sequencing data. sl1p is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/fwhelan/sl1p .

  10. Persistence of Repair Proteins at Unrepaired DNA Damage Distinguishes Diseases with ERCC2 (XPD) Mutations: Cancer-Prone Xeroderma Pigmentosum vs. Non-Cancer-Prone Trichothiodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jennifer; Ueda, Takahiro; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Tamura, Deborah; Jagdeo, Jared; Khan, Sikandar G.; Nadem, Carine; DiGiovanna, John J.; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) have a 1,000-fold increase in ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancers while trichothiodystrophy (TTD) patients, despite mutations in the same genes, ERCC2 (XPD) or ERCC3 (XPB), are cancer-free. Unlike XP cells, TTD cells have a nearly normal rate of removal of UV-induced 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PP) in their DNA and low levels of the basal transcription factor, TFIIH. We examined seven XP, TTD, and XP/TTD complex patients and identified mutations in the XPD gene. We discovered large differences in nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein recruitment to sites of localized UV damage in TTD cells compared to XP or normal cells. XPC protein was rapidly localized in all cells. XPC was redistributed in TTD, and normal cells by 3 hr postirradiation, but remained localized in XP cells at 24-hr postirradiation. In XP cells recruitment of other NER proteins (XPB, XPD, XPG, XPA, and XPF) was also delayed and persisted at 24 hr (p < 0.001). In TTD cells with defects in the XPD, XPB, or GTF2H5 (TTDA) genes, in contrast, recruitment of these NER proteins was reduced compared to normals at early time points (p < 0.001) and remained low at 24 hr postirradiation. These data indicate that in XP persistence of NER proteins at sites of unrepaired DNA damage is associated with greatly increased skin cancer risk possibly by blockage of translesion DNA synthesis. In contrast, in TTD, low levels of unstable TFIIH proteins do not accumulate at sites of unrepaired photoproducts and may permit normal translesion DNA synthesis without increased skin cancer. PMID:18470933

  11. Xeroderma Pigmentosum-Trichothiodystrophy overlap patient with novel XPD/ERCC2 mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kralund, Henrik H; Ousager, Lilian; Jaspers, Nicolaas G

    2013-01-01

    outcome from many of these mutations. We demonstrate a patient, believed to represent an overlap between XP and TTD/CS. In addition to other organ dysfunctions, the young man presented with Photosensitivity, Ichthyosis, Brittle hair, Impaired physical and mental development, Decreased fertility and Short...... appearance also suggested XP, but fibroblast cultures only demonstrated x2 UV-sensitivity with expected NER and TFIIH-activity decrease. Genetic sequencing of the XPD/ERCC2 gene established the patient as heterozygote compound with a novel, N-terminal Y18H mutation and a known C-terminal (TTD) mutation, A725...

  12. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SI-JU GAO

    abnormality or family history of congenital heart disease, as well as the exclusion of ... Germany) according to the manufacture's protocol. A total of. 45 μL of DNA was ... islands and the primer sites are illustrated in figure 1. Detection of p16 ...

  13. PRIMA-1 and PRIMA-1Met (APR-246: From Mutant/Wild Type p53 Reactivation to Unexpected Mechanisms Underlying Their Potent Anti-Tumor Effect in Combinatorial Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Perdrix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available p53 protects cells from genetic assaults by triggering cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Inactivation of p53 pathway is found in the vast majority of human cancers often due to somatic missense mutations in TP53 or to an excessive degradation of the protein. Accordingly, reactivation of p53 appears as a quite promising pharmacological approach and, effectively, several attempts have been made in that sense. The most widely investigated compounds for this purpose are PRIMA-1 (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis and PRIMA-1Met (APR-246, that are at an advanced stage of development, with several clinical trials in progress. Based on publications referenced in PubMed since 2002, here we review the reported effects of these compounds on cancer cells, with a specific focus on their ability of p53 reactivation, an overview of their unexpected anti-cancer effects, and a presentation of the investigated drug combinations.

  14. The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p15, p16, p21, and p27 during ovarian follicle growth initiation in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayrak Aykut

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclins regulate the cell cycle in association with cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs. CDKs are under inhibitory control of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs. Method In this study we tested the expression of CDKIs p15, p16, p21 and p27 by immunohistochemistry to determine the role of CDKIs in the initiation of primordial follicle growth. Ovaries were collected from 60-day-old cycling B6D2F1/J mice (n = 16. Results Expression of p15, p16, p21 and p27 did not vary in granulosa and theca cells by the follicle stage. However, p16 staining was stronger (++ in the oocytes of all primordial, and 57.4 ± 3.1% of primary follicles compared to the remaining primary and more advanced follicles (+. Interestingly, primary follicles with weaker (+ oocyte staining for p16 had significantly larger mean follicle diameter compared to the primary and primordial follicles with stronger (++ oocyte staining (55.6 ± 2.1 vs. 32.0 ± 1.0 and 26.5 ± 0.7 μm, respectively, p Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that the initiation of oocyte growth, which seems to lead follicle growth, is associated with diminished p16 expression in the mouse ovary. Further studies are needed to investigate the factors that regulate the expression of p16 in the oocyte, which might also govern the initiation of primordial follicle growth.

  15. Estudo de p27, p21, p16 em epitélio escamoso normal, papiloma escamoso e carcinoma de células escamosas da cavidade oral Comparative analysis of the immunohistochemistry expression of p27, p21WAF/Cip1, and p16INK4a in oral normal epithelium, squamous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Piazza Queiroz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: O tipo de câncer oral mais frequente é o carcinoma de células escamosas, que corresponde a 95% dos casos(9. O papiloma escamoso oral é uma neoplasia benigna normalmente associada à infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV(21. A análise da literatura mostra alterações nos genes reguladores do ciclo celular p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16INK4a, porém sem uma definição de seus papéis na carcinogênese oral. O objetivo foi caracterizar imuno-histoquimicamente p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16NK4a em epitélio escamoso normal, papilomas escamosos e carcinomas de células escamosas da cavidade oral. MÉTODOS: Imuno-histoquímica para p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16NK4a em 32 casos de epitélio escamoso normal, 30 casos de papiloma escamoso e 34 de carcinoma de células escamosas da cavidade oral. RESULTADOS: p27: 97,06% dos casos de carcinoma de células escamosas apresentaram imunopositividade focal. O grupo papiloma escamoso apresentou 33,33% e o grupo controle, 18,75%. p21WAF/Cip1: 100% de imunopositividade focal tanto no grupo controle como no grupo carcinoma de células escamosas, e 90% no grupo papiloma escamoso. p16INK4a: 100% de imunopositividade focal para os grupos controle e papiloma escamoso, e 94% para o grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. CONCLUSÃO: Imuno-histoquimicamente demonstrou-se diferença significativa para p27 quando feita comparação dos grupos controle e papiloma escamoso com o grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. O p21WAF/Cip1 não demonstrou poder de diferenciar os grupos analisados. O p16INK4a apresentou imunopositividade difusa em uma minoria dos casos do grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. O grupo papiloma escamoso se comportou de maneira similar ao grupo controle em relação aos três marcadores.INTRODUCTION: The most frequent type of oral cancer is the squamous cell carcinoma, which corresponds to 95% of the cases(9.The oral squamous papilloma is a benign neoplasia, commonly associated with

  16. Metformin and Resveratrol Inhibited High Glucose-Induced Metabolic Memory of Endothelial Senescence through SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erli; Guo, Qianyun; Gao, Haiyang; Xu, Ruixia; Teng, Siyong; Wu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial senescence plays crucial roles in diabetic vascular complication. Recent evidence indicated that transient hyperglycaemia could potentiate persistent diabetic vascular complications, a phenomenon known as "metabolic memory." Although SIRT1 has been demonstrated to mediate high glucose-induced endothelial senescence, whether and how "metabolic memory" would affect endothelial senescence through SIRT1 signaling remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SIRT1 axis as well as the protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) and metformin (MET), two potent SIRT1 activators, during the occurrence of "metabolic memory" of cellular senescence (senescent "memory"). Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in either normal glucose (NG)/high glucose (HG) media for 6 days, or 3 days of HG followed by 3 days of NG (HN), with or without RSV or MET treatment. It was shown that HN incubation triggered persistent downregulation of deacetylase SIRT1 and upregulation of acetyltransferase p300, leading to sustained hyperacetylation (at K382) and activation of p53, and subsequent p53/p21-mediated senescent "memory." In contrast, senescent "memory" was abrogated by overexpression of SIRT1 or knockdown of p300. Interestingly, we found that SIRT1 and p300 could regulate each other in response to HN stimulation, suggesting that a delicate balance between acetyltransferases and deacetylases may be particularly important for sustained acetylation and activation of non-histone proteins (such as p53), and eventually the occurrence of "metabolic memory." Furthermore, we found that RSV or MET treatment prevented senescent "memory" by modulating SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. Notably, early and continuous treatment of MET, but not RSV, was particularly important for preventing senescent "memory." In conclusion, short-term high glucose stimulation could induce sustained endothelial senescence via SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. RVS or MET

  17. Synthesis of Tc-99m labeled 1,2,3-triazole-4-yl c-met binding peptide as a potential c-met receptor kinase positive tumor imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Joung, Min-Hee; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Kim, Dong Wook

    2010-07-15

    The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met), which is related to tumor cell growth, angiogenesis and metastases, is known to be overexpressed in several tumor types. In this study, we synthesized technetium-99m labeled 1,2,3-triazole-4-yl c-Met binding peptide (cMBP) derivatives, prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis and the 'click-to-chelate' protocol for the introduction of tricarbonyl technetium-99m, as a potential c-Met receptor kinase positive tumor imaging agent, and evaluated their in vitro c-Met binding affinity, cellular uptake, and stability. The (99m)Tc labeled cMBP derivatives ([(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]12, [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]13, and [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]14) were prepared in 85-90% radiochemical yields. The cold surrogate cMBP derivatives, [Re(CO)(3)]12, [Re(CO)(3)]13, and [Re(CO)(3)]14, were shown to have high binding affinities (0.13 microM, 0.06 microM, and 0.16 microM, respectively) to a purified cMet/Fc chimeric recombinant protein. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and inhibition studies demonstrated the high specific binding of these (99m)Tc labeled cMBP derivatives ([(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]12-14) to c-Met receptor positive U87MG cells. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene (Val158Met) and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) (Val66Met) Genes Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravani, Ramin; Galavi, Hamid Reza; Lotfian Sargazi, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that some polymorphisms of genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the key enzyme in degrading dopamine, and norepinephrine and the human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), a nerve growth factor, are strong candidates for risk of schizophrenia (SCZ). In the present study, we aimed at examining the effects of COMT Val158Met (G>A) and BDNF Val66Met (G>A) polymorphisms on SCZ risk in a sample of Iranian population. Method: This case- control study included 92 SCZ patients and 92 healthy controls (HCs). Genotyping of both variants (COMT Val158Met (G>A) and BDNF Val66Met (G>A)) were conducted using Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results: The findings revealed that the COMT Val158Met (G>A) polymorphism was not associated with the risk/protective of SCZ in all models (OR=0.630, 95%CI=0.299-1.326, P=0.224, GA vs. GG, OR=1.416, 95%CI=0.719-2.793, P=0.314, AA vs. GG, OR=1.00, 95%CI=0.56-1.79, P=1.00 GA+AA vs. GG, OR=1.667, 95%CI=0.885-3.125, P=0.11, AA vs. GG+GA, OR=1.247, 95%CI=0.825-1.885, P=0.343, A vs. G,). However, BDNF Val66Met (G>A) variant increased the risk of SCZ (OR = 2.008 95%CI = 1.008-4.00, P = 0.047, GA vs. GG, OR = 3.876 95%CI = 1.001-14.925, P = 0.049. AA vs. GG, OR = 2.272. 95%CI = 1.204-4.347, P = 0.011, GA+AA vs. GG, OR = 2.22 95%CI = 1.29-3.82. P = 0.005, A vs. G). Conclusion: The results did not support an association between COMT Val158Met (G>A) variant and risk/protective of SCZ. Moreover, it was found that BDNF Val66Met (G>A) polymorphism may increase the risk of SCZ development. Further studies and different ethnicities are recommended to confirm the findings.

  19. Prognostic Relevance of HPV Infection and p16 Overexpression in Squamous Cell Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Sabine; Welzel, Grit; Ottstadt, Martine; Lohr, Frank; Severa, Sebastin; Prigge, Elena-Sophie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Trunk, Marcus J.; Wenz, Frederik; Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus von; Reuschenbach, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and p16 status have both been reported as prognostic factors in anal cancer, but the prognostic relevance of combined detection and particularly HPV−/p16+ and HPV+/p16− signatures is unknown. We evaluated combined HPV DNA and p16 status as a prognostic factor of treatment response in anal cancer. Methods: 106 patients treated with radiochemotherapy (RCT+5-FU/MMC) with available paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens were evaluated regarding local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. In addition to HPV DNA/p16 status, the influence of age, gender, previous surgery, initial recurrence, T stage, N status, and tumor localization was analyzed. Results: 63 patients were HPV+/p16+, 9 were HPV+/p16−, 11 were HPV−/p16+, and 23 were HPV−/p16−. In univariate analysis, LC was significantly better in patients with T1/2 stage, female gender, and HPV/p16 status. HPV+/p16+ was associated with significantly better LC (88.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.89-97.31) compared with HPV−/p16+ (63.6%; 95% CI: 35.18-92.02; P=.021) and especially HPV−/p16− (55.8%; 95% CI: 33.46-78.14; P=.002) but not with HPV+/p16− (77.8%; 95% CI: 50.56-105.04; P=.270). OS was influenced by T stage and LC. HPV+/p16+ patients showed a trend toward better OS compared with HPV−/p16− patients (HPV+/p16+: 81.1%; 95% CI: 70.12-92.08 vs HPV−/p16−: 68.8%; 95%CI: 47.44-90.16; P=.138). On multivariate analysis, T3/4 stage and HPV/p16 status (HPV−/p16+, HPV−/p16− vs HPV+/p16+) predicted poorer LC (T3/4: 50.3% vs T1/2: 86.6%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.53; P<.001; HPV+/p16+ vs HPV−/p16+: HR 4.73; 95% CI: 1.33-16.82; P=.016, and HPV+/p16+ vs HPV−/p16−: HR 6.40; 95% CI: 2.23-18.35; P<.001), whereas local relapse dramatically influenced OS. Conclusion: Our data suggest that HPV/p16 signature determines prognosis. HPV+/p16+ patients had the best prognosis, and HPV−/p16+ and HPV−/p16− patients

  20. Prognostic Relevance of HPV Infection and p16 Overexpression in Squamous Cell Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.mai@umm.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Welzel, Grit; Ottstadt, Martine; Lohr, Frank; Severa, Sebastin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Prigge, Elena-Sophie [Department of Applied Tumor Biology, Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, and Clinical Cooperation Unit Applied Tumor Biology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Wentzensen, Nicolas [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Trunk, Marcus J. [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus von; Reuschenbach, Miriam [Department of Applied Tumor Biology, Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, and Clinical Cooperation Unit Applied Tumor Biology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and p16 status have both been reported as prognostic factors in anal cancer, but the prognostic relevance of combined detection and particularly HPV−/p16+ and HPV+/p16− signatures is unknown. We evaluated combined HPV DNA and p16 status as a prognostic factor of treatment response in anal cancer. Methods: 106 patients treated with radiochemotherapy (RCT+5-FU/MMC) with available paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens were evaluated regarding local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. In addition to HPV DNA/p16 status, the influence of age, gender, previous surgery, initial recurrence, T stage, N status, and tumor localization was analyzed. Results: 63 patients were HPV+/p16+, 9 were HPV+/p16−, 11 were HPV−/p16+, and 23 were HPV−/p16−. In univariate analysis, LC was significantly better in patients with T1/2 stage, female gender, and HPV/p16 status. HPV+/p16+ was associated with significantly better LC (88.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.89-97.31) compared with HPV−/p16+ (63.6%; 95% CI: 35.18-92.02; P=.021) and especially HPV−/p16− (55.8%; 95% CI: 33.46-78.14; P=.002) but not with HPV+/p16− (77.8%; 95% CI: 50.56-105.04; P=.270). OS was influenced by T stage and LC. HPV+/p16+ patients showed a trend toward better OS compared with HPV−/p16− patients (HPV+/p16+: 81.1%; 95% CI: 70.12-92.08 vs HPV−/p16−: 68.8%; 95%CI: 47.44-90.16; P=.138). On multivariate analysis, T3/4 stage and HPV/p16 status (HPV−/p16+, HPV−/p16− vs HPV+/p16+) predicted poorer LC (T3/4: 50.3% vs T1/2: 86.6%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.53; P<.001; HPV+/p16+ vs HPV−/p16+: HR 4.73; 95% CI: 1.33-16.82; P=.016, and HPV+/p16+ vs HPV−/p16−: HR 6.40; 95% CI: 2.23-18.35; P<.001), whereas local relapse dramatically influenced OS. Conclusion: Our data suggest that HPV/p16 signature determines prognosis. HPV+/p16+ patients had the best prognosis, and HPV−/p16+ and HPV−/p16− patients

  1. De betekenis van Paulus' oproep tot de groet met de heilige kus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, Joanna Bernarda

    Dit boek is een studie naar de betekenis van de Paulijnse oproep tot de groet met de heilige kus. In vier passages in het Nieuwe Testament is deze oproep vindbaar: “Groet alle broeders (en zusters) met de heilige kus” (1 Tes 5:26) of “groet elkaar met de heilige kus” (1 Kor 16:20; 2 Kor 13:12 en

  2. OTULIN antagonizes LUBAC signaling by specifically hydrolyzing met1-linked polyubiquitin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keusekotten, K.; Elliott, P.R.; Kulathu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The linear ubiquitin (Ub) chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is an E3 ligase that specifically assembles Met1-linked (also known as linear) Ub chains that regulate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are key regulators of Ub signaling, but a dedicated DUB for Met1 linkages has...... not been identified. Here, we reveal a previously unannotated human DUB, OTULIN (also known as FAM105B), which is exquisitely specific for Met1 linkages. Crystal structures of the OTULIN catalytic domain in complex with diubiquitin reveal Met1-specific Ub-binding sites and a mechanism of substrate...

  3. Synthesis of Pyridine and Spiropyridine Derivatives Derived from 2-aminoprop- 1-ene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile Together with their c-Met Kinase and Antiproliferative Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Rafat M; Abouzied, Amr S; Abbas, Nermeen S

    2018-02-07

    Among a wide range of pyridines, 3-cyanopyridines acquired a special attention due to their wide range of pharmacological activities especially the therapeutic activities. Many pharmacological drugs containing the pyridine nucleus were known in the market. The aim of this work was to synthesize target molecules not only possess anti-tumor activities but also kinase inhibitors. To achieve this goal, our strategy was to synthesize a series of 3-cyanopyridine derivatives using 2-aminoprop-1-ene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile (1) as the key starting material for many heterocyclization reactions. Muticoponent reactions were adopted using compound 1 to get different pyridine derivatives that were capable for different heterocyclization reactions. Antiproliferative evaluations and c-Met kinase, Pim-1 kinse inhibitions were perform where some compounds gave high activities. Compounds that showed high antiprolifeative activity were tested gor c-Met-independent and the results showed that compounds 5c, 5e, 5f, 7c, 7f and 16d were more active than foretinib. The Pim-1 kinase inhibition activity of some selected compounds showed that compounds 5e and 16c were high potent to inhibit Pim-1 activity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Clinical and prognosis value of the CIMP status combined with MLH1 or p16 INK4a methylation in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadallah-Kallel, Amana; Abdelmaksoud-Dammak, Rania; Triki, Mouna; Charfi, Slim; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Sallemi-Boudawara, Tahia; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2017-08-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation of CpG islands occurred frequently in CRC and associated with transcriptional silencing of key genes. In this study, the CIMP combined with MLH1 or p16 INK4a methylation status was determined in CRC patients and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival. Our data showed that CIMP+ CRCs were identified in 32.9% of cases and that CACNAG1 is the most frequently methylated promoter. When we combined the CIMP with the MLH1 or the p16 INK4a methylation status, we found that CIMP-/MLH1-U (37.8%) and CIMP-/p16 INK4a -U (35.4%) tumors were the most frequent among the four subtypes. Statistical analysis showed that tumor location, lymphovascular invasion, TNM stage, and MSI differed among the group of patients. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed differences in overall survival according to the CIMP combined with MLH1 or p16 INK4a methylation status. In a multivariate analysis, CIMP/MLH1 and CIMP/p16 INK4a methylation statuses were predictive of prognosis, and the OS was longer for patients with tumors CIMP-/MLH1-M, as well as CIMP-/p16 INK4a -M. Furthermore, DNMT1 is significantly overexpressed in tumors than in normal tissues as well as in CIMP+ than CIMP- tumors. Our results suggest that tumor classification based on the CIMP status combined with MLH1 or p16 INK4a methylation is useful to predict prognosis in CRC patients.

  5. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SI-JU GAO

    The study subjects consisted of 75 healthy controls and 63 ToF ... Additionally, our analysis suggested that CpG island methylation in p16 promoters in ToF ..... reduced p16 protein expression in lung cancer (Kondo et al. 2006). In this context ..... promoter methylation in gastric carcinogenesis: a meta-analysis. Mol. Biol. Rep.

  6. MiR-181a-5p is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and suppresses motility, invasion and branching-morphogenesis by directly targeting c-Met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Peyda; Erdal, Esra; Atabey, Neşe

    2014-08-08

    c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase has been regarded as a promising therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown as a novel mechanism to control c-Met expression in cancer. In this study, we investigate the potential contribution of miR-181a-5p dysregulation to the biology of c-Met overexpression in HCC. Herein, we found an inverse expression pattern between miR-181a-5p and c-Met expression in normal, cirrhotic and HCC liver tissues. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-181a-5p binding to the 3'-UTR of c-Met downregulated the expression of c-Met in HCC cells. Overexpression of miR-181a-5p suppressed both HGF-independent and -dependent activation of c-Met and consequently diminished branching-morphogenesis and invasion. Combined treatment with miR-181a-5p and c-Met inhibitor led to a further inhibition of c-Met-driven cellular activities. Knockdown of miR-181a-5p promoted HGF-independent/-dependent signaling of c-Met and accelerated migration, invasion and branching-morphogenesis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time that c-Met is a functional target gene of miR-181a-5p and the loss of miR-181a-5p expression led to the activation of c-Met-mediated oncogenic signaling in hepatocarcinogenesis. These findings display a novel molecular mechanism of c-Met regulation in HCC and strategies to increase miR-181a5p level might be an alternative approach for the enhancement of the inhibitory effects of c-Met inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A highly penetrant form of childhood apraxia of speech due to deletion of 16p11.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Morgan, Angela; Murray, Elizabeth; Cardinaux, Annie; Mei, Cristina; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Fisher, Simon E; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with heterozygous 16p11.2 deletions reportedly suffer from a variety of difficulties with speech and language. Indeed, recent copy-number variant screens of children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), a specific and rare motor speech disorder, have identified three unrelated individuals with 16p11.2 deletions. However, the nature and prevalence of speech and language disorders in general, and CAS in particular, is unknown for individuals with 16p11.2 deletions. Here we took a genotype-first approach, conducting detailed and systematic characterization of speech abilities in a group of 11 unrelated children ascertained on the basis of 16p11.2 deletions. To obtain the most precise and replicable phenotyping, we included tasks that are highly diagnostic for CAS, and we tested children under the age of 18 years, an age group where CAS has been best characterized. Two individuals were largely nonverbal, preventing detailed speech analysis, whereas the remaining nine met the standard accepted diagnostic criteria for CAS. These results link 16p11.2 deletions to a highly penetrant form of CAS. Our findings underline the need for further precise characterization of speech and language profiles in larger groups of affected individuals, which will also enhance our understanding of how genetic pathways contribute to human communication disorders.

  8. Cooperative interaction of MUC1 with the HGF/c-Met pathway during hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, Giray; Korhan, Peyda; Cokaklı, Murat; Erdal, Esra; Sağol, Ozgül; Karademir, Sedat; Korch, Christopher; Atabey, Neşe

    2012-09-11

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced c-Met activation is known as the main stimulus for hepatocyte proliferation and is essential for liver development and regeneration. Activation of HGF/c-Met signaling has been correlated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin, whose over-expression is reported in most cancers. Many of the oncogenic effects of MUC1 are believed to occur through the interaction of MUC1 with signaling molecules. To clarify the role of MUC1 in HGF/c-Met signaling, we determined whether MUC1 and c-Met interact cooperatively and what their role(s) is in hepatocarcinogenesis. MUC1 and c-Met over-expression levels were determined in highly motile and invasive, mesenchymal-like HCC cell lines, and in serial sections of cirrhotic and HCC tissues, and these levels were compared to those in normal liver tissues. Co-expression of both c-Met and MUC1 was found to be associated with the differentiation status of HCC. We further demonstrated an interaction between c-Met and MUC1 in HCC cells. HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation decreased this interaction, and down-regulated MUC1 expression. Inhibition of c-Met activation restored HGF-mediated MUC1 down-regulation, and decreased the migratory and invasive abilities of HCC cells via inhibition of β-catenin activation and c-Myc expression. In contrast, siRNA silencing of MUC1 increased HGF-induced c-Met activation and HGF-induced cell motility and invasion. These findings indicate that the crosstalk between MUC1 and c-Met in HCC could provide an advantage for invasion to HCC cells through the β-catenin/c-Myc pathway. Thus, MUC1 and c-Met could serve as potential therapeutic targets in HCC.

  9. Cooperative interaction of MUC1 with the HGF/c-Met pathway during hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozkaya Giray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF induced c-Met activation is known as the main stimulus for hepatocyte proliferation and is essential for liver development and regeneration. Activation of HGF/c-Met signaling has been correlated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin, whose over-expression is reported in most cancers. Many of the oncogenic effects of MUC1 are believed to occur through the interaction of MUC1 with signaling molecules. To clarify the role of MUC1 in HGF/c-Met signaling, we determined whether MUC1 and c-Met interact cooperatively and what their role(s is in hepatocarcinogenesis. Results MUC1 and c-Met over-expression levels were determined in highly motile and invasive, mesenchymal-like HCC cell lines, and in serial sections of cirrhotic and HCC tissues, and these levels were compared to those in normal liver tissues. Co-expression of both c-Met and MUC1 was found to be associated with the differentiation status of HCC. We further demonstrated an interaction between c-Met and MUC1 in HCC cells. HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation decreased this interaction, and down-regulated MUC1 expression. Inhibition of c-Met activation restored HGF-mediated MUC1 down-regulation, and decreased the migratory and invasive abilities of HCC cells via inhibition of β-catenin activation and c-Myc expression. In contrast, siRNA silencing of MUC1 increased HGF-induced c-Met activation and HGF-induced cell motility and invasion. Conclusions These findings indicate that the crosstalk between MUC1 and c-Met in HCC could provide an advantage for invasion to HCC cells through the β-catenin/c-Myc pathway. Thus, MUC1 and c-Met could serve as potential therapeutic targets in HCC.

  10. Inactivation of p16INK4a, with retention of pRB and p53/p21cip1 function, in human MRC5 fibroblasts that overcome a telomere-independent crisis during immortalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa M; James, Alexander; Schuller, Christine E; Brce, Jesena; Lock, Richard B; Mackenzie, Karen L

    2004-10-15

    Recent investigations, including our own, have shown that specific strains of fibroblasts expressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) have an extended lifespan, but are not immortal. We previously demonstrated that hTERT-transduced MRC5 fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC5hTERTs) bypassed senescence but eventually succumbed to a second mortality barrier (crisis). In the present study, 67 MRC5hTERT clones were established by limiting dilution of a mass culture. Whereas 39/67 clones had an extended lifespan, all 39 extended lifespan clones underwent crisis. 11 of 39 clones escaped crisis and were immortalized. There was no apparent relationship between the fate of clones at crisis and the level of telomerase activity. Telomeres were hyperextended in the majority of the clones analyzed. There was no difference in telomere length of pre-crisis compared with post-crisis and immortal clones, indicating that hyperextended telomeres were conducive for immortalization and confirming that crisis was independent of telomere length. Immortalization of MRC5hTERT cells was associated with repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a and up-regulation of pRB. However, the regulation of pRB phosphorylation and the response of the p53/p21cip1/waf1 pathway were normal in immortal cells subject to genotoxic stress. Overexpression of oncogenic ras failed to de-repress p16INK4a in immortal cells. Furthermore, expression of ras enforced senescent-like growth arrest in p16INK4a-positive, but not p16INK4a-negative MRC5hTERT cells. Immortal cells expressing ras formed small, infrequent colonies in soft agarose, but were non-tumorigenic. Overall, these results implicate the inactivation of p16INK4a as a critical event for overcoming telomere-independent crisis, immortalizing MRC5 fibroblasts and overcoming ras-induced premature senescence.

  11. Multiple Pharmacological Properties of a Novel Parthenin Analog P16 as Evident by its Cytostatic and Antiangiogenic Potential Against Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma PANC -1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Akshra; Shah, Bhahwal Ali; Batra, Navneet; Kumar, Ajay; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Malik, Fayaz Ahmad; Joshi, Amit; Singh, Jagtar

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains one of the deadliest types of cancers. Median survival rate is very poor with the currently available chemotherapeutical regimens. Therefore, discovery of new antineoplastic agents against PDA is one of the focused areas of contemporary research. The present study was undertaken to explore the antitumour activity of a potent parthenin analog P16. Among PANC-1, Mia PaCa-2 and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells, PANC-1 showed highest sensitivity to P16 with an IC50 value of 3.4 μM. Time dependent cell cycle studies revealed that P16 suppressed the growth of PANC-1 cells by arresting the progression through the cell cycle in G2/M phase via downregulation of cyclin B1 and cyclin A. However, P16 did not alter the expressions of CDK-1 and CDC25C in PANC-1 cells. The P16 induced cell cycle arrest, which consequently, led to induction of apoptosis, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-9 and -3. Interestingly, PANC-1 cells displayed increasing loss of mitochondrial potential, which seemed to be correlated to the activation of caspase-3. Additionally, P16 was also able to down-regulate the cell migration in PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, P16 treatment of hypoxic PANC-1 cells strongly suppressed the expression of proangiogenic factors VEGFR-2, HIF1α and HIF1β. Antiangiogenic ability of P16 was also reflected in the human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), where it effectively suppressed the migration and inhibited the formation of the tube in a matrigel based assay. Therefore, cytostatic and antiangiogenic properties of P16 against pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells make it a suitable candidate for further investigation.

  12. Therapy of Patients with Malignant Glioma with Targeted A-Radionuclide Therapy Using 213Bi-DOTA-[Thi8, Met (Oo)11]-Substanz P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrer, F.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Cordier, D.; Merlo, A.; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Maecke, H.R.

    2009-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with malignant glioma is very poor. New therapy options are mandatory. Substance P is the main ligand of neurokinin type 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are consistently over-expressed in malignant gliomas and surrounding tumor vessels. Administration of 90 Y-DOTA-[Thi 8 , Met (O o ) 11 ]-Substanz P was shown to be feasible and safe. However, in critically located tumors, the mean tissue range of 5 mm of 90 Y may lead to unacceptable damage of adjacent, functional critical areas of the brain. We report a phase I study with locally administered 213 Bi labeled DOTA-[Thi 8 , Met (O o ) 11 ]-Substanz P in patients with malignant glioma. By using a direct, intratumoral injection, the problem of the short physical half life of Bismuth-213 can be circumvent. To date, 5 patients with malignant glioma (2 Grade IV, 1 Grade III and 2 grade II) without previous treatment were included. One to three catheter systems were placed stereotactically into the tumor. After a diagnostic injection with 111 In-DOTA-[Thi 8 , Met (O o ) 11 ]-Substanz P and subsequent dosimetry, totally 30 to 138 mCi of 213 Bi-DOTA-[Thi8, Met (O o ) 11 ]-Substanz P was injected intratumorally performing 3 to 4 applications over 2 days. SPECT/CT was used to assess the biodistribution. Follow up was performed clinically and with morphological imaging. Targeted radiopeptide therapy using 213 Bi-DOTA-[Thi 8 , Met (O o ) 11 ]-Substanz P was very well tolerated by all patients. No additional neurological deficit was observed. Repetitive imaging is suggestive of progressive radiation-induced necrosis, which was validated by subsequent resection of the tumors. Time to progression was found to be 11 and 14 months respectively in patients with grade IV glioma. No progression is found after 18 to 23 months in patients with grade II or III glioma. We conclude that targeted loco-regional radiotherapy using 213 Bi-DOTA-[Thi 8 , Met (O o ) 11 ]-Substanz P represents an innovative and effective

  13. PD-L1 expression is associated with p16INK4A expression in non-oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Chi; Chang, Peter Mu-Hsin; Wang, Hsiao-Jung; Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Yang, Muh-Hwa

    2018-01-01

    PD-L1 expression is critical in helping tumor cells evade the immune system. However, the level of PD-L1 expression in non-oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (non-OPHNSCC) and its association with patient prognosis remains unclear. A retrospective clinicopathological analysis was performed on 106 patients with non-OPHNSCC diagnosed between 2007 and 2014. In the current study, tissue arrays from paraffin-embedded non-OPHNSCC samples obtained from patients were constructed, and PD-L1 and p16INK4A expression were determined using immunohistochemistry. Systemic inflammatory factors, including C-reactive protein, serum white blood cell, neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts were also analyzed. The current study demonstrated that PD-L1 was overexpressed in 32.1% (34/106) and p16INK4A in 20.8% (22/106) of patients. The expression of PD-L1 was associated with p16INK4A expression (P<0.01) but was not associated with levels of systemic inflammatory factors. Tumor stage was determined to be a significant prognostic value (stage I/II vs. III/IV, P=0.03), however, PD-L1, p16INK4A or other clinicopathological factors were not. The current study identified an association between PD-L1 and p16INK4A expression in non-OPHNSCC. This may facilitate the development of anti-PD1/PDL1 therapies to treat patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:29434933

  14. Prognostic Significance of p16 Expression in Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Julie K., E-mail: jschwarz@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lewis, James S. [Division of Anatomic and Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Pfeifer, John [Division of Anatomic and Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Huettner, Phyllis [Division of Anatomic and Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 126 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stages Ib1-IVb cervical cancer treated with radiation. Concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy was given to 108 patients. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed from the paraffin-embedded diagnostic biopsy specimens. Immunoperoxidase staining was performed on the TMA and a p16 monoclonal antibody was utilized. IHC p16 extent was evaluated and scored in quartiles: 0 = no staining, 1 = 1-25% of cells staining, 2 = 26 to 50%, 3 = 51 to 75%, and 4 = 76 to 100%. Results: The p16 IHC score was 4 in 115 cases, 3 in 1, 2 in 3 and 0 in 7. There was no relationship between p16 score and tumor histology. Patients with p16-negative tumors were older (mean age at diagnosis 65 vs. 52 years for p16-positive tumors; p = 0.01). The 5-year cause-specific survivals were 33% for p16-negative cases (score = 0) compared with 63% for p16-positive cases (scores 1, 2, 3 or 4; p = 0.07). The 5-year recurrence-free survivals were 34% for those who were p16-negative vs. 57% for those who were p16-positive (p = 0.09). In addition, patients with p16-positive tumors (score > 0) were more likely to be complete metabolic responders as assessed by the 3-month posttherapy 18 [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomograph compared with patients with p16-negative tumors (p = 0.03). Conclusion: p16 expression is predictive of improved survival outcome after chemoradiation therapy for advanced-stage invasive cervical carcinoma. Further testing will be needed to evaluate p16-negative cervical tumors.

  15. Differential expression of c-Met between primary and metastatic sites in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma and its association with PD-L1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Aly-Khan A; Gray, Kathryn P; Albiges, Laurence; Callea, Marcella; Pignon, Jean-Christophe; Pal, Soumitro; Gupta, Mamta; Bhatt, Rupal S; McDermott, David F; Atkins, Michael B; Woude, G F Vande; Harshman, Lauren C; Choueiri, Toni K; Signoretti, Sabina

    2017-11-28

    In preclinical models, c-Met promotes survival of renal cancer cells through the regulation of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). However, this relationship in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is not well characterized. We evaluated c-Met expression in ccRCC patients using paired primary and metastatic samples and assessed the association with PD-L1 expression and other clinical features. Areas with predominant and highest Fuhrman nuclear grade (FNG) were selected. c-Met expression was evaluated by IHC using an anti-Met monoclonal antibody (MET4 Ab) and calculated by a combined score (CS, 0-300): intensity of c-Met staining (0-3) x % of positive cells (0-100). PD-L1 expression in tumor cells was previously assessed by IHC and PD-L1+ was defined as PD-L1 > 0% positive cells. Our cohort consisted of 45 pairs of primary and metastatic ccRCC samples. Overall, c-Met expression was higher in metastatic sites compared to primary sites (average c-Met CS: 55 vs. 28, p = 0.0003). Higher c-Met expression was associated with higher FNG (4 vs. 3) in primary tumors (average c-Met CS: 52 vs. 20, p = 0.04). c-Met expression was numerically greater in PD-L1+ vs. PD-L1- tumors. Higher c-Met expression in metastatic sites compared to primary tumors suggests that testing for biomarkers of response to c-Met inhibitors should be conducted in metastases. While higher c-Met expression in PD-L1+ tumors requires further investigation, it supports exploring these targets in combination clinical trials.

  16. Effects of polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI on the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, Camilla F; Sæbø, Mona; Nexø, Bjørn A; Wallin, Håkan; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Vogel, Ulla; Kure, Elin H

    2006-01-01

    The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer is mainly associated with lifestyle factors and may be modulated by several genetic factors of low penetrance. Genetic variants represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding key players in the adenoma carcinoma sequence may contribute to variation in susceptibility to colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the recently identified haplotype encompassing genes of DNA repair and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. We used a case-control study design (156 carcinomas, 981 adenomas and 399 controls) to test the association between polymorphisms in the chromosomal region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI, and risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas in a Norwegian cohort. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression model adjusting for age and gender. The ASE-1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of adenomas, OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.06–1.81), which upon stratification was apparent among women only, OR of 1.66 (95% CI 1.15–2.39). The RAI polymorphism showed a trend towards risk reduction for both adenomas (OR of 0.70, 95% CI 0.49–1.01) and carcinomas (OR of 0.49, 95% CI 0.21–1.13) among women, although not significant. Women who were homozygous carriers of the high risk haplotype had an increased risk of colorectal cancer, OR of 2.19 (95% CI 0.95–5.04) compared to all non-carriers although the estimate was not statistically significant. We found no evidence that the studied polymorphisms were associated with risk of adenomas or colorectal cancer among men, but we found weak indications that the chromosomal region may influence risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma development in women

  17. The N-Linked Outer Chain Mannans and the Dfg5p and Dcw1p Endo-α-1,6-Mannanases Are Needed for Incorporation of Candida albicans Glycoproteins into the Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Jie; Chinnici, Jennifer L.; Maddi, Abhiram

    2015-01-01

    A biochemical pathway for the incorporation of cell wall protein into the cell wall of Neurospora crassa was recently proposed. In this pathway, the DFG-5 and DCW-1 endo-α-1,6-mannanases function to covalently cross-link cell wall protein-associated N-linked galactomannans, which are structurally related to the yeast outer chain mannans, into the cell wall glucan-chitin matrix. In this report, we demonstrate that the mannosyltransferase enzyme Och1p, which is needed for the synthesis of the N-linked outer chain mannan, is essential for the incorporation of cell wall glycoproteins into the Candida albicans cell wall. Using endoglycosidases, we show that C. albicans cell wall proteins are cross-linked into the cell wall via their N-linked outer chain mannans. We further demonstrate that the Dfg5p and Dcw1p α-1,6-mannanases are needed for the incorporation of cell wall glycoproteins into the C. albicans cell wall. Our results support the hypothesis that the Dfg5p and Dcw1p α-1,6-mannanases incorporate cell wall glycoproteins into the C. albicans cell wall by cross-linking outer chain mannans into the cell wall glucan-chitin matrix. PMID:26048011

  18. Induction of epigenetic variation in Arabidopsis by over-expression of DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Brocklehurst

    Full Text Available Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation and histone modification can vary among plant accessions creating epi-alleles with different levels of expression competence. Mutations in epigenetic pathway functions are powerful tools to induce epigenetic variation. As an alternative approach, we investigated the potential of over-expressing an epigenetic function, using DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1 for proof-of-concept. In Arabidopsis thaliana, MET1 controls maintenance of cytosine methylation at symmetrical CG positions. At some loci, which contain dense DNA methylation in CG- and non-CG context, loss of MET1 causes joint loss of all cytosines methylation marks. We find that over-expression of both catalytically active and inactive versions of MET1 stochastically generates new epi-alleles at loci encoding transposable elements, non-coding RNAs and proteins, which results for most loci in an increase in expression. Individual transformants share some common phenotypes and genes with altered gene expression. Altered expression states can be transmitted to the next generation, which does not require the continuous presence of the MET1 transgene. Long-term stability and epigenetic features differ for individual loci. Our data show that over-expression of MET1, and potentially of other genes encoding epigenetic factors, offers an alternative strategy to identify epigenetic target genes and to create novel epi-alleles.

  19. p16(INK4a suppression by glucose restriction contributes to human cellular lifespan extension through SIRT1-mediated epigenetic and genetic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although caloric restriction (CR has been shown to increase lifespan in various animal models, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been revealed. We developed an in vitro system to mimic CR by reducing glucose concentration in cell growth medium which excludes metabolic factors and allows assessment of the effects of CR at the cellular and molecular level. We monitored cellular proliferation of normal WI-38, IMR-90 and MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts and found that glucose restriction (GR can inhibit cellular senescence and significantly extend cellular lifespan compared with cells receiving normal glucose (NG in the culture medium. Moreover, GR decreased expression of p16(INK4a (p16, a well-known senescence-related gene, in all of the tested cell lines. Over-expressed p16 resulted in early replicative senescence in glucose-restricted cells suggesting a crucial role of p16 regulation in GR-induced cellular lifespan extension. The decreased expression of p16 was partly due to GR-induced chromatin remodeling through effects on histone acetylation and methylation of the p16 promoter. GR resulted in an increased expression of SIRT1, a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, which has positive correlation with CR-induced longevity. The elevated SIRT1 was accompanied by enhanced activation of the Akt/p70S6K1 signaling pathway in response to GR. Furthermore, knockdown of SIRT1 abolished GR-induced p16 repression as well as Akt/p70S6K1 activation implying that SIRT1 may affect p16 repression through direct deacetylation effects and indirect regulation of Akt/p70S6K1 signaling. Collectively, these results provide new insights into interactions between epigenetic and genetic mechanisms on CR-induced longevity that may contribute to anti-aging approaches and also provide a general molecular model for studying CR in vitro in mammalian systems.

  20. High CpG island methylation ofp16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    employed to detect CpG island methylation in p16 promoter region and ... of Fallot;p16 gene;p16 protein;CpG islands;Methylation;Promoter regions ..... Our findings that p16 has a role in heart development is ... Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 15, 75-84. .... phenotype in colorectal cancer using a large population-based sample.

  1. Contribution to the study of markers in lungs carcinogenesis and analysis of factors predicting the benefit of chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaussen, K.A.

    2006-06-01

    A better definition of early bio markers in lung carcinogenesis should enhance the development of molecular means to perform screening, diagnostic, and chemo-prevention of patients at high risk of lung cancer. We studied epigenetic deregulation of multiple promoters (p16(INK4a), HOX A9, MAGE A 1 et MAGE B2) in sputum samples from smokers at high risk and from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (N.S.C.L.C.). This molecular test, based on easily accessible sample,s can be modulated according to the aims of the investigator (e.g. screening or confirmation of diagnosis). Secondly, we have studied two candidate proteins as predictive markers of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resected lung cancer. The multivariate analysis shows that tumor expression of the catalytic sub-unit of telomerase is not able to predict survival in patients included in the lAL T study' of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, tumor expression of the DNA repair protein ERCC1 identifies a sub-group of patients (ERCC1 negative) whose chances of survival are increased by 35% by means of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Further, tumor ERCC1 expression has a positive prognostic value in the non-treated control group. The need for a deeper understanding in cancerology of the physiological role of the ERCC1 endonuclease is discussed in this thesis. (author)

  2. Aberrant Expression of ID2 protein and its correlation with EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Po; Lu, Yali; Liu, Lin; Zhong, Mei

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the expression of ID2, EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) in Chinese classical Hodgkin lymphoma are unknown and need exploring. Samples of classical Hodgkin lymphoma from 60 Chinese patients were analyzed for the expression of ID2, EBV-LMP1 and p16(INK4A) proteins by immunohistochemistry. ID2 protein was expressed in 83.3% of this group of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, staining strongly in both cytoplasm and nucleus of the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) were overexpressed in 85.0% and 71.7% of Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively. EBV-LMP1 was noted in the cytoplasm, membrane and nucleus of HRS cells; P16(INK4A) was in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Microscopically, ID2, EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) staining distinguished the HRS cells from the complex background of lymphocytes. ID2 was positively correlated with EBV-LMP1(P < 0.01), but P16(INK4A) was inversely related to EBV-LMP1 (P < 0.05). It is suggested that ID2, EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) could play an important role in the evolution of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and be considered as potential adjunct markers to identify HRS cells in diagnosis

  3. Different impact of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 on survival in male and female patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer treated with carboplatin and gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Mellemgaard, Anders; Skov, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) status was assessed in patients receiving carboplatin and gemcitabine for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the association between the ERCC1 status and the overall survival after the chemotherapy. PATIENTS...... AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 163 patients with inoperable NSCLC and sufficient tumor tissue for ERCC1 analysis, who had received carboplatin and gemcitabine as first-line treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of ERCC1. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-three patients were...

  4. p16(INK4A) inhibits the pro-metastatic potentials of osteosarcoma cells through targeting the ERK pathway and TGF-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a downstream component of the evolutionarily conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway, which controls the expression of a plethora of genes implicated in various physiological processes. This pathway is often hyper-activated by mutations or abnormal extracellular signaling in different types of human cancer, including the most common primary malignant bone tumor osteosarcomas. p16(INK4A) is an important tumor suppressor gene frequently lost in osteosarcomas, and is associated with the progression of these malignancies. We have shown, here, that the ERK1/2 protein kinase is also activated by p16(INK4A) down-regulation in osteosarcoma cells and normal human as well as mouse cells. This inhibitory effect is associated with the suppression of the upstream kinase MEK1/2, and is mediated via the repression of miR-21-5p and the consequent up-regulation of the MEK/ERK antagonist SPRY2 in osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, we have shown that p16(INK4) inhibits the migration/invasion abilities of these cells through miR-21-5p-dependent inhibition of ERK1/2. In addition, we present clear evidence that p16(INK4) represses the paracrine pro-migratory effect of osteosarcoma cells on stromal fibroblasts through the inhibition of the TGF-β1 expression/secretion. This effect is also ERK1/2-dependent, indicating that in addition to their cell-autonomous actions, p16(INK4) and ERK1/2 have also non-cell-autonomous cancer-related functions. Together, these results indicate that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4) protein represses the carcinogenic process of osteosarcoma cells not only as a cell cycle regulator, but also as a negative regulator of pro-carcinogenic/-metastatic pathways. This indicates that targeting the ERK pathway is of utmost therapeutic value. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and double strand break genes as markers for response to radiotherapy in patients with Stage I to II head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carles, Joan; Monzo, Mariano; Amat, Marta; Jansa, Sonia; Artells, Rosa; Navarro, Alfons; Foro, Palmira; Alameda, Francesc; Gayete, Angel; Gel, Bernat; Miguel, Maribel; Albanell, Joan; Fabregat, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes can influence response to radiotherapy. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in nine DNA repair genes in 108 patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNSCC) who had received radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: From May 1993 to December 2004, patients with Stage I and II histopathologically confirmed HNSCC underwent radiotherapy. DNA was obtained from paraffin-embedded tissue, and SNP analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination TaqMan assay with minor modifications. Results: Patients were 101 men (93.5%) and 7 (6.5%) women, with a median age of 64 years (range, 40 to 89 years). Of the patients, 76 (70.4%) patients were Stage I and 32 (29.6%) were Stage II. The XPF/ERCC1 SNP at codon 259 and XPG/ERCC5 at codon 46 emerged as significant predictors of progression (p 0.00005 and 0.049, respectively) and survival (p = 0.0089 and 0.0066, respectively). Similarly, when variant alleles of XPF/ERCC1, XPG/ERCC5 and XPA were examined in combination, a greater number of variant alleles was associated with shorter time to progression (p = 0.0003) and survival (p 0.0002). Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms in XPF/ERCC1, XPG/ERCC5, and XPA may significantly influence response to radiotherapy; large studies are warranted to confirm their role in HNSCC

  6. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Shuch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P=0.1. MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R=0.5 and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P=0.39. Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents.

  7. Samen in Zee met Zelfregulatie: Een Design-Based Aanpak met Vmbo Leraren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jossberger, Helen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els; Van de Wiel, Margje

    2010-01-01

    Jossberger, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Van der Wiel, M. (2010, June). Samen in Zee met Zelfregulatie: Een Design-Based Aanpak met Vmbo Leraren. Poster presented at the 37th Onderwijs Research Dagen (ORD), Enschede, Nederland.

  8. Inactivation of the P16INK4/MTS1 gene by a chromosome translocation t(9;14)(p21-22;q11) in an acute lymphoblastic leukemia of B-cell type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, D; Bernard, O; Della Valle, V; Leblanc, T; Berger, R; Larsen, C J

    1996-02-15

    We have reported previously a preliminary study of a t(9;14)(p21-22; q11) in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This translocation had rearranged the TCRA/D locus on chromosome band 14q11 and the locus encoding the tumor suppressor gene P16INK4/MTS1 (P16) on band 9p21 (D. Duro et al., Oncogene, 11: 21-29, 1995). In the present report, the breakpoints were precisely localized on each chromosome partner. On the 14q- derivative, the sequence derived from chromosome 9 was interrupted at 1.0 kb upstream of the first exon of P16, close to a consensus recombination heptamer, CACTGTG. In addition, the chromosome 14 breakpoint was localized at the end of the TCRD2 (delta 2) segment, and 22 residues with unknown origin were present at the translocation junction. On the 9p+ derivative, chromosome 9 sequences were in continuity with those displaced onto chromosome 14, and the 14q11 breakpoint was located within TCRJA29 segment. These features are consistent with aberrant activity of the TCR gene recombinase complex. Although all three coding exons of P16 were displaced onto the chromosome 14q-derivative, no P16 transcript was detected in the leukemic cells. Because the region spanning the P16 exon 1 was not inactivated by methylation and because the other P16 allele was deleted, the implication is that the chromosome breakpoint was likely to disrupt regulatory elements involved in the normal expression of the gene. As a whole, then, our results show that translocations affecting band 9p21 can participate to the inactivation of P16, thus justifying a systematic survey of translocations of the 9p21 band in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  9. MTHFR Glu429Ala and ERCC5 His46His polymorphisms are associated with prognosis in colorectal cancer patients: analysis of two independent cohorts from Newfoundland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit A Negandhi

    Full Text Available In this study, 27 genetic polymorphisms that were previously reported to be associated with clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients were investigated in relation to overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS in colorectal cancer patients from Newfoundland.The discovery and validation cohorts comprised of 532 and 252 patients, respectively. Genotypes of 27 polymorphisms were first obtained in the discovery cohort and survival analyses were performed assuming the co-dominant genetic model. Polymorphisms associated with disease outcomes in the discovery cohort were then investigated in the validation cohort.When adjusted for sex, age, tumor stage and microsatellite instability (MSI status, four polymorphisms were independent predictors of OS in the discovery cohort MTHFR Glu429Ala (HR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.04-2.84, p = 0.036, ERCC5 His46His (HR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.15-2.76, p = 0.01, SERPINE1 -675indelG (HR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.32-0.84, p = 0.008, and the homozygous deletion of GSTM1 gene (HR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.03-1.92, p = 0.033. In the validation cohort, the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism was associated with shorter OS (HR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.18-2.49, p = 0.005, although with a different genotype than the discovery cohort (CC genotype in the discovery cohort and AC genotype in the validation cohort. When stratified based on treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU-based regimens, this polymorphism was associated with reduced OS only in patients not treated with 5-FU. In the DFS analysis, when adjusted for other variables, the TT genotype of the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism was associated with shorter DFS in both cohorts (discovery cohort: HR: 1.54, 95%CI: 1.04-2.29, p = 0.032 and replication cohort: HR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.11-2.94, p = 0.018.In this study, associations of the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism with OS and the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism with DFS were identified in two colorectal cancer patient cohorts. Our results also suggest

  10. Reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and caveolin 1 promotes invasive phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Peyda; Erdal, Esra; Kandemiş, Emine; Cokaklı, Murat; Nart, Deniz; Yılmaz, Funda; Can, Alp; Atabey, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    c-Met, the receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), overexpressed and deregulated in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Caveolin 1 (CAV1), a plasma membrane protein that modulates signal transduction molecules, is also overexpressed in HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate biological and clinical significance of co-expression and activation of c-Met and CAV1 in HCC. We showed that c-Met and CAV1 were co-localized in HCC cells and HGF treatment increased this association. HGF-triggered c-Met activation caused a concurrent rise in both phosphorylation and expression of CAV1. Ectopic expression of CAV1 accelerated c-Met signaling, resulted in enhanced migration, invasion, and branching-morphogenesis. Silencing of CAV1 downregulated c-Met signaling, and decreased migratory/invasive capability of cells and attenuated branching morphogenesis. In addition, activation and co-localization of c-Met and CAV1 were elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis. In conclusion reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and CAV1 promoted oncogenic signaling of c-Met contributed to the initiation and progression of HCC.

  11. Reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and caveolin 1 promotes invasive phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyda Korhan

    Full Text Available c-Met, the receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, overexpressed and deregulated in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC. Caveolin 1 (CAV1, a plasma membrane protein that modulates signal transduction molecules, is also overexpressed in HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate biological and clinical significance of co-expression and activation of c-Met and CAV1 in HCC. We showed that c-Met and CAV1 were co-localized in HCC cells and HGF treatment increased this association. HGF-triggered c-Met activation caused a concurrent rise in both phosphorylation and expression of CAV1. Ectopic expression of CAV1 accelerated c-Met signaling, resulted in enhanced migration, invasion, and branching-morphogenesis. Silencing of CAV1 downregulated c-Met signaling, and decreased migratory/invasive capability of cells and attenuated branching morphogenesis. In addition, activation and co-localization of c-Met and CAV1 were elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis. In conclusion reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and CAV1 promoted oncogenic signaling of c-Met contributed to the initiation and progression of HCC.

  12. Effects of polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI on the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Håkan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer is mainly associated with lifestyle factors and may be modulated by several genetic factors of low penetrance. Genetic variants represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding key players in the adenoma carcinoma sequence may contribute to variation in susceptibility to colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the recently identified haplotype encompassing genes of DNA repair and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Methods We used a case-control study design (156 carcinomas, 981 adenomas and 399 controls to test the association between polymorphisms in the chromosomal region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI, and risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas in a Norwegian cohort. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were estimated by binary logistic regression model adjusting for age and gender. Results The ASE-1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of adenomas, OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.06–1.81, which upon stratification was apparent among women only, OR of 1.66 (95% CI 1.15–2.39. The RAI polymorphism showed a trend towards risk reduction for both adenomas (OR of 0.70, 95% CI 0.49–1.01 and carcinomas (OR of 0.49, 95% CI 0.21–1.13 among women, although not significant. Women who were homozygous carriers of the high risk haplotype had an increased risk of colorectal cancer, OR of 2.19 (95% CI 0.95–5.04 compared to all non-carriers although the estimate was not statistically significant. Conclusion We found no evidence that the studied polymorphisms were associated with risk of adenomas or colorectal cancer among men, but we found weak indications that the chromosomal region may influence risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma development in women.

  13. Evaluation of P16 expression in canine appendicular osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B G; Mok, M Y; York, D; Rebhun, R; Woolard, K D; Hillman, C; Dickinson, P; Skorupski, K

    2017-06-20

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is a common malignant bone tumor of large breed dogs that occurs at predictable anatomic sites. At the time of initial diagnosis, most affected dogs have occult pulmonary metastases. Even with aggressive surgical treatment combined with chemotherapy, the majority of dogs diagnosed with OSA live less than 1 year from the time of diagnosis. The ability to identify canine OSA cases most responsive to treatment is needed. In humans, OSA is also an aggressive tumor that is histologically and molecularly similar to canine OSA. The expression of the tumor suppressor gene product P16 by human OSA tissue has been linked to a favorable response to chemotherapy. We identified an antibody that binds canine P16 and developed a canine OSA tissue microarray in order to test the hypothesis that P16 expression by canine OSA tissue is predictive of clinical outcome following amputation and chemotherapy. Although statistical significance was not reached, a trend was identified between the lack of canine OSA P16 expression and a shorter disease free interval. The identification of a molecular marker for canine OSA is an important goal and the results reported here justify a larger study.

  14. Refinement of 1p36 alterations not involving PRDM16 in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P Duhoux

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to characterize 81 cases of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies with cytogenetic 1p36 alterations not affecting the PRDM16 locus. In total, three subgroups were identified: balanced translocations (N = 27 and telomeric rearrangements (N = 15, both mainly observed in myeloid disorders; and unbalanced non-telomeric rearrangements (N = 39, mainly observed in lymphoid proliferations and frequently associated with a highly complex karyotype. The 1p36 rearrangement was isolated in 12 cases, mainly myeloid disorders. The breakpoints on 1p36 were more widely distributed than previously reported, but with identifiable rare breakpoint cluster regions, such as the TP73 locus. We also found novel partner loci on 1p36 for the known multi-partner genes HMGA2 and RUNX1. We precised the common terminal 1p36 deletion, which has been suggested to have an adverse prognosis, in B-cell lymphomas [follicular lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with t(14;18(q32;q21 as well as follicular lymphomas without t(14;18]. Intrachromosomal telomeric repetitive sequences were detected in at least half the cases of telomeric rearrangements. It is unclear how the latter rearrangements occurred and whether they represent oncogenic events or result from chromosomal instability during oncogenesis.

  15. Academic training lectures | The outlook for energy supply and demand | 14 - 16 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on the 14, 15 and 16 September. The lectures will be given by by Chris Llewellyn Smith (Director of Energy Research, University of Oxford, President of SESAME Council). The Outlook for Energy Supply and Demand (1/3) on Monday, 14 September from 11.00 a.m. to 12.00 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/388334/ Can Future Energy Needs be Met Sustainably? (2/3) on Tuesday, 15 September from 4.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m.  (CERN Colloquium) https://indico.cern.ch/event/388335/ The Outlook for Energy Supply and Demand (3/3) on Wednesday, 16 September from 11.00 a.m to 12.00 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/388336/ at CERN, Main Auditorium, in Building 500-1-001. Description: These lectures will review the challenges facing energy policy, the outlook for different sources of primary energy (fossil and renewable), how energy is used, and prospects for improved energy efficiency. A colloquium ‘Can Future Energy Needs be Met ...

  16. Protective Role of Maternal P.VAL158MET Catechol-O-methyltransferase Polymorphism against Early-Onset Preeclampsia and its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjeta Tijana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up until now there have been contradictory data about the association between p.Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT polymorphism and risk of preeclampsia (PE. The goal of this study was to assess the potential correlation between p.Val158Met COMT polymorphism and risk of early-onset PE, risk of a severe form of early-onset PE, as well as risk of small-for-gestationalage (SGA complicating PE.

  17. Comparative analysis of Homo sapiens and Mus musculus cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor genes p16 (MTS1) and p15 (MTS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P; Stone, S; Wagner, R; Wang, S; Dayananth, P; Kozak, C A; Wold, B; Kamb, A

    1995-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are a growing family of molecules that regulate important transitions in the cell cycle. At least one of these molecules, p16, has been implicated in human tumorigenesis while its close homolog, p15, is induced by cell contact and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). To investigate the evolutionary and functional features of p15 and p16, we have isolated mouse (Mus musculus) homologs of each gene. Comparative analysis of these sequences provides evidence that the genes have similar functions in mouse and human. In addition, the comparison suggests that a gene conversion event is part of the evolution of the human p15 and p16 genes.

  18. Initiation of proteolysis of yeast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by pH-control of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.; Purwin, C.; Pohlig, G.; Scheffers, W.A.; Nicolay, K.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of fermentable sugars or uncouplers such as CCCP to resting yeast cells grown on glucose initiates phosphorylation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). There is good evidence that phosphorylation marks FBPase for proteolytic degradation. 31 P-NMR measurements of the cytosolic pH of yeast cells demonstrated a decrease of the cytosolic pH from 7.0 to 6.5 after addition of glucose or CCCP to starved yeast. Activity of adenylate cyclase in permeabilized yeast cells increases 2-3-fold when the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 6.5. It is concluded that pH controlled activation of adenylate cyclase causes the previously described increase in cyclic AMP which leads to phosphorylation of FBPase and finally to proteolysis of FBPase

  19. Ethanol extract of Lycoris radiata induces cell death in B16F10 melanoma via p38-mediated AP-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Minsik; Kim, Aeyung; Lee, Jaewoo; Park, Chul-Hong; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Han

    2010-08-01

    Some active alkaloids isolated from Lycoris, a bulbous perennial herb, was shown to possess various anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro apoptotic effect of ethanol extract from Lycoris radiata (LRE) and further probed the underlying molecular mechanisms of LRE effects. The survival rate of B16F10 melanoma cells exposed to LRE was decreased in a dose-dependent manner, cell growth was retarded by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase and apoptotic appearance such as caspase-3 activation as well as DNA fragmentation was observed by LRE treatment. In addition, LRE induced p38 and c-Jun phosphorylation, followed by activation of transcription factor AP-1. Pretreatment with the p38 inhibitor (SB203580) blocked LRE-induced AP-1 transcriptional activity, and curcumin, AP-1 inhibitor, dramatically inhibited LRE-induced apoptosis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Our results collectively indicate that LRE-mediated apoptosis occurs through the activation of p38 and AP-1 pathway and potentially LRE exhibits anti-cancer activity against B16F10 melanoma cells.

  20. Common variants on 2p16.1, 6p22.1 and 10q24.32 are associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H; Yan, H; Li, J; Li, Z; Zhang, X; Ma, Y; Mei, L; Liu, C; Cai, L; Wang, Q; Zhang, F; Iwata, N; Ikeda, M; Wang, L; Lu, T; Li, M; Xu, H; Wu, X; Liu, B; Yang, J; Li, K; Lv, L; Ma, X; Wang, C; Li, L; Yang, F; Jiang, T; Shi, Y; Li, T; Zhang, D; Yue, W

    2017-07-01

    Many schizophrenia susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations. However, until recently, schizophrenia GWASs in non-European populations were limited to small sample sizes and have yielded few loci associated with schizophrenia. To identify genetic risk variations for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population, we performed a two-stage GWAS of schizophrenia comprising 4384 cases and 5770 controls, followed by independent replications of 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an additional 4339 schizophrenia cases and 7043 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. Furthermore, we conducted additional analyses based on the results in the discovery stage. The combined analysis confirmed evidence of genome-wide significant associations in the Han Chinese population for three loci, at 2p16.1 (rs1051061, in an exon of VRK2, P=1.14 × 10 -12 , odds ratio (OR)=1.17), 6p22.1 (rs115070292 in an intron of GABBR1, P=4.96 × 10 -10 , OR=0.77) and 10q24.32 (rs10883795 in an intron of AS3MT, P=7.94 × 10 -10 , OR=0.87; rs10883765 at an intron of ARL3, P=3.06 × 10 -9 , OR=0.87). The polygenic risk score based on Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia GWAS data modestly predicted case-control status in the Chinese population (Nagelkerke R 2 : 1.7% ~5.7%). Our pathway analysis suggested that neurological biological pathways such as GABAergic signaling, dopaminergic signaling, cell adhesion molecules and myelination pathways are involved in schizophrenia. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Further studies are needed to establish the biological context and potential clinical utility of these findings.

  1. Wolf-Hirschhorn (4p-) syndrome: prenatal diagnosis, molecular cytogenetic characterization and association with a 1.2-Mb microduplication at 8p22-p21.3 and a 1.1-Mb microduplication at 10p15.3 in a fetus with an apparently pure 4p deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Su, Yi-Ning; Chen, Yi-Yung; Su, Jun-Wei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Wen-Lin; Chen, Li-Feng; Wang, Wayseen

    2011-12-01

    To present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) associated with microduplications at 8p and 10p in a fetus with an apparently pure 4p deletion. A 35-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Her husband was 38 years of age. There was no family history of congenital malformations. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,del(4p16.1). The parental karyotypes were normal. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed a 6.5-Mb deletion at 4p16.3-p16.1, a 1.2-Mb microduplication at 8p22-p21.3, and a 1.1-Mb microduplication at 10p15.3, or arr cgh 4p16.3p16.1 (0-6,531,998 bp)×1, 8p22p21.3 (18,705,388-19,940,445 bp)×3, 10p15.3 (0-1,105,065 bp)×3. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed a paternal origin of 4p deletion. Prenatal ultrasound revealed facial dysmorphism and hypospadias. The aCGH analysis of the parents revealed no genomic imbalance. Fluorescence in situ hybridization study showed an unbalanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 4 and 10 at bands 4p16.1 and 10p15.3. The cytogenetic result, thus, was 46,XY,der(4)t(4;10)(p16.1;p15.3),dup(8)(p21.3p22). The parents elected to terminate the pregnancy, and a 470-g malformed fetus was delivered. The present case provides evidence that an apparently pure 4p deletion can be associated with subtle chromosome imbalances in other chromosomes. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The role of human papillomavirus in p16-positive oral cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrov, Simone; Cornall, Alyssa M; Young, Richard J; Koo, Kendrick; Angel, Christopher; Wiesenfeld, David; Rischin, Danny; Garland, Suzanne M; McCullough, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence and frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid in p16-positive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), to assess whether the virus was transcriptionally active and to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC. Forty-six OSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2011 with available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens were included. Twenty-three patients were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and these were matched with 23 patients with p16-negative tumours. Laser capture microdissection of the FFPE OSCC tissues was undertaken to isolate invasive tumour tissue. DNA was extracted and tested for high-risk HPV types using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 SPF10 consensus primers, and a real-time PCR method targeting HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6 region. Genotyping of HPV-positive cases was performed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay (Inno-LiPA). RNAScope ® (a chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assay) was utilized to detect E6/E7 mRNA of known high-risk HPV types for detection of transcriptionally active virus. HPV DNA was found in 3 OSCC cases, all of which were p16 IHC-positive. Two cases were genotyped as HPV-16 and one as HPV-33. Only one of the HPV-16 cases was confirmed to harbour transcriptionally active virus via HPV RNA ISH. We have shown that the presence of transcriptionally active HPV rarely occurs in OSCC and that p16 is not an appropriate surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC cases. We propose that non-viral mechanisms are responsible for the majority of IHC p16 overexpression in OSCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Excision Repair Cross-complementation Group 1 is a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Xing Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: ERCC1 expression may be taken as an effective prognostic factor predicting the response to chemotherapy, OS, and PFS. Further studies with better study design and longer follow-up are warranted in order to gain a deeper understanding of ERCC1's prognostic value.

  4. Structure and Function of p97 and Pex1/6 Type II AAA+ Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Enenkel, Cordula; Wendler, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Protein complexes of the Type II AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family are typically hexamers of 80-150 kDa protomers that harbor two AAA+ ATPase domains. They form double ring assemblies flanked by associated domains, which can be N-terminal, intercalated or C-terminal to the ATPase domains. Most prominent members of this family include NSF (N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor), p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein), the Pex1/Pex6 complex and Hsp104 in eukaryotes and ClpB in bacteria. Tremendous efforts have been undertaken to understand the conformational dynamics of protein remodeling type II AAA+ complexes. A uniform mode of action has not been derived from these works. This review focuses on p97/VCP and the Pex1/6 complex, which both structurally remodel ubiquitinated substrate proteins. P97/VCP plays a role in many processes, including ER- associated protein degradation, and the Pex1/Pex6 complex dislocates and recycles the transport receptor Pex5 from the peroxisomal membrane during peroxisomal protein import. We give an introduction into existing knowledge about the biochemical and cellular activities of the complexes before discussing structural information. We particularly emphasize recent electron microscopy structures of the two AAA+ complexes and summarize their structural differences.

  5. Promoter methylation of MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and p16 is a phenomenon of advanced-stage HCCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Kemp, Matthias; Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Passmann, Sandra; Plotz, Guido; Zeuzem, Stefan; Brieger, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes has been observed in various cancers. Looking at hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specific protein silencing was previously demonstrated to be associated with the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the proposed HCV dependent promoter methylation of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and thereby enhanced progression of hepatocarcinogenesis has been the subject of controversial discussion. We investigated promoter methylation pattern of the MMR genes MLH1, MSH2 and PMS2 as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A gene (p16) in 61 well characterized patients with HCCs associated with HCV, Hepatitis B virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour and non-tumour adjacent tissue and analysed by methylation-specific PCR. Moreover, microsatellite analysis was performed in tissues showing methylation in MMR gene promoters. Our data demonstrated that promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and p16 is present among all considered HCCs. Hereby, promoter silencing was detectable more frequently in advanced-stage HCCs than in low-stage ones. However, there was no significant correlation between aberrant DNA methylation of MMR genes or p16 and HCV infection in related HCC specimens. In summary, we show that promoter methylation of essential MMR genes and p16 is detectable in HCCs most dominantly in pT3 stage tumour cases. Since loss of MMR proteins was previously described to be not only responsible for tumour development but also for chemotherapy resistance, the knowledge of mechanisms jointly responsible for HCC progression might enable significant improvement of individual HCC therapy in the future.

  6. Promoter methylation of MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and p16 is a phenomenon of advanced-stage HCCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Hinrichsen

    Full Text Available Epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes has been observed in various cancers. Looking at hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC specific protein silencing was previously demonstrated to be associated with the Hepatitis C virus (HCV. However, the proposed HCV dependent promoter methylation of DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes and thereby enhanced progression of hepatocarcinogenesis has been the subject of controversial discussion. We investigated promoter methylation pattern of the MMR genes MLH1, MSH2 and PMS2 as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A gene (p16 in 61 well characterized patients with HCCs associated with HCV, Hepatitis B virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour and non-tumour adjacent tissue and analysed by methylation-specific PCR. Moreover, microsatellite analysis was performed in tissues showing methylation in MMR gene promoters. Our data demonstrated that promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and p16 is present among all considered HCCs. Hereby, promoter silencing was detectable more frequently in advanced-stage HCCs than in low-stage ones. However, there was no significant correlation between aberrant DNA methylation of MMR genes or p16 and HCV infection in related HCC specimens. In summary, we show that promoter methylation of essential MMR genes and p16 is detectable in HCCs most dominantly in pT3 stage tumour cases. Since loss of MMR proteins was previously described to be not only responsible for tumour development but also for chemotherapy resistance, the knowledge of mechanisms jointly responsible for HCC progression might enable significant improvement of individual HCC therapy in the future.

  7. Contribution to the study of (d,p) and (d,{alpha}> reactions on {sup 16}O and {sup 11}B from 200 keV to 1 MeV; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) et (d,{alpha}) sur {sup 16}O et {sup 11}B de 200 keV a 1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longequeue, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-05-01

    The reactions {sup 16}O(d,{alpha}{sub 0}), (d,p{sub 0}), (d,p{sub 1}) and {sup 11}B(d,{alpha}{sub 0}), (d,{alpha}{sub 2}), (d,p{sub 0}) have been studied from 200 keV to 1 MeV. The interpretation of (d,{alpha}) reactions by the compound nucleus theory has shown the presence of {sup 18}F levels (7,94 MeV, 1+; 8,09 MeV, 1+ ) and of {sup 13}C level (19 MeV, 3/2{+-} or 5/2-). The interpretation of {sup 16}O(d,p{sub 1}) and {sup 11}B(d,p{sub 0}) reactions at energies lower than 400 keV has been given by a theory of Coulomb stripping. (author) [French] L'etude experimentale des reactions {sup 16}O(d,{alpha}{sub 0}); (d,p{sub 0}), (d,p{sub 1}) et {sup 11}B(d,{alpha}{sub 0}), (d,{alpha}{sub 2}), (d,p{sub 0}) a ete faite de 200 keV a 1 Mev. L'interpretation des reactions (d,a) par la theorie du noyau compose a permis la mise en evidence de niveaux du {sup 18}F (7,94 MeV, 1+; 8,09MeV, 1+ ) et du {sup 13}C(19 MeV, 3/2{+-} ou 5/2-). L'interpretation des reactions {sup 16}O(d,p{sub 1}) et {sup 11}B(d,p{sub 0}), a basse energie (< 400 keV), par une theorie de stripping de Coulomb, a ete donnee.

  8. 4p16.1-p15.31 duplication and 4p terminal deletion in a 3-years old Chinese girl: Array-CGH, genotype-phenotype and neurological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Maria; Salzano, Emanuela; Vecchio, Davide; Ferrara, Dante; Malacarne, Michela; Pierluigi, Mauro; Ferrara, Ines; Corsello, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Microscopically chromosome rearrangements of the short arm of chromosome 4 include the two known clinical entities: partial trisomy 4p and deletions of the Wolf-Hirschhorn critical regions 1 and 2 (WHSCR-1 and WHSCR-2, respectively), which cause cranio-facial anomalies, congenital malformations and developmental delay/intellectual disability. We report on clinical findings detected in a Chinese patient with a de novo 4p16.1-p15.32 duplication in association with a subtle 4p terminal deletion of 6 Mb in size. This unusual chromosome imbalance resulted in WHS classical phenotype, while clinical manifestations of 4p trisomy were practically absent. This observation suggests the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of sensitive dosage genes with regulatory function placed in WHS critical region, is more pathogenic than concomitant 4p duplicated segment. Additionally clinical findings in our patient confirm a variable penetrance of major malformations and neurological features in Chinese children despite of WHS critical region's deletion. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of p16 testing in cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J McGrath

    Full Text Available p16 immunohistochemistry is used to evaluate for HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The diagnostic performance of p16 in HIV infection is unclear.Between June-December 2009, HIV-infected women underwent Papanicolaou (Pap smear, human papillomavirus (HPV testing, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, and colposcopy-directed biopsy as the disease gold standard at a HIV clinic in Kenya. Pap smears were evaluated for p16 expression. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of p16 to detect CIN2/3 on histology and the impact of immunosuppression and ART was assessed.Of 331 cervical samples with p16 expression, p16 sensitivity and specificity to detect CIN2/3 was 54.1% and 72.4% respectively, which was lower than Pap and HPV in sensitivity, but higher in specificity than Pap, HPV, and VIA. Combining tests and p16 reduced sensitivity and increased specificity of Pap from 90.5% to 48.7% and 51.4% to 81.7%; of VIA from 59.5% to 37.8% and 67.6% to 89.9%; and of HPV from 82.4% to 50.0% and 55.3% to 84.8%. Combination p16 increased the PPV of Pap from 34.9% to 43.4%; of HPV from 34.7% to 48.7%; and VIA from 34.9% to 51.9%. Adjunctive p16 did not change AUC (P>0.05. P16 performance was not altered by immunosuppression or ART use. Combining p16 with HPV and VIA reduced the variation in HPV and VIA performance associated with CD4 and ART.As an adjunctive test in HIV-infected women, p16 immunohistochemistry increased specificity and PPV of HPV and VIA for CIN2/3, and was not altered in performance by immunosuppression, ART, or age.

  10. p16(INK4a translation suppressed by miR-24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Lal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a increases during aging and replicative senescence.Here, we report that the microRNA miR-24 suppresses p16 expression in human diploid fibroblasts and cervical carcinoma cells. Increased p16 expression with replicative senescence was associated with decreased levels of miR-24, a microRNA that was predicted to associate with the p16 mRNA coding and 3'-untranslated regions. Ectopic miR-24 overexpression reduced p16 protein but not p16 mRNA levels. Conversely, introduction of antisense (AS-miR-24 blocked miR-24 expression and markedly enhanced p16 protein levels, p16 translation, and the production of EGFP-p16 reporter bearing the miR-24 target recognition sites.Together, our results suggest that miR-24 represses the initiation and elongation phases of p16 translation.

  11. Duplication 4p and deletion 4p (Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome) due to complementary gametes from a 3:1 segregation of a maternal balanced t(4;13)(p16;q11) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, S S; Corbani, M; Andrade, J A D; Smith, M de A C; Brunoni, D; Melaragno, M I

    2004-08-30

    We present clinical and cytogenetic data on a family with a t(4;13)(p16;q11) translocation present in four generations. The balanced translocation resulted in one individual with monosomy 4p and one individual with trisomy 4p, due to 3:1 segregation. The male patient with trisomy 4p was fertile and transmitted the extra chromosome to his daughter. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Efficient immortalization of primary human cells by p16INK4a-specific short hairpin RNA or Bmi-1, combined with introduction of hTERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Kei; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Yugawa, Takashi; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Michiie; Galloway, Denise A; Kiyono, Tohru

    2007-02-01

    Activation of telomerase is sufficient for immortalization of some types of human cells but additional factors may also be essential. It has been proposed that stress imposed by inadequate culture conditions induces senescence due to accumulation of p16(INK4a). Here, we present evidence that many human cell types undergo senescence by activation of the p16(INK4a)/Rb pathway, and that introduction of Bmi-1 can inhibit p16(INK4a) expression and extend the life span of human epithelial cells derived from skin, mammary gland and lung. Introduction of p16(INK4a)-specific short hairpin RNA, as well as Bmi-1, suppressed p16(INK4a) expression in human mammary epithelial cells without promoter methylation, and extended their life span. Subsequent introduction of hTERT, the telomerase catalytic subunit, into cells with low p16(INK4a) levels resulted in efficient immortalization of three cell types without crisis or growth arrest. The majority of the human mammary epithelial cells thus immortalized showed almost normal ploidy as judged by G-banding and spectral karyotyping analysis. Our data suggest that inhibition of p16(INK4a) and introduction of hTERT can immortalize many human cell types with little chromosomal instability.

  13. Expressão de p53, p16 E COX-2 em carcinoma escamoso de esôfago e associação histopatológica p53, p16 E COX-2 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and histopathological association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Paz Danezi Felin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O câncer de esôfago representa cerca de 2% dos tumores malignos e a terceira causa mais comum de câncer do trato gastrointestinal. A associação do prognóstico do câncer de esôfago com alguns marcadores imunoistoquímicos, como as proteínas p53, p16 e a ciclooxigenase 2 (COX-2 tem sido relatada. A detecção de marcadores moleculares através de imunoistoquímica pode ser utilizada para avaliação prognóstica. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a associação entre a expressão das proteínas p53, p16 e a COX-2 com o estádio do carcinoma escamoso de esôfago. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 31 amostras de ressecção cirúrgica por esofagectomia diagnosticadas como carcinoma de células escamosas de esôfago e 31 amostras não-tumorais referentes a cada caso. Realizou-se a revisão histopatológica e o estádio pTNM. Amostras tumorais e não-tumorais adjacentes foram submetidas a análise imunoistoquímica para avaliar o conteúdo das proteínas p53, p16 e COX-2. Foi considerada positiva a expressão nuclear para p53 em quantidade igual ou superior a 10,00% das células e presença da expressão citoplasmática de acordo com três escores (1, 2, 3 de intensidade (leve, moderada, acentuada de imunocoloração para COX-2. RESULTADOS: Em área tumoral, as análises revelaram 48,38% de positividade para p53, 16,12% de positividade para p16, e 100,00% de positividade escores 1+, 2+ ou 3+ para COX-2. No entanto, quando se avaliou possível relação da expressão destes marcadores com o estádio, apenas a COX-2, escore 3+ intensidade acentuada mostraram associação significativa. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstrou que existe relação positiva entre a expressão de COX-2, escore 3+ e estádio mais avançado no carcinoma de esôfago.BACKGROUND: The esophageal carcinoma represents about 2% of malignant tumors and is the third most common cause of gastrointestinal cancer. The correlation between immunohistochemistry markers, such as p53, p16

  14. High CpG island methylation ofp16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    :Tetralogy of Fallot;p16 gene;p16 protein;CpG islands;Methylation;Promoter regions ... of congenital heart disease, as well as the exclusion of previous history of ..... malignant progression of oral epithelial dysplasia: a prospective cohort study.

  15. The p16INK4alpha/p19ARF gene mutations are infrequent and are mutually exclusive to p53 mutations in Indian oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Munirajan, A K; Krishnamurthy, J; Bhuvarahamurthy, V; Mohanprasad, B K; Panishankar, K H; Tsuchida, N; Shanmugam, G

    2000-03-01

    Eighty-seven untreated primary oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) associated with betel quid and tobacco chewing from Indian patients were analysed for the presence of mutations in the commonly shared exon 2 of p16INK4alpha/p19ARF genes. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing analysis were used to detect mutations. SSCP analysis indicated that only 9% (8/87) of the tumours had mutation in p16INK4alpha/p19ARF genes. Seventy-two tumours studied here were previously analysed for p53 mutations and 21% (15/72) of them were found to have mutations in p53 gene. Only one tumour was found to have mutation at both p53 and p16INK4alpha/p19ARF genes. Thus, the mutation rates observed were 21% for p53, 9% for p16INK4alpha/p19ARF, and 1% for both. Sequencing analysis revealed two types of mutations; i) G to C (GCAG to CCAG) transversion type mutation at intron 1-exon 2 splice junction and ii) another C to T transition type mutation resulting in CGA to TGA changing arginine to a termination codon at p16INK4alpha gene codon 80 and the same mutation will alter codon 94 of p19ARF gene from CCG to CTG (proline to leucine). These results suggest that p16INK4alpha/p19ARF mutations are less frequent than p53 mutations in Indian oral SCCs. The p53 and p16INK4alpha/p19ARF mutational events are independent and are mutually exclusive suggesting that mutational inactivation of either p53 or p16INK4alpha/p19ARF may alleviate the need for the inactivation of the other gene.

  16. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 16P. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    8217 ALSC1 ALP ESECATE I API’LYI A-129 I AjI ~ AS-L-%/VIC I ATTAIN I1As~L2r v L% WORO FAeQUIEN#rM r Tf~16O RIATE 80142 131? PACE 3 I AV-@ ____ I...ENOJ 21..i~u. 191.4PME 21MAV UOi.~lO51’.iNEe;W~1CA2SP1tF4i H4PiI**IAPI C, 4DS-I*~4A5-II..... ROJOS 1.....9 PM4 21 MY §So.OOH 512 CH.PN~𔄁..IAR

  17. An international comparability study on quantification of mRNA gene expression ratios: CCQM-P103.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison S. Devonshire

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of RNA can be used to study and monitor a range of infectious and non-communicable diseases, with profiling of multiple gene expression mRNA transcripts being increasingly applied to cancer stratification and prognosis. An international comparison study (Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM-P103.1 was performed in order to evaluate the comparability of measurements of RNA copy number ratio for multiple gene targets between two samples. Six exogenous synthetic targets comprising of External RNA Control Consortium (ERCC standards were measured alongside transcripts for three endogenous gene targets present in the background of human cell line RNA. The study was carried out under the auspices of the Nucleic Acids (formerly Bioanalysis Working Group of the CCQM. It was coordinated by LGC (United Kingdom with the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA and results were submitted from thirteen National Metrology Institutes and Designated Institutes. The majority of laboratories performed RNA measurements using RT-qPCR, with datasets also being submitted by two laboratories based on reverse transcription digital polymerase chain reaction and one laboratory using a next-generation sequencing method. In RT-qPCR analysis, the RNA copy number ratios between the two samples were quantified using either a standard curve or a relative quantification approach. In general, good agreement was observed between the reported results of ERCC RNA copy number ratio measurements. Measurements of the RNA copy number ratios for endogenous genes between the two samples were also consistent between the majority of laboratories. Some differences in the reported values and confidence intervals (‘measurement uncertainties’ were noted which may be attributable to choice of measurement method or quantification approach. This highlights the need for standardised practices for the calculation of fold change ratios and

  18. Simultaneous pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA, IncP-1 trfA, and merA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Peter Nikolai; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Hansen, Lars H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of amplicon pyrosequencing makes it possible to produce thousands of sequences of the same gene at relatively low costs. Here we show that it is possible to simultaneously sequence the 16S rRNA gene, IncP-1 trfA gene and mercury reductase gene (merA) as a way for screening the diversity...

  19. Transmission of epi-alleles with MET1-dependent dense methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Watson

    Full Text Available DNA methylation in plants targets cytosines in three sequence contexts, CG, CHG and CHH (H representing A, C or T. Each of these patterns has traditionally been associated with distinct DNA methylation pathways with CHH methylation being controlled by the RNA dependent DNA methylation (RdDM pathway employing small RNAs as a guide for the de novo DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM2, and maintenance DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1 being responsible for faithful propagation of CG methylation. Here we report an unusual 'dense methylation' pattern under the control of MET1, with methylation in all three sequence contexts. We identified epi-alleles of dense methylation at a non coding RNA locus (At4g15242 in Arabidopsis ecotypes, with distinct dense methylation and expression characteristics, which are stably maintained and transmitted in genetic crosses and which can be heritably altered by depletion of MET1. This suggests that, in addition to its classical CG maintenance function, at certain loci MET1 plays a role in creating transcriptional diversity based on the generation of independent epi-alleles. Database inspection identified several other loci with MET1-dependent dense methylation patterns. Arabidopsis ecotypes contain distinct epi-alleles of these loci with expression patterns that inversely correlate with methylation density, predominantly within the transcribed region. In Arabidopsis, dense methylation appears to be an exception as it is only found at a small number of loci. Its presence does, however, highlight the potential for MET1 as a contributor to epigenetic diversity, and it will be interesting to investigate the representation of dense methylation in other plant species.

  20. Tumor suppressor p16 INK4a: Downregulation of galectin-3, an endogenous competitor of the pro-anoikis effector galectin-1, in a pancreatic carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruderisch, Hugo; Fischer, Christian; Detjen, Katharina M; Welzel, Martina; Wimmel, Anja; Manning, Joachim C; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-01

    The tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) has functions beyond cell-cycle control via cyclin-dependent kinases. A coordinated remodeling of N- and O-glycosylation, and an increase in the presentation of the endogenous lectin galectin-1 sensing these changes on the surface of p16(INK4a)-expressing pancreatic carcinoma cells (Capan-1), lead to potent pro-anoikis signals. We show that the p16(INK4a)-dependent impact on growth-regulatory lectins is not limited to galectin-1, but also concerns galectin-3. By monitoring its expression in relation to p16(INK4a) status, as well as running anoikis assays with galectin-3 and cell transfectants with up- or downregulated lectin expression, a negative correlation between anoikis and the presence of this lectin was established. Nuclear run-off and northern blotting experiments revealed an effect of the presence of p16(INK4a) on steady-state levels of galectin-3-specific mRNA that differed from decreasing the transcriptional rate. On the cell surface, galectin-3 interferes with galectin-1, which initiates signaling toward its pro-anoikis activity via caspase-8 activation. The detected opposite effects of p16(INK4a) at the levels of growth-regulatory galectins-1 and -3 shift the status markedly towards the galectin-1-dependent pro-anoikis activity. A previously undescribed orchestrated fine-tuning of this effector system by a tumor suppressor is discovered.

  1. Patienten met diabetes Mellitus type 1 screenen op coeliakie; Ja of nee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijdanus, T.

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 is een veelvoorkomende ziekte. Deze ziekte blijkt niet op zichzelf te staan maar is onder andere geassocieerd met coeliakie. Coeliakie wordt behandeld middels een glutenvrij dieet. De diabetespatiënten die aan coeliakie lijden blijken zich niet altijd bij de huisarts met

  2. Analyzing powers for the three-nucleon breakup reaction 1H(d vector,p)pn at 16 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Ohlsen, G.G.; Correll, F.D.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Jarmie, N.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzing powers for the 1 H(d,p)pn reaction were measured at 16.0 MeV and beam polarization of approximately 0.82. Similar data for the elastic scattering 1 H(d,p) 2 H were also taken. The breakup analyzing power A/sub xz/, which attains the largest magnitude, is shown as a function of excitation energy. Angular distributions of elastic and breakup analyzing powers are compared; large differences are noted for A/sub xx/ and A/sub xz/. It is found that 1-MeV energy bins are too large to use in the study of singlet-state effects. 2 figures

  3. Involvement of Bmi-1 gene in the development of gastrointestinal stromal tumor by regulating p16Ink4A/p14ARF gene expressions: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang-Li; Wu, Jiang-Hong; Hong, Cai; Wang, Ya-Nong; Zhou, Ye; Long, Zi-Wen; Zhou, Ying; Qin, Hai-Shu

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to explore the role that Bmi-1 plays during the development of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) by regulation of the p16 Ink4A and p14 ARF expressions. Eighty-six patients diagnosed with GIST were selected to take part in this experiment. The Bmi-1 protein expressions in GIST and adjacent normal tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry and further analyzed by using photodensitometry. To monitor and track the progression of the GIST, a 3-year follow-up was conducted for all affected patients. After cell transfection, the GIST cells were assigned into the control group (without transfection), the negative control (NC) group (transfected with Bmi-1-Scramble plasmid), and the Bmi-1 shRNA group (transfected with the pcDNA3.1-Bmi-1 shRNA plasmid). Protein and mRNA expressions collected from Bmi-1, p16 lnk4A , P14 ARF , cyclin D1, and CDK4 were measured using both the RT-qPCR and western blotting methods Cell senescence was assessed and obtained by using the β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) activity assay. The use of a Soft agar colony formation assay and CCK-8 assay were performed in order to detect the cell growth and subsequent proliferation. Cell invasion and migration were analyzed using the Transwell assay and scratch test. Bmi-1 in the GIST tissues was found to be significantly higher and the p16 lnk4A and P14 ARF expressions were lower than those in the adjacent normal tissues. Bmi-1 was negatively correlated with p16 lnk4A and P14 ARF expressions according to the correlation analysis. Bmi-1 expression was associated with the TNM stage, postoperative recurrence, metastasis, tumor size, and the 5-year survival rate. Area under ROC curve was calculated at 0.884, and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Bmi-1 predicting the GIST were 67.44%, 97.67%, and 65.12%, respectively. Patients exhibiting a high Bmi-1 expression in the GIST tissues had lower survival rates than those with low Bmi-1 expression. In comparison with

  4. Impact of HPV-associated p16-expression on radiotherapy outcome in advanced oropharynx and non-oropharynx cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, Pernille; Primdahl, Hanne; Johansen, Jørgen; Kristensen, Claus A.; Andersen, Elo; Andersen, Lisbeth J.; Evensen, Jan F.; Eriksen, Jesper G.; Overgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: HPV is found in head and neck cancer from all sites with a higher prevalence in oropharynx cancer (OPC) compared to non-OPC. HPV/p16-status has a significant impact on radiotherapy (RT) outcome in advanced OPC, but less is known about the influence in non-OPC. We analyzed HPV-associated p16-expression in a cohort of patients with stage III–IV pharynx and larynx cancer treated with primary, curatively intended (chemo-)RT, aiming to test the hypothesis that the impact of HPV/p16 also extends to tumors of non-oropharyngeal origin. Material and methods: 1294 patients enrolled in previously conducted DAHANCA-trials between 1992 and 2012 were identified. Tumors were evaluated by p16-immunohistochemistry and classified as positive in case of staining in >70% of tumors cells. Results: Thirty-eight percent (490/1294) of the tumors were p16-positive with a significantly higher frequency in OPC (425/815) than in non-OPC (65/479), p < .0001. In OPC p16-positivity significantly improved loco-regional control (LRC) (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.43 [0.32–0.57]), event-free survival (EFS) (HR 0.44 [0.35–0.56]), and overall survival (OS) (HR: 0.38 [0.29–0.49]), respectively, compared with p16-negativity. In non-OPC no prognostic impact of p16-status was found for either endpoint: LRC (HR: 1.13 [0.75–1.70]), EFS (HR: 1.06 [0.76–1.47]), and OS (HR: 0.82 [0.59–1.16]). Conclusions: The independent influence of HPV-associated p16-expression in advanced OPC treated with primary RT was confirmed. However, RT-outcome in the group of non-OPC did not differ by tumor p16-status, indicating that the prognostic impact may be restricted to OPC only

  5. Diagnostic value of progesterone receptor, p16, p53 and pHH3 expression in uterine atypical leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Xiaoduan; Lü, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between atypical leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma may be hard based on morphological criterion at times. It would be helpful to find out biomarkers that can be used to distinguish them. The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of progesterone receptor (PR), p16, p53 and pHH3 expression in a series of uterine smooth muscle tumors. Immunohistochemical expression of PR, p16, p53 and pHH3 was investigated on 32 atypical leiomyomas, 15 leiomyosarcomas and 15 usual leomyomas. The difference in expression was compared between atypical leiomyoma and other groups. The expression of PR, p16, and pHH3 was found significantly different between atypical leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, but lack of significant difference between atypical leiomyomas and usual leiomyomas. There was no significant difference with regard to p53 distribution among these uterine smooth muscle tumors. High p16, pHH3 expression and low PR expression preferred the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. The panel of antibodies used in this study is a useful complementary analysis in the assessment of problematic uterine smooth muscle tumors.

  6. Polymorphisms in promoter sequences of MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a genes in normal Japanese individuals

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    Yasuhito Ohsaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted to identify sequence polymorphisms of gene promoter regions in patients and control subjects, including normal individuals, and to determine the influence of these polymorphisms on transcriptional regulation in cells that express wild-type or mutant p53. In this study we isolated genomic DNA from whole blood of healthy Japanese individuals and sequenced the promoter regions of the MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a genes. We identified polymorphisms comprising 3 nucleotide substitutions at exon 1 and intron 1 regions of the MDM2 gene and 1 nucleotide insertion at a poly(C nucleotide position in the p53 gene. The Japanese individuals also exhibited p16INK4a polymorphisms at several positions, including position -191. Reporter gene analysis by using luciferase revealed that the polymorphisms of MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a differentially altered luciferase activities in several cell lines, including the Colo320DM, U251, and T98G cell lines expressing mutant p53. Our results indicate that the promoter sequences of these genes differ among normal Japanese individuals and that polymorphisms can alter gene transcription activity.

  7. Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PF-2341066, suppresses growth and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Zhao Y

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhao,1,* Jing Zhang,2,* Ying Tian,1,* Cong Xue,1 Zhihuang Hu,1 Li Zhang1,3 1Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guang Zhou Traditional Chinese Medicine University, 3National Anti-Cancer Drug Research Centre, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: We explored the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/Met signaling pathway on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells in vitro and in vivo, and investigated the ability of Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI to block HGF-induced biological signaling.Experimental design: Met TKI inhibitor PF-2341066 alone, or in combination with cisplatin, was investigated for its ability to block HGF-induced signaling and biological effects in vitro and in vivo. HGF/Met expression and activation of signaling in NPC cells were detected by using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biological evaluation, including wound healing, cell proliferation, and invasion of NPC cells, was also examined, and the correlation between HGF/Met expression of primary and metastatic tumor in NPC patients and clinical prognosis were also analyzed.Results: Met TKI inhibitor, PF-2341066, inhibited growth of NPC cells in vivo with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.79±0.21 µmol/L, and suppressed invasion and migration of NPC cells; also, the inhibition of PF-2341066 was synergized with cisplatin treatment. Compared with the control group, Met TKI inhibited metastasis of transplanted NPC in nude mice (the number of live metastases [mean ± SD]: 5.8±2.2 versus 11.8±2.2, P=0.03; the number of lung metastases: 2.3±1.5 versus

  8. p16 mutation spectrum in the premalignant condition Barrett's esophagus.

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    Thomas G Paulson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutation, promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity involving the tumor suppressor gene p16 (CDKN2a/INK4a have been detected in a wide variety of human cancers, but much less is known concerning the frequency and spectrum of p16 mutations in premalignant conditions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have determined the p16 mutation spectrum for a cohort of 304 patients with Barrett's esophagus, a premalignant condition that predisposes to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Forty seven mutations were detected by sequencing of p16 exon 2 in 44 BE patients (14.5% with a mutation spectrum consistent with that caused by oxidative damage and chronic inflammation. The percentage of patients with p16 mutations increased with increasing histologic grade. In addition, samples from 3 out of 19 patients (15.8% who underwent esophagectomy were found to have mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest the environment of the esophagus in BE patients can both generate and select for clones with p16 mutations.

  9. Expression of p16(INK4A) gene in human pituitary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Gloria; Cotignola, Javier; Danilowicz, Karina; Carbonara, Carolina; Paes de Lima, Andrea; Basso, Armando; Bruno, Oscar Domingo; Szijan, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise 10-15% of primary intracranial tumours but the mechanisms leading to tumour development are yet to be clearly established. The retinoblastoma pathway, which regulates the progression through the cell cycle, is often deregulated in different types of tumours. We studied the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4A) gene expression at mRNA level in human pituitary adenomas. Forty-six tumour specimens of different subtypes, 21 clinically non-functioning, 12 growth hormone-secreting, 6 prolactin-secreting, 6 adrenocorticotropin-secreting, and 1 thyrotropin-secreting tumours were studied. All clinically non-functioning and most of the hormone-secreting tumours were macroadenomas (38/46). The RT-PCR assay and electrophoresis of the PCR-products showed that p16(INK4A) mRNA was undetectable in: 62% of non-functioning, 8% of growth hormone-secreting, 17% of prolactin-secreting and 17% of adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas. Forty percent of all macroadenomas and 25% of microadenomas had negative p16(INK4A) mRNA, the latter results suggest that the absence of p16(INK4A) product might be an early event in tumours with no expression of this suppressor gene. Within the non-functioning adenomas 63% were "null cell" and 37% were positive for some hormone, both subgroups showed similar percentage of cases with absence of p16(INK4A) mRNA. Our results show that clinically non-functioning macroadenomas have impaired p16(INK4A) expression in a clearly higher proportion than any other pituitary tumour subtype investigated. Other regulatory pathways may be implicated in the development of tumours with positive p16(INK4A) expression.

  10. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  11. Association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and fibromyalgia susceptibility and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire score: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to fibromyalgia and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) score in fibromyalgia patients. We conducted a meta-analysis of the associations of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism with fibromyalgia risk as well as FIQ score in fibromyalgia patients. A total of 993 fibromyalgia patients and 778 controls from 10 studies on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and 538 fibromyalgia patients from 5 studies on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and FIQ score were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed an association between fibromyalgia and the COMT Met/Met + Val/Met genotype in all study subjects (odds ratio (OR) 1.635, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.029-2.597, p = 0.037). However, stratification by ethnicity indicated no association between the Met/Met + Val/Met genotype and fibromyalgia in the European and Turkish populations (OR 1.202, 95 % CI 0.876-1.649, p = 0.255; OR 2.132, 95 % CI 0.764-5.949, p = 0.148, respectively). Analysis using other genetic models showed no association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and fibromyalgia. The meta-analysis also revealed that the FIQ score was significantly higher in individuals with the COMT Met/Met genotype than in those with the Val/Val genotype [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 14.39, 95 % CI 3.316-25.48, p = 0.011] and the Val/Met genotype (WMD = 5.108, 95 % CI 2.212-4.891, p = 0.021). This meta-analysis identified an association between fibromyalgia risk and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism as well as the FIQ score in fibromyalgia patients.

  12. Identification of the 1s2s2p 4P5/2-->1s22s 2S1/2 magnetic quadrupole inner-shell satellite line in the Ar16+ K-shell x-ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Hey, D.; Reed, K. J.

    2002-09-01

    We have identified the dipole-forbidden 1s2s2p 4P5/2-->1s22s 2S1/2 transition in lithiumlike Ar15+ in high-resolution K-shell x-ray emission spectra recorded at the Livermore EBIT-II electron-beam ion trap and the Princeton National Spherical Tokamak Experiment. Unlike other Ar15+ satellite lines, which can be excited by dielectronic recombination, the line is exclusively excited by electron-impact excitation. Its predicted radiative rate is comparable to that of the well-known 1s2p 3P1-->1s2 1S0 magnetic quadrupole transition in heliumlike Ar16+. As a result, it can also only be observed in low-density plasma. We present calculations of the electron-impact excitation cross sections of the innershell excited Ar15+ satellite lines, including the magnetic sublevels needed for calculating the linear line polarization. We compare these calculations to the relative magnitudes of the observed 1s2s2p-->1s22s transitions and find good agreement, confirming the identification of the lithiumlike 1s2s2p 4P5/2-->1s22s 2S1/2 magnetic quadrupole line.

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms in XRCC1, CD3EAP, PPP1R13L, XPB, XPC, and XPF and the Risk of Chronic Benzene Poisoning in a Chinese Occupational Population.

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    Ping Xue

    Full Text Available Individual variations in the capacity of DNA repair machinery to relieve benzene-induced DNA damage may be the key to developing chronic benzene poisoning (CBP, an increasingly prevalent occupational disease in China. ERCC1 (Excision repair cross complementation group 1 is located on chromosome 19q13.2-3 and participates in the crucial steps of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER; moreover, we determined that one of its polymorphisms, ERCC1 rs11615, is a biomarker for CBP susceptibility in our previous report. Our aim is to further explore the deeper association between some genetic variations related to ERCC1 polymorphisms and CBP risk.Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 1, CD3EAP (CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein, PPP1R13L (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like, XPB (Xeroderma pigmentosum group B, XPC (Xeroderma pigmentosum group C and XPF (Xeroderma pigmentosum group F were genotyped by the Snapshot and TaqMan-MGB® probe techniques, in a study involving 102 CBP patients and 204 controls. The potential interactions between these SNPs and lifestyle factors, such as smoking and drinking, were assessed using a stratified analysis.An XRCC1 allele, rs25487, was related to a higher risk of CBP (P<0.001 even after stratifying for potential confounders. Carriers of the TT genotype of XRCC1 rs1799782 who were alcohol drinkers (OR = 8.000; 95% CI: 1.316-48.645; P = 0.022, male (OR = 9.333; 95% CI: 1.593-54.672; P = 0.019, and had an exposure of ≤12 years (OR = 2.612; 95% CI: 1.048-6.510; P = 0.035 had an increased risk of CBP. However, the T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 (P<0.05 and the GA allele in CD3EAP rs967591 (OR = 0.162; 95% CI: 0039~0.666; P = 0.037 decreased the risk of CBP in men. The haplotype analysis of XRCC1 indicated that XRCC1 rs25487A, rs25489G and rs1799782T (OR = 15.469; 95% CI: 5.536-43.225; P<0.001 were associated with a high risk of CBP.The findings showed that

  14. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, Giuliana; Favini, Enrica; Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Salvi, Alessandro; De Petro, Giuseppina; Pierotti, Marco A; Zunino, Franco; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Lanzi, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F) devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs. PMID:19107227

  15. Isolation of a Genomic Region Affecting Most Components of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chromosome-16 Congenic Rat Model.

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    Lucie Šedová

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent human disease with substantial genomic and environmental components. Previous studies indicate the presence of significant genetic determinants of several features of metabolic syndrome on rat chromosome 16 (RNO16 and the syntenic regions of human genome. We derived the SHR.BN16 congenic strain by introgression of a limited RNO16 region from the Brown Norway congenic strain (BN-Lx into the genomic background of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR strain. We compared the morphometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic profiles of adult male SHR and SHR.BN16 rats. We also compared in silico the DNA sequences for the differential segment in the BN-Lx and SHR parental strains. SHR.BN16 congenic rats had significantly lower weight, decreased concentrations of total triglycerides and cholesterol, and improved glucose tolerance compared with SHR rats. The concentrations of insulin, free fatty acids, and adiponectin were comparable between the two strains. SHR.BN16 rats had significantly lower systolic (18-28 mmHg difference and diastolic (10-15 mmHg difference blood pressure throughout the experiment (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.001. The differential segment spans approximately 22 Mb of the telomeric part of the short arm of RNO16. The in silico analyses revealed over 1200 DNA variants between the BN-Lx and SHR genomes in the SHR.BN16 differential segment, 44 of which lead to missense mutations, and only eight of which (in Asb14, Il17rd, Itih1, Syt15, Ercc6, RGD1564958, Tmem161a, and Gatad2a genes are predicted to be damaging to the protein product. Furthermore, a number of genes within the RNO16 differential segment associated with metabolic syndrome components in human studies showed polymorphisms between SHR and BN-Lx (including Lpl, Nrg3, Pbx4, Cilp2, and Stab1. Our novel congenic rat model demonstrates that a limited genomic region on RNO16 in the SHR significantly affects many of the features of metabolic

  16. Cancer Risks Associated with Inherited Mutations in Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    25 other candidate genes in the Fanconi anemia-BRCA pathway: ATR, BABAM1, BAP1, BLM, BRCC3, BRE, CHEK1, ERCC1, ERCC4 (FANCQ), FANCA , FANCB, FANCC...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0484 TITLE: Cancer Risks Associated with Inherited Mutations in Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes Beyond BRCA1 and...DNA repair genes on small core biopsy specimens iv) begun accessioning samples from the phase 2 rucaparib trial (Ariel 2, NCT01891344). 15

  17. Three novel variants (p.Glu178Lys, p.Val245Met, p.Ser250Phe) of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene impair protein expression and function in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yanan; Liu, Ning; Ma, Shanshan; Bai, Ying; Guan, Fangxia; Kong, Xiangdong

    2018-08-20

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inherited metabolic disease, an autosomal recessive disorder affecting >10,000 newborns each year globally. It can be caused by over 1000 different naturally occurring mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We analyzed three novel naturally occurring PAH gene variants: p.Glu178Lys (c.532G>A), p.Val245Met (c.733G>A) and p.Ser250Phe (c.749C>T). The mutant effect on the PAH enzyme structure and function was predicted by bioinformatics software. Vectors expressing the corresponding PAH variants were generated for expression in E. coli and in HEK293T cells. The RNA expression of the three PAH variants was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The mutant PAH protein levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All three variants were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis. The transcription of the three PAH variants was similar to the wild type PAH gene in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the levels of mutant PAH proteins decreased significantly compared to the wild type control, in both E. coli and HEK293T cells. Our results indicate that the three novel PAH gene variants (p.Glu178Lys, p.Val245Met, p.Ser250Phe) impair PAH protein expression and function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The structure of T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme and structural component of the invasion machinery, was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-@@bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22 1 2 1 , with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented

  19. Synthesis and thermoelectric performance of a p-type Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 material developed via mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Sandra; Perez, Jose G.; Tritt, Terry M.; Zhu, Song; Sosa-Sanchez, Jose L.; Martinez-Juarez, Javier; López, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper shows a Bi 1.6 Sb 0.4 Te 3 alloy prepared by MA-SPS process. • A ZT value of about 1.2–1.3 around 360 K was achieved for this compound. • The lower sintering process was carried out in a short time. • The resulting material has a very fine microstructure and high density. - Abstract: A p-type Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 thermoelectric compound was fabricated via mechanical alloying of bismuth, antimony and tellurium elemental powders as starting materials. The mechanically alloyed compositions were sintered through a spark-plasma sintering (SPS) process. The effect of the milling time was investigated. In order to characterize the powders obtained via mechanical alloying, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were used. The morphological evolution was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the p-type Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 compound was formed after 2 h of milling. Further, the variation of milling time showed that the synthesized phase was stable. All the powders exhibit the same morphology albeit with slight differences. Measurements of the electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity were performed in the temperature range 300–520 K for the SPS samples. The resulting thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches a maximum of 1.2 at 360 K for the p-type bulk material with a 5 h milling time. This study demonstrates the possibility of preparing thermoelectric materials of high performance and short processing time

  20. CYLD Limits Lys63- and Met1-Linked Ubiquitin at Receptor Complexes to Regulate Innate Immune Signaling

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    Matous Hrdinka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune signaling relies on the deposition of non-degradative polyubiquitin at receptor-signaling complexes, but how these ubiquitin modifications are regulated by deubiquitinases remains incompletely understood. Met1-linked ubiquitin (Met1-Ub is assembled by the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC, and this is counteracted by the Met1-Ub-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN, which binds to the catalytic LUBAC subunit HOIP. In this study, we report that HOIP also interacts with the deubiquitinase CYLD but that CYLD does not regulate ubiquitination of LUBAC components. Instead, CYLD limits extension of Lys63-Ub and Met1-Ub conjugated to RIPK2 to restrict signaling and cytokine production. Accordingly, Met1-Ub and Lys63-Ub were individually required for productive NOD2 signaling. Our study thus suggests that LUBAC, through its associated deubiquitinases, coordinates the deposition of not only Met1-Ub but also Lys63-Ub to ensure an appropriate response to innate immune receptor activation.

  1. Contiguous gene deletion of chromosome 2p16.3-p21 as a cause of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo-Mullen, Erin E; Lynn, Patricio B; Wang, Lu; Walsh, Michael; Gopalan, Anuradha; Shia, Jinru; Tran, Christina; Man, Fung Ying; McBride, Sean; Schattner, Mark; Zhang, Liying; Weiser, Martin R; Stadler, Zsofia K

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Although commonly associated with clinical features such as intellectual disability and congenital anomalies, contiguous gene deletions may also result in cancer predisposition syndromes. We report on a 52-year-old male with Lynch syndrome caused by deletion of chromosome 2p16.3-p21. The patient had intellectual disability and presented with a prostatic adenocarcinoma with an incidentally identified synchronous sigmoid adenocarcinoma that exhibited deficient MMR with an absence of MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression. Family history was unrevealing. Physical exam revealed short stature, brachycephaly with a narrow forehead and short philtrum, brachydactyly of the hands, palmar transverse crease, broad and small feet with hyperpigmentation of the soles. The patient underwent total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for a pT3N1 sigmoid adenocarcinoma. Germline genetic testing of the MSH2, MSH6, and EPCAM genes revealed full gene deletions. SNP-array based DNA copy number analysis identified a deletion of 4.8 Mb at 2p16.3-p21. In addition to the three Lynch syndrome associated genes, the deleted chromosomal section encompassed genes including NRXN1, CRIPT, CALM2, FBXO11, LHCGR, MCFD2, TTC7A, EPAS1, PRKCE, and 15 others. Contiguous gene deletions have been described in other inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. Our report and review of the literature suggests that contiguous gene deletion within the 2p16-p21 chromosomal region is a rare cause of Lynch syndrome, but presents with distinct phenotypic features, highlighting the need for recognition and awareness of this syndromic entity.

  2. Austin Community College District's P-16 Initiative Graduates America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Mary; Madsen, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Austin Community College (ACC) District's P-16 Initiative supports partnerships with 30 school districts--reaching traditionally underserved students and bridging the gap between high school and college--so more Texas students can reach their educational goals. The P-16 Initiative is a constellation of efforts designed to provide broad-based…

  3. Spectroscopic study of nuclei of the 1f-2p layer by means of (16O,14C) and (16O,12C) transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet-Lemaire, M.C.

    1973-01-01

    One-and two-nucleon transfer reactions induced by light projectiles have long been established as powerful spectroscopic tools to test one-and two-nucleon configurations of the wave functions describing the excited states of the residual nucleus A comparatively to the target nuclei A-1 and A-2. As soon as heavy ion beams became available, a further step was made in the experimental study of few-nucleon configurations by increasing the number of transferred particles as well as the variety of reactions leading to the same residual nucleus. It is well known that many theoretical models emphasize the role played by four-nucleon correlations in the microscopic description of deformed states. An experimental study of the reaction mechanism for ( 16 0, 12 C) and ( 16 0, 14 C) has been carried out by measuring angular distributions at several incident energies and excitation functions. A semi-classical description of the experimental results shows the strong influence of nuclear distortions on multi-nucleon-transfer reactions which appear with increasing incident energies. It will be noticed that spectroscopic information concerning the transferred nucleons can be achieved only through a complete finite range DWBA calculation including a microscopic nuclear structure form factor. The relative influence of the kinematic factors and nuclear structure factors on the DWBA cross-sections has been also investigated. The preliminary results on the DWBA analysis of the 54 Fe( 16 0, 12 C) 58 Ni and 48 Ca( 16 O, 14 C) 50 Ti angular distributions are discussed. Finally, ( 16 0, 14 C) and ( 16 0, 12 C) transfer reactions on different 1f-2p shell targets are described

  4. SPSS met syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Visscher, C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dit boekje wijkt af van de gebruikelijke statistiekboeken omdat het sec gaat over het bekende statistische computerprogramma SPSS, en dan alleen nog de oorspronkelijke variant waarin wordt gewerkt met syntax (intypen commando's -zoals bij DOS) i.p.v. de later ontwikkelde 'Windows-schil' (aanklikken

  5. PMK-1 p38 MAPK promotes cadmium stress resistance, the expression of SKN-1/Nrf and DAF-16 target genes, and protein biosynthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Alex; Mertenskötter, Ansgar; Winter, Sarah A; Brinkmann, Vanessa; Dölling, Ramona; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms of cadmium (Cd) resistance are complex and not sufficiently understood. The present study, therefore, aimed at assessing the roles of important components of stress-signaling pathways and of ABC transporters under severe Cd stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. Survival assays on mutant and control animals revealed a significant promotion of Cd resistance by the PMK-1 p38 MAP kinase, the transcription factor DAF-16/FoxO, and the ABC transporter MRP-1. Transcriptome profiling by RNA-Seq on wild type and a pmk-1 mutant under control and Cd stress conditions revealed, inter alia, a PMK-1-dependent promotion of gene expression for the translational machinery. PMK-1 also promoted the expression of target genes of the transcription factors SKN-1/Nrf and DAF-16 in Cd-stressed animals, which included genes for molecular chaperones or immune proteins. Gene expression studies by qRT-PCR confirmed the positive effects of PMK-1 on DAF-16 activity under Cd stress and revealed negative effects of DAF-16 on the expression of genes for MRP-1 and DAF-15/raptor. Additional studies on pmk-1 RNAi-treated wild type and mutant strains provided further information on the effects of PMK-1 on SKN-1 and DAF-16, which resulted in a model of these relationships. The results of this study demonstrate a central role of PMK-1 for the processing of cellular responses to abiotic and biotic stressors, with the promoting effects of PMK-1 on Cd resistance mostly mediated by the transcription factors SKN-1 and DAF-16.

  6. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, E.M.; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo; Kvinnsland, S.; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of autism susceptibility gene loci on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q in Finnish multiplex families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auranen, M; Nieminen, T; Majuri, S; Vanhala, R; Peltonen, L; Järvelä, I

    2000-05-01

    The role of genetic factors in the etiology of the autistic spectrum of disorders has clearly been demonstrated. Ten chromosomal regions, on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q have potentially been linked to autism.1-8 We have analyzed these chromosomal regions in a total of 17 multiplex families with autism originating from the isolated Finnish population by pairwise linkage analysis and sib-pair analysis. Mild evidence for putative contribution was found only with the 1p chromosomal region in the susceptibility to autism. Our data suggest that additional gene loci exist for autism which will be detectable in and even restricted to the isolated Finnish population.

  8. Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism Val158Met and mammographic density: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallionpää, Roope A; Uusitalo, Elina; Peltonen, Juha

    2017-08-15

    The Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme reduces the methylation of catechol estrogens, which may affect mammographic density. High mammographic density is a known risk factor of breast cancer. Our aim was to perform meta-analysis of the effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on mammographic density. Original studies reporting data on mammographic density, stratified by the presence of COMT Val158Met polymorphism, were identified and combined using genetic models Met/Val vs. Val/Val, Met/Met vs. Val/Val, Val/Met+Met/Met vs. Val/Val (dominant model) and Met/Met vs. Val/Met+Val/Val (recessive model). Subgroup analyses by breast cancer status, menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were also performed. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effect in percent mammographic density was -1.41 (CI -2.86 to 0.05; P=0.06) in the recessive model. Exclusion of breast cancer patients increased the effect size to -1.93 (CI -3.49 to -0.37; P=0.02). The results suggested opposite effect of COMT Val158Met for postmenopausal users of HRT versus premenopausal women or postmenopausal non-users of HRT. COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be associated with mammographic density at least in healthy women. Menopausal status and HRT should be taken into account in future studies to avoid masking of the underlying effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The clinicopathologic association of c-MET overexpression in Iranian gastric carcinomas; an immunohistochemical study of tissue microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoudeh, Kambiz; Hashemi, Forough; Madjd, Zahra; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Molanaei, Saadat; Kalantary, Elham

    2012-05-28

    c-MET is an oncogene protein that plays important role in gastric carcinogenesis and has been introduced as a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of c-MET overexpression and its relationship with clinicopathological variables in gastric cancer of Iranian population using tissue microarray. In a cross sectional study, representative paraffin blocks of 130 patients with gastric carcinoma treated by curative gastrectomy during a 2 years period of 2008-2009 in two university hospitals in Tehran-Iran were collected in tissue microarray and c-MET expression was studied by immunohistochemical staining. Finally 124 cases were evaluated, constituted of 99 male and 25 female with the average age of 61.5 years. In 71% (88/124) of tumors, c-MET high expression was found. c-MET high expression was more associated with intestinal than diffuse tumor type (P = 0.04), deeper tumor invasion, pT3 and pT4 versus pT1 and pT2 (P = 0.014), neural invasion (P = 0.002) and advanced TNM staging, stage 3 and 4 versus stage 1 and2 (P = 0.044). The c-MET high expression was not associated with age, sex, tumor location, differentiation grade and distant metastasis, but relative associations with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.065) and vascular invasion (P = 0.078) were observed. c-MET oncogene protein was frequently overexpressed in Iranian gastric carcinomas and it was related to clinicopathological characteristics such as tumor type, depth of invasion, neural invasion and TNM staging. It can also support the idea that c-MET is a potential marker for target therapy in Iranian gastric cancer. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9744598757151429.

  10. Age-specific functional epigenetic changes in p21 and p16 in injury-activated satellite cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of CDK inhibitors (CDKI) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF-2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells FGF-2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15INK4B and p27KIP1, become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. PMID:25447026

  11. Expression of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in rodent lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swafford, D.S.; Tesfaigzi, J.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Aberrations on the short arm of chromosome 9 are among the earliest genetic changes in human cancer. p16{sup INK4a} is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that lies within human 9p21, a chromosome region associated with frequent loss of heterozygosity in human lung tumors. The p16{sup INK4a} protein functions as an inhibitor of cyclin D{sub 1}-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene product enabling cell-cycle progression. Thus, overexpression of cyclin D{sub 1}, mutation of cyclin-dependent kinase genes, or loss of p16{sup INK4a} function, can all result in functional inactivation of Rb. Inactivation of Rb by mutation or deletion can result in an increase in p16{sup INK4a} transcription, suggesting that an increased p16{sup INK4a} expression in a tumor cell signals dysfunction of the pathway. The p16{sup (INK4a)} gene, unlike some tumor suppressor genes, is rarely inactivated by mutation. Instead, the expression of this gene is suppressed in some human cancers by hypermethylation of the CpG island within the first exon or by homozygous deletion: 686. Chromosome losses have been observed at 9p21 syntenic loci in tumors of the mouse and rat, two species often used as animal models for pulmonary carcinogenesis. Expression of p16{sup INK4a} is lost in some mouse tumor cell lines, often due to homozygous deletion. These observations indicate that p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction may play a role in the development of neoplasia in rodents as well as humans. The purpose of the current investigation was to define the extent to which p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction contributes to the development of rodent lung tumors and to determine the mechanism of inactivation of the gene. There is no evidence to suggest a loss of function of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in these primary murine lung tumors by mutation, deletion, or methylation.

  12. Male-biased autosomal effect of 16p13.11 copy number variation in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tropeano

    Full Text Available Copy number variants (CNVs at chromosome 16p13.11 have been associated with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, ADHD, intellectual disability and schizophrenia. Significant sex differences in prevalence, course and severity have been described for a number of these conditions but the biological and environmental factors underlying such sex-specific features remain unclear. We tested the burden and the possible sex-biased effect of CNVs at 16p13.11 in a sample of 10,397 individuals with a range of neurodevelopmental conditions, clinically referred for array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH; cases were compared with 11,277 controls. In order to identify candidate phenotype-associated genes, we performed an interval-based analysis and investigated the presence of ohnologs at 16p13.11; finally, we searched the DECIPHER database for previously identified 16p13.11 copy number variants. In the clinical referral series, we identified 46 cases with CNVs of variable size at 16p13.11, including 28 duplications and 18 deletions. Patients were referred for various phenotypes, including developmental delay, autism, speech delay, learning difficulties, behavioural problems, epilepsy, microcephaly and physical dysmorphisms. CNVs at 16p13.11 were also present in 17 controls. Association analysis revealed an excess of CNVs in cases compared with controls (OR = 2.59; p = 0.0005, and a sex-biased effect, with a significant enrichment of CNVs only in the male subgroup of cases (OR = 5.62; p = 0.0002, but not in females (OR = 1.19, p = 0.673. The same pattern of results was also observed in the DECIPHER sample. Interval-based analysis showed a significant enrichment of case CNVs containing interval II (OR = 2.59; p = 0.0005, located in the 0.83 Mb genomic region between 15.49-16.32 Mb, and encompassing the four ohnologs NDE1, MYH11, ABCC1 and ABCC6. Our data confirm that duplications and deletions at 16p13

  13. MG132 plus apoptosis antigen-1 (APO-1) antibody cooperate to restore p53 activity inducing autophagy and p53-dependent apoptosis in HPV16 E6-expressing keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; García-Villa, Enrique; Arellano-Gaytán, Magaly; Contreras-Ochoa, Carla O; Dimas-González, Jisela; López-Arellano, María E; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Gariglio, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    The E6 oncoprotein can interfere with the ability of infected cells to undergo programmed cell death through the proteolytic degradation of proapoptotic proteins such as p53, employing the proteasome pathway. Therefore, inactivation of the proteasome through MG132 should restore the activity of several proapoptotic proteins. We investigated whether in HPV16 E6-expressing keratinocytes (KE6 cells), the restoration of p53 levels mediated by MG132 and/or activation of the CD95 pathway through apoptosis antigen-1 (APO-1) antibody are responsible for the induction of apoptosis. We found that KE6 cells underwent apoptosis mainly after incubation for 24 h with MG132 alone or APO-1 plus MG132. Both treatments activated the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Autophagy was also activated, principally by APO-1 plus MG132. Inhibition of E6-mediated p53 proteasomal degradation by MG132 resulted in the elevation of p53 protein levels and its phosphorylation in Ser46 and Ser20; the p53 protein was localized mainly at nucleus after treatment with MG132 or APO-1 plus MG132. In addition, induction of its transcriptional target genes such as p21, Bax and TP53INP was observed 3 and 6 h after treatment. Also, LC3 mRNA was induced after 3 and 6 h, which correlates with lipidation of LC3B protein and induction of autophagy. Finally, using pifithrin alpha we observed a decrease in apoptosis induced by MG132, and by APO-1 plus MG132, suggesting that restoration of APO-1 sensitivity occurs in part through an increase in both the levels and the activity of p53. The use of small molecules to inhibit the proteasome pathway might permit the activation of cell death, providing new opportunities for CC treatment.

  14. Single pion and several pions production in {pi}{sup +}p interactions at 1.6 GeV/c; Creation d'un et plusieurs mesons {pi} dans les interactions {pi}{sup +} p a 1,6 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabiol, M A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The production of {rho}{sup +}, N{sub 33}{sup *}, and {eta}{sup 0} was observed in {pi}{sup +}p interactions at 1.6 GeV/c. In the reactions where one pion is created, the comparison between the experimental distribution of the {rho}{sup +} and the N{sub 33}{sup *} with the predictions of the peripheral model modified by absorption effects permits the conclusion that the contribution of this model is important, but that other effects such as interferences between {rho}{sup +} and N{sub 33}{sup *} are not negligible. In the reactions where several pions are created, the branching ratios of some decay modes of {eta}0 are evaluated and the associated production of {eta}{sup 0} and N{sub 33}{sup *} is observed. (author) [French] La production des resonances {rho}{sup +}, N{sub 33}{sup *} et {eta}{sup 0} a ete observee dans les interactions {pi}{sup +}p a 1,6 GeV/c. Dans les reactions ou un seul meson {pi} est cree, la comparaison des distributions experimentales relatives au meson {rho}{sup +} et a l'isobare N{sub 33}{sup *} aux previsions du modele peripherique modifie par les effets d'absorption, permet d'affirmer que la contribution de ce modele est importante, mais que des effets tels que les interferences entre les processus de creation du {rho}{sup +} et de N{sub 33}{sup *} ne sont pas negligeables. Dans les reactions ou plusieurs mesons {pi} sont crees, les rapports de branchement de certains modes de desintegration du meson {eta}{sup 0} ont pu etre evalues et la production associee du {eta}{sup 0} et de N{sub 33}{sup *} a ete observee. (auteur)

  15. Comparison of kokumi γ-[Glu](n>1)-Val and γ-[Glu](n>1)-Met synthesized through transpeptidation catalyzed by glutaminase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Xie, Jin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hong-Zhang; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2018-05-01

    A series of γ-[Glu] (n=2,3,4) -Val or γ-[Glu] (n=2,3,4) -Met were synthesized in the presence of donor (Gln) and corresponding acceptor (Val or Met) through transpeptidation catalyzed by the glutaminase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Gln in excess significantly (p n>1) -Val/Met except for γ-Glu-Val/Met. The K m values for transpeptidase activity to yield γ-[Glu] (n=0,1,2,3) -Val increased with an elevated n, but remained essentially the same irrespective of n value for γ-[Glu] (n=0,1,2) -Met (which were 31-44% of that for γ-[Glu] 3 -Met). The highest K m value appearing when n = 3 (γ-[Glu] 3 -Val or γ-[Glu] 3 -Met) suggested the rising difficulty for synthesis when the number of donor increases. All the γ-[Glu] n -Val/Met substances exhibited kokumi properties and enhanced the continuity and umami taste of soy sauce as well as the thickness, mouthfulness and umaminess of model chicken broth. These results indicate the potential of the γ-[Glu] n -Val and γ-[Glu] n -Met as food flavor enhancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The change of p16 gene expression in glioma cell line C6 after radiation with gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xingli; Zhao Conghai; Tian Yu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: T observe the change of expression of p16 gene product, P16 protein, after treated by gamma knife on glioma cell line C6. Methods: Glioma C6 cells proliferated in vitro, treated by γ-knife in dose of 5.00 and 6.22 Gy, respectively. P16 protein was detected by immunohistochemical technique and image analysis. Results: The P16 protein in glioma C6 cells was notably increased after treatment with γ knife (P < 0.01). The grey number in C6 group (control group) was 167.1 +- 6.2 and was 155.4 +- 2.0 and 124.9 +- 7.1, respectively, in 5.00 Gy and 6.22 Gy gamma knife treated group. Conclusion: It is suggests that one of the mechanisms of glioma cell C6 apoptosis induced by γ-knife radiation may be associated with activation of p16 gene and increase of P16 protein expression

  17. Aging and chronic alcohol consumption are determinants of p16 gene expression, genomic DNA methylation and p16 promoter methylation in the mouse colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  18. Effect of selenium compounds on murine B16 melanoma cells and pigmented cloned pB16 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwek, B.; Bahbouth, E.; Serra, M.A.; Sabbioni, E.; Pauw-Gillet, M.C. de; Bassleer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of selenium compounds such as sodium selenite, sodium selenate, seleno-DL-cystine and seleno-DL-methionine (100 μM and 10 μM) on B16 and pigmented cloned pB 16 murine melanoma cells were investigated in vitro. At the tested concentrations, B16 cells showed a greater sensitivity to the toxic effects of sodium selenite and seleno-DL-cystine than pB 16 cells, whereas no decrease of B 16 and pB 16 cell number was observed after incubation with sodium selenate or seleno-DL-methionine. Glutathione (GSH) percentages were strongly decreased only by selenite and seleno-DL-cystine; it was marked more in B 16 than in pB 16 cells. The pretreatment of B 16 cells with a GSH depleting agent (10 μM buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine) did not significantly influence the cytotoxic effects of selenite and seleno-DL-cystine. On both cell populations. GSH preincubation (50 μM) enhanced the cytotoxicity of selenite whereas the survival of seleno-DL-cystine treated cells was increased. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in B 16 cells was more sensitive than in pB 16 cells to the activating effect of selenite, and particularly of seleno-DL-cystine; however, cell-free controls indicated that activation was mainly due to glutathione reductase. The rate of 75 Se (as sodium selenite) uptake in both cell populations was maximal within the first hour of incubation, with a preferential accumulation in the cytosol; after 24 h of incubation, the amount of 75 Se in cytosol and pellet was approximately the same. Gel filtration chromatography of lysed cells after incubation for 6 h with 10 μM 75 Se-selenite showed that the radioactivity was eluted as two peaks corresponding to low (4-9 kDa) and high (280-320 kDa) molecular weights. Possible toxicological mechanisms are discussed at molecular level. (orig./MG)

  19. Study of the (p,pd), (p,pt) and (p,p3He) reactions on 12C and 16O at 75MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossiord, J.Y.; Bedjidian, M.; Guichard, A.; Gusakow, M.; Pizzi, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The (p,pd), (p,pt) and (p,p 3 He) quasi-free scattering reactions have been studied on 12 C and 16 O targets at 75MeV. The low lying excitation levels of the residual nuclei have been observed. The appearance of T=1 states in 10 B and 14 N and of positive parity states in 13 N and 13 C can only be explained by reaction mechanisms more complex than a simple quasi-free scattering. A comparison of relative values of experimental spectroscopic factors with theoretical calculations has been made in the case of the most populated states [fr

  20. Role of Sphingosine Kinase 1 and S1P Transporter Spns2 in HGF-mediated Lamellipodia Formation in Lung Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Panfeng; Ebenezer, David L; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; Bronova, Irina A; Shaaya, Mark; Harijith, Anantha; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2016-12-30

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling via c-Met is known to promote endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis. We have previously reported that HGF stimulates lamellipodia formation and motility of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) via PI3K/Akt signal transduction and reactive oxygen species generation. Here, we report a role for HGF-induced intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) generation catalyzed by sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), S1P transporter, spinster homolog 2 (Spns2), and S1P receptor, S1P 1 , in lamellipodia formation and perhaps motility of HLMVECs. HGF stimulated SphK1 phosphorylation and enhanced intracellular S1P levels in HLMVECs, which was blocked by inhibition of SphK1. HGF enhanced co-localization of SphK1/p-SphK1 with actin/cortactin in lamellipodia and down-regulation or inhibition of SphK1 attenuated HGF-induced lamellipodia formation in HLMVECs. In addition, down-regulation of Spns2 also suppressed HGF-induced lamellipodia formation, suggesting a key role for inside-out S1P signaling. The HGF-mediated phosphorylation of SphK1 and its localization in lamellipodia was dependent on c-Met and ERK1/2 signaling, but not the PI3K/Akt pathway; however, blocking PI3K/Akt signaling attenuated HGF-mediated phosphorylation of Spns2. Down-regulation of S1P 1 , but not S1P 2 or S1P 3 , with specific siRNA attenuated HGF-induced lamellipodia formation. Further, HGF enhanced association of Spns2 with S1P 1 that was blocked by inhibiting SphK1 activity with PF-543. Moreover, HGF-induced migration of HLMVECs was attenuated by down-regulation of Spns2 . Taken together, these results suggest that HGF/c-Met-mediated lamellipodia formation, and perhaps motility is dependent on intracellular generation of S1P via activation and localization of SphK1 to cell periphery and Spns2-mediated extracellular transportation of S1P and its inside-out signaling via S1P 1 . © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, N; Durgun, E; Yildirim, T; Ciraci, S

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti 8 C 12 met-car can bind up to 16 H 2 molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H 2 storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H 2 into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H 2 molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H 2 storage capacity of a Ti 8 C 12 cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H 2 -adsorbed Ti 8 C 12 met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature

  2. Met inactivation by S-allylcysteine suppresses the migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal cancer cells induced by hepatocyte growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, O Yeon; Hwang, Hye Sook; Lee, Bok Soon; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Chul Ho; Chun, Mi Son [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Past studies have reported that S-allylcysteine (SAC) inhibits the migration and invasion of cancer cells through the restoration of E-cadherin, the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and Slug protein expression, and inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, evidence is emerging that shows that ROS induced by radiation could increase Met activation. Following on these reports of SAC and Met, we investigated whether SAC could suppress Met activation. Wound healing, invasion, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), soft agar colony forming, western blotting, and gelatin zymography assays were performed in the human nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines HNE1 and HONE1 treated with SAC (0, 10, 20, or 40 mM) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). This study showed that SAC could suppress the migration and invasion of HNE1 and HONE1 cell lines by inhibiting p-Met. An increase of migration and invasion induced by HGF and its decrease in a dose dependent manner by SAC in wound healing and invasion assays was observed. The reduction of p-Met by SAC was positively correlated with p-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and p-extracellular related kinase (p-ERK in both cell lines). SAC reduced Slug, MMP2, and MMP9 involved in migration and invasion with the inhibition of Met-FAK signaling. These results suggest that SAC inhibited not only Met activation but also the downstream FAK, Slug, and MMP expression. Finally, SAC may be a potent anticancer compound for nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of a 1.6-Mb 4p16.3 interstitial microdeletion encompassing FGFRL1 and TACC3 associated with bilateral cleft lip and palate of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome facial dysmorphism and short long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Haploinsufficiency of FGFRL1 and TACC3 at 4p16.3 can be associated with bilateral cleft lip and palate of WHS facial dysmorphism and short long bones. Prenatal diagnosis of facial cleft with short long bones should raise a suspicion of chromosome microdeletion syndromes.

  4. The MET/AXL/FGFR Inhibitor S49076 Impairs Aurora B Activity and Improves the Antitumor Efficacy of Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clémenson, Céline; Chargari, Cyrus; Liu, Winchygn; Mondini, Michele; Ferté, Charles; Burbridge, Mike F; Cattan, Valérie; Jacquet-Bescond, Anne; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Several therapeutic agents targeting HGF/MET signaling are under clinical development as single agents or in combination, notably with anti-EGFR therapies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, despite increasing data supporting a link between MET, irradiation, and cancer progression, no data regarding the combination of MET-targeting agents and radiotherapy are available from the clinic. S49076 is an oral ATP-competitive inhibitor of MET, AXL, and FGFR1-3 receptors that is currently in phase I/II clinical trials in combination with gefitinib in NSCLC patients whose tumors show resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Here, we studied the impact of S49076 on MET signaling, cell proliferation, and clonogenic survival in MET-dependent (GTL16 and U87-MG) and MET-independent (H441, H460, and A549) cells. Our data show that S49076 exerts its cytotoxic activity at low doses on MET-dependent cells through MET inhibition, whereas it inhibits growth of MET-independent cells at higher but clinically relevant doses by targeting Aurora B. Furthermore, we found that S49076 improves the antitumor efficacy of radiotherapy in both MET-dependent and MET-independent cell lines in vitro and in subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models in vivo In conclusion, our study demonstrates that S49076 has dual antitumor activity and can be used in combination with radiotherapy for the treatment of both MET-dependent and MET-independent tumors. These results support the evaluation of combined treatment of S49076 with radiation in clinical trials without patient selection based on the tumor MET dependency status. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(10); 2107-19. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Frequent deletion of 3p21.1 region carrying semaphorin 3G and aberrant expression of the genes participating in semaphorin signaling in the epithelioid type of malignant mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Morinaga, Tomonori; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Yamada, Shusai; Murakami, Aki; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Seiji; Okumura, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Hasegawa, Seiki; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Nakano, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis was performed on 21 malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples (16 primary cell cultures and 5 cell lines) and two reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RM) primary cell cultures. The RM samples did not have any genomic losses or gains. In MM samples, deletions in 1p, 3p21, 4q, 9p21, 16p13 and 22q were detected frequently. We focused on 3p21 because this deletion was specific to the epithelioid type. Especially, a deletion in 3p21.1 region carrying seven genes including SEMA3G was found in 52% of MM samples (11 of 14 epithelioid samples). The allele loss of 3p21.1 might be a good marker for the epithelioid MM. A homozygous deletion in this region was detected in two MM primary cell cultures. A heterozygous deletion detected in nine samples contained the 3p21.1 region and 3p21.31 one carrying the candidate tumor suppressor genes such as semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F), SEMA3B and Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 (RASSF1A). SEMA3B, 3F and 3G are class 3 semaphorins and inhibit growth by competing with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through binding to neuropilin. All MM samples downregulated the expression of more than one gene for SEMA3B, 3F and 3G when compared with Met5a, a normal pleura-derived cell line. Moreover, in 12 of 14 epithelioid MM samples the expression level of SEMA3A was lower than that in Met5a and the two RM samples. An augmented expression of VEGFA was detected in half of the MM samples. The expression ratio of VEGFA/SEMA3A was significantly higher in the epithelioid MMs than in Met5a, RMs and the non-epithelioid MMs. Our data suggest that the downregulated expression of SEMA3A and several SEMA3s results in a loss of inhibitory activities in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth of VEGFA; therefore, it may play an important role on the pathogenesis of the epithelioid type of MM.

  6. Induction Chemotherapy for p16 Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuki; Ando, Mizuo; Omura, Go; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Takahashi, Wataru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effectiveness of induction chemotherapy for treating p16-positive oropharyngeal cancer in our department. This was a retrospective case series to assess treatment effectiveness. We administered induction chemotherapy to patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal p16-positive squamous cell carcinoma between 2008 and 2013. Induction chemotherapy was administered using combinations of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil. We measured the survival rates using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. We reviewed 23 patients (18 men and 5 women; age, 42-79 years). Induction chemotherapy resulted in partial or complete remission (20 patients) and in stable (2 patients) or progressive (1 patient) disease. In partial or complete remission, subsequent radiotherapy was performed in 16 patients, chemoradiotherapy in two, and transoral resection in two. In stable or progressive disease, subsequent open surgery was performed. Overall, one patient died of cervical lymph node metastasis, one died of kidney cancer, and one died of myocardial infarction. Event-free, distant-metastasis-free survival was present for 20 patients. The 3-year disease-specific survival was 95%; the overall survival was 87%. Two patients required gastrostomies during chemoradiotherapy and three required tracheotomies, but these were closed in all patients. The therapeutic response to induction chemotherapy for p16-positive oropharyngeal cancer was good. Partial or complete remission was achieved in almost 90% patients, and control of local and distant metastases was possible when it was followed by radiotherapy alone or with transoral resection of the primary tumor. A multicenter study is required to confirm these findings. 4.

  7. Immunohistochemical study of p16 INK4A and survivin expressions in cervical squamous neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Geok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting Malaysian women. Despite the implementation of pap smear screening, many women are still diagnosed only in the advanced stage of cervical cancer. This could partly be due to failure of detection of its precursor lesions; hence the need to search for novel biomarkers to assist in the screening and diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. This study aims to determine the expression of p16INK4A and survivin as possible predictive biomarkers in cervical squamous neoplasm. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study on 201 cases of cervical neoplasm comprising of 129 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and 72 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. All samples were evaluated by two independent observers using p16INK4A and survivin monoclonal antibodies. The p16 INK4A expression was graded as negative, focal and diffuse positivity. The intensity for survivin expression was graded as weak, moderate and intense. Results: It is seen that p16 INK4A expression in CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 were 25.4%, 42.9% and 95.9% respectively. Majority of SCC (98.6% showed p16 INK4A expression. Survivin expressions in CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC were 56.7%, 33.4%, 87.5% and 98.6%. There was a linear relationship between increasing grade of CIN and p16 INK4A expressions. Conclusion: Our study showed that p16 INK4A expressions correlate well with the increasing grade of CIN. Although survivin does not correlate well to the increasing grade of CIN, it could be useful in differentiating CIN 3 from SCC.

  8. Influence of human papillomavirus and p16INK4a on treatment outcome of patients with anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerber, Stefan Alexander; Schoneweg, Clara; Slynko, Alla; Krug, David; Haefner, Matthias F.; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Juergen; Sterzing, Florian; Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus von

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate HPV-DNA and p16 INK4a (p16) expression as prognostic markers for outcome in patients with anal cancer. Methods: From January 2000 to December 2011 a cohort of 105 anal cancer patients was treated with definitive chemoradiation at our institution. Tumor biopsies from 90 patients were analyzed for HPV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and for p16 expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: Median follow-up was 48.6 months (range 2.8–169.1 months). HPV-DNA or p16-expression was found in 75 anal cancers each (83.3%), concordance was detectable in 70 tumors (77.8%). Significantly improved overall survival (OS) [77.1% vs. 51.4%, p = 0.005], progression-free survival (PFS) [64.0% vs. 35.0%, p < 0.001] and improved local control [81.0% vs. 55.9%, p = 0.023] was found for concomitant HPV- and p16-positive anal carcinomas (cHPPAC) in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed better OS [p = 0.015] and PFS [p = 0.002] for cHPPAC. Conclusion: The combination of HPV-DNA and p16 can be used as an independent prognostic parameter in anal cancer patients

  9. MetHumi - Humidity Device for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Polkko, Jouni; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Leinonen, Jussi; Mäkinen, Teemu; Haukka, Harri

    2010-05-01

    MetNet Mars Mission focused for Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetHumi is the humidity sensor of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Humicap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetHumi is a capacitive type of sensing device where an active polymer film changes capacitance as function of relative humidity. One MetHumi device package consists of one humidity transducer including three Humicap® sensor heads, an accurate temperature sensor head (Thermocap® by Vaisala, Inc.) and constant reference channels. MetHumi is very small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs only about 15 g without wires, and consumes 15 mW of power. MetHumi can make meaningful relative humidity measurements in range of 0 - 100%RH down to -70°C ambient temperature, but it survives even -135°C ambient temperature.

  10. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Sichero, Laura; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa Lina; Rahal, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.

  11. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas [Department of Biology, Institute of Bioscience, Language and Exact Science, São Paulo State University, São Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil); Sichero, Laura [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre for Translational Research in Oncology, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), São Paulo (Brazil); Boccardo, Enrique [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo., São Paulo (Brazil); Villa, Luisa Lina [Department of Radiology and Oncology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Rahal, Paula, E-mail: rahalp@yahoo.com.br [Department of Biology, Institute of Bioscience, Language and Exact Science, São Paulo State University, São Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.

  12. A comparison of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Filipino women and Filipino American women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Irma B; Battie, Cynthia A; Tuason, Teresa; Ancheta, Christine V

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in women of Filipino ethnicity. The objective of our work was to determine if metabolic syndrome (MetS), a modifiable CVD risk factor, differs in women as a function of country of residency and to determine if, CVD prevention strategies need to differ for these groups of Filipino women. Data were collected in community-based health screenings for this cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS were recruited at places of worship in southeast United States (n=60) and Central Visayas, Philippines (n=56). Prevalence of MetS and its component factors as defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The prevalence of MetS in Filipino women (FW) and Filipino American women (FAW) groups was similar (52% vs 55%, P=.08) although the prevalence of elevated waist circumference was greater for FAW (78% vs 59%, P=.03). Conversely, the percentage of FW women with risk-associated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels was higher than the FAW group (84% vs 42%, PFilipino women regardless of the country of residency although the FAW tended to have higher rates of central obesity while the FW tended to have higher rates of risk-associated HDL levels. Further research should examine the cause of these differences in order to develop better cardiovascular screening and intervention strategies.

  13. Companied P16 genetic and protein status together providing useful information on the clinical outcome of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Liya; Fu, Yao; Fan, Zhiwen; Zheng, Jinyu; Zhang, Biao; Yang, Jun; Guan, Wenyan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Qing; Huang, Qing

    2018-04-01

    SPEC P16/CEN3/7/17 Probe fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) has become the most sensitive method in indentifying the urothelial tumors and loss of P16 has often been identified in low-grade urothelial lesions; however, little is known about the significations of other P16 genetic status (normal and amplification) in bladder cancer.We detected P16 gene status by FISH in 259 urine samples and divided these samples into 3 groups: 1, normal P16; 2, loss of P16; and 3, amplified P16. Meanwhile, p16 protein expression was measured by immunocytochemistry and we characterized the clinicopathologic features of cases with P16 gene status.Loss of P16 occurred in 26.2%, P16 amplification occurred in 41.3% and P16 gene normal occurred in 32.4% of all cases. P16 genetic status was significantly associated with tumor grade and primary tumor status (P = .008 and .017), but not with pathological tumor stage, overall survival, and p16 protein expression. However, P16 gene amplification accompanied protein high-expression has shorter overall survival compared with the overall patients (P = .023), and P16 gene loss accompanied loss of protein also had the tendency to predict bad prognosis (P = .067).Studies show that the genetic status of P16 has a close relation with the stages of bladder cancer. Loss of P16 is associated with low-grade urothelial malignancy while amplified P16 donotes high-grade. Neither P16 gene status nor p16 protein expression alone is an independent predictor of urothelial bladder carcinoma, but combine gene and protein status together providing useful information on the clinical outcome of these patients.

  14. Optical buffer based on monolithic InP phased-array 1×16 switch with silica-PLC pitch converter and ultra-compact coiled fiber delay lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanemura, T.; Soganci, I. M.; Oyama, T.; Ohyama, T.; Mino, S.; Williams, K. A.; Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H. J S; Nakano, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate large-capacity high-resolution optical buffer, comprising 1×16 InP switch and ultra-compact delay lines based on thin-cladding highly nonlinear fibers. Silica-PLC-based pitch converter is employed to realize uniform coupling from all 16 switch ports simultaneously.

  15. Factors affecting variability in the urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-01-01

    Although urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) is a useful biomarker of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), a large degree of unexplained intra- and inter-individual variability exists between estimated HDI exposure and urine HDA levels. We investigated the effect of individual and workplace factors on urine HDA levels using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters exposed to HDI. Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI-exposures were monitored over an entire workday for up to three separate workdays, spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Using mixed effects multiple linear regression modeling, coverall use resulted in significantly lower HDA levels (p = 0.12), and weekday contributed to significant variability in HDA levels (p = 0.056). We also investigated differences in urine HDA levels stratified by dichotomous and classification covariates using analysis of variance. Use of coveralls (p = 0.05), respirator type worn (p = 0.06), smoker status (p = 0.12), paint-booth type (p = 0.02), and more than one painter at the shop (p = 0.10) were all found to significantly affect urine HDA levels adjusted for creatinine concentration. Coverall use remained significant (p = 0.10), even after adjusting for respirator type. These results indicate that the variation in urine HDA level is mainly due to workplace factors and that appropriate dermal and inhalation protection is required to prevent HDI exposure.

  16. Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate: A Summary of Its Cytoprotective Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Norma; Alva, Ronald; Carbonell, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    In clinical and experimental settings, a great deal of effort is being made to protect cells and tissues against harmful conditions and to facilitate metabolic recovery following these insults. Much of the recent attention has focused on the protective role of a natural form of sugar, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F16bP). F16bP is a high-energy glycolytic intermediate that has been shown to exert a protective action in different cell types and tissues (including the brain, kidney, intestine, liver and heart) against various harmful conditions. For example, there is much evidence that it prevents neuronal damage due to hypoxia and ischemia. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effects of F16bP have been documented in lesions caused by chemicals or cold storage, in a decrease in mortality during sepsis shock and even in the prevention of bone loss in experimental osteoporosis. Intriguingly, protection in such a variety of targets and animal models suggests that the mechanisms induced by F16bP are complex and involve different pathways. In this review we will discuss the most recent theories concerning the molecular model of action of F16bP inside cells. These include its incorporation as an energy substrate, the mechanism for the improvement of ATP availability, and for preservation of organelle membrane stability and functionality. In addition we will present new evidences regarding the capacity of F16bP to decrease oxidative stress by limiting free radical production and improving antioxidant systems, including the role of nitric oxide in the protective mechanism induced by F16bP. Finally we will review the proposed mechanisms for explaining its anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties.

  17. Expression of cdk4 and p16 in Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sinny; Khurana, Nita; Marwah, Akanksha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of cdk4 and p16, the proteins implicated in hyperproliferation and arrest in oral lichen planus and to compare their expression in erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus and with normal mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Analysis of cdk4 and p16 expression was done in 43 erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) and 17 non-erosive oral lichen planus (NOLP) cases, 10 normal mucosa and 10 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases with immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrated a significantly increased expression of cytoplasmic cdk4 (80% cases, cells stained - 19.6%), and cytoplasmic p16 (68.3% cases, cells stained - 16.4%) in oral lichen planus (OLP) compared to normal mucosa. cdk4 was much higher in OSCC in both cytoplasm and nuclei compared to normal mucosa. Also, while comparing OLP with positive control, significant difference was noted for cdk4 and p16, with expression being more in OSCC. While comparing EOLP with NOLP; significant differences were seen for cdk4 cytoplasmic staining only, for number of cases with positive staining as well as number of cells stained. Overexpression of cytoplasmic cdk4 and p16 was registered in oral lichen planus, however considerably lower than in squamous cell carcinoma. Erosive oral lichen planus demonstrated overexpression of cytoplasmic cdk4 and premalignant nature compared to non-erosive lesion. Therefore there is an obvious possibility for cytoplasmic expression of cdk4 and p16 to predict malignant potential of oral lichen planus lesions.

  18. MetBaro - Pressure Device for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Polkko, Jouni; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Leinonen, Jussi; Genzer, Maria; Mäkinen, Teemu

    2010-05-01

    MetNet Mars Mission focused for Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure sensor of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitive type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 4 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  19. Single pion and several pions production in π+p interactions at 1.6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabiol, M.A.

    1966-01-01

    The production of ρ + , N 33 * , and η 0 was observed in π + p interactions at 1.6 GeV/c. In the reactions where one pion is created, the comparison between the experimental distribution of the ρ + and the N 33 * with the predictions of the peripheral model modified by absorption effects permits the conclusion that the contribution of this model is important, but that other effects such as interferences between ρ + and N 33 * are not negligible. In the reactions where several pions are created, the branching ratios of some decay modes of η0 are evaluated and the associated production of η 0 and N 33 * is observed. (author) [fr

  20. Localization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granule-associated proteins during PHB granule formation and identification of two new phasins, PhaP6 and PhaP7, in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2012-11-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules are covered by a surface layer consisting of mainly phasins and other PHB granule-associated proteins (PGAPs). Phasins are small amphiphilic proteins that determine the number and size of accumulated PHB granules. Five phasin proteins (PhaP1 to PhaP5) are known for Ralstonia eutropha. In this study, we identified three additional potential phasin genes (H16_B1988, H16_B2296, and H16_B2326) by inspection of the R. eutropha genome for sequences with "phasin 2 motifs." To determine whether the corresponding proteins represent true PGAPs, fusions with eYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) were constructed. Similar fusions of eYFP with PhaP1 to PhaP5 as well as fusions with PHB synthase (PhaC1), an inactive PhaC1 variant (PhaC1-C319A), and PhaC2 were also made. All fusions were investigated in wild-type and PHB-negative backgrounds. Colocalization with PHB granules was found for all PhaC variants and for PhaP1 to PhaP5. Additionally, eYFP fusions with H16_B1988 and H16_B2326 colocalized with PHB. Fusions of H16_B2296 with eYFP, however, did not colocalize with PHB granules but did colocalize with the nucleoid region. Notably, all fusions (except H16_B2296) were soluble in a ΔphaC1 strain. These data confirm that H16_B1988 and H16_B2326 but not H16_B2296 encode true PGAPs, for which we propose the designation PhaP6 (H16_B1988) and PhaP7 (H16_B2326). When localization of phasins was investigated at different stages of PHB accumulation, fusions of PhaP6 and PhaP7 were soluble in the first 3 h under PHB-permissive conditions, although PHB granules appeared after 10 min. At later time points, the fusions colocalized with PHB. Remarkably, PHB granules of strains expressing eYFP fusions with PhaP5, PhaP6, or PhaP7 localized predominantly near the cell poles or in the area of future septum formation. This phenomenon was not observed for the other PGAPs (PhaP1 to PhaP4, PhaC1, PhaC1-C319A, and PhaC2) and indicated that some phasins

  1. Single pion and several pions production in {pi}{sup +}p interactions at 1.6 GeV/c; Creation d'un et plusieurs mesons {pi} dans les interactions {pi}{sup +} p a 1,6 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabiol, M.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The production of {rho}{sup +}, N{sub 33}{sup *}, and {eta}{sup 0} was observed in {pi}{sup +}p interactions at 1.6 GeV/c. In the reactions where one pion is created, the comparison between the experimental distribution of the {rho}{sup +} and the N{sub 33}{sup *} with the predictions of the peripheral model modified by absorption effects permits the conclusion that the contribution of this model is important, but that other effects such as interferences between {rho}{sup +} and N{sub 33}{sup *} are not negligible. In the reactions where several pions are created, the branching ratios of some decay modes of {eta}0 are evaluated and the associated production of {eta}{sup 0} and N{sub 33}{sup *} is observed. (author) [French] La production des resonances {rho}{sup +}, N{sub 33}{sup *} et {eta}{sup 0} a ete observee dans les interactions {pi}{sup +}p a 1,6 GeV/c. Dans les reactions ou un seul meson {pi} est cree, la comparaison des distributions experimentales relatives au meson {rho}{sup +} et a l'isobare N{sub 33}{sup *} aux previsions du modele peripherique modifie par les effets d'absorption, permet d'affirmer que la contribution de ce modele est importante, mais que des effets tels que les interferences entre les processus de creation du {rho}{sup +} et de N{sub 33}{sup *} ne sont pas negligeables. Dans les reactions ou plusieurs mesons {pi} sont crees, les rapports de branchement de certains modes de desintegration du meson {eta}{sup 0} ont pu etre evalues et la production associee du {eta}{sup 0} et de N{sub 33}{sup *} a ete observee. (auteur)

  2. Activation of the JNK pathway is essential for transformation by the Met oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G A; Park, M; Schlessinger, J

    1997-05-15

    The Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase is oncogenically activated through a rearrangement that creates a hybrid gene Tpr-Met. The resultant chimeric p65(Tpr-Met) protein is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo and associates with a number of SH2-containing signaling molecules including the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase and the Grb2 adaptor protein, which couples receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway. Mutation of the binding site for Grb2 impairs the ability of Tpr-Met oncoprotein to transform fibroblasts, suggesting that the activation of the Ras/MAP kinase signaling pathway through Grb2 may be essential for cellular transformation. To test this hypothesis dominant-negative mutants of Grb2 with deletions of the SH3 domains were introduced into Tpr-Met transformed fibroblasts. Cells overexpressing the mutants were found to be morphologically reverted and exhibited reduced growth in soft agar. Surprisingly, the Grb2 mutants blocked activation of the JNK/SAPK but not MAP kinase activity induced by the Tpr-Met oncoprotein. Additionally, cells expressing dominant-negative Grb2 mutants had reduced PI-3-kinase activity and dominant-negative mutants of Rac1 blocked both Tpr-Met-induced transformation and activation of JNK. These experiments reveal a novel link between Met and the JNK pathway, which is essential for transformation by this oncogene.

  3. Ageing, chronic alcohol consumption and folate are determinants of genomic DNA methylation, p16 promoter methylation and the expression of p16 in the mouse colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  4. The expression patterns of p53 and p16 and an analysis of a possible role of HPV in primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley E Alexander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare. The molecular and cellular events leading to its pathogenesis are not well delineated. The goal of this study was to investigate p53 and p16 expression, as well as HPV status, in a relatively large series of primary bladder adenocarcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty six cases of urinary bladder adenocarcinoma were chosen from participating institutions. The diagnosis and available clinical history were reviewed in each case. Immunostains for p53, p16 and HPV and high-risk and low-risk HPV-ISH were performed on all tumors. RESULTS: Patients had an average age of 61 years with a male predominance (1.5 ∶ 1 male ∶ female ratio. The average tumor size in cystectomy specimens was 4.3 cm. Of the cases managed by transurethral resection, 40% were pT2 at the time of diagnosis. In cystectomy specimens, 77% were either pT3 or pT4. Strong nuclear p16 expression was seen in 67% of all cases and p53 expression was present in 58% of the cases. Expression of both markers was seen in 33% of cases. Expression of p16 or p53 alone was present in 12 (33% and 9 (25% cases, respectively. Neither marker was expressed in only 3 (8% of the tumors. No significant correlation between clinical variables and any of the markers we studied was identified. No HPV infection was detected in any case. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of p53 and/or p16 is very common in urinary bladder adenocarcinoma. These findings implicate a high likelihood that alterations in these cell cycle proteins contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumors. Despite frequent immunohistochemical labeling for p16, no evidence of HPV infection was found.

  5. Two decades of Pacific anthropogenic carbon storage and ocean acidification along Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program sections P16 and P02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. R.; Feely, R. A.; Mecking, S.; Cross, J. N.; Macdonald, A. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Talley, L. D.; Sabine, C. L.; Millero, F. J.; Swift, J. H.; Dickson, A. G.; Rodgers, K. B.

    2017-02-01

    A modified version of the extended multiple linear regression (eMLR) method is used to estimate anthropogenic carbon concentration (Canth) changes along the Pacific P02 and P16 hydrographic sections over the past two decades. P02 is a zonal section crossing the North Pacific at 30°N, and P16 is a meridional section crossing the North and South Pacific at 150°W. The eMLR modifications allow the uncertainties associated with choices of regression parameters to be both resolved and reduced. Canth is found to have increased throughout the water column from the surface to 1000 m depth along both lines in both decades. Mean column Canth inventory increased consistently during the earlier (1990s-2000s) and recent (2000s-2010s) decades along P02, at rates of 0.53 ± 0.11 and 0.46 ± 0.11 mol C m-2 a-1, respectively. By contrast, Canth storage accelerated from 0.29 ± 0.10 to 0.45 ± 0.11 mol C m-2 a-1 along P16. Shifts in water mass distributions are ruled out as a potential cause of this increase, which is instead attributed to recent increases in the ventilation of the South Pacific Subtropical Cell. Decadal changes along P16 are extrapolated across the gyre to estimate a Pacific Basin average storage between 60°S and 60°N of 6.1 ± 1.5 PgC decade-1 in the earlier decade and 8.8 ± 2.2 PgC decade-1 in the recent decade. This storage estimate is large despite the shallow Pacific Canth penetration due to the large volume of the Pacific Ocean. By 2014, Canth storage had changed Pacific surface seawater pH by -0.08 to -0.14 and aragonite saturation state by -0.57 to -0.82.

  6. Comparison of MET-PET and FDG-PET for differentiation between benign lesions and lung cancer in pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanegae, Kakuko; Kuge, Yuji; Shiga, Tohru; Zhao, Songji; Okamoto, Shouzo; Tamaki, Nagara; Nakano, Ikuo; Kimura, Kiyonobu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the ability of C-11-methionine (MET) and F-18 fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to diagnose lung cancer in patients with pneumoconiosis. Twenty-six subjects underwent both wholebody MET-PET and FDG-PET on the same day. The first group was a lung cancer group, which consisted of 15 patients, and included those with pneumoconiosis with increased nodules (13 cases), hemoptysis (1 case), and positive sputum cytology (1 case). The second group was a no-malignancy control group, consisting of 11 patients with pneumoconiosis. Significant correlations between nodule size and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of the two PET tracers were observed in the control group. The larger the nodule size, the greater were the amounts of these tracers accumulated (MET: r=0.771, P max of MET was significantly lower than that of FDG in the pneumoconiotic nodules (P max of MET was significantly higher in the lung cancer than in the pneumoconiotic nodules, with 3.48±1.18 (mean ± SE) for the lung cancer and 1.48±0.08 for the pneumoconiotic nodules (P max of FDG, with 7.12±2.36 and 2.85±0.24 (P<0.05), respectively. On the basis of the criteria for the control group, FDG and MET identified lung cancer with sensitivities of 60% and 80%, specificities of 100% and 93%, accuracies of 90% and 90%, positive predictive values of 100% and 80%, and negative predictive values of 88% and 93%, respectively. Our results indicate that nodules with an intense uptake of MET and FDG relative to their size should be carefully observed because of a high risk for lung cancer. (author)

  7. Relationship between HPV infection/p16 expression and radiotherapy prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Yuan; Gao Li; Yi Junlin; Huang Xiaodong; Luo Jingwei; Zhang Shiping; Wang Kai; Xu Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection/p16 expression and radiotherapy prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the prognostic value of p16 in OSCC patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods: Tissue samples were collected from 42 patients newly diagnosed with OSCC in our hospital from January 1999 to December 2008. PCR was performed to detect HPV DNA, and p16 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry. The chi-square test was used to compare the local/regional control rate (CR) between HPV (+)/p16 (+) patients and HPV (-)/p16 (-) patients after radical radiotherapy and evaluate the association between HPV infection and p16 expression; the Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate overall survival (OS), and the log-rank test was used for survival difference analysis. Results: The follow-up rate was 100%.The HPV infection rate was 19%, and the positive rate of p16 was 43%. In patients who received radical radiotherapy, the local CR for HPV (+) patients was 100%, versus 54% for HPV (-) patients (P =0.026); the local CR for p16 (+) patients was 92%, versus 44% for p16 (-) patients (P=0.006); the locoregional CR for p16(-) patients was 69%, versus 22% for p16 (-) patients (P=0.009). For high-risk patients, HPV infection was significantly associated with p16 expression (P=0.000). The 3-year OS rates for p16 (+) and p16 (-) patients were 91% and 2 6 %, respectively (P=0.001). Conclusions: The p16 expression is closely associated with HPV infection in OSCC patients, and it is expected to become one of the prognostic markers in OSCC patients treated with radiotherapy. (authors)

  8. MET overexpression, gene amplification and relevant clinicopathological features in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Wenbin; Ying, Jianming

    2017-02-07

    This study was conducted to investigate the expression of MET in Chinese gastric adenocarcinoma cohort, the correlation between MET overexpression and clinical pathological features, HER2 expression and MET gene amplification. A total of 816 gastric adenocarcinoma patients were included and MET and HER2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed. IHC and dual-color silver in situ hybridization analysis were performed in the tissue microarrays, constructed from the 240 patients who were randomly selected. MET overexpression (IHC 3+) was observed in 6.0% (49/816) of the cohort. MET overexpression rate was higher in patients with poor prognostic factors, such as clinical stages III/IV (p =0.012) and pathologic stages T3/T4 (p =0.027). The HER2 overexpression (IHC 3+) rate was 8.8% (72/816) and MET overexpression rate was higher in HER2 positive patients (9.7%, 7/72). A high concordance rate (94.6%) between MET overexpression and gene amplification was demonstrated. Therefore, MET overexpression could serve as a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  9. Convergent RANK- and c-Met-mediated signaling components predict survival of patients with prostate cancer: an interracial comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peizhen; Chung, Leland W K; Berel, Dror; Frierson, Henry F; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Ruoxiang; Li, Qinlong; Rogatko, Andre; Zhau, Haiyen E

    2013-01-01

    We reported (PLoS One 6 (12):e28670, 2011) that the activation of c-Met signaling in RANKL-overexpressing bone metastatic LNCaP cell and xenograft models increased expression of RANK, RANKL, c-Met, and phosphorylated c-Met, and mediated downstream signaling. We confirmed the significance of the RANK-mediated signaling network in castration resistant clinical human prostate cancer (PC) tissues. In this report, we used a multispectral quantum dot labeling technique to label six RANK and c-Met convergent signaling pathway mediators simultaneously in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, quantify the intensity of each expression at the sub-cellular level, and investigated their potential utility as predictors of patient survival in Caucasian-American, African-American and Chinese men. We found that RANKL and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) expression predicts survival of Caucasian-Americans with PC. A Gleason score ≥ 8 combined with nuclear p-c-Met expression predicts survival in African-American PC patients. Neuropilin-1, p-NF-κB p65 and VEGF are predictors for the overall survival of Chinese men with PC. These results collectively support interracial differences in cell signaling networks that can predict the survival of PC patients.

  10. MetBaro - Pressure Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkko, J.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitic type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 6 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  11. Differences in MetS marker prevalence between black African and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis, independent of covariates, showed that the albumin:creatinine ratio is explained only by glucose in Africans. Conclusion: African women, as a group, present with few MetS risk factors, and glucose is associated with renal function risk in Africans. Keywords: MetS, metabolic syndrome, ...

  12. Magic-factor 1, a partial agonist of Met, induces muscle hypertrophy by protecting myogenic progenitors from apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cassano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF is a pleiotropic cytokine of mesenchymal origin that mediates a characteristic array of biological activities including cell proliferation, survival, motility and morphogenesis. Its high affinity receptor, the tyrosine kinase Met, is expressed by a wide range of tissues and can be activated by either paracrine or autocrine stimulation. Adult myogenic precursor cells, the so called satellite cells, express both HGF and Met. Following muscle injury, autocrine HGF-Met stimulation plays a key role in promoting activation and early division of satellite cells, but is shut off in a second phase to allow myogenic differentiation. In culture, HGF stimulation promotes proliferation of muscle precursors thereby inhibiting their differentiation.Magic-Factor 1 (Met-Activating Genetically Improved Chimeric Factor-1 or Magic-F1 is an HGF-derived, engineered protein that contains two Met-binding domains repeated in tandem. It has a reduced affinity for Met and, in contrast to HGF it elicits activation of the AKT but not the ERK signaling pathway. As a result, Magic-F1 is not mitogenic but conserves the ability to promote cell survival. Here we show that Magic-F1 protects myogenic precursors against apoptosis, thus increasing their fusion ability and enhancing muscular differentiation. Electrotransfer of Magic-F1 gene into adult mice promoted muscular hypertrophy and decreased myocyte apoptosis. Magic-F1 transgenic mice displayed constitutive muscular hypertrophy, improved running performance and accelerated muscle regeneration following injury. Crossing of Magic-F1 transgenic mice with alpha-sarcoglycan knock-out mice -a mouse model of muscular dystrophy- or adenovirus-mediated Magic-F1 gene delivery resulted in amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype as measured by both anatomical/histological analysis and functional tests.Because of these features Magic-F1 represents a novel molecular tool to counteract muscle wasting in major

  13. Correlation between human papillomavirus and p16 overexpression in oropharyngeal tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, C; Gyldenløve, M; Jensen, D H

    2014-01-01

    A significant proportion of squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx (OP-SCC) are related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p16 overexpression. This subgroup proves better prognosis and survival but no evidence exists on the correlation between HPV and p16 overexpression based on diag...

  14. Induction Chemotherapy for p16 Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Yuki; Ando, Mizuo; Omura, Go; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Takahashi, Wataru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis We aimed to determine the effectiveness of induction chemotherapy for treating p16?positive oropharyngeal cancer in our department. Study Design This was a retrospective case series to assess treatment effectiveness. Methods We administered induction chemotherapy to patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal p16?positive squamous cell carcinoma between 2008 and 2013. Induction chemotherapy was administered using combinations of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5?fluorouracil. ...

  15. Enkephalins: Raman spectral analysis and comparison as function of pH 1-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Refstrup, Pia; Nielsen, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    Raman spectral studies are carried out on Leu- and Met-enkephalin as a function of the pH value in the range of 1-13. The molecules are dissolved in KCI solvent and the pH is controlled at each value. Spectral analyses reveal the dependence of the structural conformation on the pH, and a comparis...

  16. Phase I Trial of Anti-MET Monoclonal Antibody in MET-Overexpressed Refractory Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyun; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Sungju; Lee, Sujin; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Ho Yeong; Ahn, Hongmo; Bok, Haesook; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Ahn, Myung Ju; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Young Suk

    2018-06-01

    Samsung Advance Institute of Technology-301 (SAIT301) is a human immunoglobulin G2 antibody that can specifically target mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (c-MET). This novel antibody has higher priority over hepatocyte growth factors when binding to the Sema domain of c-MET and accelerates the internalization and degradation of c-MET, proving its powerful antitumor activities in intra- as well as extracellular areas. SAIT301 was administered intravenously once every 3 weeks in c-MET overexpressed solid tumor patients, focusing on metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) according to common clinical phase I criteria. Dose escalation was performed according to a modified Fibonacci design, following the conventional 3+3 design. The purpose of this phase I study was to assess the safety profile, to establish the recommended dose for clinical phase II studies and to assess potential anticancer activity of the compound. Sixteen patients with a median age of 56 (range, 39-69) years were enrolled in the study. The most common adverse events were decreased appetite (50.0%), hypophosphatemia, fatigue and dizziness (25.0%, respectively), and diarrhea, blood alkaline phosphatase increased and dyspnea (18.8%, respectively). For tumor response, no patients achieved complete response. One (9.1%) CRC patient had a partial response in the 1.23 mg/kg group, 4 (36.4%) patients achieved stable disease (2 in the 0.41 mg/kg group, 2 in the 1.23 mg/kg group, 0 in the 3.69 mg/kg group, and 1 in the 8.61 mg/kg group). Because of the increase in dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at 8.61 mg/kg, the 3.69 mg/kg dose was considered the maximum tolerated dose and selected for further assessment in phase II. We successfully completed a phase I trial with MET antibody in a MET-overexpressed patient population focusing on CRC, and found that the DLTs were alkaline phosphatase elevation or hypophosphatemia. The recommended dose of SAIT301 for phase II is the dose of 3.69 mg/kg. Copyright © 2018

  17. Protein p 16INK4A expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of human papilloma virus (HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN is well recognized. Interaction of HPV oncogenic proteins with cellular regulatory proteins leads to up regulation of p16 INK4A , a CDK inhibitor, which is a biomarker for HPV infection. We investigated p16 expression in CIN and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC which has not been reported in the Indian population previously. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 100 cases with 20 cases each of histologically normal cervical epithelium, CIN1, 2, 3 and invasive SCC for p16 expression was performed by immunohistochemistry using commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody to p16 (clone 6H12. Statistical Analysis: For differences in expression among groups, statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffe. Results: p16 immunoreactivity was found to be both nuclear and/or cytoplasmic. The normal cervical epithelium was predominantly negative for p16 (18/20. There was a progressive increase of p16 expression with the grade of CIN. In CIN 1, two cases (20% showed nuclear and nucleocytoplasmic positivity respectively. In contrast, diffuse strong nuclear or nucleocytoplasmic expression was observed in 45 and 55% cases of CIN 2 and CIN 3 respectively. All except one squamous cell carcinoma stained strongly positive for p16. The difference in expression between CIN 2/3 and SCC versus normal cervix was found highly significant (p is equal to 0.008 and p less than 0.001. Conclusions: p16 expression correlates excellently with the grade of CIN and is a sensitive marker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  18. Central nervous system immunoreactive somatostatin, substance P and met-enkephalin concentrations in experimental hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.L.; Millar, R.P.; Kirsch, R. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa))

    1982-06-12

    Immunoreactive somatostatin, substance P and met-enkephalin concentrations were measured in various regions of the rat brain 65 hours after portacaval shunt and compared with concentrations in sham-operated animals. No significant difference was detected in any of the three peptides in the regions studied, suggesting that these peptides do not play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  19. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  20. Hotair mediates hepatocarcinogenesis through suppressing miRNA-218 expression and activating P14 and P16 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Ming; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Wei-Mao; Lu, Ying-Fei; Hu, Bao-Guang; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ko, Chun-Hay; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Li, Gang; Zhang, Jin-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Long non-coding RNA Hotair has been considered as a pro-oncogene in multiple cancers. Although there is emerging evidence that reveals its biological function and the association with clinical prognosis, the precise mechanism remains largely elusive. We investigated the function and mechanism of Hotair in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell models and a xenograft mouse model. The regulatory network between miR-218 and Hotair was elucidated by RNA immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. Finally, the correlation between Hotair, miR-218 and the target gene Bmi-1 were evaluated in 52 paired HCC specimens. In this study, we reported that Hotair negatively regulated miR-218 expression in HCC, which might be mediated through an EZH2-targeting-miR-218-2 promoter regulatory axis. Further investigation revealed that Hotair knockdown dramatically inhibited cell viability and induced G1-phase arrest in vitro and suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo by promoting miR-218 expression. Oncogene Bmi-1 was shown to be a functional target of miR-218, and the main downstream targets signaling, P16(Ink4a) and P14(ARF), were activated in Hotair-suppressed tumorigenesis. In primary human HCC specimens, Hotair and Bmi-1 were concordantly upregulated whereas miR-218 was downregulated in these tissues. Furthermore, Hotair was inversely associated with miR-218 expression and positively correlated with Bmi-1 expression in these clinical tissues. Hotair silence activates P16(Ink4a) and P14(ARF) signaling by enhancing miR-218 expression and suppressing Bmi-1 expression, resulting in the suppression of tumorigenesis in HCC. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. More with thermal energy storage. Report 1. Coupling with policy. Coupling of research results MMB with policy aspects. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 1. Koppeling met beleid. Koppeling onderzoeksresultaten MMB met beleidsaspecten. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luitwieler, M. [Bioclear, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Beek, D.; De Boer, S.; Koenders, M. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-25

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. This final report provides (a) an overview of the activities that have taken place in the context of work package 1, (b) the results of the other work packages in the light of four policy frameworks, and (c) a view on future policy [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2 worden de effecten van individuele en collectieve

  2. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni 2+ -chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°

  3. Effect of amino acid sequence and pH on nanofiber formation of self-assembling peptides EAK16-II and EAK16-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yooseong; Legge, Raymond L; Zhang, S; Chen, P

    2003-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ASDA-P) were used to investigate the mechanism of self-assembly of peptides. The peptides chosen consisted of 16 alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids, where the hydrophilic residues possess alternating negative and positive charges. Two types of peptides, AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK (EAK16-II) and AEAEAEAEAKAKAKAK (EAK16-IV), were investigated in terms of nanostructure formation through self-assembly. The experimental results, which focused on the effects of the amino acid sequence and pH, show that the nanostructures formed by the peptides are dependent on the amino acid sequence and the pH of the solution. For pH conditions around neutrality, one of the peptides used in this study, EAK16-IV, forms globular assemblies and has lower surface tension at air-water interfaces than another peptide, EAK16-II, which forms fibrillar assemblies at the same pH. When the pH is lowered below 6.5 or raised above 7.5, there is a transition from globular to fibrillar structures for EAK16-IV, but EAK16-II does not show any structural transition. Surface tension measurements using ADSA-P showed different surface activities of peptides at air-water interfaces. EAK16-II does not show a significant difference in surface tension for the pH range between 4 and 9. However, EAK16-IV shows a noticeable decrease in surface tension at pH around neutrality, indicating that the formation of globular assemblies is related to the molecular hydrophobicity.

  4. Nucleosomes correlate with in vivo progression pattern of de novo methylation of p16 CpG islands in human gastric carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Ming Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exact relationship between nucleosome positioning and methylation of CpG islands in human pathogenesis is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we characterized the nucleosome position within the p16 CpG island and established a seeding methylation-specific PCR (sMSP assay based on bisulfite modification to enrich the p16 alleles containing methylated-CpG at the methylation "seeding" sites within its intron-1 in gastric carcinogenesis. The sMSP-positive rate in primary gastric carcinoma (GC samples (36/40 was significantly higher than that observed in gastritis (19/45 or normal samples (7/13 (P<0.01. Extensive clone sequencing of these sMSP products showed that the density of methylated-CpGs in p16 CpG islands increased gradually along with the severity of pathological changes in gastric tissues. In gastritis lesions the methylation was frequently observed in the region corresponding to the exon-1 coding-nucleosome and the 5'UTR-nucleosome; the methylation was further extended to the region corresponding to the promoter-nucleosome in GC samples. Only few methylated-CpG sites were randomly detected within p16 CpG islands in normal tissues. The significantly inversed relationship between the p16 exon-1 methylation and its transcription was observed in GC samples. An exact p16 promoter-specific 83 bp-MSP assay confirms the result of sMSP (33/55 vs. 1/6, P<0.01. In addition, p16 methylation in chronic gastritis lesions significantly correlated with H. pylori infection; however, such correlation was not observed in GC specimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that de novo methylation was initiated in the coding region of p16 exon-1 in gastritis, then progressed to its 5'UTR, and ultimately to the proximal promoter in GCs. Nucleosomes may function as the basic extension/progression unit of de novo methylation of p16 CpG islands in vivo.

  5. Effects of substance P and Sar-Met-SP, a NK1 agonist, in distinct amygdaloid nuclei on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; de Carvalho, Milene Cristina; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2014-05-21

    The amygdala, together with the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), medial hypothalamus, and deep layers of the superior and inferior colliculi, constitutes the encephalic aversion system, which has been considered the main neural substrate for the organization of fear and anxiety. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) acts as a filter for aversive stimuli to higher structures while the central (CeA) and the medial (MeA) nuclei constitute the output for the autonomic and somatic components of the emotional reaction through major projections to the limbic and brainstem regions. Although some findings point to the distinct participation of the substance P (SP) and the NK1 receptors system in the different nuclei of the amygdala on the expression of emotional behaviors, it is not clear if this system modulates anxiety-like responses in the distinct nuclei of the amygdala as well as the dPAG. Thus, it was investigated if the injection of SP into the BLA, CeA, or MeA affects the expression of anxiety-like responses of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and, if the effects are mediated by NK1 receptors. The results showed that SP and Sar-Met-SP (NK1 receptor selective agonist) injected into the CeA and MeA, but not into the BLA, caused anxiogenic-like effects in the EPM. Altogether, the data indicates that the SP may mimic the effects of anxiogenic stimuli via NK1 receptor activation only in the CeA and MeA (amygdala's nuclei output) and may activate the neural mechanisms involved in the defensive reaction genesis. The SP/NK1 receptors system activation may be phasically involved in very specific aspects of anxiety behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A first-in-human phase I study of SAR125844, a selective MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumours with MET amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevin, Eric; Spitaleri, Gianluca; Rodon, Jordi; Dotti, Katia; Isambert, Nicolas; Salvagni, Stefania; Moreno, Victor; Assadourian, Sylvie; Gomez, Corinne; Harnois, Marzia; Hollebecque, Antoine; Azaro, Analia; Hervieu, Alice; Rihawi, Karim; De Marinis, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Dysregulated MET signalling is implicated in oncogenesis. The safety and preliminary efficacy of a highly selective MET kinase inhibitor (SAR125844) was investigated in patients with advanced solid tumours and MET dysregulation. This was a phase I dose-escalation (3 + 3 design [50-740 mg/m 2 ]) and dose-expansion study. In the dose escalation, patients had high total MET (t-MET) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or MET amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. In the dose expansion, patients had MET amplification (including a subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC]) or phosphorylated-MET (p-MET) expression (IHC). Objectives were determination of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of once-weekly intravenous SAR125844 based on dose-limiting toxicities; safety and pharmacokinetic profile; preliminary efficacy of SAR125844 MTD in the expansion cohort. In total, 72 patients were enrolled: dose escalation, N = 33; dose expansion, N = 39; 570 mg/m 2 was established as the MTD. Most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were asthenia/fatigue (58.3%), nausea (31.9%), and abdominal pain, constipation, and dyspnea (27.8% for each); 58.3% of patients reported grade 3 AEs (19.4% were treatment related). Of the 29 evaluable patients with MET amplification treated at 570 mg/m 2 , five achieved a partial response, including four of 22 with NSCLC; 17 patients had stable disease. No response was observed in patients with high p-MET solid tumours. There was no correlation between tumour response and t-MET status or MET gene copy number. The MTD of once-weekly SAR125844 was 570 mg/m 2 ; SAR125844 was well tolerated, with significant antitumour activity in patients with MET-amplified NSCLC. NCT01391533. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Reaction π+p → π+pπ0 (fast) at 16 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.; Fortney, L.; Glanzman, T.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment at the SLAC bubble chamber hybrid facility including the lead glass shower detector is discussed. Early results from the reaction π + p → π + pπ 0 , with incident π + at 16 GeV, and π 0 energy > 8 GeV, are discussed

  8. Convergent RANK- and c-Met-mediated signaling components predict survival of patients with prostate cancer: an interracial comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhen Hu

    Full Text Available We reported (PLoS One 6 (12:e28670, 2011 that the activation of c-Met signaling in RANKL-overexpressing bone metastatic LNCaP cell and xenograft models increased expression of RANK, RANKL, c-Met, and phosphorylated c-Met, and mediated downstream signaling. We confirmed the significance of the RANK-mediated signaling network in castration resistant clinical human prostate cancer (PC tissues. In this report, we used a multispectral quantum dot labeling technique to label six RANK and c-Met convergent signaling pathway mediators simultaneously in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue specimens, quantify the intensity of each expression at the sub-cellular level, and investigated their potential utility as predictors of patient survival in Caucasian-American, African-American and Chinese men. We found that RANKL and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 expression predicts survival of Caucasian-Americans with PC. A Gleason score ≥ 8 combined with nuclear p-c-Met expression predicts survival in African-American PC patients. Neuropilin-1, p-NF-κB p65 and VEGF are predictors for the overall survival of Chinese men with PC. These results collectively support interracial differences in cell signaling networks that can predict the survival of PC patients.

  9. Decadal Anthropogenic Carbon Storage Along P16 and P02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. R.; Feely, R. A.; Talley, L. D.; Cross, J. N.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Siedlecki, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific Ocean has the largest ocean basin anthropogenic carbon (Canth) inventory due to the large size of the basin. We estimate anthropogenic carbon (Canth) concentrations and decadal storages along the meridional P16 and zonal P02 lines since the mid 90s using a modified version of the extended multiple linear regression (EMLR) technique with data from the WOCE, CLIVAR, and GO-SHIP occupations of these lines. We present our estimates and map the aragonite saturation state (ΩA) decreases and saturation horizon shoaling resulting from continued Canth storage. The average storage rate was larger along both sections during the most recent decade (2000's to 2010's) than during the previous decade (1990's to 2000's), especially along P02. Significant decadal concentration increases were found in the mixed layers, shallow thermoclines, mode waters, and portions of the intermediate water masses.

  10. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  11. Aberrant Methylation of Preproenkephalin and p16 Genes in Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Sato, Norihiro; Ueki, Takashi; Rosty, Christophe; Walter, Kimberly M.; Wilentz, Robb E.; Yeo, Charles J.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Goggins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic intraductal neoplasia (PanIN) is thought to be the precursor to infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We have previously shown that the preproenkephalin (ppENK) and p16 genes are aberrantly methylated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In this study we define the methylation status of the ppENK and p16 genes in various grades of PanINs. One hundred seventy-four samples (28 nonneoplastic pancreatic epithelia, 7 reactive epithelia, 29 PanIN-1A, 48 PanIN-1B, 27 PanIN-2, 14 PanIN-3...

  12. The prognostic implication of the expression of EGFR, p53, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and p16 in primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma cases: a tissue microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Monica Charlotte; Vidyasagar, M S; Fernandes, Donald; Guddattu, Vasudev; Mathew, Mary; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Carnelio, Sunitha; Chandrashekar, Chetana

    2016-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas comprise a heterogeneous tumor cell population with varied molecular characteristics, which makes prognostication of these tumors a complex and challenging issue. Thus, molecular profiling of these tumors is advantageous for an accurate prognostication and treatment planning. This is a retrospective study on a cohort of primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas (n = 178) of an Indian rural population. The expression of EGFR, p53, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and p16 in a cohort of primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas was evaluated. A potential biomarker that can predict the tumor response to treatment was identified. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks of (n = 178) of histopathologically diagnosed cases of locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas were selected. Tissue microarray blocks were constructed with 2 cores of 2 mm diameter from each tumor block. Four-micron-thick sections were cut from these tissue microarray blocks. These tissue microarray sections were immunohistochemically stained for EGFR, p53, Bcl-2, cyclin D1 and p16. In this cohort, EGFR was the most frequently expressed 150/178 (84%) biomarker of the cases. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant association (p = 0.038) between expression of p53 and a poor prognosis. A Poisson regression analysis showed that tumors that expressed p53 had a two times greater chance of recurrence (unadjusted IRR-95% CI 2.08 (1.03, 4.5), adjusted IRR-2.29 (1.08, 4.8) compared with the tumors that did not express this biomarker. Molecular profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas will enable us to categorize our patients into more realistic risk groups. With biologically guided tumor characterization, personalized treatment protocols can be designed for individual patients, which will improve the quality of life of these patients.

  13. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: liangyh@pku.edu.cn; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°.

  14. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Cassinelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs.

  15. Immunohistochemical characteristic of expression levels of Kі-67, p16INK4a, HPV16 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cervical cancer (SCC is a common tumor in women, which is preceded by the series of pathological processes, among which the key role is played by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Aim. To study the characteristics of immunohistochemical (IHC expression of Ki-67, p16INK4a, HPV16 in squamous cervical epithelium (SCE with dysplastic changes of varying degree (CIN I–III and also in the tumor cells of SCC. Materials and methods. Pathohistological and IHC studies of uterine cervix biopsies from 53 patients (the age ranged from 18 to 45 years were performed. Results. It was found that SCE with CIN I is characterized by the low Ki-67 expression level (Me = 17.87 % (13.76, 22.44 and the extremely low p16INK4a expression level (Me = 0.00 CUOD (0.00; 29.64. The proportion of HPV16-positive patients with CIN I is 27.27 %. CIN II is characterized by the average proliferation level in SCE (Me = 44.96 % (34.91, 55.41 and the moderate p16INK4a expression level (Me = 75.71 CUOD (51.24, 82, 41. The proportion of HPV16-positive patients with CIN II is 71.43 %. CIN III is characterized by the high proliferation level (Me = 74.62 % (68.50, 84.67 and by the high p16INK4a expression level of in SCE (Me = 117.47 CUOD (95.38, 123, 93; the proportion of HPV16-positive patients with CIN III is 77.78%. In all the patients with SСС, nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of HPV16 was detected in the tumor cells. High expression levels of Ki-67 and p16INK4a were detected in the tumor cells. There are direct correlations between the expression levels of Ki-67, p16INK4a, HPV16 and CIN degree. Conclusions. These data indicate that the expression levels of Ki-67, p16INK4a and HPV16 increase with the increasing of CIN grade. The absence of statistically significant differences between the expression levels of Ki-67, p16INK4a and HPV16 in CIN III and the same levels in the tumor cells of SCC indicates that these markers cannot be used for differential diagnosis

  16. The overexpression of p16 is not a surrogate marker for high-risk human papilloma virus genotypes and predicts clinical outcomes for vulvar cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sznurkowski, Jacek J.; Żawrocki, Anton; Biernat, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the correlation between p16 ink4a -overexpression and high risk (hr)HPV-DNA in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC) tumors as well as the impact of both biomarkers on the prognosis of vSCC patients. PCR-detection of (hr)HPV-DNA and immunohistochemical staining for p16 ink4a were conducted in 85 vSCC tumors. Survival analyses included the Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. p16 ink4a -overexpression and (hr)HPV-DNA were detected in 35 and 37 of the 85 tumors, respectively. Among the 35 p16 ink4a -positive tumors, 10 lacked (hr)HPV-DNA (29 %). Among the 50 p16 ink4a -negative tumors, (hr)HPV-DNA was detected in 12 cases (24 %). The median follow-up was 89.20 months (range 1.7–189.5 months). P16 ink4a -overexpression, but not (hr)HPV-DNA positivity of the primary tumor, was correlated with prolonged overall survival (OS) (p = 0.009). P16 ink4a -overexpression predicted a better response to radiotherapy (p < 0.001). Univariate analysis has demonstrated that age (p = 0.025), tumor grade (p = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001), FIGO stage (p < 0.001), p16 ink4a -overexpression (p = 0.022), and adjuvant RTX (p < 0.001) were prognostic factors for OS. Multivariate analysis has demonstrated that lymph node metastasis (HR 1–2.74, 95 % CI 1.50–5.02, p = 0.019), tumor grade (HR 1–2.80, 95 % CI 1.33–5.90, p = 0.007) and p16 ink4a -overexpression (HR 1–2.11, 95 % CI 1.13–3.95, p = 0.001) are independent prognostic factors. The discovered overlap suggests the use of p16 ink4a in combination with HPV-DNA detection as an ancillary test for future research and clinical studies in vSCC. The prognostic and predictive value of p16 ink4a -overexpression should be tested in larger cohort studies. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2503-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  17. ECO-driving met behulp van serious gaming en social media (fase 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.; Boonekamp, R.C.; Bijlsma, T.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Obdeijn, C.; Stuiver, A.; Spronkmans, S.; Bijnen, D.; Versteegh, T.

    2013-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft fase 1 van een EL&I cofinancieringstraject waarin onderzoek wordt gedaan naar gedragsbeïnvloeding bij automobilisten om CO2-reductie te bereiken met behulp van Serious gaming en Social Media. Het onderzoek sluit goed aan bij het overheidswerkprogramma “Schoon en Zuinig”

  18. 16 CFR 1.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry... substantial or novel question of fact or law and there is no clear Commission or court precedent; or (2) The...

  19. Activating mutation in MET oncogene in familial colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schildkraut Joellen M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC is 5%, and it is the second leading cause of death from cancer. The presence of family history is a well established risk factor with 25-35% of CRCs attributable to inherited and/or familial factors. The highly penetrant inherited colon cancer syndromes account for approximately 5%, leaving greater than 20% without clear genetic definition. Familial colorectal cancer has been linked to chromosome 7q31 by multiple affected relative pair studies. The MET proto-oncogene which resides in this chromosomal region is considered a candidate for genetic susceptibility. Methods MET exons were amplified by PCR from germline DNA of 148 affected sibling pairs with colorectal cancer. Amplicons with altered sequence were detected with high-resolution melt-curve analysis using a LightScanner (Idaho Technologies. Samples demonstrating alternative melt curves were sequenced. A TaqMan assay for the specific c.2975C >T change was used to confirm this mutation in a cohort of 299 colorectal cancer cases and to look for allelic amplification in tumors. Results Here we report a germline non-synonymous change in the MET proto-oncogene at amino acid position T992I (also reported as MET p.T1010I in 5.2% of a cohort of sibling pairs affected with CRC. This genetic variant was then confirmed in a second cohort of individuals diagnosed with CRC and having a first degree relative with CRC at prevalence of 4.1%. This mutation has been reported in cancer cells of multiple origins, including 2.5% of colon cancers, and in Conclusions Although the MET p.T992I genetic mutation is commonly found in somatic colorectal cancer tissues, this is the first report also implicating this MET genetic mutation as a germline inherited risk factor for familial colorectal cancer. Future studies on the cancer risks associated with this mutation and the prevalence in different at-risk populations will

  20. p16 gene methylation in colorectal cancer patients with long-term follow-up Metilación de p16 en pacientes intervenidos de cáncer colorrectal tras un largo periodo de seguimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Veganzones-de-Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: p16 gene plays an important role in the cell cycle regulation and is considered an important tumor suppressor gene. Several mechanisms of gene inactivation have been described; in this study we have focused on p16 gene promoter methylation. In colorectal cancer p16 gene methylation is a frequent event. Methods: 326 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer were included. DNA was extracted from tumor tissue samples obtained during the surgical procedure. Promoter methylation was analyzed using bisulfite modification and was detected by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Frequency of p16 methylation was analyzed and compared with other clinicopathological variables. Results: p16 gene methylation was detected in 24,8% of patients. Methylation was associated with differentiation grade and with tumor location: methylation was frequent in poorly differentiated tumors and had low frequency in distal colon. The p16 promoter methylation discriminated a subgroup of patients with better prognosis in poorly differentiated tumors. Conclusions: p16 methylation was a frequent event in our population and was able to induce differences in the overall survival of patients with poorly differentiated tumors.Introducción: el gen p16 está implicado en la regulación del ciclo celular y se considera un importante gen supresor de tumores. Objetivos: se han descrito diferentes mecanismos de inactivación génica, en este estudio nos hemos centrado en la metilación del promotor del gen p16. En el cáncer colorrectal la metilación de p16 es una alteración frecuente. Material y métodos: se incluyeron 326 pacientes con cáncer colorrectal esporádico. El ADN se extrajo de muestras tumorales obtenidas durante la cirugía. La metilación del promotor se analizó mediante un proceso de modificación con bisulfito y posterior PCR cuantitativa especifica para metilación. Se analizó la frecuencia de la metilación de p16 y se comparó con las variables

  1. Grape juice concentrate modulates p16 expression in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Andressa Orlandeli; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Noguti, Juliana; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Yamamura, Elsa Tiemi Hojo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect the liver from high fat diet injury in rats. The effects of grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, and immunohistochemistry for p53, p16 and p21 were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were distributed into three groups: group 1: negative control; group 2: cholesterol at 1% (w/w) in their diet, treated during 5 weeks; and group 3: cholesterol at 1% in their chow during 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg per day in their drinking-water in the last week only. The results pointed out that treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in the cholesterol-exposed group when compared to group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to modulate p16 immunoexpression when compared to high fat diet group. p53 and p21 did not show any significant statistical differences among groups. Taken together, our results suggest that subchronic grape juice concentrate administration was able to modulate cell cycle control by downregulation of p16 immunoexpression in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in rats.

  2. The pMSSM10 after LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    de Vries, K.J.; Buchmueller, O.; Cavanaugh, R.; Citron, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dolan, M.J.; Ellis, J.R.; Flächer, H.; Heinemeyer, S.; Isidori, G.; Malik, S.; Marrouche, J.; Martinez Santos, D.; Olive, K.A.; Sakurai, K.; Weiglein, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of the pMSSM10, in which the following 10 soft SUSY-breaking parameters are specified independently at the mean scalar top mass scale Msusy = Sqrt[M_stop1 M_stop2]: the gaugino masses M_{1,2,3}, the 1st-and 2nd-generation squark masses M_squ1 = M_squ2, the third-generation squark mass M_squ3, a common slepton mass M_slep and a common trilinear mixing parameter A, the Higgs mixing parameter mu, the pseudoscalar Higgs mass M_A and tan beta. We use the MultiNest sampling algorithm with 1.2 x 10^9 points to sample the pMSSM10 parameter space. A dedicated study shows that the sensitivities to strongly-interacting SUSY masses of ATLAS and CMS searches for jets, leptons + MET signals depend only weakly on many of the other pMSSM10 parameters. With the aid of the Atom and Scorpion codes, we also implement the LHC searches for EW-interacting sparticles and light stops, so as to confront the pMSSM10 parameter space with all relevant SUSY searches. In addition, ou...

  3. Deregulated expression of p16INK4a and p53 pathway members in benign and malignant myoepithelial tumours of the salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vékony, H.; Röser, K.; Löning, T.; Raaphorst, F.M.; Leemans, C.R.; van der Waal, I.; Bloemena, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Myoepithelial salivary gland tumours are uncommon and follow an unpredictable biological course. The aim was to examine their molecular background to acquire a better understanding of their clinical behaviour. Methods and results: Expression of protein (E2F1, p16INK4a, p53, cyclin D1, Ki67 and

  4. Association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with HPA and SAM axis reactivity to psychological and physical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuru J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jusen Tsuru,1 Yoshihiro Tanaka,1 Yoshinobu Ishitobi,1 Yoshihiro Maruyama,1 Ayako Inoue,1 Aimi Kawano,1 Rie Ikeda,1 Tomoko Ando,1 Harumi Oshita,2 Saeko Aizawa,1 Koji Masuda,1 Haruka Higuma,1 Masayuki Kanehisa,1 Taiga Ninomiya,1 Jotaro Akiyoshi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan Background: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder.Methods: To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST] and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A.Results: A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; P<0.05 was demonstrated that revealed different salivary cortisol responses in the TSST but not in electrical stimulation. Met/Met women had stronger cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Met/Met men exhibited stronger salivary cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST.Conclusion: These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in BDNF had different effects on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests. Keywords: stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cortisol, saliva

  5. Genetic contribution of catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism (Val158Met) in children with chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Rivas-Martínez, Inés; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between Val158Met polymorphisms, headache, and pressure hypersensitivity in children with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). A case-control study with blinded assessor was conducted. Seventy children with CTTH associated with pericranial tenderness and 70 healthy children participated. After amplifying Val158Met polymorphism by polymerase chain reactions, we assessed genotype frequencies and allele distributions. We classified children according to their Val158Met polymorphism: Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were bilaterally assessed over the temporalis, upper trapezius, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscles. The distribution of Val158Met genotypes was not significantly different (p = 0.335), between children with CTTH and healthy children, and between boys and girls (p = 0.872). Children with CTTH with the Met/Met genotype showed a longer headache history compared with those with Met/Val (p = 0.001) or Val/Val (p = 0.002) genotype. Children with CTTH with Met/Met genotype showed lower PPT over upper trapezius and temporalis muscles than children with CTTH with Met/Val or Val/Val genotype (p < 0.01). The Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism does not appear to be involved in predisposition to suffer from CTTH in children; nevertheless, this genetic factor may be involved in the phenotypic expression, as pressure hypersensitivity was greater in those CTTH children with the Met/Met genotype.

  6. The negative predictive value of p16INK4a to assess the outcome of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 in the uterine cervix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jalil; Øster, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of p16 in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded histological sections was evaluated in a retrospective study comprising a low-grade group of 100 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, a high-grade group of 50 cases of CIN 2 to 3, and a benign group...

  7. HAT-P-16b: A Bayesian Atmospheric Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Kathleen; Harrington, Joseph; Blecic, Jasmina; Cubillos, Patricio; Challener, Ryan; Bakos, Gaspar

    2017-10-01

    HAT-P-16b is a hot (equilibrium temperature 1626 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and efficient energy redistribution), 4.19 ± 0.09 Jupiter-mass exoplanet orbiting an F8 star every 2.775960 ± 0.000003 days (Buchhave et al 2010). We observed two secondary eclipses of HAT-P-16b using the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels of the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (program ID 60003). We applied our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits (POET) code to produce normalized eclipse light curves, and our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code to constrain the temperature-pressure profiles and atmospheric molecular abundances of the planet. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  8. Deficient expression of DNA repair enzymes in early progression to sporadic colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancers often arise within an area of cells (e.g. an epithelial patch) that is predisposed to the development of cancer, i.e. a "field of cancerization" or "field defect." Sporadic colon cancer is characterized by an elevated mutation rate and genomic instability. If a field defect were deficient in DNA repair, DNA damages would tend to escape repair and give rise to carcinogenic mutations. Purpose To determine whether reduced expression of DNA repair proteins Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf (pairing partner of Ercc1) are early steps in progression to colon cancer. Results Tissue biopsies were taken during colonoscopies of 77 patients at 4 different risk levels for colon cancer, including 19 patients who had never had colonic neoplasia (who served as controls). In addition, 158 tissue samples were taken from tissues near or within colon cancers removed by resection and 16 tissue samples were taken near tubulovillous adenomas (TVAs) removed by resection. 568 triplicate tissue sections (a total of 1,704 tissue sections) from these tissue samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for 4 DNA repair proteins. Substantially reduced protein expression of Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf occurred in field defects of up to 10 cm longitudinally distant from colon cancers or TVAs and within colon cancers. Expression of another DNA repair protein, Ku86, was infrequently reduced in these areas. When Pms2, Ercc1 or Xpf were reduced in protein expression, then either one or both of the other two proteins most often had reduced protein expression as well. The mean inner colon circumferences, from 32 resections, of the ascending, transverse and descending/sigmoid areas were measured as 6.6 cm, 5.8 cm and 6.3 cm, respectively. When combined with other measurements in the literature, this indicates the approximate mean number of colonic crypts in humans is 10 million. Conclusions The substantial deficiencies in protein expression of DNA repair proteins Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf in about 1 million

  9. p16 as a diagnostic marker of cervical neoplasia: a tissue microarray study of 796 archival specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnikova, Iana; Lidang, Marianne; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    from archival formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded donor tissues from 796 patients, and included cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1 (n = 249), CIN2 (n = 233), CIN3 (n = 181), and invasive cervical carcinoma (n = 133). p16INK4a expression was scored using two different protocols: 1......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the usefulness of this biomarker in the diagnosis of cases of cervical neoplasia we studied the immunohistochemical expression of p16INK4a in a large series of archival cervical biopsies arranged into tissue microarray format. METHODS: TMAs were constructed with tissue cores...... dysplasia or the presence of invasive carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical analysis of p16INK4a expression is a useful diagnostic tool. Expression is related to the degree of histological dysplasia, suggesting that it may have prognostic and predicative value in the management of cervical neoplasia....

  10. Association of antibody to E2 protein of human papillomavirus and p16INK4A with progression of HPV-infected cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuerduangphui, Jureeporn; Pientong, Chamsai; Swangphon, Piyawut; Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee; Tungsiriwattana, Thumwadee; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Burassakarn, Ati; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2018-05-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 and L1 proteins are expressed in cervical cells during the lytic stage of infection. Overexpression of p16 INK4A is a biomarker of HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. This study investigated antibodies to HPV16 E2, HPV16 L1, and p16 INK4A in sera from women with no squamous intraepithelial lesion (No-SIL) of the cervix, low-grade SIL, high-grade SIL, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Anti-E2, -L1, and -p16 INK4A antibodies in sera were determined by western blot. Among 116 samples, 69 (60%) were HPV DNA-positive. Percentages seropositive for anti-E2, -L1, and -p16 INK4A antibodies were 39.6, 22.4, and 23.3%, respectively. Anti-E2 antibody was significantly correlated with HPV DNA-positive cases. Eighty-seven women (75%) were regarded as infected with HPV, having at least one positive result from HPV DNA, L1, or E2 antibody. Antibody to p16 INK4A was associated with HPV infection (odds = 5.444, 95% CI 1.203-24.629, P = 0.028) and precancerous cervical lesions (odds = 5.132, 95% CI 1.604-16.415, P = 0.006). Interestingly, the concurrent detection of anti-E2 and -p16 INK4A antibodies was significantly associated with HPV infection (odds = 1.382, 95% CI 1.228-1.555, P = 0.044). These antibodies might be good candidate biomarkers for monitoring HPV-associated cervical lesion development to cancer.

  11. Dissection of combinatorial control by the Met4 transcriptional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Traci A; Jorgensen, Paul; Bognar, Andrew L; Peyraud, Caroline; Thomas, Dominique; Tyers, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Met4 is the transcriptional activator of the sulfur metabolic network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lacking DNA-binding ability, Met4 must interact with proteins called Met4 cofactors to target promoters for transcription. Two types of DNA-binding cofactors (Cbf1 and Met31/Met32) recruit Met4 to promoters and one cofactor (Met28) stabilizes the DNA-bound Met4 complexes. To dissect this combinatorial system, we systematically deleted each category of cofactor(s) and analyzed Met4-activated transcription on a genome-wide scale. We defined a core regulon for Met4, consisting of 45 target genes. Deletion of both Met31 and Met32 eliminated activation of the core regulon, whereas loss of Met28 or Cbf1 interfered with only a subset of targets that map to distinct sectors of the sulfur metabolic network. These transcriptional dependencies roughly correlated with the presence of Cbf1 promoter motifs. Quantitative analysis of in vivo promoter binding properties indicated varying levels of cooperativity and interdependency exists between members of this combinatorial system. Cbf1 was the only cofactor to remain fully bound to target promoters under all conditions, whereas other factors exhibited different degrees of regulated binding in a promoter-specific fashion. Taken together, Met4 cofactors use a variety of mechanisms to allow differential transcription of target genes in response to various cues.

  12. Tanzania Dental Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and survivin in cutaneous and oral squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Rungsiyanont, S Swasdison, P.L Chang, 3-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tdj.v16i1.

  13. The clinicopathologic association of c-MET overexpression in Iranian gastric carcinomas; an immunohistochemical study of tissue microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotoudeh Kambiz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background c-MET is an oncogene protein that plays important role in gastric carcinogenesis and has been introduced as a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of c-MET overexpression and its relationship with clinicopathological variables in gastric cancer of Iranian population using tissue microarray. Methods In a cross sectional study, representative paraffin blocks of 130 patients with gastric carcinoma treated by curative gastrectomy during a 2 years period of 2008–2009 in two university hospitals in Tehran-Iran were collected in tissue microarray and c-MET expression was studied by immunohistochemical staining. Results Finally 124 cases were evaluated, constituted of 99 male and 25 female with the average age of 61.5 years. In 71% (88/124 of tumors, c-MET high expression was found. c-MET high expression was more associated with intestinal than diffuse tumor type (P = 0.04, deeper tumor invasion, pT3 and pT4 versus pT1 and pT2 (P = 0.014, neural invasion (P = 0.002 and advanced TNM staging, stage 3 and 4 versus stage 1 and2 (P = 0.044. The c-MET high expression was not associated with age, sex, tumor location, differentiation grade and distant metastasis, but relative associations with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.065 and vascular invasion (P = 0.078 were observed. Conclusions c-MET oncogene protein was frequently overexpressed in Iranian gastric carcinomas and it was related to clinicopathological characteristics such as tumor type, depth of invasion, neural invasion and TNM staging. It can also support the idea that c-MET is a potential marker for target therapy in Iranian gastric cancer. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9744598757151429

  14. The effect of phenobarbital on the methylation level of the p16 promoter region in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostka, Grazyna; Urbanek, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGCs) may cause modification of the DNA methylation status. We studied the effects of phenobarbital (PB) - a non-genotoxic rodent liver carcinogen - on the methylation level of the promoter region of the p16 suppressor gene, as well as on hepatomegaly, DNA synthesis, and DNA-methyltransferase (DNMTs) activity in the rat liver. Male Wistar rats received PB in 1, 3 or 14 daily oral doses (at 24-h intervals), each equivalent to 1/10 of the LD 50 value. The study showed that PB has caused persistent elevation in relative liver weight (RLW) as well as a transient increase in DNA synthesis. This suggests that the PB-induced increase in RLW was due to a combination of both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of liver cells. The effect of PB on DNA synthesis corresponded to an increase in the methylation pattern of the p16 promoter sequence. Methylation of cytosine in the analyzed CpG sites of the p16 gene was found after short exposure of the animals to PB. Treatment of rats with PB for 1 and 3 days also produced an increase in nuclear DNMTs activity. After prolonged administration (14 days), DNA synthesis declined, returning to the control level. No changes in methylation of the p16 gene nor in DNMTs activity were observed. The reversibility of early induced changes in target tissues is a mark characteristic of tumor promoters. Thus, transient changes in methylation of the p16 gene, although their direct role in the mechanisms of PB toxicity, including its carcinogenic action, remains doubtful, may therefore be a significant element of such processes

  15. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of the SARS coronavirus nsp10–nsp16 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debarnot, Claire; Imbert, Isabelle; Ferron, François; Gluais, Laure; Varlet, Isabelle; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Bouvet, Mickaël; Lescar, Julien; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the SARS coronavirus nsp16 RNA-cap AdoMet-dependent (nucleoside-2′O)-methyltransferase in complex with its activating factor nsp10 are reported. To date, the SARS coronavirus is the only known highly pathogenic human coronavirus. In 2003, it was responsible for a large outbreak associated with a 10% fatality rate. This positive RNA virus encodes a large replicase polyprotein made up of 16 gene products (nsp116), amongst which two methyltransferases, nsp14 and nsp16, are involved in viral mRNA cap formation. The crystal structure of nsp16 is unknown. Nsp16 is an RNA-cap AdoMet-dependent (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferase that is only active in the presence of nsp10. In this paper, the expression, purification and crystallization of nsp10 in complex with nsp16 are reported. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å resolution and crystal structure determination is in progress

  16. Heterologous production of human papillomavirus type-16 L1 protein by a lactic acid bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermúdez-Humarán Luis G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of vaccine antigens in lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems. In this study, we investigated i the expression of Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 L1 major capsid protein in the model LAB Lactococcus lactis and ii the ability of the resulting recombinant strain to produce either capsomer-or virus-like particles (VLPs. Results and conclusion HPV-16 L1 gene was cloned into two vectors, pCYT and pSEC, designed for controlled intra- or extracellular heterologous expression in L. lactis, respectively. The capacity of L. lactis harboring either pCYT:L1 or pSEC:L1 plasmid to accumulate L1 in the cytoplasm and supernatant samples was confirmed by Western blot assays. Electron microscopy analysis suggests that, L1 protein produced by recombinant lactococci can self-assemble into structures morphologically similar to VLPs intracellularly. The presence of conformational epitopes on the L. lactis-derived VLPs was confirmed by ELISA using an anti-HPV16 L1 capsid antigen antibody. Our results support the feasibility of using recombinant food-grade LAB, such as L. lactis, for the production of L1-based VLPs and open the possibility for the development of a new safe mucosal vector for HPV-16 prophylactic vaccination.

  17. Recurrent microdeletions at 15q11.2 and 16p13.11 predispose to idiopathic generalized epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kovel, Carolien G F; Trucks, Holger; Helbig, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    could be examined in 14 families. While 10 microdeletions were inherited (seven maternal and three paternal transmissions), four microdeletions occurred de novo at 15q13.3 (n = 1), 16p13.11 (n = 2) and 22q11.2 (n = 1). Eight of the transmitting parents were clinically unaffected, suggesting...... syndromes. The candidate microdeletions were assessed by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in 1234 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy from North-western Europe and 3022 controls from the German population. Microdeletions were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.......2 (odds ratio = 4.9; 95% confidence interval 1.8-13.2; P = 4.2 x 10(-4)) and 16p13.11 (odds ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval 1.3-74.7; P = 0.009). Including nine patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy in this cohort with known 15q13.3 microdeletions (IGE/control: 9/0), parental transmission...

  18. PAK1 is a breast cancer oncogene that coordinately activates MAPK and MET signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Y; Schafer, E J; Boehm, J S; Thomas, S R; He, F; Du, J; Wang, S; Barretina, J; Weir, B A; Zhao, J J; Polyak, K; Golub, T R; Beroukhim, R; Hahn, W C

    2012-07-19

    Activating mutations in the RAS family or BRAF frequently occur in many types of human cancers but are rarely detected in breast tumors. However, activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK pathway is commonly observed in human breast cancers, suggesting that other genetic alterations lead to activation of this signaling pathway. To identify breast cancer oncogenes that activate the MAPK pathway, we screened a library of human kinases for their ability to induce anchorage-independent growth in a derivative of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). We identified p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a kinase that permitted HMLE cells to form anchorage-independent colonies. PAK1 is amplified in several human cancer types, including 30--33% of breast tumor samples and cancer cell lines. The kinase activity of PAK1 is necessary for PAK1-induced transformation. Moreover, we show that PAK1 simultaneously activates MAPK and MET signaling; the latter via inhibition of merlin. Disruption of these activities inhibits PAK1-driven anchorage-independent growth. These observations establish PAK1 amplification as an alternative mechanism for MAPK activation in human breast cancer and credential PAK1 as a breast cancer oncogene that coordinately regulates multiple signaling pathways, the cooperation of which leads to malignant transformation.

  19. The variable phenotype of the p.A16V mutation of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) in pancreatitis families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grocock, Christopher J; Rebours, Vinciane; Delhaye, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatitis (HP); idiopathic disease; or pancreatitis in a single generation. HP was defined as 2 cases in 2 generations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Onset of painful episodes of pancreatitis, death from pancreatic cancer, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic failure. RESULTS: Ten families with p...... or Mann-Whitney-U tests. CONCLUSIONS: Penetrance of p.A16V is highly variable and family dependent, suggesting it contributes to a multigenic inheritance of a predisposition to pancreatitis....

  20. The metabolic syndrome and its components in 178 patients treated for craniopharyngioma after 16 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; Olsson, Daniel S; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Hammarstrand, Casper; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2018-01-01

    Patients with craniopharyngioma are at an increased risk for cardio- and cerebrovascular mortality. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important cardiometabolic risk factor, but barely studied in patients with craniopharyngioma. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for the MetS and its components in patients with craniopharyngioma. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data. We studied the prevalence of and risk factors for the MetS and its components in 110 Dutch (median age 47 years, range 18-92) and 68 Swedish (median age 50 years, range 20-81) patients with craniopharyngioma with ≥3 years of follow-up (90 females (51%); 83 patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (47%); median follow-up after craniopharyngioma diagnosis 16 years (range 3-62)). In Dutch patients aged 30-70 years and Swedish patients aged 45-69 years, we examined the prevalence of the MetS and its components relative to the general population. Sixty-nine (46%) of 149 patients with complete data demonstrated the MetS. Prevalence of the MetS was significantly higher in patients with craniopharyngioma compared with the general population (40% vs 26% ( P  < 0.05) for Dutch patients; 52% vs 15% ( P  < 0.05) for Swedish patients). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified visual impairment as a borderline significant predictor of the MetS (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.95-6.81; P  = 0.06) after adjustment for glucocorticoid replacement therapy and follow-up duration. Age, female sex, tumor location, radiological hypothalamic damage, 90 Yttrium brachytherapy, glucocorticoid replacement therapy and follow-up duration significantly predicted components of the MetS. Patients with craniopharyngioma are at an increased risk for the MetS, especially patients with visual impairment. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Distant metastasis in p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a critical analysis of patterns and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, P; Thorstad, W T; Nussenbaum, B; Haughey, B H; Adkins, D R; Kallogjeri, D; Lewis, J S

    2014-01-01

    With good loco-regional control, disease failure in p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) mainly results from distant metastasis (DM). Our objective was to characterize the patterns and clinical outcomes of DM in p16-positive OPSCC and compare these to patients with p16-negative disease. Primary OPSCC patients who developed DM after completing surgical or non-surgical treatment were identified and p16 status was evaluated. Patterns of DM and post-DM progression-free (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were assessed. Forty-one of the 66 (62%) patients with DM were p16-positive. DM patterns were not statistically different by p16 status. However, p16-positive patients developed DM later in their course and had longer survival. All p16-negative patients either had progression or died within 24 months of DM detection whereas the 2-year post-DM PFS in the p16-positive group was 20% (95% CI: 8-32.5%, p=0.003). The 3-year post-DM disease-specific survival (DSS) estimate in the p16-positive patients was 16% (95% CI: 7-18%) while all p16-negative patients died within 34 months (p<0.001). p16-negativity, loco-regional disease, and no/palliative versus curative intent treatment were all associated with reduced post-DM DSS in multivariate analysis. The DM pattern did not differ remarkably between p16-positive and negative OPSCC patients in our practice. In p16-positive OPSCC with pulmonary oligometastatic disease, curative intent treatment and optimized locoregional control for the index primary prolonged survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ATG16L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong...... association with risk for developing Crohn disease. The rs2241880 variant plays a crucial role in pathogen clearance, resulting in imbalanced cytokine production, and is linked to other biological processes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response. In this review, we focus...

  3. Semi-synthesis of a HGF/SF kringle one (K1) domain scaffold generates a potent in vivo MET receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Claire; Bérénice Leclercq; Mougel, Alexandra; Adriaenssens, Eric; Paquet, Charlotte; Raibaut, Laurent; Ollivier, Nathalie; Drobecq, Hervé; Marcoux, Julien; Cianférani, Sarah; Tulasne, David; de Jonge, Hugo; Melnyk, Oleg; Vicogne, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The development of MET receptor agonists is an important goal in regenerative medicine, but is limited by the complexity and incomplete understanding of its interaction with HGF/SF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor). NK1 is a natural occurring agonist comprising the N-terminal (N) and the first kringle (K1) domains of HGF/SF. In the presence of heparin, NK1 can self-associate into a "head to tail" dimer which is considered as the minimal structural module able to trigger MET dimerization and activation whereas isolated K1 and N domains showed a weak or a complete lack of agonistic activity respectively. Starting from these structural and biological observations, we investigated whether it was possible to recapitulate the biological properties of NK1 using a new molecular architecture of isolated N or K1 domains. Therefore, we engineered multivalent N or K1 scaffolds by combining synthetic and homogeneous site-specifically biotinylated N and K1 domains (NB and K1B) and streptavidin (S). NB alone or in complex failed to activate MET signaling and to trigger cellular phenotypes. Importantly and to the contrary of K1B alone, the semi-synthetic K1B/S complex mimicked NK1 MET agonist activity in cell scattering, morphogenesis and survival phenotypic assays. Impressively, K1B/S complex stimulated in vivo angiogenesis and, when injected in mice, protected the liver against fulminant hepatitis in a MET dependent manner whereas NK1 and HGF were substantially less potent. These data reveal that without N domain, proper multimerization of K1 domain is a promising strategy for the rational design of powerful MET agonists.

  4. Molecular and clinical description of a girl with a 46,X,t(Y;4)(q11.2;p16)/45,X,der(4)t(Y;4)(q11.2;p16) karyotype and a small cryptic 4p subtelomeric deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed, Laila; Sismani, Carolina; Ioannides, M; Saleh, Monzer; Koumbaris, G; Kenj, Mazen; Abdallah, Amal; Ayyache, Maya; Patsalis, Philippos

    2008-04-01

    We report on a 13-year-old female with short stature, minimal axillary and pubic hair, no breast development, absence of uterus and ovaries, with the following karyotype on lymphocyte cultures: 46,X,t(Y;4)(q11.2;p16)[40]/45,X,der(4)t(Y;4)(q11.2;p16)[10]. Loss of the small derivative Y chromosome in 20% of the cells was also confirmed in skin fibroblast cultures. FISH analyses using Y centromere, SRY, subtelomere XpYp/XqYq, Y and 4 painting probes, confirmed the cytogenetic findings. High-resolution STS analyses using 40 markers covering the Y chromosome did not identify any deletion on the Y. However, de novo absence of the 4p subtelomeric region was noted by FISH, although this deletion was not revealed by Array-CGH at 1 Mb resolution, the last array clone being 0.35 or 1 Mb distal to the 4p FISH probe. The female phenotype of this patient must be due to the loss of the derivative Y chromosomes in some of her cells, especially the gonads, while the 4p subtelomeric deletion does not seem to contribute to her phenotype. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Architectural patterns of p16 immunohistochemical expression associated with cancer immunity and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyang Joo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Heo, Su Jin; Cho, Byoung Chul; Kim, Hye Ryun; Yoon, Sun Och

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the expression patterns of p16, which is used as a surrogate marker of HPV infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), in regard to their biological and prognostic implications. p16 expression patterns and infiltrated immune cells were analyzed through immunohistochemistry of p16, CD3, CD8, PD-1, FOXP3, and CD163 on surgically resected HNSCCs (n = 393). Patterns of p16 immunoexpression were defined as STRONG (strong, diffuse expression in cytoplasm, and nucleus in >70% of tumor cells), MARGINAL (expression restricted to tumor margins), MOSAIC (ragged, discontinued expression), NUCLEAR (expression in nuclei only), and ABSENT (no expression). The STRONG pattern was more frequent in the oropharynx, and the MARGINAL pattern was noted only in the oral cavity. MOSAIC and NUCLEAR patterns were noted at variable sites. No two patterns of p16 expression showed the same immune cell composition of CD3+ T cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, PD-1+ T cells, FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, and CD163+ macrophages. In overall and disease-free survival analyses, the STRONG pattern showed the most favorable prognosis, while the NUCLEAR pattern had the worst prognosis. HNSCC anatomical sites, tumor-related immune cell components, and patient outcomes were associated with p16 expression patterns. Each architectural pattern of p16 expression may be related to different biological and prognostic phenotypes. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276

  7. 31 CFR 1.6 - Business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business information. 1.6 Section 1.6... Information Act § 1.6 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to the Department of the Treasury by a business submitter shall not be disclosed pursuant to a Freedom of Information Act...

  8. Deficiency of G1 regulators P53, P21Cip1 and/or pRb decreases hepatocyte sensitivity to TGFβ cell cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison David J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGFβ is critical to control hepatocyte proliferation by inducing G1-growth arrest through multiple pathways leading to inhibition of E2F transcription activity. The retinoblastoma protein pRb is a key controller of E2F activity and G1/S transition which can be inhibited in viral hepatitis. It is not known whether the impairment of pRb would alter the growth inhibitory potential of TGFβ in disease. We asked how Rb-deficiency would affect responses to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. Results Primary hepatocytes isolated from Rb-floxed mice were infected with an adenovirus expressing CRE-recombinase to delete the Rb gene. In control cells treatment with TGFβ prevented cells to enter S phase via decreased cMYC activity, activation of P16INK4A and P21Cip and reduction of E2F activity. In Rb-null hepatocytes, cMYC activity decreased slightly but P16INK4A was not activated and the great majority of cells continued cycling. Rb is therefore central to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes. However some Rb-null hepatocytes remained sensitive to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. As these hepatocytes expressed very high levels of P21Cip1 and P53 we investigated whether these proteins regulate pRb-independent signaling to cell cycle arrest by evaluating the consequences of disruption of p53 and p21Cip1. Hepatocytes deficient in p53 or p21Cip1 showed diminished growth inhibition by TGFβ. Double deficiency had a similar impact showing that in cells containing functional pRb; P21Cip and P53 work through the same pathway to regulate G1/S in response to TGFβ. In Rb-deficient cells however, p53 but not p21Cip deficiency had an additive effect highlighting a pRb-independent-P53-dependent effector pathway of inhibition of E2F activity. Conclusion The present results show that otherwise genetically normal hepatocytes with disabled p53, p21Cip1 or Rb genes respond less well to the antiproliferative effects of TGFβ. As the function of

  9. Survey of familial glioma and role of germline p16INK4A/p14ARF and p53 mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Lindsay B; Armstrong, Georgina N; Olver, Bianca D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of familial propensity to glioma as a distinct clinical entity beyond a few rare syndromes; however its genetic basis is poorly understood. The role of p16(INK4A)/p14(ARF) and p53 mutations in sporadic glioma provides a strong rationale for investigating germline m...

  10. {sup 89}Zr-Onartuzumab PET imaging of c-MET receptor dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, Martin; Kol, Arjan; Giesen, Danique; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University of Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G.T. [University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N. [University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    c-MET and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor are often dysregulated in human cancers. Dynamic changes in c-MET expression occur and might predict drug efficacy or emergence of resistance. Noninvasive visualization of c-MET dynamics could therefore potentially guide c-MET-directed therapies. We investigated the feasibility of {sup 89}Zr-labelled one-armed c-MET antibody onartuzumab PET for detecting relevant changes in c-MET levels induced by c-MET-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib resistance or heat shock protein-90 (HSP90) inhibitor NVP-AUY-922 treatment in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenografts. In vitro membrane c-MET levels were determined by flow cytometry. HCC827ErlRes, an erlotinib-resistant clone with c-MET upregulation, was generated from the exon-19 EGFR-mutant human NSCLC cell line HCC827. Mice bearing HCC827 and HCC827ErlRes tumours in opposite flanks underwent {sup 89}Zr-onartuzumab PET scans. The HCC827-xenografted mice underwent {sup 89}Zr-onartuzumab PET scans before treatment and while receiving biweekly intraperitoneal injections of 100 mg/kg NVP-AUY-922 or vehicle. Ex vivo, tumour c-MET immunohistochemistry was correlated with the imaging results. In vitro, membrane c-MET was upregulated in HCC827ErlRes tumours by 213 ± 44% in relation to the level in HCC827 tumours, while c-MET was downregulated by 69 ± 9% in HCC827 tumours following treatment with NVP-AUY-922. In vivo, {sup 89}Zr-onartuzumab uptake was 26% higher (P < 0.05) in erlotinib-resistant HCC827ErlRes than in HCC827 xenografts, while HCC827 tumour uptake was 33% lower (P < 0.001) following NVP-AUY-922 treatment. The results show that {sup 89}Zr-onartuzumab PET effectively discriminates relevant changes in c-MET levels and could potentially be used clinically to monitor c-MET status. (orig.)

  11. Optical properties of InxGa1-xP/InP grown at high fluence Ga+ implantation on InP using focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Chiao; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Dhara, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline InP(1 0 0) substrate was implanted by 30 keV Ga + ions with fluences of 1 x 10 16 -1.5 x 10 17 cm -2 followed by post-annealing treatment at 750 o C to recover implantation-induced structural defects and activate dopants into the lattices. The optical property, composition, and microstructure of the Ga + -implanted InP were studied by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectra show that the In x Ga 1-x P phase is formed at a critical fluence of 7 x 10 16 cm -2 . The newly grown phase was identified with the appearance of Ga rich TO InP and In rich TO GaP modes of a random alloy in the 1 bond-2 phonon mode configuration along with TEM structural identification.

  12. Join the CERN ISEF special award winners | 16 June - 3 p.m.

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Come and join the CERN ISEF special award winners at their lightning talks session on 16 June at 3.00 p.m. in the main auditorium.   The 2016 Intel ISEF CERN special award winners on stage with the selection committee on 17 May 2016 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. (Picture: Society for Science and the Public) Between 11 and 17 June 2016, the ten finalists of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) who won the CERN Special Award, will visit CERN to partake in various educational lectures. ISEF is the world's largest international pre-college science competition, with approximately 1,700 high school students from more than 75 countries taking part. They will present their projects in short 5 minutes lightning talks' sessions at the main auditorium on Thursday 16 June at 3 p.m. The award winners would be also very happy to have a chance to interact and discuss with you af...

  13. Post-treatment PET/CT and p16 status for predicting treatment outcomes in locally advanced head and neck cancer after definitive radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awan, Musaddiq J.; Machtay, Mitchell; Yao, Min [Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad; Rezaee, Rod; Fowler, Nicole [University Hospitals, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States); Karapetyan, Lilit; Gibson, Michael [University Hospitals, Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wasman, Jay [University Hospitals, Department of Pathology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Faulhaber, Peter [University Hospitals, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To retrospectively review post-treatment (post-tx) FDG-PET/CT scans in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and known p16 status, treated with definitive (chemo)radiation (RT). A total of 108 eligible patients had N2A or greater HNSCC treated with chemoRT from August 1, 2008, to February 28, 2015, with post-tx PET/CT within 6 months after RT. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank statistics, and Cox proportional hazards regression were used for statistical analysis. Median follow-up was 2.38 years. Sixty-eight (63.0%) patients had p16+ and 40 (37.0%) had p16- status. Two-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival were 93.4% and 77.8%, respectively. The negative predictive value (NPV) of PET/CT for local recurrence (LR) was 100%. The NPV for regional recurrence (RR) was 96.5% for all patients, 100% for p16+ patients, and 88.5% for p16- patients. The positive predictive value (PPV) of PET/CT for recurrence was 77.3% for all patients, 50.0% for p16+, and 78.6% for p16-. The PPV for LR was 72.7% for all patients, 50.0% for p16+ patients, and 72.7% for p16- patients. The PPV for RR was 50.0% for all patients, 33% for p16+, and 66.6% for p16-. Post-tx PET/CT and p16 status were independent predictors of recurrence-free survival (p < 0.01). Post-tx PET/CT predicts treatment outcomes in both p16 + and p16- patients, and does so independently of p16 status. P16- patients with negative PET have a 10% risk of nodal recurrence, and closer follow-up in these patients is warranted. (orig.)

  14. Loss of heterozygosity of CDKN2A (p16INK4a) and RB1 tumor suppressor genes in testicular germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladusic, Tomislav; Hrascan, Reno; Pecina-Slaus, Nives; Vrhovac, Ivana; Gamulin, Marija; Franekic, Jasna; Kruslin, Bozo

    2010-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent malignances in young adult men. The two main histological forms, seminomas and nonseminomas, differ biologically and clinically. pRB protein and its immediate upstream regulator p16INK4a are involved in the RB pathway which is deregulated in most TGCTs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the CDKN2A (p16INK4a) and RB1 tumor suppressor genes in TGCTs. Forty TGCTs (18 seminomas and 22 nonseminomas) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using the restriction fragment length polymorphism or the nucleotide repeat polymorphism method. LOH of the CDKN2A was found in two (6%) out of 34 (85%) informative cases of our total TGCT sample. The observed changes were assigned to two (11%) nonseminomas out of 18 (82%) informative samples. Furthermore, LOH of the RB1 was detected in two (6%) out of 34 (85%) informative cases of our total TGCT sample. Once again, the observed changes were assigned to two (10.5%) nonseminomas out of 19 (86%) informative samples. Both LOHs of the CDKN2A were found in nonseminomas with a yolk sac tumor component, and both LOHs of the RB1 were found in nonseminomas with an embryonal carcinoma component. The higher incidence of observed LOH in nonseminomas may provide a clue to their invasive behavior

  15. Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilfrich, Ralf; Hariri, Jalil

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To proof the prognostic relevance of HPV L1 capsid protein detection on colposcopically-guided punch biopsies in combination with p16. STUDY DESIGN: Sections of colposcopically-guided punch biopsies from 191 consecutive cases with at least 5 years of follow-up were stained with HPV L1 ...

  16. MetAssimulo:Simulation of Realistic NMR Metabolic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Iorio Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probing the complex fusion of genetic and environmental interactions, metabolic profiling (or metabolomics/metabonomics, the study of small molecules involved in metabolic reactions, is a rapidly expanding 'omics' field. A major technique for capturing metabolite data is 1H-NMR spectroscopy and this yields highly complex profiles that require sophisticated statistical analysis methods. However, experimental data is difficult to control and expensive to obtain. Thus data simulation is a productive route to aid algorithm development. Results MetAssimulo is a MATLAB-based package that has been developed to simulate 1H-NMR spectra of complex mixtures such as metabolic profiles. Drawing data from a metabolite standard spectral database in conjunction with concentration information input by the user or constructed automatically from the Human Metabolome Database, MetAssimulo is able to create realistic metabolic profiles containing large numbers of metabolites with a range of user-defined properties. Current features include the simulation of two groups ('case' and 'control' specified by means and standard deviations of concentrations for each metabolite. The software enables addition of spectral noise with a realistic autocorrelation structure at user controllable levels. A crucial feature of the algorithm is its ability to simulate both intra- and inter-metabolite correlations, the analysis of which is fundamental to many techniques in the field. Further, MetAssimulo is able to simulate shifts in NMR peak positions that result from matrix effects such as pH differences which are often observed in metabolic NMR spectra and pose serious challenges for statistical algorithms. Conclusions No other software is currently able to simulate NMR metabolic profiles with such complexity and flexibility. This paper describes the algorithm behind MetAssimulo and demonstrates how it can be used to simulate realistic NMR metabolic profiles with

  17. Double positivity for HPV DNA/p16 in tonsillar and base of tongue cancer improves prognostication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnaes, Emilie; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kiss, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) when stratifying for HPV DNA status, p16 expression and combined HPV/p16 status. We included all patients (n = 797) diagnosed with TSCCs and BSCCs in Eastern Denmark as registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) database and the Danish Pathology...... Databank, 2000–2010. Patients were treated according to national guidelines (radiotherapy +/− concomitant cisplatin). All specimens were analysed using HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was retrieved from the DAHANCA database and the Danish National Patient Registry....... Information on vital status was obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. We observed improved OS for HPV+/p16+ BSCCs compared to HPV−/p16− (hazard ratio for death [HR], 0.15; 95% CI, 0.09–0.24). Among STSCCs, HPV+/p16+ showed the lowest HR (0.19, 95% CI, 0.13–0.29); whereas, HPV−/p16+ showed...

  18. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  19. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, life stress and depression: A meta-analysis of gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingzhe; Chen, Lu; Yang, Jiarun; Han, Dong; Fang, Deyu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Ma, Jingsong; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Shixiang; Song, Xuejia; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Mingqi; Qi, Dong; Yang, Yanjie; Pan, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Depression is thought to be multifactorial in etiology, including genetic and environmental components. While a number of gene-environment interaction studies have been carried out, meta-analyses are scarce. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantify evidence on the interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and stress in depression. Included were 31 peer-reviewed with a pooled total of 21060 participants published before October 2016 and literature searches were conducted using PubMed, Wolters Kluwer, Web of Science, EBSCO, Elsevier Science Direct and Baidu Scholar databases. The results indicated that the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the relationship between stress and depression (Z=2.666, p = 0.003). The results of subgroup analysis concluded that stressful life events and childhood adversity separately interacted with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in depression (Z = 2.552, p = 0.005; Z = 1.775, p = 0.03). The results could be affected by errors or bias in primary studies which had small sample sizes with relatively lower statistic power. We could not estimate how strong the interaction effect between gene and environment was. We found evidence that supported the hypothesis that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderated the relationship between stress and depression, despite the fact that many included individual studies did not show this effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  1. Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation Increase p16INK4a Expression, a Biomarker of T-cell Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The expression of markers of cellular senescence increases exponentially in multiple tissues with aging. Age-related physiological changes may contribute to adverse outcomes in cancer survivors. To investigate the impact of high dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation on senescence markers in vivo, we collected blood and clinical data from a cohort of 63 patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. The expression of p16INK4a, a well-established senescence marker, was determined in T-cells before and 6 months after transplant. RNA sequencing was performed on paired samples from 8 patients pre- and post-cancer therapy. In patients undergoing allogeneic transplant, higher pre-transplant p16INK4a expression was associated with a greater number of prior cycles of chemotherapy received (p = 0.003, prior autologous transplantation (p = 0.01 and prior exposure to alkylating agents (p = 0.01. Transplantation was associated with a marked increase in p16INK4a expression 6 months following transplantation. Patients receiving autologous transplant experienced a larger increase in p16INK4a expression (3.1-fold increase, p = 0.002 than allogeneic transplant recipients (1.9-fold increase, p = 0.0004. RNA sequencing of T-cells pre- and post- autologous transplant or cytotoxic chemotherapy demonstrated increased expression of transcripts associated with cellular senescence and physiological aging. Cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially alkylating agents, and stem cell transplantation strongly accelerate expression of a biomarker of molecular aging in T-cells.

  2. Functional evaluation of the role of C-type lectin domain family 16A at the chromosome 16p13 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouk, H; D'Hennezel, E; Du, X; Ounissi-Benkalha, H; Piccirillo, C A; Polychronakos, C

    2014-03-01

    The type 1 diabetes-associated 16p13 locus contains the CLEC16A gene. Its preferential immune cell expression suggests involvement in autoimmunity. Given its elevated expression in dendritic and B cells - known professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) - we hypothesize that C-type lectin domain family 16 member A (CLEC16A) may be involved in T cell co-stimulation and consequent activation and proliferation. We also sought to identify CLEC16A's subcellular localization. The effect of the CLEC16A knock-down (KD) on B cell co-stimulation and activation of T cells was tested in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by co-culture with CD4(+) T cells. T cell activation and proliferation were determined by flow-cytometric analysis of CD69 and CD25 expression and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution, respectively. CLEC16A subcellular localization in K562 cells was examined by immunofluorescence. We show that the CLEC16A KD did not affect the tested indices of lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) APC capacity. Additionally, the percentage of activated T cells following LCL co-culture was not affected significantly by the CLEC16A KD. T cells co-cultured with KD or control LCLs also exhibited similar cell division profiles. CLEC16A co-localized with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, suggesting that it may be an ER protein. In conclusion, CLEC16A may not be involved in T cell co-stimulation. Additional studies on CLEC16A, accounting for its ER localization, are needed to uncover its biological role. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  3. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is associated with a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Heiner K; Giannakidou, Eleni; Krone, Wilhelm; Mantzoros, Christos S; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin is involved in several metabolic and cardiovascular processes. The Leu72Met polymorphism of its gene was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in some, but not all studies. Its association with atherosclerosis is not known. We investigated 420 Caucasian subjects with DM2 and 430 controls without diabetes (56.6% male, age 62+/-10 years). The Leu72Leu genotype frequencies were 89.76/84.65%, the Leu72Met 9.52/15.12% and the Met72Met 0.71/0.23% (P=0.029) in the DM2 and controls groups, respectively. In subjects with Met72+ genotypes the risk of DM2 was significantly decreased (univariate OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95, P=0.026). In a logistic regression model, body mass index, hypertension and a positive family history for diabetes were predictors of diabetes while the polymorphism remained negatively associated with the disease (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.97, P=0.036). After adjusting for known risk factors for atherosclerosis, the Met72+ variant was not associated with atherosclerotic disease (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.78-2.54, P=0.25). Ghrelin concentrations were not associated with the polymorphism, DM2 or atherosclerotic disease. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is associated with a decreased risk for DM2. There is no association between the variant and atherosclerotic disease or ghrelin concentrations.

  4. Role of Met80 and Tyr67 in the low-pH conformational equilibria of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Bellei, Marzia; Di Rocco, Giulia; Salewski, Johannes; Hildebrandt, Peter; Sola, Marco

    2012-07-31

    The low-pH conformational equilibria of ferric yeast iso-1 cytochrome c (ycc) and its M80A, M80A/Y67H, and M80A/Y67A variants were studied from pH 7 to 2 at low ionic strength through electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. For wild-type ycc, the protein structure, axial heme ligands, and spin state of the iron atom convert from the native folded His/Met low-spin (LS) form to a molten globule His/H(2)O high-spin (HS) form and a totally unfolded bis-aquo HS state, in a single cooperative transition with an apparent pK(a) of ~3.0. An analogous cooperative transition occurs for the M80A and M80A/Y67H variants. This is preceded by protonation of heme propionate-7, with a pK(a) of ~4.2, and by an equilibrium between a His/OH(-)-ligated LS and a His/H(2)O-ligated HS conformer, with a pK(a) of ~5.9. In the M80A/Y67A variant, the cooperative low-pH transition is split into two distinct processes because of an increased stability of the molten globule state that is formed at higher pH values than the other species. These data show that removal of the axial methionine ligand does not significantly alter the mechanism of acidic unfolding and the ranges of stability of low-pH conformers. Instead, removal of a hydrogen bonding partner at position 67 increases the stability of the molten globule and renders cytochrome c more susceptible to acid unfolding. This underlines the key role played by Tyr67 in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure of cytochrome c by means of the hydrogen bonding network connecting the Ω loops formed by residues 71-85 and 40-57.

  5. Association of a XRCC3 polymorphism and rectum mean dose with the risk of acute radio-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fachal, Laura; Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio; Peleteiro, Paula; Carballo, Ana; Calvo-Crespo, Patricia; Sánchez-García, Manuel; Lobato-Busto, Ramón; Carracedo, Ángel; Vega, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have performed a case–control study among prostate cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformational radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in order to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), treatment and patient features with gastrointestinal and genitourinary acute toxicity. Material and methods: A total of 698 patients were screened for 14 SNPs located in the ATM, ERCC2, LIG4, MLH1 and XRCC3 genes. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were recorded prospectively using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: The XRCC3 SNP rs1799794 (G/G OR = 5.65; 95% CI: 1.95–16.38; G/A OR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.25–6.05; uncorrected p-value = 2.8 × 10 −03 ; corrected p-value = 0.03; FDR q-value = 0.06) as well as the mean dose received by the rectum (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02–1.1; uncorrected p-value = 2.49 × 10 −03 ; corrected p-value = 0.03; FDR q-value = 0.06) were significantly associated with gastrointestinal toxicity after correction for multiple testing. Those patients who undergone previous prostatectomy were less prone to develop genitourinary toxicity (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.18–0.71; uncorrected p-value = 4.95 × 10 −03 ; corrected p-value = 0.03; FDR q-value = 0.08). Our study excludes the possibility of a >2-fold risk increase in genitourinary acute toxicity being due to rs1801516 ATM SNP, the rs1805386 and rs1805388 LIG4 markers, as well as all the SNPs evaluated in the ERCC2, MLH1 and XRCC3 genes. Conclusions: The XRCC3 rs1799794 SNP and the mean dose received by the rectum are associated with the development of gastrointestinal toxicity after 3D-CRT.

  6. p38 MAPK and JNK antagonistically control senescence and cytoplasmic p16INK4A expression in doxorubicin-treated endothelial progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spallarossa

    Full Text Available Patients treated with low-dose anthracyclines often show late onset cardiotoxicity. Recent studies suggest that this form of cardiotoxicity is the result of a progenitor cell disease. In this study we demonstrate that Cord Blood Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs exposed to low, sub-apoptotic doses of doxorubicin show a senescence phenotype characterized by increased SA-b-gal activity, decreased TRF2 and chromosomal abnormalities, enlarged cell shape, and disarrangement of F-actin stress fibers accompanied by impaired migratory ability. P16( INK4A localizes in the cytoplasm of doxorubicin-induced senescent EPCs and not in the nucleus as is the case in EPCs rendered senescent by different stimuli. This localization together with the presence of an arrest in G2, and not at the G1 phase boundary, which is what usually occurs in response to the cell cycle regulatory activity of p16(INK4A, suggests that doxorubicin-induced p16( INK4A does not regulate the cell cycle, even though its increase is closely associated with senescence. The effects of doxorubicin are the result of the activation of MAPKs p38 and JNK which act antagonistically. JNK attenuates the senescence, p16( INK4A expression and cytoskeleton remodeling that are induced by activated p38. We also found that conditioned medium from doxorubicin-induced senescent cardiomyocytes does not attract untreated EPCs, unlike conditioned medium from apoptotic cardiomyocytes which has a strong chemoattractant capacity. In conclusion, this study provides a better understanding of the senescence of doxorubicin-treated EPCs, which may be helpful in preventing and treating late onset cardiotoxicity.

  7. 2C.07: INVOLVEMENT OF THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM IN A PREMATURE AGING MOUSE MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thiel, B S; Ridwan, Y; Garrelds, I M; Vermeij, M; Groningen, M C Clahsen-Van; Danser, A H J; Essers, J; Van Der Pluijm, I

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), known for its critical role in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, may contribute to aging and age-related diseases. Here we characterized the RAS and kidney pathology in mice with genomic instability due to a defective nucleotide excision repair gene (Ercc1d/- mice). These mice display premature features of aging, including vascular dysfunction. Studies were performed in male and female Ercc1d/- mice and their wild type controls (Ercc1+/+) at the age of 12 or 18 weeks before and after treatment with losartan. The renin-activatable near-infrared fluorescent probe ReninSense 680™ was applied in vivo to allow non-invasive imaging of renin activity. Plasma renin concentrations (PRC) were additionally measured ex vivo by quantifying Ang I generation in the presence of excess angiotensinogen. Kidneys were harvested and examined for markers of aging, and albumin was determined in urine. Kidneys of 12-week old Ercc1d/- mice showed signs of aging, including tubular anisokaryosis, cell-senescence and increased apoptosis. This was even more pronounced at the age of 18 weeks. Yet, urinary albumin was normal at 12 weeks. The ReninSense 680™ probe showed increased intrarenal renin activity in Ercc1d/- mice versus Ercc1+/+ mice, both at 12 and 18 weeks of age, while PRC in these mice tended to be lower compared to Ercc1+/+ mice. Renin was higher in male than female mice, both in the kidney and in plasma, and losartan increased kidney and plasma renin in both Ercc1d/- and Ercc1+/+ mice. Rapidly aging Ercc1d/- mice display an activated intrarenal RAS, as evidenced by the increased fluorescence detected with the ReninSense 680™ probe. This increased RAS activity may contribute to the disturbed kidney pathology in these mice. The increased intrarenal activity detected with the ReninSense 680™ probe in male vs. female mice, as well as after losartan treatment, are in full agreement with the literature, and

  8. Radionuclides in cigarettes may lead to carcinogenesis via p16INK4a inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prueitt, Robyn L.; Goodman, Julie E.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that tobacco smoke is responsible for the vast majority of lung cancers worldwide. There are many known and suspected carcinogens present in cigarette smoke, including α-emitting radioisotopes. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased lung cancer risk is associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, and it is estimated that the majority of smoking-induced lung cancers may be at least partly attributable to the inhaled and deposited radiation dose from radioisotopes in the cigarette smoke itself. Recent research shows that silencing of the tumor suppressor gene p16 INK4a (p16) by promoter methylation plays a role in smoking-related lung cancer. Inactivation of p16 has also been associated with lung cancer incidence in radiation-exposed workers, suggesting that radionuclides in cigarette smoke may be acting with other compounds to cause smoking-induced lung cancer. We evaluated the mechanism of ionizing radiation as an accepted cause of lung cancer in terms of its dose from tobacco smoke and silencing of p16. Because both radiation and cigarette smoking are associated with inactivation of p16, and p16 inactivation has been shown to play a major role in carcinogenesis, ionizing radiation from cigarette smoke likely plays a role in lung cancer risk. How large a role it plays, relative to chemical carcinogens and other modes of action, remains to be elucidated

  9. High frequency of p 16 promoter methylation in non-small cell lung carcinomas from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEDA M GUZMAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by aberrant methylation of promoter regions has been described as a frequent event in neoplasia development, including lung cancer. The p16 gene is a tumour suppressor gene involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression that has been reported to be inactivated by promoter methylation in lung carcinomas at variable frequencies around the world in a smoking habit dependent manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the methylation status of the promoter region of the p16 gene in 74 non-small cell lung carcinomas from Chile. The frequency of p16 gene inactivation by promoter methylation was determined as 79.7% (59/74. When we considered histological type, we observed that p16 promoter methylation was significantly higher in squamous cell carcinomas (30/33, 91% compared with adenocarcinomas (21/30, 70% (p=0.029. In addition, no association between p16 promoter methylation and gender, age or smoking habit was found (p=0.202, 0.202 and 0.147 respectively. Our results suggest that p16 promoter hypermethylation is a very frequent event in non-small cell lung carcinomas from Chile and could be smoking habit-independent

  10. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 16B. Skill Levels 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    43* 2 UI3L, 29.1 2 §CT;:It’:iLL 1.12 2 ACCA 97.1 55.1 43.1 2 2 4,CITUI L 1.1 521 21l 9i 9 P ~ 1.2 2 hA~T)U h 24.1 10-.2 58.1 2.1. 2 A.;aifl U95. 2591...02#3 05.1 3 ’,I 73 # 7.1,I 65,1 6501 .,] 4?,0. .S,I 3 f), , 32, Z 3C91 ;*,t. 1.4, 2. 1 ) 9,,- 9..1 10,o. 44 09- 141 P2 4 Ar.v’%ss 9091 57 9. 4 C .7.2...9801! 72,1 419! 5 COMSJ ITrq 86. 1 21.1 5 C- 2.L1 ±. 691 5.3 Is$1 !49? !. ., 1. C9. t,4 79 9,* ie,7 17,4 16,2 Z2) Z #7 2U .2 1;l i64.8 62. p2 71#1 1

  11. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chan, Lai-Sheung [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Poon, Po-Ying [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun, E-mail: rnswong@hkbu.edu.hk [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  12. Inmunohistoquímica de la proteína p16INK4a en biopsias y extendidos cervicovaginales y su relación con HPV por PCR Immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a in biopsies and cervicovaginal smears, and its correlation with HPV detected by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios recientes sugieren que la sobreexpresión de p16, determinada por inmunohistoquímica, sería un marcador específico de células escamosas displásicas y neoplásicas con alta asociación con HPV de alto riesgo. Nuestro objetivo fue correlacionar los hallazgos cito/histológicos con la expresión de p16 y el subtipo de HPV por PCR. Seleccionamos 95 biopsias de cuello uterino y 4 legrados endocervicales de 99 individuos, y 30 extendidos cervicovaginales de otros 30 individuos, que se dividieron según el diagnóstico morfológico. Inmunomarcamos cortes del material incluido en parafina y los extendidos con el kit CINtecT p16INK4a (DAKO. Evaluamos HPV por PCR utilizando 25/99 biopsias con lesión intraepitelial escamosa de bajo grado. Observamos marcación positiva para p16 en 1/35 biopsias (2.9% y 1/11 extendidos (9% en los grupos sin HPV ni displasia; 16/25 biopsias (64% y 6/10 extendidos (60% en aquellos con lesión de bajo grado y 38/39 biopsias (97.4% y 8/9 extendidos (89% en los grupos con lesión de alto grado y carcinoma escamoso. Todas las muestras con HPV-6/11 fueron negativas o positivas focales para p16, en tanto que aquellas con HPV-18 u otros subtipos fueron mayoritariamente positivas de tipo difuso. Concluimos que la expresión de p16 presenta alta correlación con el diagnóstico cito/histológico y alta asociación entre la marcación difusa y la presencia de HPV de alto riesgo, aportando mayor objetividad en casos dudosos y ayudando a seleccionar grupos de individuos con riesgo de progresión de enfermedad, con un costo aceptable para estudiar grandes grupos.Recent studies suggest that p16 overexpression determined by immunohistochemistry would be a specific marker for neoplastic and dysplastic squamous cells associated with high-risk HPV. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between cyto-histological findings, p16 expression and HPV subtype. A total of 99 biopsies were selected, 4 endocervical

  13. High-level pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenium P16 isolated from mangrove system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zai-Chao; Fu, Wen-Juan; Liu, Guang-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    After over 100 strains of Aureobasidium spp. isolated from mangrove system were screened for their ability to produce exopolysaccharide (EPS), it was found that Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenium P16 strain among them could produce high level of EPS. Under the optimal conditions, 65.3 g/L EPS was produced by the P16 strain within 120 h at flask level. During 10-L batch fermentation, when the medium contained 120.0 g/L sucrose, 67.4 g/L of EPS and 23.1 g/L of cell dry weight in the culture were obtained within 120 h, leaving 0.78 g/L of reducing sugar and 11.4 g/L of total sugar in the fermented medium. It should be stressed that during the fermentation, no melanin was observed. After purification, the purified EPS was confirmed to be pullulan. This is the first time to report that A. pullulans var. melanogenium P16 strain isolated from the mangrove system can produce high level of pullulan.

  14. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Arbogast

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+ or a duplication (Dup/+ of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice.

  15. Decreased D2-40 and increased p16INK4A immunoreactivities correlate with higher grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhouping

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D2-40 has been shown a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium, but also shown in the benign cervical basal cells. However, the application of D2-40 immunoreactivity in the cervical basal cells for identifying the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN has not been evaluated. Methods In this study, the immunoreactive patterns of D2-40, compared with p16INK4A, which is currently considered as the useful marker for cervical cancers and their precancerous diseases, were examined in total 125 cervical specimens including 32 of CIN1, 37 of CIN2, 35 of CIN3, and 21 of normal cervical tissue. D2-40 and p16INK4A immunoreactivities were scored semiquantitatively according to the intensity and/or extent of the staining. Results Diffuse D2-40 expression with moderate-to-strong intensity was seen in all the normal cervical epithelia (21/21, 100% and similar pattern of D2-40 immunoreactivity with weak-to-strong intensity was observed in CIN1 (31/32, 97.2%. However, negative and/or focal D2-40 expression was found in CIN2 (negative: 20/37, 54.1%; focal: 16/37, 43.2% and CIN3 (negative: 22/35, 62.8%; focal: 12/35, 34.3%. On the other hand, diffuse immunostaining for p16INK4A was shown in 37.5% of CIN1, 64.9% of CIN2, and 80.0% of CIN3. However, the immunoreactive pattern of D2-40 was not associated with the p16INK4A immunoreactivity. Conclusions Immunohistochemical analysis of D2-40 combined with p16INK4A may have a significant implication in clinical practice for better identifying the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, especially for distinguishing CIN1 from CIN2/3.

  16. Cathecol-O-methyl transferase Val158Met genotype is not a risk factor for conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armagan, E; Almacıoglu, M L; Yakut, T; Köse, A; Karkucak, M; Köksal, O; Görükmez, O

    2013-03-19

    Alterations in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity are involved in various types of neurological disorders. We examined a possible association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and conversion disorder in a study of 48 patients with conversion disorder and 48 control patients. In the conversion disorder group, 31 patients were Val/Met heterozygotes, 15 patients were Val/Val homozygotes and 2 patients were Met/Met homozygotes. In the control group, 32 patients were Val/Met heterozygotes and 16 patients were Val/Val homozygotes. There was no significant difference between the groups. We conclude that the COMT Val158Met genotype is quite common in Turkey and that it is not a risk factor for conversion disorder in the Turkish population.

  17. Significance of p16 expression in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and cetuximab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiduschka, Gregor; Thurnher, Dietmar [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Grah, Anja; Kranz, Alexander; Selzer, Edgar [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiotherapy, Vienna (Austria); Oberndorfer, Felicitas; Wrba, Fritz [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Clinical Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Seemann, Rudolf [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Kornek, Gabriela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medicine I - Division of Clinical Oncology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    HPV-infection, p16 positivity, and EGFR expression have been correlated with favorable responses of head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy. However, a possible correlation of HPV/p16 and EGFR status on the effect of RT in combination with cetuximab has not been sufficiently investigated. We analyzed tumor samples for p16 and EGFR expression and correlated these variables with treatment outcome. Cox-proportional-hazard regression models were applied to compare the risk of death among patients stratified according to risk factors. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results were compared with an institutional historical control group treated without cetuximab and with published data. Expression of p16 was predominantly found in oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer patients (OPSCC; 36.6 % positivity; 92 % of all cases), while EGFR was expressed at high levels in all tumor subsites (82 %). p16 expression was associated with improved overall survival in irradiated OPSCC patients (2-year overall survival of 80 % in p16-positive vs. 33 % overall survival in p16-negative patients). In a multivariable analysis covering all tumor sites, nodal stage (> N2a vs. ≤ N2a) and tumor site (OPSSC vs. non-OPSCC) had an impact on overall survival. Our results show that p16 positivity is associated with a favorable outcome in OPSCC patients treated with RT and cetuximab. (orig.) [German] HPV-Infektion, p16-Positivitaet und EGFR-Expression wurden bei Kopf-Hals-Tumorpatienten, die mit einer Strahlentherapie (RT) mit oder ohne Chemotherapie behandelt wurden, mit einem besseren Ergebnis in Verbindung gebracht. Bis jetzt wurde eine solche Korrelation bei Patienten, die mit einer RT in Kombination mit Cetuximab therapiert wurden, nicht untersucht. Es wurden die p16- und die EGFR-Expression in Tumormaterial untersucht und die Daten mit dem Behandlungsergebnissen korreliert. Um die Sterberisiken zu vergleichen, wurden Cox

  18. Sema4D, the ligand for Plexin B1, suppresses c-Met activation and migration and promotes melanocyte survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Joanne; Chen, Yulin; Shustef, Elina M; Scott, Glynis A

    2012-04-01

    Semaphorins are secreted and membrane-bound proteins involved in neural pathfinding, organogenesis, and tumor progression, through Plexin and neuropilin receptors. We recently reported that Plexin B1, the Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) receptor, is a tumor-suppressor protein for melanoma, which functions, in part, through inhibition of the oncogenic c-Met tyrosine kinase receptor. In this report, we show that Sema4D is a protective paracrine factor for normal human melanocyte survival in response to UV irradiation, and that it stimulates proliferation and regulates the activity of the c-Met receptor. c-Met receptor signaling stimulates melanocyte migration, partly through downregulation of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. Sema4D suppressed activation of c-Met in response to its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and partially blocked the suppressive effects of HGF on E-cadherin expression in melanocytes and HGF-dependent migration. These data demonstrate a role for Plexin B1 in maintenance of melanocyte survival and proliferation in the skin, and suggest that Sema4D and Plexin B1 act cooperatively with HGF and c-Met to regulate c-Met-dependent effects in human melanocytes. Because our data show that Plexin B1 is profoundly downregulated by UVB in melanocytes, loss of Plexin B1 may accentuate HGF-dependent effects on melanocytes, including melanocyte migration.

  19. Molecular Mechanism of Enhanced Anticancer Effect of Nanoparticle Formulated LY2835219 via p16-CDK4/6-pRb Pathway in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LY2835219 is a dual inhibitor to CDK4 and CDK6. This study was to prepare LY2835219-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNP/LY and LY2835219-loaded hyaluronic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (HACNP/LY and revealed their anticancer effect and influence on p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway against colon cell line. The nanoparticle sizes of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were approximately 195±39.6 nm and 217±31.1 nm, respectively. The zeta potentials of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were 37.3±1.5 mV and 30.3±2.2 mV, respectively. And the preparation process showed considerable drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency. LY2835219, CNP/LY, and HACNP/LY inhibited HT29 cell proliferation with 0.68, 0.54, and 0.30 μM of IC50, respectively. G1 phase was arrested by LY2835219 and its formulations. Furthermore, inhibition of CDK4/6 by LY2835219 formulations induced CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, and pRb decrease and p16 increase at both protein and mRNA levels. Overall, nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could enhance the cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest, and HACNP/LY strengthened the trend furtherly compared to CNP/LY. It is the first time to demonstrate the anticancer effect and mechanism against HT29 by LY2835219 and its nanoparticles. The drug and its nanoparticle formulations delay the cell growth and arrest cell cycle through p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway, while the nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could strengthen the process.

  20. Levels of 16O near 13 MeV excitation from 15N+p reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, K.H.; Frawley, A.D.; Ophel, T.R.; Barker, F.C.

    1977-02-01

    Angular distributions, a O 0 excitation function and Doppler-broadened γ-ray profiles for the reaction 15 N(p1 γ), and angular distributions for the 15 N(p,αsub(o)) reaction, have been measured for proton energies from about 900 to 1250 keV. These data, together with analysing powers from the 15 N(p,αsub(o)) reaction with polarized protons, have been satisfactorily fitted by means of R-matrix theory, in terms of the known levels of 16 O in the 13 MeV region together with background contributions. (Author)

  1. A pilot study to compare the detection of HPV-16 biomarkers in salivary oral rinses with tumour p16INK4a expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Ryan C.; Lim, Yenkai; Frazer, Ian H.; Wan, Yunxia; Perry, Christopher; Jones, Lee; Lambie, Duncan; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2016-01-01

    Human papilloma virus-16 (HPV-16) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), in particular oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Current techniques for assessing the HPV-16 status in HNSCC include the detection of HPV-16 DNA and p16 INK4a expression in tumor tissues. When tumors originate from hidden anatomical sites, this method can be challenging. A non-invasive and cost-effective alternative to biopsy is therefore desirable for HPV-16 detection especially within a community setting to screen at-risk individuals. The present study compared detection of HPV-16 DNA and RNA in salivary oral rinses with tumor p16 INK4a status, in 82 HNSCC patients using end-point and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 42 patients with p16 INK4a -positive tumours, 39 (sensitivity = 92.9 %, PPV = 100 % and NPV = 93 %) had oral rinse samples with detectable HPV-16 DNA, using end-point and quantitative PCR. No HPV-16 DNA was detected in oral rinse samples from 40 patients with p16 INK4a negative tumours, yielding a test specificity of 100 %. For patients with p16 INK4a positive tumours, HPV-16 mRNA was detected using end-point reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in 24/40 (sensitivity = 60 %, PPV = 100 % and NPV = 71 %), and using quantitative RT-PCR in 22/40 (sensitivity = 55 %, PPV = 100 % and NPV = 69 %). No HPV-16 mRNA was detected in oral rinse samples from the p16 INK4a -negative patients, yielding a specificity of 100 %. We demonstrate that the detection of HPV-16 DNA in salivary oral rinse is indicative of HPV status in HNSCC patients and can potentially be used as a diagnostic tool in addition to the current methods. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2217-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. 28 CFR 16.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 16.1 Section 16.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION... administration of the Department of Justice. ...

  3. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p16 and hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Abrahao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT. Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3% of PMD, in 63.3% of OSCC and in 80% of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7% of PMD, in 43.3% of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90% of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.

  4. Gezondheidsrisico's in verband met het werken met Pentachloorfenol : een onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, R.B.M.; Nossent, S.M.; Koëter, H.B.W.M.; Dreef-van der Meulen, H.C.; Stijkel, A.; Zielhuis, R.l.

    1989-01-01

    De gezondheidsrisico's i.v.m. het werken met pentachloorfenol (PCP) wordt geevalueerd. Het gebruik van PCP in Nederlandse arbeidssituaties neemt sterk af en is beperkt tot de formulering van emeltenkorrels en de, met name preventieve, houtverduurzaming. De totale risicopopulatie is niet omvangrijk

  5. The Creatine Transporter Gene Paralogous at 16p11.2 Is Expressed in Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bayou

    2008-01-01

    We report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in a boy with autism carrying a de novo translocation t(7;16(p22.1;p11.2. The chromosome 16 breakpoint disrupts the paralogous SLC6A8 gene also called SLC6A10 or CT2. Predicted translation of exons and RT-PCR analysis reveal specific expression of the creatine transporter paralogous in testis and brain. Several studies reported on the role of X-linked creatine transporter mutations in individuals with mental retardation, with or without autism. The existence of disruption in SLC6A8 paralogous gene associated with idiopathic autism suggests that this gene may be involved in the autistic phenotype in our patient.

  6. Two-body hypercharge-exchange reactions in K-p and π+p interactions at 10 and 16 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girtler, P.; Otter, G.; Sliwa, K.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Eason, R.M.; Newham, P.; Pollock, B.; Wells, J.; Mandl, F.; Markytan, M.

    1979-01-01

    Cross section values or upper limits are presented for twenty-five two-body hypercharge-exchange reactions in K - p and π + p interactions at 10 and 16 GeV/c. The 16 GeV/c results are compared with some predictions of line-reversal plus exchange-degenerate Regge poles, of SU(3) and of the additive quark model. Agreement is found in all cases. (author)

  7. Human papillomavirus DNA and p16 expression in Japanese patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hisato; Okamoto, Isamu; Terao, Kyoichi; Sakai, Kazuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Ueda, Shinya; Tanaka, Kaoru; Kuwata, Kiyoko; Morita, Yume; Ono, Koji; Nishio, Kazuto; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Doi, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major etiologic factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). However, little is known about HPV-related OPSCC in Japan. During the study, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded OPSCC specimens from Japanese patients were analyzed for HPV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the surrogate marker p16 by immuno-histochemistry. For HPV DNA-positive, p16-negative specimens, the methylation status of the p16 gene promoter was examined by methylation-specific PCR. Overall survival was calculated in relation to HPV DNA and p16 status and was subjected to multivariate analysis. OPSCC cell lines were examined for sensitivity to radiation or cisplatin in vitro. The study results showed that tumor specimens from 40 (38%) of the 104 study patients contained HPV DNA, with such positivity being associated with tumors of the tonsils, lymph node metastasis, and nonsmoking. Overall survival was better for OPSCC patients with HPV DNA than for those without it (hazard ratio, 0.214; 95% confidence interval, 0.074–0.614; P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed HPV DNA to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.015). Expression of p16 was associated with HPV DNA positivity. However, 20% of HPV DNA-positive tumors were negative for p16, with most of these tumors manifesting DNA methylation at the p16 gene promoter. Radiation or cisplatin sensitivity did not differ between OPSCC cell lines positive or negative for HPV DNA. Thus, positivity for HPV DNA identifies a distinct clinical subset of OPSCC with a more favorable outcome in Japanese

  8. RNA-seq of 272 gliomas revealed a novel, recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion transcript in secondary glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhao-Shi; Chen, Hui-Min; Yang, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Yu, Kai; Ye, Wan-Lu; Hu, Bo-Qiang; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Akers, Johnny; Ramakrishnan, Valya; Li, Jie; Carter, Bob; Liu, Yan-Wei; Hu, Hui-Min; Wang, Zheng; Li, Ming-Yang; Yao, Kun; Qiu, Xiao-Guang; Kang, Chun-Sheng; You, Yong-Ping; Fan, Xiao-Long; Song, Wei Sonya; Li, Rui-Qiang; Su, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Clark C; Jiang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high-grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation/temozolomide. Sixty-seven in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent fusion transcripts: FGFR3-TACC3, RNF213-SLC26A11, and PTPRZ1-MET (ZM). Interestingly, the ZM fusion was found only in grade III astrocytomas (1/13; 7.7%) or secondary GBMs (sGBMs, 3/20; 15.0%). In an independent cohort of sGBMs, the ZM fusion was found in three of 20 (15%) specimens. Genomic analysis revealed that the fusion arose from translocation events involving introns 3 or 8 of PTPRZ and intron 1 of MET. ZM fusion transcripts were found in GBMs irrespective of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status. sGBMs harboring ZM fusion showed higher expression of genes required for PIK3CA signaling and lowered expression of genes that suppressed RB1 or TP53 function. Expression of the ZM fusion was mutually exclusive with EGFR overexpression in sGBMs. Exogenous expression of the ZM fusion in the U87MG glioblastoma line enhanced cell migration and invasion. Clinically, patients afflicted with ZM fusion harboring glioblastomas survived poorly relative to those afflicted with non-ZM-harboring sGBMs (P < 0.001). Our study profiles the shifting RNA landscape of gliomas during progression and reveled ZM as a novel, recurrent fusion transcript in sGBMs. © 2014 Bao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. A Novel Pseudo-Dicentric Variant of 16p11.2-q11.2 Contains Euchromatin from 16p11.2-p11.1 and Resembles Pathogenic Duplications of Proximal 16q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, J C K; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Maloney, V K

    2012-01-01

    An unusually large G-light band between 2 G-dark bands in the proximal long arm of chromosome 16 was found in a boy of 5 years of age ascertained with growth retardation, microcephaly, and dysmorphic features. Dual color bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC FISH...

  10. Magnetite nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth and upregulate the expression of p53/p16 in Ehrlich solid carcinoma bearing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Bassiony

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs have been widely used as contrast agents and have promising approaches in cancer treatment. In the present study we used Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC bearing mice as a model to investigate MNPs antitumor activity, their effect on expression of p53 and p16 genes as an indicator for apoptotic induction in tumor tissues. METHOD: MNPs coated with ascorbic acid (size: 25.0±5.0 nm were synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized. Ehrlich mice model were treated with MNPs using 60 mg/Kg day by day for 14 injections; intratumorally (IT or intraperitoneally (IP. Tumor size, pathological changes and iron content in tumor and normal muscle tissues were assessed. We also assessed changes in expression levels of p53 and p16 genes in addition to p53 protein level by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Our results revealed that tumor growth was significantly reduced by IT and IP MNPs injection compared to untreated tumor. A significant increase in p53 and p16 mRNA expression was detected in Ehrlich solid tumors of IT and IP treated groups compared to untreated Ehrlich solid tumor. This increase was accompanied with increase in p53 protein expression. It is worth mentioning that no significant difference in expression of p53 and p16 could be detected between IT ESC and control group. CONCLUSION: MNPs might be more effective in breast cancer treatment if injected intratumorally to be directed to the tumor tissues.

  11. The overexpression of p16 is not a surrogate marker for high-risk human papilloma virus genotypes and predicts clinical outcomes for vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznurkowski, Jacek J; Żawrocki, Anton; Biernat, Wojciech

    2016-07-13

    We aimed to evaluate the correlation between p16(ink4a)-overexpression and high risk (hr)HPV-DNA in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC) tumors as well as the impact of both biomarkers on the prognosis of vSCC patients. PCR-detection of (hr)HPV-DNA and immunohistochemical staining for p16(ink4a) were conducted in 85 vSCC tumors. Survival analyses included the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. p16(ink4a)-overexpression and (hr)HPV-DNA were detected in 35 and 37 of the 85 tumors, respectively. Among the 35 p16(ink4a)-positive tumors, 10 lacked (hr)HPV-DNA (29 %). Among the 50 p16(ink4a)-negative tumors, (hr)HPV-DNA was detected in 12 cases (24 %). The median follow-up was 89.20 months (range 1.7-189.5 months). P16(ink4a)-overexpression, but not (hr)HPV-DNA positivity of the primary tumor, was correlated with prolonged overall survival (OS) (p = 0.009). P16(ink4a)-overexpression predicted a better response to radiotherapy (p overexpression (p = 0.022), and adjuvant RTX (p overexpression (HR 1-2.11, 95 % CI 1.13-3.95, p = 0.001) are independent prognostic factors. The discovered overlap suggests the use of p16(ink4a) in combination with HPV-DNA detection as an ancillary test for future research and clinical studies in vSCC. The prognostic and predictive value of p16(ink4a)-overexpression should be tested in larger cohort studies.

  12. 44 CFR 1.6 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ex parte communications. 1.6 Section 1.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.6 Ex parte communications. In...

  13. Sirenomelia with a de novo balanced translocation 46,X,t(X;16)(p11.23;p12.3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Tanoshima-Takei, Miki; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Masuno, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Michiko

    2012-06-01

    We report a female fetus with sirenomelia with 46,X,t(X;16)(p11.23;p12.3) de novo. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes were employed for narrowing down the breakpoint regions. On chromosome 16, the breakpoint was mapped in the region of RP11-453F10 (19 920 640-20 118 153 bp from 16pter). On chromosome X, the breakpoint was mapped in the region of RP11-794A15 (47 333 744-47 524 066 bp from Xpter). This is the first case report of sirenomelia associated with translocations. The abnormal phenotype, associated with a balanced translocation, was caused by deletion or breakage of dosage-sensitive genes of the breakpoint, disruption of an imprinted gene, or uniparental disomy. Although the parental origin of normal 16 and der(16) remained undetermined, this case will provide insight into the pathogenetic mechanism of sirenomelia. © 2011 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  15. Analysis of human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma using p16: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S.; Rao, R. S.; Amrutha, N.; Sanketh, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate the association of HPV in histological grades of OSCC using p16 (p16INK4a) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Subjects and Methods: This study consists of 30 histological diagnosed cases of OSCC (10-well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [WDOSCC], 10-moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [MDOSCC] and 10-poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [PDOSCC]). The sections were subjected to IHC procedure using p16. Two parameters in immunohistochemical p16 expression were evaluated by 3 observers based on the criteria by Galgano M. Tetal (2010) (a) percentage of p16 positive cases (b) pattern of p16 staining in various grades of OSCC. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test. Results: Totally, 30 samples of 0SCC, p16 positivity was noted in 26/30 (86.66%). Of 26 positive cases, p16 staining was positive in 7/10 (70%) of WDOSCC, 9/10 (90%) in MDOSCC and, 10/10 (100%) PDOSCC. Incidentally, we also found single dispersed cell staining in WDOSCC, patchy staining in MDOSCC and more diffuse staining pattern predominant in PDOSCC. Conclusions: Our study revealed an association between HPV and OSCC. Diffuse staining pattern was noted in PDOSCC, which in turn depicts the increase viral overload, which might have an influence on its aggressive behavior. PMID:24818098

  16. Expressão de p53, p16 E COX-2 em carcinoma escamoso de esôfago e associação histopatológica p53, p16 E COX-2 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and histopathological association

    OpenAIRE

    Izabella Paz Danezi Felin; Ivana Grivicich; Carlos Roberto Felin; Andrea Regner; Adriana Brondani da Rocha

    2008-01-01

    RACIONAL: O câncer de esôfago representa cerca de 2% dos tumores malignos e a terceira causa mais comum de câncer do trato gastrointestinal. A associação do prognóstico do câncer de esôfago com alguns marcadores imunoistoquímicos, como as proteínas p53, p16 e a ciclooxigenase 2 (COX-2) tem sido relatada. A detecção de marcadores moleculares através de imunoistoquímica pode ser utilizada para avaliação prognóstica. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a associação entre a expressão das proteínas p53, p16 e a...

  17. Cord Blood Lysophosphatidylcholine 16: 1 is Positively Associated with Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ping Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Impaired birth outcomes, like low birth weight, have consistently been associated with increased disease susceptibility to hypertension in later life. Alterations in the maternal or fetal metabolism might impact on fetal growth and influence birth outcomes. Discerning associations between the maternal and fetal metabolome and surrogate parameters of fetal growth could give new insight into the complex relationship between intrauterine conditions, birth outcomes, and later life disease susceptibility. Methods: Using flow injection tandem mass spectrometry, targeted metabolomics was performed in serum samples obtained from 226 mother/child pairs at delivery. Associations between neonatal birth weight and concentrations of 163 maternal and fetal metabolites were analyzed. Results: After FDR adjustment using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC 14: 0, 16: 1, and 18: 1 were strongly positively correlated with birth weight. In a stepwise linear regression model corrected for established confounding factors of birth weight, LPC 16: 1 showed the strongest independent association with birth weight (CI: 93.63 - 168.94; P = 6.94×10-11 . The association with birth weight was stronger than classical confounding factors such as offspring sex (CI: -258.81- -61.32; P = 0.002 and maternal smoking during pregnancy (CI: -298.74 - -29.51; P = 0.017. Conclusions: After correction for multiple testing and adjustment for potential confounders, LPC 16: 1 showed a very strong and independent association with birth weight. The underlying molecular mechanisms linking fetal LPCs with birth weight need to be addressed in future studies.

  18. Bone induction by biomimetic PLGA copolymer loaded with a novel synthetic RADA16-P24 peptide in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Haitao; Hao, Shaofei; Zheng, Qixin; Li, Jingfeng; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Zhilei; Yang, Shuhua; Guo, Xiaodong; Yang, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a key bone morphogenetic protein, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used as scaffold for clinical use to carry treatment protein. In the previous studies, we have synthesized BMP-2-related peptide (P24) and found its capacity of inducing bone regeneration. In this research, we have synthesized a new amphiphilic peptide Ac-RADA RADA RADA RADA S[PO4]KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYLDDD-CONH2 (RADA16-P24) with an assembly peptide RADA16-Ion the P24 item of BMP2 to form divalent ion-induced gelatin. Two methods of physisorption and chemical cross-linking were used to bind RADA16-P24 onto the surface of the copolymer PLGA to synthesize RADA16-P24–PLGA, and its capacity of attaching bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was evaluated in vitro and inducing ectopic bone formation was examined in vivo. In vitro our results demonstrated that RADA16-P24–PLGA copolymer prepared by physisorbing or prepared by chemical cross-linking had a peptide binding rate of (2.0180 ± 0.5296)% or (10.0820 ± 0.8405)% respectively (P < 0.05). In addition the BMSCs proliferated vigorously in the RADA16-P24–PLGA biomaterials. Significantly the percentage of BMSCs attached to RADA16-P24–PLGA composite prepared by chemical cross-linking and physisorbing were (71.4 ± 7.5) % or (46.7 ± 5.8) % (P < 0.05). The in vivo study showed that RADA16-P24–PLGA chemical cross-linking could better induce ectopic bone formation compared with RADA16-P24–PLGA physisorbing and PLGA. It is concluded that the PLGA copolymer is a good RADA16-P24 carrier. This novel RADA16-P24–PLGA composite has strong osteogenic capability. - Highlights: • We have synthesized a new RADA16-P24 amphiphilic peptide. • It is an assembly peptide RADA16-Ion the P24 to form divalent ion-induced gelatin. • RADA16-P24/PLGA could better induce etopia osteogenesis compared with PLGA. • RADA16-P24–PLGA has strong osteogenic capability

  19. Bone induction by biomimetic PLGA copolymer loaded with a novel synthetic RADA16-P24 peptide in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Haitao; Hao, Shaofei [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qixin, E-mail: zheng-qx@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Li, Jingfeng [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Department of Orthopedics, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Jin; Hu, Zhilei; Yang, Shuhua; Guo, Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang, Qin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a key bone morphogenetic protein, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used as scaffold for clinical use to carry treatment protein. In the previous studies, we have synthesized BMP-2-related peptide (P24) and found its capacity of inducing bone regeneration. In this research, we have synthesized a new amphiphilic peptide Ac-RADA RADA RADA RADA S[PO4]KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYLDDD-CONH2 (RADA16-P24) with an assembly peptide RADA16-Ion the P24 item of BMP2 to form divalent ion-induced gelatin. Two methods of physisorption and chemical cross-linking were used to bind RADA16-P24 onto the surface of the copolymer PLGA to synthesize RADA16-P24–PLGA, and its capacity of attaching bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was evaluated in vitro and inducing ectopic bone formation was examined in vivo. In vitro our results demonstrated that RADA16-P24–PLGA copolymer prepared by physisorbing or prepared by chemical cross-linking had a peptide binding rate of (2.0180 ± 0.5296)% or (10.0820 ± 0.8405)% respectively (P < 0.05). In addition the BMSCs proliferated vigorously in the RADA16-P24–PLGA biomaterials. Significantly the percentage of BMSCs attached to RADA16-P24–PLGA composite prepared by chemical cross-linking and physisorbing were (71.4 ± 7.5) % or (46.7 ± 5.8) % (P < 0.05). The in vivo study showed that RADA16-P24–PLGA chemical cross-linking could better induce ectopic bone formation compared with RADA16-P24–PLGA physisorbing and PLGA. It is concluded that the PLGA copolymer is a good RADA16-P24 carrier. This novel RADA16-P24–PLGA composite has strong osteogenic capability. - Highlights: • We have synthesized a new RADA16-P24 amphiphilic peptide. • It is an assembly peptide RADA16-Ion the P24 to form divalent ion-induced gelatin. • RADA16-P24/PLGA could better induce etopia osteogenesis compared with PLGA. • RADA16-P24–PLGA has strong osteogenic capability.

  20. c-MET Overexpression in Colorectal Cancer: A Poor Prognostic Factor for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Ho Yeong; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Seung Tae

    2018-03-02

    Increased mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor gene (c-MET) expression in several human malignancies is related to increased tumor progression and is a new potential drug target for several types of cancers. In the present study, we investigated the incidence of c-MET overexpression and its prognostic significance in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We retrospectively reviewed the data from 255 stage IV CRC patients who had results from a c-MET immunohistochemical test at Samsung Medical Center. We explored the relationships between c-MET overexpression and clinicopathological features and survival. Primary tumor sites were 67 right-sided colon, 98 left-sided colon, and 90 rectum. Forty-two patients (16.7%) had poorly differentiated or mucinous carcinoma. Among the 255 patients, 39 (15.3%) exhibited c-MET overexpression. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of c-MET overexpression according to primary site, histologic differentiation, molecular markers, or metastatic sites. In a comparison of the tumor response to first-line chemotherapy according to the level of c-MET expression, we found no significant difference in either partial response or disease control rate. In the survival analysis, patients with c-MET overexpression had significantly shorter overall survival (39 vs. 27 months; P = .018) and progression-free survival (PFS) during bevacizumab treatment (10 vs. 7 months; P = .024). c-MET overexpression, which was detected in 39 CRC patients (15.3%) irrespective of primary sites or molecular markers, indicated a poor survival prognosis and predicted shorter PFS during bevacizumab treatment in patients with CRC. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the value of c-MET-targeted therapy in CRC patients. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The PPARα/p16INK4a Pathway inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by repressing Cell Cycle-dependent Telomerase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizard, Florence; Nomiyama, Takashi; Zhao, Yue; Findeisen, Hannes M.; Heywood, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Karrie L.; Staels, Bart; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) α, the molecular target for fibrates used to treat dyslipidemia, exerts pleiotropic effects on vascular cells. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we have previously demonstrated that PPARα activation suppresses G1→S cell cycle progression by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a (p16). In the present study, we demonstrate that this inhibition of VSMC proliferation by PPARα is mediated through a p16-dependent suppression of telomerase activity, which has been implicated in key cellular functions including proliferation. PPARα activation inhibited mitogen-induced telomerase activity by repressing the catalytic subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) through negative cross-talk with an E2F-1-dependent trans-activation of the TERT promoter. This trans-repression involved the recruitment of the retinoblastoma (RB) family proteins p107 and p130 to the TERT promoter resulting in impaired E2F-1 binding, an effect which was dependent on p16. The inhibition of cell proliferation by PPARα activation was lost in VSMC following TERT overexpression or knock-down, pointing to a key role of telomerase as a target for the antiproliferative effects of PPARα. Finally, we demonstrate that PPARα agonists suppress telomerase activation during the proliferative response following vascular injury indicating that these findings are applicable in vivo. In concert, these results demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effects of PPARα in VSMCs depend on the suppression of telomerase activity by targeting the p16/RB/E2F transcriptional cascade. PMID:18818403

  2. Evidence for a modifier of onset age in Huntington disease linked to the HD gene in 4p16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Knowlton, Beth; Hayden, Michael R.; Almqvist, Elisabeth W.; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russel L.; Rosenblatt, Adam; Durr, Alexandra; Dode, Catherine; Morrison, Patrick J.; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina; Trent, Ronald J. A.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Mayo Cabrero, David; Jones, Randi; Zanko, Andrea; Nance, Martha; Abramson, Ruth K.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Paulsen, Jane S.; Harrison, Madaline B.; Yang, Qiong; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Gusella, James F.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2007-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal expansion of CAG repeats in the HD gene on chromosome 4p16.3. A recent genome scan for genetic modifiers of age at onset of motor symptoms (AO) in HD suggests that one modifier may reside in the region close to the HD gene itself. We used data from 535 HD participants of the New England Huntington cohort and the HD MAPS cohort to assess whether AO was influenced by any of the three markers in the 4p16 region: MSX1 (Drosophila homeo box homologue 1, formerly known as homeo box 7, HOX7), Δ2642 (within the HD coding sequence), and BJ56 (D4S127). Suggestive evidence for an association was seen between MSX1 alleles and AO, after adjustment for normal CAG repeat, expanded repeat, and their product term (model P value 0.079). Of the variance of AO that was not accounted for by HD and normal CAG repeats, 0.8% could be attributed to the MSX1 genotype. Individuals with MSX1 genotype 3/3 tended to have younger AO. No association was found between Δ2642 (P=0.44) and BJ56 (P=0.73) and AO. This study supports previous studies suggesting that there may be a significant genetic modifier for AO in HD in the 4p16 region. Furthermore, the modifier may be present on both HD and normal chromosomes bearing the 3 allele of the MSX1 marker. PMID:15029481

  3. HPV infection and P16 expression in oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilbay, Dauren; Adilbayev, Galim; Kidirbayeva, Gulzhan; Shipilova, Viktoria; Sadyk, Zhanat; Koyanbekova, Gulsum; Sokolenko, Ekaterina; Klozar, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important etiologic factor in different cancers of anogenital region and also in a fraction of head and neck cancers (HNC) particularly oropharyngeal tumors. The HPV16 genotype associated with the majority of HPV-related head and neck carcinomas. Th incidence of oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in many countries, and the rate of HPV positive tumors is about 70% in Europe and North America. Little known about the prevalence of HPV in HNC in Central Asia. It's a prospective analysis of patients with verified oral or oropharyngeal cancer. Sociodemographic and clinical data obtained on admission to treatment. The diagnosis of HPV positivity assessed by both the P16 expression on immunohistochemistry(IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with HPV DNA detection and HR HPV type determination. Seventy six patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer tested for HPV. Forteen cases were positive for HPV by PCR and 15 cases by P16 IHC. Of the 35 oropharyngeal tumors, nine were HPV DNA and p16 IHC positive, giving the rate of 25.7%. Of the 41 oral tumors, five were HPV DNA and six p16 IHC positive, giving the rate of 12.2%. It is the first study mapping prevalence of HPV positivity in oral and oropharyngeal cancer in the Central Asian region. The rate of HPV positivity was higher in oropharyngeal than in oral cancer, the nonsmokers were significantly more frequent in the HPV positive group and HPV 16 was the most frequent type. However, the HPV positivity rates are lower than referred in the western world.

  4. Behavioral Abnormalities and Circuit Defects in the Basal Ganglia of a Mouse Model of 16p11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Portmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A deletion on human chromosome 16p11.2 is associated with autism spectrum disorders. We deleted the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7F3. MRI and high-throughput single-cell transcriptomics revealed anatomical and cellular abnormalities, particularly in cortex and striatum of juvenile mutant mice (16p11+/−. We found elevated numbers of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs expressing the dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2+ and fewer dopamine-sensitive (Drd1+ neurons in deep layers of cortex. Electrophysiological recordings of Drd2+ MSN revealed synaptic defects, suggesting abnormal basal ganglia circuitry function in 16p11+/− mice. This is further supported by behavioral experiments showing hyperactivity, circling, and deficits in movement control. Strikingly, 16p11+/− mice showed a complete lack of habituation reminiscent of what is observed in some autistic individuals. Our findings unveil a fundamental role of genes affected by the 16p11.2 deletion in establishing the basal ganglia circuitry and provide insights in the pathophysiology of autism.

  5. 16p11.2 Deletion Mice Display Cognitive Deficits in Touchscreen Learning and Novelty Recognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Lewis, Freeman C.; Sarvi, Michael S.; Foley, Gillian M.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal 16p11.2 deletion syndrome frequently presents with intellectual disabilities, speech delays, and autism. Here we investigated the Dolmetsch line of 16p11.2 heterozygous (+/-) mice on a range of cognitive tasks with different neuroanatomical substrates. Robust novel object recognition deficits were replicated in two cohorts of 16p11.2…

  6. Requirements to be met by the operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The rule applies to the contents and the lay-out of the operating manual for stationary nuclear power plants. The draft contains: 1. General requirement to be met by the contents of the operating manual. The operating manual to be arranged in 4 parts (part 1: internal rules and regulations; part 2: operation overall plant; part 3: incidents; part 4: operation systems). Safety specifications to be included in the manual, the exemption being the system of technical documentation. 2. General requirements to be met by the lay-out of the operating manual. Comprehensibility; legibility; structure and subdivisions; arrangement of the instructions and design of the manuals cover. 3. Requirements to be met by part 1. Defining the various internal rules and regulations (personnel management); rules and regulations concerning inspections and shift work; maintenance and repair; radiation protection; guard duty and admission; alarm; fire protection; first aid. 4. Requirements to be met by part 2. Provisions and operational limitations; limit values important from the point of view of safety; normal operation; anomalous operation; in-service inspections. 6. Requirements to be met by part 3. 7. Annex: Rules, regulations and stipulations mentioned in the rule draft. (orig.)

  7. Synergistic interactions between RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54, three partially homologous yeast DNA repair genes each in a different repair pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassner, B.J.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable homology has recently been noted between the proteins encoded by the RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These genes are members of the RAD6, RAD3 and RAD50 epistasis groups, respectively, which correspond to the three major DNA repair pathways in yeast. These proteins also share homology with other eucaryotic proteins, including those encoded by SNF2 and MO1 of yeast, brahma and lodestar of Drosophila and the human ERCC6 gene. The homology shares features with known helicases, suggesting a newly identified helicase subfamily. We have constructed a series of congenic single-, double- and triple-deletion mutants involving RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 to examine the interactions between these genes. Each deletion mutation alone has only a moderate effect on survival after exposure to UV radiation. Each pairwise-double mutant exhibits marked synergism. The triple-deletion mutant displays further synergism. These results confirm the assignment of the RAD54 gene to the RAD50 epistasis group and suggest that the RAD16 gene plays a larger role in DNA repair after exposure to UV radiation than has been suggested previously. Additionally, the proteins encoded by RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54 may compete for the same substrate after damage induced by UV radiation, possibly at an early step in their respective pathways. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental and Psychiatric Features in 16p11.2 Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Snyder, LeeAnne; D'Angelo, Debra; Chen, Qixuan; Bernier, Raphael; Goin-Kochel, Robin P; Wallace, Arianne Stevens; Gerdts, Jennifer; Kanne, Stephen; Berry, Leandra; Blaskey, Lisa; Kuschner, Emily; Roberts, Timothy; Sherr, Elliot; Martin, Christa L; Ledbetter, David H; Spiro, John E; Chung, Wendy K; Hanson, Ellen

    2016-08-01

    The 16p11.2 duplication (BP4-BP5) is associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), although significant heterogeneity exists. Quantitative ASD, behavioral and neuropsychological measures and DSM-IV diagnoses in child and adult carriers were compared with familial non-carrier controls, and to published results from deletion carriers. The 16p11.2 duplication phenotype ranges widely from asymptomatic presentation to significant disability. The most common diagnoses were intellectual disability, motor delays and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children, and anxiety in adults. ASD occurred in nearly 20 % of child cases, but a majority of carriers did not show the unique social features of ASD. The 16p11.2 duplication phenotype is characterized by wider variability than the reciprocal deletion, likely reflecting contributions from additional risk factors.

  9. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces as tools for the construction of a herringbone pattern in the crystal structure of hexane-1,6-diaminium hexane-1,6-diyl bis(hydrogen phosphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido J. Reiss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [H3N(CH26NH3][(HOO2P(CH26PO2(OH], consists of one half of a hexane-1,6-diaminium dication and one half of a hexane-1,6-diyl bis(hydrogen phosphonate dianion. Both are located around different centres of inversion (Wyckoff sites: 2a and 2d of the space group P21/c. The shape of the hexane-1,6-diaminium cation is best described as a double hook. Both aminium groups as well as the two attached CH2 groups are turned out from the plane of the central four C atoms. In contrast, all six C atoms of the dianion are almost in a plane. The hydrogen phosphonate (–PO3H groups of the anions and the aminium groups of the cations form two-dimensional O—H... and O—H...N hydrogen-bonded networks parallel to the ac plane, built up from ten-membered and twelve-membered ring motifs with graph-set descriptors R33(10 and R54(12, respectively. These networks are linked by the alkylene chains of the anions and cations. The resulting three-dimensional network shows a herringbone pattern, which resembles the parent structures 1,6-diaminohexane and hexane-1,6-diphosphonic acid.

  10. Characterization of HGF/Met Signaling in Cell Lines Derived From Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young H. [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Apolo, Andrea B. [Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Agarwal, Piyush K.; Bottaro, Donald P., E-mail: dbottaro@helix.nih.gov [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-11-25

    There is mounting evidence of oncogenic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/Met signaling in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. The effects of three kinase inhibitors, cabozantinib, crizotinib and EMD1214063, on HGF-driven signaling and cell growth, invasion and tumorigenicity were analyzed in cultured UC cell lines. SW780 xenograft growth in SCID and human HGF knock-in SCID (hHGF/SCID) mice treated with cabozantinib or vehicle, as well as tumor levels of Met and pMet, were also determined. Met content was robust in most UC-derived cell lines. Basal pMet content and effector activation state in quiescent cells were low, but significantly enhanced by added HGF, as were cell invasion, proliferation and anchorage independent growth. These HGF-driven effects were reversed by Met inhibitor treatment. Tumor xenograft growth was significantly higher in hHGF/SCID mice vs. SCID mice and significantly inhibited by cabozantinib, as was tumor phospho-Met content. These studies indicate the prevalence and functionality of the HGF/Met signaling pathway in UC cells, suggest that paracrine HGF may contribute to UC tumor growth and progression, and that support further preclinical investigation of Met inhibitors for the treatment of UC is warranted.

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air...

  12. Preliminary Physics Summary: Inclusive $\\Upsilon$ production in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 8.16$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    The inclusive $\\Upsilon$ production in p-Pb interactions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon collision $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 8.16$ TeV is studied with the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The measurement has been performed reconstructing $\\Upsilon$(1S) and $\\Upsilon$(2S) mesons via their dimuon decay channel, in the centre-of-mass rapidities $2.03 < y_{\\rm cms} < 3.53$ and $-4.46 < y_{\\rm cms} < -2.96$, down to zero transverse momentum. Preliminary results on the inclusive $\\Upsilon$(1S) nuclear modification factors ($R_{\\rm pPb}$) as a function of rapidity, transverse momentum ($p_{\\rm T}$) and centrality of the collisions will be presented. The results will be compared with those obtained by ALICE in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 8.16$ TeV and with theoretical model calculations. The inclusive $\\Upsilon$(2S) $R_{\\rm pPb}$ will also be discussed and compared to the corresponding $\\Upsilon(1S)$ measurement.

  13. p16(INK4a) promoter methylation and protein expression in breast fibroadenoma and carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vinci, Angela; Perdelli, Luisa; Banelli, Barbara; Salvi, Sandra; Casciano, Ida; Gelvi, Ilaria; Allemanni, Giorgio; Margallo, Edoardo; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Romani, Massimo

    2005-04-10

    The potential role of p16(INK4a) methylation in breast cancer is controversial whereas there are no data on fibroadenoma. To assess if inactivation of p16(INK4a) by promoter hypermethylation occurs in this hyperproliferative benign breast lesion or, on the contrary, it is strictly related to the carcinogenic process, we have tested the different histological components of 15 cases of fibroadenoma and the intraductal and infiltrating components of 15 cases of carcinoma and their adjacent non-tumoral epithelium. All samples were obtained by laser-assisted microdissection. The relationship between promoter methylation status, immunohistochemical protein expression and ki67 proliferative activity was evaluated for each lesion. Our data demonstrate that hypermethylation of p16(INK4a) promoter is a common event occurring at similar frequency in all the different histological areas of the benign and malignant breast lesions taken into exam. Conversely, protein p16 expression, although heterogeneously distributed within the section, is considerably higher in breast carcinoma as compared to fibroadenoma in both tumoral and non-tumoral epithelia and stroma. The protein localization was almost exclusively nuclear in fibroadenoma and non-tumoral epithelia whereas, in carcinoma, the staining was both nuclear and cytoplasmic or cytoplasmic alone. Furthermore, in a subset of fibroadenoma with higher proliferative activity, p16 protein expression was substantially decreased as compared to those showing lower proliferation. We did not observe this association in carcinomas. Our data demonstrate that the hypermethylation of the p16(INK4a) promoter is not specifically associated with malignancy and that, on the contrary, the overexpression of p16 and its cytoplasmic sequestration is a feature of breast carcinoma. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Electron correlation in the 4d-16p→5s-26p and 5s-15p-16p resonance Auger transitions of Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmekhin, S.; Nikkinen, J.; Sankari, R.; Maeaettae, M.; Kukk, E.; Huttula, M.; Heinaesmaeki, S.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Xe 4d -1 6p→5s 0 5p 6 6p and 5s 1 5p 5 6p resonant Auger transitions have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. High resolution resonant Auger spectra have been recoded with different photon bandwidths which have enabled to separate the first step Auger transition from the overlapping second step transitions. Theoretical calculations using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock approach with different configuration expansions were carried out, compared to each other and to the experiment. The calculations with the largest basis set were found to reproduce the distribution of the intensity to the main and satellite lines in both the 5s 0 5p 6 6p and 5s 1 5p 5 6p Auger groups reasonably well, and to predict the structure of the 4d -1 6p→5s 0 5p 6 6p main lines very well

  15. Expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells with aging in the bone marrow of mice through a NF-κB-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rafael R; Clauson, Cheryl L; Cho, Joonseok; Lee, Byeong-Chel; McGowan, Sara J; Baker, Darren J; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D

    2017-06-01

    With aging, there is progressive loss of tissue homeostasis and functional reserve, leading to an impaired response to stress and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A key mediator of the cellular response to damage and stress is the transcription factor NF-κB. We demonstrated previously that NF-κB transcriptional activity is upregulated in tissues from both natural aged mice and in a mouse model of a human progeroid syndrome caused by defective repair of DNA damage (ERCC1-deficient mice). We also demonstrated that genetic reduction in the level of the NF-κB subunit p65(RelA) in the Ercc1 -/∆ progeroid mouse model of accelerated aging delayed the onset of age-related pathology including muscle wasting, osteoporosis, and intervertebral disk degeneration. Here, we report that the largest fraction of NF-κB -expressing cells in the bone marrow (BM) of aged (>2 year old) mice (C57BL/6-NF-κB EGFP reporter mice) are Gr-1 + CD11b + myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was a significant increase in the overall percentage of MDSC present in the BM of aged animals compared with young, a trend also observed in the spleen. However, the function of these cells appears not to be compromised in aged mice. A similar increase of MDSC was observed in BM of progeroid Ercc1 -/∆ and BubR1 H/H mice. The increase in MDSC in Ercc1 -/∆ mice was abrogated by heterozygosity in the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB. These results suggest that NF-κB activation with aging, at least in part, drives an increase in the percentage of MDSCs, a cell type able to suppress immune cell responses. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Rare deletions at 16p13.11 predispose to a diverse spectrum of sporadic epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Erin L; Radtke, Rodney A; Urban, Thomas J; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Depondt, Chantal; Need, Anna C; Walley, Nicole M; Nicoletti, Paola; Ge, Dongliang; Catarino, Claudia B; Duncan, John S; Kasperaviciūte, Dalia; Tate, Sarah K; Caboclo, Luis O; Sander, Josemir W; Clayton, Lisa; Linney, Kristen N; Shianna, Kevin V; Gumbs, Curtis E; Smith, Jason; Cronin, Kenneth D; Maia, Jessica M; Doherty, Colin P; Pandolfo, Massimo; Leppert, David; Middleton, Lefkos T; Gibson, Rachel A; Johnson, Michael R; Matthews, Paul M; Hosford, David; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Dorn, Thomas; Hansen, Jörg; Krämer, Günter; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Wieser, Heinz-Gregor; Zumsteg, Dominik; Ortega, Marcos; Wood, Nicholas W; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Mikati, Mohamad; Gallentine, William B; Husain, Aatif M; Buckley, Patrick G; Stallings, Ray L; Podgoreanu, Mihai V; Delanty, Norman; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Goldstein, David B

    2010-05-14

    Deletions at 16p13.11 are associated with schizophrenia, mental retardation, and most recently idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To evaluate the role of 16p13.11 deletions, as well as other structural variation, in epilepsy disorders, we used genome-wide screens to identify copy number variation in 3812 patients with a diverse spectrum of epilepsy syndromes and in 1299 neurologically-normal controls. Large deletions (> 100 kb) at 16p13.11 were observed in 23 patients, whereas no control had a deletion greater than 16 kb. Patients, even those with identically sized 16p13.11 deletions, presented with highly variable epilepsy phenotypes. For a subset of patients with a 16p13.11 deletion, we show a consistent reduction of expression for included genes, suggesting that haploinsufficiency might contribute to pathogenicity. We also investigated another possible mechanism of pathogenicity by using hybridization-based capture and next-generation sequencing of the homologous chromosome for ten 16p13.11-deletion patients to look for unmasked recessive mutations. Follow-up genotyping of suggestive polymorphisms failed to identify any convincing recessive-acting mutations in the homologous interval corresponding to the deletion. The observation that two of the 16p13.11 deletions were larger than 2 Mb in size led us to screen for other large deletions. We found 12 additional genomic regions harboring deletions > 2 Mb in epilepsy patients, and none in controls. Additional evaluation is needed to characterize the role of these exceedingly large, non-locus-specific deletions in epilepsy. Collectively, these data implicate 16p13.11 and possibly other large deletions as risk factors for a wide range of epilepsy disorders, and they appear to point toward haploinsufficiency as a contributor to the pathogenicity of deletions. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. APR-246/PRIMA-1Met Inhibits and Reverses Squamous Metaplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Cheng; Wang, Guoliang; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Pei; Yang, Qichen; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. In this study, we investigated the effect of a small molecule, APR-246/PRIMA-1(Met), on squamous metaplasia in human conjunctival epithelium. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions. Epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation were assessed by Cytokeratin 10 (K10), K14, K19, Pax6, MUC5AC, and p63 immunostaining patterns. β-catenin and TCF-4 immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR characterized Wnt signaling pathway involvement. Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR-246 for 4 days. p63, K10, β-catenin, and TCF-4 expression in pterygial epithelium was determined by immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR. Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination. Such pathology was accompanied by increases in K10, K14, and p63 expression, whereas K19 and Pax6 levels declined when compared to those in freshly isolated tissue. On the other hand, APR-246 reversed all of these declines in K10, K14, and p63 expression. Furthermore, K19 and Pax6 increased along with rises in goblet cell density. These effects of APR-246 were accompanied by near restoration of normal conjunctival epithelial histology. APR-246 also reversed squamous metaplasia in pterygial epithelium that had developed after 4 days in ex vivo culture. Reductions in squamous metaplasia induced by APR-246 suggest it may provide a novel therapeutic approach in different squamous metaplasia-associated ocular surface diseases.

  18. Neuropsychological phenotype of a patient with a de novo 970 kb interstitial deletion in the distal 16p11.2 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egger JI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jos I M Egger,1–3 Willem M A Verhoeven,1,4 Wim Verbeeck,5 Nicole de Leeuw61Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Venray, the Netherlands; 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 4Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 5Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Centre for Autism and ADHD, Venray, the Netherlands; 6Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the NetherlandsAbstract: The 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by a wide range of phenotypic expressions and is frequently associated with developmental delay, symptoms from the autism spectrum, epilepsy, congenital anomalies, and obesity. These phenotypes are often related to a proximal 16p11.2 deletion of approximately 600 kb (BP4–BP5 that includes the SH2B1 gene that is reported to be causative for morbid obesity. This more centromeric deletion is most strongly related to autism spectrum susceptibility and is functionally different from the more distal 16p12.2p11.2 region, which includes the so-called atypical 16p11.2 BP2–BP3 deletion (approximately 220 kb presenting with developmental delay, behavioral problems and mild facial dysmorphisms. Here, an adult male with a long history of maladaptive behaviors is described who was referred for diagnostic assessment of his amotivational features. Extensive neuropsychological examination demonstrated rigid thinking, anxious beliefs, and ideas of reference in the presence of normal intelligence. Microarray analysis demonstrated a de novo 970 kb 16p11.2 BP1–BP4 microdeletion that can be regarded as explanatory for his behavioral profile. It is concluded that microdeletion syndromes are not exclusively related to intellectual disabilities and

  19. Effect of low dose radiation on expression of p16 gene in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longzhen; Ding Xin; Li Xiangyang; Cen Jiannong; Shen Hongjie; Chen Zixing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of low dose radiation on the expression on p16 gene in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Methods: Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) which expressed CD34 +, CD38 - and CD123 + were isolated from bone marrow cells obtained from twenty patients newly-diagnosedas chronic myeloid leukemia with EasySep TM magnet beads. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which expressed CD34 + and CD38 - were isolated from human cord blood cells obtained from twenty full-term deliveries with EasySep TM magnet beads as control. HSCs vs LSCs samples were further divided into three dose groups, including 0, 12.5 and 50 cGy, respectively. RT-PCR and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were used to detect mRNA expression of p16 gene in HSCs and LSCs after irradiation. Cells were harvested at different time for detection of cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometer. Results: p16 mRNA level in CML-LSCs was increased slightly at 12.5 cGy, and significantly increased at 50 cGy (Z=-3.39, P 0 /G 1 stagewas increased 48 h after 12.5 cGy irradiation, and 72 h post-irradiation with 50 cGy. The apoptosis rate of CML-LSCs was gradually raised after LDR, especially at 72 h post-irradiation of 50 cGy [(17.75±11.760% vs (6.13±4.71)%, Z=-2.37, P<0.01]. Conclusions: p16 gene transcription could be up-regulated by low dose radiation, which might provide a theoretical evidence for CML therapy and LDR in leukemic clinical application. (authors)

  20. Immunohistochemistry Analysis of CD44, EGFR, and p16 in Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erin R; Reis, Isildinha M; Gomez, Carmen; Pereira, Lutecia; Freiser, Monika E; Hoosien, Gia; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2017-08-01

    Objectives We analyze the relationship between CD44, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and p16 expression in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers in a diverse population. We also describe whether particular patterns of staining are associated with progression-free survival and overall survival. Study Design Prospective study, single-blind to pathologist and laboratory technologist. Setting Hospital based. Subjects and Methods Immunohistochemistry, comprising gross staining and cellular expression, was performed and interpreted in a blinded fashion on 24 lip/oral cavity and 40 oropharyngeal cancer specimens collected between 2007 and 2012 from participants of a larger study. Information on overall survival and progression-free survival was obtained from medical records. Results Nineteen cases were clinically p16 positive, 16 of which were oropharyngeal. Oral cavity lesions were more likely to exhibit strong CD44 membrane staining ( P = .0002). Strong CD44 membrane and strong EGFR membrane and/or cytoplasmic staining were more common in p16-negative cancers ( P = .006). Peripheral/mixed gross p16 staining pattern was associated with worse survival than the universal staining on univariate and multivariate analyses ( P = .006, P = .030). This held true when combining gross and cellular localization for p16. For CD44, universal gross staining demonstrated poorer overall survival compared with the peripheral/mixed group ( P = .039). CD44 peripheral/mixed group alone and when combined with universal p16 demonstrated the best survival on multivariate analysis ( P = .010). Conclusion In a diverse population, systematic analysis applying p16, CD44, and EGFR gross staining and cellular localization on immunohistochemistry demonstrates distinct patterns that may have prognostic potential exceeding current methods. Larger studies are warranted to investigate these findings further.

  1. Lipid ratio as a suitable tool to identify individuals with MetS risk: A case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Delvarianzadeh, Mehri; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Khosravi, Farideh

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the serum lipids ratio in staff with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were working in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. This case-control study was conducted in 2015 on 499 personnel aged 30-60 years old. ATP III criteria were used to diagnose patients with MetS. The data were analyzed by using logistic regression and ROC curve. Mean lipid ratio was higher in individuals having the MetS in both sexes compared with those without. In addition, the mean levels of lipid ratios significantly increased with increasing number of MetS components in both sexes. Also it could be concluded that TG/HDL-C ratio is the best marker for the diagnosis of MetS in men and women. Moreover, the cut-off point for the TG/HDL-C was 2.86 in women and 4.03 in men. It was found that for any unit of increases in the TG/HDL-C, the risk of developing the MetS will increase by 2.12 times. TG/HDL-C ratio is found to be the best clinical marker for the diagnosis of MetS compare with other lipid ratios, therefore it is recommended to be used as a feasible tool to identify individuals with MetS risk. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HFE polymorphisms influence the response to chemotherapeutic agents via induction of p16INK4A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Y; Liu, Siying; Mitchell, Ryan M; Slagle-Webb, Becky; Hong, Young-Soo; Sheehan, Jonas M; Connor, James R

    2011-11-01

    HFE is a protein that impacts cellular iron uptake. HFE gene variants are identified as risk factors or modifiers for multiple diseases. Using HFE stably transfected human neuroblastoma cells, we found that cells carrying the C282Y HFE variant do not differentiate when exposed to retinoic acid. Therefore, we hypothesized HFE variants would impact response to therapeutic agents. Both the human neuroblastoma and glioma cells that express the C282Y HFE variant are resistant to Temodar, geldanamycin and γ-radiation. A gene array analysis revealed that p16INK4A (p16) expression was increased in association with C282Y expression. Decreasing p16 protein by siRNA resulted in increased vulnerability to all of the therapeutic agents suggesting that p16 is responsible for the resistance. Decreasing HFE expression by siRNA resulted in a 85% decrease in p16 expression in the neuroblastoma cells but not the astrocytoma cells. These data suggest a potential direct relationship between HFE and p16 that may be cell specific or mediated by different pathways in the different cell types. In conclusion, the C282Y HFE variant impacts the vulnerability of cancer cells to current treatment strategies apparently by increasing expression of p16. Although best known as a tumor suppressor, there are multiple reports that p16 is elevated in some forms of cancer. Given the frequency of the HFE gene variants, as high as 10% of the Caucasian population, these data provide compelling evidence that the C282Y HFE variant should be part of a pharmacogenetic strategy for evaluating treatment efficacy in cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  3. The prognostic value of HPV status and p16 expression in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria B Roldán Urgoiti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In anal cancer studies, the detection frequency of high-risk HPV (human papillomavirus is variable, depending on the method used. There are limited data reporting results of different HPV detection techniques in the same clinical series, and very few correlating results with clinical outcome. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tumor expression of p16/HPV16 using three different methods, and to determine their association with clinical outcome in patients with anal canal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. DESIGN: This retrospective study included patients with anal canal SCC treated with definitive radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy at a single institution between 1992 and 2005. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 53 of the 89 (60% patient pre-treatment biopsies were adequate for tissue microarray construction. HPV status was determined using: p16 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC and quantitative IHC (AQUA, HPV genotype analysis by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and HPV linear array sub-typing. Expression status was correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: 80% (28/35 of patient tumors had high p16 expression using conventional IHC. HPV16 CISH was positive in 81% (34/42 of tumors, and 78% (28/36 of tumors were HPV subtype 16. HPV16 CISH correlated with p16 evaluated by conventional IHC (correlation coefficient 0.46; p = 0.01 and by p16 AQUA score (correlation coefficient 0.49; p = 0.001. A subset of cases (15% had very high p16 quantitative IHC scores (>244 and were associated with a higher incidence of local or distant recurrence (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority (80% of anal canal SCC in our series were positive for HPV16/p16, regardless of the testing method used. The exploratory analysis of automated quantitative IHC scoring was the only technique to define a subset of patients with a worse prognosis by p16 expression status on univariate analysis. Further exploration of the molecular

  4. Screening for human papillomavirus in basaloid squamous carcinoma: utility of p16(INK4a), CISH, and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ryan; Trotman, Winifred; Adamson, Christine S C; Rajendran, Vanitha; Tang, Alice; Elhosseiny, Abdelmonem; Evans, Mark F

    2011-06-01

    This study compares p16( INK4a) immunohistochemistry (IHC), HPV chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH), and HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping for detection of HPV infection in basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSCC). A retrospective histopathological analysis of 40 BSCC from a single institution was carried out. p16 IHC, HPV DNA extraction and ISH, and HPV PCR genotyping were performed, and there was excellent agreement between all 3 methods of HPV detection. Analysis of variance yielded no significant differences between the results of the 3 tests ( P = .354) and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients calculated for each pair of tests demonstrated direct correlation (r = .61 for PCR and IHC, r = .61 for PCR and ISH, and r = 1.00 for ISH and IHC). This supports the use of p16(INK4a) IHC as an initial screening tool for HPV infection in BSCC, while definitive evidence of HPV DNA can be sought subsequently with PCR or CISH.

  5. LOH at 16p13 is a novel chromosomal alteration detected in benign and malignant microdissected papillary neoplasms of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, R A; Park, W S; Man, Y G; Pham, T; MacGrogan, G; Zhuang, Z; Tavassoli, F A

    1998-10-01

    Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a variant of predominantly intraductal carcinoma characterized by a papillary growth pattern with fibrovascular support. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was evaluated at multiple chromosomal loci (including loci reported to show frequent genetic alterations in breast cancer) to determine the frequency of genetic mutations in these tumors and their precursors. Thirty-three papillary lesions of the breast (6 papillary carcinomas, 12 carcinomas arising in a papilloma, and 15 intraductal papillomas with florid epithelial hyperplasia) were retrieved from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP). Tumor cells and normal tissue were microdissected in each case and screened for LOH at INT-2 and p53 as well as several loci on chromosome 16p13 in the TSC2/PKD1 gene region (D16S423, D16S663, D16S665). LOH on chromosome 16p13 was present in 10 of 16 (63%) informative cases of either papillary carcinoma or carcinoma arising in a papilloma as well as in 6 of 10 (60%) informative cases of intraductal papilloma with florid epithelial hyperplasia (IDH). One case showed simultaneous LOH in both the florid IDH and carcinoma components of a papilloma. LOH was not observed at either INT-2 or p53 in any of the papillary carcinomas or papillomas with florid IDH. In conclusion, a high frequency of LOH at chromosome 16p13 (the TSC2/PKD1 gene region) is in both papillary carcinomas of the breast as well as in papillomas with florid IDH, including a case with LOH present simultaneously in both components. These findings suggest that chromosome 16p contains a tumor suppressor gene that frequently is mutated early in papillary neoplasia.

  6. Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in Chinese subjects with coronary artery disease and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Na-Ping; Wang, Lian-Sheng; Yang, Li; Gu, Hai-Juan; Zhu, Huai-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Sun, Qing-Min; Cong, Ri-Hong; Wang, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is considered to exert a protective effect against atherosclerosis. The Leu72Met (+408C>A) polymorphic variant of the preproghrelin, the gene for the ghrelin precursor, has been linked to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, it is unclear whether this polymorphism is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a case-control study with 317 CAD patients and 323 controls to investigate the potential association of the Leu72Met polymorphism with the occurrence of CAD and CAD-related phenotypes in Chinese population. No significant difference in the Leu72Met genotype frequency was observed between CAD patients and controls (P=NS). The Leu72Met polymorphism was not associated with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, the number of diseased vessels, plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or fasting glucose levels in CAD patients. However, among CAD patients, those with variant genotypes (Leu72Met and Met72Met) had lower BMI (24.4+/-0.3 kg/m(2)) than Leu72Leu carriers (25.4+/-0.2 kg/m(2), adjusted P=0.033). Our data indicate that the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with CAD in Chinese population. However, the Leu72Met variant is associated with BMI among CAD patients.

  7. Analyzing power for the 16O(p,n)16F (4-, 6.37 MeV) reaction at 134 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madey, R.; Fazely, A.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Kalenda, A.M.; McCarthy, R.J.; Tandy, P.C.; Watson, J.W.; Bertozzi, W.; Buti, T.; Finn, M.; Kovash, M.; Pugh, B.; Foster, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    We measured the analyzing power for the 16 O(p,n) 16 F (4 - , 6.37 MeV) reaction at 134.0 MeV and the differential cross section for the same reaction at 135.2 MeV. The shape of the cross section for the transition to this unnatural parity stretched state is described well by a distorted-wave impulse-approximation calculation using a (πd/sub 5/2/, νp/sub 3/2//sup ts-1/) 4 /sub -/ configuration and the effective interaction derived by Love and Franey from nucleon-nucleon phase shifts. The analyzing power from this calculation reproduces all of the qualitative features of the data and supports the use of the impulse approximation as an excellent starting point for describing the reaction mechanism. Quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical analyzing power can be improved by eliminating the imaginary tensor term of this interaction and taking the real part to be that derived by Love from the Sussex matrix elements. The sensitivity of the calculations to the choice of optical potentials and the importance of spin-orbit distortion is explored

  8. Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in cisplatin versus cetuximab chemoradiation for locally advanced p16 positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Christian L; Walston, Steve; Zamora, Pedro; Healy, Erin H; Nolan, Nicole; Diavolitsis, Virginia M; Neki, Anterpreet; Rupert, Robert; Savvides, Panos; Agrawal, Amit; Old, Matthew; Ozer, Enver; Carrau, Ricardo; Kang, Stephen; Rocco, James; Teknos, Theodoros; Grecula, John C; Wobb, Jessica; Mitchell, Darrion; Blakaj, Dukagjin; Bhatt, Aashish D

    2018-04-01

    Randomized trials evaluating cisplatin versus cetuximab chemoradiation (CRT) for p16+ oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have yet to report preliminary data. Meanwhile, as a preemptive step toward morbidity reduction, the off-trial use of cetuximab in p16+ patients is increasing, even in those who could potentially tolerate cisplatin. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of cisplatin versus cetuximab CRT in the treatment of p16+ OPC and to identify prognostic factors and predictors of tumor response. Cases of p16+ OPC treated with cisplatin or cetuximab CRT at our institution from 2010 to 2014 were identified. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification was used to determine low-risk (LR-RPA) and intermediate-risk (IR-RPA) groups. Log-rank/Kaplan-Meier and Cox Regression methods were used to compare groups. We identified 205 patients who received cisplatin (n = 137) or cetuximab (n = 68) CRT in the definitive (n = 178) or postoperative (n = 27) setting. Median follow-up was 3 years. Cisplatin improved 3-year locoregional control (LRC) [92.7 vs 65.4%], distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) [88.3 vs 71.2%], recurrence-free survival (RFS) [86.6 vs 50.6%], and overall survival (OS) [92.6 vs 72.2%] compared to cetuximab [all p < .001]. Concurrent cisplatin improved 3-year OS for LR-RPA (97.1 vs 80.3%, p < .001) and IR-RPA (97.1 vs 80.3%, p < .001) groupings. When treating p16+ OPC with CRT, the threshold for substitution of cisplatin with cetuximab should be maintained appropriately high in order to prolong survival times and optimize locoregional and distant tumor control. When cetuximab is used in cisplatin-ineligible patients, altered fractionation RT should be considered in an effort to improve LRC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric Retrievals of HAT-P-16b and WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Kathleen; Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan; Lenius, Maria; Hartman, Joel D.; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Blecic, Jasmina; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Cameron, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    We report Bayesian atmospheric retrievals performed on the exoplanets HAT-P-16b and WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b. HAT-P-16b is a hot (equilibrium temperature 1626 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and efficient energy redistribution), 4.19 ± 0.09 Jupiter-mass exoplanet orbiting an F8 star every 2.775960 ± 0.000003 days (Buchhave et al 2010). WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b is a cooler (1020 ± 17 K), 0.487 ± 0.018 Jupiter-mass exoplanet orbiting a K3 star every 3.7224747 ± 0.0000065 days (Bakos et al. 2009, co-discovered by West et al. 2008). We observed secondary eclipses of both planets using the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels of the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (program ID 60003). We applied our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits (POET) code to produce normalized eclipse light curves, and our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code to constrain the temperature-pressure profiles and atmospheric molecular abundances of the two planets. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  10. The Met receptor tyrosine kinase prevents zebrafish primary motoneurons from expressing an incorrect neurotransmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisen Judith S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of correct neurotransmitters is crucial for normal nervous system function. How neurotransmitter expression is regulated is not well-understood; however, previous studies provide evidence that both environmental signals and intrinsic differentiation programs are involved. One environmental signal known to regulate neurotransmitter expression in vertebrate motoneurons is Hepatocyte growth factor, which acts through the Met receptor tyrosine kinase and also affects other aspects of motoneuron differentiation, including axonal extension. Here we test the role of Met in development of motoneurons in embryonic zebrafish. Results We found that met is expressed in all early developing, individually identified primary motoneurons and in at least some later developing secondary motoneurons. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides to knock down Met function and found that Met has distinct roles in primary and secondary motoneurons. Most secondary motoneurons were absent from met morpholino-injected embryos, suggesting that Met is required for their formation. We used chemical inhibitors to test several downstream pathways activated by Met and found that secondary motoneuron development may depend on the p38 and/or Akt pathways. In contrast, primary motoneurons were present in met morpholino-injected embryos. However, a significant fraction of them had truncated axons. Surprisingly, some CaPs in met morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO-injected embryos developed a hybrid morphology in which they had both a peripheral axon innervating muscle and an interneuron-like axon within the spinal cord. In addition, in met MO-injected embryos primary motoneurons co-expressed mRNA encoding Choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme for their normal neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, and mRNA encoding Glutamate decarboxylase 1, the synthetic enzyme for GABA, a neurotransmitter never normally found in these motoneurons, but

  11. Alterations of tumor suppressor genes (Rb, p16, p27 and p53) and an increased FDG uptake in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masayuki; Sugio, Kenji; Kuwabara, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    The FDG uptake in lung cancer is considered to reflect the degree of malignancy, while alterations of some tumor suppressor genes are considered to be related to the malignant biological behavior of tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between FDG-PET and alterations in the tumor suppression genes of lung cancer. We examined 28 patients with primary lung cancer who underwent FDG-PET before surgery consisting of 17 patients with adenocarcinoma, 10 with squamous cell carcinoma and 1 with large cell carcinoma. The FDG-PET findings were evaluated based on the standardized uptake value (SUV). Alterations in the tumor suppressor genes, Rb, p16, p27 and p53, were evaluated immunohistochemically. The FDG uptake in lung cancer with alteration in each tumor suppressor gene tended to be higher than in those genes without alterations, although the differences were not significant. In 15 tumors with alterations in either tumor suppressor genes, the FDG uptake was 6.83±3.21. On the other hand, the mean FDG uptake was 1.95 in 2 tumors without alterations in any genes. The difference in the FDG uptake between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). In conclusion, the presence of abnormalities in the tumor suppressor genes, which results in an accelerated cell proliferation, is thus considered to increase the FDG uptake in lung cancer. (author)

  12. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine protects against emphysema in mice via suppressing p16Ink4a expression in lung tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He ZH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhi-Hui He,1 Yan Chen,2 Ping Chen,2 Sheng-Dong He,2 Hui-Hui Zeng,2 Ji-Ru Ye,2 Da Liu,2 Jun Cao3 1Intensive Care Unit, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, Changsha, China Background: There is a growing realization that COPD, or at least emphysema, involves several processes presenting in aging and cellular senescence. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contribute to neovascularization and play an important role in the development of COPD. The gene for p16Ink4a is a major dominant senescence one. The aim of the present study was to observe changes in lung function, histomorphology of lung tissue, and expression of p16Ink4a in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived EPCs in emphysematous mice induced by cigarette-smoke extract (CSE, and further to search for a potential candidate agent protecting against emphysema induced by CSE. Materials and methods: An animal emphysema model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CSE. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR was administered to the emphysematous mice. Lung function and histomorphology of lung tissue were measured. The p16Ink4a protein and mRNA in EPCs and lung tissues were detected using Western blotting and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Results: CSE induced emphysema with increased p16Ink4a expression in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived EPCs. 5-Aza-CdR partly protected against emphysema, especially in the lung-morphology profile, and partly protest against the overexpression of p16Ink4a in EPCs and lung tissue induced by CSE. Conclusion: 5-Aza-CdR partly protected against emphysema in mice via suppressing p16Ink4a expression in EPCs and lung tissue. Keywords: 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, cigarette smoke, emphysema, endothelial progenitor cells, p16Ink4a

  13. Cancer stage and pack-years, but not p16 or HPV, are relevant for survival in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Valerie; Haitel, Andrea; Kaider, Alexandra; Stanisz, Isabella; Beer, Andrea; Lill,