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Sample records for messenger-rna

  1. Messenger RNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cullen

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA) in complex substrata is rarely analyzed, in large part because labile RNA molecules are difficult to purify. Nucleic acid extractions from fungi that colonize soil are particularly difficult and plagued by humic substances that interfere with Taq polymerase (Tebbe and Vahjen 1993 and references therein). Magnetic capture...

  2. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  3. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  4. Messenger RNA surveillance: neutralizing natural nonsense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischelfeldt, Joachim Lütken; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Porse, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Messenger RNA transcripts that contain premature stop codons are degraded by a process termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Although previously thought of as a pathway that rids the cell of non-functional mRNAs arising from mutations and processing errors, new research suggests a more general...

  5. Messenger RNA 3' end formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A G

    2008-01-01

    Messenger RNA 3' end formation is an integral step in the process that gives rise to mature, translated messenger RNAs in eukaryotes. With this step, a pre-messenger RNA is processed and polyadenylated, giving rise to a mature mRNA bearing the characteristic poly(A) tract. The poly(A) tract is a fundamental feature of mRNAs, participating in the process of translation initiation and being the focus of control mechanisms that define the lifetime of mRNAs. Thus messenger RNA 3' end formation impacts two steps in mRNA biogenesis and function. Moreover, mRNA 3' end formation is something of a bridge that integrates numerous other steps in mRNA biogenesis and function. While the process is essential for the expression of most genes, it is also one that is subject to various forms of regulation, such that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression may be modulated via the polyadenylation complex. In this review, the current status of understanding of mRNA 3' end formation in plants is discussed. In particular, the nature of mRNA 3' ends in plants is reviewed, as are recent studies that are beginning to yield insight into the functioning and regulation of plant polyadenylation factor subunits.

  6. THE LIFETIME OF BACTERIAL MESSENGER RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, V.; Calvin, M.

    1963-12-01

    Puromycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, appears to act as an inhibitor at additional sites during the induction of {beta}-galactosidase synthesis. No inhibition of the reactions proceeding during the first 20 seconds of induction was observed, but puromycin seems to prevent the accumulation of messenger RNA during the period between 20 seconds and the first appearance of enzyme activity after 3 minutes. When cells from a stationary culture are placed in fresh medium containing inducer for {beta}-galactosidase, growth, as represented by increase in turbidity and by total protein synthesis, starts within 30 seconds. By contrast, {beta}-galactosidase synthesis is greatly delayed compared with induction during exponential growth. Two other inducible enzymes show similar lags, but malic dehydrogenase, which requires no external inducer, shows no lag. The lags are not due to catabolite repression phenomena. They cannot be reduced by pretreatment of the culture with inducer, or by supplementing the fresh medium with amino acids or nucleotides. The lag is also demonstrated by an i{sup -} mutant constitutive for {beta}-galactosidase synthesis. An inhibitor of RNA synthesis, 6-azauracil, preferentially inhibits {beta}-galactosidase synthesis compared with growth in both inducible and constitutive strains. It is suggested that these observations, together with many reports in the literature that inducible enzyme synthesis is more sensitive than total growth to some inhibitors and adverse growth conditions, can be explained by supposing that messenger RNA for normally inducible enzymes is biologically more labile than that for normally constitutive proteins. The implications of this hypothesis for the achievement of cell differentiation by genetic regulation of enzyme synthesis are briefly discussed.

  7. Messenger RNA processing in Methanocaldococcus (Methanococcus) jannaschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Olsen, Gary J

    2009-10-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) processing plays important roles in gene expression in all domains of life. A number of cases of mRNA cleavage have been documented in Archaea, but available data are fragmentary. We have examined RNAs present in Methanocaldococcus (Methanococcus) jannaschii for evidence of RNA processing upstream of protein-coding genes. Of 123 regions covered by the data, 31 were found to be processed, with 30 including a cleavage site 12-16 nucleotides upstream of the corresponding translation start site. Analyses with 3'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and 5'-RACE indicate that the processing is endonucleolytic. Analyses of the sequences surrounding the processing sites for functional sites, sequence motifs, or potential RNA secondary structure elements did not reveal any recurring features except for an AUG translation start codon and (in most cases) a ribosome binding site. These properties differ from those of all previously described mRNA processing systems. Our data suggest that the processing alters the representation of various genes in the RNA pool and therefore, may play a significant role in defining the balance of proteins in the cell.

  8. Processivity and coupling in messenger RNA transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Aitken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of messenger RNA processing is now being uncovered by experimental techniques that are capable of detecting individual copies of mRNA in cells, and by quantitative real-time observations that reveal the kinetics. This processing is commonly modelled by permitting mRNA to be transcribed only when the promoter is in the on state. In this simple on/off model, the many processes involved in active transcription are represented by a single reaction. These processes include elongation, which has a minimum time for completion and processing that is not captured in the model.In this paper, we explore the impact on the mRNA distribution of representing the elongation process in more detail. Consideration of the mechanisms of elongation leads to two alternative models of the coupling between the elongating polymerase and the state of the promoter: Processivity allows polymerases to complete elongation irrespective of the promoter state, whereas coupling requires the promoter to be active to produce a full-length transcript. We demonstrate that these alternatives have a significant impact on the predicted distributions. Models are simulated by the Gillespie algorithm, and the third and fourth moments of the resulting distribution are computed in order to characterise the length of the tail, and sharpness of the peak. By this methodology, we show that the moments provide a concise summary of the distribution, showing statistically-significant differences across much of the feasible parameter range.We conclude that processivity is not fully consistent with the on/off model unless the probability of successfully completing elongation is low--as has been observed. The results also suggest that some form of coupling between the promoter and a rate-limiting step in transcription may explain the cell's inability to maintain high mRNA levels at low noise--a prediction of the on/off model that has no supporting evidence.

  9. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA Translation. The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical ...

  10. Rapid important paper Messenger RNA in squid axoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, A; Hunt, T; Santella, L

    1986-01-01

    Using a translation assay we have shown that the axoplasm of the squid giant axon contains significant amounts of mRNA coding for a heterogeneous group of prot sets of proteins specified by glial and neuronal perikaryal mRNA. Messenger RNA is associated with the "microsomal" fraction of the axoplasm. The possible involvement of axoplasmic mRNA in protein synthesis remains to be ascertained. It is known that axoplasmic proteins are synthesized by the isolated giant axon, presumably by the surrounding glia cells.

  11. Isolation and Translation of Hordein Messenger RNA from Wild Type and Mutant Endosperms in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders Bøving; Ingwersen, J.

    1978-01-01

    of a different B1 hordein polypeptide, which is revealed by 21 nucleotide substitutions resulting in 9 amino acid changes. Messenger RNA has been isolated from developing barley endosperms by sucrose gradient sedimentation, Sepharose 4B gel filtration and preparative gel electrophoresis. Hordein messenger RNA...... was found to be a major constituent of the total messenger RNA population of the endosperm cell. Polyadenylated hordein messenger RNA sedimented at 11S in sucrose gradients and electrophoretic analysis reveals the presence of at least three RNA species with apparent molecular weights of 0.45, 0.36 and 0.......30 megadaltons. The 11S messenger RNA was translated in vitro into hordein precursor polypeptides which are 2–4 kilodaltons larger than the native hordein polypeptides. The endosperm cell of mutant No. 1508 contained twice as much RNA as the wild type endosperm cell but the same amount of polyadenylated 11S RNA...

  12. Human Bocavirus Capsid Messenger RNA Detection in Children With Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Ampofo, Krow; Tardif, Keith D; Stockmann, Chris; Simmon, Keith E; Hymas, Weston; Flygare, Steven; Kennedy, Brett; Blaschke, Anne; Eilbeck, Karen; Yandell, Mark; McCullers, Jon A; Williams, Derek J; Edwards, Kathryn; Arnold, Sandra R; Bramley, Anna; Jain, Seema; Pavia, Andrew T

    2017-09-15

    The role of human bocavirus (HBoV) in respiratory illness is uncertain. HBoV genomic DNA is frequently detected in both ill and healthy children. We hypothesized that spliced viral capsid messenger RNA (mRNA) produced during active replication might be a better marker for acute infection. As part of the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, children aged <18 years who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and children asymptomatic at the time of elective outpatient surgery (controls) were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were tested for HBoV mRNA and genomic DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HBoV DNA was detected in 10.4% of 1295 patients with CAP and 7.5% of 721 controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.0-2.0]); HBoV mRNA was detected in 2.1% and 0.4%, respectively (OR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.6-26]). When adjusted for age, enrollment month, and detection of other respiratory viruses, HBoV mRNA detection (adjusted OR, 7.6 [95% CI, 1.5-38.4]) but not DNA (adjusted OR, 1.2 [95% CI, .6-2.4]) was associated with CAP. Among children with no other pathogens detected, HBoV mRNA (OR, 9.6 [95% CI, 1.9-82]) was strongly associated with CAP. Detection of HBoV mRNA but not DNA was associated with CAP, supporting a pathogenic role for HBoV in CAP. HBoV mRNA could be a useful target for diagnostic testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Transfer-messenger RNA controls the translation of cell-cycle and stress proteins in Streptomyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barends, Sharief; Zehl, Martin; Bialek, Sylwia

    2010-01-01

    The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation mechanism is highly conserved in bacteria and functions primarily as a system for the rescue of stalled ribosomes and the removal of aberrantly produced proteins. Here, we show that in the antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces...

  14. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Verhulst, E.C.; Leussen, van M.; Zande, L.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2018-01-01

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid

  15. Differential intragraft cytokine messenger RNA profiles during rejection and repair of clinical heart transplants. A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A; Mol, Wendy M; Niesters, Hubert G M; Maat, Alex P W; van Gelder, Teun; Balk, Aggie H M M; Weimar, Willem; Baan, Carla C

    After clinical heart transplantation, ischemia, acute rejection, and repair mechanisms can trigger the up-regulation of cytokines. To investigate the cytokine profile early after transplantation, we monitored messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte

  16. Early changes of placenta-derived messenger RNA in maternal plasma – potential value for preeclampsia prediction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surugiu Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the pourpose of the study was to determine if there are any differences between placenta derived plasmatic levels of messenger RNA in normal and future preeclamptic pregnancies and if these placental transcripts can predict preeclampsia long before clinical onset

  17. ESTRADIOL-INDUCED SYNTHESIS OF VITELLOGENIN .3. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VITELLOGENIN MESSENGER-RNA FROM AVIAN LIVER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AB, G.; Roskam, W. G.; Dijkstra, J.; Mulder, J.; Willems, M.; van der Ende, A.; Gruber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The messenger RNA of the hormone-induced protein vitellogenin was isolated from the liver of estrogen-treated roosters. Starting from total polysomal RNA, the vitellogenin messenger was purified 67-fold by oligo (dT)-cellulose chromatography and sizing on a sucrose gradient. The messenger was

  18. Increased hepatic ferritin-H messenger RNA levels correlate with those of c-myc in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C.; Habib, N.; Mitry, R.; Reitsma, P.; Vandeventer, S.; Chamuleau, R.

    1997-01-01

    Serum ferritin is elevated in many cancers. Using the subtraction-enhanced display technique, we isolated several cDNA clones including ferritin-H which is overexpressed in rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by diethylnitrosamine. We investigated hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of

  19. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, E.; Verhulst, E. C.; van Leussen, M.; van de Zande, L.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid

  20. Phenotypic characterization of neurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells in the neuroleptic-treated rat striatum: a detailed cellular co-expression study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, P.C.; Westmore, K.; Augood, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical phenotype of proneurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells was determined in the acute haloperidol-treated rat striatum using a combination of [ 35 S]-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides. Cellular sites of proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were visualized simultaneously on tissue sections processed to reveal cellular sites of preproenkephalin A messenger RNA or the dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32, messenger RNA. The cellular co-expression of preproenkepahlin A and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was also examined within forebrain structures. Cellular sites of preproenkephalin A and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNAs were visualized using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides whilst sites of preprotachykinin and proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were detected using [ 35 S]-labelled oligos. Cellular sites of enkephalin and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 gene expression were identified microscopically by the concentration of purple alkaline phosphatase reaction product within the cell cytoplasm, whereas sites of substance P and proneurotensin gene expression were identified by the dense clustering of silver grains overlying cells.An intense hybridization signal was detected for all three neuropeptide messenger RNAs in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and septum. Dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNA was detected within the neostriatum but not within the septum. In all forebrain regions examined, with the exception of the islands of Cajella, the cellular expression of enkephalin messenger RNA and substance P messenger RNA was discordant; the two neuropeptide messenger RNAs were detected essentially in different cells, although in the striatum and nucleus accumbens occasional isolated cells were detected which contained both hybridization signals; dense clusters of silver grains overlay alkaline phosphatase-positive cells

  1. Comment on ``Length-dependent translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-02-01

    In a recent paper by Valleriani [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.042903 83, 042903 (2011)], a simple model for the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) is presented. Using this model, the protein translational ratio r, defined as the ratio of protein translation rate ωtl from mRNA to protein degradation rate ωp, is obtained. The key point in obtaining the translational ratio r is to get the protein translation rate ωtl. In Valleriani 's paper, ωtl is obtained as the mean value of the measured translation rate, which is the ratio of the synthesized protein number to the mRNA lifetime. However, in experiments, different methods might be used to obtain the value of ωtl. Therefore, to apply Valleriani 's model to more general experiments, in this Comment three methods to obtain the translation rate ωtl, and consequently the translational ratio r, are presented. Based on one of the methods which might be employed in most of the experiments, we find that the translational ratio r decays exponentially with mRNA length in prokaryotic cells, and decays reciprocally with mRNA length in eukaryotic cells. This result is slight different from that which was obtained in Valleriani 's paper.

  2. Role of messenger RNA-ribosome complex in complementary DNA display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimuddin, Mohammed; Ohtsuka, Isao; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kudou, Motonori; Kimura, Shinnosuke

    2013-07-15

    In vitro display technologies such as ribosome display and messenger RNA (mRNA)/complementary DNA (cDNA) display are powerful methods that can generate library diversities on the order of 10(10-14). However, in mRNA and cDNA display methods, the end use diversity is two orders of magnitude lower than initial diversity and is dependent on the downstream processes that act as limiting factors. We found that in our previous cDNA display protocol, the purification of protein fusions by the use of streptavidin matrices from cell-free translation mixtures had poor efficiency (∼10-15%) that seriously affected the diversity of the purified library. Here, we have investigated and optimized the protocols that provided remarkable purification efficiencies. The stalled ribosome in the mRNA-ribosome complex was found to impede this purification efficiency. Among the various conditions tested, destabilization of ribosomes by appropriate concentration of metal chelating agents in combination with an optimal temperature of 30°C were found to be crucial and effective for nearly complete isolation of protein fusions from the cell-free translation system. Thus, this protocol provided 8- to 10-fold increased efficiency of purification over the previous method and results in retaining the diversity of the library by approximately an order of magnitude-important for directed evolution. We also discuss the possible effects in the fabrication of protein chips. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beta globin messenger RNA content of bone marrow erythroblasts in heterozygous beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, E J; Pritchard, J; Hillman, D; Glass, J; Forget, B G

    1984-01-01

    RNA from bone marrow erythroblasts and peripheral blood reticulocytes of patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia was analyzed for relative content of alpha and beta globin messenger RNA by molecular hybrization. Erythroblasts from nonthalassemic patients exhibited approximately the same alpha and beta globin mRNA content (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.8-1.0) as circulating reticulocytes (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.74-1.2). The mRNA ratios corresponded well to levels of globin synthesis observed in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Erythroblasts from four patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia also exhibited approximately the same beta/alpha mRNA ratios in bone marrow erythroblasts (0.34-0.59) as in reticulocytes (0.34-0.4): beta globin mRNA was clearly deficient in bone marrow erythroblasts. Globin biosynthesis by erythroblasts of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes was balanced despite the mRNA deficiency (beta/alpha = 0.9-1.0), suggesting that post-translational phenoma (eg, proteolysis of free globin chains), rather than instability of beta mRNA, accounts for the balanced globin chain synthesis frequently observed in bone marrow erythroblasts of patients with beta-thalassemia trait.

  4. Repression of hspA2 messenger RNA in human testes with abnormal spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, W Y; Han, C T; Hwang, S H; Lee, J H; Kim, S; Kim, Y C

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of hspA2 in testes of infertile men with azoospermia. Prospective study. Center for Reproduction and Genetics, Pundang Je-Saeng General Hospital, Dae-Jin Medical Center, Korea. Azoospermic patients (n = 15) undergoing testicular biopsy for pathologic evaluation were selected. After pathologic evaluation, testicular biopsy specimens were subdivided into three groups: group 1, normal spermatogenesis (n = 5); group 2, spermatocyte arrest (n = 5); and group 3, Sertoli cell-only syndrome (n = 5). The levels of hspA2 mRNA expression were compared in testes of group 1, group 2, and group 3 with the use of a competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Comparison of hspA2 mRNA levels in testes. On competitive RT-PCR analyses for hspA2 mRNA, significant hspA2 expression was observed in group 1, whereas a very low level of hspA2 was expressed in groups 2 and 3. This study demonstrates that hspA2 gene expression is down-regulated in human testes with abnormal spermatogenesis, which in turn suggests that the hspA2 gene might play a specific role during meiosis in human testes.

  5. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E.; Ramos, S.G.; Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis

  6. microRNA-mediated messenger RNA deadenylation contributes to translational repression in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traude H Beilharz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal microRNAs (miRNAs typically regulate gene expression by binding to partially complementary target sites in the 3' untranslated region (UTR of messenger RNA (mRNA reducing its translation and stability. They also commonly induce shortening of the mRNA 3' poly(A tail, which contributes to their mRNA decay promoting function. The relationship between miRNA-mediated deadenylation and translational repression has been less clear. Using transfection of reporter constructs carrying three imperfectly matching let-7 target sites in the 3' UTR into mammalian cells we observe rapid target mRNA deadenylation that precedes measureable translational repression by endogenous let-7 miRNA. Depleting cells of the argonaute co-factors RCK or TNRC6A can impair let-7-mediated repression despite ongoing mRNA deadenylation, indicating that deadenylation alone is not sufficient to effect full repression. Nevertheless, the magnitude of translational repression by let-7 is diminished when the target reporter lacks a poly(A tail. Employing an antisense strategy to block deadenylation of target mRNA with poly(A tail also partially impairs translational repression. On the one hand, these experiments confirm that tail removal by deadenylation is not strictly required for translational repression. On the other hand they show directly that deadenylation can augment miRNA-mediated translational repression in mammalian cells beyond stimulating mRNA decay. Taken together with published work, these results suggest a dual role of deadenylation in miRNA function: it contributes to translational repression as well as mRNA decay and is thus critically involved in establishing the quantitatively appropriate physiological response to miRNAs.

  7. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  8. Characterization of long noncoding RNA and messenger RNA signatures in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Wang

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive and life-threatening form of skin cancer, has significantly risen over recent decades. Therefore, it is essential to identify the mechanisms that underlie melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and to explore novel and effective melanoma treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence s uggests that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have vital functions in multiple cancers. However, lncRNA functions in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA expression profiles in primary melanomas, metastatic melanomas and normal skin samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We used GSE15605 as the training set (n = 74 and GSE7553 as the validation set (n = 58. In three comparisons (primary melanoma versus normal skin, metastatic melanoma versus normal skin, and metastatic melanoma versus primary melanoma, 178, 295 and 48 lncRNAs and 847, 1758, and 295 mRNAs were aberrantly expressed, respectively. We performed Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses to examine the differentially expressed mRNAs, and potential core lncRNAs were predicted by lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks. Based on our results, 15 lncRNAs and 144 mRNAs were significantly associated with melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. A subsequent analysis suggested a critical role for a five-lncRNA signature during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. Low expression of U47924.27 was significantly associated with decreased survival of patients with melanoma. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the expression patterns of lncRNAs and mRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis by re-annotating microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO microarray dataset. These findings reveal potential roles for lncRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and provide a rich candidate

  9. Human bitter perception correlates with bitter receptor messenger RNA expression in taste cells123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchock, Sarah V; Mennella, Julie A; Spielman, Andrew I; Reed, Danielle R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alleles of the receptor gene TAS2R38 are responsible in part for the variation in bitter taste perception of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally similar compounds (eg, glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables). At low concentrations, people with the PAV (“taster” amino acid sequence) form of TAS2R38 perceive these bitter compounds, whereas most with the AVI (“nontaster” amino acid sequence) form do not; heterozygotes (PAV/AVI) show the widest range of bitter perception. Objectives: The objectives were to examine individual differences in expression of PAV-TAS2R38 messenger RNA (mRNA) among heterozygotes, to test the hypotheses that the abundance of allele-specific gene expression accounts for the variation in human bitter taste perception, and to relate to dietary intake of bitter-tasting beverages and foods. Design: Heterozygous individuals (n = 22) provided psychophysical evaluation of the bitterness of PROP, glucosinolate-containing broccoli juice, non–glucosinolate-containing carrot juice, and several bitter non-TAS2R38 ligands as well as dietary recalls. Fungiform taste papillae were examined for allele-specific TAS2R38 expression by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: PAV-TAS2R38 mRNA expression was measured in 18 of 22 heterozygous subjects. Relative expression varied widely and positively correlated with ratings of bitterness intensity of PROP (P = 0.007) and broccoli juice (P = 0.004) but not of the control solutions carrot juice (P = 0.26), NaCl (P = 0.68), caffeine (P = 0.24), or urea (P = 0.47). Expression amounts were related to self-reported recent and habitual caffeine intake (P = 0.060, P = 0.005); vegetable intake was too low to analyze. Conclusions: We provide evidence that PAV-TAS2R38 expression amount correlates with individual differences in bitter sensory perception and diet. The nature of this correlation calls for additional research on the molecular mechanisms associated with some individual

  10. Contrasting responses to interferon β-1b treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Does baseline interleukin- 12p35 messenger RNA predict the efficacy of treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxel van-Dezaire, A.H.H.; Trigt van-Hoff, S.C.J.; Killestein, J.; Schrijver, H.M.; Houwelingen, J.C. van; Polman, C.H.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2000-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β treatment is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) via an as yet unidentified mechanism. In the present study, we investigated whether the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding the interleukin (IL)-12 subunits p40 and p35, IL-12 receptor chains, IL-18,

  11. Electrochemical Branched-DNA Assay for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Free Detection and Quantification of Oncogenes in Messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ai Cheng; Dai, Ziyu; Chen, Baowei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Lurong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel electrochemical branched-DNA (bDNA) assay for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free detection and quantification of p185 BCR-ABL leukemia fusion transcript in the population of messenger RNA (mRNA) extracted from cell lines. The bDNA amplifier carrying high loading of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) tracers was used to amplify targets signal. The targets were captured on microplate well surfaces through cooperative sandwich hybridization prior to the labeling of bDNA. The activity of captured ALP was monitored by square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis of the electroactive enzymatic product in the presence of 1-napthyl-phosphate. The specificity and sensitivity of assay enabled direct detection of target transcript in as little as 4.6 ng mRNA without PCR amplification. In combination with the use of a well-quantified standard, the electrochemical bDNA assay was capable of direct use for a PCR-free quantitative analysis of target transcript in total mRNA population. The approach thus provides a simple, sensitive, accurate and quantitative tool alternate to the RQ-PCR for early disease diagnosis.

  12. Blockade of OX40/OX40 ligand to decrease cytokine messenger RNA expression in acute renal allograft rejection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-L; Li, G; Fu, Y-X; Wang, H; Shen, Z-Y

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from renal recipients experiencing acute rejection by blocking OX40-OX40L interactions with recombinant human OX40-Fc fusion protein (rhOX40Fc) in vitro. PBMCs were isolated from 20 recipients experiencing acute rejection episodes (rejection group) and 20 recipients with stable graft function (stable group). Levels of Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ) and Th2 (interleukin [IL]-4) mRNA expressions by PBMCs were measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions. IFN-γ mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the rejection than the stable group (P rejection group, rhOX40Fc reduced significantly the expression of IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA by anti-CD3-monoclonal antibody stimulated PBMCs (P type cytokines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo expression of ß-galactosidase by rat oviduct exposed to naked DNA or messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA RIOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-oviductal administration of RNA obtained from oviducts of estradiol-treated rats resulted in accelerated egg transport (Ríos et al., 1997. It is probable that estradiol-induced messenger RNA (mRNA entered oviductal cells and was translated into the proteins involved in accelerated egg transport. In order to test this interpretation we deposited in vivo 50 µg of pure ß-galactosidase (ß-gal mRNA, 50 µg of pure DNA from the reporter gene ß-gal under SV40 promoter or the vehicle (control oviducts into the oviductal lumen of rats. Twenty four hours later the ß-gal activity was assayed in oviductal tissue homogenates using o-nitrophenyl-ß-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate. The administration of ß-gal mRNA and pSVBgal plasmid increased ß-gal activity by 71% and 142%, respectively, over the control oviducts. These results indicate that naked DNA and mRNA coding for ß-gal can enter oviductal cells and be translated into an active enzyme. They are consistent with the interpretation that embryo transport acceleration caused by the injection of estradiol-induced RNA in the oviduct involves translation of the injected mRNA

  14. Ribosomal Protein S12 and Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Modulate A-site mRNA Cleavage and Transfer-Messenger RNA Activity in Escherichia coli*

    OpenAIRE

    Holberger, Laura E.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)·SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pa...

  15. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  16. Study of messenger RNA inactivation and protein degradation in an Escherichia coli cell-free expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireaux Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large amount of recombinant proteins can be synthesized in a few hours with Escherichia coli cell-free expression systems based on bacteriophage transcription. These cytoplasmic extracts are used in many applications that require large-scale protein production such as proteomics and high throughput techniques. In recent years, cell-free systems have also been used to engineer complex informational processes. These works, however, have been limited by the current available cell-free systems, which are not well adapted to these types of studies. In particular, no method has been proposed to increase the mRNA inactivation rate and the protein degradation rate in cell-free reactions. The construction of in vitro informational processes with interesting dynamics requires a balance between mRNA and protein synthesis (the source, and mRNA inactivation and protein degradation (the sink. Results Two quantitative studies are presented to characterize and to increase the global mRNA inactivation rate, and to accelerate the degradation of the synthesized proteins in an E. coli cell-free expression system driven by the endogenous RNA polymerase and sigma factor 70. The E. coli mRNA interferase MazF was used to increase and to adjust the mRNA inactivation rate of the Firefly luciferase (Luc and of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. Peptide tags specific to the endogenous E. coli AAA + proteases were used to induce and to adjust the protein degradation rate of eGFP. Messenger RNA inactivation rate, protein degradation rate, maturation time of Luc and eGFP were measured. Conclusions The global mRNA turnover and the protein degradation rate can be accelerated and tuned in a biologically relevant range in a cell-free reaction with quantitative procedures easy to implement. These features broaden the capabilities of cell-free systems with a better control of gene expression. This cell-free extract could find some applications in

  17. Primary structure of the α-subunit of Na+, K+-ATPase. II. Isolation, reverse transcription, and cloning of messenger RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Broude, N.E.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Grishin, A.V.; Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The messenger RNA coding the α-subunit of Na + ,K + -ATPase has been isolated from the outer medullary layer of porcine kidneys. The mRNA gives a specific hybridization band in the 25S-26S region with three oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of information on the structure of three peptides isolated from a tryptic hydrolyzate of the α-subunit of Na + ,K + -ATPase. The translation of the mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by immunochemical identification of the products of synthesis confirmed the presence of the mRNA of the α-subunit of Na + ,K + -ATPase in an enriched fraction of poly(A + )-RNA. This preparation has been used for the synthesis of cloning of double-stranded cDNA

  18. Primary structure of the. cap alpha. -subunit of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. II. Isolation, reverse transcription, and cloning of messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Broude, N.E.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Grishin, A.V.; Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-10-01

    The messenger RNA coding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase has been isolated from the outer medullary layer of porcine kidneys. The mRNA gives a specific hybridization band in the 25S-26S region with three oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of information on the structure of three peptides isolated from a tryptic hydrolyzate of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase. The translation of the mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by immunochemical identification of the products of synthesis confirmed the presence of the mRNA of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase in an enriched fraction of poly(A/sup +/)-RNA. This preparation has been used for the synthesis of cloning of double-stranded cDNA.

  19. Neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G protein and messenger RNA expression in bone marrow from a patient with Chediak-Higashi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D; Ward, C J; Stockley, R A; Dalton, R G; Cant, A J; Hoare, S; Crocker, J

    1995-01-01

    Aims—To determine whether neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are expressed, at transcriptional or translational levels, in the bone marrow from a patient with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Methods—Blood neutrophils were isolated from three patients with Chediak-Higashi disease and bone marrow was collected from one. Cell lysates were analysed for neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G activity by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western immunoblotting. Northern blotting was used to detect messenger RNA (mRNA) for cathepsin G, elastase and β-actin in bone marrow extracts, and immunohistochemistry was used to localise the enzymes in marrow myeloid cells. Results—Elastase and cathepsin G were not detected in blood neutrophils from the patients with Chediak-Higashi disease, but were present in bone marrow cells, although immunohistochemistry showed they were not within cytoplasmic granules. The concentrations of elastase and cathepsin G in Chediak-Higashi bone marrow were about 25 and 15%, respectively, of those in normal marrow. Quantitative scanning of northern blots showed that elastase and cathepsin G mRNA, corrected for β-actin mRNA, were expressed equally in normal marrow. Conclusions—Transcription of elastase and cathepsin G mRNA in promyelocytes of patients with Chediak-Higashi disease is normal, but the protein products are deficient in these cells and absent in mature neutrophils. This suggests that the translated proteins are not packaged into azurophil granules but are degaded or secreted from the cells. Images PMID:16695972

  20. Comparative study of candidate housekeeping genes for quantification of target gene messenger RNA expression by real-time PCR in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Goukos, Dimitris; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Balla, Iliana G; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Daikos, George L; Ladas, Spiros D

    2013-12-01

    Mucosal expression of immunological mediators is modified in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Quantification of target gene messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts depends on the normalization to a housekeeping or reference gene. Stability of housekeeping gene expression is critical for the accurate measurement of transcripts of the target gene. No studies have addressed the optimization of reference gene performance for mRNA studies in healthy intestinal mucosa and during mucosal inflammation. RNA was extracted from endoscopically obtained intestinal biopsies from healthy control subjects and patients with active IBD or non-IBD inflammatory diseases. Comparative analysis of 10 candidate housekeeping genes for quantitative real-time PCR was carried out according to predefined criteria, including use of the Web-based RefFinder platform. We demonstrate that intestinal inflammation may significantly affect the stability of mucosal expression of housekeeping genes. Commonly used controls, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, β-actin, or β2-microglobulin displayed high variability within the control group and/or between the healthy and inflamed mucosae. In contrast, we have identified novel genes with optimal stability, which may be used as appropriate housekeeping controls. The ribosomal proteins encoding genes (RPLPO and RPS9) were the most stable because their expression was not affected by interindividual differences, the presence of inflammation, or intestinal location. Normalization ofthe mRNA expression of mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α was highly dependent on the specific reference gene and varied significantly when normalized to genes with high or low stability. Validation for optimal performance of the housekeeping gene is required for target mRNA quantification in healthy intestine and IBD-associated lesions. Suboptimal reference gene expression may explain conflicting results from published studies on IBD gene expression.

  1. Anabolic-androgenic steroid treatment induces behavioral disinhibition and downregulation of serotonin receptor messenger RNA in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambar, G; Chiavegatto, S

    2009-03-01

    Nandrolone is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that is highly abused by individuals seeking enhanced physical strength or body appearance. Supraphysiological doses of this synthetic testosterone derivative have been associated with many physical and psychiatric adverse effects, particularly episodes of impulsiveness and overt aggressive behavior. As the neural mechanisms underlying AAS-induced behavioral disinhibition are unknown, we investigated the status of serotonergic system-related transcripts in several brain areas of mice receiving prolonged nandrolone administration. Male C57BL/6J mice received 15 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate subcutaneously once daily for 28 days, and different sets of animals were used to investigate motor-related and emotion-related behaviors or 5-HT-related messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. AAS-injected mice had increased body weight, were more active and displayed anxious-like behaviors in novel environments. They exhibited reduced immobility in the forced swim test, a higher probability of being aggressive and more readily attacked opponents. AAS treatment substantially reduced mRNA levels of most investigated postsynaptic 5-HT receptors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Interestingly,the 5-HT(1B) mRNA level was further reduced in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. There was no alteration of 5-HT system transcript levels in the midbrain. In conclusion,high doses of AAS nandrolone in male mice recapitulate the behavioral disinhibition observed in abusers. Furthermore, these high doses downregulate 5-HT receptor mRNA levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Our combined findings suggest these areas as critical sites for AAS-induced effects and a possible role for the 5-HT(1B) receptor in the observed behavioral disinhibition.

  2. Ribosomal Protein S12 and Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Modulate A-site mRNA Cleavage and Transfer-Messenger RNA Activity in Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberger, Laura E.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)·SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pausing during termination. Streptomycin did not inhibit A-site cleavage in rpsL mutants, which express streptomycin-resistant variants of ribosomal protein S12. However, rpsL strains exhibited reduced A-site mRNA cleavage compared with rpsL+ cells. Additionally, tmRNA·SmpB-mediated SsrA peptide tagging was significantly reduced in several rpsL strains but could be fully restored in a subset of mutants when treated with streptomycin. The streptomycin-dependent rpsL(P90K) mutant also showed significantly lower levels of A-site cleavage and tmRNA·SmpB activity. Mutations in rpsD (encoding ribosomal protein S4), which suppressed streptomycin dependence, were able to partially restore A-site cleavage to rpsL(P90K) cells but failed to increase tmRNA·SmpB activity. Taken together, these results show that perturbations to A-site structure and function modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and tmRNA·SmpB activity. We propose that tmRNA·SmpB binds to streptomycin-resistant rpsL ribosomes less efficiently, leading to a partial loss of ribosome rescue function in these mutants. PMID:19776006

  3. Ribosomal protein S12 and aminoglycoside antibiotics modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and transfer-messenger RNA activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberger, Laura E; Hayes, Christopher S

    2009-11-13

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA).SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pausing during termination. Streptomycin did not inhibit A-site cleavage in rpsL mutants, which express streptomycin-resistant variants of ribosomal protein S12. However, rpsL strains exhibited reduced A-site mRNA cleavage compared with rpsL(+) cells. Additionally, tmRNA.SmpB-mediated SsrA peptide tagging was significantly reduced in several rpsL strains but could be fully restored in a subset of mutants when treated with streptomycin. The streptomycin-dependent rpsL(P90K) mutant also showed significantly lower levels of A-site cleavage and tmRNA.SmpB activity. Mutations in rpsD (encoding ribosomal protein S4), which suppressed streptomycin dependence, were able to partially restore A-site cleavage to rpsL(P90K) cells but failed to increase tmRNA.SmpB activity. Taken together, these results show that perturbations to A-site structure and function modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and tmRNA.SmpB activity. We propose that tmRNA.SmpB binds to streptomycin-resistant rpsL ribosomes less efficiently, leading to a partial loss of ribosome rescue function in these mutants.

  4. The Detection of Messenger RNA for Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Cytokeratin 20 in Peritoneal Washing Fluid in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ji; Chung, Woo Chul; Choi, Sooa; Jung, Yun Duk; Lee, Jaejun; Chae, Seung Yun; Jun, Kyong Hwa; Chin, Hyung Min

    2017-04-25

    Peritoneal micrometastasis is known to play an important role in the recurrence of gastric cancer. However, its effects remain equivocal. Herein, we examine the messenger RNA (mRNA) as tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cytokeratin 20 (CK20), in peritoneal washing fluid. Moreover, we evaluate whether these results could predict the recurrence of gastric cancer following curative resection. We prospectively enrolled 132 patients with gastric cancers, who had received an operation, between January 2010 and January 2013. The peritoneal lavage fluid was collected at the operation field and semi-quantitative PCR was performed using the primers for CEA and CK20. We excluded patients with stage IA (n=28) early gastric cancer, positive cytologic examination of peritoneal washings (n=7), and those who were lost during follow up (n=18). A total of 79 patients with gastric cancers were enrolled, and the mean follow-up period was 39.95±19.25 months (range, 5-72 months). According to the multivariate analysis, T4 stage at the initial diagnosis was significantly associated with recurrence. All cases of recurrence were CEA positive and 6 cases were CK20 positive. The positive and negative predictive values of CEA were 32.0% and 100%, respectively, whereas those of CK20 were 37.5% and 71.4%, respectively. Disease free survival of CK20-negative cases was 36.17±20.28 months and that of CK20-positive cases was 32.06±22.95 months (p=0.39). It is unlikely that the real time polymerase chain reaction results of mRNA for CEA and CK20 in peritoneal washing fluid can predict recurrence. However, negative results can convince surgeons to perform curative R0 resection.

  5. Development of Anti-Human Mesothelin-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor Messenger RNA-transfected Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes for Ovarian Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chien-Fu; Xu, Xuequn; Li, Linhong; Ma, Ying; Jin, Qiu; Viley, Angelia; Allen, Cornell; Natarajan, Pachai; Shivakumar, Rama; Peshwa, Madhusudan V; Emens, Leisha A

    2018-04-02

    CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T/natural killer (NK)-cell therapies can result in durable clinical responses in B-cell malignancies. However, CAR-based immunotherapies have been much less successful in solid cancers, in part due to "on-target off-tumor" toxicity related to expression of target tumor antigens on normal tissue. Based on preliminary observations of safety and clinical activity in proof-of-concept clinical trials, tumor antigen-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) CAR transfection into selected, activated, and expanded T/NK cells may permit prospective control of "on-target off-tumor" toxicity. To develop a commercial product for solid tumors, mesothelin was selected as an antigen target based on its association with poor prognosis and overexpression in multiple solid cancers. It was hypothesized that selecting, activating, and expanding cells ex vivo prior to mRNA CAR transfection would not be necessary, thus simplifying the complexity and cost of manufacturing. Now, the development of anti-human mesothelin mRNA CAR transfected peripheral blood lymphocytes (CARMA-hMeso) is reported, demonstrating the manufacture and cryopreservation of multiple cell aliquots for repeat administrations from a single human leukapheresis. A rapid, automated, closed system for cGMP-compliant transfection of mRNA CAR in up to 20 × 10 9 peripheral blood lymphocytes was developed. Here we show that CARMA-hMeso cells recognize and lyse tumor cells in a mesothelin-specific manner. Expression of CAR was detectable over approximately 7 days in vitro, with a progressive decline of CAR expression that appears to correlate with in vitro cell expansion. In a murine ovarian cancer model, a single intraperitoneal injection of CARMA-hMeso resulted in the dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth and improved survival of mice. Furthermore, repeat weekly intraperitoneal administrations of the optimal CARMA-hMeso dose further prolonged disease control and survival

  6. RNA decay by messenger RNA interferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Overgaard, Martin; Winther, Kristoffer Skovbo

    2008-01-01

    Two abundant toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene families, relBE and mazEF, encode mRNA cleaving enzymes whose ectopic overexpression abruptly inhibits translation and thereby induces a bacteriostatic condition. Here we describe and discuss protocols for the overproduction, purification, and analysis of mRNA...... cleaving enzymes such as RelE of Escherichia coli and the corresponding antitoxin RelB. In particular, we describe a set of plasmid vectors useful for the detailed analysis of cleavage sites in model mRNAs....

  7. Estrogen Regulation of Messenger RNA Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-17

    has also been demonstrated. The best characterized example of the role of the coding region in mRNA stability is that of tubulin. In most animai cells...Role of Polv(A) Tract in mRNA Degradation Most mRNAs in animai cells possess a 3’-terminal tract of 100-300 adenosine residues (poly(A) tali), This...vertebrate messenger RNAs," Nucl. Acids Res. 15: 8125-8148. Kraft, N, and Shortman, K, (1970). "A suggested control function for the animai tissue

  8. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical outcomes. Brain wiring, damage, and developmental defects Researchers have ...

  9. A thermostable messenger RNA based vaccine against rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitz, Lothar; Vogel, Annette; Schnee, Margit; Voss, Daniel; Rauch, Susanne; Mutzke, Thorsten; Ketterer, Thomas; Kramps, Thomas; Petsch, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Although effective rabies virus vaccines have been existing for decades, each year, rabies virus infections still cause around 50.000 fatalities worldwide. Most of these cases occur in developing countries, where these vaccines are not available. The reasons for this are the prohibitive high costs of cell culture or egg grown rabies virus vaccines and the lack of a functional cold chain in many regions in which rabies virus is endemic. Here, we describe the excellent temperature resistance of a non-replicating mRNA based rabies virus vaccine encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G). Prolonged storage of the vaccine from -80°C to up to +70°C for several months did not impact the protective capacity of the mRNA vaccine. Efficacy after storage was demonstrated by the induction of rabies specific virus neutralizing antibodies and protection in mice against lethal rabies infection. Moreover, storing the vaccine at oscillating temperatures between +4° and +56°C for 20 cycles in order to simulate interruptions of the cold chain during vaccine transport, did not affect the vaccine's immunogenicity and protective characteristics, indicating that maintenance of a cold chain is not essential for this vaccine.

  10. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Anji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins.

  11. Detection of colony-stimulating factor messenger RNA in single T cells by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, D J; Owens, T; Pearse, M

    1989-01-01

    In situ hybridization has been used to study the accumulation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) mRNA in single cells of a T lymphocyte clone (E9.D4) following antibody-mediated (F23.1) activation via the Ti-T3 complex in filler-independent bulk cultures. The specificity of hybridization for cell...

  12. Gingival Toll-like receptor and cytokine messenger RNA levels in equine periodontitis and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R; Lappin, D F; Dixon, P M; Bennett, D; Riggio, M P

    2017-05-01

    Equine periodontitis is a common and painful condition. However, the disease often goes unnoticed by owners and is thus a major welfare concern. The aetiopathogenesis of the condition remains poorly understood and has been investigated in few studies. The innate immune system is known to play an important role in human periodontitis, but its role in equine periodontitis has not been examined. To quantify the messenger (m)RNA levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines in gingival tissue from orally healthy horses and those affected by periodontitis. Observational study. Gingival tissue samples were taken post-mortem from 13 horses with no clinical signs of oral disease and 20 horses with periodontitis. mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The statistical significance of results was assessed using appropriate t tests. mRNA levels of all TLRs and cytokines were upregulated in equine periodontitis. Significant increases in mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR9, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 (P≤0.05) and IFN-γ (P≤0.01) were observed for both unweighted and age-weighted analyses of diseased gingival tissue samples compared with healthy gingival samples. In comparisons of samples of periodontitis lesions with healthy gingival control samples from the same horse, significant increases in mRNA levels of TLR4, TLR9, IL-10, IFN-γ (P≤0.05), TLR2, IL-1β and IL-12p35 (P≤0.01) were observed. This study has provided an initial insight into the involvement of the immune system in equine periodontitis. Increased mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 indicate substantial microbial challenge in diseased gingival tissue. A mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine response is produced in equine periodontitis. Further studies are required to more fully characterise the role of the innate immune system in this disease. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin. PMID:25310649

  14. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    Using a CD4+ T-cell-transplanted SCID mouse model of colitis, we have analyzed TGF-beta transcription and translation in advanced disease. By in situ hybridization, the epithelium of both control and inflamed tissues transcribed TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNAs, but both were expressed significantly...... TGF-beta. By ELISA, very low levels (0-69 pg/mg) of soluble total or active TGF-beta were detected in hypotonic tissue lysates. TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 are produced by SCID mouse colon and transcription is increased in the colitis caused by transplantation of CD4+ T-cells, but this does not result...

  15. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ito

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and citrate synthase (CS, which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1 and aggrecan (ACAN, was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and chondrogenesis.

  16. Translation affects YoeB and MazF messenger RNA interferase activities by different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Gerdes, Kenn

    2008-01-01

    of mRNA is strictly dependent on translation of the mRNA in vivo. Non-translated model mRNAs were not cleaved whereas the corresponding wild-type mRNAs were cleaved efficiently. Model mRNAs carrying frameshift mutations exhibited a YoeB-mediated cleavage pattern consistent with the reading frameshift...... thus giving strong evidence that YoeB cleavage specificity was determined by the translational reading frame. In contrast, site-specific mRNA cleavage by MazF occurred independently of translation. In one case, translation seriously influenced MazF cleavage efficiency, thus solving a previous apparent...

  17. INDUCTION OF INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA MESSENGER-RNA AFTER FOCAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTINI, M; SAUTER, A; BODDEKE, HWGM

    The expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery

  18. Messenger RNA Interferase RelE Controls relBE Transcription by Conditional Cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Borch, Jonas; Jørgensen, Mikkel G

    2008-01-01

    by binding to one or more operators in the promoter region while the toxin functions as a co-repressor of transcription. Interestingly, the toxin can also stimulate TA operon transcription. Here we analyse mechanistic aspects of how RelE of Escherichia coli can function both as a co-repressor and derepressor...... of relBE transcription. When RelB was in excess to RelE, two trimeric RelB(2)*RelE complexes bound cooperatively to two adjacent operator-sites in the relBE promoter region and repressed transcription. By contrast, RelE in excess stimulated relBE transcription and released the RelB(2)*RelE complex from...... operator DNA. A mutational analysis of the operator-sites showed that RelE in excess counteracted cooperative binding of the RelB(2)*RelE complexes to the operator-sites. Thus, RelE controls relBE transcription by conditional cooperativity....

  19. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin.

  20. Alternate Splicing of CD44 Messenger RNA in Prostate Cancer Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    University of Colorado Health Science Center); to the physical necessities of the move; and to the need to recruit by advertising ; and to administrative...Chien J, Wong E, Nikes E, Noble MJ, Pantazis CG, Shah GV. Constitutive activation of stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gsα-QL)-medicated...for cyclic AMP- dependent protein kinase A in calcitonin action. Int J Cancer 2005, 117:551-560. 17. Chien J, Wong E, Nikes E, Noble MJ, Pantazis CG

  1. Correlation between mechanical strength of messenger RNA pseudoknots and ribosomal frameshifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Møller; Reihani, S Nader S; Oddershede, Lene B

    2007-01-01

    downstream from the slippery sequence. Although the mechanism is not well understood, frameshifting is known to be stimulated by an mRNA structure such as a pseudoknot. Here, we show that the efficiency of frameshifting relates to the mechanical strength of the pseudoknot. Two pseudoknots derived from...... of frameshifting required a nearly 2-fold larger unfolding force than the other. The observed energy difference cannot be accounted for by any existing model. We propose that the degree of ribosomal frameshifting is related to the mechanical strength of RNA pseudoknots. Our observations support the "9 A model......" that predicts some physical barrier is needed to force the ribosome into the -1 frame. Also, our findings support the recent observation made by cryoelectron microscopy that mechanical interaction between a ribosome and a pseudoknot causes a deformation of the A-site tRNA. The result has implications...

  2. Fetuin and fetuin messenger RNA in granulosa cells of the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Terkelsen, O B; Grete Byskov, A

    2001-01-01

    The hardening reaction that occurs in the zona pellucida to block polyspermy can be overcome in oocyte cultures in the presence of fetal serum or the serum component fetuin. Fetuin may also prevent precocious zona hardening by inhibiting a ZP2 proteinase released spontaneously by cortical granules...... during maturation of the oocyte. We demonstrated fetuin mRNA in the rat ovary by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized it by in situ hybridization. Fetuin mRNA was present in all granulosa cells of growing and large follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the fetuin...... antrum contained a substantial amount of fetuin, but whether granulosa cells secreted it or it originated in the ovarian blood supply could not be confirmed. We concluded that at least a portion of the fetuin is produced by granulosa cells of growing and large follicles, suggesting that fetuin may...

  3. MCT-1 protein interacts with the cap complex and modulates messenger RNA translational profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line; Shi, B; Nandi, S

    2006-01-01

    -regulation of MCT-1 was able to modulate the translation profiles of BCL2L2, TFDP1, MRE11A, cyclin D1, and E2F1 mRNAs, despite equivalent levels of mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Our data establish a role for MCT-1 in translational regulation, and support a linkage between translational control and oncogenesis....

  4. A premature stopcodon in thyroglobulin messenger RNA results in familial goiter and moderate hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Graaf, S. A.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; Veenboer, G. J.; Cammenga, M.; Santos, C.; Targovnik, H. M.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Medeiros-Neto, G.

    1999-01-01

    Impaired thyroglobulin (Tg) synthesis is one of the putative causes for dyshormonogenesis of the thyroid gland. This type of hypothyroidism is characterized by intact iodide trapping, normal organification of iodide, and usually low serum Tg levels in relation to high TSH, and when untreated the

  5. A Contemporary, Laboratory-Intensive Course on Messenger RNA Transcription and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Sue; Miller, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) plays a pivotal role in the central dogma of molecular biology. Importantly, molecular events occurring during and after mRNA synthesis have the potential to create multiple proteins from one gene, leading to some of the remarkable protein diversity that genomes hold. The North Carolina State University…

  6. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  7. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  8. Fetuin and fetuin messenger RNA in granulosa cells of the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Terkelsen, O B; Grete Byskov, A

    2001-01-01

    during maturation of the oocyte. We demonstrated fetuin mRNA in the rat ovary by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized it by in situ hybridization. Fetuin mRNA was present in all granulosa cells of growing and large follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the fetuin...

  9. Detection and Quantification of N 6-Methyladenosine in Messenger RNA by TLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Fray, Rupert G

    2017-01-01

    The base-modified nucleotide, N 6 -methyladenosine, is a relatively abundant modification found in the mRNA of most higher eukaryotes. Methylation levels can change dependent upon environmental conditions, cell differentiation state, or following knockdown of members of the methylase complex, and it is often useful to directly measure and compare N 6 -methyladenosine levels between samples. Two dimensional chromatography of radiolabeled nucleotides, following specific nuclease treatments, provides a robust, sensitive, and reproducible assay for this modification.

  10. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    -beta1 showed that all cells produced perinuclear latent TGF-beta1. The epithelial cell basal latent protein resulted in only low levels of subepithelial active protein, which co-localized with collagen IV and laminin in diseased and control tissue. Infiltrating cells expressed very low levels of active...

  11. CYP1A1 messenger RNA levels in placental tissue as a biomarker of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, R M; Garte, S J; Cosma, G; Bell, D A; Jedrychowski, W; Wahrendorf, J; Randall, M C; Cooper, T B; Ottman, R; Tang, D

    1995-03-01

    The human CYP1A1 gene codes for an inducible enzyme system involved in biotransformation of certain xenobiotics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; some of the metabolites are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Effects of environmental exposures (smoking, air pollution, and diet) on CYP1A1 gene induction in placental tissue and the modulation of induction by the CYP1A1 MspI RFLP were evaluated in two groups from Poland: 70 mother-child pairs from Krakow, a city with elevated air pollution; and 90 pairs from Limanowa, a less polluted area. Compared to placentas from nonsmoking women, CYP1A1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in placentas from current smokers (P meat, cheese, and fish (P < 0.01). The CYP1A1 MspI RFLP was not a significant determinant of CYP1A1 mRNA levels after controlling for smoking and other variables. Human placenta provides a readily available and responsive system that can serve as a model for evaluating environmental and genetic determinants of CYP1A1 induction.

  12. Quantitative correlation between promoter methylation and messenger RNA levels of the reduced folate carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheradpour Albert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methotrexate (MTX uptake is mediated by the reduced folate carrier (RFC. Defective drug uptake in association with decreased RFC expression is a common mechanism of MTX resistance in many tumor types. Heavy promoter methylation was previously identified as a basis for the complete silencing of RFC in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, its role and prevalence in RFC transcription regulation are, however, not widely studied. Methods In the current study, RFC promoter methylation was assessed using methylation specific PCR in a panel of malignant cell lines (n = 8, including MDA-MB-231, and M805, a MTX resistant cell line directly established from the specimen of a patient with malignant fibrohistocytoma, whom received multiple doses of MTX. A quantitative approach of real-time PCR for measuring the extent of RFC promoter methylation was developed, and was validated by direct bisulfite genomic sequencing. RFC mRNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and were related to the extent of promoter methylation in these cell lines. Results A partial promoter methylation and RFC mRNA down-regulation were observed in M805. Using the quantitative approach, a reverse correlation (correlation coefficient = -0.59, p Conclusion This study further suggests that promoter methylation is a potential basis for MTX resistance. The quantitative correlation identified in this study implies that promoter methylation is possibly a mechanism involved in the fine regulation of RFC transcription.

  13. Messenger RNA levels and transcription rates of hepatic lipogenesis genes in genetically lean and fat chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaire Madeleine

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Levels of body fat content in commercial meat chickens have prompted research in order to control the development of this trait. Based on experimentally selected divergent lean and fat lines, many studies have shown that liver metabolism has a major role in the fatness variability. In order to identify which genes are involved in this variability, we investigated the expression of several genes implicated in the hepatic lipid metabolism. The studied genes code for enzymes of fatty acid synthesis [ATP citrate-lyase (ACL, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1], for an apolipoprotein [apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1], and for the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα, which is a transcription factor implied in the regulation of several genes of lipid metabolism. The results show that the fat-line chickens display significantly higher hepatic transcription rates and mRNA levels than the lean-line chickens for the ACL, ME and APOA1 genes. This suggests that these genes could be responsible for the phenotypic fatness variability.

  14. Messenger RNA levels and transcription rates of hepatic lipogenesis genes in genetically lean and fat chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval, S; Lagarrigue, S; Douaire, M

    2000-01-01

    Levels of body fat content in commercial meat chickens have prompted research in order to control the development of this trait. Based on experimentally selected divergent lean and fat lines, many studies have shown that liver metabolism has a major role in the fatness variability. In order to identify which genes are involved in this variability, we investigated the expression of several genes implicated in the hepatic lipid metabolism. The studied genes code for enzymes of fatty acid synthesis [ATP citrate-lyase (ACL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1)], for an apolipoprotein [apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1)], and for the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), which is a transcription factor implied in the regulation of several genes of lipid metabolism. The results show that the fat-line chickens display significantly higher hepatic transcription rates and mRNA levels than the lean-line chickens for the ACL, ME and APOA1 genes. This suggests that these genes could be responsible for the phenotypic fatness variability.

  15. SIMULTANEOUS EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF G-CSF AND IL-6 MESSENGER-RNA IN ADHERENT HUMAN MONOCYTES AND FIBROBLASTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELLENGA, E; VANDERVINNE, B; DEWOLF, JTM; HALIE, MR

    The regulation of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was studied in human adherent monocytes in response to the protein kinase C activator, oleolyl-acetylglycerol (OAG), the calcium-ionophore A23187 and the cyclic AMP elevating agents, dibutyryl c-AMP

  16. Messenger RNA for membrane-type 2 matrix metalloproteinase, MT2-MMP, is expressed in human placenta of first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, S F; Hastrup, N; Larsen, J F; Lund, L R; Pyke, C

    2000-01-01

    An intimately regulated cell surface activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is believed to be of critical importance for the control of trophoblast invasion. A histological investigation of the expression and localization of three different MMPs, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2/gelatinase A) was performed by in situ hybridization on consecutive sections from human placentae of first trimester pregnancies. Cytokeratin immunostaining identified trophoblast cells. Both normal and tubal implantation sites were studied. We observed a high degree of coexpression of MT2-MMP, MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs in single extravillous cytotrophoblasts that had invaded the endometrium and tubal wall. Furthermore, mRNAs for all three genes were also seen in cytotrophoblasts of cell islands. In contrast to this coexpression pattern, MT2-MMP expression was absent from cell columns and decidual cells, in which signals for MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs were seen. The present data on the cellular expression of MT2-MMP mRNA in placenta extend our knowledge of the proteolytic events that take place during early pregnancy. The data suggest that MT2-MMP, capable of activating MMP-2 in vitro, is involved in the invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblast, possibly related to the physiological activation of MMP-2. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  17. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  18. Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Included Protein 6 Messenger RNA in Porcine Preovulatory Ovarian Follicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagyová, Eva; Němcová, Lucie; Procházka, Radek

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2009), s. 231-235 ISSN 0916-8818 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Preovulatory Ovarian Follicles * TNFAIP6 * female fertility Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2009

  19. The Transfer-Messenger RNA-Small Protein B System Plays a Role in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaohui; Huan, Haixia; Xu, Huiqing; Gao, Qingqing; Xiong, Liping; Gao, Ruxia; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is capable of colonizing outside of the intestinal tract and evolving into a systemic infection. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is a member of the ExPEC group and causes avian colibacillosis. Transfer-mRNA-small protein B (tmRNA-SmpB)-mediated trans-translation is a bacterial translational control system that directs the modification and degradation of proteins, the biosynthesis of which has stalled or has been interrupted, facilitating the rescue of ribosomes stalled at the 3′ ends of defective mRNAs that lack a stop codon. We found that disruption of one, or both, of the smpB or ssrA genes significantly decreased the virulence of the APEC strain E058, as assessed by chicken infection assays. Furthermore, the mutants were obviously attenuated in colonization and persistence assays. The results of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that the transcription levels of the transcriptional regulation gene rfaH and the virulence genes kpsM, chuA, and iss were significantly decreased compared to those of the wild-type strain. Macrophage infection assays showed that the mutant strains reduced the replication and/or survival ability in the macrophage HD11 cell line compared to that of the parent strain, E058. However, no significant differences were observed in ingestion by macrophages and in chicken serum resistance between the mutant and the wild-type strains. These data indicate that the tmRNA-SmpB system is important in the pathogenesis of APEC O2 strain E058. PMID:24013628

  20. Isolation and characterization of the messenger RNA and the gene coding for a proline-rich zein from corn endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-zein, a proline-rich protein from corn endosperm, was investigated at the molecular level. Immunological and electrophoretic data indicated that gamma-zein was deposited into protein bodies in corn endosperm. Both isolated polysomes and poly(A) + mRNA were found to direct into vitro synthesis of gamma-zein in a wheat germ system. In vitro synthesized gamma-zein was immunoprecipitated from the total in vitro translation products. A cDNA expression library was constructed by reverse transcription of total poly(A) + mRNA using pUC8 plasmid as vector and E. coli strain DH1 as host. The library was screened for the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein by specific antibodies. The library was also screened with 32 P-labeled gamma-zein and alpha-zein cDNA probes. The results indicated that gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed in E. coli while alpha-zein was not. Seven independently selected clones, six of which were selected by antibody and one by a cDNA probe, were sequenced. A comparison of sequence information from seven clones revealed that their overlapping regions were identical. This suggests that gamma-zein is encoded by a single gene. This finding is in conflict with what was expected on the basis of extensive charge heterogeneity of gamma-zein in isoelectric focusing. Individual bands cut from an IEF gel were rerun and shown to give several bands suggesting that the charge heterogeneity of gamma-zein may be an artifact. Sequence information of gamma-zein indicated that the gene encodes a mature protein whose primary structure includes 204 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 21,824 daltons

  1. Translational recognition of the 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine of globin messenger RNA as a function of ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L Y; Rhoads, R E

    1978-06-13

    The translation of rabbit globin mRNA in cell-free systems derived from either wheat germ or rabbit reticulocyte was studied in the presence of various analogues of the methylated 5' terminus (cap) as a function of ionic strength. Inhibition by these analogues was strongly enhanced by increasing concentrations of KCl, K(OAc), Na(OAc), or NH4(OAc). At appropriate concentrations of K(OAc), both cell-free systems were equally sensitive to inhibition by m7GTP. At 50 mM K(OAc), the reticulocyte system was not sensitive to m7GMP or m7GTP, but at higher concentrations up to 200 mM K(OAc), both nucleotides caused strong inhibition. The compound in m7G5'ppp5'Am was inhibitory at all concentrations of K(OAc) ranging from 50 to 200 mM, although more strongly so at the higher concentrations. Over the same range of nucleotide concentrations, the compounds GMP, GTP, and G5'ppp5'Am were not inhibitors. The mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the translation product was that of globin at all K(OAc) concentrations in the presence of m7GTP. Globin mRNA from which the terminal m7GTP group had been removed by chemical treatment (periodate-cyclohexylamine-alkaline phosphatase) or enzymatic treatment (tobacco acid pyrophosphatase-alkaline phosphatase) was translated less efficiently than untreated globin mRNA at higher K(OAc) concentrations, but retained appreciable activity at low K(OAc) concentrations.

  2. Labeling of eukaryotic messenger RNA 5' terminus with phosphorus -32: use of tobacco acid pyrophosphatase for removal of cap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockard, R.E.; Rieser, L.; Vournakis, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation of the potential applications of 5'- 32 P-end-labeled mRNA, not only for screening recombinant clones and mapping gene structure, but also for revealing possible nucleotide sequence and structural signals within mRNA molecules themselves, which may be important for eukaryotic mRNA processing and turnover and for controlling differential rates of translational initiation. Three major problems, however, have retarded progress in this area, lack of methods for efficient and reproducible removal of m7G5ppp5'-cap structures, which maintain the integrity of an RNA molecule; inability to generate a sufficient amount of labeled mRNA, owing to the limited availability of most pure mRNA species; and the frequent problem of RNA degradation during in vitro end-labeling owing to RNAse contamination. The procedures presented here permit one to decap and label minute quantities of mRNA, effectively. Tobacco acid pyrophosphatase is relatively efficient in removing cap structures from even nanogram quantities of available mRNA, and enough radioactivity can be easily generated from minute amounts ofintact mRNA with very high-specific-activity [gamma- 32 P]ATP and the inhibition of ribonuclease contamination with diethylpyrocarbonate. These procedures can be modified and applied to almost any other type of RNA molecule as well. In Section III of this volume, we explore in detail how effectively 5'-end-labeled mRNA can be used not only for nucleotide sequence analysis, but also for mapping mRNA secondary structure

  3. Capillary electrophoresis of a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to target messenger RNA markers for body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Cordula; Hanson, Erin; Ballantyne, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression is a promising new method for the identification of body fluids. A number of mRNA markers have been identified for the forensically most relevant body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, and menstrual blood. Apart from a significant improvement in specificity compared to conventional protein-based methods, other important advantages of body fluid identification by mRNA profiling include the possibility of simultaneously isolating RNA and DNA from the same piece of stain and the ability to multiplex numerous RNA markers for the identification of one or several body fluids. RNA profiling can be incorporated into current DNA analysis pipelines.

  4. Effect of nonylphenol on giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) via oral treatment: toxicity and messenger RNA expression of hemocyte genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Ye, Yu-Zhi

    2009-02-19

    A previous in vitro study has indicated that two alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) could potentially damage hemocytes and influence cellular immunity of prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nonylphenol (NP) on susceptibility to a pathogen and on the mRNA expression of hemocyte genes, including four immune-related genes. NP at different concentrations was fed continuously to prawn (M. rosenbergii) for 1, 3, 6, and 9 days. Challenging prawns with Lactobacillus garvieae resulted in 44-50%, 20-24% and 10-12% mortality were detected after prawns were fed with 100, 10 and 1microNP/prawn for 6 days, respectively. In comparison with control prawns fed with phosphate-buffered solution (PBS), the increase of mRNA levels of four immune-related genes, alpha-2 microglobulin (alpha-2m), antimicrobial peptides (amp), peroxinectin (pon), and prophenoloxidase (propo), was detected on days 1, 3 and 6 after feeding with 100microg/prawn; on day 9, only the mRNA level of amp of the NP-treated group was significantly increased, while that of the remaining groups was not different from that of the control. In addition, two other hemocyte genes were also studied, including a respiration-related gene, cytochrome oxidase subunit (cos), and an unknown gene, L12X3. The mRNA level of cos was elevated during the experimental period, but an increase of L12X3 expression was detected only on day 1 after treatment. Regarding sensitivity of these genes to NP, the results from NP-treated prawns on day 1 after treatment revealed (1) that mRNA expression of the six genes in the 100-microg-NP-treated group was significantly different from that of control group, (2) that the mRNA levels of three immune-related genes (amp, pon and propo) in 10-microg-treated group were significantly higher than that of control group, and (3) that a significant change of propo was detected in 1-microg-treated group. These results suggest that NP may enhance the immune response of prawns, but the effect created by a high concentration of NP may damage prawns, and then increase the susceptibility to pathogen.

  5. Meiotic messenger RNA and noncoding RNA targets of the RNA-binding protein Translin (TSN) in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Iguchi, Naoko; Yang, Juxiang; Handel, Mary Ann; Hecht, Norman B

    2005-10-01

    In postmeiotic male germ cells, TSN, formerly known as testis brain-RNA binding protein, is found in the cytoplasm and functions as a posttranscriptional regulator of a group of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau. In contrast, in pachytene spermatocytes, TSN is found predominantly in nuclei. Tsn-null males show a reduced sperm count and high levels of apoptosis in meiotic cells, suggesting a critical function for TSN during meiosis. To identify meiotic target RNAs that associate in vivo with TSN, we reversibly cross-linked TSN to RNA in testis extracts from 17-day-old and adult mice and immunoprecipitated the complexes with an affinity-purified TSN antibody. Extracts from Tsn-null mice were used as controls. Cloning and sequencing the immunoprecipitated RNAs, we identified four new TSN target mRNAs, encoding diazepam-binding inhibitor-like 5, arylsulfatase A, a tetratricopeptide repeat structure-containing protein, and ring finger protein 139. In contrast to the population of postmeiotic translationally delayed mRNAs that bind TSN, these four mRNAs are initially expressed in pachytene spermatocytes. In addition, anti-TSN also precipitated a nonprotein-coding RNA (ncRNA), which is abundant in nuclei of pachytene spermatocytes and has a putative polyadenylation signal, but no open reading frame. A second similar ncRNA is adjacent to a GGA repeat, a motif frequently associated with recombination hot spots. RNA gel-shift assays confirm that the four new target mRNAs and the ncRNA specifically bind to TSN in testis extracts. These studies have, for the first time, identified both mRNAs and a ncRNA as TSN targets expressed during meiosis.

  6. Distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid β protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid β proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid β protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein

  7. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning in a porcine model leads to rapid changes in cardiac extracellular vesicle messenger RNA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Svennerholm

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrate in an in vivo model that myocardial ischemic preconditioning influences the composition of mRNA in EV, including gene transcripts for proteins associated with the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The finding that preconditioned parental cells release EV containing mRNA that is qualitatively different from those released by non-preconditioned cells shows the importance of the external milieu on parental cell EV production.

  8. Contrasting Storage Protein Synthesis and Messenger RNA Accumulation during Development of Zygotic and Somatic Embryos of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, J E; Pramanik, S K; Bewley, J D

    1992-05-01

    During development on hormone-free media, somatic embryos pass through distinct morphological stages that superficially resemble those of zygotic embryo development (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary stages). Despite these similarities, they differ from zygotic embryos in the extent of cotyledonary development and the patterns of synthesis and quantitative expression of seed-specific storage proteins (7S, 11S, and 2S proteins). Alfin (7S) is the first storage protein synthesized in developing zygotic embryos (stage IV). The 11S (medicagin) and 2S (Low Molecular Weight, LMW) storage proteins are not detectable until the following stage of development (stage V), although all three are present before the completion of embryo enlargement. Likewise, the 7S storage protein is the first to be synthesized in developing somatic embryos (day 5). Medicagin is evident by day 7 and the LMW protein by day 10. In contrast to zygotic embryos, alfin remains the predominant storage protein in somatic embryos throughout development. Not only are the relative amounts of medicagin and the LMW protein reduced in somatic embryos but the LMW protein is accumulated much later than the other proteins. Quantification of the storage protein mRNAs (7S, 11S, and 2S) by northern blot analysis confirms that there are substantial differences in the patterns of message accumulation in zygotic and somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In zygotic embryos, the 7S, 11S, and 2S storage protein mRNAs are abundant during maturation and, in particular, during the stages of maximum protein synthesis (alfin, stages VI and VII; medicagin, stage VII; LMW, stage VII). In somatic embryos, the predominance of the 7S storage protein is correlated with increased accumulation of its mRNA, whereas the limited synthesis of the 11S storage protein is associated with much lower steady-state levels of its message. The mRNA for the LMW protein is present already by 3 days after transfer to hormone-free media, yet that protein is not evident on stained gels until day 10. Thus, both transcriptional and posttranscriptional events appear to be important in determining the protein complement of these seed tissues. On the basis of storage protein and mRNA accumulation, mature (14 days) somatic embryos most closely resemble stage VI zygotic embryos. The results of the developmental comparison also suggest that the patterns of synthesis of the individual storage proteins (7S, 11S, or 2S) are regulated independently of each other during embryogenesis in alfalfa.

  9. Tissue-specific control of rat malic enzyme activity and messenger RNA levels by a high carbohydrate diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Dozin, B; Rall, J E; Nikodem, V M

    1986-01-01

    In euthyroid rats fed a high carbohydrate fat-free diet for 10 days, the mass of cellular malic enzyme mRNA in liver is increased 7- to 8-fold above the basal level. Malic enzyme activity is stimulated to the same extent. This effect does not result from an increase either in the transcriptional activity of the malic enzyme gene, as determined by nuclear run-off transcription assay, or in the content of intranuclear malic enzyme RNA sequences. Mathematical modeling shows that this increase in...

  10. Effects of aging on insulin synthesis and secretion. Differential effects on preproinsulin messenger RNA levels, proinsulin biosynthesis, and secretion of newly made and preformed insulin in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S Y; Halban, P A; Rowe, J W

    1988-01-01

    Aging in men and rodents is associated with a marked decline in glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells (B cells). Secreted insulin is the end result of a series of steps along the biosynthetic protein-secretion pathway, including insulin gene transcription, processing of transcripts to preproinsulin mRNA, translation of mRNA, segregation and processing of newly made proinsulin in secretory vesicles, proinsulin to insulin conversion, transport of vesicles to the plasma m...

  11. Regional age-related changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, messenger RNA levels and activity in SAMP8 brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidon Gérard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO is a multifunctional molecule synthesized by three isozymes of the NO synthase (NOSs acting as a messenger/modulator and/or a potential neurotoxin. In rodents, the role of NOSs in sleep processes and throughout aging is now well established. For example, sleep parameters are highly deteriorated in senescence accelerated-prone 8 (SAMP8 mice, a useful animal model to study aging or age-associated disorders, while the inducible form of NOS (iNOS is down-regulated within the cortex and the sleep-structures of the brainstem. Evidence is now increasing for a role of iNOS and resulting oxidative stress but not for the constitutive expressed isozyme (nNOS. To better understand the role of nNOS in the behavioural impairments observed in SAMP8 versus SAMR1 (control animals, we evaluated age-related variations occurring in the nNOS expression and activity and nitrites/nitrates (NOx- levels, in three brain areas (n = 7 animals in each group. Calibrated reverse transcriptase (RT and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and biochemical procedures were used. Results We found that the levels of nNOS mRNA decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus of 8- vs 2-month-old animals followed by an increase in 12-vs 8-month-old animals in both strains. In the brainstem, levels of nNOS mRNA decreased in an age-dependent manner in SAMP8, but not in SAMR1. Regional age-related changes were also observed in nNOS activity. Moreover, nNOS activity in hippocampus was found lower in 8-month-old SAMP8 than in SAMR1, while in the cortex and the brainstem, nNOS activities increased at 8 months and afterward decreased with age in SAMP8 and SAMR1. NOx- levels showed profiles similar to nNOS activities in the cortex and the brainstem but were undetectable in the hippocampus of SAMP8 and SAMR1. Finally, NOx- levels were higher in the cortex of 8 month-old SAMP8 than in age-matched SAMR1. Conclusion Concomitant variations occurring in NO levels derived from nNOS and iNOS at an early age constitute a major factor of risk for sleep and/or memory impairments in SAMP8.

  12. Effects of dietary nitrogen concentration on messenger RNA expression and protein abundance of urea transporter-B and aquaporins in ruminal papillae from lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    RNA expression of UT-B was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas mRNA expression of AQP3, 7, and 10 were greater in the high N compared with the low N fed cows. Using peptide-derived rabbit antibodies to cow AQP3, 7, and 8, immunoblotting revealed bands of approximately 27, 27, and 24 kDa in ruminal...

  13. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase and Glucocorticoid Receptor Messenger RNA Expression in Porcine Placentae: Effects of Stage of Gestation, Breed, and Uterine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-06

    for this study [21]. On the appropriate day of gestation, gilts were slaughtered in the U.S. De- partment of Agriculture Meat Animal Research Center...H.G. Klemcke,2,4 R. Sampath Kumar,3,5 K. Yang,5 J.L. Vallet,4 and R.K. Christenson4 USDA-ARS,4 Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay...relevant isoform [14, 15]. The GRb isoform is unable to bind glu- cocorticoid hormones but may form heterodimers with GRa, thereby altering the ability

  14. Insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein-3 is an indicator of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Taguchi, Kenichi; Ohno, Shinji; Tokunaga, Eriko; Yamashita, Nami; Kubo, Makoto; Nakamura, Masafumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of the expressions of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in phyllodes tumors (PTs). Immunohistochemical staining for IMP3 and EGFR was performed in 130 cases of primary PTs (83 benign, 28 borderline, 19 malignant), 34 recurrent/metastatic PTs, and 26 fibroadenomas (FAs). Among the primary tumors, a high expression of IMP3 was significantly more frequently present in malignant PTs (17/19, 89%) than in the FAs (0/26, 0%), benign PTs (0/83, 0%) and borderline PTs (3/28, 11%). The recurrent and metastatic lesions of malignant PTs also showed high IMP3 expression (3/5 [60%] and 6/6 [100%], respectively). Most malignant PTs showed strong IMP3 expression at the interductal area or more diffusely, whereas weak and focal (low) expression of IMP3 was limited to the periductal area in FAs and benign PTs. EGFR overexpression was significantly correlated with tumor grade and high IMP3 expression. Overexpressions of IMP3 and EGFR were significantly associated with shorter periods of metastasis-free and disease-free survival. The results suggest that high expressions of IMP3 and EGFR with a characteristic staining pattern may be helpful for both identifying malignant PT and predicting the prognosis of these tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of carcinoembryonic antigen messenger RNA in blood using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to predict recurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhi-qiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in peripheral blood as an indicator of tumor recurrence has not been clearly established, particularly for gastric cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the relationship between CTCs in peripheral blood at initial diagnosis and clinicopathologic findings in patients with gastric carcinoma. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 123 gastric carcinoma patients at initial diagnosis. mRNA was extracted and amplified for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA mRNA detection using real-time RT-PCR. Periodic 3-month follow-up examinations included serum CEA measurements and imaging. Results The minimum threshold for corrected CEA mRNA score [(CEA mRNA/GAPDH mRNA × 106] was set at 100. Forty-five of 123 patients (36.6% were positive for CEA mRNA expression. CEA mRNA expression significantly correlated with T stage and postoperative recurrence status (P = 0.001. Recurrent disease was found in 44 of 123 cases (35.8%, and 25 of these (56.8% were positive for CEA mRNA. Of these patients, CEA mRNA was more sensitive than serum CEA in indicating recurrence. Three-year disease-free survival of patients positive for CEA mRNA was significantly poorer than of patients negative for CEA mRNA (P Conclusions CEA mRNA copy number in peripheral blood at initial diagnosis was significantly associated with disease recurrence in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Real-time RT-PCR detection of CEA mRNA levels at initial diagnosis appears to be a promising predictor for disease recurrence in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.

  16. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA expression is correlated to clinical outcomes in mycophenolate mofetil-treated kidney transplant patients, whereas inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombogaard, Ferdi; Peeters, Annemiek M. A.; Baan, Carla C.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Quaedackers, Monique E.; Vulto, Arnold G.; Weimar, Willem; van Gelder, Teun

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the pharmacodynamic biomarker inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity in renal transplant recipients has been proposed to reflect the biological effect better than using pharmacokinetic parameters to monitor mycophenolate mofetil therapy. The IMPDH assays are however

  17. Complementary DNA and derived amino acid sequence of the α subunit of human complement protein C8: evidence for the existence of a separate α subunit messenger RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.G.; Howard, O.M.Z.; Ng, S.C.; Whitehead, A.S.; Colten, H.R.; Sodetz, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The entire amino acid sequence of the α subunit (M/sub r/ 64,000) of the eight component of complement (C8) was determined by characterizing cDNA clones isolated from a human liver cDNA library. Two clones with overlapping inserts of net length 2.44 kilobases (kb) were isolated and found to contain the entire α coding region [1659 base pairs (bp)]. The 5' end consists of an untranslated region and a leader sequence of 30 amino acids. This sequence contains an apparent initiation Met, signal peptide, and propeptide which ends with an arginine-rich sequence that is characteristic of proteolytic processing sites found in the pro form of protein precursors. The 3' untranslated region contains two polyadenylation signals and a poly(A)sequence. RNA blot analysis of total cellular RNA from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 revealed a message size of ∼2.5 kb. Features of the 5' and 3' sequences and the message size suggest that a separate mRNA codes for α and argues against the occurrence of a single-chain precursor form of the disulfide-linked α-λ subunit found in mature C8. Analysis of the derived amino acid sequence revealed several membrane surface seeking domains and a possible transmembrane domain. Analysis of the carbohydrate composition indicates 1 or 2 asparagine-linked but no O-linked oligosaccharide chains, a result consistent with predictions from the amino acid sequence. Most significantly, it exhibits a striking overall homology to human C9, with values of 24% on the basis of identity and 46% when conserved substitutions are allowed. As described in an accompanying report this homology also extends to the β subunit of C8

  18. Effects of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the proteolipid protein and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 messenger RNA gene expression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Semnani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The cuprizone multiple sclerosis (MS animal model is characteristic for toxic demyelination and represents a reversible demyelination and remyelination system. It has been shown that green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG might be effective in improving the symptoms and pathological conditions associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases in several animal models. In this study the effects of EGCG on proteolipid protein (PLP and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (Olig1 expression in the cerebral cortex of a murine model of cuprizone-induced demyelination was investigated. C57BL/6 mice were treated with cuprizone for six weeks in order to induce demyelination. Immediately after the cessation of cuprizone the animals were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 for each group. The first two groups were injected intraperitoneally (IP with EGCG in the amount of 50 mg/kg/daily body weight for 2 and 4 weeks. The second two groups (SHAM were injected IP with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS for 2 and 4 weeks, and the third two groups were left without injection as controls. After two and four weeks the mice were killed and the cerebral cortex was collected and the expression of Plp and Olig1 was studied by real-time PCR. The results showed significant increases in PLP and Olig1 expression in the EGCG-treated groups as compared to the SHAM and control groups (p < 0.0001. It is concluded that EGCG increases PLP and Olig1 expression in the cerebral cortex of a mouse model of MS induced by cuprizone.

  19. Changes in growth hormone (GH) messenger RNA (GH mRNA) expression in the rat anterior pituitary after single interferon (IFN) alpha administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, W.; Braczkowski, R.; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B.; Kosiewicz, J.; Korzonek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interferon a (IFN-a) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects which, via different pathways, influences the secretion of certain cytokines and hormones. Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary has physiological effects on various target tissues. The question is how IFN-a administered in various types of disease influences GH secretion. This study investigated the acute effect of IFN-a on GH mRNA expression in the rat anterior pituitary. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the cellular expression of GH mRNA by in situ hybridisation in the anterior pituitary after a single administration of IFN-a. Material and methods: Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of IFN-a or saline. The rat pituitaries were taken 2 and 4 hours after IFN/saline administration and kept frozen until in situ hybridisation histochemistry. A 31 - base 35S -labelled oligonucleotide probe complementary to part of the exonic mRNA sequence coding for GH mRNA was used. All control and experimental sections were hybridised in the same hybridisation reaction. Results: Acute administration of interferon a increased GH mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary in the 4-hour group in comparison with the control group, and there was no difference between the control group and the 2-hour rats. Conclusion: A single IFN-a administration was found to exert an influence on anterior pituitary GH mRNA expression. These observations may pave the way for presenting a possible new action of IFN-a. (author) GH mRNA, anterior pituitary, interferon

  20. Effect of N-Feruloylserotonin and Methotrexate on Severity of Experimental Arthritis and on Messenger RNA Expression of Key Proinflammatory Markers in Liver

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašková, L.; Kuncírová, V.; Poništ, S.; Mihálová, D.; Nosál, R.; Harmatha, Juraj; Hrádková, I.; Čavojský, T.; Bilka, F.; Šišková, K.; Paulíková, I.; Bezáková, L.; Bauerová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, June (2016), č. článku 7509653. ISSN 2314-8861 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : rheumatoid arthritis * chronic inflammatory disease * serotonin phenylpropanoids Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.276, year: 2016 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/7509653/

  1. Effect of N-Feruloylserotonin and Methotrexate on Severity of Experimental Arthritis and on Messenger RNA Expression of Key Proinflammatory Markers in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Pašková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, leading to progressive destruction of joints and extra-articular tissues, including organs such as liver and spleen. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a potential immunomodulator, natural polyphenol N-feruloylserotonin (N-f-5HT, with methotrexate (MTX, the standard in RA therapy, in the chronic phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA in male Lewis rats. The experiment included healthy controls (CO, arthritic animals (AA, AA given N-f-5HT (AA-N-f-5HT, and AA given MTX (AA-MTX. N-f-5HT did not affect the body weight change and clinical parameters until the 14th experimental day. Its positive effect was rising during the 28-day experiment, indicating a delayed onset of N-f-5HT action. Administration of either N-f-5HT or MTX caused reduction of inflammation measured as the level of CRP in plasma and the activity of LOX in the liver. mRNA transcription of TNF-α and iNOS in the liver was significantly attenuated in both MTX and N-f-5HT treated groups of arthritic rats. Interestingly, in contrast to MTX, N-f-5HT significantly lowered the level of IL-1β in plasma and IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver and spleen of arthritic rats. This speaks for future investigations of N-f-5HT as an agent in the treatment of RA in combination therapy with MTX.

  2. [Differential display of messenger RNA and identification of selenocysteine lyase gene in hepatocellular carcinoma cells transiently expressing hepatitis C virus core protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Jesús Orlando; Luz Gunturiz, María; Henao, Luis Felipe; Navas, María Cristina; Balcázar, Norman; Gómez, Luis Alberto

    2006-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus is associated with diverse liver diseases including acute and chronic hepatitis, steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have explored viral mechanisms involved in the establishment of persistent infection and oncogenic Hepatitis C virus. Expression assays of Hepatitis C virus core protein suggest that this protein has transforming and carcinogenic properties with multifunctional activities in host cells. Characterization of expressed genes in cells expressing Core protein is important in order to identify candidate genes responsible for these pathogenic alterations. To compare and identify gene expression profiles in the human hepatocarcinoma derived cell line, HepG2, with transient expression of Hepatitis C virus Core protein. We have used comparative PCR-mediated differential display of mRNA from HepG2 hepatocarcinoma with and without transient expression of HCV Core protein or green fluorescent protein, previously obtained using the Semliki Forest Virus-based expression, through transduction of recombinant particles, rSFV-Core and rSFV-GFP, respectively. We observed differences in band intensities of mRNA in HepG2 cells transduced with rSFV-Core compared with those detected in cells without transduction, and transduced with rSFV-GFP. Cloning and sequencing of a gene fragment (258 bp) that was expressed differentially in HepG2 cells transduced with rSFV-Core, was identified as selenocystein lyase. The results confirm that HCV Core protein expressed in HepG2 is associated with specific changes in mRNA expression, including the gene for selenocystein lyase. This gene may be involved in the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Maternally recruited DCP1A and DCP2 contribute to messenger RNA degradation during oocyte maturation and genome activation in mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Flemr, Matyáš; Strnad, Hynek; Svoboda, Petr; Schultz, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-12 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034; GA MŠk ME09039 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gamete biology * maternal mRNA degradation * meiotic maturation * mRNA decapping * oocyte maturation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.451, year: 2013

  4. Contrasting Storage Protein Synthesis and Messenger RNA Accumulation during Development of Zygotic and Somatic Embryos of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, Joan E.; Pramanik, Saroj K.; Bewley, J. Derek

    1992-01-01

    During development on hormone-free media, somatic embryos pass through distinct morphological stages that superficially resemble those of zygotic embryo development (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary stages). Despite these similarities, they differ from zygotic embryos in the extent of cotyledonary development and the patterns of synthesis and quantitative expression of seed-specific storage proteins (7S, 11S, and 2S proteins). Alfin (7S) is the first storage protein synthesized in developing zygotic embryos (stage IV). The 11S (medicagin) and 2S (Low Molecular Weight, LMW) storage proteins are not detectable until the following stage of development (stage V), although all three are present before the completion of embryo enlargement. Likewise, the 7S storage protein is the first to be synthesized in developing somatic embryos (day 5). Medicagin is evident by day 7 and the LMW protein by day 10. In contrast to zygotic embryos, alfin remains the predominant storage protein in somatic embryos throughout development. Not only are the relative amounts of medicagin and the LMW protein reduced in somatic embryos but the LMW protein is accumulated much later than the other proteins. Quantification of the storage protein mRNAs (7S, 11S, and 2S) by northern blot analysis confirms that there are substantial differences in the patterns of message accumulation in zygotic and somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In zygotic embryos, the 7S, 11S, and 2S storage protein mRNAs are abundant during maturation and, in particular, during the stages of maximum protein synthesis (alfin, stages VI and VII; medicagin, stage VII; LMW, stage VII). In somatic embryos, the predominance of the 7S storage protein is correlated with increased accumulation of its mRNA, whereas the limited synthesis of the 11S storage protein is associated with much lower steady-state levels of its message. The mRNA for the LMW protein is present already by 3 days after transfer to hormone-free media, yet that protein is not evident on stained gels until day 10. Thus, both transcriptional and posttranscriptional events appear to be important in determining the protein complement of these seed tissues. On the basis of storage protein and mRNA accumulation, mature (14 days) somatic embryos most closely resemble stage VI zygotic embryos. The results of the developmental comparison also suggest that the patterns of synthesis of the individual storage proteins (7S, 11S, or 2S) are regulated independently of each other during embryogenesis in alfalfa. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668882

  5. Influences of sex, incubation temperature, and environmental quality on gonadal estrogen and androgen receptor messenger RNA expression in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C; Milnes, Matthew R; Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroid hormone receptors play a vital role in transforming ligand signals into gene expression. We have shown previously that gonads from wild-caught juvenile alligators express greater levels of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) than estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2). Furthermore, sexually dimorphic ESR2 mRNA expression (female > male) observed in animals from the reference site (Lake Woodruff, FL, USA) was lost in alligators from the contaminated Lake Apopka (FL, USA). We postulated that environmental contaminant exposure could influence gonadal steroid hormone receptor expression. Here, we address questions regarding gonadal estrogen and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in 1-yr-old, laboratory-raised alligators. What are relative expression levels within gonads? Do these levels vary between sexes or incubation temperatures? Can contaminant exposure change these levels? We observed a similar pattern of expression (ESR1 > AR > ESR2) in ovary and testis. However, both incubation temperature and environment modulated expression. Males incubated at 33.5 degrees C expressed greater AR levels than females incubated at 30 degrees C; dimorphic expression was not observed in animals incubated at 32 degrees C. Compared to Lake Woodruff alligators, Lake Apopka animals of both sexes showed lesser ESR2 mRNA expression levels. Employing cluster analyses, we integrated these receptor expression patterns with those of steroidogenic factors. Elevated ESR2 and CYP19A1 expressions were diagnostic of alligator ovary, whereas elevated HSD3B1, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 expressions were indicative of testis. In contrast, AR, ESR1, and NR5A1 showed variable expressions that were not entirely associated with sex. These findings demonstrate that the mRNA expression of receptors required for steroid hormone signaling are modified by exposure to environmental factors, including temperature and contaminants.

  6. Effect of escitalopram versus placebo on GRα messenger RNA expression in peripheral blood cells of healthy individuals with a family history of depression - a secondary outcome analysis from the randomized AGENDA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. GRα mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Four weeks of intervention with escitalopram decreased the relative change from baseline in the expression...... of GRα mRNA compared with placebo (p = 0.002). Conclusion These findings from a randomized trial suggest that a 4-week escitalopram administration to healthy participants results in a decrease in GRα mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood compared with inert placebo. The decrease in GRα m...

  7. Clinical performance of a human papillomavirus messenger RNA test (Aptima HPV Assay) on residual material from archived 3-year-old PreservCyt samples with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Marianne; Ornskov, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is widely used in the triage of women with a borderline smear result but the efficiency of testing women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is less clear, mainly because of lack of specificity. New HPV tests are emerging, which detect E6/E7...

  8. Structural and contractile proteins. Part E: Extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 papers. Some of the titles are: Characterization of Pro-..cap alpha..2(I) Collagen Gene Mutation by Nuclease S/sub 1/ Mapping: Analysis of Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Messenger RNA in Fibroblasts from Patients with Type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta; R-Loop Analysis of Procollagen Messenger RNA from the Assessment of Human Collagen Mutations; and Bone Glycoproteins.

  9. Dexamethasone selectively suppresses microglial trophic responses to hippocampal deafferentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A G; Poulsen, F R; Gall, C M

    1999-01-01

    hippocampus. Daily dexamethasone injections almost completely blocked increases in insulin-like growth factor-1 messenger RNA content, but did not perturb increases in ciliary neurotrophic factor or basic fibroblast growth factor messenger RNA content, in the deafferented dentate gyrus molecular layer...

  10. Adipose expression of adipocytokines in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of adipocytokines in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by analyzing the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines.......To investigate the role of adipocytokines in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by analyzing the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines....

  11. Regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli and its bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter reviews the study of prokaryotic gene expression beginning with a look at the regulation of the lactose operon and the mechanism of attenuation in the tryptophan operon to the more recent development of recombinant DNA technology. The chapter deals almost entirely with escherichia coli and its bacteriophage. The only experimental technique which the authors explore in some detail is the construction and use of gene and operon fusions which have revolutionized the study of gene expression. Various mechanisms by which E. Coli regulate the cellular levels of individual messenger-RNA species are described. Translational regulation of the cellular levels of messenger-RNA include signals encoded within the messenger-RNA molecule itself and regulatory molecules which interact with the messenger-RNA and alter it translational efficiency

  12. What we do | Page 16 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA Translation. The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. Chile, Canada, Israel. PROJECT ...

  13. Effects of pilocarpine and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor gene expression in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewlocka, B.; Labuz, D.; Machelska, H.; Przewlocki, R.; Turchan, J.; Lason, W.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of pilocarpine- and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA and [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding were studied in the rat hippocampal formation. Pilocarpine- but not kainate-induced seizures decreased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in dentate gyrus at 24 and 72 h after drug injection. Both convulsants decreased the messenger RNA level in CA1 pyramidal cells at 24 and 72 h, the effects of kainate being more profound. Kainate also decreased the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in CA3 region after 24 and 72 h, whereas pilocarpine decreased the messenger RNA level at 72 h only. At 3 h after kainate, but not pilocarpine, an increased binding of [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate in several apical dendritic fields of pyramidal cells was found. Pilocarpine reduced the [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in stratum lucidum only at 3 and 24 h after the drug injection. Pilocarpine but not kainate induced prolonged decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 gene expression in dentate gyrus. However, at the latest time measured, kainate had the stronger effect in decreasing both messenger RNA N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 and [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells. The latter changes corresponded, however, to neuronal loss and may reflect higher neurotoxic potency of kainate.These data point to some differences in hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor regulation in pilocarpine and kainate models of limbic seizures. Moreover, our results suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level is more susceptible to limbic seizures than is [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in the rat hippocampal formation. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Analysis of RNA metabolism in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Jo Ann; Nielsen, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Here we focus on the biogenesis and function of messenger RNA (mRNA) in fission yeast cells. Following a general introduction that also briefly touches on other classes of RNA, we provide an overview of methods used to analyze mRNAs throughout their life cycles.......Here we focus on the biogenesis and function of messenger RNA (mRNA) in fission yeast cells. Following a general introduction that also briefly touches on other classes of RNA, we provide an overview of methods used to analyze mRNAs throughout their life cycles....

  15. Alternative RNA Splicing of CSF3R in Promoting Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    this work, which was accepted for presentation at the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/ Oncology and American Society of Hematology annual...occur in up to 85% of all patients with MDS. This group of proteins acts as a team to process the instructions (messenger RNA) that lead to the

  16. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...

  17. Patterns of Gene Expression Associated with Recovery and Injury in Heat-stressed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    all transcriptomic experiments. JDS performed all gene array and pathway analyses. WED performed all mass spectrometry, and DLI analyzed the mass...shock pre-messenger RNA. Cell 1992, 71(7):1215–1221. 27. Chen MS, Goswami PC, Laszlo A: Differential accumulation of U14 snoRNA and hsc70 mRNA in Chinese

  18. A conceptual model linking functional gene expression and reductive dechlorination rates of chlorinated ethenes in clay rich groundwater sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jacob; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    We used current knowledge of cellular processes involved in reductive dechlorination to develop a conceptual model to describe the regulatory system of dechlorination at the cell level; the model links bacterial growth and substrate consumption to the abundance of messenger RNA of functional gene...

  19. Detection of High-grade Prostate Cancer Using a Urinary Molecular Biomarker-Based Risk Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Neste, Leander; Hendriks, Rianne J.; Dijkstra, Siebren; Trooskens, Geert; Cornel, Erik B.; Jannink, Sander A.; de Jong, Hans; Hessels, Daphne; Smit, Frank P.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Leyten, Gisèle H. J. M.; de Reijke, Theo M.; Vergunst, Henk; Kil, Paul; Knipscheer, Ben C.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Mulders, Peter F. A.; van Oort, Inge M.; van Criekinge, Wim; Schalken, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    To reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment, a test is urgently needed to detect clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa). To develop a multimodal model, incorporating previously identified messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers and traditional risk factors that could be used to identify patients with

  20. Nucleic acid drugs: a novel approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    These nucleic acids act as drugs by different mechanisms, they may bind with the synthesized proteins, and they can hybridize to a messenger RNA leading to translation arrest or may induce degradation to target RNA. In this way the nucleic acids act as drug for inhibiting gene expression or protein synthesis. This article ...

  1. Ovarian carcinoma CDK12 mutations misregulate expression of DNA repair genes via deficient formation and function of the Cdk12/CycK complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ekumi, K.M.; Paculova, H.; Lenasi, T.; Pospíchalová, V.; Boesken, C.A.; Rybaříková, J.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Geyer, M.; Blažek, D.; Barboric, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2015), s. 2575-2589 ISSN 0305-1048 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : RNA-POLYMERASE-II * PRE-MESSENGER-RNA * MAINTAINS GENOMIC STABILITY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 9.202, year: 2015

  2. Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation affects temperature-induced alternative splicing and flowering in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajoro, A.; Severing, E.; Angenent, G.C.; Immink, R.G.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Global warming severely affects flowering time and reproductive success of plants. Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is an important mechanism underlying ambient temperature-controlled responses in plants, yet its regulation is poorly understood. An increase in

  3. Correlation between fibroin amino acid sequence and physical silk properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedič, Robert; Žurovec, Michal; Sehnal, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 37 (2003), s. 35255-35264 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/00/0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Bombyx-mori * antheraea-pernyi * messenger-RNA Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.482, year: 2003

  4. Differentiation of PC12 Cells Results in Enhanced VIP Expression and Prolonged Rhythmic Expression of Clock Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretzmann, C.P.; Fahrenkrug, J.; Georg, B.

    2008-01-01

    To examine for circadian rhythmicity, the messenger RNA (mRNA) amount of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 was measured in undifferentiated and nerve-growth-factor-differentiated PC12 cells harvested every fourth hour. Serum shock was needed to induce circadian oscillations, which in undifferentiated...

  5. Correlation of repressed transcription of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein with serum alpha-tocopherol during hepatocarcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C. G.; Hoek, F. J.; Groenink, M.; Reitsma, P. H.; van Deventer, S. J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Using a subtraction-enhanced display technique, we identified a rodent alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) cDNA which exhibited markedly lower messenger RNA (mRNA) amounts in rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy controls. Several lines of evidence have substantiated that

  6. Intracellular microRNA profiles form in the Xenopus laevis oocyte that may contribute to asymmetric cell division

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šídová, Monika; Šindelka, Radek; Castoldi, M.; Benes, V.; Kubista, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11157 (2015) ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : VG1 MESSENGER-RNA * VEGETAL CORTEX * FROG OOCYTE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  7. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A. M.; van Ree, R.; Cardy, S. M.; Bevan, L. J.; Walker, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial

  8. Induction of CXC chemokine mRNA expression in chicken oviduct epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis via the type three secretion system-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The messenger-RNA (mRNA) expression of selected cytokines and chemokines in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) was determined following in vitro infection with wild type or type three secretion system (T3SS) mutant Salmonella enteritidis (SE) strains. All SE strains examined in this stu...

  9. Interplay of mitochondrial metabolism and microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, Julian; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2017-01-01

    are encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol. Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are short non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules with the ability to prevent messenger RNA (mRNA)-translation or to induce the degradation of mRNA-transcripts. Although miRNAs are mainly located in the cytosol...

  10. Diet-dependent depletion of queuosine in tRNAs in Caenorhabditis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Queuosine (Q), a hypermodified nucleoside, occurs at the wobble position of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) with GUN anticodons. In eubacteria, absence of Q affects messenger RNA (mRNA) translation and reduces the virulence of certain pathogenic strains. In animal cells, changes in the abundance of Q have been shown to ...

  11. Differential protein expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in vivo following infection with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekelova, Z.; Štěpánová, H.; Polanský, O.; Varmužová, K.; Faldynová, M.; Fedr, Radek; Rychlík, I.; Vlasatiková, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, JUN2017 (2017), č. článku 35. ISSN 0928-4249 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : endoplasmic-reticulum stress * messenger-rna expression * quantitative proteomics * internal control Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2016

  12. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Human Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3 in Living Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Susan; Herrmannová, Anna; Malík, Radek; Peclinovská, L.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 16 (2014), s. 3041-3052 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/0335 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : MESSENGER-RNA RECRUITMENT * FACTOR EIF3 * IN-VIVO Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.777, year: 2014

  13. Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, Kausik K.; Landmesser, Ulf; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Kallend, David; Dufour, Robert; Karakas, Mahir; Hall, Tim; Troquay, Roland P. T.; Turner, Traci; Visseren, Frank L. J.; Wijngaard, Peter; Wright, R. Scott; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a previous study, a single injection of inclisiran, a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA designed to target PCSK9 messenger RNA, was found to produce sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels over the course of 84 days in healthy volunteers.

  14. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  15. Oit1/Fam3D, a gut-secreted protein displaying nutritional status-dependent regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, N.J.; Ijssennagger, N.; Oosterink, E.; Keshtkar, S.; Hooiveld, G.J.; Mensink, R.P.; Hammer, S.; Smit, J.W.A.; Muller, M.; der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Oncoprotein-induced transcript 1 (Oit1) was previously identified as a dietary fat-induced gene in the small intestine of C57Bl/6J mice. In this study, we further characterized Oit1 and its human ortholog family with sequence similarity 3, member D (Fam3D), on the messenger RNA as well as the

  16. Oit/Fam3D, a gut secreted protein displaying nutritional status-dependent regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de N.J.W.; IJssenagger, N.; Oosterink, E.; Keshtkar, S.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Mensink, R.P.; Hammer, S.; Smit, J.W.A.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Oncoprotein-induced transcript 1 (Oit1) was previously identified as a dietary fat-induced gene in the small intestine of C57Bl/6J mice. In this study, we further characterized Oit1 and its human ortholog family with sequence similarity 3, member D (Fam3D), on the messenger RNA as well as the

  17. Glycosylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 is a key regulator of fibroblast growth factor 19-mediated down-regulation of cytochrome P450 7A1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantis, Vassilis; Saeland, Eirikur; Bijl, Nora; Oude-Elferink, Ronald P.; Jansen, Peter L. M.

    2010-01-01

    De novo bile acid synthesis in the liver needs to be tightly regulated in order to maintain optimal bile flow and prevent cholestasis. In the liver, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) regulates bile acid synthesis by down-regulating messenger RNA levels of cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1). FGF19 acts

  18. Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Psilander, Niklas; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved...

  19. Prospects and challenges for fungal metatranscriptomics of complex communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl R. Kuske; Cedar N. Hesse; Jean F. Challacombe; Daniel Cullen; Joshua R. Herr; Rebecca C. Mueller; Adrian Tsang; Rytas Vilgalys

    2015-01-01

    The ability to extract and purify messenger RNA directly from plants, decomposing organic matter and soil, followed by highthroughput sequencing of the pool of expressed genes, has spawned the emerging research area of metatranscriptomics. Each metatranscriptome provides a snapshot of the composition and relative abundance of actively transcribed genes, and thus...

  20. Global Survey of Research and Capabilities in Genetically Engineered Organisms That Could be Used in Biological Warfare or Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    information needed to carry out biological processes and construct other biomolecules, such as messenger RNA and proteins. The reader already familiar ...for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Cuba: Institute de Medicina ...Hospital de Bellvitge, Universidad de Barcelona • Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid

  1. Prospective on the potential of imaging gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Scott E; Budinger, Thomas F.

    2000-06-01

    The feasibility of the non-invasive imaging of gene expression is explored. Calculations of the possibility of the direct imaging of specific messenger RNA with radiolabeled antisense are discussed. In addition, possible mechanism for the amplification of the biological signal to enhance image detection are discussed.

  2. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is required for directional migration stimulated via PDGFR-alpha in the primary cilium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Linda; Stock, Christian-Martin; Dieterich, Peter

    2009-01-01

    in directional cell migration. NHE1 messenger RNA and protein levels are up-regulated in NIH3T3 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) during growth arrest, which is concomitant with cilium formation. NHE1 up-regulation is unaffected in Tg737(orpk) MEFs, which have no or very short primary cilia. In growth...

  3. Parsing regulatory DNA: General tasks, techniques, and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    recruitment of the RNA polymerase that transcribes a messenger RNA molecule), or at the post-transcriptional level (by targeting the mRNA molecule). In recent years much attention has been paid to the post-transcriptional regulatory machinery in cells, mediated by RNA molecules. (for recent reviews, see He and Hannon ...

  4. Translational Research for Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    digitorum longus GSM: grip strength measurement LV: left ventricle mRNA: messenger RNA TA: tibialis anterior TGF-β: transforming growth factor...kinase CNF: central nucleated fibers CTSB: cathepsin B DMD: Duchenne muscular dystrophy Dmd: dystrophin gene EBD: evan blue dye EDL: extensor

  5. Bacterial Growth Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Mette

    Transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates the translation of the code, transiently stored in the messenger RNA (mRNA), to the final protein. The entity of tRNA has for decades been assumed to be stable for hours in any circumstance, but my supervisor Michael A. Sørensen noticed during his work with charging l...

  6. Why Argonaute is needed to make microRNA target search fast and reliable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.; Chandradoss, S.D.; Depken, S.M.; Joo, C.

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) interferes with the translation of cognate messenger RNA (mRNA) by finding, preferentially binding, and marking it for degradation. To facilitate the search process, Argonaute (Ago) proteins come together with miRNA, forming a dynamic search complex. In this review we use the

  7. Expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galac, S; Kool, M M J; van den Berg, M F; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2014-01-01

    We report on a screening for the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in normal canine adrenals (n = 10) and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors (11 adenomas and 26 carcinomas). The relative mRNA expression of SF-1 was determined by quantitative

  8. Steroid and sterol hormone action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

  9. Effects of maternal thyroid status on thyroid hormones and growth in congenitally hypothyroid goat fetuses during the second half of gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piosik, P. A.; van Groenigen, M.; van Doorn, J.; Baas, F.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism in Dutch goats is due to a thyroglobulin (TG) synthesis defect that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Minute amounts of mutated TG messenger RNA are translated into glycosylated TG fragments that contain the N-terminal hormonogenic site and are able to form T4,

  10. Trypanosome RNA editing: the complexity of getting U in and taking U out

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Read, L. K.; Lukeš, Julius; Hashimi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), s. 33-51 ISSN 1757-7004 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21974S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 289007 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : messenger RNA * guide RNA * mitochondria Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.838, year: 2016

  11. Translation Initiation Factors eIF3 and HCR1 Control Translation Termination and Stop Codon Read-Through in Yeast Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beznosková, Petra; Cuchalová, Lucie; Wagner, Susan; Shoemaker, Ch. J.; Gunišová, Stanislava; von der Haar, T.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2013) ISSN 1553-7404 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF * MESSENGER-RNA * IN-VIVO Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.167, year: 2013

  12. Cloning a cDNA for the lysosomal alpha-glucosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KONINGS, A.; HUPKES, P.; Versteeg, R.; Grosveld, G.; Reuser, A.; Galjaard, H.

    1984-01-01

    Messenger RNA was isolated from monkey testes and size-fractionated on sucrose gradients. In vitro translation of these mRNA fractions resulted in nascent, labeled alpha-glucosidase that could be precipitated with anti human alpha-glucosidase antiserum. A cDNA library was constructed from the most

  13. Guide totheNomenclatureofKinetoplastidRNA Editing: AProposal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simpson, L.; Aphasizhev, R.; Lukeš, Julius; Cruz-Reyes, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2010), s. 2-6 ISSN 1434-4610 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TRYPANOSOMA-BRUCEI MITOCHONDRIA * BINDING COMPLEX * EDITOSOME INTEGRITY * MESSENGER-RNA * U-DELETION * LEISHMANIA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2010

  14. Evaluation of Cardioprotective Effects of Genistein against Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrophage/monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) secretion and their messenger RNA transcription level also were observed. Results: Genistein attenuated diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and pathological ...

  15. Quenching of microbial samples for increased reliability of microarray data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, B.; Jellema, R.H.; Werf, M.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Messenger RNA levels change on a minutes scale due to both degradation and de novo transcription. Consequently, alterations in the transcript profiles that are not representative for the condition of interest are easily introduced during sample harvesting and work-up. In order to avoid these

  16. Preliminary report on the production of transgenic Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently, β actin fused with a foreign growth hormone gene in a donor tols 2 transposon along with messenger RNA was co-injected into early stage of fertilized eggs using micro injector. Out of the 30 eggs injected, 15 representing 50% hatchlings were obtained. GH was successfully transposed to the genome of Fo ...

  17. Nuclear transport factor directs localization of protein synthesis during mitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, Geert van den; Meinema, Anne C.; Krasnikov, Viktor; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Poolman, Bert

    Export of messenger RNA from the transcription site in the nucleus and mRNA targeting to the translation site in the cytoplasm are key regulatory processes in protein synthesis. In yeast, the mRNA-binding proteins Nab2p and Nab4p/Hrp1p accompany transcripts to their translation site, where the

  18. Gene expression and molecular changes in cerebral arteries following subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikman, Petter; Beg, Saema; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2006-01-01

    OBJECT: The authors investigated early changes in the cerebral arteries of rats that occur after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: Messenger RNA was investigated by performing microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, and protein expression was shown...

  19. Foreword

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    correctly, tRNAs interpret the information present in messenger RNA, whose sequence is derived from ... I – as the organizer – jumped on the opportunity to propose a session on the history of tRNA research in ... to hold a history session was relatively straightforward, shouldering the responsibility of organizing such a.

  20. Bacterial gene expression detected in human faeces by reverse transcription-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzsimons, N.A.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de W.M.; Vaughan, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    A method to isolate and specifically detect bacterial messenger RNA (mRNA) in human faeces is presented. The surface layer protein gene slpA of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356(T) was chosen as a model system because it is transcribed at a high level to a relatively stable mRNA (Boot et al.,

  1. Structural analysis of an eIF3 subcomplex reveals conserved interactions required for a stable and proper translation pre-initiation complex assembly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herrmannová, Anna; Daujotyte, D.; Yang, J.; Ch.; Cuchalová, Lucie; Gorrec, F.; Wagner, Susan; Dányi, István; Lukavsky, P. J.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    Roč. 40, č. 5 ( 2012 ), s. 2294-2311 ISSN 0305-1048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : START CODON SELECTION * RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF * GCN4 MESSENGER-RNA Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 8.278, year: 2012

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 and sst2A in human somatostatin receptor positive tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); Q. Liu; P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); J. Zuijderwijk; F. van der Ham (Frieda); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); A. Schonbrunn; S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAlthough in situ hybridization has been used to examine the distribution of messenger RNA for somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst) in human tumors, the cellular localization of sst1 and sst2A receptors has not been reported. In this study, we describe the

  3. Comparative Analysis of Syntenic Genes in Grass Genomes Reveals Accelerated Rates of Gene Structure and Coding Sequence Evolution in Polyploid Wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akhunov, E. D.; Sehgal, S.; Liang, H. Q.; Wang, S. C.; Akhunova, A. R.; Kaur, G.; Li, W. L.; Forrest, K. L.; See, D.; Šimková, Hana; Ma, Y. Q.; Hayden, M. J.; Luo, M. C.; Faris, J. D.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Gill, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2013), s. 252-265 ISSN 0032-0889 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MESSENGER-RNA DECAY * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * NUCLEOTIDE SUBSTITUTION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  4. Fail-safe mechanism of GCN4 translational control-uORF2 promotes reinitiation by analogous mechanism to uORF1 and thus secures its key role in GCN4 expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunišová, Stanislava; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2014), s. 5880-5893 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0172 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : OPEN READING FRAMES * MESSENGER-RNA * EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  5. Reliable PCR quantitation of estrogen, progesterone and ERBB2 receptor mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is independent of prior macro-dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Hennig, Guido; Kyndi, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression analysis on messenger RNA (mRNA) purified from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is increasingly used for research purposes. Tissue heterogeneity may question specificity and interpretation of results from mRNA isolated from a whole slide section, and thresholds for minimal...

  6. Serial analysis of gene expression as a tool to assess the human thyroid expression profile and to identify novel thyroidal genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauws, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Tijssen, M.; Baas, F.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ris-Stalpers, C.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of the expression profile of normal human thyroid tissue using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) generated a collection of 10,994 sequence transcripts (tags). Each tag represented a messenger RNA transcript, and, in total, 6099 different tags could be distinguished. The

  7. Co-isolation of extracellular vesicles and high-density lipoproteins using density gradient ultracentrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana; Levels, Johannes; Grootemaat, Anita; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) facilitate intercellular communication by carrying bioactive molecules such as proteins, messenger RNA, and micro (mi)RNAs. Recently, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) isolated from human plasma were also reported to transport miRNA to other cells. HDL, when isolated from

  8. Translating the Genomic Architecture of Breast Cancer into Clinical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Hugo M.; Savci-Heijink, C. Dilara; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic alterations in breast cancer have in recent years been studied through a variety of techniques: analysis of alterations in individual oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes; gene expression profiling of both messenger RNA and microRNA; global analysis of DNA copy number changes; and most

  9. Abnormalities in structure and expression of the retinoblastoma gene in small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Sorenson, G D; Pettengill, O S

    1990-01-01

    the Rb protein, we investigated the expression of the Mr 110,000-116,000 Rb protein in SCLC tumors grown as xenografts in nude mice and/or as cell lines. Rb messenger RNA expression was determined by Northern blotting, and gross structural gene alterations were investigated by Southern blotting. Tumors...

  10. Expression and Characterization of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP-2 mRNA in the Developing Chicken Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-30

    publication as well as for the thesis. His patience and support of my educational endeavors is again greatly appreciated. I am also very appreciative of Dr...messenger RNA in the human fetus S, cience 236: 193-197. Hansson, H.A., Holmgren, A., Norstedt, G. and Rozell, B. (1989). Changes in the distribution

  11. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... The number of genetic maps constructed based on certain data related to the structural organization and functional ... tome maps of messenger RNA and of different micro RNA species in normal and in diseased subjects could ..... other eukaryotic genomes. The human genome contains over one million ...

  12. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. de Groot-Kruseman; C.C. Baan (Carla); E.M. Hagman; W.M. Mol (Wendy); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); P.E. Zondervan (Pieter); W. Weimar (Willem); A.H.M.M. Balk (Aggie); A.W.P.M. Maat (Alex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after

  13. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, H A; Baan, C C; Hagman, E M; Mol, W M; Niesters, H G; Maat, A P; Zondervan, P E; Weimar, W; Balk, A H

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after transplantation. The presence of IL-2

  14. Local dystrophin restoration with antisense oligonucleotide PRO051

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Judith C.; Janson, Anneke A.; Ginjaar, Ieke B.; Frankhuizen, Wendy S.; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Bremmer-Bout, Mattie; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Koop, Klaas; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; Goemans, Nathalie M.; de Kimpe, Sjef J.; Ekhart, Peter F.; Venneker, Edna H.; Platenburg, Gerard J.; Verschuuren, Jan J.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Duchenne's muscular dystrophy is associated with severe, progressive muscle weakness and typically leads to death between the ages of 20 and 35 years. By inducing specific exon skipping during messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, antisense compounds were recently shown to correct the open

  15. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Messenger RNA was extracted from selected PCR-positive lines for reverse transcription-PCR analysis for gene expression. To screen positive lines for gene function, leaf lobes from two transgenic lines with a line carrying an empty vector and the wild type were subjected to somatic embryogenesis (SE), a known oxidative ...

  16. MONITORING MYCOTOXIN PRODUCTION AT THE GENETIC LEVEL ON VARIOUS GROWTH SUBSTRATES USING QUANTITATIVE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION?EXPERIMENT DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a method of analyzing the production of mycotoxins at the genetic level by monitoring the intracellular levels of messenger RNA (mRNA). Initial work will focus on threshing out the mycotoxin gene clusters in Stachybotrys chartarum followed by analysis of toxin...

  17. (Meta-)genome mining for new ribo-regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Suess, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    Riboswitches are small structural elements within messenger RNA (mRNA) that can change their conformation in response to specific environmental exposures. These changes can alter mRNA transcription or translation. Such riboregulators are emerging as a substantial contributor to bacterial gene con...

  18. The RNA Recognition Motif of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3g (eIF3g) Is Required for Resumption of Scanning of Posttermination Ribosomes for Reinitiation on GCN4 and Together with eIF3i Stimulates Linear Scanning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cuchalová, Lucie; Kouba, Tomáš; Herrmannová, Anna; Dányi, István; Chiu, W.-L.; Valášek, Leoš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 19 (2010), s. 4671-4686 ISSN 0270-7306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : OPEN READING FRAMES * START CODON SELECTION * MESSENGER-RNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.188, year: 2010

  19. Significance of detecting circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in peripheral blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and its clinical value: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yue-ru; Wang, Long; Song, Rui-mei; Zhou, Bo; Song, Zhen-shun

    2014-01-01

    Circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells may be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We investigated the relationship between circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells and hepatoma patient survival after different managements and survival periods. Peripheral vein blood (5 ml) samples were obtained from 113 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and from 33 control subjects (9 with liver cirrhosis after hepatitis B, 14 with chronic hepatitis B, 10 healthy individuals) between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. To detect circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in peripheral blood, alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was amplified from total RNA extracted from whole blood by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was detected in 59 blood samples from the hepatocellular carcinoma patients (59/113, 52.2%). In contrast, there were no clinical control subjects whose samples showed detectable alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA. The presence of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in blood seemed to be correlated with the stage (by TNM classification) of hepatocellular carcinoma, serum alpha-fetoprotein value, and the presence of intrahepatic metastasis, portal vein thrombosis, tumor diameter and/or distant metastasis. In addition, alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was detected in the blood of 25 patients showing distant metastasis at extrahepatic organs (100%), in contrast to 32 of 88 cases without metastasis (36.4%). All the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were followed. Seventeen patients with resection of a T 2 stage hepatocellular carcinoma had a survival of 3.2 years after surgical management, 38 cases with resection of a T3 stage hepatocellular carcinoma had a 1.3-year survival, and only 37 cases with T4 stage disease after different treatments except surgery survived for 0.6 years (P <0.01). The presence of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in peripheral blood may be an indicator of circulating

  20. Suppression of interleukin-1[beta] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha] biosynthesis by cadmium in in vitro activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theocharis, S.E. (Dept. of Experimental Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece) First Dept. of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens, Laikon Hospital (Greece)); Panayiotidis, P.G. (First Dept. of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens, Laikon Hospital (Greece)); Souliotis, V.L. (National Hellenic Research Foundation, Inst. of Biological Research and Biotechnology, Athens (Greece))

    1994-12-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element responsible for acute and chronic toxicity in man. There is evidence that cadmium induces pathophysiological effects by modulating components of the immune system. Cytokines are being increasingly recognized as essential mediators of normal and pathologic immune responses. Cadmium at concentrations varying from 1.0x10[sup -4] to 3.3x10[sup -6] M inhibited the phytohemagglutinin induced production of interleukin-1[beta] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha], in in vitro activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The messenger RNA levels of interleukin-1[beta] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha] were examined during a 24-h culture period, at different time points. The decreased messenger RNA levels at the time points of the maximum expression of interleukin-1[beta] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha] indicate that cadmium suppresses their production at the transcriptional level. (orig.)

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of in vivo and in vitro produced bovine embryos revealed a developmental change in cullin 1 expression during maternal-to-embryonic transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodičková Kepková, Kateřina; Vodička, Petr; Toralová, Tereza; Lopatářová, M.; Čech, S.; Doležel, R.; Havlíček, V.; Besenfelder, U.; Kuzmany, H.; Sirard, M. A.; Laurinčik, J.; Kaňka, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 9 (2011), s. 1582-1595 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA523/09/1035; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : OOCYTE MATURATION MEDIA * MESSENGER-RNA LEVELS * EARLY EMBRYOGENESIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.963, year: 2011

  2. Insert sequence length determines transfection efficiency and gene expression levels in bicistronic mammalian expression vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Andrew J; Gerdes, Bryan C; Kaja, Simon; Koulen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bicistronic expression vectors have been widely used for co-expression studies since the initial discovery of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) about 25 years ago. IRES sequences allow the 5’ cap-independent initiation of translation of multiple genes on a single messenger RNA strand. Using a commercially available mammalian expression vector containing an IRES sequence with a 3’ green fluorescent protein fluorescent marker, we found that sequence length of the gene of interest expresse...

  3. Safe Keeping the Message - mRNP Complexes Tweaking after Transcription

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Čapková, Věra; Honys, David

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 722, Jun 2012 (2011), s. 118-136 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/0858; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA MŠk OC08011; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10054 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : mature pollen * Arabidopsis Thaliana * messenger RNA localization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2011

  4. Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): A Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Friedrich, U. & Lenke, J. Improved Enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mesophilic Dairy Starter Cultures by Using Multiplex Quantitative Real...messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes. Anal. Biochem. 390, 109-114 (2009). 13. Waters, L. & Storz, G. Regulatory RNAs in bacteria . Cell. 136, 615...Video Article Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection Kelly

  5. Embraced by eIF3: structural and functional insights into the roles of eIF3 across the translation cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valášek, Leoš; Zeman, Jakub; Wagner, Susan; Beznosková, Petra; Pavlíková, Zuzana; Mohammad, Mahabub Pasha; Hronová, Vladislava; Herrmannová, Anna; Hashem, Y.; Gunišová, Stanislava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 19 (2017), s. 10948-10968 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06238S EU Projects: Wellcome Trust(GB) 090812/B/09/A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : INITIATION-FACTOR 3 * OPEN READING FRAMES * MESSENGER-RNA RECRUITMENT Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016

  6. The Role of Drosophila Merlin in the Control of Mitosis Exit and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    amplification correlates with messenger RNA overex- pression and tumor progression in human laryngeal carci- nomas. Cancer Res 1994;54:4813–4817. 14. Han EK...demonstrating a spermatid containing two nuclei of equal size and two Nebenkerns. This type of abnormality was likely caused by cytokinesis failure dur- ing...suppressor whose loss results in male sterility. Like Mer- lin, the Tumor Suppressor for Lung Cancer 1 (TSLC1) pro- tein, an immunoglobulin

  7. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    : the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture...... of the SARSE editor makes it a flexible tool to improve all RNA alignments with relatively little human intervention. Online documentation and software are available at (http://sarse.ku.dk)....

  8. Selective charging of tRNA isoacceptors induced by amino-acid starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmar, K. A.; Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Elf, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aminoacylated (charged) transfer RNA isoacceptors read different messenger RNA codons for the same amino acid. The concentration of an isoacceptor and its charged fraction are principal determinants of the translation rate of its codons. A recent theoretical model predicts that amino-acid...... by isoacceptors that retain high charging can be used for efficient translation of genes that are essential during amino-acid starvation. Selective charging can explain anomalous patterns of codon usage in the genes for different families of proteins....

  9. Hypoxia Stress Modifies Na+/K+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase, Na + / NH 4 + - ATPase , and nkaα1 Isoform Expression in the Brain of Immune-Challenged Air-Breathing Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, MC Subhash; Simi, Satheesan

    2017-01-01

    Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, pr...

  10. Early steps in protein synthesis and their regulation: a background study related to the biological effects of radiation. Progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, P.C.

    1976-03-01

    This is a continuing study of protein synthesis, involving a search for the role of Ap/sub 4/A and other unusual nucleotides in growth regulation; studies of the mechanism of action of aminoacyl-tRNA ligases and the effect thereof on protein synthesis; a search for new regulators of the translation step, in cell-free systems; and an effort to improve the sensitivity and quantitation of chemical sequencing at the 3'-end of messenger RNA.

  11. Involvement of the Iron Regulatory Protein from Eisenia andrei Earthworms in the Regulation of Cellular Iron Homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Petra; Škanta, František; Roubalová, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Dvořák, Jiří; Bilej, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT * ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN * FERRITIN MESSENGER-RNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  12. Novel delivery system for natural products: Nano-curcumin formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Rahimi; Reza Nedaeinia; Alireza Sepehri Shamloo; Shima Nikdoust; Reza Kazemi Oskuee

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin is extracted from Curcuma longa and regulates the intracellular signal pathways which control the growth of cancerous cell, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis. Curcumin molecules have special intrinsic features that can target the intracellular enzymes, genome (DNA) and messengers (RNA). A wide range of studies have been conducted on the physicochemical traits and pharmacological effects of curcumin on different diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, rh...

  13. Accession of Tumor Heterogeneity by Multiplex Transcriptome Profiling of Single Circulating Tumor Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorges, T.M.; Kuske, A.; Roeck, K.; Mauermann, O.; Mueller, V.; Peine, S.; Verpoort, K.; Novosadová, Vendula; Kubista, Mikael; Riethdorf, S.; Pantel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2016), s. 1504-1515 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-10214S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : BREAST - CANCER PATIENTS * PROSTATE- CANCER * MESSENGER-RNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.008, year: 2016

  14. Profilin connects actin assembly with microtubule dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejedla, M.; Sadi, S.; Sulimenko, Vadym; de Almeida, F.N.; Blom, H.; Dráber, Pavel; Aspenstrom, P.; Karlsson, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 15 (2016), s. 2381-2393 ISSN 1059-1524 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-25159S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cross-linked profilin * arp2/3 complex * f-actin * microfilament system * migrating cell s * focal adhesions * cultured- cell s * messenger-rna * living cell s * protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.685, year: 2016

  15. Nicotinamide -Methyltransferase in Health and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Ramsden

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the roles of nicotinamide N -methyltransferase and its product 1-methyl nicotinamide have emerged from playing merely minor roles in phase 2 xenobiotic metabolism as actors in some of the most important scenes of human life. In this review, the structures of the gene, messenger RNA, and protein are discussed, together with the role of the enzyme in many of the common cancers that afflict people today.

  16. New Approaches for Early Detection of Breast Tumor Invasion or Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    messenger RNA level during breast carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1997, 57:4992-4996 8. Lawrence JA, Merino MJ, Simpson JF, Manrow RE, Page DL, Steeg PS: A high...Kurek R, Wallwiener D, Merino MJ, Petricoin EF, 3rd, Zhao Y, Steeg PS: Proteomics of human breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer Res 2002, 62:6740...JJ, Davenport GJ, Orenstein JM, Gutierrez P, Simmens SJ, Abraham J, Poola I, Stephan DA, Berg PE. Correlation of expression of BP1, a homeobox gene

  17. Proteomic analysis and sperm physiopathology: the two dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, Monica Hebe

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis coupled with protein identification using mass spectrometry (MS) is a procedure extensively used to obtain a catalog of several thousand proteins in a single gel. These evaluations provide information that complements and extends the results retrieved from messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling using microarray technologies (1). Basically, the first step on the 2D gel electrophoresis analysis is based on protein separation according to [...]. Fil: Vazquez, ...

  18. Isolation of RNA from tumor samples: single-step guanidinium acid-phenol method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Naomi; Leek, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The guanidinium acid-phenol method of RNA extraction is relatively fast (4 h) and is useful for the processing of large numbers of samples, without the need for ultracentrifugation. This protocol produces total RNA that includes ribosomal, transfer, and messenger RNA. This high-quality RNA is suitable for Northern blot analysis, dot-blot hybridization, poly (A) RNA selection, in vitro translation, cDNA library construction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, ribonuclease protection assay, and primer extension experiments.

  19. Trypanosoma brucei Mitochondrial Respiratome: Composition and Organization in Procyclic Form

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acestor, N.; Zíková, Alena; Dalley, R. A.; Anupama, A.; Panigrahi, A. K.; Stuart, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2011), s. 1-14 ISSN 1535-9476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/09/P563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE * EDITED MESSENGER-RNA * COMPLEX-I * TRYPANOSOMA-BRUCEI * UBIQUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE * TAP-TAG * PROTEIN INTERACTION * ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE * STATISTICAL-MODEL * MASS-SPECTROMETRY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.398, year: 2011

  20. Effect of thyroid hormones on acetylcholinesterase mRNA levels in the slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregelj, P; Crne-Finderle, N; Sketelj, J

    2003-01-01

    In the rat, the level of acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA in the typical slow soleus muscles is only about 20-30% of that in the fast extensor digitorum longus muscles. The expression of contractile proteins in muscles is influenced by thyroid hormones and hyperthyroidism makes the slow soleus muscle faster. The influence of thyroid hormones on the levels of acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA level in the slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat was studied in order to examine the effect of thyroid hormones on muscle acetylcholinesterase expression. Hyperthyroidism was induced in rats by daily thyroid hormone injection or thyroid hormone releasing tablet implantation. Hind-limb suspension was applied to produce muscle unloading. Muscle denervation or reinnervation was achieved by sciatic nerve transection or crush. Acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA levels were analyzed by Northern blots and evaluated densitometrically. Hyperthyroidism increased the levels of acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA in the slow soleus muscles close to the levels in the fast extensor digitorum longus. The effect was the same in the unloaded soleus muscles. Acetylcholinesterase expression increased also in the absence of innervation (denervation), in the presence of changed nerve activation pattern (reinnervation), and under enhanced tonic neural activation of the soleus muscle (electrical stimulation). However, the changes were substantially smaller than those observed in the control soleus muscles. Enhancement of acetylcholinesterase expression in the soleus muscles by the thyroid hormones is, therefore, at last in part due to hormonal effect on the muscle itself. On the contrary, increased level of the thyroid hormones had no influence on acetylcholinesterase expression in the normal fast extensor digitorum longus muscles. However, some enhancing influence was apparent whenever the total number of nerve-induced muscle activations per day in the extensor

  1. Characterization of miRNA Expression in Human Degenerative Lumbar Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Døssing, Kristina B V; Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short ∼22 nucleotide RNA sequences that regulate messengerRNA translation. miRNAs have shown to play a role in synthesis of inflammatory mediators. Since inflammation play a role in intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration, the objective was to isolate miRNA from human lumbar...... intervertebral disks and subsequently characterize the difference in miRNA expression between the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP)....

  2. Polymorphisms within micro-RNA-binding sites and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landi, D.; Gemignani, F.; Naccarati, Alessio; Pardini, Barbara; Vodička, Pavel; Vodičková, Ludmila; Novotný, J.; Försti, A.; Hemminki, K.; Canzian, F.; Landi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2008), s. 579-584 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2626; GA ČR GA310/07/1430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Colorectal cancer * Messenger RNA * Micro-RNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.930, year: 2008

  3. Defining cell populations with single-cell gene expression profiling: correlations and identification of astrocyte subpopulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Andersson, D.; Aurelius, J.; Faiz, M.; Pekna, M.; Kubista, Mikael; Pekny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2011) ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500970904; GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : EMBRYONIC STEM-CELLS * REAL-TIME PCR * MESSENGER-RNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.026, year: 2011

  4. Homeostatic response to hypoxia is regulated by the N-end rule pathway in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Daniel J.; Lee, Seung Cho; Isa, Nurulhikma Md; Gramuglia, Silvia; Fukao, Takeshi; Bassel, George W.; Correia, Cristina Sousa; Corbineau, Françoise; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Plants and animals are obligate aerobes, requiring oxygen for mitochondrial respiration and energy production. In plants, an unanticipated decline in oxygen availability (hypoxia), as caused by roots becoming waterlogged or foliage submergence, triggers changes in gene transcription and messenger RNA translation that promote anaerobic metabolism and thus sustain substrate-level ATP production. In contrast to animals, oxygen sensing has not been ascribed to a mechanism of gene regulation in re...

  5. In vivo evidence that eIF3 stays bound to ribosomes elongating and terminating on short upstream ORFs to promote reinitiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mohammad, Mahabub Pasha; Munzarová Pondělíčková, Vanda; Zeman, Jakub; Gunišová, Stanislava; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2017), s. 2658-2674 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10116S EU Projects: Wellcome Trust(GB) 090812/B/09/A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : OPEN READING FRAMES * MESSENGER-RNA RECRUITMENT * EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016

  6. The correlation between expression profiles measured in single cells and in traditional bulk samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Džamba, Dávid; Valihrach, Lukáš; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, nov (2016), s. 37022 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0045; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0855 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : real-time PCR * gene-expression * messenger-rna Subject RIV: FH - Neurology; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (BTO-N) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  7. Evolutionary coincidence of adaptive changes in exuperantia and the emergence of bicoid in Cyclorrhapha (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Janaina Lima; Sobrinho-Junior, Iderval Silva; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves

    2017-01-01

    The great radiation in the infraorder Cyclorrhapha involved several morphological and molecular changes, including important changes in anterior egg development. During Drosophila oogenesis, exuperantia (exu) is critical for localizing bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA (mRNA) to the anterior region of the oocyte. Because it is phylogenetically older than bcd, which is exclusive to Cyclorrhapha, we hypothesize that exu has undergone adaptive changes to enable this new function. Although exu has been ...

  8. Mechanism of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibition of Angiotensin II-induced Apoptosis in Primary Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    L., Bodega, G., Chiloeches, A., Lopez-Ruiz, P., Prieto, J. C., Susini, C. and Colas , B. (1997). Identification of a protein-tyrosine 106...human breast cancer and correlation with GRB2 expression. Int J Cancer 88, 363-8. Yoshida, K., Kuwano, K., Hagimoto, N., Watanabe, K., Matsuba, T...Bowden, G. T. (2008). Nucleolin stabilizes Bcl- X L messenger RNA in response to UVA irradiation. Cancer Res 68, 1046-54. Zhang, L., Yu, J., Park

  9. Amplifying Riboswitch Signal Output using Cellular Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    and Sauer, R. T. (1996) Role of a peptide tagging system in degradation of proteins synthesized from damaged messenger RNA. Science 271, 990- 993 19...reporter gene.5,6 However, this is not always ideal and can lead to misfolding of the reporter. Similarly, many synthetic riboswitches are developed within...a chassis specifically for enhanced transcript or protein expression.5,7 Fieldable sensors are unlikely to utilize these cells since they do not

  10. Analysis of trophic responses in lesioned brain: focus on basic fibroblast growth factor mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The actions of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, particularly the basic form (bFGF, have been described in a large number of cells and include mitogenicity, angiogenicity and wound repair. The present review discusses the presence of the bFGF protein and messenger RNA as well as the presence of the FGF receptor messenger RNA in the rodent brain by means of semiquantitative radioactive in situ hybridization in combination with immunohistochemistry. Chemical and mechanical injuries to the brain trigger a reduction in neurotransmitter synthesis and neuronal death which are accompanied by astroglial reaction. The altered synthesis of bFGF following brain lesions or stimulation was analyzed. Lesions of the central nervous system trigger bFGF gene expression by neurons and/or activated astrocytes, depending on the type of lesion and time post-manipulation. The changes in bFGF messenger RNA are frequently accompanied by a subsequent increase of bFGF immunoreactivity in astrocytes in the lesioned pathway. The reactive astrocytes and injured neurons synthesize increased amount of bFGF, which may act as a paracrine/autocrine factor, protecting neurons from death and also stimulating neuronal plasticity and tissue repair

  11. Persistent Increase in Microglial RAGE Contributes to Chronic Stress-Induced Priming of Depressive-like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Tina C; Wohleb, Eric S; Zhang, Yi; Fogaça, Manoela; Hare, Brendan; Duman, Ronald S

    2018-01-01

    Chronic stress-induced inflammatory responses occur in part via danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules, such as high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), but the receptor(s) underlying DAMP signaling have not been identified. Microglia morphology and DAMP signaling in enriched rat hippocampal microglia were examined during the development and expression of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced behavioral deficits, including long-term, persistent changes after CUS. The results show that CUS promotes significant morphological changes and causes robust upregulation of HMGB1 messenger RNA in enriched hippocampal microglia, an effect that persists for up to 6 weeks after CUS exposure. This coincides with robust and persistent upregulation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) messenger RNA, but not toll-like receptor 4 in hippocampal microglia. CUS also increased surface expression of RAGE protein on hippocampal microglia as determined by flow cytometry and returned to basal levels 5 weeks after CUS. Importantly, exposure to short-term stress was sufficient to increase RAGE surface expression as well as anhedonic behavior, reflecting a primed state that results from a persistent increase in RAGE messenger RNA expression. Further evidence for DAMP signaling in behavioral responses is provided by evidence that HMGB1 infusion into the hippocampus was sufficient to cause anhedonic behavior and by evidence that RAGE knockout mice were resilient to stress-induced anhedonia. Together, the results provide evidence of persistent microglial HMGB1-RAGE expression that increases vulnerability to depressive-like behaviors long after chronic stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Coupling of rates of transcription, translation, and messenger ribonucleic acid degradation in streptomycin-dependent mutants of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R S; Schlessinger, D

    1976-01-01

    The growth rates of streptomycin-dependent mutants varied in proportion to the level of streptomycin supplied; growth also varied characteristically from one dependent strain to another at a given streptomycin concentration. When cells growing at different rates (over a threefold range) were treated with rifampin, direct proportionality was observed for three parameters: (i) the rates of shutoff of transcription of total ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomal RNA, as measured by pulse labeling at later times; (ii) the translation time for molecules of beta-galactosidase; and (iii) the rate of chemical degradation of messenger RNA. In contrast, the rate of functional inactivation of both total and beta-galactosidase messenger RNA was about the same at all growth rates. None of the variations of growth or other parameters were observed in an otherwise isogenic streptomycin-resistant strain treated with streptomycin. Since the mutational change in strd mutants and the site of action of streptomycin are in the 30S ribosomal subunits, it is suggested that the rate of ribosome function is set by the dependent lesion (and the level of streptomycin). One possibility is that the other correlated effects are mechanistically "coupled" to ribosome function, but the apparent coupling could also be an indirect result of differential effects of streptomycin on variables such as ribosomal miscoding and nucleotide pool size. However, since the rate of functional inactivation of messenger RNA is constant even when the RNA is broken down two- to fourfold more slowly, translation yield tends to be proportional to the growth rate of the dependent strains.

  13. Expression of the PPM1F Gene Is Regulated by Stress and Associated With Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Aliza P; Velasco, Eric R; Florido, Antonio; Lori, Adriana; Choi, Dennis C; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J; Andero, Raül

    2018-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying psychological sequelae of exposure to stressful experiences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, are not well understood. Using convergent evidence from animal and human transcriptomic and genomic studies, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms underlying depression and anxiety after traumatic experiences. From a transcriptome-wide analysis in mice, we found the Ppm1f gene to be differentially expressed in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a week after immobilization stress. Next, we found that PPM1F messenger RNA levels in human blood were downregulated in cases with symptoms of comorbid PTSD and depression and consistently in cases with anxiety symptoms in a separate human dataset. Furthermore, we showed that a genetic variant of PPM1F, rs17759843, was associated with comorbid PTSD and depression and with PPM1F expression in both human brain and blood. Given prior reported mechanistic links between PPM1F and CAMK2 (CAMKII), we examined blood messenger RNA level of CAMK2G in humans and found it to be lower in cases with comorbid PTSD and depression. We also found that PPM1F protein levels and colocalization with CAMK2G were altered in amygdala and mPFC of male mice. Additionally, we found that a systemic dose of corticosterone blocked the depressive-like phenotype elicited by stress in female mice. Lastly, corticosterone rescued the anxiety-like phenotype and messenger RNA levels of Ppm1f in amygdala and mPFC in male mice and in mPFC of female mice. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanistic pathway involving PPM1F and CAMK2G in stress- and trauma-related manifestation of anxiety and depression across species. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate induce similar cellular responses in a fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral Nuñez, Camila M; Bosomworth, Helen J; Field, Claire; Whitworth, John M; Valentine, Ruth A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cell viability and messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-6 in 3T3 fibroblast cells when in direct contact with Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur de Fossés, France) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Biodentine and MTA were coated onto coverslips and allowed to set. An uncoated coverslip and one coated with GC Fuji IX (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were used as controls. Coverslips were cultured with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Cell viability was assessed quantitatively using AlamarBlue dye (Serotec, Oxford, UK) after 3, 6, 24, and 72 hours. Morphologic cell changes of 3T3 cells in contact with BD and MTA were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and cytokine expression was assessed at the messenger RNA level by semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction after 3 and 24 hours of direct contact with the materials. Cells in contact with Biodentine and MTA showed similar viability to untreated control cells at all time points, with the exception of 6 hours when viability was decreased with both treatments. Examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed cells adhering to most of the Biodentine surface after 24 hours. However, for MTA samples, significantly fewer cells were observed. The messenger RNA expression of IL-1α and IL-6 by cells in contact with Biodentine was similar to cells in contact with MTA. Biodentine and MTA showed similar cytotoxicity and induced a similar pattern of cytokine expression. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adipose Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α: Direct Role in Obesity-Linked Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to have certain catabolic effects on fat cells and whole animals. An induction of TNF-α messenger RNA expression was observed in adipose tissue from four different rodent models of obesity and diabetes. TNF-α protein was also elevated locally and systemically. Neutralization of TNF-α in obese fa/fa rats caused a significant increase in the peripheral uptake of glucose in response to insulin. These results indicate a role for TNF-α in obesity and particularly in the insulin resistance and diabetes that often accompany obesity.

  16. Abnormalities in structure and expression of the retinoblastoma gene in small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Sorenson, G D; Pettengill, O S

    1990-01-01

    the Rb protein, we investigated the expression of the Mr 110,000-116,000 Rb protein in SCLC tumors grown as xenografts in nude mice and/or as cell lines. Rb messenger RNA expression was determined by Northern blotting, and gross structural gene alterations were investigated by Southern blotting. Tumors...... small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Absence of the 4.7 kilobase mRNA has been found to be frequent in SCLC, and it has been reported that the Rb Mr 110,000-116,000 protein product is always absent, even in tumors expressing Rb mRNA. Using Western blotting technique with a monoclonal antibody directed against...

  17. Protein evolution of Toll-like receptors 4, 5 and 7 within Galloanserae birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, M.; Bainová, H.; Bryja, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 72 (2014), s. 72 ISSN 0999-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1871; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : in-silico identification * ligand-binding domain * leucine-rich repeats * structural basis * positive selection * crystal-structure * messenger-RNA * functional characterization * molecular evolution * maximum-likelihood Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.821, year: 2014 http://www.gsejournal.org/content/46/1/72

  18. Biological assessment of radiation damage of ATP by soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujii, Shin-ichiro; Fujii, Kentaro; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    ATP (Adenosine tri-phosphate), one of ribonucleic acids, acts as an intracellular energy transfer. ATP is used as a substrate to synthesized messenger RNA and as a ligand of inter-cellular signaling. SPring-8 beam line BL23SU can produce high resolution monochromatic soft X-rays. In this study, we analyzed the soft X-ray induced radiation damage of ATP by various biological assessments, such as energy donor activity, genetic information transfer activity and inter-cellular signaling activity. (author)

  19. Ataxia, Dementia, and Hypogonadotropism Caused by Disordered Ubiquitination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margolin, David H.; Kousi, Maria; Chan, Yee-Ming

    2013-01-01

    affected patients. Neurologic and reproductive endocrine phenotypes were characterized in detail. The effects of sequence variants and the presence of an epistatic interaction were tested in a zebrafish model. RESULTS Digenic homozygous mutations in RNF216 and OTUD4, which encode a ubiquitin E3 ligase...... in zebrafish embryos induced defects in the eye, optic tectum, and cerebellum; combinatorial suppression of both genes exacerbated these phenotypes, which were rescued by nonmutant, but not mutant, human RNF216 or OTUD4 messenger RNA. All patients had progressive ataxia and dementia. Neuronal loss was observed...

  20. Structural and functional characterization of the yeast Ski2-Ski3-Ski8 complex

    OpenAIRE

    Halbach, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The Ski2-Ski3-Ski8 (SKI) complex is a conserved multi-protein assembly required for the cytoplasmic functions of the exosome, including messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover, surveillance and interference. The helicase Ski2, the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein Ski3 and the �-propeller Ski8 assemble in a heterotetramer with 1:1:2 stoichiometry. While the function of the Ski2-Ski3-Ski8 complex as a general cofactor of the cytoplasmic exosome has been well established, it remains largely uncle...

  1. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C.; Teichmann, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may......, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked...

  2. Central dogma at the single-molecule level in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gene-Wei; Xie, X Sunney

    2011-07-20

    Gene expression originates from individual DNA molecules within living cells. Like many single-molecule processes, gene expression and regulation are stochastic, that is, sporadic in time. This leads to heterogeneity in the messenger-RNA and protein copy numbers in a population of cells with identical genomes. With advanced single-cell fluorescence microscopy, it is now possible to quantify transcriptomes and proteomes with single-molecule sensitivity. Dynamic processes such as transcription-factor binding, transcription and translation can be monitored in real time, providing quantitative descriptions of the central dogma of molecular biology and the demonstration that a stochastic single-molecule event can determine the phenotype of a cell.

  3. A minimum structure of aminoglycosides that causes an initiation shift of trans-translation

    OpenAIRE

    Konno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2004-01-01

    Trans-translation is an unusual translation in which transfer-messenger RNA plays a dual function—as a tRNA and an mRNA—to relieve the stalled translation on the ribosome. It has been shown that paromomycin, a typical member of a 4,5-disubstituted class of aminoglycosides, causes a shift of the translation-resuming point on the tmRNA by −1 during trans-translation. To address the molecular basis of this novel effect, we examined the effects of various aminoglycosides that can bind around the ...

  4. Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plants: In Vivo Functions of RNA-Binding Proteins Implicated in the Splicing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher plants emerges as an important layer of regulation upon exposure to exogenous and endogenous cues. Accordingly, mutants defective in RNA-binding proteins predicted to function in the splicing process show severe phenotypic alterations. Among those are developmental defects, impaired responses to pathogen threat or abiotic stress factors, and misregulation of the circadian timing system. A suite of splicing factors has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we summarize recent insights on how defects in these splicing factors impair plant performance.

  5. RNAi-mediated Therapy & Preliminary Data on the Role of TGIF in Hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, Anton

    the Mixed lineage leukaemia gene (MLL) and AF9. Oncogenic fusion proteins provide an obvious target for RNAi-mediated intervention, i.e. the fusion point. Ideally, shRNAs (small hairpin RNAs) should be able to target the fusion point of the messenger RNA encoding the fusion protein in a highly specific...... and induction of differentiation in vitro, and prolonged the survival of mice transplanted with transduced MLL-AF9 cells. In principle this demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi-mediated knock-down of the MLL-AF9 fusion protein using shRNAs delivered by retroviral vectors. The CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein alpha...

  6. Structural basis for the function of DEAH helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yangzi; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Nielsen, Klaus Hvid

    2010-01-01

    DEAH helicases participate in pre‐messenger RNA splicing and ribosome biogenesis. The structure of yeast Prp43p‐ADP reveals the homology of DEAH helicases to DNA helicases and the presence of an oligonucleotide‐binding motif. A β‐hairpin from the second RecA domain is wedged between two carboxy......‐terminal domains and blocks access to the occluded RNA binding site formed by the RecA domains and a C‐terminal domain. ATP binding and hydrolysis are likely to induce conformational changes in the hairpin that are important for RNA unwinding or ribonucleoprotein remodelling. The structure of Prp43p provides...

  7. Transcript profiling in the barley mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen W; Glaring, Mikkel A; Rasmussen, Søren W; Kinane, Julia T; Oliver, Richard P

    2002-08-01

    The fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei develops on the barley leaf via distinct, morphologically well-defined stages. After landing on a host plant, the conidia rapidly germinate to form a primary germ tube. Subsequently, an appressorial germ tube emerges from the conidium and differentiates an appressorium from which penetration of the host cell wall is attempted. We have used serial analysis of gene expression to provide a measurement of messenger RNA contents in ungerminated conidia, during conidial germination, and during appressorium formation. The resulting data provide a resource for the characterization of changes in transcript accumulation during early development of B. graminis.

  8. Cloning of a Gene Whose Expression is Increased in Scrapie and in Senile Plaques in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietgrefe, S.; Zupancic, M.; Haase, A.; Chesebro, B.; Race, R.; Frey, W.; Rustan, T.; Friedman, R. L.

    1985-12-01

    A complementary DNA library was constructed from messenger RNA's extracted from the brains of mice infected with the scrapie agent. The library was differentially screened with the objectives of finding clones that might be used as markers of infection and finding clones of genes whose increased expression might be correlated with the pathological changes common to scrapie and Alzheimer's disease. A gene was identified whose expression is increased in scrapie. The complementary DNA corresponding to this gene hybridized preferentially and focally to cells in the brains of scrapie-infected animals. The cloned DNA also hybridized to the neuritic plaques found with increased frequency in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  9. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  10. Development of one control and one tumor-specific induced pluripotent stem cell line from laryngeal carcinoma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin fibroblasts and tumor fibroblasts were extracted from a 64-year old male patient clinically diagnosed with laryngeal carcinoma. Control and tumor specific induced pluripotent stem cells were reprogrammed with 5 reprogramming factors, Klf-4, c-Myc, Oct-4, Sox-2, and Lin-28, using the messenger RNA reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC lines showed pluripotency, confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. The iPSC lines also showed normal karyotype, and could form embryoid bodies in vitro and differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. This in vitro cellular model can be used to study the oncogenesis and pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma.

  11. Chondrogenesis of adipose-derived adult stem cells in a poly-lactide-co-glycolide scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Zwingmann, Jorn; Finkenzeller, Guenter

    2009-01-01

    combined immunodeficiency mice and harvested after 8 weeks. Chondrospecific messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Corresponding extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining. Chondrospecific marker...... implantation in a subcutaneous pocket of nude mice. Human ASCs were seeded into PLGA (polylactic acid:polyglycolic acid = 90:10) scaffolds and cultured in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1)-containing medium for 3 weeks in vitro. Then specimens were implanted into a subcutaneous pocket of severe...

  12. An mRNA is capped by a 2', 5' lariat catalyzed by a group I-like ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Westhof, Eric; Johansen, Steinar

    2005-01-01

    Twin-ribozyme introns are formed by two ribozymes belonging to the group I family and occur in some ribosomal RNA transcripts. The group I-like ribozyme, GIR1, liberates the 5' end of a homing endonuclease messenger RNA in the slime mold Didymium iridis. We demonstrate that this cleavage occurs...... by a transesterification reaction with the joining of the first and the third nucleotide of the messenger by a 2',5'-phosphodiester linkage. Thus, a group I-like ribozyme catalyzes an RNA branching reaction similar to the first step of splicing in group II introns and spliceosomal introns. The resulting short lariat...

  13. Alteration in the expression of MGMT and RUNX3 due to non-CpG promoter methylation and their correlation with different risk factors in esophageal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Snigdha; Rehman, Asad Ur; Barooah, Prajjalendra; Sarmah, Preeti; Bhattacharyya, Mallika; Deka, Muktanjalee; Deka, Manab; Goswami, Bhabadev; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Medhi, Subhash

    2017-05-01

    Promoter methylation reflects in the inactivation of different genes like O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase DNA repair gene and runt-related transcription factor 3, a known tumor suppressor gene in various cancers such as esophageal cancer. The promoter methylation was evaluated for O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and runt-related transcription factor 3 in CpG, CHH, and CHG context (where H is A, T, or C) by next-generation sequencing. The methylation status was correlated with quantitative messenger RNA expression. In addition, messenger RNA expression was correlated with different risk factors like tobacco, alcohol, betel nut consumption, and smoking habit. CpG methylation of O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter had a positive association in the development of esophageal cancer (p CHH, and CHG were significantly correlated with O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (p CHH (p CHH methylation in O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, whereas outcome of CHG and CHH methylation in runt-related transcription factor 3 promoters along with risk factors such as consumption of tobacco, betel nut, and smoking habits in esophageal cancer from Northeast India.

  14. Tumor-specific RNA interference targeting Pokemon suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yining; Xu, Shuxiong; Wang, Xiangwei; Shi, Hua; Sun, Zhaolin; Yang, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    To explore the exact mechanism of Pokemon in prostate cancer. Pokemon is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Its main function is suppression of the p14ARF (alternate reading frame) tumor suppressor gene. Although Pokemon expression has been found to be increased in various types of lymphoma, the exact mechanism of the gene in prostate cancer is not clear. In the present study, prostate cancer cells were transfected with the specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression vector targeting Pokemon. The expression of Pokemon messenger RNA and its protein was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cell growth and cell apoptosis were also examined using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that specific RNA interference (RNAi) could decrease the expression levels of Pokemon gene messenger RNA and protein in prostate cancer cells. In addition, that specific RNAi significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate. In vivo experiments showed that specific RNAi inhibited the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells and significantly suppressed tumor growth. Therefore, an RNAi-targeted Pokemon gene strategy could be a potential approach to prostate cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of the tobacco mosaic virus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Meshi, T; Okada, Y; Otsuki, Y; Takebe, I

    1981-07-01

    The initiation site for reconstitution on genome RNA was determined by electron microscopic serology for a watermelon strain of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-W), which is chemically and serologically related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The initiation site was located at the same position as that of the cowpea strain, a virus that produces short rods of encapsidated subgenomic messenger RNA for the coat protein (a two-component TMV), being about 320 nucleotides away from the 3' terminus, and hence within the coat protein cistron. Although CGMMV-W was until now believed to be a single-component TMV, the location of the initiation site indicated the presence of short rods containing coat protein messenger RNA in CGMMV-W-infected tissue, as in the case for the cowpea strain. We found such short rods in CGMMV-W-infected tissue. The results confirmed our previous hypothesis that the site of the initiation region for reconstitution determines the rod multiplicity of TMV. The finding of the second two-component TMV, CGMMV, indicates that the cowpea strain of TMV is not unique in being a two-component virus and that the location of the assembly initiation site on the genome RNA can be a criterion for grouping of viruses.

  16. Different expression of PGE synthase, PGF receptor, TNF, Fas and oxytocin in the bovine corpus luteum of the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumoto, R; Hayashi, K-G; Takahashi, T

    2014-04-01

    Functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy and CL of the cycle in cows were examined. Messenger RNA and protein levels of prostaglandin (PG) E synthase (PGES), PGF2α receptor (PGFR), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and Fas were found to be higher in the CL of pregnancy than in CL of the cycle. Oxytocin (OT) mRNA and protein levels were lower in the CL of pregnancy. Messenger RNA levels of progesterone receptor (PR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), PGE2 receptor (PGER), PGF synthase (PGFS), TNF receptor type I (TNFRI) and TNF receptor type II (TNFRII) did not differ between the cycle and pregnancy. PGE2 and PGF2α production by cultured bovine endometrial tissues was decreased by a supernatant derived from the homogenized CL of pregnancy but not by that of the CL of the cycle, suggesting that specific substances in the CL of pregnancy affect endometrial PG production in cows. Collectively, PGES, PGFR, TNF, Fas or OT may contribute to differences between the CL of pregnancy and CL of the estrous cycle in cows. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zheng; Zhang, Xin-Guang; Wu, Jie; Xu, Wan-Chao; Li, Li-Qing; Liu, Fei; Yu, Jian-Er

    2016-06-01

    Asthma, a complex highly prevalent airway disease, is a major public health problem for which current treatment options are inadequate. To evaluate the antiasthma activity of geraniol and investigate its underlying molecular mechanisms. In a standard experimental asthma model, Balb/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin, treated with geraniol (100 or 200 mg/kg) or a vehicle control, during ovalbumin challenge. Treatment of ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged mice with geraniol significantly decreased airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine. Geraniol treatment reduced eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and attenuated infiltration of eosinophils induced by ovalbumin. Geraniol treatment reduced TH2 cytokines (including interleukins 4, 5, and 13), increased TH1 cytokine interferon γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced ovalbumin-specific IgE in serum. In addition, treatment of ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged mice with geraniol enhanced T-bet (TH1 response) messenger RNA expression and reduced GATA-3 (TH2 response) messenger RNA expression in lungs. Furthermore, treatment of ovalbumin -sensitized/challenged mice with geraniol further enhanced Nrf2 protein expression and activated Nrf2-directed antioxidant pathways, such as glutamate-cysteine ligase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase, and enhanced formation of reduced glutathione and reduced formation of malondialdehyde in lungs. Geraniol attenuated important features of allergic asthma in mice, possibly through the modulation of TH1/TH2 balance and activation the of Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A structural basis for streptomycin-induced misreading of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hasan; Murphy, Frank; Murphy, Eileen; Gregory, Steven T; Dahlberg, Albert E; Jogl, Gerwald

    2013-01-01

    During protein synthesis, the ribosome selects aminoacyl-transfer RNAs with anticodons matching the messenger RNA codon present in the A site of the small ribosomal subunit. The aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin disrupts decoding by binding close to the site of codon recognition. Here we use X-ray crystallography to define the impact of streptomycin on the decoding site of the Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit in complexes with cognate or near-cognate anticodon stem-loop analogues and messenger RNA. Our crystal structures display a significant local distortion of 16S ribosomal RNA induced by streptomycin, including the crucial bases A1492 and A1493 that participate directly in codon recognition. Consistent with kinetic data, we observe that streptomycin stabilizes the near-cognate anticodon stem-loop analogue complex, while destabilizing the cognate anticodon stem-loop analogue complex. These data reveal how streptomycin disrupts the recognition of cognate anticodon stem-loop analogues and yet improves recognition of a near-cognate anticodon stem-loop analogue.

  19. Salivary Interleukine 6 and its role on developing periodentitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Mohammed Juda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is biologically active small protein molecules known as cytokines .These cytokines are produced by leukocytes, adipocytes, and endothelial cells, and it is involved mainly in inflammatory processes. IL-6 has a role in stimulating the immune response as trigger to infection or trauma through the production of acute-phase proteins that accompany the inflammatory process. IL-6 synthesized according to code from messenger RNA, so their production in tissue in responce of inflammation are increased by the action of increasing expression of its own specific messenger RNA and the expression levels of the mRNAs were either up- or down-regulated by adjacent focal infiltrating lymphoid cells according to the state of periodontal in health and disease so the local concentration of cytokines reflect the state of inflammatory process under control at nuclear level. The aim of study is to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine that associated the process of periodentitis Methods: Salivary specimens were obtained from patients having chronic periodentitis and healthy subject act as control group. The assessment of IL6 concentrations were established by technique enzyme linked immunoassay. . Results: level of IL-6 in saliva sample after evaluation the result showed statistically significant difference between patients and control . Conclusions: The result obtained from this study revealed that estimated salivary IL 6 can be used in management protocol of process of periodentitis

  20. Aromatase inhibitor treatment limits progression of peritoneal endometriosis in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langoi, David; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Gurates, Bilgin; Chai, Daniel; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Bulun, Serdar E

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effect of inhibiting aromatase activity on endometrial lesion growth and aromatase expression in a baboon model of induced endometriosis. Prospective study. Primate research institute. Sixteen olive baboons. Sixteen olive baboons with induced endometriosis were examined with laparoscopy 10 months after disease inoculation. Animals in group 1 (n = 10) were treated with 1.25 mg/d of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole, and animals in group 2 (n = 6) were given a placebo for a total of 6 months. Total number of endometriotic lesions, morphology, and volume of lesions, as well as semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for levels of aromatase cytochrome messenger RNA were measured. Ovarian volumes were evaluated before treatment initiation and every 2 months during the study. Treatment of group 1 animals with an AI significantly decreased lesion volume from baseline measurements, whereas the placebo-treated animals showed an increase in lesion volume. Aromatase messenger RNA levels in lesions in the AI-treated animals were significantly lower compared with the placebo-treated animals. Ovarian volumes were significantly increased at 6 months of AI treatment compared with pretreatment volumes. These findings suggest that suppression of aromatase cytochrome P450 may inhibit the in vivo growth of endometriotic lesions in baboons. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro effects of Beta-2 agonists on skeletal muscle differentiation, hypertrophy, and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannenes, Francesca; Magni, Loretta; Bonini, Matteo; Dimauro, Ivan; Caporossi, Daniela; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    : Beta-2 agonists are widely used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for their effect on airway smooth muscle relaxation. They also act on skeletal muscle, although their reported ergogenic effect is controversial. : To evaluate the in vitro effects of short-acting and long-acting beta-2 agonists on adrenergic receptor (ADR) expression, hypertrophy, and atrophy markers, in a skeletal muscle cell line. : The C2C12 cell line was used as a model of skeletal muscle differentiation. ADR messenger RNA expression was evaluated in proliferating myoblasts, committed cells, and differentiated myotubes, in basal conditions and after treatment with 10 M clenbuterol, salbutamol, salmeterol, and formoterol. Effect of beta-2 agonists on gene and protein expression of hypertrophy and atrophy markers was assessed in differentiated myotubes. : Our study shows that beta-2 ADR messenger RNA was expressed and progressively increased during cell differentiation. Beta-2 agonist treatment did not affect its expression. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy markers (fast and slow myosin, myogenin) were not modulated by any of the beta-2 agonists evaluated. However, clenbuterol induced a significant, dose-dependent downregulation of skeletal muscle atrophy genes (atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and cathepsin L). : The reported ergogenic effect of beta-2 agonists, if any, should be considered as drug-specific and not class-specific and that of clenbuterol is mediated by the inhibition of the atrophic pathway.

  2. Alpha-defensin overexpression in patients with Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Yasushi; Oridate, Nobuhiko; Takeichi, Norihito; Fukuda, Satoshi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the biological factors related to the onset of Bell's palsy, we sought to identify differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma of patients with Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). We carried out DNA microarray analyses using PBMCs taken from patients with Bell's palsy at their initial visit and 2 to 4 weeks later. To validate these analyses, we measured the relative messenger RNA levels of alpha-defensin in paired PBMCs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The plasma concentrations of alpha-defensin in patients and healthy volunteers were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The DNA microarray analysis identified alpha-defensin as a candidate gene related to the onset of Bell's palsy. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative alpha-defensin messenger RNA levels in PBMCs from the later visit were increased at least twofold in 9 of 13 patients (69%) with Bell's palsy and in 4 of 6 patients (67%) with RHS. The plasma alpha-defensin concentrations in the patients with RHS were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers (p = 0.0013) and in the patients with Bell's palsy (p = 0.0306). Elevations of plasma alpha-defensin were observed in 5 of the 9 patients with Bell's palsy who demonstrated alpha-defensin overexpression in PBMCs. alpha-Defensin may be one of the biological factors related to the onset of Bell's palsy and RHS.

  3. Genetic mechanism associated with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and analysis of effects of the infection on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J M; Zhang, H F; Zhang, X Q; Huang, G L; Huang, H Z; Yu, W W

    2015-10-27

    We aimed to compare the diagnostic value of various detection methods for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, to investigate the genetic mechanism associated with CMV infection in pregnant women, and to analyze the risk of sequelae development in fetuses with CMV infection. A total of 300 participants who had the same immunosuppressive regimen and received preemptive therapy for CMV infection were prospectively enrolled in this study; they included 289 vaccine trial participants. The gB-absorbed CMV IgG assay was performed for each vaccine trial participant. The healthy women were divided into 2 groups, and amniotic fluids were collected from them at 15-18 weeks of gestation to test for CMV seropositivity before conception by using IgM specific antibodies, CMV-DNA, and IgG analysis. In 104 cases, cord blood sera and urine specimens were also collected from the infants and examined. The sensitivity and specificity of immediate-early messenger RNA and pp67 (late) messenger RNA detection by the nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique was comparable to those of virus isolation and PCR. Furthermore, an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR-2 gene and congenital CMV infection was observed and confirmed. Moreover, CMV infection during early pregnancy has been shown to have a much more severe effect on the pregnancy outcome compared to infection during later stages of pregnancy.

  4. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of cat and dog Cdkal1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ichiro Yamamoto, Shingo Ishikawa, Li Gebin, Hiroshi Takemitsu, Megumi Fujiwara, Nobuko Mori, Yutaka Hatano, Tomoko Suzuki, Akihiro Mori, Nobuhiro Nakao, Koh Kawasumi, Toshinori Sako, Toshiro AraiLaboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit–associated protein 1–like 1 (CDKAL1 gene encodes methylthiotransferase, and the gene contains risk variants for type 2 diabetes in humans. In this study, we performed complementary DNA cloning for Cdkal1 in the cat and dog and characterized the tissue expression profiles of its messenger RNA. Cat and dog Cdkal1 complementary DNA encoded 576 and 578 amino acids, showing very high sequence homology to mammalian CDKAL1 (>88.4%. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Cdkal1 messenger RNA is highly expressed in smooth muscle and that tissue distribution of Cdkal1 is similar in cats and dogs. Genotyping analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism for cat Cdkal1 revealed that obese cats had different tendencies from normal cats. These findings suggest that the cat and dog Cdkal1 gene is highly conserved among mammals and that cat Cdkal1 may be a candidate marker for genetic diagnosis of obesity.Keywords: cat, dog, Cdkal1, obese, cDNA cloning, Q-PCR

  5. The potential role of suppressors of cytokine signaling in the attenuation of inflammatory reaction and alveolar bone loss associated with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Renato; Garlet, Thiago Pompermaier; Trombone, Ana Paula Fávaro; Repeke, Carlos Eduardo; Letra, Ariadne; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2008-12-01

    Inflammatory cytokines contribute to periapical tissue destruction. Their activity is potentially regulated by suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), which downregulate signal transduction as part of an inhibitory feedback loop. We investigated the expression of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha); interleukin (IL)-10 and RANKL; and SOCS-1, -2, and -3 by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 57 periapical granulomas and 38 healthy periapical tissues. Periapical granulomas exhibited significantly higher SOCS-1, -2, and -3, TNF-alpha, IL-10, and RANKL messenger RNA levels when compared with healthy controls. Significant positive correlations were found between SOCS1 and IL-10 and between SOCS3 and IL-10. Significant inverse correlations were observed between SOCS1 and TNF-alpha, SOCS1 and RANKL, and SOCS3 and TNF-alpha. Increased SOCS-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA levels in periapical granulomas may be related to the downregulation of inflammatory cytokines in these lesions; therefore, SOCS molecules may play a role in the dynamics of periapical granulomas development.

  6. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. CXC chemokine ligand 16 is increased in gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia and associated with lipoproteins in gestational diabetes mellitus at 5 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekva, Tove; Michelsen, Annika E; Aukrust, Pål; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Henriksen, Tore; Bollerslev, Jens; Ueland, Thor

    2017-11-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between CXC chemokine ligand 16 and indices of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. This sub-study of the population-based prospective cohort included 310 women. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed during pregnancy and 5 years later along with lipid analysis. CXC chemokine ligand 16 was measured in plasma (protein) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (messenger RNA) during pregnancy and at follow-up. Circulating CXC chemokine ligand 16 was higher in gestational diabetes mellitus women early in pregnancy and at follow-up, while higher in preeclampsia women late in pregnancy compared to control women. Messenger RNA of CXC chemokine ligand 16 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were lower in gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia women compared to control women. Increased circulating CXC chemokine ligand 16 level was associated with a higher apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in gestational diabetes mellitus women but not in normal pregnancy at follow-up. Our study shows that women with gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia had a dysregulated CXC chemokine ligand 16 during pregnancy, and in gestational diabetes mellitus, the increase in CXC chemokine ligand 16 early in pregnancy and after 5 years was strongly associated with their lipid profile.

  8. Matrix Metallopeptidase 14 Plays an Important Role in Regulating Tumorigenic Gene Expression and Invasion Ability of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Hui; Wang, Juan-Juan; Li, Min; Zheng, Han-Xi; Xu, Lan; Chen, You-Guo

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional effect of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14) on cell invasion in cervical cancer cells (HeLa line) and to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. Expression vector of short hairpin RNA targeting MMP14 was treated in HeLa cells, and then, transfection efficiency was verified by a florescence microscope. Transwell assay was used to investigate cell invasion ability in HeLa cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis were used to detect the expression of MMP14 and relative factors in messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 short hairpin RNA expression vector transfection obviously decreased MMP14 expression in messenger RNA and protein levels. Down-regulation of MMP14 suppressed invasion ability of HeLa cells and reduced transforming growth factor β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor B expressions. Furthermore, MMP14 knockdown decreased bone sialoprotein and enhanced forkhead box protein L2 expression in both RNA and protein levels. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 plays an important role in regulating invasion of HeLa cells. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 knockdown contributes to attenuating the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cell.

  9. DBIRD complex integrates alternative mRNA splicing with RNA polymerase II transcript elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Close, Pierre; East, Philip; Dirac-Svejstrup, A Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Alternative messenger RNA splicing is the main reason that vast mammalian proteomic complexity can be achieved with a limited number of genes. Splicing is physically and functionally coupled to transcription, and is greatly affected by the rate of transcript elongation. As the nascent pre-mRNA em...... elongation, particularly across areas encompassing affected exons. Together, these data indicate that the DBIRD complex acts at the interface between mRNP particles and RNAPII, integrating transcript elongation with the regulation of alternative splicing.......Alternative messenger RNA splicing is the main reason that vast mammalian proteomic complexity can be achieved with a limited number of genes. Splicing is physically and functionally coupled to transcription, and is greatly affected by the rate of transcript elongation. As the nascent pre...... and help to integrate transcript elongation with mRNA splicing remain unclear. Here we characterize the human interactome of chromatin-associated mRNP particles. This led us to identify deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) and ZNF326 (which we call ZNF-protein interacting with nuclear mRNPs and DBC1 (ZIRD...

  10. Expression of P450c17 messenger ribonucleic acid in postmenopausal human ovary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, M; Puche, C; Cabero, A; Cabero, L; Meseguer, A

    1999-03-01

    To investigate the expression of the P450c17 gene in postmenopausal human ovaries compared with normal cycling ovaries. Prospective nonrandomized clinical research study. Servei de Medicina Reproductiva and Centre d'Investigacions en Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Hospitals Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. Six premenopausal women and four postmenopausal women undergoing bilateral oophorectomy for nonovarian gynecologic disease. Extraction of 10 mL of peripheral venous blood for hormone measurements. Extraction of RNA from surgically removed ovaries for Northern blot, ribonuclease protection, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Southern blot assays. Definition of the reproductive cycle state of each patient and determination of the level of P450c17 gene expression in all samples with the use of the semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Southern blot assay. P450c17 messenger RNA levels in postmenopausal ovaries varied considerably between samples. Although the levels were similar to those detected in the early follicular phase, one of the samples had levels as high as those observed in the late follicular phase. Although the degree varied from one sample to another, all the postmenopausal ovaries studied expressed the P450c17 gene at the messenger RNA level. In a sample from a patient with endometrial adenocarcinoma, the level was as high as the levels observed in the late follicular phase.

  11. Molecular analysis of manufactured gas plant soils for naphthalene mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanseverino, J.; Werner, C.; Fleming, J.; Applegate, B.M.; King, J.M.H.; Sayler, G.S.; Blackburn, J.

    1991-01-01

    New molecular tools are being developed and tested to ascertain the biodegradability of hazardous wastes by soil bacterial population. The potential for manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil bacterial populations to degrade naphthalene, as a component mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, was evaluated by the detection of a naphthalene biodegradative genotype by DNA probe hybridization with DNA extracts and colonies of cultured bacteria of the MGP soils. The activity of the naphthalene-degrading populations was evaluated by mineralization assays, 14 CO 2 production from 14 C-naphthalene. Direct messenger RNA (mRNA) extraction from MGP soil was evaluated as an instantaneous measure of naphthalene catabolic gene expression in MGP soil. The bioavailability of naphthalene for bacterial degradation within the MGP soils was assessed by measuring the bioluminescent response of a naphthalene-lux catabolic reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 (pUTK21). DNA extracted from 5 MGP soils and 1 creosote-contaminated soil and hybridized with a nahA gene probe indicated that the naphthalene degradative genes were present in all samples in the range of 0.06 to 0.95 ng/100 μl DNA extract which was calculated to represent 3.58 x 10 8 to 1.05 x 10 10 nahA positive cells/g soil. Phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo(a)pyrene were mineralized also by some of the soils. NAH7 homologous messenger RNA transcripts were detectable in one MGP soil and in the creosote-contaminated soil

  12. PDGFRα promoter polymorphisms and expression patterns influence risk of development of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia in chronic myeloid leukemia: A study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guru, Sameer Ahmad; Mir, Rashid; Bhat, Musadiq; Najar, Imtiyaz; Zuberi, Mariyam; Sumi, Mamta; Masroor, Mirza; Gupta, Naresh; Saxena, Alpana

    2017-10-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor has been implicated in many malignant and non-malignant diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α is a tyrosine kinase and a side target for imatinib, a revolutionary drug for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia that has dramatically improved the survival of chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Given the importance of platelet-derived growth factor receptor in platelet development and its inhibition by imatinib, it was intriguing to analyze the role of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α in relation to imatinib treatment in the development of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. We hypothesized that two known functional polymorphisms, +68GA insertion/deletion and -909C/A, in the promoter region of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α gene may affect the susceptibility of chronic myeloid leukemia patients receiving imatinib treatment to the development of thrombocytopenia. A case-control study was conducted among a cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia patients admitted to the Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India. A set of 100 patients of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. After initiation of imatinib treatment, the hematological response of chronic myeloid leukemia patients was monitored regularly for 2 years, in which the development of thrombocytopenia was the primary end point. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α promoter polymorphisms +68GA ins/del and -909C/A were studied by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The messenger RNA expression results were expressed as 2 -Δct ± standard deviation. The distribution of +68GA ins/del promoter polymorphism genotypes differed significantly between the thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic chronic

  13. Detection of oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in breast tumors by semiquantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, T; Zickl, M; Dobianer, K; Hruza, C; Czerwenka, K; Spona, J

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of oestrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PgR) by dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) or immunohistochemical methods have become standard practices in the management of breast cancer. A "multiplex" polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for quantitative estimation of ER and PgR mRNA in breast tumour specimens. A statistically significant correlation could be found between the mRNA of the oestrogen and the progesterone receptor (p < or = 0.0001). Protein data defined in classes, compared with mRNA data showed a significant correlation for the oestrogen receptor (p < or = 0.0001) as well as for the progesterone receptor (p < or = 0.046). Messenger RNA could be determined by the present PCR system in tumours assayed as negative by DCC method. Therefore, this sensitive PCR procedure, which requires small amounts of material may be very useful as a diagnostic test to determine the choice of therapy.

  14. Finding Order in Randomness: Single-Molecule Studies Reveal Stochastic RNA Processing | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing a functional eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) requires the coordinated activity of several large protein complexes to initiate transcription, elongate nascent transcripts, splice together exons, and cleave and polyadenylate the 3’ end. Kinetic competition between these various processes has been proposed to regulate mRNA maturation, but this model could lead to multiple, randomly determined, or stochastic, pathways or outcomes. Regulatory checkpoints have been suggested as a means of ensuring quality control. However, current methods have been unable to tease apart the contributions of these processes at a single gene or on a time scale that could provide mechanistic insight. To begin to investigate the kinetic relationship between transcription and splicing, Daniel Larson, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleagues employed a single-molecule RNA imaging approach to monitor production and processing of a human β-globin reporter gene in living cells.

  15. Biological mechanisms, one molecule at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Ruben L.

    2011-01-01

    The last 15 years have witnessed the development of tools that allow the observation and manipulation of single molecules. The rapidly expanding application of these technologies for investigating biological systems of ever-increasing complexity is revolutionizing our ability to probe the mechanisms of biological reactions. Here, we compare the mechanistic information available from single-molecule experiments with the information typically obtained from ensemble studies and show how these two experimental approaches interface with each other. We next present a basic overview of the toolkit for observing and manipulating biology one molecule at a time. We close by presenting a case study demonstrating the impact that single-molecule approaches have had on our understanding of one of life's most fundamental biochemical reactions: the translation of a messenger RNA into its encoded protein by the ribosome. PMID:21685361

  16. Tissue Restricted Splice Junctions Originate Not Only from Tissue-Specific Gene Loci, but Gene Loci with a Broad Pattern of Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Hestand

    Full Text Available Cellular mechanisms that achieve protein diversity in eukaryotes are multifaceted, including transcriptional components such as RNA splicing. Through alternative splicing, a single protein-coding gene can generate multiple mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms, some of which are tissue-specific. We have conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses of the Bodymap 2.0 messenger RNA-sequencing data from 16 human tissue samples and identified 209,363 splice junctions. Of these, 22,231 (10.6% were not previously annotated and 21,650 (10.3% were expressed in a tissue-restricted pattern. Tissue-restricted alternative splicing was found to be widespread, with approximately 65% of expressed multi-exon genes containing at least one tissue-specific splice junction. Interestingly, we observed many tissue-specific splice junctions not only in genes expressed in one or a few tissues, but also from gene loci with a broad pattern of expression.

  17. Focal cerebral ischemia induces increased myelin basic protein and growth-associated protein-43 gene transcription in peri-infarct areas in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, R; Christensen, Thomas; Lehrmann, E

    2001-01-01

    Although oligodendrocytes are vulnerable to focal cerebral ischemia, remyelination of denuded or regenerating axons in the peri-infarct area has been observed in the central nervous system. We studied the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), a major component of central nervous system myelin...... messenger RNA (mRNA) had disappeared by 24 h, whereas myelin protein, identified by MBP and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunohistochemistry, appeared structurally intact until day 3. Peri-infarct oligodendrocytes increased their expression of MBP mRNA from 24 h to maximal levels at day 7...... showed that increased expression of GAP-43 mRNA in neurons was concomitant to MBP mRNA upregulation in oligodendrocytes. While the mechanisms regulating oligodendrocyte survival and myelination signals are not clear at this point, axonal sprouting could putatively serve as a stimulus for the upregulation...

  18. Schistosome-derived omega-1 drives Th2 polarization by suppressing protein synthesis following internalization by the mannose receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Bart; Hussaarts, Leonie; Driessen, Nicole N.; Meevissen, Moniek H.J.; Schramm, Gabriele; van der Ham, Alwin J.; van der Hoeven, Barbara; Scholzen, Thomas; Burgdorf, Sven; Mohrs, Markus; Pearce, Edward J.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Haas, Helmut; Smits, Hermelijn H.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-1, a glycosylated T2 ribonuclease (RNase) secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs and abundantly present in soluble egg antigen, has recently been shown to condition dendritic cells (DCs) to prime Th2 responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We show in this study by site-directed mutagenesis of omega-1 that both the glycosylation and the RNase activity are essential to condition DCs for Th2 polarization. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that omega-1 is bound and internalized via its glycans by the mannose receptor (MR) and subsequently impairs protein synthesis by degrading both ribosomal and messenger RNA. These experiments reveal an unrecognized pathway involving MR and interference with protein synthesis that conditions DCs for Th2 priming. PMID:22966004

  19. No effect of escitalopram versus placebo on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Soendergaard, Mia H Greisen

    2016-01-01

    with a family history of depression. METHODS: We measured changes in BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and whole-blood BDNF levels in 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. RESULTS: We found...... no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group in the change in BDNF mRNA expression and whole-blood BDNF levels. Post hoc analyses showed a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma escitalopram concentration and change in whole-blood BDNF levels...... in the escitalopram-treated group. CONCLUSION: The results of this randomised trial suggest that escitalopram 10 mg has no effect on peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals....

  20. Alternative polyadenylation of tumor suppressor genes in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders Aagaard; Plass, Mireya; Døssing, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The tumorigenesis of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is poorly understood. Recent studies have associated alternative polyadenylation (APA) with proliferation, cell transformation, and cancer. Polyadenylation is the process in which the pre-messenger RNA is cleaved at a polyA site...... and a polyA tail is added. Genes with two or more polyA sites can undergo APA. This produces two or more distinct mRNA isoforms with different 3' untranslated regions. Additionally, APA can also produce mRNAs containing different 3'-terminal coding regions. Therefore, APA alters both the repertoire...... and the expression level of proteins. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing data to map polyA sites and characterize polyadenylation genome-wide in three SI-NETs and a reference sample. In the tumors, 16 genes showed significant changes of APA pattern, which lead to either the 3' truncation of mRNA coding regions...

  1. Nascent RNA sequencing reveals widespread pausing and divergent initiation at human promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Leighton J; Waterfall, Joshua J; Lis, John T

    2008-12-19

    RNA polymerases are highly regulated molecular machines. We present a method (global run-on sequencing, GRO-seq) that maps the position, amount, and orientation of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases genome-wide. In this method, nuclear run-on RNA molecules are subjected to large-scale parallel sequencing and mapped to the genome. We show that peaks of promoter-proximal polymerase reside on approximately 30% of human genes, transcription extends beyond pre-messenger RNA 3' cleavage, and antisense transcription is prevalent. Additionally, most promoters have an engaged polymerase upstream and in an orientation opposite to the annotated gene. This divergent polymerase is associated with active genes but does not elongate effectively beyond the promoter. These results imply that the interplay between polymerases and regulators over broad promoter regions dictates the orientation and efficiency of productive transcription.

  2. Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, P; Judge, M E; Thim, L; Ribel, U; Christjansen, K N; Wulff, B S; Clausen, J T; Jensen, P B; Madsen, O D; Vrang, N; Larsen, P J; Hastrup, S

    1998-05-07

    The mammalian hypothalamus strongly influences ingestive behaviour through several different signalling molecules and receptor systems. Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and neuropeptide Y. Food-deprived animals show a pronounced decrease in expression of CART messenger RNA in the arcuate nucleus. In animal models of obesity with disrupted leptin signalling, CART mRNA is almost absent from the arcuate nucleus. Peripheral administration of leptin to obese mice stimulates CART mRNA expression. When injected intracerebroventricularly into rats, recombinant CART peptide inhibits both normal and starvation-induced feeding, and completely blocks the feeding response induced by neuropeptide Y. An antiserum against CART increases feeding in normal rats, indicating that CART may be an endogenous inhibitor of food intake in normal animals.

  3. Integrated transcriptome and proteome data: the challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Catherine Jane

    2004-11-01

    The recent availability of platform technologies for high throughput proteome analysis has led to the emergence of integrated messenger RNA and protein expression data. The Pearson correlation coefficients for these data range from 0.46 to 0.76. In these integrated studies, serial analyses of gene expression and DNA microarrays have been used to quantify the transcriptome, while proteome analysis has been based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, isotope coded affinity tags and multidimensional protein identification technology. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the analytical techniques used in these studies and explores the extent to which the choice of experimental methodology can bias the correlation or the ability to detect proteins.

  4. A new microcolumn-type microchip for examining the expression of chimeric fusion genes using a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Michihiro; Sasaki, Naoyuki; Kishimoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Hidetoshi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Mizutani, Shuki; Kishii, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Akio

    2014-11-01

    We report a new type of microcolumn installed in a microchip. The architecture allows use of a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique to detect a messenger RNA (mRNA) chain as a target. Data are presented that demonstrate that the expression of a chimeric fusion gene can be detected. The microcolumn was filled with semi-transparent microbeads made of agarose gel that acted as carriers, allowing increased efficiency of the optical detection of fluorescence from the microcolumn. The hybrid between the target trapped on the microbeads and a probe DNA labeled with a fluorescent dye was detected by measuring the intensity of the fluorescence from the microcolumn directly. These results demonstrate an easy and simple method for determining the expression of chimeric fusion genes with no preamplification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism and Regulation of Protein Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Thomas E.; Kinzy, Terri Goss; Pavitt, Graham D.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of protein synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mechanism of protein synthesis is well conserved between yeast and other eukaryotes, and molecular genetic studies in budding yeast have provided critical insights into the fundamental process of translation as well as its regulation. The review focuses on the initiation and elongation phases of protein synthesis with descriptions of the roles of translation initiation and elongation factors that assist the ribosome in binding the messenger RNA (mRNA), selecting the start codon, and synthesizing the polypeptide. We also examine mechanisms of translational control highlighting the mRNA cap-binding proteins and the regulation of GCN4 and CPA1 mRNAs. PMID:27183566

  6. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino...... acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby...... ribosomes by affecting the appearance of 'traffic jams' where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this 'context effect' further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated...

  7. Telomerase expression in individuals with chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarkar, Atul; Saha, Arindam; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Kundu, Debabrata; Bandyopadhyay, Prasanta; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcription (hTERT) enzyme in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared with healthy individuals. A total of 79 individuals consented to participate in the study. The study sample comprised healthy individuals (n = 30), patients with CP (n = 30), and patients with AgP (n = 19). Gingival tissue was collected and evaluated for hTERT expression by Western blot and immunohistochemical methods. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed using the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples. The hTERT messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in AgP compared with CP (P periodontal disease progression, suggesting that hTERT could be a potential prognostic marker.

  8. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.

  9. Intracerebral Infusion of Antisense Oligonucleotides Into Prion-infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karah Nazor Friberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mice deficient for the cellular prion protein (PrPC do not develop prion disease; accordingly, gene-based strategies to diminish PrPC expression are of interest. We synthesized a series of chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs targeted against mouse Prnp messenger RNA (mRNA and identified those that were most effective in decreasing PrPC expression. Those ASOs were also evaluated in scrapie-infected cultured cells (ScN2a for their efficacy in diminishing the levels of the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc. When the optimal ASO was infused intracerebrally into FVB mice over a 14-day period beginning 1 day after infection with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML strain of mouse prions, a prolongation of the incubation period of almost 2 months was observed. Whether ASOs can be used to develop an effective therapy for patients dying of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease remains to be established.

  10. Taxonomer: an interactive metagenomics analysis portal for universal pathogen detection and host mRNA expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Steven; Simmon, Keith; Miller, Chase; Qiao, Yi; Kennedy, Brett; Di Sera, Tonya; Graf, Erin H; Tardif, Keith D; Kapusta, Aurélie; Rynearson, Shawn; Stockmann, Chris; Queen, Krista; Tong, Suxiang; Voelkerding, Karl V; Blaschke, Anne; Byington, Carrie L; Jain, Seema; Pavia, Andrew; Ampofo, Krow; Eilbeck, Karen; Marth, Gabor; Yandell, Mark; Schlaberg, Robert

    2016-05-26

    High-throughput sequencing enables unbiased profiling of microbial communities, universal pathogen detection, and host response to infectious diseases. However, computation times and algorithmic inaccuracies have hindered adoption. We present Taxonomer, an ultrafast, web-tool for comprehensive metagenomics data analysis and interactive results visualization. Taxonomer is unique in providing integrated nucleotide and protein-based classification and simultaneous host messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript profiling. Using real-world case-studies, we show that Taxonomer detects previously unrecognized infections and reveals antiviral host mRNA expression profiles. To facilitate data-sharing across geographic distances in outbreak settings, Taxonomer is publicly available through a web-based user interface. Taxonomer enables rapid, accurate, and interactive analyses of metagenomics data on personal computers and mobile devices.

  11. Transcriptional architecture and chromatin landscape of the core circadian clock in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Nobuya; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Huang, Hung-Chung; Kumar, Vivek; Lee, Choogon; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2012-10-19

    The mammalian circadian clock involves a transcriptional feed back loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period and Cryptochrome genes, which then feedback and repress their own transcription. We have interrogated the transcriptional architecture of the circadian transcriptional regulatory loop on a genome scale in mouse liver and find a stereotyped, time-dependent pattern of transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, and chromatin states. We find that the circadian transcriptional cycle of the clock consists of three distinct phases: a poised state, a coordinated de novo transcriptional activation state, and a repressed state. Only 22% of messenger RNA (mRNA) cycling genes are driven by de novo transcription, suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms underlie the mammalian circadian clock. We also find that circadian modulation of RNAPII recruitment and chromatin remodeling occurs on a genome-wide scale far greater than that seen previously by gene expression profiling.

  12. The importance of circulating tumor products as „liquid biopsies” in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Miscoci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquid biopsies represent an array of plasma analysis tests that are studied to evaluate and identify circulating tumor products, especially circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA. Examining such biomarkers in the plasma of colorectal cancer patients has attracted attention due to its clinical significance in the treatment of malignant diseases. Given that tissue samples are sometimes challenging to procure or unsatisfactory for genomic profiling from patients with colorectal cancer, trustworthy biomarkers are mandatory for guiding treatment, monitoring therapeutic response, and detecting recurrence. This review considers the relevance of flowing tumor products like circulating tumor cells (CTCs, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, circulating messenger RNA (mRNA, circulating micro RNA (miRNA, circulating exosomes, and tumor educated platelets (TEPs for patients with colorectal cancer.

  13. Acetylcholine-related proteins in non-neoplastic appearing colonic mucosa from patients with colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Morten Matthiesen Bach; Jensen, Thorbjørn Søren Rønn; Mahmood, Badar

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been associated with altered non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) metabolism. The aim of this study was to characterize expression, function, and cellular location of ACh-related proteins in biopsies obtained from endoscopic normal-appearing sigmoid...... colon in patients with and without CRN. Messenger-RNA (mRNA) levels of 17 ACh-related proteins were quantified by rt-qPCR. Functional responses to ACh, measured as electrogenic transepithelial short circuit current (SCC), were recorded using the Ussing chamber technique. Finally, cellular localization...... of choline transporter-like proteins (CTLs) and butyryl-cholinesterase enzyme (BChE) was determined by immunohistochemistry. mRNA expression of CTL1 and CTL4 was increased in patients with CRN (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04, respectively). In functional experiments, baseline SCC was increased in CRN patients. ACh...

  14. Regulation of gene expression in neuronal tissue by RNA interference and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    mediated by microRNAs are crucial for the correct function of the mammalian brain. We are addressing A-to-I editing and regulation by microRNAs with spatio-temporal resolution in the embryonic porcine brain by Solexa sequencing of microRNAs and 454 sequencing of edited neuronal messenger RNAs, resulting...... microRNA expression and targeting, specifically in neurons of knockout mice or transgenic mice, were also performed. One study revealed that disrupting the expression of Argonaute2, the main effector of miRNA function, leads to a reduction of the microRNA abundance for a specific subset of micro......RNAs is able to target the GLP 3’ untranslated region, causing reduced expression of the targeted transcript. In the third study a procedure for global detection of microRNA targeting specifically in neurons is demonstrated, using Solexa sequencing of microRNA and messenger RNA segments binding to Argonaute2...

  15. Signal focusing through active transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  16. Inhibition of Reporter Genes by Small Interfering RNAs in Cell Culture and Living Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    ). But evidence of specific siRNA inhibition in living fish is still needed. Using the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) can be targeted resulting in degradation of targeted transcript or translational repression. Reporter genes such as luciferase and green fluorescence protein (GFP) can......RNA interference is a mechanism for silencing specific genes. It has been applied in cell culture to inhibit expression of genes involved in disease including viral genes as recently shown for the fish pathogenic rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus or VHSV (Bohle et al., 2011...... embryonic kidney HEK293t cells was used because they are easy to transfect and generally show high expression of transfected genes. Various types of fish including albino trouts and transparent fish were used as animal models to get better visualization of reporter gene expression. High variability...

  17. Changes in Alternative Splicing as Pharmacodynamic Markers for Sudemycin D6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Thurman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to define pharmacodynamic markers for sudemycin D6, an experimental cancer drug that changes alternative splicing in human blood. Methods: Blood samples from 12 donors were incubated with sudemycin D6 for up to 24 hours, and at several time points total RNA from lymphocytes was prepared and the pre-messenger RNA (mRNA splicing patterns were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Similar to immortalized cells, blood lymphocytes change alternative splicing due to sudemycin D6 treatment. However, lymphocytes in blood respond slower than immortalized cultured cells. Conclusions: Exon skipping in the DUSP11 and SRRM1 pre-mRNAs are pharmacodynamic markers for sudemycin D6 treatment and show effects beginning at 9 hours after treatment.

  18. RNA Localization in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization is a mechanism by which polarized cells can regulate protein synthesis to specific subcellular compartments in a spatial and temporal manner, and plays a pivotal role in multiple physiological processes from embryonic development to cell differentiation......, regulation of the blood brain barrier and glial scar tissue formation. Despite the involvement in various CNS functions only a limited number of studies have addressed mRNA localization in astrocytes. This PhD project was initially focused on developing and implementing methods that could be used to asses mRNA...... localization in astrocyte protrusions, and following look into the subcellular localization pattern of specific mRNA species of both primary astrocytes isolated from cortical hemispheres of newborn mice, and the mouse astrocyte cell line, C8S. The Boyden chamber cell fractionation assay was optimized, in a way...

  19. Effects of electrons and neutrons on the synthesis of RNA in resistant and sensitive strains of the slime-mould Dictyostelium discoideum and the modifying effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    RNA synthesis was investigated after irradiation in resistant and sensitive lines of the slime-mould Dictyostelium discoideum. When 3 H adenine was used as a precursor to RNA, incorporation increased after irradiation in the resistant WT line but not in the sensitive line (gammas-13). The extent of RNA synthesis after irradiation was correlated with the shoulder width on the survival curve of the resistant line. When this was reduced by irradiating with neutrons, or treatment with caffeine RNA synthesis was also reduced. No preferential synthesis of one RNA species occurred; there was increased labelling in all RNA species after irradiation. Sucrose gradient analysis of ribosomal RNA extracted from irradiated cells and free of messenger RNA revealed no apparent difference in composition from that extracted from unirradiated cells. Increased RNA synthesis after irradiation may form part of the recovery process in the resistant cells. (author)

  20. Attacked from All Sides: RNA Decay in Antiviral Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome M. Molleston

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5′ or 3′ end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5′ degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs. The 3′ degradation machinery (RNA exosome is emerging as a downstream effector of a diverse array of vRNA sensors. This review discusses our current understanding of the roles of the RNA decay machinery in controlling viral infection.

  1. Towards the molecular bases of polymerase dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1991-03-01

    One aspect of the strong relationship that is known to exist between the processes of DNA replication and transcription is manifest in the coupling of the rates of movement of the replication fork (r f ) and RNA polymerase (r t ). We address two issues concerning the largely unexplored area of polymerase dynamics: (i) The validity of an approximate kinematic formula linking r f and r t suggested by experiments in which transcription is initiated in some prokaryotes with the antibiotic streptolydigin, and (ii) What are the molecular bases of the kinematic formula? An analysis of the available data suggests possible molecular bases for polymerase dynamics. In particular, we are led to a hypothesis: In active chromatin r t may depend on the length (λ t ) of the transcript of the primary messenger RNA (pre-mRNA). This new effect is subject to experimental verification. We discuss possible experiments that may be performed in order to test this prediction. (author). Refs, 6 tabs

  2. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate mi......RNA expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  3. Control of ribosome formation in rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetes of 9 days duration produced a 17% diminution in the rate of total protein synthesis in rat hearts perfused as Langendorff preparations supplied with glucose, plasma levels of amino acids, and 400 μU/ml insulin. This reduction was attributable to a decrease in efficiency of protein synthesis and total RNA content. Total messenger RNA content decreased in diabetic hearts in proportion to the reduction in total RNA. Diabetes also resulted in diminished ribosome content as reflected by the induction in total RNA. Ribosome production was investigated by monitoring incorporation of [ 3 H]phenylalanine into the proteins of cytoplasmic ribosomes. Rates of ribosome formation in diabetic hearts were as fast as control rates in the presence of insulin, and were faster than control rates in the absence of the hormone. These results indicated that ribosome content fell in diabetic hearts despite unchanged or faster rates of ribosome formation

  4. Glucocorticoids Sensitize the Innate Immune System through Regulation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busillo, John M.; Azzam, Kathleen M.; Cidlowski, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have long been recognized as powerful anti-inflammatory compounds that are one of the most widely prescribed classes of drugs in the world. However, their role in the regulation of innate immunity is not well understood. We sought to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on the NOD-like receptors (NLRs), a central component of the inflammasome and innate immunity. Surprisingly, we show that glucocorticoids induce both NLRP3 messenger RNA and protein, which is a critical component of the inflammasome. The glucocorticoid-dependent induction of NLRP3 sensitizes the cells to extracellular ATP and significantly enhances the ATP-mediated release of proinflammatory molecules, including mature IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. This effect was specific for glucocorticoids and dependent on the glucocorticoid receptor. These studies demonstrate a novel role for glucocorticoids in sensitizing the initial inflammatory response by the innate immune system. PMID:21940629

  5. Structure-function studies of nucleocytoplasmic transport of retroviral genomic RNA by mRNA export factor TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplova, Marianna; Wohlbold, Lara; Khin, Nyan W.; Izaurralde, Elisa; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2011-01-01

    Messenger RNA export is mediated by the TAP-p15 heterodimer, which belongs to the family of NTF2-like export receptors. TAP-p15 heterodimers also bind to the constitutive transport element (CTE) present in simian type D retroviral RNAs, and mediate export of viral unspliced RNAs to the host cytoplasm. We have solved the crystal structure of the RNA recognition and leucine-rich repeat motifs of TAP bound to one symmetrical-half of CTE RNA. L-shaped conformations of protein and RNA are involved in a mutual molecular embrace on complex formation. We have monitored the impact of structure-guided mutations on binding affinities in vitro and transport assays in vivo. Our studies define the principles by which CTE RNA subverts the mRNA export receptor TAP, thereby facilitating nuclear export of viral genomic RNAs, and more generally, provide insights on cargo RNA recognition by mRNA export receptors. PMID:21822283

  6. Choroid plexus aquaporin 1 and intracranial pressure are increased in obese rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, M; Bhatt, D K; Kruuse, C

    2017-01-01

    furthermore investigated expression profiles of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and Na/K ATPase. METHODS: ICP was measured in obese and lean Zucker rats over a period of 28 days. Arterial pCO2and serum retinol were measured in serum samples. The CPs were isolated, and target messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were analyzed......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable cause. The majority of IIH patients are obese, which suggests a connection between ICP and obesity. The aim of the study was to compare ICP in lean...... and obese rats. We also aimed to clarify if any ICP difference could be attributed to changes in some well-known ICP modulators; retinol and arterial partial pressure of CO2(pCO2). Another potential explanation could be differences in water transport across the choroid plexus (CP) epithelia, and thus we...

  7. Intervening sequences in a plant gene-comparison of the partial sequence of cDNA and genomic DNA of French bean phaseolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. M.; Slightom, J. L.; Hall, T. C.

    1981-01-01

    A plant gene coding for the major storage protein (phaseolin, G1-globulin) of the French bean was isolated from a genomic library constructed in the phage vector Charon 24A. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of part of the gene with that of the cloned messenger RNA (cDNA) revealed the presence of three intervening sequences, all beginning with GTand ending with AG. The 5' and 3' boundaries of intervening sequences TVS-A (88 base pairs) and IVS-B (124 base pairs) are similar to those described for animal and viral genes, but the 3' boundary of IVS-C (129 base pairs) shows some differences. A sequence of 185 amino acids deduced from the cloned DMAs represents about 40% of a phaseolin polypeptide.

  8. IL-20 gene expression is induced by IL-1beta through mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB-dependent mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otkjaer, Kristian; Kragballe, Knud; Johansen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    IL-20 is a novel member of the IL-10 cytokine family with pleiotropic effects. Current knowledge of what triggers and regulates IL-20 gene expression is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of IL-20 expression in cultured normal human keratinocytes. The expression of IL...... the p38 MAPK, MSK1, and NF-kappaB may be important new molecular targets for the modulation of IL-20 expression in these diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...... activation of the downstream kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), indicating transactivation of NF-kappaB driven IL-20 messenger RNA transcription as an important mechanism of action. IL-20 is assumed to be a key cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and possibly cancer, and therefore...

  9. The Interplay between the RNA Decay and Translation Machinery in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Adam M; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2018-01-08

    RNA decay plays a major role in regulating gene expression and is tightly networked with other aspects of gene expression to effectively coordinate post-transcriptional regulation. The goal of this work is to provide an overview of the major factors and pathways of general messenger RNA (mRNA) decay in eukaryotic cells, and then discuss the effective interplay of this cytoplasmic process with the protein synthesis machinery. Given the transcript-specific and fluid nature of mRNA stability in response to changing cellular conditions, understanding the fundamental networking between RNA decay and translation will provide a foundation for a complete mechanistic understanding of this important aspect of cell biology. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. From the Field to the Laboratory: Air Pollutant-Induced Genomic Effects in Lung Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Vizuete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current in vitro studies do not typically assess cellular impacts in relation to real-world atmospheric mixtures of gases. In this study, we set out to examine the feasibility of measuring biological responses at the level of gene expression in human lung cells upon direct exposures to air in the field. This study describes the successful deployment of lung cells in the heavily industrialized Houston Ship Channel. By examining messenger RNA (mRNA levels from exposed lung cells, we identified changes in genes that play a role as inflammatory responders in the cell. The results show anticipated responses from negative and positive controls, confirming the integrity of the experimental protocol and the successful deployment of the in vitro instrument. Furthermore, exposures to ambient conditions displayed robust changes in gene expression. These results demonstrate a methodology that can produce gas-phase toxicity data in the field.

  11. Ribosome. The complete structure of the 55S mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Bieri, Philipp; Leibundgut, Marc; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2015-04-17

    Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) synthesize mitochondrially encoded membrane proteins that are critical for mitochondrial function. Here we present the complete atomic structure of the porcine 55S mitoribosome at 3.8 angstrom resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry. The structure of the 28S subunit in the complex was resolved at 3.6 angstrom resolution by focused alignment, which allowed building of a detailed atomic structure including all of its 15 mitoribosomal-specific proteins. The structure reveals the intersubunit contacts in the 55S mitoribosome, the molecular architecture of the mitoribosomal messenger RNA (mRNA) binding channel and its interaction with transfer RNAs, and provides insight into the highly specialized mechanism of mRNA recruitment to the 28S subunit. Furthermore, the structure contributes to a mechanistic understanding of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Exercise-induced regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in the skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Bergdahl, Andreas; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    -training. At baseline, there were no effects of diabetes on MMP or TIMP mRNA or protein. mRNA and protein response to training was similar in both groups, except active MMP-2 protein was elevated post training in T2DM only. Our results indicate that exercise-induced stimulation of MMPs is preserved in skeletal muscle......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) play a critical role during vascular remodelling, in both health and disease. Impaired MMP regulation is associated with many diabetes-related complications. This study examined whether exercise-induced regulation of MMPs...... is maintained in the skeletal muscle of patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Subjects [12 T2DM, 9 healthy control subjects (CON)] underwent 8 weeks of physical training. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured at baseline, during and after 8 weeks of training. Protein was measured pre- and post...

  13. Reliable PCR quantitation of estrogen, progesterone and ERBB2 receptor mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is independent of prior macro-dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Hennig, Guido; Kyndi, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression analysis on messenger RNA (mRNA) purified from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is increasingly used for research purposes. Tissue heterogeneity may question specificity and interpretation of results from mRNA isolated from a whole slide section, and thresholds for minimal...... tumor content in the paraffin block or macrodissection are used to avoid contamination from non-neoplastic tissue. The aim was to test if mRNA from tissue surrounding breast cancer affected quantification of estrogen receptor α (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR) and human epidermal growth factor...... receptor 2 (ERBB2), by comparing gene expression from whole slide and tumor-enriched sections, and correlating gene expression from whole slide sections with corresponding immunohistochemistry. Gene expression, based on mRNA extracted from a training set (36 paraffin blocks) and two validation sets (133...

  14. Quaking promotes monocyte differentiation into pro-atherogenic macrophages by controlling pre-mRNA splicing and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ruben G; Shiue, Lily; Prins, Jurriën; de Boer, Hetty C; Singh, Anjana; Fagg, W Samuel; van Gils, Janine M; Duijs, Jacques M G J; Katzman, Sol; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan O; Böhringer, Stefan; Leung, Wai Y; Kielbasa, Szymon M; Donahue, John P; van der Zande, Patrick H J; Sijbom, Rick; van Alem, Carla M A; Bot, Ilze; van Kooten, Cees; Jukema, J Wouter; Van Esch, Hilde; Rabelink, Ton J; Kazan, Hilal; Biessen, Erik A L; Ares, Manuel; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van der Veer, Eric P

    2016-03-31

    A hallmark of inflammatory diseases is the excessive recruitment and influx of monocytes to sites of tissue damage and their ensuing differentiation into macrophages. Numerous stimuli are known to induce transcriptional changes associated with macrophage phenotype, but posttranscriptional control of human macrophage differentiation is less well understood. Here we show that expression levels of the RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) are low in monocytes and early human atherosclerotic lesions, but are abundant in macrophages of advanced plaques. Depletion of QKI protein impairs monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation into macrophages and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq and microarray analysis of human monocyte and macrophage transcriptomes, including those of a unique QKI haploinsufficient patient, reveal striking changes in QKI-dependent messenger RNA levels and splicing of RNA transcripts. The biological importance of these transcripts and requirement for QKI during differentiation illustrates a central role for QKI in posttranscriptionally guiding macrophage identity and function.

  15. Quaking promotes monocyte differentiation into pro-atherogenic macrophages by controlling pre-mRNA splicing and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ruben G.; Shiue, Lily; Prins, Jurriën; de Boer, Hetty C.; Singh, Anjana; Fagg, W. Samuel; van Gils, Janine M.; Duijs, Jacques M. G. J.; Katzman, Sol; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan O.; Böhringer, Stefan; Leung, Wai Y.; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Donahue, John P.; van der Zande, Patrick H.J.; Sijbom, Rick; van Alem, Carla M. A.; Bot, Ilze; van Kooten, Cees; Jukema, J. Wouter; Van Esch, Hilde; Rabelink, Ton J.; Kazan, Hilal; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Ares Jr., Manuel; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van der Veer, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of inflammatory diseases is the excessive recruitment and influx of monocytes to sites of tissue damage and their ensuing differentiation into macrophages. Numerous stimuli are known to induce transcriptional changes associated with macrophage phenotype, but posttranscriptional control of human macrophage differentiation is less well understood. Here we show that expression levels of the RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) are low in monocytes and early human atherosclerotic lesions, but are abundant in macrophages of advanced plaques. Depletion of QKI protein impairs monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation into macrophages and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq and microarray analysis of human monocyte and macrophage transcriptomes, including those of a unique QKI haploinsufficient patient, reveal striking changes in QKI-dependent messenger RNA levels and splicing of RNA transcripts. The biological importance of these transcripts and requirement for QKI during differentiation illustrates a central role for QKI in posttranscriptionally guiding macrophage identity and function. PMID:27029405

  16. Mutations in the CEP290 (NPHP6) Gene Are a Frequent Cause of Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Anneke I.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Yzer, Suzanne; Lopez, Irma; Arends, Maarten L.; Voesenek, Krysta E. J.; Zonneveld, Marijke N.; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Brunner, Han G.; Hoyng, Carel B.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Rohrschneider, Klaus; Cremers, Frans P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is one of the main causes of childhood blindness. To date, mutations in eight genes have been described, which together account for ∼45% of LCA cases. We localized the genetic defect in a consanguineous LCA-affected family from Quebec and identified a splice defect in a gene encoding a centrosomal protein (CEP290). The defect is caused by an intronic mutation (c.2991+1655A→G) that creates a strong splice-donor site and inserts a cryptic exon in the CEP290 messenger RNA. This mutation was detected in 16 (21%) of 76 unrelated patients with LCA, either homozygously or in combination with a second deleterious mutation on the other allele. CEP290 mutations therefore represent one of the most frequent causes of LCA identified so far. PMID:16909394

  17. Attacked from All Sides: RNA Decay in Antiviral Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleston, Jerome M.; Cherry, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA) to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5′ or 3′ end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5′ degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA) for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs. The 3′ degradation machinery (RNA exosome) is emerging as a downstream effector of a diverse array of vRNA sensors. This review discusses our current understanding of the roles of the RNA decay machinery in controlling viral infection. PMID:28054965

  18. The RNAi Universe in Fungi: A Varied Landscape of Small RNAs and Biological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2017-09-08

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that uses small RNA molecules to suppress gene expression through sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation, translational repression, or transcriptional inhibition. In filamentous fungi, the protective function of RNAi in the maintenance of genome integrity is well known. However, knowledge of the regulatory role of RNAi in fungi has had to wait until the recent identification of different endogenous small RNA classes, which are generated by distinct RNAi pathways. In addition, RNAi research on new fungal models has uncovered the role of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in the regulation of diverse biological functions. In this review, we give an up-to-date overview of the different classes of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in fungi and their roles in the defense of genome integrity and regulation of fungal physiology and development, as well as in the interaction of fungi with biotic and abiotic environments.

  19. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise on hippocampal plasticity is possibly mediated by increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis. In angiogenesis insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF1a) are important factors...... the effect of exercise on the expression of VEGF, cognate receptors, HIF1a, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex. To this end, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in rat brain using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) after forced treadmill exercise for 1 day......, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks. Rats were euthanized either immediately (0 hrs) or 24 hours after last exercise session. Here, we show that exercise affected mRNA levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, and the co-receptor neuropilin 2 (NRP2) when the rats were euthanized immediately, whereas at 24 hours only the expression...

  20. A serendipitous discovery that in situ proteolysis is essential for the crystallization of yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Corey R.; Gebauer, Damara; Zhang, Hailong; Tong, Liang

    2006-01-01

    Proteolysis in situ by a protease secreted by a contaminating fungus is essential for the crystallization of yeast CPSF-100. The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex is required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3′-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes. During structural studies of the 100 kDa subunit (CPSF-100, Ydh1p) of the yeast CPSF complex, it was serendipitously discovered that a solution that is infected by a fungus (subsequently identified as Penicillium) is crucial for the crystallization of this protein. Further analyses suggest that the protein has undergone partial proteolysis during crystallization, resulting in the deletion of an internal segment of about 200 highly charged and hydrophilic residues, very likely catalyzed by a protease secreted by the fungus. With the removal of this segment, yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p) has greatly reduced solubility and can be crystallized in the presence of a minute amount of precipitant

  1. RNA-Based Vaccines in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. McNamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.

  2. The biology and function of extracellular vesicles in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Bao, Lili; Chen, Jing; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zhenxin; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Si; You, Yiwen

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of membrane-enclosed vesicles, which play an important role in intercellular communication. Increasing number of studies have shown that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles might be involved in the transfer of oncogenic cargo (proteins, lipids, messenger RNA, microRNA, non-coding RNAs and DNA) through which cancer cells could shape the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor progression. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived extracellular vesicles have also reported to facilitate tumor proliferation, metastasis and immune escape. Moreover, nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived extracellular vesicles might serve as biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets. The present review provides information on the biological and clinical significance of extracellular vesicles in tumors, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  3. Transforming growth factor β receptor 1 is a new candidate prognostic biomarker after acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaux Yvan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of left ventricular (LV remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI is clinically important and would benefit from the discovery of new biomarkers. Methods Blood samples were obtained upon admission in patients with acute ST-elevation MI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Messenger RNA was extracted from whole blood cells. LV function was evaluated by echocardiography at 4-months. Results In a test cohort of 32 MI patients, integrated analysis of microarrays with a network of protein-protein interactions identified subgroups of genes which predicted LV dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤ 40% with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC above 0.80. Candidate genes included transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1. In a validation cohort of 115 MI patients, TGBFR1 was up-regulated in patients with LV dysfunction (P Conclusions We identified TGFBR1 as a new candidate prognostic biomarker after acute MI.

  4. Transfecting Human Monocytes with RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannull, Jens; Nair, Smita K

    2016-01-01

    Targeting monocytes as a delivery system for drugs or nucleic acids, and thereby harnessing their natural tissue-infiltrating capacity, has become an area of intense investigation in both basic and clinical research. Herein we describe an efficient method to deliver mRNA (messenger RNA) or siRNA (small interfering RNA) into human monocytes by electroporation. This method can be applied in the laboratory to monocytes isolated via magnetic bead-based techniques, or in a clinical setting using monocytes that were collected via counterflow centrifugation elutriation using the Elutra(®) Cell Separation System. We further demonstrate that electroporation of monocytes with RNA represents a robust and highly relevant approach to modify monocytes for cell-based therapies. Last, the procedure described can readily be adapted to monocytes from different species, hence facilitating research in animal models.

  5. Disorders of purines and pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Roger E; Andersson, Hans C

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism can result in an array of clinical manifestations including neurologic manifestations. The most commonly cited disorder, in the neurologic realm, is Lesch-Nyhan syndrome which presumably reflects its distinctive feature of self-mutilation. Expansion of our knowledge with molecular genetic methodology has helped to better identify and characterize mutations such as those which occur with the enzyme hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), and this has enhanced our understanding of phenotypical expression of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and Lesch-Nyhan variants. It is hoped that further elucidation of DNA coding regions and messenger RNA expression will lead to the potential for gene therapy to correct these inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-translational mRNA decay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqian; Sweet, Thomas J; Chamnongpol, Sangpen; Baker, Kristian E; Coller, Jeff

    2009-09-10

    The rates of RNA decay and transcription determine the steady-state levels of all messenger RNA and both can be subject to regulation. Although the details of transcriptional regulation are becoming increasingly understood, the mechanism(s) controlling mRNA decay remain unclear. In yeast, a major pathway of mRNA decay begins with deadenylation followed by decapping and 5'-3' exonuclease digestion. Importantly, it is hypothesized that ribosomes must be removed from mRNA before transcripts are destroyed. Contrary to this prediction, here we show that decay takes place while mRNAs are associated with actively translating ribosomes. The data indicate that dissociation of ribosomes from mRNA is not a prerequisite for decay and we suggest that the 5'-3' polarity of mRNA degradation has evolved to ensure that the last translocating ribosome can complete translation.

  7. Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Ott; Kindt, Jared T; Qavi, Abraham J; Kaplinski, Lauris; Glynn, Barry; Barry, Thomas; Kurg, Ants; Bailey, Ryan C

    2012-01-01

    A label-free biosensing method for the sensitive detection and identification of bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is presented employing arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators. Species specific tmRNA molecules are targeted by complementary DNA capture probes that are covalently attached to the sensor surface. Specific hybridization is monitored in near real-time by observing the resonance wavelength shift of each individual microring. The sensitivity of the biosensing platform allowed for detection down to 53 fmol of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA, equivalent to approximately 3.16×10(7) CFU of bacteria. The simplicity and scalability of this biosensing approach makes it a promising tool for the rapid identification of different bacteria via tmRNA profiling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical aspects of bacterial strategies for handling the incomplete translation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro eShimizu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During protein synthesis in cells, translating ribosomes may encounter abnormal situations that lead to retention of immature peptidyl-tRNA on the ribosome due to failure of suitable termination processes. Bacterial cells handle such situations by employing three systems that rescue the stalled translation machinery. The transfer messenger RNA/small protein B (tmRNA/SmpB system, also called the trans-translation system, rescues stalled ribosomes by initiating template switching from the incomplete mRNA to the short open reading frame of tmRNA, leading to the production of a protein containing a C-terminal tag that renders it susceptible to proteolysis. The ArfA/RF2 and ArfB systems rescue stalled ribosomes directly by hydrolyzing the immature peptidyl-tRNA remaining on the ribosome. Here, the biochemical aspects of these systems, as clarified by recent studies, are reviewed.

  9. Involvement of CDX2 in the cross talk between TNF-α and Wnt signaling pathway in the colon cancer cell line Caco-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Olsen, Anders Krüger; Bzorek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is highly upregulated in inflammation and reduces the expression of the intestinal transcription factor, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2). Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for intestinal cell proliferation, but a decreased CDX2 expression ha...... buddings in areas with TNF-α expression in the surrounding inflammatory cells. In vitro studies revealed that TNF-α treatment showed a dose-dependent decrease of CDX2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in Caco-2 cells. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB or p38 pathways showed...... targets were significantly elevated in TNF-α-treated Caco-2 cells. These findings were associated with reduced binding of CDX2 to promoter or enhancer regions of APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β. In conclusion, it was found that TNF-α induces the expression of Wnt signaling components through a downregulation...

  10. A composite peripheral blood gene expression measure as a potential diagnostic biomarker in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, L; Vinberg, M

    2015-01-01

    as a diagnostic and state biomarker in bipolar disorder. First, messenger RNA levels of 19 candidate genes were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients in different affective states (depression, mania and euthymia) during a 6-12-month period and in 40 age......- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Second, a composite gene expression measure was constructed in the first half study sample and independently validated in the second half of the sample. We found downregulation of POLG and OGG1 expression in bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control...... subjects. In patients with bipolar disorder, upregulation of NDUFV2 was observed in a depressed state compared with a euthymic state. The composite gene expression measure for discrimination between patients and healthy control subjects on the basis of 19 genes generated an area under the receiver...

  11. DiGIR1 and NaGIR1: naturally occurring group I-like ribozymes with unique core organization and evolved biological role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar; Einvik, Christer; Nielsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The group I-like ribozyme GIR1 is a unique example of a naturally occurring ribozyme with an evolved biological function. GIR1 generates the 5'-end of a nucleolar encoded messenger RNA involved in intron mobility. GIR1 is found as a cis-cleaving ribozyme within two very different rDNA group I...... introns (twin-ribozyme introns) in distantly related organisms. The Didymium GIR1 (DiGIR1) and Naegleria GIR1 (NaGIR1) share fundamental features in structural organization and reactivity, and display significant differences when compared to the related group I splicing ribozymes. GIR1 lacks...... the characteristic P1 segment present in all group I splicing ribozymes, it has a novel core organization, and it catalyses two site-specific hydrolytic cleavages rather than splicing. DiGIR1 and NaGIR1 appear to have originated from eubacterial group I introns in order to fulfil a common biological challenge...

  12. Adenosine receptors in rat and human pancreatic ducts stimulate chloride transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hede, Susanne; Hansen, Mette

    2007-01-01

    adenocarcinoma lines showed that they express A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3) receptors. Real-time PCR revealed relatively low messenger RNA levels of adenosine receptors compared to beta-actin; the rank order for the receptors was A(2A) > A(2B) >/= A(3) >> A(1) for rat pancreas and A(2B) > A(2A) >> A(3) >/= A(1......) for duct cell lines. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on rat pancreatic ducts showed that, in about half of the recordings, adenosine depolarized the membrane voltage, and this was because of the opening of Cl(-) channels. Using a Cl(-)-sensitive fluorophore and single-cell imaging on duct cell lines...

  13. A model-based strategy to investigate the role of microRNA regulation in cancer signalling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Vera, Julio; Schmitz, Ulf; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a model-based approach to link miRNA translational control with cell signalling networks. MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that are able to regulate the activity and the stability of specific messenger RNA and have been implicated in tumour progression due to their ability to translationally regulate critical oncogenes and tumour suppressors. In our approach, data on protein-protein interactions and miRNA regulation, obtained from bioinformatics databases, are integrated with quantitative experimental data using mathematical modelling. Predictive computational simulations and qualitative (bifurcation) analyses of those mathematical models are employed to further support the investigation of such multifactorial networks in the context of cancer progression. We illustrate our approach with the C-Myc/E2F signalling network, involved in the progression of several tumour subtypes, including colorectal cancer.

  14. Adrenomedullin is up-regulated in patients with pancreatic cancer and causes insulin resistance in β cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Gaurav; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Javeed, Naureen; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Dutta, Shamit; Klee, George G; Klee, Eric W; Smyrk, Thomas C; Bamlet, William; Han, Jing Jing; Rumie Vittar, Natalia B; de Andrade, Mariza; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Petersen, Gloria M; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Logsdon, Craig D; Chari, Suresh T

    2012-12-01

    New-onset diabetes in patients with pancreatic cancer is likely to be a paraneoplastic phenomenon caused by tumor-secreted products. We aimed to identify the diabetogenic secretory product(s) of pancreatic cancer. Using microarray analysis, we identified adrenomedullin as a potential mediator of diabetes in patients with pancreatic cancer. Adrenomedullin was up-regulated in pancreatic cancer cell lines, in which supernatants reduced insulin signaling in beta cell lines. We performed quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry on human pancreatic cancer and healthy pancreatic tissues (controls) to determine expression of adrenomedullin messenger RNA and protein, respectively. We studied the effects of adrenomedullin on insulin secretion by beta cell lines and whole islets from mice and on glucose tolerance in pancreatic xenografts in mice. We measured plasma levels of adrenomedullin in patients with pancreatic cancer, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and individuals with normal fasting glucose levels (controls). Levels of adrenomedullin messenger RNA and protein were increased in human pancreatic cancer samples compared with controls. Adrenomedullin and conditioned media from pancreatic cell lines inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cell lines and islets isolated from mice; the effects of conditioned media from pancreatic cancer cells were reduced by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of adrenomedullin. Conversely, overexpression of adrenomedullin in mice with pancreatic cancer led to glucose intolerance. Mean plasma levels of adrenomedullin (femtomoles per liter) were higher in patients with pancreatic cancer compared with patients with diabetes or controls. Levels of adrenomedullin were higher in patients with pancreatic cancer who developed diabetes compared those who did not. Adrenomedullin is up-regulated in patients with pancreatic cancer and causes insulin resistance in β cells and mice

  15. Hypoxic stress up-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages via hypoxia-inducible factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Choi, Yong Jun; Joung, Sun Myung; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook; Lee, Joo Young

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded innate immune receptors that recognize invading micro-organisms and induce immune and inflammatory responses. Deregulation of TLRs is known to be closely linked to various immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cells at sites of inflammation are exposed to hypoxic stress, which further aggravates inflammatory processes. We have examined if hypoxic stress modulates the TLR activity of macrophages. Hypoxia and CoCl(2) (a hypoxia mimetic) enhanced the expression of TLR4 messenger RNA and protein in macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), whereas the messenger RNA of other TLRs was not increased. To determine the underlying mechanism, we investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the regulation of TLR4 expression. Knockdown of HIF-1alpha expression by small interfering RNA inhibited hypoxia-induced and CoCl(2)-induced TLR4 expression in macrophages, while over-expression of HIF-1alpha potentiated TLR4 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HIF-1alpha binds to the TLR4 promoter region under hypoxic conditions. In addition, deletion or mutation of a putative HIF-1-binding motif in the TLR4 promoter greatly attenuated HIF-1alpha-induced TLR4 promoter reporter expression. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress enhanced the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide, resulting in increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, and interferon-inducible protein-10. These results demonstrate that TLR4 expression in macrophages is up-regulated via HIF-1 in response to hypoxic stress, suggesting that hypoxic stress at sites of inflammation enhances susceptibility to subsequent infection and inflammatory signals by up-regulating TLR4.

  16. Cranberry extract-enriched diets increase NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and catalase activities in obese but not in nonobese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boušová, Iva; Bártíková, Hana; Matoušková, Petra; Lněničková, Kateřina; Zappe, Lukáš; Valentová, Kateřina; Szotáková, Barbora; Martin, Jan; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex dimorphism in late gestational sleep fragmentation and metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Carreras, Alba; Almendros, Isaac; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2015-04-01

    Excessive sleep fragmentation (SF) is common in pregnant women. Adult-onset metabolic disorders may begin during early development and exhibit substantial sex dimorphism. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunction induced by gestational SF in male mice would not be apparent in female littermates. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly in male and female offspring after late gestational SF or control sleep (SC). At 20 weeks, plasma leptin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, and insulin and glucose tolerance tests were assessed. Leptin and adiponectin, M1, and M2 macrophage messenger RNA expression and polarity were examined. Adiponectin gene promoter methylation levels in several tissues were assessed. Food intake, body weight, visceral fat mass, and insulin resistance were higher, and adiponectin levels lower in male but not female offspring exposed to gestational SF. However, dyslipidemia was apparent in both male and female offspring exposed to SF, albeit of lesser magnitude. In visceral fat, leptin messenger RNA expression was selectively increased and adiponectin expression was decreased in male offspring exposed to gestational SF, but adiponectin was increased in exposed female offspring. Differences in adipokine expression also emerged in liver, subcutaneous fat, and muscle. Increased M1 macrophage markers were present in male offspring exposed to SF (SFOM) while increased M2 markers emerged in SF in female offspring (SFOF). Similarly, significant differences emerged in the methylation patterns of adiponectin promoter in SFOM and SFOF. Gestational sleep fragmentation increases the susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in male but not in female offspring, most likely via epigenetic changes. Thus, sleep perturbations impose long-term detrimental effects to the fetus manifesting as sex dimorphic metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Sex Dimorphism in Late Gestational Sleep Fragmentation and Metabolic Dysfunction in Offspring Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Carreras, Alba; Almendros, Isaac; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excessive sleep fragmentation (SF) is common in pregnant women. Adult-onset metabolic disorders may begin during early development and exhibit substantial sex dimorphism. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunction induced by gestational SF in male mice would not be apparent in female littermates. Methods: Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly in male and female offspring after late gestational SF or control sleep (SC). At 20 weeks, plasma leptin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, and insulin and glucose tolerance tests were assessed. Leptin and adiponectin, M1, and M2 macrophage messenger RNA expression and polarity were examined. Adiponectin gene promoter methylation levels in several tissues were assessed. Results: Food intake, body weight, visceral fat mass, and insulin resistance were higher, and adiponectin levels lower in male but not female offspring exposed to gestational SF. However, dyslipidemia was apparent in both male and female offspring exposed to SF, albeit of lesser magnitude. In visceral fat, leptin messenger RNA expression was selectively increased and adiponectin expression was decreased in male offspring exposed to gestational SF, but adiponectin was increased in exposed female offspring. Differences in adipokine expression also emerged in liver, subcutaneous fat, and muscle. Increased M1 macrophage markers were present in male offspring exposed to SF (SFOM) while increased M2 markers emerged in SF in female offspring (SFOF). Similarly, significant differences emerged in the methylation patterns of adiponectin promoter in SFOM and SFOF. Conclusion: Gestational sleep fragmentation increases the susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in male but not in female offspring, most likely via epigenetic changes. Thus, sleep perturbations impose long-term detrimental effects to the fetus manifesting as sex dimorphic metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. Citation: Khalyfa A, Carreras A, Almendros I, Hakim F, Gozal D. Sex

  19. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is a novel predictor for poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yun Xian,1,* Shu Zhang,2,* Xudong Wang,3 Jin Qin,2 Wei Wang,2 Han Wu4 1School of Public Health, Nantong University, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, 4Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH acts as a key metabolic enzyme in the rate-limiting step in serine biosynthesis and plays an important role in metastasis of several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of PHGDH in gastric cancer (GC. Methods: The messenger RNA expression of PHGDH was determined in 20 pairs of cancerous and adjacent nontumor tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry of PHGDH was performed on tissue microarray, composed of 482 GC and 64 matched adjacent nontumor tissues acquired from surgery, 20 chronic gastritis, 18 intestinal metaplasia, and 31 low-grade and 66 high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias acquired through gastric endoscopic biopsy. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to perform survival analyses. Results: Both PHGDH messenger RNA and protein product exhibited GC tissue-preferred expression, when compared with benign tissues. The high PHGDH expression was significantly correlated with histological type (P=0.011, tumor stage (P=0.014, and preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (P<0.001. A negative correlation was found between PHGDH expression and the 5-year survival rate of patients with GC. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that PHGDH was an independent prognostic factor for outcome in GC. Conclusion: PHGDH is important in predicting patient outcomes and is a potential target for the development of therapeutic approaches to GC. Keywords: metabolism, gastric cancer, prognosis, serine biosynthesis

  20. Involvement of tachykinins and NK1 receptor in the joint inflammation with collagen type II-specific monoclonal antibody-induced arthritis in mice.

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    Makino, Akira; Sakai, Atsushi; Ito, Hiromoto; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic multisystem disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation associated with severe pain. Because RA is an immune-mediated joint disease and because type II collagen is considered an autoantigen, rodent models of arthritis using collagen type II-specific monoclonal antibodies are valuable for studying the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis and for evaluating therapeutic strategies. The tachykinin family peptides, substance P (SP) and hemokinin-1 (HK-1), are expressed in the nervous systems and in many peripheral organs and immunocompetent cells and activate tachykinin NK1 receptors with similar affinities. NK1 receptors are involved in the inflammation and hyperalgesia associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined the involvement of SP and HK-1 in the joint inflammation and hyperalgesia in a collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model in mice. The messenger RNA expression levels of the TAC1 gene encoding SP and of the TAC4 gene encoding HK-1 were decreased in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord at the peak of the inflammatory symptoms in CAIA. Systemic injection of an NK1 receptor antagonist, WIN 51708, significantly inhibited the joint swelling, but not the mechanical allodynia, on day 7 in CAIA mice. The messenger RNA expression levels of TAC1 and TAC4 in the dorsal root ganglia and dorsal spinal cord were unaffected by treatment with WIN 51708. These findings suggest that tachykinins and NK1 receptors play a key role in joint inflammation, rather than in nociceptive sensitization, in CAIA.

  1. Prospective assessment of midsecretory endometrial leukemia inhibitor factor expression versus ανβ3 testing in women with unexplained infertility

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    Franasiak, Jason M.; Holoch, Kristin J.; Yuan, Lingwen; Schammel, David P.; Young, Steven L.; Lessey, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate endometrial leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF) expression as a marker of endometrial receptivity in women with unexplained infertility (UI). Design Prospective case-control study. Setting University-associated infertility clinics. Patient(s) Women with UI for more than 1 year and healthy control women. Intervention(s) Endometrial biopsy. Main Outcome Measure(s) Time to pregnancy was compared between patients with UI who were evaluated for endometrial LIF protein as well as ανβ3 integrin expression. Endometrium was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and messenger RNA by real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR) in samples from women with UI as well as healthy control women. Result(s) Leukemia inhibitor factor was expressed in epithelial cells in a cyclic fashion in controls, and overall expression in the secretory phase was similar between controls and women with UI, whereas ανβ3 integrin expression was reduced. However, using quantitative real-time PCR, LIF messenger RNA abundance was 4.4-fold lower in women with low levels of ανβ3 integrin expression compared with samples with normal integrins. By immunohistochemistry, ανβ3 integrin expression was always lacking when the histology was out of phase, whereas LIF expression was only negative in a subset of those samples. Reduced endometrial LIF expression was strongly associated with poor reproductive outcomes. Conclusion(s) Endometrial LIF expression peaks in the midsecretory phase and is reduced in some women with UI. The use of LIF in combination with ανβ3 integrin as biomarkers appears to be superior to integrin testing alone when evaluating endometrial receptivity, primarily because of its earlier pattern of expression during the secretory phase. PMID:24690239

  2. Mutational analyses on X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy reveal a novel cryptic splicing and three missense mutations in the ABCD1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kun-Long; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Keng, Wee Teik; Chen, Hui-Ju; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Ngu, Lock Hock; Lu, Jyh-Feng

    2013-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by a defective peroxisomal membrane transporter, ABCD1, responsible for transporting very-long-chain fatty acid substrate into peroxisomes for degradation. The main biochemical defect, which is also one of the major diagnostic hallmarks, of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids in all tissues and body fluids. Direct and reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reactions followed by DNA sequencing-based mutational analyses were performed on one Taiwanese and three Malaysian X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy families. A novel splicing donor site mutation (c.1272+1g>a) was identified in a Taiwanese X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patient, resulting in a deletion of 121 bp and a premature stop codon (p.Val425fs*92) in messenger-RNA transcript. This deletion is caused by the activation of a cryptic splicing donor site in exon 4 of the ABCD1 gene, which is consistent with the prediction by several online algorithms. In addition, three previously described missense mutations (c.965T>C, c.1978C>T, and c.2006A>G), leading to aberrant ABCD1 of p.Leu322Pro, p.Arg660Trp, and p.His669Arg, were also identified in Malaysian probands. This is the first report to unveil unequivocally that cryptic splicing-induced aberrant messenger-RNA carrying an internal frameshift deletion results from an intronic mutation in the ABCD1 gene. Furthermore, a polymorphism in intron 9 (c.1992-32c/t; refSNP: rs4898368) of the ABCD1 gene was commonly observed in both Taiwanese and Malaysian populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FXR induces the UGT2B4 enzyme in hepatocytes: a potential mechanism of negative feedback control of FXR activity.

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    Barbier, Olivier; Torra, Ines Pineda; Sirvent, Audrey; Claudel, Thierry; Blanquart, Christophe; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Kuipers, Folkert; Kosykh, Vladimir; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2003-06-01

    Bile acids are essential for bile formation and intestinal absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. However, the intrinsic toxicity of hydrophobic bile acids demands a tight control of their intracellular concentrations. Bile acids are ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) that regulates the expression of genes controlling bile acid synthesis and transport. The human uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4 (UGT2B4) converts hydrophobic bile acids into more hydrophilic glucuronide derivatives. In this study, we identify UGT2B4 as an FXR target gene. Human hepatocytes or hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with chenodeoxycholic acid or the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064, and the levels of UGT2B4 messenger RNA, protein, and activity were determined by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and glucuronidation assays. Treatment of hepatocytes and HepG2 cells with FXR agonists resulted in an increase of UGT2B4 messenger RNA, protein, and activity. A bile acid response element in the UGT2B4 promoter (B4-BARE) to which FXR, but not retinoid X receptor, binds, was identified by site-directed mutagenesis, electromobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoid X receptor activation abolished the induction of UGT2B4 expression and inhibited binding of FXR to the B4-BARE, suggesting that retinoid X receptor modulates FXR target gene activation. Overexpression of UGT2B4 in HepG2 cells resulted in the attenuation of bile acid induction of the FXR target gene small heterodimeric partner. These data suggest that UGT2B4 gene induction by bile acids contributes to a feed-forward reduction of bile acid toxicity and a decrease of the activity of these biological FXR activators.

  4. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Includes a Broad Spectrum of Inflammatory Responses and Epithelial Repair ProcessesSummary

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    Jinsheng Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED, a chronic diffuse inflammation of the small intestine, is associated with stunting in children in the developing world. The pathobiology of EED is poorly understood because of the lack of a method to elucidate the host response. This study tested a novel microarray method to overcome limitation of RNA sequencing to interrogate the host transcriptome in feces in Malawian children with EED. Methods: In 259 children, EED was measured by lactulose permeability (%L. After isolating low copy numbers of host messenger RNA, the transcriptome was reliably and reproducibly profiled, validated by polymerase chain reaction. Messenger RNA copy number then was correlated with %L and differential expression in EED. The transcripts identified were mapped to biological pathways and processes. The children studied had a range of %L values, consistent with a spectrum of EED from none to severe. Results: We identified 12 transcripts associated with the severity of EED, including chemokines that stimulate T-cell proliferation, Fc fragments of multiple immunoglobulin families, interferon-induced proteins, activators of neutrophils and B cells, and mediators that dampen cellular responses to hormones. EED-associated transcripts mapped to pathways related to cell adhesion, and responses to a broad spectrum of viral, bacterial, and parasitic microbes. Several mucins, regulatory factors, and protein kinases associated with the maintenance of the mucous layer were expressed less in children with EED than in normal children. Conclusions: EED represents the activation of diverse elements of the immune system and is associated with widespread intestinal barrier disruption. Differentially expressed transcripts, appropriately enumerated, should be explored as potential biomarkers. Keywords: Environmental Enteropathy, Fecal Transcriptome, Stunting, Intestinal Inflammation

  5. Accurate microRNA target prediction correlates with protein repression levels

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    Simossis Victor A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small endogenously expressed non-coding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression through translation repression or messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNA regulation is performed through pairing of the microRNA to sites in the messenger RNA of protein coding genes. Since experimental identification of miRNA target genes poses difficulties, computational microRNA target prediction is one of the key means in deciphering the role of microRNAs in development and disease. Results DIANA-microT 3.0 is an algorithm for microRNA target prediction which is based on several parameters calculated individually for each microRNA and combines conserved and non-conserved microRNA recognition elements into a final prediction score, which correlates with protein production fold change. Specifically, for each predicted interaction the program reports a signal to noise ratio and a precision score which can be used as an indication of the false positive rate of the prediction. Conclusion Recently, several computational target prediction programs were benchmarked based on a set of microRNA target genes identified by the pSILAC method. In this assessment DIANA-microT 3.0 was found to achieve the highest precision among the most widely used microRNA target prediction programs reaching approximately 66%. The DIANA-microT 3.0 prediction results are available online in a user friendly web server at http://www.microrna.gr/microT

  6. Least-squares methods for identifying biochemical regulatory networks from noisy measurements

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    Heslop-Harrison Pat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of identifying the dynamic interactions in biochemical networks from noisy experimental data. Typically, approaches for solving this problem make use of an estimation algorithm such as the well-known linear Least-Squares (LS estimation technique. We demonstrate that when time-series measurements are corrupted by white noise and/or drift noise, more accurate and reliable identification of network interactions can be achieved by employing an estimation algorithm known as Constrained Total Least Squares (CTLS. The Total Least Squares (TLS technique is a generalised least squares method to solve an overdetermined set of equations whose coefficients are noisy. The CTLS is a natural extension of TLS to the case where the noise components of the coefficients are correlated, as is usually the case with time-series measurements of concentrations and expression profiles in gene networks. Results The superior performance of the CTLS method in identifying network interactions is demonstrated on three examples: a genetic network containing four genes, a network describing p53 activity and mdm2 messenger RNA interactions, and a recently proposed kinetic model for interleukin (IL-6 and (IL-12b messenger RNA expression as a function of ATF3 and NF-κB promoter binding. For the first example, the CTLS significantly reduces the errors in the estimation of the Jacobian for the gene network. For the second, the CTLS reduces the errors from the measurements that are corrupted by white noise and the effect of neglected kinetics. For the third, it allows the correct identification, from noisy data, of the negative regulation of (IL-6 and (IL-12b by ATF3. Conclusion The significant improvements in performance demonstrated by the CTLS method under the wide range of conditions tested here, including different levels and types of measurement noise and different numbers of data points, suggests that its application will enable

  7. Cooked rice prevents hyperlipidemia in hamsters fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet by the regulation of the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-07-01

    Rice has many health-beneficial components for ameliorating obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the effect of cooked rice as a useful carbohydrate source has not been investigated yet; so we hypothesized that cooked rice may have hypolipidemic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cooked rice on hyperlipidemia and on the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism. Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 2 groups and fed a high-fat (15%, wt/wt)/cholesterol (0.5%, wt/wt) diet supplemented with either corn starch (HFD, 54.5% wt/wt) or cooked rice (HFD-CR, 54.5% wt/wt) as the main carbohydrate source for 8 weeks. In the HFD-CR group, the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver were decreased, and the total lipid, total cholesterol, and bile acid levels in the feces were increased, compared with the HFD group. In the cooked-rice group, the messenger RNA and protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase were significantly downregulated; and the messenger RNA and protein levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase were upregulated. Furthermore, the expressions of lipogenic genes such as sterol response element binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 were downregulated, whereas the β-oxidation related genes (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, acyl CoA oxidase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) were upregulated, in the cooked-rice group. Our results suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of cooked rice is partially mediated by the regulation of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism, which results in the suppression of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis and the enhancement of cholesterol excretion and fatty acid β-oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Arabidopsis CML38, a Calcium Sensor That Localizes to Ribonucleoprotein Complexes under Hypoxia Stress1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Carlee; Li, Tian

    2016-01-01

    During waterlogging and the associated oxygen deprivation stress, plants respond by the induction of adaptive programs, including the redirected expression of gene networks toward the synthesis of core hypoxia-response proteins. Among these core response proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is the calcium sensor CML38, a protein related to regulator of gene silencing calmodulin-like proteins (rgsCaMs). CML38 transcripts are up-regulated more than 300-fold in roots within 6 h of hypoxia treatment. Transfer DNA insertional mutants of CML38 show an enhanced sensitivity to hypoxia stress, with lowered survival and more severe inhibition of root and shoot growth. By using yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) translational fusions, CML38 protein was found to be localized to cytosolic granule structures similar in morphology to hypoxia-induced stress granules. Immunoprecipitation of CML38 from the roots of hypoxia-challenged transgenic plants harboring CML38pro::CML38:YFP followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of protein targets associated with messenger RNA ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes including stress granules, which are known to accumulate as messenger RNA storage and triage centers during hypoxia. This finding is further supported by the colocalization of CML38 with the mRNP stress granule marker RNA Binding Protein 47 (RBP47) upon cotransfection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Ruthenium Red treatment results in the loss of CML38 signal in cytosolic granules, suggesting that calcium is necessary for stress granule association. These results confirm that CML38 is a core hypoxia response calcium sensor protein and suggest that it serves as a potential calcium signaling target within stress granules and other mRNPs that accumulate during flooding stress responses. PMID:26634999

  9. Arabidopsis CML38, a Calcium Sensor That Localizes to Ribonucleoprotein Complexes under Hypoxia Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokdarshi, Ansul; Conner, W Craig; McClintock, Carlee; Li, Tian; Roberts, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    During waterlogging and the associated oxygen deprivation stress, plants respond by the induction of adaptive programs, including the redirected expression of gene networks toward the synthesis of core hypoxia-response proteins. Among these core response proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is the calcium sensor CML38, a protein related to regulator of gene silencing calmodulin-like proteins (rgsCaMs). CML38 transcripts are up-regulated more than 300-fold in roots within 6 h of hypoxia treatment. Transfer DNA insertional mutants of CML38 show an enhanced sensitivity to hypoxia stress, with lowered survival and more severe inhibition of root and shoot growth. By using yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) translational fusions, CML38 protein was found to be localized to cytosolic granule structures similar in morphology to hypoxia-induced stress granules. Immunoprecipitation of CML38 from the roots of hypoxia-challenged transgenic plants harboring CML38pro::CML38:YFP followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of protein targets associated with messenger RNA ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes including stress granules, which are known to accumulate as messenger RNA storage and triage centers during hypoxia. This finding is further supported by the colocalization of CML38 with the mRNP stress granule marker RNA Binding Protein 47 (RBP47) upon cotransfection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Ruthenium Red treatment results in the loss of CML38 signal in cytosolic granules, suggesting that calcium is necessary for stress granule association. These results confirm that CML38 is a core hypoxia response calcium sensor protein and suggest that it serves as a potential calcium signaling target within stress granules and other mRNPs that accumulate during flooding stress responses. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation improves endometrial regeneration in rodent models of intrauterine adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lu; Duan, Hua; Xu, Qian; Tang, Yi-Qun; Li, Jin-Jiao; Sun, Fu-Qing; Wang, Sha

    2017-05-01

    Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is a common uterine cavity disease characterized by the unsatisfactory regeneration of damaged endometria. Recently, stem cell transplantation has been proposed to promote the recovery process. Here we investigated whether human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs), a valuable resource for transplantation therapy, could improve endometrial regeneration in rodent IUA models. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: normal, sham-operated, mechanical injury, hAMSC transplantation, and negative control group. One week after intervention and transplantation, histological analyses were performed, and immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical expression of cell-specific markers and messenger RNA expression of cytokines were measured. Thicker endometria, increased gland numbers and fewer fibrotic areas were found in the hAMSC transplantation group compared with the mechanical injury group. Engraftment of hAMSCs was detected by the presence of anti-human nuclear antigen-positive cells in the endometrial glands of the transplantation uteri. Transplantation of hAMSCs significantly decreased messenger RNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), and increased those of anti-inflammatory cytokines (basic fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin-6) compared with the injured uterine horns. Immunohistochemical expression of endometrial epithelial cells was revealed in specimens after hAMSC transplantation, whereas it was absent in the mechanically injured uteri. hAMSC transplantation promotes endometrial regeneration after injury in IUA rat models, possibly due to immunomodulatory properties. These cells provide a more easily accessible source of stem cells for future research into the impact of cell transplantation on damaged endometria. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estradiol upregulates calcineurin expression via overexpression of estrogen receptor alpha gene in systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Hui-Li Lin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting women (9:1 compared with men. To investigate the influence of female sex hormone estrogen on the development of female-biased lupus, we compared the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα gene and protein levels as well as expression of T-cell activation gene calcineurin in response to estrogen in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs from SLE patients and normal controls. PBLs were isolated from 20 female SLE patients and 6 normal female controls. The amount of ERα protein in PBL was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of ERα and calcineurin messenger RNA was measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Calcineurin phosphatase activity was measured by calcineurin assay kit. The expression of ERα messenger RNA and ERα protein was significantly increased (p=0.001 and p=0.023, respectively in PBL from SLE patients compared with that from normal controls. In addition, the basal calcineurin in PBL from SLE patients was significantly higher (p=0.000 than that from normal controls, and estrogen-induced expression of calcineurin was increased (p=0.007 in PBL from SLE patients compared with that from normal controls, a 3.15-fold increase. This increase was inhibited by the ERα antagonism ICI 182,780. The effects of ER antagonism were also found in calcineurin activity. These data suggest that overexpression of ERα gene and enhanced activation of calcineurin in response to estrogen in PBL may contribute to the pathogenesis of female dominant in SLE.

  12. FOXP3 DNA methylation levels as a potential biomarker in the development of periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Kelma; Franscisconi, Carolina F; Okehie, Valerie; de Souza, Letícia C; Trombone, Ana Paula F; Letra, Ariadne; Garlet, Gustavo P; Gomez, Ricardo S; Silva, Renato M

    2015-02-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, can modify gene expression patterns without changing the DNA sequence, comprising a tool that cells use to lock genes in the "off" position. Variations in the methylation profile have been correlated to a variety of human diseases. Here, we hypothesize that DNA methylation in immune response-related genes may contribute to the development of periapical lesions. The DNA methylation patterns of 22 immune response-related gene promoters were evaluated in 137 human periapical granulomas, 8 apical cysts, and 31 healthy gingival tissues from 2 independent cohorts using a pathway-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction array (EpiTect Methyl II; Qiagen Inc, Valencia, CA). Messenger RNA expression analysis by qualitative polymerase chain reaction was also performed. SABiosciences's hierarchical clustering and methylation (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) and Prism6 software (GraphPad Software, Inc, La Jolla, CA) were used for data analysis. FOXP3 gene promoter showed the highest level of methylation in both periapical granulomas and apical cysts (P < .001), and methylation levels were inversely correlated with FOXP3 messenger RNA expression in the lesions. Furthermore, FOXP3 expression was prevalent in inactive lesions and was positively correlated with interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor beta levels. Our results suggest that FOXP3 acts as a master switch governing the development and function of T-regulatory cells, whose functions include the inhibition of immune responses and temper inflammation. The observed differential methylation patterns of FOXP3 in periapical lesions may be crucial in determining its suppressive activity and may be involved in periapical lesion development. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential expression of ten-eleven translocation genes in endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Paweł; Wójcik-Krowiranda, Katarzyna; Forma, Ewa; Cwonda, Łukasz; Szczepaniec, Sylwia; Bieńkiewicz, Andrzej; Bryś, Magdalena; Krześlak, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Ten-eleven translocation proteins are α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases involved in the conversion of 5-methylcytosines (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine that play a significant role in DNA demethylation. Deregulation of TET genes expression and changes in the level of 5-hmC are thought to be associated with the onset and progression of several types of cancer, but there are no such data related to endometrial cancer. The aim of the work was to investigate the messenger RNA expression levels of TET1, TET2, and TET3 in relation to clinicopathological characteristics of endometrial cancer as well as the correlation between expression of TET genes and the level of 5-hmC/5-mC. The prognostic significance of TETs expression for overall survival was established. We found that TET1 and TET2 messenger RNA expression was lower and TET3 was higher in cancers compared to normal tissues. Positive correlation between 5-hmC and the relative expression of TET1 and TET2 was found, but no correlation was observed in the case of TET3. Decreased expression of TET1 and TET2 was significantly associated with increased lymph node metastasis and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that low TET1 expression predicted poor overall survival (p = 0.038). Multivariate analysis identified the TET1 expression in endometrial cancer as an independent prognostic factor. Our results suggest that decreased expression of TET1 correlates with tumor progression and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer.

  14. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C; Teichmann, Anke; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Mayer, Magnus C; Mardahl, Maibritt; Kirsch, Sebastian; Namsolleck, Pawel; Lucht, Kristin; Benz, Verena; Alenina, Natalia; Daniell, Nicholas; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Iwai, Masaru; Multhaup, Gerhard; Schülein, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha

    2017-06-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of 10.8 ± 0.8%, indicating that AT2R and MAS are capable to form heterodimers. Heterodimerization was verified by competition experiments using untagged AT2R and MAS. Specificity of dimerization of AT2R and MAS was supported by lack of dimerization with the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked by an AT2R antagonist (PD123319) and also by a MAS antagonist (A-779). Knockout of a single of these receptors made astrocytes unresponsive for both agonists. Our results suggest that MAS and the AT2R form heterodimers and that-at least in astrocytes-both receptors functionally depend on each other. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Invasion of human aortic endothelial cells by oral viridans group streptococci and induction of inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, E; de Toledo, A; Oho, T

    2011-02-01

    Oral viridans group streptococci are the major commensal bacteria of the supragingival oral biofilm and have been detected in human atheromatous plaque. Atherosclerosis involves an ongoing inflammatory response, reportedly involving chronic infection caused by multiple pathogens. The aim of this study was to examine the invasion of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by oral viridans group streptococci and the subsequent cytokine production by viable invaded HAECs. The invasion of HAECs by bacteria was examined using antibiotic protection assays and was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy. The inhibitory effects of catalase and cytochalasin D on the invasion of HAECs were also examined. The production of cytokines by invaded or infected HAECs was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and a real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used to evaluate the expression of cytokine messenger RNA. The oral streptococci tested were capable of invading HAECs. The number of invasive bacteria increased with the length of the co-culture period. After a certain co-culture period, some organisms were cytotoxic to the HAECs. Catalase and cytochalasin D inhibited the invasion of HAECs by the organism. HAECs invaded by Streptococcus mutans Xc, Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis), Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 produced more cytokine(s) (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) than non-invaded HAECs. The HAECs invaded by S. mutans Xc produced the largest amounts of cytokines, and the messenger RNA expression of cytokines by invaded HAECs increased markedly compared with that by non-invaded HAECs. These results suggest that oral streptococci may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Right ventricular long noncoding RNA expression in human heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Su, Yan Ru; Clark, Travis; Brittain, Evan; Absi, Tarek; Maltais, Simon; Hemnes, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human heart failure (HF) has not been widely studied. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we compared lncRNA expression in 22 explanted human HF hearts with lncRNA expression in 5 unused donor human hearts. We used Cufflinks to identify isoforms and DESeq to identify differentially expressed genes. We identified the noncoding RNAs by cross-reference to Ensembl release 73 (Genome Reference Consortium human genome build 37) and explored possible functional roles using a variety of online tools. In HF hearts, RNA-Seq identified 84,793 total messenger RNA coding and noncoding different transcripts, including 13,019 protein-coding genes, 2,085 total lncRNA genes, and 1,064 pseudogenes. By Ensembl noncoding RNA categories, there were 48 lncRNAs, 27 pseudogenes, and 30 antisense RNAs for a total of 105 differentially expressed lncRNAs in HF hearts. Compared with donor hearts, HF hearts exhibited differential expression of 7.7% of protein-coding genes, 3.7% of lncRNAs (including pseudogenes), and 2.5% of pseudogenes. There were not consistent correlations between antisense lncRNAs and parent genes and between pseudogenes and parent genes, implying differential regulation of expression. Exploratory in silico functional analyses using online tools suggested a variety of possible lncRNA regulatory roles. By providing a comprehensive profile of right ventricular polyadenylated messenger RNA transcriptome in HF, RNA-Seq provides an inventory of differentially expressed lncRNAs, including antisense transcripts and pseudogenes, for future mechanistic study. PMID:25992278

  17. Altered expression of circulating microRNA in plasma of patients with primary osteoarthritis and in silico analysis of their pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica M Borgonio Cuadra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze a set of circulating microRNA (miRNA in plasma from patients with primary Osteoarthritis (OA and describe the biological significance of altered miRNA in OA based on an in silico analysis of their target genes. METHODS: miRNA expression was analyzed using TaqMan Low Density Arrays and independent assays. The search for potential messenger RNA (mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNA was performed by means of the miRWalk and miRecords database; we conducted the biological relevance of the predicted miRNA targets by pathway analysis with the Reactome and DAVID databases. RESULTS: We measured the expression of 380 miRNA in OA; 12 miRNA were overexpressed under the OA condition (p value, ≤0.05; fold change, >2. These results were validated by the detection of some selected miRNA by quantitative PCR (qPCR. In silico analysis showed that target messenger RNA (mRNA were potentially regulated by these miRNA, including genes such as SMAD1, IL-1B, COL3A, VEGFA, and FGFR1, important in chondrocyte maintenance and differentiation. Some metabolic pathways affected by the miRNA: mRNA ratio are signaling Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, and Nerve growth factor (NGF, these latter two involved in the process of pain. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 12 miRNA in the plasma of patients with primary OA. Specific miRNA that are altered in the disease could be released into plasma, either due to cartilage damage or to an inherent cellular mechanism. Several miRNA could regulate genes and pathways related with development of the disease; eight of these circulating miRNA are described, to our knowledge, for first time in OA.

  18. Sex-Specific Effects of Stress on Oxytocin Neurons Correspond With Responses to Intranasal Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael Q; Duque-Wilckens, Natalia; Greenberg, Gian D; Hao, Rebecca; Campi, Katharine L; Laredo, Sarah A; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Manning, Claire E; Doig, Ian E; Lopez, Eduardo M; Walch, Keenan; Bales, Karen L; Trainor, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is considered to be a stress-buffering hormone, dampening the physiologic effects of stress. However, OT can also be anxiogenic. We examined acute and long-lasting effects of social defeat on OT neurons in male and female California mice. We used immunohistochemistry for OT and c-fos cells to examine OT neuron activity immediately after defeat (n = 6-9) and 2 weeks (n = 6-9) and 10 weeks (n = 4-5) later. We quantified Oxt messenger RNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 5-9). Intranasal OT was administered to naïve and stressed mice tested in social interaction and resident-intruder tests (n = 8-14). Acute exposure to a third episode of defeat increased OT/c-fos colocalizations in the paraventricular nucleus of both sexes. In the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, defeat increased Oxt messenger RNA, total OT neurons, and OT/c-fos colocalizations in female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT failed to reverse stress-induced social withdrawal in female mice and reduced social interaction behavior in female mice naïve to defeat. In contrast, intranasal OT increased social interaction in stressed male mice and reduced freezing in the resident-intruder test. Social defeat induces long-lasting increases in OT production and OT/c-fos cells in the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT largely reversed the effects of stress on behavior in male mice, but effects were mixed in female mice. These results suggest that changes in OT-sensitive networks contribute to sex differences in behavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Crying Time and RORγ/FOXP3 Expression in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938-Treated Infants with Colic: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Garro, Maria; Montanari, Paola; Galliano, Ilaria; Bergallo, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate crying time, retinoid-related orphan receptor-γ (RORγ) and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) messenger RNA levels (transcription factors that can modulate T cell responses to gut microbes), and to investigate gut microbiota and fecal calprotectin in infants treated with Lactobacillus reuteri for infantile colic. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial was conducted in primary care in Torino from August 1, 2015 to September 30, 2016. Patients suffering from infantile colic were randomly assigned to receive daily oral L reuteri (1 × 10 8  colony forming unit) or placebo for 1 month. Daily crying times were recorded in a structured diary. FOXP3 and RORγ messenger RNA in the peripheral blood was assessed with real-time TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gut microbiota and fecal calprotectin were evaluated. After infants with colic were supplemented with L reuteri DSM 17938 for 30 days, crying times were significantly shorter among infants with colic in the probiotic group compared with infants in the placebo group (74.67 ± 25.04 [IQR = 79] minutes /day vs 147.85 [IQR = 135] minutes /day [P = .001]). The FOXP3 concentration increased significantly (P = .009), resulting in decreased RORγ/FOXP3 ratios: 0.61 (IQR = 0.60) at day 0 and 0.48 (IQR = 0.28) at day 30 (P = .028). Furthermore, the probiotic increased the percentage of Lactobacillus (P = .049) and decreased fecal calprotectin (P = .0001). Infants with colic treated with L reuteri for 30 days had a significantly decreased crying time and an increased FOXP3 concentration, resulting in a decreased RORγ/FOXP3 ratio. The treatment reduced fecal calprotectin. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00893711. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A rat model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A recapitulates disease variability and supplies biomarkers of axonal loss in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledrich, Robert; Schlotter-Weigel, Beate; Schnizer, Tuuli J; Wichert, Sven P; Stassart, Ruth M; Meyer zu Hörste, Gerd; Klink, Axel; Weiss, Bernhard G; Haag, Uwe; Walter, Maggie C; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Paulus, Walter; Rossner, Moritz J; Sereda, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is the most common inherited neuropathy and a duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene causes the most frequent subform Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A. Patients develop a slowly progressive dysmyelinating and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy and distally pronounced muscle atrophy. The amount of axonal loss determines disease severity. Although patients share an identical monogenetic defect, the disease progression is strikingly variable and the impending disease course can not be predicted in individual patients. Despite promising experimental data, recent therapy trials have failed. Established clinical outcome measures are thought to be too insensitive to detect amelioration within trials. Surrogate biomarkers of disease severity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A are thus urgently needed. Peripheral myelin protein 22 transgenic rats harbouring additional copies of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene ('Charcot-Marie-Tooth rats'), which were kept on an outbred background mimic disease hallmarks and phenocopy the variable disease severity of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A. Hence, we used the Charcot-Marie-Tooth rat to dissect prospective and surrogate markers of disease severity derived from sciatic nerve and skin tissue messenger RNA extracts. Gene set enrichment analysis of sciatic nerve transcriptomes revealed that dysregulation of lipid metabolism associated genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma constitutes a modifier of present and future disease severity. Importantly, we directly validated disease severity markers from the Charcot-Marie-Tooth rats in 46 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A. Our data suggest that the combination of age and cutaneous messenger RNA levels of glutathione S-transferase theta 2 and cathepsin A composes a strong indicator of disease severity in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A, as quantified by the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score. This translational approach

  1. Decorin over-expression by decidual cells in preeclampsia: a potential blood biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad F; Nandi, Pinki; Girish, Gannareddy V; Nygard, Karen; Eastabrook, Genevieve; de Vrijer, Barbra; Han, Victor K M; Lala, Peeyush K

    2016-09-01

    Decorin, a leucine-rich proteoglycan that is produced by decidual cells, limits invasion and endovascular differentiation of extravillous trophoblast cells during early placentation by binding to multiple tyrosine kinase receptors, in particular, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. Because many studies have reported an association between poor trophoblast invasion and endovascular differentiation with preeclampsia, the studies reported here tested (1) whether decorin over-expression in the chorionic villi and/or basal decidua is associated with preeclampsia and, if so, (2) whether this association results in a hypoinvasive placenta, and (3) whether elevated plasma decorin concentration in the second trimester is a predictive biomarker for preeclampsia. Decorin messenger RNA expression was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction at the tissue level and with in situ hybridization at the cellular level using (35)S-labeled antisense complimentary RNA probe in placentas from healthy control subjects and subjects with preeclampsia (14 each, 23-40 weeks of gestation). Tissue sections of the same placentas were also immunostained for decorin protein. A decorin over-expressing human endometrial stromal cell line was tested for invasion-regulatory effects on an invasive first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo plated in cocultures that were separated by a semipermeable membrane. Furthermore, we conducted retrospective measurements of plasma decorin levels during the second trimester (15-18 weeks of gestation) in a cohort of 28 body mass index-matched pairs of control subjects and subjects with preeclampsia before the onset of clinical disease. First, decorin messenger RNA expression at the cellular level measured with in situ hybridization exhibited profoundly higher expression levels in basal plate decidual cells within the placentas from preeclamptic subjects than those from control subjects at all gestational ages, whereas no

  2. Rectal Delivery of a DNAzyme That Specifically Blocks the Transcription Factor GATA3 and Reduces Colitis in Mice.

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    Popp, Vanessa; Gerlach, Katharina; Mott, Stefanie; Turowska, Agnieszka; Garn, Holger; Atreya, Raja; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Ho, I-Cheng; Renz, Harald; Weigmann, Benno; Neurath, Markus F

    2017-01-01

    GATA3 is a transcription factor that regulates T-cell production of cytokines. We investigated the role of GATA3 in development of colitis in mice. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses of colon tissues from patients with Crohn's disease (n = 61) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 74) or from patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 22), to measure levels of GATA3. Colitis was induced by administration of oxazolone or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid to control mice, mice with T-cell-specific deletion of GATA3, and mice with deletion of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 (TNFR double knockouts); some mice were given a GATA3-specific DNAzyme (hgd40) or a control DNAzyme via intrarectal administration, or systemic injections of an antibody to TNF before or during sensitization and challenge phase of colitis induction. Colon tissues were collected and immunofluorescence and histochemical analyses were performed. Lamina propria mononuclear cells and T cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry or cytokine assays. Colonic distribution of labeled DNAzyme and inflammation were monitored by in vivo imaging (endoscopy) of mice. Levels of GATA3 messenger RNA were higher in colon tissues from patients with UC, but not ileal Crohn's disease, than control tissues; levels of GATA3 correlated with levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL] 9, IL17A, IL6, IL5, IL4, IL13, and TNF). We observed increased expression of GATA3 by lamina propria T cells from mice with colitis compared with controls. Mice with T-cell-specific deletion of GATA3 did not develop colitis and their colonic tissues did not produce inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL9, or IL13). The DNAzyme hgd40 inhibited expression of GATA3 messenger RNA by unstimulated and stimulated T cells, and distributed throughout the inflamed colons of mice with colitis. Colon tissues from mice given hgd40 had reduced expression of GATA3 messenger RNA

  3. Inhibition of long non-coding RNA ROR reverses resistance to Tamoxifen by inducing autophagy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuehua; Jiang, Baohong; Zhu, Hongbo; Qu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Liqin; Tan, Yeru; Jiang, Yiling; Liao, Mingchu; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the mechanism underlying long non-coding RNA ROR regulating autophagy on Tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from 74 breast cancer patients. Human breast cancer BT474 cells were assigned into blank, phosphate buffered saline, Tamoxifen, negative control + Tamoxifen, siROR + Tamoxifen, 3-methyladenine + Tamoxifen, and siROR + 3-methyladenine + TA groups. The expression of long non-coding RNA ROR and expressions of multi-drug resistance-associated P-glycoprotein and glutathione S-transferase-π messenger RNA were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expressions of light chain 3, Beclin 1, multi-drug resistance-associated P-glycoprotein, and glutathione S-transferase-π protein were determined using western blotting. Cell proliferation, invasion, and migration abilities were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Transwell assay, and scratch test, respectively. The long non-coding RNA ROR expression was higher in the breast cancer tissues than that in the adjacent normal tissues. Compared with the blank group, light chain 3 and Beclin 1 expressions were increased in the siROR + Tamoxifen group but decreased in the 3-methyladenine + Tamoxifen group; these data indicated that downregulated long non-coding RNA ROR promoted autophagy. In comparison with the blank group, multi-drug resistance-associated P-glycoprotein and glutathione S-transferase-π messenger RNA and protein expressions were reduced in the siROR + Tamoxifen group but elevated in the 3-methyladenine + Tamoxifen group, suggesting that downregulated long non-coding RNA ROR suppressed the drug resistance to Tamoxifen and the inhibition of autophagy reversed the effect of long non-coding RNA ROR on drug resistance. Compared with the Tamoxifen, negative control, and siROR + 3-methyladenine + Tamoxifen groups, the cell

  4. High expression of Rac1 is correlated with partial reversed cell polarity and poor prognosis in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

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    Liu, Bingbing; Xiong, Jianhua; Liu, Guiqiu; Wu, Jing; Wen, Likun; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Chuanshan

    2017-07-01

    The change of cell polarity is usually associated with invasion and metastasis. Partial reverse cell polarity in IDC-NOS may play a role in lymphatic tumor spread. Rac1 is a kind of polarity related protein. It plays an important role in invasion and metastasis in tumors. We here investigated the expression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity status in breast cancer and evaluated their value for prognosis in breast cancer. The association of the expression of Rac1 and MUC-1 with clinicopathological parameters and prognostic significance was evaluated in 162 cases of IDC-NOS paraffin-embedded tissues by immunohistochemical method. The Rac1 messenger RNA expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 30 breast cancer patients, which was divided into two groups of partial reverse cell polarity and no partial reverse cell polarity. We found that lymph node metastasis of partial reverse cell polarity patients was higher than no partial reverse cell polarity patients (Z = -4.030, p = 0.000). Rac1 was upregulated in partial reverse cell polarity group than no partial reverse cell polarity group (Z = -3.164, p = 0.002), and there was correlationship between the expression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity status (r s  = 0.249, p = 0.001). The level of Rac1 messenger RNA expression in partial reverse cell polarity group was significantly higher compared to no partial reverse cell polarity group (t = -2.527, p = 0.017). Overexpression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity correlates with poor prognosis of IDC-NOS patients (p = 0.011). Partial reverse cell polarity and lymph node metastasis remained as independent predictors for poor disease-free survival of IDC-NOS (p = 0.023, p = 0.046). Our study suggests that partial reverse cell polarity may lead to poor prognosis of breast cancer. Overexpression of Rac1 may lead to polarity change in IDC-NOS of the breast. Therefore, Rac1 could be a

  5. Brain cytochrome oxidase subunit complementary DNAs: isolation, subcloning, sequencing, light and electron microscopic in situ hybridization of transcripts, and regulation by neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Riley, M T; Mullen, M A; Huang, Z; Guyer, C

    1997-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to isolate, for the first time, cytochrome oxidase subunit genes from murine brain complementary DNA library and to characterize the expression of these genes from mitochondrial and nuclear sources at both light and electron microscopic levels. Brain subunit III (mitochondrial) shared 100% identity with that of murine L cells. Subunit VIa (nuclear) was known to have tissue-specific isoforms in other species: the ubiquitous liver isoform and the heart/muscle isoform. Our brain subunit VIa shared 93% homology with that of the rat liver and 100% identity with the recently reported murine liver isoform, which is only 62% identical to that of the rat heart isoform. In situ hybridization with riboprobes revealed messenger RNA labelling that was similar, though not identical, to that of cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Monocular enucleation in adult mice induced a significant down-regulation of both subunit messages in the contralateral lateral geniculate nucleus. However, the decrease in subunit III messenger RNAs surpassed that of subunit VIa at all time periods examined, suggesting that mitochondrial gene expression is more tightly regulated by neuronal activity than that of nuclear ones. At the electron microscopic level, subunit III messenger RNA was localized to the mitochondrial compartment in both cell bodies and processes, while that of nuclear-encoded subunit VIa was present exclusively in the extramitochondrial compartment of somata and not of dendrites or axons. Surprisingly, the message was primarily associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a novel pathway for its synthesis and trafficking. Our results indicate that the unique properties of neurons impose special requirements for subunits of a single mitochondrial enzyme with dual genomic origins. At sites of high energy demands (such as postsynaptic dendrites and some axon terminals), mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome oxidase subunits can be locally

  6. Intracellular interactions of umeclidinium and vilanterol in human airway smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh N

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nooreen Shaikh,1,2 Malcolm Johnson,3 David A Hall,4 Kian Fan Chung,1,2 John H Riley,3 Sally Worsley,5 Pankaj K Bhavsar1,2 1Experimental Studies, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, 2Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London, 3Respiratory Global Franchise, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, 4Fibrosis and Lung Injury Development Planning Unit, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, 5Respiratory Research & Development, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK Background: Intracellular mechanisms of action of umeclidinium (UMEC, a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist, and vilanterol (VI, a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor (β2R agonist, were investigated in target cells: human airway smooth-muscle cells (ASMCs. Materials and methods: ASMCs from tracheas of healthy lung-transplant donors were treated with VI, UMEC, UMEC and VI combined, or control compounds (salmeterol, propranolol, ICI 118.551, or methacholine [MCh]. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i using a fluorescence assay, and regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2 messenger RNA using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: VI and salmeterol (10–12–10–6 M induced cAMP production from ASMCs in a concentration-dependent manner, which was greater for VI at all concentrations. β2R antagonism by propranolol or ICI 118.551 (10–12–10–4 M resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of VI-induced cAMP production, and ICI 118.551 was more potent. MCh (5×10–6 M, 30 minutes attenuated VI-induced cAMP production (P<0.05, whereas pretreatment with UMEC (10–8 M, 1 hour restored the magnitude of VI-induced cAMP production. ASMC stimulation with MCh (10–11–5×10–6 M resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i, which was attenuated with UMEC pretreatment. Reduction of MCh-induced [Ca2+]i release was greater with UMEC + VI versus

  7. Duodenal Sodium/Glucose Cotransporter 1 Expression Under Fasting Conditions Is Associated With Postload Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Suraci, Evelina; Arcidiacono, Gaetano Paride; Cimellaro, Antonio; Mignogna, Chiara; Presta, Ivan; Andreozzi, Francesco; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Perticone, Francesco; Donato, Giuseppe; Luzza, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with a higher intestinal expression of the glucose transporters sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2). It is currently unsettled whether prediabetes conditions characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL (8.6 mmol/L) (NGT-1h-high) are associated with increased expression of these glucose carriers in the intestine. We evaluated whether duodenal abundance of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 is augmented in subjects with IGT and NGT-1h-high, in comparison with subjects with NGT and 1-hour postload glucose ˂155 mg/dL (NGT-1h-low). Cross-sectional. A total of 54 individuals underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Duodenal SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 protein and messenger RNA levels were assessed by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Of the 54 subjects examined, 18 had NGT-1h-low, 12 had NGT-1h-high, 12 had IGT, and 12 had T2DM. Duodenal SGLT-1 protein and messenger RNA levels were significantly higher in individuals with NGT-1h-high, IGT, or T2DM in comparison with NGT-1h-low subjects. GLUT-2 abundance was higher in individuals with T2DM in comparison with NGT-1h-low subjects; no substantial increase in GLUT-2 expression was observed in NGT-1h-high or IGT individuals. Univariate correlations showed that duodenal SGLT-1 abundance was positively correlated with 1-hour postload plasma glucose levels (r = 0.44; P = 0.003) but not with fasting or 2-hour postload glucose levels. Duodenal SGLT-1 expression is increased in individuals with 1-hour postload hyperglycemia or IGT, as well as in subjects with T2DM, and it positively correlates with early postload glucose excursion. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  8. Differential regulation of fos family genes in the ventrolateral and dorsomedial subdivisions of the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus.

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    Schwartz, W J; Carpino, A; de la Iglesia, H O; Baler, R; Klein, D C; Nakabeppu, Y; Aronin, N

    2000-01-01

    Extensive studies have established that light regulates c-fos gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of an endogenous circadian clock, but relatively little is known about the expression of genes structurally related to c-fos, including fra-1, fra-2 and fosB. We analysed the photic and temporal regulation of these genes at the messenger RNA and immunoreactive protein levels in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus, and we found different expression patterns after photic stimulation and depending on location in the ventrolateral or dorsomedial subdivisions. In the ventrolateral suprachiasmatic nucleus, c-fos, fra-2 and fosB expression was stimulated after a subjective-night (but not subjective-day) light pulse. Expression of the fra-2 gene was prolonged following photic stimulation, with elevated messenger RNA and protein levels that appeared unchanged for at least a few hours beyond the c-fos peak. Unlike c-fos and fra-2, the fosB gene appeared to be expressed constitutively in the ventrolateral suprachiasmatic nucleus throughout the circadian cycle; immunohistochemical analysis suggested that delta FosB was the protein product accounting for this constitutive expression, while FosB was induced by the subjective-night light pulse. In the dorsomedial suprachiasmatic nucleus, c-fos and fra-2 expression exhibited an endogenous circadian rhythm, with higher levels during the early subjective day, although the relative abundance was much lower than that measured after light pulses in the ventrolateral suprachiasmatic nucleus. Double-label immunohistochemistry suggested that some of the dorsomedial cells responsible for the circadian expression of c-Fos also synthesized arginine vasopressin. No evidence of suprachiasmatic nucleus fra-1 expression was found. In summary, fos family genes exhibit differences in their specific expression patterns in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, including their photic and circadian regulation in separate cell populations in the

  9. Intermittent hypoxia training blunts cerebrocortical presenilin 1 overexpression and amyloid-β accumulation in ethanol-withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Mallet, Robert T; Metzger, Daniel B; Jung, Marianna E

    2017-07-01

    Abrupt cessation of chronic alcohol consumption triggers signaling cascades that harm vulnerable brain regions and produce neurobehavioral deficits. We have demonstrated that a program of intermittent, normobaric hypoxia training (IHT) in rats prevents brain damage and neurobehavioral impairment resulting from abrupt ethanol withdrawal (EW). Moreover, EW induced expression of stress-activated protein kinase p38 and presenilin 1 (PS1), the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase that produces the neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42. We tested the hypotheses that 1 ) IHT limits EW-induced activation of the p38-PS1 axis, thereby attenuating γ-secretase activation and Aβ accumulation, and 2 ) EW disables heat shock protein 25 (HSP25), a p38 substrate, molecular chaperone, and antioxidant, and provokes protein carbonylation in a manner suppressed by IHT. Adult male rats completed two cycles of a 4-wk ethanol diet (6.5% wt/vol) and a 3-wk EW or an isocaloric, dextrin-based control diet. A 20-day IHT program (5-8 daily cycles of 5-10 min of 9.5-10% fractional inspired O 2 + 4 min of 21% fractional inspired O 2 ) was administered during the first EW phase. After the second EW phase, the brain was excised and the prefrontal cortex extracted. PS1, phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), and HSP25 were analyzed by immunoblot, PS1 messenger RNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, protein carbonyl content by spectrometry, and Aβ40 and Aβ42 contents by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IHT attenuated the EW-associated increases in PS1, p-p38, Aβ40, Aβ42, and protein carbonyl contents, but not that of PS1 messenger RNA, while preserving functionally competent HSP25 dimers in EW rats. Collectively, these findings suggest that IHT may attenuate EW-induced γ-secretase overactivation by suppressing activation of the p38-PS1 axis and by preventing oxidative protein damage. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Radiation-induced Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in gastric cancer cells with latent EBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Athira; Uwatoko, Futoshi; Yamamoto, Megumi; Tomita, Kazuo; Majima, Hideyuki J; Akiba, Suminori; Koriyama, Chihaya

    2017-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpes virus with oncogenic activity, can be found in 6%-16% of gastric carcinomas worldwide. In Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma, only a few latent genes of the virus are expressed. Ionizing irradiation was shown to induce lytic Epstein-Barr virus infection in lymphoblastoid cell lines with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this study, we examined the effect of ionizing radiation on the Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in a gastric epithelial cancer cell line (SNU-719, an Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma cell line). Irradiation with X-ray (dose = 5 and 10 Gy; dose rate = 0.5398 Gy/min) killed approximately 25% and 50% of cultured SNU-719 cells, respectively, in 48 h. Ionizing radiation increased the messenger RNA expression of immediate early Epstein-Barr virus lytic genes (BZLF1 and BRLF1), determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, in a dose-dependent manner at 48 h and, to a slightly lesser extent, at 72 h after irradiation. Similar findings were observed for other Epstein-Barr virus lytic genes (BMRF1, BLLF1, and BcLF1). After radiation, the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 messenger RNA increased and reached a peak in 12-24 h, and the high-level expression of the Epstein-Barr virus immediate early genes can convert latent Epstein-Barr virus infection into the lytic form and result in the release of infectious Epstein-Barr virus. To conclude, Ionizing radiation activates lytic Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in the SNU-719 cell line mainly through nuclear factor kappaB activation. We made a brief review of literature to explore underlying mechanism involved in transforming growth factor beta-induced Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. A possible involvement of nuclear factor kappaB was hypothesized.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed ovarian genes during primary and early secondary oocyte growth in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliev Dimitar B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed ovarian genes during primary and early secondary oocyte growth in coho salmon, a semelparous teleost that exhibits synchronous follicle development. Methods Reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries were generated from ovaries with perinucleolus (P or cortical alveolus (CA stage follicles and selected genes were assessed with quantitative PCR (qPCR. An assessment of changes in RNA composition during oocyte growth and its relationship to transcript levels was also conducted. Results SSH revealed several differentially expressed genes during early oogenesis, some which will not likely be utilized until 1–3 years later in salmon. Zona pellucida glycoprotein (zp genes, vitellogenin receptor (vldlr isoforms, cathepsin B (ctsba, cyclin E (ccne, a DnaJ transcript (dnaja2, and a ferritin subunit (fth3 were significantly elevated at the P stage, while a C-type lectin, retinol dehydrogenase (rdh1, and a coatomer protein subunit (cope were upregulated at the CA stage. Putative follicle cell transcripts such as anti-Müllerian hormone (amh, lipoprotein lipase (lpl, apolipoprotein E (apoe, gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr also increased significantly at the CA stage. The analysis of RNA composition during oocyte growth showed that the total RNA yield and proportion of messenger RNA relative to non-polyadenylated RNAs declined as oogenesis progressed. This influenced apparent transcript levels depending on the type of RNA template used and normalization method. Conclusion In coho salmon, which exhibit a dramatic change in oocyte size and RNA composition during oogenesis, use of messenger RNA as template and normalization of qPCR data to a housekeeping gene, ef1a, yielded results that best reflected transcript abundance within the ovarian follicle. Synthesis of zp transcripts and proteins involved in

  12. Supplementation with small-extracellular vesicles from ovarian follicular fluid during in vitro production modulates bovine embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gabriella M.; del Collado, Maite; Sampaio, Rafael V.; Sangalli, Juliano R.; Silva, Luciano A.; Pinaffi, Fábio V. L.; Jardim, Izabelle B.; Cesar, Marcelo C.; Nogueira, Marcelo F. G.; Cesar, Aline S. M.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Perecin, Felipe; Meirelles, Flávio V.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy success results from the interaction of multiple factors, among them are folliculogenesis and early embryonic development. Failure during these different processes can lead to difficulties in conception. Alternatives to overcome these problems are based on assisted reproductive techniques. Extracellular vesicles are cell-secreted vesicles present in different body fluids and contain bioactive materials, such as messenger RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), and proteins. Thus, our hypothesis is that extracellular vesicles from follicular fluid from 3–6 mm ovarian follicles can modulate bovine embryo development in vitro. To test our hypothesis follicular fluid from bovine ovaries was aspirated and small-extracellular vesicles (extracellular vesicles (EVs) were utilized for functional experiments investigating their role in modulating messenger RNA, microRNA as well as global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels of bovine blastocysts. EVs from 3–6 mm follicles were used for RNA-seq and miRNA analysis. Functional annotation analysis of the EVs transcripts revealed messages related to chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. EVs treatment during oocyte maturation and embryo development causes changes in blastocyst rates, as well as changes in the transcription levels of genes related to embryonic metabolism and development. Supplementation with EVs from 3–6 mm follicles during oocyte maturation and early embryo development (until the 4-cell stage) increased the levels of bta-miR-631 (enriched in EVs from 3–6 mm follicles) in embryos. Interestingly, the addition of EVs from 3–6 mm follicles induced changes in global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels compared to embryos produced by the standard in vitro production system. Our results indicate that the supplementation of culture media with EVs isolated from the follicular fluid of 3–6 mm follicles during oocyte maturation and early embryo development can partially modify

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, and MM-MTA on Human Alveolar Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Terms of Biocompatibility and Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margunato, Suzan; Taşlı, Pakize Neslihan; Aydın, Safa; Karapınar Kazandağ, Meriç; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell technology has been a great hope for the regeneration of cells of pulp-dentin complex and dental structures together with surrounding bone and periodontium. The main challenge in the regeneration process is a successful combination of stem cells and efficient inductors such as inductive biomaterials. In this regard, today, manufacturers propose novel tooth filling materials. The current study was aimed to compare the effect of ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France), and MM-MTA (Micro-Mega, Besançon Cedex, France) on the cell viability, hard tissue deposition capacity, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) derived from mandibular bone. Dental materials were packed into Teflon rings (Grover Corp, Milwaukee, WI) and placed on Transwell inserts (Corning, Corning, NY) to determine the toxicity of tooth filling materials by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H tetrazolium assay on days 1, 3, 7, and 14; 20% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a positive control for the toxicity assay. hBMSCs were characterized by their surface markers with mesenchymal stem cell antibodies. Teflon rings were cocultured with hBMSCs followed by the induction of osteogenic differentiation. The osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs and hard tissue formation of the materials were evaluated by analyzing the messenger RNA expression levels of osteonectin, Runt-related transcription factor 2, and collagen type 1A by real-time polymerase chain reaction expression analysis, measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity, and visualization of calcium deposits by alizarin red staining. MTA, Biodentine, and MM-MTA did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect on hBMSCs after 14 days in culture. Even though all the materials significantly stimulate (P Biodentine or MM-MTA according to the messenger RNA expression, alkaline phosphatase, immunocytochemistry

  14. Biodentine induces human dental pulp stem cell differentiation through mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhirong; Kohli, Meetu R; Yu, Qing; Kim, Syngcuk; Qu, Tiejun; He, Wen-xi

    2014-07-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossès, France), a new tricalcium silicate cement formulation, has been introduced as a bioactive dentine substitute to be used in direct contact with pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to the material and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signal pathways played a regulatory role in Biodentine-induced odontoblast differentiation. hDPCs obtained from impacted third molars were incubated with Biodentine. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of messenger RNA expression of the following differentiation gene markers: osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Cell cultures in the presence of Biodentine were exposed to specific inhibitors of MAPK (U0126, SB203580, and SP600125), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and CaMKII (KN-93) pathways to evaluate the regulatory effect on the expression of these markers and mineralization assay. Biodentine significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation and the expression of OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP. The MAPK inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (U0126) and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) significantly decreased the Biodentine-induced mineralized differentiation of hDPSCs and OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP messenger RNA expression, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580) had no effect. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 significantly attenuated and the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate further enhanced the up-regulation of Biodentine-induced gene expression and mineralization. Biodentine is a bioactive and biocompatible material capable

  15. Netrin-1 Protects Hepatocytes Against Cell Death Through Sustained Translation During the Unfolded Protein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlali, Thomas; Plissonnier, Marie-Laure; Romero-López, Cristina; Michelet, Maud; Ducarouge, Benjamin; Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo; Zoulim, Fabien; Mehlen, Patrick; Parent, Romain

    2016-05-01

    Netrin-1, a multifunctional secreted protein, is up-regulated in cancer and inflammation. Netrin-1 blocks apoptosis induced by the prototypical dependence receptors deleted in colorectal carcinoma and uncoordinated phenotype-5. Although the unfolded protein response (UPR) triggers apoptosis on exposure to stress, it first attempts to restore endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis to foster cell survival. Importantly, UPR is implicated in chronic liver conditions including hepatic oncogenesis. Netrin-1's implication in cell survival on UPR in this context is unknown. Isolation of translational complexes, determination of RNA secondary structures by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and primer extension/dimethyl sulfate, bicistronic constructs, as well as conventional cell biology and biochemistry approaches were used on in vitro-grown hepatocytic cells, wild-type, and netrin-1 transgenic mice. HepaRG cells constitute a bona fide model for UPR studies in vitro through adequate activation of the 3 sensors of the UPR (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)), inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), and activated transcription factor 6 (ATF6). The netrin-1 messenger RNA 5'-end was shown to fold into a complex double pseudoknot and bear E-loop motifs, both of which are representative hallmarks of related internal ribosome entry site regions. Cap-independent translation of netrin 5' untranslated region-driven luciferase was observed on UPR in vitro. Unlike several structurally related oncogenic transcripts (l-myc, c-myc, c-myb), netrin-1 messenger RNA was selected for translation during UPR both in human hepatocytes and in mice livers. Depletion of netrin-1 during UPR induces apoptosis, leading to cell death through an uncoordinated phenotype-5A/C-mediated involvement of protein phosphatase 2A and death-associated protein kinase 1 in vitro and in netrin transgenic mice. UPR-resistant, internal ribosome entry site-driven netrin-1 translation leads to

  16. Dendrobium candidum inhibits MCF-7 cells proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and regulating key biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jing Sun,1 Yidi Guo,1 Xueqi Fu,1–3 Yongsen Wang,1 Ye Liu,1 Bo Huo,1 Jun Sheng,4 Xin Hu1–3 1School of Life Sciences, 2Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of Ministry of Education, 3National Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 4Yunnan Research Centre for Advance Tea Processing, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, People’s Republic of China Background: Breast cancer is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in women. In recent years, Dendrobium candidum has played a part in antihyperthyroidism and anticancer drugs. This study aims to examine the antitumor effect of D. candidum on breast cancer. Methods: Human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A were used to observe the effects of D. candidum treatment on human breast cancer. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was employed to examine the cell proliferation of the MCF-7 and MCF10A cells. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the key molecules and biomarkers in breast cancer pathology. Cell cycle was analyzed by using Becton Dickinson FACScan cytofluorometer. Results: The results indicated that D. candidum significantly decreased cell viability at different concentrations compared to the control group (P<0.05. D. candidum-treated MCF-7 cells in the G2/M phase was significantly increased compared to the control group (P<0.05. The messenger RNA levels of estrogen receptor alpha, IGFBP2, IGFBP4, and GATA3 were significantly decreased, and the messenger RNA and protein levels of ELF5, p53, p21, p18, CDH1, CDH2, and p12 were significantly increased, compared to the control group (P<0.05. The protein levels of estrogen receptor alpha, PGR, GATA3, and Ki67 were significantly decreased and the protein levels of p53 and ELF5 were significantly increased compared to the control group (P

  17. Gene therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, T R; Laube, B L

    2001-09-01

    Theoretically, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene replacement during the neonatal period can decrease morbidity and mortality from cystic fibrosis (CF). In vivo gene transfers have been accomplished in CF patients. Choice of vector, mode of delivery to airways, translocation of genetic information, and sufficient expression level of the normalized CFTR gene are issues that currently are being addressed in the field. The advantages and limitations of viral vectors are a function of the parent virus. Viral vectors used in this setting include adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV). Initial studies with Ad vectors resulted in a vector that was efficient for gene transfer with dose-limiting inflammatory effects due to the large amount of viral protein delivered. The next generation of Ad vectors, with more viral coding sequence deletions, has a longer duration of activity and elicits a lesser degree of cell-mediated immunity in mice. A more recent generation of Ad vectors has no viral genes remaining. Despite these changes, the problem of humoral immunity remains with Ad vectors. A variety of strategies such as vector systems requiring single, or widely spaced, administrations, pharmacologic immunosuppression at administration, creation of a stealth vector, modification of immunogenic epitopes, or tolerance induction are being considered to circumvent humoral immunity. AAV vectors have been studied in animal and human models. They do not appear to induce inflammatory changes over a wide range of doses. The level of CFTR messenger RNA expression is difficult to ascertain with AAV vectors since the small size of the vector relative to the CFTR gene leaves no space for vector-specific sequences on which to base assays to distinguish endogenous from vector-expressed messenger RNA. In general, AAV vectors appear to be safe and have superior duration profiles. Cationic liposomes are lipid-DNA complexes. These vectors generally have been

  18. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  19. Distinct Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Clinical, Cytological, and Biochemical Phenotype in an Adult Patient With 1 Mutated, Overexpressed Allele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jecel MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C is a rare autosomal-recessive neurovisceral lysosomal storage disease. We report on a juvenile onset, now 25-year-old female patient with typical neurologic symptoms, including vertical gaze palsy, of NP-C. The diagnosis was supported by a positive filipin test (“variant biochemical phenotype” of cholesterol accumulation in cultured fibroblasts, high numbers of “Niemann-Pick cells” in the bone marrow, and 1 positive out of 3 NP-C biomarkers tested, but NP-C was not definitely confirmed genetically. She showed only 1 known NPC1 variant (3 bp deletion in exon 18; p.N916del; this allele, however, being distinctly overexpressed at the messenger RNA level as compared to the wild-type allele, as a not as yet clarified (copathogenic? phenomenon. The patient’s mother, also carrying the p.N916del allele but without overexpression, has a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system classified as multiple sclerosis. However, her severe clinical phenotype includes some signs also consistent with NP-C. The laboratory diagnosis of NP-C can be challenging in detecting novel disease constellations.

  20. Role of Treg and TH17 cells of the gastric mucosa in children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Joo Hyun; Seo, Jeong Wan; Cho, Min-Sun; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck; Sung, Hye Youn

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of FOXP3, interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, IL-17A, and T helper 17 (TH17) cells/FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells balance in the gastric mucosa of children with Helicobacter pylori infection, in relation to the gastric histopathology. Antral mucosal biopsies were obtained from 20 children with H pylori(+) gastritis and 20 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Histopathology was assessed by the updated Sydney classification. Gene expression of FOXP3, IL-10, and TGF-β1 was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining for FOXP3+ Treg and TH17 cells was performed. The gene expression levels of FOXP3, TGF-β1, and IL-10 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the number of FOXP3+ Treg were significantly higher in the H pylori(+) gastritis group than in the control group (P pylori(+) gastritis group (P pylori(+) gastritis group (P pylori(+) gastritis group than in the control group (P pylori(+) gastritis group (P pylori(+) gastritis group (P gastritis.

  1. A systemic evaluation of cardiac differentiation from mRNA reprogrammed human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ashish; Verma, Vinod; Nandihalli, Manasi; Ramachandra, Chrishan J A; Sequiera, Glen L; Sudibyo, Yuliansa; Chung, Yingying; Sun, William; Shim, Winston

    2014-01-01

    Genetically unmodified cardiomyocytes mandated for cardiac regenerative therapy is conceivable by "foot-print free" reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). In this study, we report generation of foot-print free hiPSC through messenger RNA (mRNA) based reprograming. Subsequently, we characterize cardiomyocytes derived from these hiPSC using molecular and electrophysiological methods to characterize their applicability for regenerative medicine. Our results demonstrate that mRNA-iPSCs differentiate ontogenetically into cardiomyocytes with increased expression of early commitment markers of mesoderm, cardiac mesoderm, followed by cardiac specific transcriptional and sarcomeric structural and ion channel genes. Furthermore, these cardiomyocytes stained positively for sarcomeric and ion channel proteins. Based on multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings, these mRNA-hiPSC derived cardiomyocytes responded predictably to various pharmacologically active drugs that target adrenergic, sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The cardiomyocytes responded chronotropically to isoproterenol in a dose dependent manner, inotropic activity of nifidipine decreased spontaneous contractions. Moreover, Sotalol and E-4031 prolonged QT intervals, while TTX reduced sodium influx. Our results for the first time show a systemic evaluation based on molecular, structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes differentiated from mRNA-iPSC. These results, coupled with feasibility of generating patient-specific iPSCs hold great promise for the development of large-scale generation of clinical grade cardiomyocytes for cardiac regenerative medicine.

  2. Effect of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with lactoferrin in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Iafisco, Michele; Adamiano, Alessio; Tampieri, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a bioactive glycoprotein that became recently interesting in the field of bone regeneration for its modulatory effect on bone cells. On the basis of this evidence this work aims to functionalize biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals with LF to study their effect on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The orientation of LF on the HA surface was analyzed by spectroscopic and thermal techniques. Three samples with different amounts of LF attached to HA nanocrystals were tested in vitro. The combined effect of HA and LF on MSC proliferation and morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene expression were evaluated at different time points. The sample with the lowest LF amount showed the best bioactivity probably due to the formation of a single layer of protein with a better molecular orientation. Coupling of HA-LF did not affect cell proliferation and morphology, while analysis of HA-LF on ALP activity and messenger RNA expression of the selected genes, demonstrated the role of HA-LF in the induction of osteogenic markers. HA-LF represents a promising system to be used to manufacture bioactive functional materials in tissue engineering (as scaffolds, injectable cements, or coatings for metallic implants) with enhanced anabolic activity to treat bone diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Supplementation of enzyme-treated soy protein saves dietary protein and promotes digestive and absorptive ability referring to TOR signaling in juvenile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weiwei; Jiang, Weidan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme-treated soy protein (ETSP) supplementation in the low-protein diet on growth performance, digestive and absorptive capacities, and related signaling molecules' gene expressions in juvenile Jian carp. The results showed that percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed intake (FI) were decreased by reducing dietary protein from 34 to 32% (P  0.05). Compared with the low-protein diet, appropriate ETSP supplementation in the low-protein diet increased (P alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and Na + /K + -ATPase activities in all intestinal segments; and (4) the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of trypsin, lipase, and amylase in hepatopancreas and γ-GT in the mid (MI) and distal (DI) intestine, alkaline phosphatase in MI, and Na + /K + -ATPase and target of rapamycin in all intestinal segments. At the same time, appropriate ETSP supplementation in the low-protein diet downregulated the mRNA levels of AKP in the DI and eIF4E-binding protein 2 in all intestinal segments (P dietary protein. Supplementation of optimal ETSP in the low-protein diet enhanced the digestive and absorptive abilities and regulated the signaling molecules related to the TOR signaling pathway.

  4. The Production of Curli Amyloid Fibers Is Deeply Integrated into the Biology of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel R.; Price, Janet E.; Burby, Peter E.; Blanco, Luz P.; Chamberlain, Justin; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    Curli amyloid fibers are the major protein component of the extracellular matrix produced by Enterobacteriaceae during biofilm formation. Curli are required for proper biofilm development and environmental persistence by Escherichia coli. Here, we present a complete and vetted genetic analysis of functional amyloid fiber biogenesis. The Keio collection of single gene deletions was screened on Congo red indicator plates to identify E. coli mutants that had defective amyloid production. We discovered that more than three hundred gene products modulated curli production. These genes were involved in fundamental cellular processes such as regulation, environmental sensing, respiration, metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, transport, and protein turnover. The alternative sigma factors, σS and σE, had opposing roles in curli production. Mutations that induced the σE or Cpx stress response systems had reduced curli production, while mutant strains with increased σS levels had increased curli production. Mutations in metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis and the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), produced less curli. Regulation of the master biofilm regulator, CsgD, was diverse, and the screen revealed several proteins and small RNAs (sRNA) that regulate csgD messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Using previously published studies, we found minimal overlap between the genes affecting curli biogenesis and genes known to impact swimming or swarming motility, underlying the distinction between motile and sessile lifestyles. Collectively, the diversity and number of elements required suggest curli production is part of a highly regulated and complex developmental pathway in E. coli. PMID:29088115

  5. Development and validation of quantitative PCR assays to measure cytokine transcript levels in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason; Hunter, Margaret; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2018-01-01

    Cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. Because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. To detect and assess early immune changes in endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative PCR assays to measure mRNA transcription levels for the cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ; interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α, and the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin (reference genes). Assays were successfully validated using blood samples from free-ranging, apparently healthy manatees from the east and west coasts of central Florida. No cytokine or housekeeping gene transcription levels were significantly different among age classes or sexes. However, the transcription levels for GAPDH, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ were significantly higher (Pin manatees from the east coast of Florida than they were from those from the west coast. We found IL-10 and β-actin to be consistent between sites and identified β-actin as a good candidate for use as a reference gene in future studies. Our assays can aid in the investigation of manatee immune response to physical trauma and novel or ongoing environmental stressors.

  6. Heregulin-expressing HER2-positive breast and gastric cancer exhibited heterogeneous susceptibility to the anti-HER2 agents lapatinib, trastuzumab and T-DM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonagase, Yoshikane; Yonesaka, Kimio; Kawakami, Hisato; Watanabe, Satomi; Haratani, Koji; Takahama, Takayuki; Takegawa, Naoki; Ueda, Hiroto; Tanizaki, Junko; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Takeshi; Takeda, Masayuki; Chiba, Yasutaka; Tamura, Takao; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Tsurutani, Junji

    2016-12-20

    Overexpression of heregulin, a HER3 ligand, is one mechanism that confers resistance to the anti-HER2 agents trastuzumab and lapatinib. We investigated the impact of heregulin expression on the efficacy of HER2-targeted therapeutic agents, including trastuzumab, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and lapatinib, in vitro and in vivo and evaluated the heregulin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in specimens from patients with HER2-positive breast or gastric cancer. Cell proliferation and apoptosis assays demonstrated that heregulin conferred robust resistance to lapatinib and trastuzumab via HER3-Akt pathway activation followed by survivin overexpression; however, heregulin conferred minimal or no resistance to T-DM1 and paclitaxel. The heregulin mRNA level of one of 10 patients was up-regulated after the acquisition of resistance to trastuzumab-based therapy. SK-BR-3, NCI-N87, BT-474, MDA-MB-453, HCC1954, SNU-216 and 4-1ST cells were pharmacologically treated with recombinant heregulin or transfected with the heregulin gene. We also assessed the expression of heregulin mRNA in HER2-positive breast or gastric cancer samples before and after trastuzumab-based therapy using a RT-PCR-based method. mRNA up-regulation of heregulin was observed in clinical breast cancer specimens during trastuzumab-based treatment, but heregulin overexpression had a limited effect on the sensitivity to T-DM1 in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Bone Marrow Stem Cell Chemotactic Activity Is Induced by Elevated CXCl12 in Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridi, Irene; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Cosar, Emine; Ersoy, Gulcin Sahin; Taylor, Hugh S

    2017-04-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory gynecological disorder caused by the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Endometriosis produces chemokines, including CXCL12, that attract bone marrow cells to the lesions. In this study, we describe the expression, localization, and chemotactic activity of CXCL12 in endometriotic lesions. Biopsies were collected both from women with endometriosis undergoing laparoscopy and control endometrium from women without endometriosis. Expression of CXCl12 and CXCR4 messenger RNA was increased approximately 4- and 6-fold, respectively, in endometriosis compared to eutopic endometrium. Immunohistochemistry of lesions revealed that CXCR4 was expressed in the stroma and epithelium in both endometriosis and control eutopic endometrium. The level of CXCR4 protein expression was significantly higher in all cellular compartments of the endometriotic lesions compared to control endometrium. CXCL12 protein expression was also higher in endometriotic lesions and was greatest in the epithelial compartment. CXCL12 was increased more in the condition media of cultured endometriosis than in controls as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Transwell chamber migration was used to demonstrate 2-fold increased chemoattraction of mouse bone marrow stem cells toward CXCL12 in the endometriotic-conditioned medium compared with eutopic endometrium. Our results indicate that a preferential recruitment of stem cells to endometriosis can explain how endometriosis outcompetes eutopic endometrium in recruiting the limited supply of circulating stem cells. The CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis is a potential target for the treatment of endometriosis and its associated disorders.

  8. Profiling of Candida albicans gene expression during intra-abdominal candidiasis identifies biologic processes involved in pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J; Xu, Wenjie; Schneider, Frank; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P; Nguyen, M Hong

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of intra-abdominal candidiasis is poorly understood. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with Candida albicans (1 × 10(6) colony-forming units) and sterile stool. nanoString assays were used to quantitate messenger RNA for 145 C. albicans genes within the peritoneal cavity at 48 hours. Within 6 hours after infection, mice developed peritonitis, characterized by high yeast burdens, neutrophil influx, and a pH of 7.9 within peritoneal fluid. Organ invasion by hyphae and early abscess formation were evident 6 and 24 hours after infection, respectively; abscesses resolved by day 14. nanoString assays revealed adhesion and responses to alkaline pH, osmolarity, and stress as biologic processes activated in the peritoneal cavity. Disruption of the highly-expressed gene RIM101, which encodes an alkaline-regulated transcription factor, did not impact cellular morphology but reduced both C. albicans burden during early peritonitis and C. albicans persistence within abscesses. RIM101 influenced expression of 49 genes during intra-abdominal candidiasis, including previously unidentified Rim101 targets. Overexpression of the RIM101-dependent gene SAP5, which encodes a secreted protease, restored the ability of a rim101 mutant to persist within abscesses. A mouse model of intra-abdominal candidiasis is valuable for studying pathogenesis and C. albicans gene expression. RIM101 contributes to persistence within intra-abdominal abscesses, at least in part through activation of SAP5.

  9. Salicylate-induced changes in immediate-early genes in the hippocampal CA1 area

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, HAO; XU, FENG-LEI; YIN, YONG; DA, PENG; YOU, XIAO-DONG; XU, HUI-MIN; TANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that salicylate affects neuronal function via interactions with specific membrane channels/receptors. However, the effect of salicylate on activity and synaptic morphology of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 area remains to be elucidated. The activation of immediate-early genes (IEGs) was reported to correlate with neuronal activity, in particular activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein and early growth response gene 1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of these IEGs, as well that of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B in rats following acute and chronic salicylate treatment. Protein and messenger RNA levels of all three genes were increased in rats following chronic administration of salicylate (300 mg/kg for 10 days), returning to baseline levels 14 days post-cessation of treatment. The transient upregulation of gene expression following treatment was accompanied by ultrastructural alterations in hippocampal CA1 area synapses. An increase in synaptic interface curvature was observed as well as an increased number of presynaptic vesicles; in addition, postsynaptic densities thickened and lengthened. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that chronic exposure to salicylate may lead to structural alteration of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and it was suggested that this process occurs through induced expression of IEGs via NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25873216

  10. A systemic evaluation of cardiac differentiation from mRNA reprogrammed human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mehta

    Full Text Available Genetically unmodified cardiomyocytes mandated for cardiac regenerative therapy is conceivable by "foot-print free" reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC. In this study, we report generation of foot-print free hiPSC through messenger RNA (mRNA based reprograming. Subsequently, we characterize cardiomyocytes derived from these hiPSC using molecular and electrophysiological methods to characterize their applicability for regenerative medicine. Our results demonstrate that mRNA-iPSCs differentiate ontogenetically into cardiomyocytes with increased expression of early commitment markers of mesoderm, cardiac mesoderm, followed by cardiac specific transcriptional and sarcomeric structural and ion channel genes. Furthermore, these cardiomyocytes stained positively for sarcomeric and ion channel proteins. Based on multi-electrode array (MEA recordings, these mRNA-hiPSC derived cardiomyocytes responded predictably to various pharmacologically active drugs that target adrenergic, sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The cardiomyocytes responded chronotropically to isoproterenol in a dose dependent manner, inotropic activity of nifidipine decreased spontaneous contractions. Moreover, Sotalol and E-4031 prolonged QT intervals, while TTX reduced sodium influx. Our results for the first time show a systemic evaluation based on molecular, structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes differentiated from mRNA-iPSC. These results, coupled with feasibility of generating patient-specific iPSCs hold great promise for the development of large-scale generation of clinical grade cardiomyocytes for cardiac regenerative medicine.

  11. Behavior of Gingival Fibroblasts on Titanium Implant Surfaces in Combination with either Injectable-PRF or PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhu Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Various strategies have been employed to speed tissue regeneration using bioactive molecules. Interestingly, platelet concentrates derived from a patient’s own blood have been utilized as a regenerative strategy in recent years. In the present study, a novel liquid platelet formulation prepared without the use of anti-coagulants (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin, i-PRF was compared to standard platelet-rich plasma (PRP with gingival fibroblasts cultured on smooth and roughened titanium implant surfaces. Standard PRP and i-PRF (centrifuged at 700 rpm (60× g for 3 min were compared by assays for fibroblast biocompatibility, migration, adhesion, proliferation, as well as expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, collagen1 (COL1 and fibronectin (FN. The results demonstrate that i-PRF induced significantly higher cell migration, as well as higher messenger RNA (mRNA levels of PDGF, TGF-β, collagen1 and fibronectin when compared to PRP. Furthermore, collagen1 synthesis was highest in the i-PRF group. These findings demonstrate that liquid platelet concentrates can be formulated without the use of anticoagulants and present much translational potential for future research. Future animal and clinical trials are now necessary to further investigate the potential of utilizing i-PRF for soft tissue regenerative protocols in combination with various biomaterials.

  12. Expression of nerve growth factor and its receptors in the uterus of rabbits: functional involvement in prostaglandin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranesi, M; Parillo, F; Leonardi, L; Rebollar, P G; Alonso, B; Petrucci, L; Gobbetti, A; Boiti, C; Arruda-Alencar, J; Moura, A; Zerani, M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate: (1) the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) in the rabbit uterus; and (2) the in vitro effects of NGF on PGF2α and PGE2 synthesis and on the PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) activity by the rabbit uterus. Nerve growth factor, NTRK1, and NGFR were immunolocalized in the luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma cells of the endometrium. reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction indicated the presence of messenger RNA for NGF, NTRK1, and NGFR in the uterus. Nerve growth factor increased (P uterus. NGF/NTRK1 increases PGF2α and PGE2 productions by upregulating NOS and PGE2-9-K activities, whereas NGF/NGFR augments only PGF2α secretion, through an intracellular mechanism that is still unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses. PMID:24451681

  14. Urban air pollution targets the dorsal vagal complex and dark chocolate offers neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Osnaya, Norma; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Maronpot, Robert R; Reed, William; Zhu, Hongtu; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2010-12-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents exposed to fine particulate matter and endotoxin exhibit inflammation of the olfactory bulb, substantia nigra, and vagus nerve. The goal of this study was to model these endpoints in mice and examine the neuroprotective effects of chocolate. Mice exposed to MC air received no treatment or oral dark chocolate and were compared to clean-air mice either untreated or treated intraperitoneally with endotoxin. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and CD14 messenger RNA (mRNA) were quantified after 4, 8, and 16 months of exposure in target brain regions. After 16 months of exposure, the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) exhibited significant inflammation in endotoxin-treated and MC mice (COX-2 and IL-1β P<.001). Mexico City mice had olfactory bulb upregulation of CD14 (P=.002) and significant DVC imbalance in genes for antioxidant defenses, apoptosis, and neurodegeneration. These findings demonstrate sustained DVC inflammation in mice exposed to MC air, which is mitigated by chocolate administration. © The Author(s) 2010

  15. How to design a single-cell RNA-sequencing experiment: pitfalls, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Molin, Alessandra; Di Camillo, Barbara

    2018-01-31

    The sequencing of the transcriptome of single cells, or single-cell RNA-sequencing, has now become the dominant technology for the identification of novel cell types in heterogeneous cell populations or for the study of stochastic gene expression. In recent years, various experimental methods and computational tools for analysing single-cell RNA-sequencing data have been proposed. However, most of them are tailored to different experimental designs or biological questions, and in many cases, their performance has not been benchmarked yet, thus increasing the difficulty for a researcher to choose the optimal single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiment and analysis workflow. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the current available experimental and computational methods developed to handle single-cell RNA-sequencing data and, based on their peculiarities, we suggest possible analysis frameworks depending on specific experimental designs. Together, we propose an evaluation of challenges and open questions and future perspectives in the field. In particular, we go through the different steps of scRNA-seq experimental protocols such as cell isolation, messenger RNA capture, reverse transcription, amplification and use of quantitative standards such as spike-ins and Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMIs). We then analyse the current methodological challenges related to preprocessing, alignment, quantification, normalization, batch effect correction and methods to control for confounding effects. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Features generated for computational splice-site prediction correspond to functional elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur W John

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate selection of splice sites during the splicing of precursors to messenger RNA requires both relatively well-characterized signals at the splice sites and auxiliary signals in the adjacent exons and introns. We previously described a feature generation algorithm (FGA that is capable of achieving high classification accuracy on human 3' splice sites. In this paper, we extend the splice-site prediction to 5' splice sites and explore the generated features for biologically meaningful splicing signals. Results We present examples from the observed features that correspond to known signals, both core signals (including the branch site and pyrimidine tract and auxiliary signals (including GGG triplets and exon splicing enhancers. We present evidence that features identified by FGA include splicing signals not found by other methods. Conclusion Our generated features capture known biological signals in the expected sequence interval flanking splice sites. The method can be easily applied to other species and to similar classification problems, such as tissue-specific regulatory elements, polyadenylation sites, promoters, etc.

  17. Experimental annotation of the human genome using microarray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, D D; Schadt, E E; Armour, C D; He, Y D; Garrett-Engele, P; McDonagh, P D; Loerch, P M; Leonardson, A; Lum, P Y; Cavet, G; Wu, L F; Altschuler, S J; Edwards, S; King, J; Tsang, J S; Schimmack, G; Schelter, J M; Koch, J; Ziman, M; Marton, M J; Li, B; Cundiff, P; Ward, T; Castle, J; Krolewski, M; Meyer, M R; Mao, M; Burchard, J; Kidd, M J; Dai, H; Phillips, J W; Linsley, P S; Stoughton, R; Scherer, S; Boguski, M S

    2001-02-15

    The most important product of the sequencing of a genome is a complete, accurate catalogue of genes and their products, primarily messenger RNA transcripts and their cognate proteins. Such a catalogue cannot be constructed by computational annotation alone; it requires experimental validation on a genome scale. Using 'exon' and 'tiling' arrays fabricated by ink-jet oligonucleotide synthesis, we devised an experimental approach to validate and refine computational gene predictions and define full-length transcripts on the basis of co-regulated expression of their exons. These methods can provide more accurate gene numbers and allow the detection of mRNA splice variants and identification of the tissue- and disease-specific conditions under which genes are expressed. We apply our technique to chromosome 22q under 69 experimental condition pairs, and to the entire human genome under two experimental conditions. We discuss implications for more comprehensive, consistent and reliable genome annotation, more efficient, full-length complementary DNA cloning strategies and application to complex diseases.

  18. Selection of housekeeping genes for normalization by real-time RT-PCR: analysis of Or-MYB1 gene expression in Orobanche ramosa development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Verdejo, C I; Die, J V; Nadal, S; Jiménez-Marín, A; Moreno, M T; Román, B

    2008-08-15

    Real-time PCR has become the method of choice for accurate and in-depth expression studies of candidate genes. To avoid bias, real-time PCR is referred to one or several internal control genes that should not fluctuate among treatments. A need for reference genes in the parasitic plant Orobanche ramosa has emerged, and the studies in this area have not yet been evaluated. In this study, the genes 18S rRNA, Or-act1, Or-tub1, and Or-ubq1 were compared in terms of expression stability using the BestKeeper software program. Among the four common endogenous control genes, Or-act1 and Or-ubq1 were the most stable in O. ramosa samples. In parallel, a study was carried out studying the expression of the transcription factor Or-MYB1 that seemed to be implicated during preinfection stages. The normalization strategy presented here is a prerequisite to accurate real-time PCR expression profiling that, among other things, opens up the possibility of studying messenger RNA levels of low-copy-number-like transcription factors.

  19. Short communication: molecular characterization of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shingo; Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Li, Gebin; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays an important role in the immune system. The p65 subunit is an important part of NF-κB unit, and studies of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-κB (dp65 and cp65) are important in understanding their immune function. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of dp65 and cp65. The dp65 and cp65 complementary DNA encoded 542 and 555 amino acids, respectively, showing a high sequence homology with the mammalian p65 subunit (>87.5%). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the p65 messenger RNA is highly expressed in the dog stomach and cat heart and adipose tissue. Functional NF-κB promoter-luciferase reporter vectors revealed that our isolated dp65 and cp65 cDNA encodes a functionally active protein. Transiently expressed dp65 and cp65 up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels in dog and cat, respectively. These findings suggest that dp65 and cp65 play important roles in regulating immune function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of microRNAs in the Biology of Rare Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Taruscio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rare diseases (RD are characterized by low prevalence and affect not more than five individuals per 10,000 in the European population; they are a large and heterogeneous group of disorders including more than 7,000 conditions and often involve all organs and tissues, with several clinical subtypes within the same disease. Very often information concerning either diagnosis and/or prognosis on many RD is insufficient. microRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by either degrading or blocking translation of messenger RNA targets. Recently, microRNA expression patterns of body fluids underscored their potential as noninvasive biomarkers for various diseases. The role of microRNAs as potential biomarkers has become particularly attractive. The identification of disease-related microRNAs is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases at the molecular level, and is critical for designing specific molecular tools for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Computational analysis of microRNA-disease associations is an important complementary means for prioritizing microRNAs for further experimental examination. In this article, we explored the added value of miRs as biomarkers in a selected panel of RD hitting different tissues/systems at different life stages, but sharing the need of better biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

  1. Extensive sex- and/or hormone-dependent expression of rat housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rajat K; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Shapiro, Bernard H

    2013-01-01

    Identify sex- and hormone-independent housekeeping genes in rat liver by using a commercially available quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array designed to measure the expression of 32 rat housekeeping genes. We found that the levels of five of the genes were sexually dimorphic, 22 genes were overexpressed, and one was underexpressed in multi-hormone-deficient hypophysectomized rats of both sexes. Only three genes fulfilled the stability criteria determined by geNorm and NormFinder as suitable housekeeping genes. Normalizing quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data with either of these three genes alone, the geometric means of any two of the genes, or even the geometric mean of all the three genes, produced similar results. In contrast, application of unproven housekeeping genes could lead to erroneous conclusions, having found that insulin-like growth factor 1 messenger RNA levels could be calculated dramatically either as male or as female predominant depending on the choice of housekeeping gene. It is essential to validate the constancy of housekeeping genes under every experimental condition. (This research protocol was approved by the university's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.).

  2. Identification and validation of suitable housekeeping genes for normalizing quantitative real-time PCR assays in injured peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarotta, Giovanna; Ronchi, Giulia; Friard, Olivier; Galletta, Pantaleo; Perroteau, Isabelle; Geuna, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the peripheral nerve induces dramatic changes in terms of cellular composition that are reflected on RNA quality and quantity, making messenger RNA expression analysis very complex. Several commonly used housekeeping genes are regulated following peripheral nerve injury and are thus not suitable for quantitative real-time PCR normalization; moreover, the presence of pseudogenes in some of them impairs their use. To deal with this problem, we have developed a new method to identify new stable housekeeping genes based on publicly available microarray data on normal and injured nerves. Four new candidate stable genes were identified and validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis on nerves during the different phases after nerve injury: nerve degeneration, regeneration and remyelination. The stability measure of these genes was calculated with both NormFinder and geNorm algorithms and compared with six commonly used housekeeping genes. This procedure allowed us to identify two new and highly stable genes that can be employed for normalizing injured peripheral nerve data: ANKRD27 and RICTOR. Besides providing a tool for peripheral nerve research, our study also describes a simple and cheap procedure that can be used to identify suitable housekeeping genes in other tissues and organs.

  3. Genetic basis for correction of very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency by bezafibrate in patient fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobin-Limballe, S; Djouadi, F; Aubey, F

    2007-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inborn mitochondrial fatty-acid beta-oxidation (FAO) defect associated with a broad mutational spectrum, with phenotypes ranging from fatal cardiopathy in infancy to adolescent-onset myopathy, and for which there is no establi......Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inborn mitochondrial fatty-acid beta-oxidation (FAO) defect associated with a broad mutational spectrum, with phenotypes ranging from fatal cardiopathy in infancy to adolescent-onset myopathy, and for which...... values, for 21 genotypes that mainly corresponded to patients with the myopathic phenotype. In contrast, bezafibrate induced no changes in FAO for 11 genotypes corresponding to severe neonatal or infantile phenotypes. This pattern of response was not due to differential inductions of VLCAD messenger RNA...... for analysis of genetic heterogeneity. Finally, this study emphasizes the potential of bezafibrate, a widely prescribed hypolipidemic drug, for the correction of VLCAD deficiency and exemplifies the integration of molecular information in a therapeutic strategy....

  4. CaMKII inhibition promotes neuronal apoptosis by transcriptionally upregulating Bim expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiwei; Zhu, Lin; Yu, Shaojun; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Chong

    2016-09-28

    The effects of Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) on neuronal apoptosis are complex and contradictory, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) is an important proapoptotic protein under many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, there is no evidence that CaMKII and Bim are mechanistically linked in neuronal apoptosis. In this study, we showed that CaMKII inhibition by the inhibitors KN-62 and myristoylated autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide promoted apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons in a dose-dependent manner. CaMKII inhibition increased Bim protein and messenger RNA levels. The expression of early growth response factor-1, a transcription factor of Bim, was also induced by CaMKII inhibitors. These data suggested that CaMKII repressed the transcriptional expression of Bim. Moreover, knockdown of Bim using small interfering RNAs attenuated the proapoptotic effects of CaMKII inhibition. Taken together, this is the first report to show that CaMKII inhibition transcriptionally upregulates Bim expression to promote neuronal apoptosis, providing new insights into the proapoptotic mechanism of CaMKII inhibition.

  5. The pathogenesis shared between abdominal aortic aneurysms and intracranial aneurysms: a microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Lan, Qing; Wang, Jiangfei; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Jizong

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and intracranial saccular aneurysms (IAs) are the most common types of aneurysms. This study was to investigate the common pathogenesis shared between these two kinds of aneurysms. We collected 12 IAs samples and 12 control arteries from the Beijing Tiantan Hospital and performed microarray analysis. In addition, we utilized the microarray datasets of IAs and AAAs from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), in combination with our microarray results, to generate messenger RNA expression profiles for both AAAs and IAs in our study. Functional exploration and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis were performed. A total of 727 common genes were differentially expressed (404 was upregulated; 323 was downregulated) for both AAAs and IAs. The GO and pathway analyses showed that the common dysregulated genes were mainly enriched in vascular smooth muscle contraction, muscle contraction, immune response, defense response, cell activation, IL-6 signaling and chemokine signaling pathways, etc. The further protein-protein analysis identified 35 hub nodes, including TNF, IL6, MAPK13, and CCL5. These hub node genes were enriched in inflammatory response, positive regulation of IL-6 production, chemokine signaling pathway, and T/B cell receptor signaling pathway. Our study will gain new insight into the molecular mechanisms for the pathogenesis of both types of aneurysms and provide new therapeutic targets for the patients harboring AAAs and IAs.

  6. A regulatory circuit for piwi by the large Maf gene traffic jam in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kuniaki; Inagaki, Sachi; Mituyama, Toutai; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Ono, Yukiteru; Sakota, Eri; Kotani, Hazuki; Asai, Kiyoshi; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C

    2009-10-29

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence retrotransposons in Drosophila germ lines by associating with the PIWI proteins Argonaute 3 (AGO3), Aubergine (Aub) and Piwi. piRNAs in Drosophila are produced from intergenic repetitive genes and piRNA clusters by two systems: the primary processing pathway and the amplification loop. The amplification loop occurs in a Dicer-independent, PIWI-Slicer-dependent manner. However, primary piRNA processing remains elusive. Here we analysed piRNA processing in a Drosophila ovarian somatic cell line where Piwi, but not Aub or AGO3, is expressed; thus, only the primary piRNAs exist. In addition to flamenco, a Piwi-specific piRNA cluster, traffic jam (tj), a large Maf gene, was determined as a new piRNA cluster. piRNAs arising from tj correspond to the untranslated regions of tj messenger RNA and are sense-oriented. piRNA loading on to Piwi may occur in the cytoplasm. zucchini, a gene encoding a putative cytoplasmic nuclease, is required for tj-derived piRNA production. In tj and piwi mutant ovaries, somatic cells fail to intermingle with germ cells and Fasciclin III is overexpressed. Loss of tj abolishes Piwi expression in gonadal somatic cells. Thus, in gonadal somatic cells, tj gives rise simultaneously to two different molecules: the TJ protein, which activates Piwi expression, and piRNAs, which define the Piwi targets for silencing.

  7. Control of African swine fever virus replication by small interfering RNA targeting the A151R and VP72 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Djénéba; Heath, Livio; Albina, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the unique member of the Asfarviridae family and Asfivirus genus. It is an enveloped double-stranded DNA arbovirus that replicates in the cell cytoplasm, similar to poxviruses. There is no vaccine and no treatment available to control this virus. We describe the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the A151R and VP72 (B646L) genes to control the ASFV replication in vitro. Results suggest that siRNA targeting the A151R and VP72 genes can reduce both the virus replication and its levels of messenger RNA transcripts. The reduction was up to 4 log(10) copies on the virus titre and up to 3 log(10) copies on virus RNA transcripts levels. The combination of multiple siRNA did not improve the antiviral effect significantly, compared with use of individual siRNAs. The function of the A151R gene product in the virus replication cycle is yet unclear, but is essential. We also demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit, using small interfering RNA, a virus that replicates exclusively in the cell cytoplasm in specific viral factories.

  8. Isolation of human salivary extracellular vesicles by iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation and their characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Iwai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic methods that focus on the extracellular vesicles (EVs present in saliva have been attracting great attention because of their non-invasiveness. EVs contain biomolecules such as proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA and microRNA (miRNA, which originate from cells that release EVs, making them an ideal source for liquid biopsy. Although there have been many reports on density-based fractionation of EVs from blood and urine, the number of reports on EVs from saliva has been limited, most probably because of the difficulties in separating EVs from viscous saliva using density gradient centrifugation. This article establishes a protocol for the isolation of EVs from human saliva using density gradient centrifugation. The fractionated salivary EVs were characterized by atomic force microscopy, western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicate that salivary EVs have a smaller diameter (47.8±12.3 nm and higher density (1.11 g/ml than EVs isolated from conditioned cell media (74.0±23.5 nm and 1.06 g/ml, respectively. Additionally, to improve the throughput of density-based fractionation of EVs, the original protocol was further modified by using a fixed angle rotor instead of a swinging rotor. It was also confirmed that several miRNAs were expressed strongly in the EV-marker-expressing fractions.

  9. No effect of escitalopram versus placebo on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy individuals: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Soendergaard, Mia H Greisen; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Winkel, Per; Kessing, Lars V

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to play an important role in the course of depression including the response to antidepressants in patients with depression. We aimed to study the effect of an antidepressant intervention on peripheral BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression. We measured changes in BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and whole-blood BDNF levels in 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. We found no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group in the change in BDNF mRNA expression and whole-blood BDNF levels. Post hoc analyses showed a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma escitalopram concentration and change in whole-blood BDNF levels in the escitalopram-treated group. The results of this randomised trial suggest that escitalopram 10 mg has no effect on peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals.

  10. Up-regulation of integrin α6β4 expression by mitogens involved in dairy cow mammary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Liu, Chang; Hao, Yu-Meng; Qu, Bo; Cui, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Na; Gao, Xue-Jun; Li, Qing-Zhang

    2015-03-01

    In dairy cows, the extracellular microenvironment varies significantly from the virgin state to lactation. The function of integrin α6β4 is dependent on cell type and extracellular microenvironment, and the precise expression profile of α6β4 and its effects on mammary development remain to be determined. In the present study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression and localization of integrin α6β4 in Holstein dairy cow mammary glands. The effects of integrin α6β4 on the proliferation induced by mammogenic mitogens were identified by blocking integrin function in purified dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). The results showed that the localization of β4 subunit and its exclusive partner the α6 subunit were not consistent but were co-localized in basal luminal cells and myoepithelial cells, appearing to prefer the basal surface of the plasma membrane. Moreover, α6 and β4 subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) levels changed throughout the stages of dairy cow mammary development, reflected well by protein levels, and remained higher in the virgin and pregnancy states, with duct/alveolus morphogenesis and active cell proliferation, than during lactation, when growth arrest is essential for mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Finally, the upregulation of integrin expression by both mammogenic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 and the inhibited growth of DCMECs by function-blocking integrin antibodies confirmed that integrin α6β4 was indeed involved in dairy cow mammary development.

  11. Stage 3 immature human natural killer cells found in secondary lymphoid tissue constitutively and selectively express the TH17 cytokine interleukin-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tiffany; Becknell, Brian; McClory, Susan; Briercheck, Edward; Freud, Aharon G.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Nuovo, Gerard; Yu, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Considerable functional heterogeneity within human natural killer (NK) cells has been revealed through the characterization of distinct NK-cell subsets. Accordingly, a small subset of CD56+NKp44+NK cells, termed NK-22 cells, was recently described within secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) as IL-22− when resting, with a minor fraction of this population becoming IL-22+ when activated. Here we discover that the vast majority of stage 3 immature NK (iNK) cells in SLT constitutively and selectively express IL-22, a TH17 cytokine important for mucosal immunity, whereas earlier and later stages of NK developmental intermediates do not express IL-22. These iNK cells have a surface phenotype of CD34−CD117+CD161+CD94−, largely lack expression of NKp44 and CD56, and do not produce IFN-γ or possess cytolytic activity. In summary, stage 3 iNK cells are highly enriched for IL-22 and IL-26 messenger RNA, and IL-22 protein production, but do not express IL-17A or IL-17F. PMID:19244159

  12. Mutation in the 3'untranslated region of APP as a genetic determinant of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Wallon, David; Goupil, Claudia; Richard, Anne-Claire; Pottier, Cyril; Dorval, Véronique; Sarov-Rivière, Mariana; Riant, Florence; Hervé, Dominique; Amouyel, Philippe; Guerchet, Maelenn; Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Bebene; Mbelesso, Pascal; Dartigues, Jean-François; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Hébert, Sébastien S; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aβ-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major cause of primary non-traumatic brain hemorrhage. In families with an early onset of the disease, CAA can be due to amyloid precursor protein (APP) pathogenic variants or duplications. APP duplications lead to a ~1.5-fold increased APP expression, resulting in Aβ overproduction and deposition in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels. We hypothesized that rare variants in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of APP might lead to APP overexpression in patients with CAA and no APP pathogenic variant or duplication. We performed direct sequencing of the whole APP 3'UTR in 90 patients with CAA and explored the functional consequences of one previously unreported variant. We identified three sequence variants in four patients, of which a two-base pair deletion (c.*331_*332del) was previously unannotated and absent from 175 controls of same ethnicity. This latter variant was associated with increased APP expression in vivo and in vitro. Bioinformatics and functional assays showed that the APP c.*331_*332del variant affected APP messenger RNA (mRNA) structure and binding of two microRNAs (miR-582-3p and miR-892b), providing a mechanism for the observed effects on APP expression. These results identify APP 3'UTR sequence variants as genetic determinants of Aβ-CAA.

  13. Structural basis of RNA polymerase II backtracking, arrest and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-03-10

    During gene transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) II moves forwards along DNA and synthesizes messenger RNA. However, at certain DNA sequences, Pol II moves backwards, and such backtracking can arrest transcription. Arrested Pol II is reactivated by transcription factor IIS (TFIIS), which induces RNA cleavage that is required for cell viability. Pol II arrest and reactivation are involved in transcription through nucleosomes and in promoter-proximal gene regulation. Here we present X-ray structures at 3.3 Å resolution of an arrested Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II complex with DNA and RNA, and of a reactivation intermediate that additionally contains TFIIS. In the arrested complex, eight nucleotides of backtracked RNA bind a conserved 'backtrack site' in the Pol II pore and funnel, trapping the active centre trigger loop and inhibiting mRNA elongation. In the reactivation intermediate, TFIIS locks the trigger loop away from backtracked RNA, displaces RNA from the backtrack site, and complements the polymerase active site with a basic and two acidic residues that may catalyse proton transfers during RNA cleavage. The active site is demarcated from the backtrack site by a 'gating tyrosine' residue that probably delimits backtracking. These results establish the structural basis of Pol II backtracking, arrest and reactivation, and provide a framework for analysing gene regulation during transcription elongation.

  14. Codon influence on protein expression in E. coli correlates with mRNA levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boël, Grégory; Wong, Kam-Ho; Su, Min; Luff, Jon; Valecha, Mayank; Everett, John K.; Acton, Thomas B.; Xiao, Rong; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Aalberts, Daniel P.; Hunt, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneracy in the genetic code, which enables a single protein to be encoded by a multitude of synonymous gene sequences, has an important role in regulating protein expression, but substantial uncertainty exists concerning the details of this phenomenon. Here we analyze the sequence features influencing protein expression levels in 6,348 experiments using bacteriophage T7 polymerase to synthesize messenger RNA in Escherichia coli. Logistic regression yields a new codon-influence metric that correlates only weakly with genomic codon-usage frequency, but strongly with global physiological protein concentrations and also mRNA concentrations and lifetimes in vivo. Overall, the codon content influences protein expression more strongly than mRNA-folding parameters, although the latter dominate in the initial ~16 codons. Genes redesigned based on our analyses are transcribed with unaltered efficiency but translated with higher efficiency in vitro. The less efficiently translated native sequences show greatly reduced mRNA levels in vivo. Our results suggest that codon content modulates a kinetic competition between protein elongation and mRNA degradation that is a central feature of the physiology and also possibly the regulation of translation in E. coli. PMID:26760206

  15. Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation affects temperature-induced alternative splicing and flowering in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajoro, A; Severing, E; Angenent, G C; Immink, R G H

    2017-06-01

    Global warming severely affects flowering time and reproductive success of plants. Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is an important mechanism underlying ambient temperature-controlled responses in plants, yet its regulation is poorly understood. An increase in temperature promotes changes in plant morphology as well as the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in Arabidopsis thaliana via changes in splicing of key regulatory genes. Here we investigate whether a particular histone modification affects ambient temperature-induced alternative splicing and flowering time. We use a genome-wide approach and perform RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses and histone H3 lysine 36 tri-methylation (H3K36me3) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in plants exposed to different ambient temperatures. Analysis and comparison of these datasets reveal that temperature-induced differentially spliced genes are enriched in H3K36me3. Moreover, we find that reduction of H3K36me3 deposition causes alteration in temperature-induced alternative splicing. We also show that plants with mutations in H3K36me3 writers, eraser, or readers have altered high ambient temperature-induced flowering. Our results show a key role for the histone mark H3K36me3 in splicing regulation and plant plasticity to fluctuating ambient temperature. Our findings open new perspectives for the breeding of crops that can better cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  16. A novel ABO O allele caused by a large deletion covering two exons of the ABO gene identified in a Caucasian family showing discrepant ABO blood typing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzhold, Eva M; Drexler, Camilla; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The presence of ABO subgroup alleles and unusual O alleles often is associated with discrepant serologic findings in ABO blood group typing. In the ABO gene of a Caucasian female and her daughters who had aberrant ABO phenotypes, a novel ABO O allele characterized by a large deletion that included two exons was identified. ABO phenotypes were determined by standard agglutination tests and adsorption-elution studies. Allele-specific sequencing analyses of the ABO gene as well as messenger RNA transcripts were carried out. All three samples showed the same discrepant ABO blood typing results lacking A and B antigens, indicating Blood Group O, whereas anti-A1 and anti-A2 isoagglutinins were not detectable in reverse typing. Analyses of the ABO gene revealed a novel allele characterized by a deletion of 2169 base pairs, including sequences of Intron 1, Exon 2, Intron 2, Exon 3, and Intron 3. Exon 1 was directly joined to Exon 4 in the ABO transcript. Because the novel allele was associated with a well-described O allele, the absence of A-antigens in the inherited ABO subtype phenotype may be due to the identified mutation affecting the transmembrane-spanning domain of the encoded protein and impairing the transferase activity. © 2016 AABB.

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. MicroRNA Mediating Networks in Granulosa Cells Associated with Ovarian Follicular Development

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    Baoyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries, which provide a place for follicular development and oocyte maturation, are important organs in female mammals. Follicular development is complicated physiological progress mediated by various regulatory factors including microRNAs (miRNAs. To demonstrate the role of miRNAs in follicular development, this study analyzed the expression patterns of miRNAs in granulosa cells through investigating three previous datasets generated by Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. Furthermore, via bioinformatic analyses, we dissected the associated functional networks of the observed significant miRNAs, in terms of interacting with signal pathways and transcription factors. During the growth and selection of dominant follicles, 15 dysregulated miRNAs and 139 associated pathways were screened out. In comparison of different styles of follicles, 7 commonly abundant miRNAs and 195 pathways, as well as 10 differentially expressed miRNAs and 117 pathways in dominant follicles in comparison with subordinate follicles, were collected. Furthermore, SMAD2 was identified as a hub factor in regulating follicular development. The regulation of miR-26a/b on smad2 messenger RNA has been further testified by real time PCR. In conclusion, we established functional networks which play critical roles in follicular development including pivotal miRNAs, pathways, and transcription factors, which contributed to the further investigation about miRNAs associated with mammalian follicular development.

  19. Epigenetic Effects of PTSD Remediation in Veterans Using Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Dawson; Yount, Garret; Rachlin, Kenneth; Fox, Louis; Nelms, Jerrod

    2018-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of measuring changes in gene expression associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment using emotional freedom techniques (EFT). Participants were randomized into an EFT group receiving EFT and treatment as usual (TAU) throughout a 10-week intervention period and a group receiving only TAU during the intervention period and then receiving EFT. A community clinic and a research institute in California. Sixteen veterans with clinical levels of PTSD symptoms. Ten hour-long sessions of EFT. Messenger RNA levels for a focused panel of 93 genes related to PTSD. The Symptom Assessment 45 questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Scale, SF-12v2 for physical impairments, and Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire. Pre-, posttreatment, and follow-up mean scores on questionnaires were assessed using repeated measures 1-way analysis of variance. A Student t test and post hoc analyses were performed on gene expression data. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms declined significantly in the EFT group (-53%, P expression of 6 genes was found ( P expression levels before and after the intervention period in participants receiving EFT. Study results identify candidate gene expression correlates of successful PTSD treatment, providing guidelines for the design of further studies aimed at exploring the epigenetic effects of EFT.

  20. Expression of Leptin and Visfatin in Gingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Study Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, Noha A; Amr, Eman M; Shaker, Olfat G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the protein and gene expression of leptin and visfatin in gingival tissue from patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), patients with CP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and healthy individuals. The study includes 50 individuals: 10 healthy individuals, 20 patients with CP, and 20 patients with CP and T2DM. Plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss were measured, and gingival biopsies were obtained. Leptin and visfatin protein expression in gingival tissues was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction. The highest leptin mRNA and protein expression was observed in the control group and was significantly (P ≤0.05) different from the CP and CP+T2DM groups. Gingival tissues from patients with CP and T2DM had a significant increase in visfatin and a decrease in leptin gene and protein expression (P <0.05) compared with both controls and patients with CP. Expression of leptin and visfatin in the gingival tissues suggests a possible role for these adipokines in the pathogenesis of CP and T2DM.

  1. A Schwann cell mitogen accompanying regeneration of motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, F J; O'Brien, J A; Li, M; Smith, A G; Murphy, L J; Hunt, S P

    1997-12-11

    Motor neurons are the only adult mammalian neurons of the central nervous system to regenerate following injury. This ability is dependent on the environment of the peripheral nerve and an intrinsic capacity of motor neurons for regrowth. We report here the identification, using a technique known as messenger RNA differential display, of an extracellular signalling molecule, previously described as the pancreatic secreted protein Reg-2, that is expressed solely in regenerating and developing rat motor and sensory neurons. Axon-stimulated Schwann cell proliferation is necessary for successful regeneration, and we show that Reg-2 is a potent Schwann cell mitogen in vitro. In vivo, Reg-2 protein is transported along regrowing axons and inhibition of Reg-2 signalling significantly retards the regeneration of Reg-2-containing axons. During development, Reg-2 production by motor and sensory neurons is regulated by contact with peripheral targets. Strong candidates for peripheral factors regulating Reg-2 production are cytokines of the LIF/CNTF family, because Reg-2 is not expressed in developing motor or sensory neurons of mice carrying a targeted disruption of the LIF receptor gene, a common component of the receptor complexes for all of the LIF/CNTF family.

  2. Transcription factor cAMP response element modulator (Crem) restrains Pdgf-dependent proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, M D; Steingräber, A K; Wolf, C T; Sur, T M H; Hildebrandt, I; Witten, A; Stoll, M; Fischer, J W; Schmitz, W; Müller, F U

    2015-10-01

    Transcription factors of the cAMP response element-binding protein (Creb)/cAMP response element modulator (Crem) family were linked to the switch from a contractile to a proliferating phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we analyzed the vascular function of Crem in mice with a global inactivation of Crem (Crem(-/-)). CRE-mediated transcriptional activity was enhanced in primary Crem(-/-) VSMCs under nonstimulated conditions and under stimulation with Forskolin and platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf) whereas stimulation with nitric oxide or cGMP showed no effect. This elevated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity as a result of Crem inactivation did not alter aortic contractility or fractions of proliferating or apoptotic aortic VSMCs in situ, and no impact of Crem inactivation on the development of atherosclerotic plaques was observed. Crem(-/-) mice exhibited an increased neointima formation after carotid ligation associated with an increased proliferation of VSMCs in the carotid media. Pdgf-stimulated proliferation of primary aortic Crem(-/-) VSMCs was increased along with an upregulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Pdgf receptor, alpha polypeptide (Pdgfra), cyclophilin A (Ppia), the regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (Rgs5), and Rho GTPase-activating protein 12 (Arhgap12). Taken together, our data reveal the inhibition of Pdgf-stimulated proliferation of VSMCs by repressing the Pdgf-stimulated CRE-mediated transcriptional activation as the predominant function of Crem in mouse vasculature suggesting an important role of Crem in vasculoproliferative diseases.

  3. Urinary excretion of liver fatty acid-binding protein in health-check participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimitsu, Toshihiko; Ohta, Satoshi; Saito, Mayumi; Teranishi, Megumi; Inada, Hideki; Yoshii, Masayoshi; Minami, Junichi; Ono, Hidehiko; Hikawa, Akihisa; Shibata, Norio; Sugaya, Takeshi; Kamijo, Atsuko; Kimura, Kenjiro; Ohrui, Masami; Matsuoka, Hiroaki

    2005-03-01

    Messenger RNA of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is expressed in proximal tubules of the kidney, and a certain amount is excreted into urine. We analyzed factors relating to the urinary L-FABP excretion in health-check participants. We measured L-FABP in the first morning urine by ELISA in 715 men and 193 women 30-79 years of age who entered a 2-day hospitalized health checkup program. In addition to the routine physical examination and laboratory tests, plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP) was assayed. In 150 healthy subjects, urinary L-FABP averaged 3.6 +/- 0.2 microg/g creatinine, whereas the values were significantly increased in patients with hypertension (5.2 +/- 0.4, P = 0.010), diabetes mellitus (5.5 +/- 0.5, P excretion was significantly greater in women than in men when the value was related to creatinine. In regression analysis in men, urinary L-FABP was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.103, P = 0.033) and plasma HSCRP (r = 0.135, P = 0.006). It is suggested that renal production and urinary excretion of L-FABP are increased in situations in which arteriosclerosis is promoted, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular inflammation.

  4. Human slow troponin T (TNNT1) pre-mRNA alternative splicing is an indicator of skeletal muscle response to resistance exercise in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tan; Choi, Seung Jun; Wang, Zhong-Min; Birbrair, Alexander; Messi, María L; Jin, Jian-Ping; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-12-01

    Slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1) pre-messenger RNA alternative splicing (AS) provides transcript diversity and increases the variety of proteins the gene encodes. Here, we identified three major TNNT1 splicing patterns (AS1-3), quantified their expression in the vastus lateralis muscle of older adults, and demonstrated that resistance training modifies their relative abundance; specifically, upregulating AS1 and downregulating AS2 and AS3. In addition, abundance of TNNT1 AS2 correlated negatively with single muscle fiber-specific force after resistance training, while abundance of AS1 correlated negatively with V max. We propose that TNNT1 AS1, AS2 and the AS1/AS2 ratio are potential quantitative biomarkers of skeletal muscle adaptation to resistance training in older adults, and that their profile reflects enhanced single fiber muscle force in the absence of significant increases in fiber cross-sectional area. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Generalized Michaelis-Menten Equation in Protein Synthesis: Effects of Mis-Charged Cognate tRNA and Mis-Reading of Codon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Annwesha; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2017-05-01

    The sequence of amino acid monomers in the primary structure of a protein is decided by the corresponding sequence of codons (triplets of nucleic acid monomers) on the template messenger RNA (mRNA). The polymerization of a protein, by incorporation of the successive amino acid monomers, is carried out by a molecular machine called ribosome. We develop a stochastic kinetic model that captures the possibilities of mis-reading of mRNA codon and prior mis-charging of a tRNA. By a combination of analytical and numerical methods, we obtain the distribution of the times taken for incorporation of the successive amino acids in the growing protein in this mathematical model. The corresponding exact analytical expression for the average rate of elongation of a nascent protein is a 'biologically motivated' generalization of the Michaelis-Menten formula for the average rate of enzymatic reactions. This generalized Michaelis-Menten-like formula (and the exact analytical expressions for a few other quantities) that we report here display the interplay of four different branched pathways corresponding to selection of four different types of tRNA.

  6. HSP-72 accelerated expression in mononuclear cells induced in vivo by acetyl salicylic acid can be reproduced in vitro when combined with H2O2.

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    Alvaro A Sandoval-Montiel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among NSAIDs acetyl salicylic acid remains as a valuable tool because of the variety of benefic prophylactic and therapeutic effects. Nevertheless, the molecular bases for these responses have not been complete understood. We explored the effect of acetyl salicylic acid on the heat shock response. RESULTS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from rats challenged with acetyl salicylic acid presented a faster kinetics of expression of HSP-72 messenger RNA and protein in response to in vitro heat shock. This effect reaches its maximum 2 h after treatment and disappeared after 5 h. On isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from untreated rats, incubation with acetyl salicylic acid was ineffective to produce priming, but this effect was mimicked when the cells were incubated with the combination of H2O2+ ASA. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of acetyl salicylic acid to rats alters HSP-72 expression mechanism in a way that it becomes more efficient in response to in vitro heat shock. The fact that in vitro acetyl salicylic acid alone did not induce this priming effect implies that in vivo other signals are required. Priming could be reproduces in vitro with the combination of acetyl salicylic acid+H2O2.

  7. Olive leaf down-regulates the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hye; Yang, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2013-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an endocrinologic disorder characterized by uncontrolled glucose regulation and oxidative stress. Olive leaves have been studied extensively for their antioxidant activity and capacity to improve immune function. We hypothesized that olive leaf powder supplementation will be effective in inhibiting the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Mice were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: control (C), STZ-induced diabetes (D), and STZ-induced diabetes supplemented with very low dose (VLOL), low dose (LOL), or high dose of olive leaf powder (HOL). Blood glucose in the VLOL and LOL groups was lower than that in the D group (P LOL groups. Nitric oxide levels decreased in the VLOL and LOL groups, as compared with the D group. The messenger RNA expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased in the VLOL and HOL groups, and interferon-γ levels were significantly decreased in the liver of the VLOL, LOL, and HOL groups compared with the levels in the D group. Interleukin-17 levels were significantly decreased in the VLOL and HOL groups. Th1 and Th17 cytokine levels were increased in the D group but decreased in all the experimental groups. Th2 cytokine levels were increased in all olive leaf-supplemented groups compared with those in the D group. These results indicate a reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that olive leaves have the potential to provide therapeutic inhibition of diabetic complications. © 2013.

  8. Pathology, genetic alterations, and targets of differentially expressed microRNAs in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo-Pouly ACP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Clara P Azevedo-Pouly, Thomas D SchmittgenDivision of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, the Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Since their discovery in mammals in 2001, the field of microRNA (miRNA research has grown exponentially. miRNAs regulate protein translation following binding to conserved sequences within the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNAs. miRNAs are found to regulate nearly all biological processes, and their expression has been shown to differentially regulate a large number of diseases including cancer. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC was one of the initial groups of cancers to demonstrate differential miRNA expression. Since then, there have been numerous studies linking differential miRNA expression to PDAC. Translational extrapolation of these studies has been done linking diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications, and multiple review articles and book chapters have been written on these subjects. The intent here is to provide an overview of pancreatic cancer and review the current state of the validated and published findings on the messenger RNA targets of differentially expressed miRNAs in PDAC. We then attempt to summarize these findings to extrapolate them in the hopes of better understanding how altered miRNA expression in PDAC may alter the phenotype of this disease.Keywords: microRNA, pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, target

  9. Transcriptomics in ecotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Beat B.; Madureira, Danielle J.; Pillai, Smitha

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of analytical tools for high-throughput screening of biomolecules has revolutionized the way in which toxicologists explore the impact of chemicals or other stressors on organisms. One of the most developed and routinely applied high-throughput analysis approaches is transcriptomics, also often referred to as gene expression profiling. The transcriptome represents all RNA molecules, including the messenger RNA (mRNA), which constitutes the building blocks for translating DNA into amino acids to form proteins. The entirety of mRNA is a mirror of the genes that are actively expressed in a cell or an organism at a given time. This in turn allows one to deduce how organisms respond to changes in the external environment. In this article we explore how transcriptomics is currently applied in ecotoxicology and highlight challenges and trends. Figure The transcriptome (RNA) is a mirror of the genes that are actively expressed in a cell or organism at a given time, providing information on how organisms respond to chemicals or other stressors in the environment PMID:20369230

  10. MicroRNA-184 Regulates Corneal Lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldo, Sammy; Yuen, Don; Theis, Jaci; Ng, Melissa; Ecoiffier, Tatiana; Chen, Lu

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by binding to complimentary sequences of target messenger RNA. Their roles in corneal lymphangiogenesis are largely unknown. This study was to investigate the specific role of microRNA-184 (mir-184) in corneal lymphangiogenesis (LG) in vivo and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in vitro. Standard murine suture placement model was used to study the expressional change of mir-184 in corneal inflammatory LG and the effect of synthetic mir-184 mimic on this process. Additionally, a human LEC culture system was used to assess the effect of mir-184 overexpression on cell functions in vitro. Expression of mir-184 was significantly downregulated in corneal LG and, accordingly, its synthetic mimic suppressed corneal lymphatic growth in vivo. Furthermore, mir-184 overexpression in LECs inhibited their functions of adhesion, migration, and tube formation in vitro. These novel findings indicate that mir-184 is involved critically in LG and potentially could be used as an inhibitor of the process. Further investigation holds the promise for divulging new therapies for LG disorders, which occur inside and outside the eye.

  11. Expression of microRNA-184 in keratinocytes represses argonaute 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Julian C; Warren, Richard B; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Ross, Kehinde

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorders. However, the impact of IL-22 on microRNA (miRNA) expression in epidermal keratinocytes is unknown. Here we show that IL-22 induces miR-184 in reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) and in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line. Exposure to IL-22 increased miR-184 expression 8- and 15-fold in RHE and HaCaT cells, respectively. Oncostatin M, an unrelated proinflammatory cytokine, also raised miR-184 expression in RHE and HaCaT keratinocytes. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition demonstrated that cytokine-induced expression of miR-184 was mediated by signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3). Argonaute 2 (AGO2), a member of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), is a predicted miR-184 target. Using protein, messenger RNA and reporter analyses, we found that miR-184 regulates the expression of AGO2. We conclude that cytokine-induced miR-184 attenuates AGO2 expression in keratinocytes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. NE strengthens the immunosuppression induced by AlCl₃ through β₂-AR/cAMP pathway in cultured rat peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Yang, Xu; Zhuang, Cuicui; Cao, Zheng; Ren, Limin; Xiu, Chunyu; Li, Yanfei; Zhu, Yanzhu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effect of noradrenaline (NE) on the immunosuppression induced by aluminum trichloride (AlCl3), the peritoneal macrophages were cultured with RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.97 mM AlCl3 (1/10 IC50). NE was added to the medium at the final concentrations of 0 (control group, N-C), 0.1 (low-dose group, N-L), 1 (mid-dose group, N-M), and 10 (high-dose group, N-H) nM, respectively. No addition of both AlCl3 and NE serviced as blank group (D-C). Chemotaxis, adhesion, phagocytosis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content, β2 adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) density, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of macrophages were detected. The results showed that AlCl3 reduced the chemotaxis, adhesion, phagocytosis, and TNF-α secretion and increased the cAMP content, β2-AR density, and mRNA expression of peritoneal macrophages. Meanwhile, the chemotaxis, adhesion, phagocytosis, TNF-α secretion, β2-AR density, and mRNA expression were reduced while the cAMP content was increased in NE-treated groups than those in N-C group. The results indicated that NE strengthens the immunosuppression induced by AlCl3 in cultured rat peritoneal macrophages through the β2-AR/cAMP pathway.

  13. Dissecting electrostatic screening, specific ion binding, and ligand binding in an energetic model for glycine riboswitch folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, Jan; Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Herschlag, Daniel; Doniach, Sebastian (Stanford)

    2010-09-17

    Riboswitches are gene-regulating RNAs that are usually found in the 5{prime}-untranslated regions of messenger RNA. As the sugar-phosphate backbone of RNA is highly negatively charged, the folding and ligand-binding interactions of riboswitches are strongly dependent on the presence of cations. Using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and hydroxyl radical footprinting, we examined the cation dependence of the different folding stages of the glycine-binding riboswitch from Vibrio cholerae. We found that the partial folding of the tandem aptamer of this riboswitch in the absence of glycine is supported by all tested mono- and divalent ions, suggesting that this transition is mediated by nonspecific electrostatic screening. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations using SAXS-derived low-resolution structural models allowed us to perform an energetic dissection of this process. The results showed that a model with a constant favorable contribution to folding that is opposed by an unfavorable electrostatic term that varies with ion concentration and valency provides a reasonable quantitative description of the observed folding behavior. Glycine binding, on the other hand, requires specific divalent ions binding based on the observation that Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} facilitated glycine binding, whereas other divalent cations did not. The results provide a case study of how ion-dependent electrostatic relaxation, specific ion binding, and ligand binding can be coupled to shape the energetic landscape of a riboswitch and can begin to be quantitatively dissected.

  14. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  15. A new module in neural differentiation control: two microRNAs upregulated by retinoic acid, miR-9 and -103, target the differentiation inhibitor ID2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Annibali

    Full Text Available The transcription factor ID2 is an important repressor of neural differentiation strongly implicated in nervous system cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are increasingly involved in differentiation control and cancer development. Here we show that two miRNAs upregulated on differentiation of neuroblastoma cells--miR-9 and miR-103--restrain ID2 expression by directly targeting the coding sequence and 3' untranslated region of the ID2 encoding messenger RNA, respectively. Notably, the two miRNAs show an inverse correlation with ID2 during neuroblastoma cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid. Overexpression of miR-9 and miR-103 in neuroblastoma cells reduces proliferation and promotes differentiation, as it was shown to occur upon ID2 inhibition. Conversely, an ID2 mutant that cannot be targeted by either miRNA prevents retinoic acid-induced differentiation more efficient than wild-type ID2. These findings reveal a new regulatory module involving two microRNAs upregulated during neural differentiation that directly target expression of the key differentiation inhibitor ID2, suggesting that its alteration may be involved in neural cancer development.

  16. Sulforaphane inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced pericyte damage by reducing expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Sayaka; Matsui, Takanori; Ojima, Ayako; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) not only inhibit DNA synthesis but also play a role in diabetic retinopathy by evoking apoptosis and inflammation in retinal pericytes via interaction with a receptor for AGE (RAGE). Similarly, sulforaphane, which is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate that is found in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, protects against oxidative stress-induced tissue damage. Therefore, we hypothesized that sulforaphane could inhibit AGE-induced pericytes injury through its antioxidative properties. Advanced glycation end product stimulated superoxide generation as well as RAGE gene and protein expression in bovine-cultured retinal pericytes, and these effects were prevented by the treatment with sulforaphane. Antibodies directed against RAGE also blocked AGE-evoked reactive oxygen species generation in pericytes. Sulforaphane and antibodies directed against RAGE significantly inhibited the AGE-induced decrease in DNA synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 messenger RNA levels in pericytes. For the first time, the present study demonstrates that sulforaphane could inhibit DNA synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and inflammatory reactions in AGE-exposed pericytes, partly by suppressing RAGE expression via its antioxidative properties. Blockade of the AGE-RAGE axis in pericytes by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary autoimmunity as a feature of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 and identification of KCNRG as a bronchial autoantigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Dubois, Noémie; Sköldberg, Filip; Hallgren, Asa; Tardivel, Isabelle; Hedstrand, Håkan; Haavik, Jan; Husebye, Eystein S; Gustafsson, Jan; Rorsman, Fredrik; Meloni, Antonella; Janson, Christer; Vialettes, Bernard; Kajosaari, Merja; Egner, William; Sargur, Ravishankar; Pontén, Fredrik; Amoura, Zahir; Grimfeld, Alain; De Luca, Filippo; Betterle, Corrado; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Kämpe, Olle; Carel, Jean-Claude

    2009-03-17

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) suffer from multiple organ-specific autoimmunity with autoantibodies against target tissue-specific autoantigens. Endocrine and nonendocrine organs such as skin, hair follicles, and liver are targeted by the immune system. Despite sporadic observations of pulmonary symptoms among APS-1 patients, an autoimmune mechanism for pulmonary involvement has not been elucidated. We report here on a subset of APS-1 patients with respiratory symptoms. Eight patients with pulmonary involvement were identified. Severe airway obstruction was found in 4 patients, leading to death in 2. Immunoscreening of a cDNA library using serum samples from a patient with APS-1 and obstructive respiratory symptoms identified a putative potassium channel regulator (KCNRG) as a pulmonary autoantigen. Reactivity to recombinant KCNRG was assessed in 110 APS-1 patients by using immunoprecipitation. Autoantibodies to KCNRG were present in 7 of the 8 patients with respiratory symptoms, but in only 1 of 102 APS-1 patients without respiratory symptoms. Expression of KCNRG messenger RNA and protein was found to be predominantly restricted to the epithelial cells of terminal bronchioles. Autoantibodies to KCNRG, a protein mainly expressed in bronchial epithelium, are strongly associated with pulmonary involvement in APS-1. These findings may facilitate the recognition, diagnosis, characterization, and understanding of the pulmonary manifestations of APS-1.

  18. Kinetics of CrPV and HCV IRES-mediated eukaryotic translation using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaud, Olivier; Barbier, Nathalie; Chommy, Hélène; Fiszman, Nicolas; Le Gall, Antoine; Dulin, David; Saguy, Matthieu; Westbrook, Nathalie; Perronet, Karen; Namy, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    Protein synthesis is a complex multistep process involving many factors that need to interact in a coordinated manner to properly translate the messenger RNA. As translating ribosomes cannot be synchronized over many elongation cycles, single-molecule studies have been introduced to bring a deeper understanding of prokaryotic translation dynamics. Extending this approach to eukaryotic translation is very appealing, but initiation and specific labeling of the ribosomes are much more complicated. Here, we use a noncanonical translation initiation based on internal ribosome entry sites (IRES), and we monitor the passage of individual, unmodified mammalian ribosomes at specific fluorescent milestones along mRNA. We explore initiation by two types of IRES, the intergenic IRES of cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) and the hepatitis C (HCV) IRES, and show that they both strongly limit the rate of the first elongation steps compared to the following ones, suggesting that those first elongation cycles do not correspond to a canonical elongation. This new system opens the possibility of studying both IRES-mediated initiation and elongation kinetics of eukaryotic translation and will undoubtedly be a valuable tool to investigate the role of translation machinery modifications in human diseases. © 2017 Bugaud et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby ribosomes by affecting the appearance of ‘traffic jams’ where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this ‘context effect’ further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated from experiments. We compare the ribosome traffic on wild-type (WT) sequences and sequences where the synonymous codons were swapped randomly. By simulating translation of 87 genes, we demonstrate that the WT sequences, especially those with a high bias in codon usage, tend to have the ability to reduce ribosome collisions, hence optimizing the cellular investment in the translation apparatus. The magnitude of such reduction of the translation time might have a significant impact on the cellular growth rate and thereby have importance for the survival of the species. (paper)

  20. Evaluation of the inclusion of circular RNAs in mRNA profiling in forensic body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqi; Liu, Baonian; Shao, Chengchen; Xu, Hongmei; Xue, Aimin; Zhao, Ziqin; Shen, Yiwen; Tang, Qiqun; Xie, Jianhui

    2018-01-01

    The use of messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is considered a promising method in the identification of forensically relevant body fluids which can provide crucial information for reconstructing a potential crime. However, casework samples are usually of limited quantity or have been subjected to degradation, which requires improvement of body fluid identification. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a class of products from the backsplicing of pre-mRNAs, are shown to have high abundance, remarkable stability, and cell type-specific expression in human cells. In this study, we investigated whether the inclusion of circRNAs in mRNA profiling improve the detection of biomarkers including δ-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2) and matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) in body fluid identification. The major circRNAs of ALAS2 and MMP7 were first identified and primer sets for the simultaneous detection of linear and circular transcripts were developed. The inclusion of circRNAs in mRNA profiling showed improved detection sensitivity and stability of biomarkers revealed by using serial dilutions, mixed samples, and menstrual bloodstains as well as degraded and aged samples. Therefore, the inclusion of circRNAs in mRNA profiling should facilitate the detection of mRNA markers in forensic body fluid identification.

  1. Identification of a naturally processed HLA-Cw7-binding peptide that cross-reacts with HLA-A24-restricted ovarian cancer-specific CTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, E; Demachi-Okamura, A; Kondo, S; Akatsuka, Y; Suzuki, S; Shibata, K; Kikkawa, F; Kuzushima, K

    2015-09-01

    Here, we describe an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*24:02-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clone, 1G3, established from naïve CD8(+) T-lymphocytes obtained from a healthy donor stimulated with HLA-modified TOV21G, an ovarian cancer cell line. The 1G3 clone responds not only to ovarian cancer cells in the context of HLA-A*24:02 but also to allogeneic HLA-Cw*07:02 molecules through cross-reactive T-cell receptor recognition. Expression screening using a complementary DNA library constructed from TOV21G messenger RNA revealed that this alloreactivity was mediated through the nine-mer peptide VRTPYTMSY, derived from RNA-binding motif protein 4. To our knowledge, this study presents the first example of the allorecognition of an HLA-Cw molecule by HLA-A-restricted T-cells, thereby revealing a naturally processed epitope peptide. These findings provide the structural bases for the allorecognition of human T-cells. In addition, this study suggests that unexpected alloresponses occur in certain HLA combinations, and further study is needed to understand the mechanisms of alloreactivity for better prediction of alloresponses in clinical settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Germination Potential of Dormant and Nondormant Arabidopsis Seeds Is Driven by Distinct Recruitment of Messenger RNAs to Polysomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basbouss-Serhal, Isabelle; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy is a complex evolutionary trait that temporally prevents seed germination, thus allowing seedling growth at a favorable season. High-throughput analyses of transcriptomes have led to significant progress in understanding the molecular regulation of this process, but the role of posttranscriptional mechanisms has received little attention. In this work, we have studied the dynamics of messenger RNA association with polysomes and compared the transcriptome with the translatome in dormant and nondormant seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during their imbibition at 25°C in darkness, a temperature preventing germination of dormant seeds only. DNA microarray analysis revealed that 4,670 and 7,028 transcripts were differentially abundant in dormant and nondormant seeds in the transcriptome and the translatome, respectively. We show that there is no correlation between transcriptome and translatome and that germination regulation is also largely translational, implying a selective and dynamic recruitment of messenger RNAs to polysomes in both dormant and nondormant seeds. The study of 5′ untranslated region features revealed that GC content and the number of upstream open reading frames could play a role in selective translation occurring during germination. Gene Ontology clustering showed that the functions of polysome-associated transcripts differed between dormant and nondormant seeds and revealed actors in seed dormancy and germination. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the essential role of selective polysome loading in this biological process. PMID:26019300

  3. Translation in cell-free systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination

  4. Simulation and analysis of single-ribosome translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Ignacio Jr; Wen, Jin-Der

    2009-01-01

    In the cell, proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in a multi-step process called translation. The ribosome translocates along the messenger RNA to read the codons that encode the amino acid sequence of a protein. Elongation factors, including EF-G and EF-Tu, are used to catalyze the process. Recently, we have shown that translation can be followed at the single-molecule level using optical tweezers; this technique allows us to study the kinetics of translation by measuring the lifetime the ribosome spends at each codon. Here, we analyze the data from single-molecule experiments and fit the data with simple kinetic models. We also simulate the translation kinetics based on a multi-step mechanism from ensemble kinetic measurements. The mean lifetimes from the simulation were consistent with our experimental single-molecule measurements. We found that the calculated lifetime distributions were fit in general by equations with up to five rate-determining steps. Two rate-determining steps were only obtained at low concentrations of elongation factors. These analyses can be used to design new single-molecule experiments to better understand the kinetics and mechanism of translation

  5. Mesoporous silica nanorods toward efficient loading and intracellular delivery of siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijue; She, Xiaodong; Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2018-02-01

    The technology of RNA interference (RNAi) that uses small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence the gene expression with complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence has great potential for the treatment of cancer in which certain genes were usually found overexpressed. However, the carry and delivery of siRNA to the target site in the human body can be challenging for this technology to be used clinically to silence the cancer-related gene expression. In this work, rod shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were developed as siRNA delivery system for specific intracellular delivery. The rod MSNs with an aspect ratio of 1.5 had a high surface area of 934.28 m2/g and achieved a siRNA loading of more than 80 mg/g. With the epidermal growth factor (EGF) grafted on the surface of the MSNs, siRNA can be delivered to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed colorectal cancer cells with high intracellular concentration compared to MSNs without EGF and lead to survivin gene knocking down to less than 30%.

  6. Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions in Large White pigs selected for higher peripheral blood immune capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Liushiqi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Yuki; Li, Meihua; Satoh, Takumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Aso, Hisashi; Katoh, Kazuo; Uchida, Takafumi; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-05-01

    Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions were compared between the immunity-selected Large White line and the non-selected Large White line. The selected Large White line showed a higher level of pulmonary MPS lesions compared with the non-selected Large White line. Subsequent to vaccination, the percentage of natural killer cells and T cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) and CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(+) T cells) were significantly increased in the non-selected line but remained unchanged in the immunity-selected Large White line. Secretion of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine-specific immunoblogulin G and phagocyte activity in peripheral blood were significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. Expression of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 messenger RNA in hilar lymph nodes was significantly lower in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. However, expression of IL-10 in all immune tissues was significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line. These results suggest that the selection for high immunity was not effective in increasing resistance to MPS lung lesions. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Hypothesis: A Role for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Mediating and Relieving MicroRNA-Guided Translational Repression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Plante

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-guided messenger RNA (mRNA translational repression is believed to be mediated by effector miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein (miRNP complexes harboring fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. Recent studies documented the nucleic acid chaperone properties of FMRP and characterized its role and importance in RNA silencing in mammalian cells. We propose a model in which FMRP could facilitate miRNA assembly on target mRNAs in a process involving recognition of G quartet structures. Functioning within a duplex miRNP, FMRP may also mediate mRNA targeting through a strand exchange mechanism, in which the miRNA* of the duplex is swapped for the mRNA. Furthermore, FMRP may contribute to the relief of miRNA-guided mRNA repression through a reverse strand exchange reaction, possibly initiated by a specific cellular signal, that would liberate the mRNA for translation. Suboptimal utilization of miRNAs may thus account for some of themolecular defects in patients with the fragile X syndrome.

  8. Acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment and nitrogen supply is basically a matter of growth rate adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocquin, P.; Ormenese, S.; Pieltain, A.; Detry, N.; Bernier, G.; Perilleux, C. [Univ. of Liege, Dept. of Life Sciences, Lab. of Plant Physiology, Liege (Belgium)

    2006-12-15

    The long-term response of Arabidopsis thaliana to increasing CO{sub 2} was evaluated in plants grown in 800 {mu}l l{sup -1} CO{sub 2} from sowing and maintained, in hydroponics, on three nitrogen supplies: 'low', 'medium' and 'high'. The global response to high CO{sub 2} and N-supply was evaluated by measuring growth parameters in parallel with photosynthetic activity, leaf carbohydrates, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) messenger RNA and protein, stomatal conductance (g-s) and density. CO{sub 2} enrichment was found to stimulate biomass production, whatever the N-supply. This stimulation was transient on low N-supply and persisted throughout the whole vegetative growth only in high N-supply. Acclimation on low N-high C0{sub 2} was not associated with carbohydrate accumulation or with a strong reduction in Rubisco amount or activity. At high N-supply, growth stimulation by high CO{sub 2} was mainly because of the acceleration of leaf production and expansion while other parameters such as specific leaf area, root/shoot ratio and g{sub s} appeared to be correlated with total leaf area. Our results thus suggest that, in strictly controlled and stable growing conditions, acclimation of A. thaliana to long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment is mostly controlled by growth rate adjustment. (au)

  9. Insights into the transcriptome of oenocytes from Aedes aegypti pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ferreira Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oenocytes are ectodermic cells present in the fat body of several insect species and these cells are considered to be analogous to the mammalian liver, based on their role in lipid storage, metabolism and secretion. Although oenocytes were identified over a century ago, little is known about their messenger RNA expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of Aedes aegypti oenocytes. We constructed a cDNA library from Ae. aegypti MOYO-R strain oenocytes collected from pupae and randomly sequenced 687 clones. After sequences editing and assembly, 326 high-quality contigs were generated. The most abundant transcripts identified corresponded to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, whose members have roles primarily related to detoxification and lipid metabolism. In addition, we identified 18 other transcripts with putative functions associated with lipid metabolism. One such transcript, a fatty acid synthase, is highly represented in the cDNA library of oenocytes. Moreover, oenocytes expressed several immunity-related genes and the majority of these genes were lysozymes. The transcriptional profile suggests that oenocytes play diverse roles, such as detoxification and lipid metabolism, and increase our understanding of the importance of oenocytes in Ae. aegypti homeostasis and immune competence.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor receptor- associated factor 6 (TRAF6) regulation of development, function, and homeostasis of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew C; Lee, JangEun; Choi, Yongwon

    2015-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adapter protein that mediates a wide array of protein-protein interactions via its TRAF domain and a RING finger domain that possesses non-conventional E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. First identified nearly two decades ago as a mediator of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-mediated activation of NFκB, TRAF6 has since been identified as an actor downstream of multiple receptor families with immunoregulatory functions, including members of the TNFR superfamily, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, tumor growth factor-β receptors (TGFβR), and T-cell receptor (TCR). In addition to NFκB, TRAF6 may also direct activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and interferon regulatory factor pathways. In the context of the immune system, TRAF6-mediated signals have proven critical for the development, homeostasis, and/or activation of B cells, T cells, and myeloid cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts, as well as for organogenesis of thymic and secondary lymphoid tissues. In multiple cellular contexts, TRAF6 function is essential not only for proper activation of the immune system but also for maintaining immune tolerance, and more recent work has begun to identify mechanisms of contextual specificity for TRAF6, involving both regulatory protein interactions, and messenger RNA regulation by microRNAs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) regulation of development, function, and homeostasis of the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew C.; Lee, JangEun; Choi, Yongwon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein that mediates a wide array of protein-protein interactions via its TRAF domain and a RING finger domain that possesses non-conventional E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. First identified nearly two decades ago as a mediator of IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)-mediated activation of NFκB, TRAF6 has since been identified as an actor downstream of multiple receptor families with immunoregulatory functions, including members of the TNFR superfamily, the toll-like receptor (TLR) family, tumor growth factor-β receptors (TGFβR), and T cell receptor (TCR). In addition to NFκB, TRAF6 may also direct activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) pathways. In the context of the immune system, TRAF6-mediated signals have proven critical for the development, homeostasis, and/or activation of B cells, T cells, and myeloid cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts, as well as for organogenesis of thymic and secondary lymphoid tissues. In multiple cellular contexts, TRAF6 function is essential not only for proper activation of the immune system, but also for maintaining immune tolerance, and more recent works have begun to identify mechanisms of contextual specificity for TRAF6, involving both regulatory protein interactions, and messenger RNA regulation by microRNAs. PMID:26085208

  12. The novel guanylhydrazone CPSI-2364 ameliorates ischemia reperfusion injury after experimental small bowel transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Websky, Martin von; Fujishiro, Jun; Ohsawa, Ichiro; Praktiknjo, Michael; Wehner, Sven; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Kitamura, Koji; Kalff, Joerg C; Schaefer, Nico; Pech, Thomas

    2013-06-15

    Resident macrophages within the tunica muscularis are known to play a crucial role in initiating severe inflammation in response to ischemia reperfusion injury after intestinal transplantation contributing to graft dysmotility, bacterial translocation, and possibly, acute rejection. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is a key player in the signaling of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in macrophages. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CPSI-2364, an apparent macrophage-specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in an isogenic intestinal rat transplantation model. Recipient and donor animals were treated perioperatively with CPSI-2364 (1 mg/kg, intravenously) or vehicle solution. Nontransplanted animals served as control. Animals were killed 30 min, 3 hr, and 18 hr after reperfusion. CPSI-2364 treatment resulted in significantly less leukocyte infiltration and significantly improved graft motor function (18 hr). Messenger RNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6) and kinetic active mediators (NO) was reduced by CPSI-2364 in the early phase after transplantation. Histologic evaluation revealed the protective effects of CPSI-2364 treatment by a significantly less destruction of mucosal integrity at all time points. Perioperative treatment with CPSI-2364 improves graft motor function through impaired inflammatory responses to ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and suppression of nitric oxide production in macrophages. CPSI-2364 presents as a promising complementary pharmacological approach preventing postoperative dysmotility for clinical intestinal transplantation.

  13. Real-time dynamics of RNA Polymerase II clustering in live human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Transcription is the first step in the central dogma of molecular biology, when genetic information encoded on DNA is made into messenger RNA. How this fundamental process occurs within living cells (in vivo) is poorly understood,[1] despite extensive biochemical characterizations with isolated biomolecules (in vitro). For high-order organisms, like humans, transcription is reported to be spatially compartmentalized in nuclear foci consisting of clusters of RNA Polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing all messenger RNAs. However, little is known of when these foci assemble or their relative stability. We developed an approach based on photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM) combined with a temporal correlation analysis, which we refer to as tcPALM. The tcPALM method enables the real-time characterization of biomolecular spatiotemporal organization, with single-molecule sensitivity, directly in living cells.[2] Using tcPALM, we observed that RNA Polymerase II clusters form transiently, with an average lifetime of 5.1 (+/- 0.4) seconds. Stimuli affecting transcription regulation yielded orders of magnitude changes in the dynamics of the polymerase clusters, implying that clustering is regulated and plays a role in the cells ability to effect rapid response to external signals. Our results suggest that the transient crowding of enzymes may aid in rate-limiting steps of genome regulation.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene mutagenesis in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-Lun; Xu, Jun; Tan, An-Jiang; Huang, Yong-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Custom-designed nuclease technologies such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system provide attractive genome editing tools for insect functional genetics. The targeted gene mutagenesis mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been achieved in several insect orders including Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. However, little success has been reported in agricultural pests due to the lack of genomic information and embryonic microinjection techniques in these insect species. Here we report that the CRISPR/Cas9 system induced efficient gene mutagenesis in an important Lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura. We targeted the S. litura Abdominal-A (Slabd-A) gene which is an important embryonic development gene and plays a significant role in determining the identities of the abdominal segments of insects. Direct injection of Cas9 messenger RNA and Slabd-A-specific single guide RNA (sgRNA) into S. litura embryos successfully induced the typical abd-A deficient phenotype, which shows anomalous segmentation and ectopic pigmentation during the larval stage. A polymerase chain reaction-based analysis revealed that the Cas9/sgRNA complex effectively induced a targeted mutagenesis in S. litura. These results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome manipulation in Lepidopteran pests such as S. litura. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Molecular DNA Analysis in Forensic Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Enache, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification. Currently, the methods used in identification are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. This method analyses the autosomal STRs, the Y-chromosome, and the mitochondrial DNA. Correlation of biological samples present at the crime scene with identification, selection, and the probative value factor is therefore the first aspect to be taken into consideration in the forensic genetic analysis. In the last decade, because of the advances in the field of molecular biology, new biomarkers such as: microRNAs (miR), messenger RNA (mRNA), and DNA methylation have been studied and proposed to be used in the forensic identifications of body fluids.

  17. Hemin induction of HO-1 protects against LPS-induced septic ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortscher, Stephan; Chang, Johannes; Vilz, Tim O; Schäfer, Nico; Sommer, Nils; Wehner, Sven; Kalff, Jörg C; Overhaus, Marcus

    2012-12-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO-1) protects against inflammation. In this study, we investigated the protective function of hemin-induced HO-1 against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ileus. Rats received LPS intraperitoneally 24 h after intraperitoneal hemin pretreatment or placebo. We also injected zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 3rd group), an inhibitor of HO-1, intraperitoneally 2 h before LPS administration. To assess intestinal muscle function, we examined muscularis strip contractility in an organ bath and measured gastrointestinal transit in vivo. We investigated inflammation within the muscularis using polymerase chain reaction (interleukin [IL]-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), HO-1 and IL-10) 6 and 24 h after LPS. Hemin significantly improved in vitro intestinal muscularis contractility (P ZnPP)-treated animals, both parameters were significantly decreased compared with the hemin group. Messenger RNA expression demonstrated a significant reduction in IL-6 (6 h, hemin: 127.6 ± 36.7 versus LPS: 14,431 ± 5407; 24 h: 1.58 ± 0.39 versus 11.15 ± 2.59; P ZnPP reversed the anti-inflammatory hemin effects. Hemin induction of HO-1 diminishes LPS-induced sepsis. Heme oxygenase-1 has a central role in preventing sepsis-induced ileus. This benefit is reversed by HO-1 inhibition with ZnPP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of stem cell-to-tenocyte differentiation by atomic force microscopy to measure cellular elastic moduli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yasuyuki; Mukai, Taichi; Ju, Yang; Watanabe, Sachi

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether stem cell-to-tenocyte differentiation could be evaluated via measurement of the mechanical properties of the cell. We used mechanical uniaxial cyclic stretching to induce the differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into tenocytes. The cells were subjected to cyclic elongation of 10 or 15 % at a cyclic frequency of 1 Hz for 24 or 48 h, and differentiation was assessed by real-time PCR (rtPCR) determination of messenger RNA expression levels for four commonly used markers of stem cell-to-tenocyte differentiation: type I collagen, type III collagen, tenascin-C, and scleraxis. The rtPCR results showed that cells subjected to 10 % cyclic elongation for 24 or 48 h differentiated into tenocytes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was then used to measure the force curves around the cell nuclei, and the AFM data were used to calculate the elastic moduli of the cell surfaces. The elastic modulus values of the control (non-stretched) cells differed significantly from those of cells stretched at 10 % for 24 or 48 h (P atomic force microscopic measurement of the elastic modulus of the cell surface can be used to evaluate stem cell-to-tenocyte differentiation.

  19. Non-Coding RNAs in Saliva: Emerging Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Majem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases. Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information.

  20. Functional food ingredients against colorectal cancer. An example project integrating functional genomics, nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierum, R; Burgemeister, R; van Helvoort, A; Peijnenburg, A; Schütze, K; Seidelin, M; Vang, O; van Ommen, B

    2001-08-01

    Functional Food Ingredients Against Colorectal Cancer is one of the first European Union funded Research Projects at the cross-road of functional genomics [comprising transcriptomics, the measurement of the expression of all messengers RNA (mRNAs) and proteomics, the measurement of expression/state of all proteins], nutrition and human health. The goal of Functional Food Ingredients Against Colorectal Cancer is to develop a colon epithelial cell line-based screening assay for nutrients with presumed anti-colorectal carcinogenic properties. Genes involved in colon carcinogenesis are identified at the RNA and protein level, using a variety of methods (subtractive hybridisation, DNA microarray, proteomics) in combination with models for colorectal cancer development (human biopsies, rat model for colorectal carcinogenesis, colorectal cancer epithelial cell lines). Secondly, colorectal cancer epithelial cell lines are selected, in terms of their capacity to undergo gene/protein expression changes representing different phases in the colorectal carcinogenesis. Thirdly, these cell lines are used to determine the effects of nutrients with presumed anti-carcinogenic properties (e.g. resveratrol, flavonoids) on functional genomics-derived endpoints. Once validated against the effects of these nutrients in in vivo animal models and classical biomarkers for colorectal carcinogenesis, these cell line models combined with functional genomics represent useful tools to study colorectal carcinogenesis and screen for nutrients with anti-carcinogenic properties.

  1. A recent intermezzo at the Ribosome Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Liljas, Anders; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2017-03-19

    Two sets of ribosome structures have recently led to two different interpretations of what limits the accuracy of codon translation by transfer RNAs. In this review, inspired by this intermezzo at the Ribosome Club, we briefly discuss accuracy amplification by energy driven proofreading and its implementation in genetic code translation. We further discuss general ways by which the monitoring bases of 16S rRNA may enhance the ultimate accuracy (d-values) and how the codon translation accuracy is reduced by the actions of Mg 2+ ions and the presence of error inducing aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that complete freezing-in of cognate-like tautomeric states of ribosome-bound nucleotide bases in transfer RNA or messenger RNA is not compatible with recent experiments on initial codon selection by transfer RNA in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP. From these considerations, we suggest that the sets of 30S subunit structures from the Ramakrishnan group and 70S structures from the Yusupov/Yusupova group may, after all, reflect two sides of the same coin and how the structurally based intermezzo at the Ribosome Club may be resolved simply by taking the dynamic aspects of ribosome function into account.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Functional insights from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A P; Clemons, W M; Brodersen, D E; Morgan-Warren, R J; Wimberly, B T; Ramakrishnan, V

    2000-09-21

    The 30S ribosomal subunit has two primary functions in protein synthesis. It discriminates against aminoacyl transfer RNAs that do not match the codon of messenger RNA, thereby ensuring accuracy in translation of the genetic message in a process called decoding. Also, it works with the 50S subunit to move the tRNAs and associated mRNA by precisely one codon, in a process called translocation. Here we describe the functional implications of the high-resolution 30S crystal structure presented in the accompanying paper, and infer details of the interactions between the 30S subunit and its tRNA and mRNA ligands. We also describe the crystal structure of the 30S subunit complexed with the antibiotics paromomycin, streptomycin and spectinomycin, which interfere with decoding and translocation. This work reveals the structural basis for the action of these antibiotics, and leads to a model for the role of the universally conserved 16S RNA residues A1492 and A1493 in the decoding process.

  3. Streptomycin dependence in Escherichia coli: effects of antibiotic deprivation on ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceps, D I; Brownstein, B L

    1975-03-01

    The inhibition of cell division and the ultimate loss of viability after removal of streptomycin from growing cultures of streptomycin-dependent bacteria are not the result of "unbalanced growth" or of the breakdown of ribosomes. The streptomycin-dependent strain of Escherichia coli K-12 studied continued to synthesize ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein during streptomycin starvation. There was no evidence of a gross imbalance in the ratio of RNA to protein synthesized or of selective degradation of either protein or RNA. Using the sedimentation of subunits in sucrose as the criterion, normal ribosomes were synthesized even after 18 h of streptomycin deprivation, although the rates of appearance of mature 30S and 50S subunits decreased with time of deprivation. Once formed, these ribosomes appeared stable, as did those synthesized before the onset of starvation. Ribosomes isolated from starved dependent cells were as "functional" as ribosomes from cells grown with streptomycin in their capacity to bind aminoacyl-transfer RNA in response to polyuridylic acid or natural messenger RNA to interconvert between active and inactive transfer RNA binding states, and to synthesize proteins in cell-free systems. The effects are consistent with an impaired rate of synthesis of ribosomal components or assembly of ribosomes resulting in a continually diminishing rate of protein synthesis. The effect on cell division may be the result of a decreased rate of protein synthesis in general and the requirement for a specific protein(s) in particular.

  4. Streptomycin Action: Greater Inhibition of Escherichia coli Ribosome Function with Exogenous than with Endogenous Messenger Ribonucleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Apirion, David; Schlessinger, David

    1969-01-01

    Inhibition of protein synthesis by streptomycin was tested in extracts from a strain of Escherichia coli sensitive to streptomycin. Three kinds of messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) were employed: endogenous cellular RNA, extracted cellular RNA, and phage R17 RNA. Protein synthesis directed by extracted cellular RNA was inhibited three- to fourfold more than protein synthesis directed by endogenous RNA. With R17 RNA as messenger, nearly total inhibition of protein synthesis at initiation was again observed. The greater inhibition of function of extracted RNA, which must initiate new polypeptide chains in vitro, is in accord with the observation that in whole cells streptomycin blocks ribosomes at an early stage in protein synthesis. When streptomycin was added at successively later times during protein synthesis, the subsequent inhibition was progressively less. This was observed with either extracted cellular RNA or phage R17 RNA. A model is presented that can explain the less drastic inhibition by streptomycin of messenger RNA that is already functioning on ribosomes. PMID:4895843

  5. Dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA from ribosomes is perturbed by streptomycin and by strA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, A B; Menninger, J R

    1984-01-01

    Peptidyl-tRNA may dissociate preferentially from ribosomes during protein synthesis when it is inappropriate to, does not correctly complement, the messenger RNA. To test this idea, growing cultures of Escherichia coli were treated with streptomycin to increase the frequency of errors during protein synthesis. Since the treated cells had a temperature-sensitive peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase and could not destroy dissociated peptidyl-tRNA, it was possible to measure the rate of its accumulation after raising the temperature to non-permissive conditions. Both low and high doses of streptomycin enhanced the rate of dissociation and accumulation of peptidyl-tRNA. The rank order of rates of dissociation/accumulation of various isoaccepting tRNA families was not significantly altered by the drug treatment. We concluded that streptomycin stimulated a normal pathway for dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA. Two streptomycin- resistant strains of E. coli had higher rates of dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA than did their sensitive parent strain. When treated with high doses of the drug, the resistant strains showed slightly reduced rates of dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA. These results were interpreted in terms of a two state, two site model for protein synthesis: streptomycin enhances the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to a tight state of the ribosome A site; the strA mutation enhances translocation to a loose state of the ribosome P site.

  6. Hepatitis C virus plays with fire and yet avoids getting burned. A review for clinicians on processing bodies and stress granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carrillo, Carlos; Pérez-Vilaró, Gemma; Díez, Juana; Pérez-Del-Pulgar, Sofía

    2018-03-01

    Over the last few years, many reports have defined several types of RNA cell granules composed of proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) that regulate gene expression on a post-transcriptional level. Processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules (SGs) are among the best-known RNA granules, only detectable when they accumulate into very dynamic cytosolic foci. Recently, a tight association has been found between positive-stranded RNA viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), and these granules. The present article offers a comprehensive review on the complex and paradoxical relationship between HCV, P-bodies and SGs from a translational perspective. Despite the fact that components of P-bodies and SGs have assiduously controlled mRNA expression, either by sequestration or degradation, for thousands of years, HCV has learned how to dangerously exploit certain of them for its own benefit in an endless biological war. Thus, HCV has gained the ability to hack ancient host machineries inherited from prokaryotic times. While P-bodies and SGs are crucial to the HCV cycle, in the interferon-free era we still lack detailed knowledge of the mechanisms involved, processes that may underlie the long-term complications of HCV infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Amplification-Free Multi-RNA-Type Profiling for Cancer Risk Stratification via Alternating Current Electrohydrodynamic Nanomixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin M; Dey, Shuvashis; Trau, Matt

    2018-03-12

    Simultaneous analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-multi-RNA-type profiling-is increasingly crucial in cancer diagnostics. Yet, rapid multi-RNA-type profiling is challenging due to enzymatic amplification reliance and RNA-type-dependent characteristics. Here, a nanodevice is reported to uniquely use alterable alternating current electrohydrodynamic (ac-EHD) forces to enhance probe-target hybridization prior to direct native RNA target detection, without target amplification or surface functionalization. To exemplify clinical applicability, noninvasive screening of next-generation prostate cancer (PCa) RNA biomarkers (of different types) in patient urine samples is performed. A strong correlation between multi-RNA-type expression and aggressive PCa is found, and the nanodevice performance is statistically evaluated. It is believed that this miniaturized system exhibits great potential for cancer risk stratification via multi-RNA-type profiling. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Differential modulation of avian β-defensin and Toll-like receptor expression in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Xu, Qianqian; Han, Zongxi; Liang, Shuling; Shao, Yuhao; Ma, Deying; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-11-01

    The host innate immune response either clears invading viruses or allows the adaptive immune system to establish an effective antiviral response. In this study, both pathogenic (passage 3, P3) and attenuated (P110) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were used to study the immune responses of chicken to IBV infection. Expression of avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in 16 tissues of chicken were compared at 7 days PI. The results showed that P3 infection upregulated the expression of AvBDs, including AvBD2, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12, while P110 infection downregulated the expression of AvBDs, including AvBD3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 in most tissues. Meanwhile, the expression level of several TLRs showed a general trend of upregulation in the tissues of P3-infected chickens, while they were downregulated in the tissues of P110-infected chickens. The result suggested that compared with the P110 strain, the P3 strain induced a more pronounced host innate immune response. Furthermore, we observed that recombinant AvBDs (including 2, 6, and 12) demonstrated obvious anti-viral activity against IBV in vitro. Our findings contribute to the proposal that IBV infection induces an increase in the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of some AvBDs and TLRs, which suggests that AvBDs may play significant roles in the resistance of chickens to IBV replication.

  9. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M.; Smith, Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie; Nogales, Eva

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:23623729

  10. Pseudoknot and translational control in the expression of the S15 ribosomal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, L; Philippe, C; Ehresmann, B; Ehresmann, C; Portier, C

    1996-01-01

    Translational autocontrol of the expression of the ribosomal protein S15 proceeds through the transitory formation of a pseudoknot. A synopsis of the known data is used to propose a molecular model of the mechanism involved and for the role of the pseudoknot. This latter structure is able to recruit 30S ribosomal subunits to initiate translation, but also to bind S15 and to stop translation by trapping the ribosome on its loading site. Information on the S15 protein recognition of the messenger RNA site was deduced from mutational analyses and chemical probing. A comparison of this messenger site with the S15 ribosomal binding site was conducted by analysing hydroxyl radical footprintings of these two sites. The existence of two subsites in 16S RNA suggests that the ribosomal protein S15 might present either two different binding sites or at least one common subsite. Clues for the presence of a common site between the messenger and 16S RNA are given which cannot rule out that recognition specificity is linked to a few other determinants. Whether these determinants are different or not remains an open question.

  11. The V1a and V1b, but not V2, vasopressin receptor genes are expressed in the supraoptic nucleus of the rat hypothalamus, and the transcripts are essentially colocalized in the vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurbin, A; Boissin-Agasse, L; Orcel, H; Rabié, A; Joux, N; Desarménien, M G; Richard, P; Moos, F C

    1998-11-01

    We have identified and visualized the vasopressin (VP) receptors expressed by hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. To do this, we used RT-PCR on total RNA extracts from supraoptic nuclei or on single freshly dissociated supraoptic neurons, and in situ hybridization on frontal sections of hypothalamus of Wistar rats. The RT-PCR on supraoptic RNA extracts revealed that mainly V1a, but also V1b, subtypes of VP receptors are expressed from birth to adulthood. No V2 receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected. Furthermore, the single-cell RT-nested PCR indicated that the V1a receptor mRNA is present in vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons. In light of these results, in situ hybridization was performed to visualize the V1a and V1b receptor mRNAs in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Simultaneously, we coupled this approach to: 1) in situ hybridization detection of oxytocin or VP mRNAs; or 2) immunocytochemistry to detect the neuropeptides. This provided a way of identifying the neurons expressing perceptible amounts of V1a or V1b receptor mRNAs as vasopressinergic neurons. Here, we suggest that the autocontrol exerted specifically by VP on vasopressinergic neurons is mediated through, at least, V1a and V1b subtype receptors.

  12. Whey protein increases muscle weight gain through inhibition of oxidative effects induced by resistance exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Kely R; Silva, Marcelo E; de Lima, Wanderson G; Pedrosa, Maria L; Haraguchi, Fabiano K

    2016-10-01

    Whey protein (WP) is known for its nutritional value and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antioxidant properties of WP could contribute to muscle weight gain in response to resistance exercise (RE). We hypothesized that WP ingestion could increase muscle weight gain in rats subjected to an RE program, through inhibition of oxidative effects induced by high-intensity RE. Thirty-two male Fischer rats were randomly assigned to control sedentary, control exercised, WP sedentary, and WP exercised groups (n=8/group). The RE consisted of inducing the rats to perform sets of jumps for 8 weeks. Body and muscle weight gains, muscle glutathione content, histopathology, muscle antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression were evaluated. Body and muscle weight gains of exercised rats fed WP were higher than those of control exercised rats. Concomitantly, RE induced an increase in phagocyte infiltration, protein oxidation, and down-regulation of glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase messenger RNA expression in gastrocnemius muscle (Pmuscle glutathione content was increased only by WP (P.05). These findings suggest that differences in body and muscle weight gain in exercised rats fed control or WP diets were mediated, in part, by the antioxidant properties of WP, and indicate that when associated with RE, WP represents a nutritional aid to support muscle growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in patients and animal models with eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoya; Matsubara, Atsushi; Kudo, Naomi; Hara, Ryutaro; Takahata, Junko; Sasaki, Akira

    2017-12-22

    In the present study, we aimed to clarify the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a key trigger of Th2-type allergic disease, in the middle ear mucosa of eosinophilic otitis media (EOM). An immunohistological study of TSLP was conducted in patients with EOM and in animal models of EOM constructed by intraperitoneal and intratympanic injection of ovalbumin for 7 and 14 days. In addition, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of TSLP in the middle ear mucosa of the animal models was analyzed using real-time PCR, and was compared with that of the control animals. Immunoreactivities for TSLP were observed in the middle ear mucosa around the tympanic ostium of the eustachian tube of patients with EOM. In the animal model, strong immunoreactivity for TSLP was also observed in the eustachian tube epithelium, and mRNA expression of TSLP in the seven-day stimulated animals was significantly higher than that in the controls. The present study indicates that the presence of epithelium-derived TSLP in the eustachian tubes plays an important role in the onset of EOM.

  14. Use of mutated self-cleaving 2A peptides as a molecular rheostat to direct simultaneous formation of membrane and secreted anti-HIV immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kenneth K; Aguilar, Kiefer; Tsai, Jonathan; Galimidi, Rachel; Gnanapragasam, Priyanthi; Yang, Lili; Baltimore, David

    2012-01-01

    In nature, B cells produce surface immunoglobulin and secreted antibody from the same immunoglobulin gene via alternative splicing of the pre-messenger RNA. Here we present a novel system for genetically programming B cells to direct the simultaneous formation of membrane-bound and secreted immunoglobulins that we term a "Molecular Rheostat", based on the use of mutated "self-cleaving" 2A peptides. The Molecular Rheostat is designed so that the ratio of secreted to membrane-bound immunoglobulins can be controlled by selecting appropriate mutations in the 2A peptide. Lentiviral transgenesis of Molecular Rheostat constructs into B cell lines enables the simultaneous expression of functional b12-based IgM-like BCRs that signal to the cells and mediate the secretion of b12 IgG broadly neutralizing antibodies that can bind and neutralize HIV-1 pseudovirus. We show that these b12-based Molecular Rheostat constructs promote the maturation of EU12 B cells in an in vitro model of B lymphopoiesis. The Molecular Rheostat offers a novel tool for genetically manipulating B cell specificity for B-cell based gene therapy.

  15. Altered expression of the tachykinins substance P/neurokinin A/hemokinin-1 and their preferred neurokinin 1/neurokinin 2 receptors in uterine leiomyomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santana, Ayoze; Marrero-Hernández, Sara; Dorta, Idaira; Hernández, Mariano; Pinto, Francisco María; Báez, Delia; Bello, Aixa R; Candenas, Luz; Almeida, Teresa A

    2016-11-01

    To study the expression levels of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in uterine leiomyomas and matched myometrium. Laboratory study. University research laboratories and academic hospital. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Expression and tissue immunostaining of substance P, neurokinin A, hemokinin-1, neurokinin 1 receptor full-length (NK1R-Fl) and truncated (NK1R-Tr) isoforms, and neurokinin 2 receptor (NK2R) in paired samples of leiomyoma and adjacent normal myometrium. TAC1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was significantly up-regulated in leiomyomas, whereas intense immunoreaction for the three peptides was particularly abundant in connective tissue cells. Differential regulation of TACR1 mRNA was observed, and at the protein level there was a significant increased expression of NK1R short isoform (NK1R-Tr). TACR2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in leiomyomas, although levels of NK2R protein were similar in normal and tumor cells. These and our previous data demonstrate that the whole tachykinin system is differentially regulated in leiomyomas. The increased expression of NK1R-Tr might stimulate leiomyoma growth in a similar way to that observed in other steroid-dependent tumors. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hippo pathway deficiency reverses systolic heart failure after infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, John P; Heallen, Todd; Zhang, Min; Rahmani, Mahdis; Morikawa, Yuka; Hill, Matthew C; Segura, Ana; Willerson, James T; Martin, James F

    2017-10-12

    Mammalian organs vary widely in regenerative capacity. Poorly regenerative organs, such as the heart are particularly vulnerable to organ failure. Once established, heart failure commonly results in mortality. The Hippo pathway, a kinase cascade that prevents adult cardiomyocyte proliferation and regeneration, is upregulated in human heart failure. Here we show that deletion of the Hippo pathway component Salvador (Salv) in mouse hearts with established ischaemic heart failure after myocardial infarction induces a reparative genetic program with increased scar border vascularity, reduced fibrosis, and recovery of pumping function compared with controls. Using translating ribosomal affinity purification, we isolate cardiomyocyte-specific translating messenger RNA. Hippo-deficient cardiomyocytes have increased expression of proliferative genes and stress response genes, such as the mitochondrial quality control gene, Park2. Genetic studies indicate that Park2 is essential for heart repair, suggesting a requirement for mitochondrial quality control in regenerating myocardium. Gene therapy with a virus encoding Salv short hairpin RNA improves heart function when delivered at the time of infarct or after ischaemic heart failure following myocardial infarction was established. Our findings indicate that the failing heart has a previously unrecognized reparative capacity involving more than cardiomyocyte renewal.

  17. Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Kikkawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1 was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm.

  18. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  19. Bone morphogenetic protein Smads signaling in mesenchymal stem cells affected by osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhurong; Wang, Zhe; Qing, Fangzhu; Ni, Yilu; Fan, Yujiang; Tan, Yanfei; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics (CaP ceramics) could induce ectopic bone formation which was regulated by various signal molecules. In this work, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the surface of osteoinductive hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics in comparison with control (culture plate) for up to 14 days to detect the signal molecules which might be affected by the CaP ceramics. Without adding osteogenic factors, MSCs cultured on HA and BCP both expressed higher Runx2, Osterix, collagen type I, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin at various stages compared with control, thus confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. Later study demonstrated the messenger RNA level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 were also significantly enhanced by HA and BCP. Furthermore, Smad1, 4, 5, and Dlx5, the main molecules in the BMP/Smads signaling pathway, were upregulated by HA and BCP. Moreover, the higher expression of Smads and BMP2, 4 in BCP over HA, corresponded to the better performance of BCP in stimulating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. This was in accordance with the better osteoinductivity of BCP over HA in vivo. Altogether, these results implied that the CaP ceramics may initiate the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs by influencing the expression of molecules in BMP/Smads pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. siRNA Versus miRNA as Therapeutics for Gene Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny K W Lam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovered a little over two decades ago, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding RNAs with important roles in gene regulation. They have recently been investigated as novel classes of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide range of disorders including cancers and infections. Clinical trials of siRNA- and miRNA-based drugs have already been initiated. siRNAs and miRNAs share many similarities, both are short duplex RNA molecules that exert gene silencing effects at the post-transcriptional level by targeting messenger RNA (mRNA, yet their mechanisms of action and clinical applications are distinct. The major difference between siRNAs and miRNAs is that the former are highly specific with only one mRNA target, whereas the latter have multiple targets. The therapeutic approaches of siRNAs and miRNAs are therefore very different. Hence, this review provides a comparison between therapeutic siRNAs and miRNAs in terms of their mechanisms of action, physicochemical properties, delivery, and clinical applications. Moreover, the challenges in developing both classes of RNA as therapeutics are also discussed.

  1. Towards an understanding of CG methylation in DNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Migoni, R.L.

    1989-09-01

    A simple model of DNA is considered in which the nucleotides cytosine (C) and guanine (G) are not assumed to be identical, and in which macroscopic thermodynamic quantities may be calculated exactly. The H bonds between the C and G nucleotides are assumed to be Morse potentials. We discuss the statistical mechanics of the DNA molecule in the configuration (5'...GGG...3'; 3'...CCC...5'), which may be copied by RNA polymerase into a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand (5'...CCC...3'). This model suggests that replacements of C by 5-methylcytosine (5mC) may be a secondary effect in the inhibition of genetic expression, not interfering directly with the formation of an open state. An experimental test is suggested. The implications of this result are discussed for a related system, in which the enzyme methylase is known to methylate almost exclusively those Cs that are followed by Gs as a regulatory strategy employed by some eukaryotes. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs

  2. Solution and crystal structures of a C-terminal fragment of the neuronal isoform of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (nPTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Joshi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB serves primarily as a regulator of alternative splicing of messenger RNA, but is also co-opted to other roles such as RNA localisation and translation initiation from internal ribosome entry sites. The neuronal paralogue of PTB (nPTB is 75% identical in amino acid sequence with PTB. Although the two proteins have broadly similar RNA binding specificities and effects on RNA splicing, differential expression of PTB and nPTB can lead to the generation of alternatively spliced mRNAs. RNA binding by PTB and nPTB is mediated by four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs. We present here the crystal and solution structures of the C-terminal domain of nPTB (nPTB34 which contains RRMs 3 and 4. As expected the structures are similar to each other and to the solution structure of the equivalent fragment from PTB (PTB34. The result confirms that, as found for PTB, RRMs 3 and 4 of nPTB interact with one another to form a stable unit that presents the RNA-binding surfaces of the component RRMs on opposite sides that face away from each other. The major differences between PTB34 and nPTB34 arise from amino acid side chain substitutions on the exposed β-sheet surfaces and adjoining loops of each RRM, which are likely to modulate interactions with RNA.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor (cachetin) decreases adipose cell differentiation in primary cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.J.; Jones, D.D.; Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cachetin has been shown to effect gene product expression in the established adipose cell line 3T3-L1. Expression of messenger RNA for lipoprotein lipase is suppressed in cultured adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Cachetin on adipose cell differentiation in primary cell culture. Stromalvascular cells obtained from the inguinal fat pad of 4-5 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were grown in culture for two weeks. During the proliferative growth phase all cells were grown on the same medium and labelled with 3 H-thymidine. Cachetin treatment (10 -6 to 10 -10 M) was initiated on day 5, the initial phase of preadipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes and stromal cells were separated using density gradient, and 3 H-thymidine was determined for both cell types. Thymidine incorporation into adipose cells was decreased maximally (∼ 50%) at 10 -10 M. Stromalvascular cells were not influenced at any of the doses tested. Adipose cell lipid content as indicated by oil red-O staining was decreased by Cachetin. Esterase staining by adipose cells treated with Cachetin was increased indicating an increase in intracellular lipase. These studies show that Cachetin has specific effects on primary adipose cell differentiation

  4. Annexin II mRNA expression in bovine oocytes during follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fabiano Santos da Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the expression of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein annexin-II (Ann-II messenger RNA (mRNA during preantral follicle development and in oocytes from antral follicles of different diameters ( 8 mm. The action of retinol on Ann-II mRNA expression in mature oocytes was also examined. Only oocytes from secondary preantral follicles expressed Ann-II mRNA and at the germinal vesicle stage expression by oocytes from follicles larger than 8 mm was significantly higher (p < 0.05 compared with oocytes from follicles smaller than 3 mm or between 5 and 8 mm. Ann-II mRNA expression by metaphase II oocytes from follicles larger than 8 mm was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that from oocytes from follicles smaller than 3 mm, with oocytes from both these size-classes showing similar levels of Ann-II mRNA expression as oocytes recovered from 5-8 mm follicles. In the presence of retinol, Ann-II mRNA expression was higher than when retinol was absent (p < 0.05. Our data indicate that Ann-II mRNA expression is highest in competent oocytes and that retinol increases Ann-II mRNA and may be involved in the regulation of oocyte competence by decreasing the translation and/or degradation of Ann-II mRNA.

  5. Aging alters mRNA expression of amyloid transporter genes at the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Doreen; Miller, Miles C; Messier, Arthur A; Gonzalez, Liliana; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2017-09-01

    Decreased clearance of potentially toxic metabolites, due to aging changes, likely plays a significant role in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and other macromolecules in the brain of the elderly and in the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aging is the single most important risk factor for AD development. Aβ transport receptor proteins expressed at the blood-brain barrier are significantly altered with age: the efflux transporters lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein are reduced, whereas the influx transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products is increased. These receptors play an important role in maintaining brain biochemical homeostasis. We now report that, in a rat model of aging, gene transcription is altered in aging, as measured by Aβ receptor gene messenger RNA (mRNA) at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 36 months. Gene mRNA expression from isolated cerebral microvessels was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein mRNA were significantly reduced in aging, and receptor for advanced glycation end products was increased, in parallel with the changes seen in receptor protein expression. Transcriptional changes appear to play a role in aging alterations in blood-brain barrier receptor expression and Aβ accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and validation of quantitative PCR assays to measure cytokine transcript levels in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason; Hunter, Margaret; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2018-01-01

    Cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. Because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. To detect and assess early immune changes in endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative PCR assays to measure mRNA transcription levels for the cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ; interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α, and the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin (reference genes). Assays were successfully validated using blood samples from free-ranging, apparently healthy manatees from the east and west coasts of central Florida. No cytokine or housekeeping gene transcription levels were significantly different among age classes or sexes. However, the transcription levels for GAPDH, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ were significantly higher (P<0.05) in manatees from the east coast of Florida than they were from those from the west coast. We found IL-10 and β-actin to be consistent between sites and identified β-actin as a good candidate for use as a reference gene in future studies. Our assays can aid in the investigation of manatee immune response to physical trauma and novel or ongoing environmental stressors.

  7. An overall characterization of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia with CRLF2 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Mio; Imamura, Toshihiko; Asai, Daisuke; Moriya-Saito, Akiko; Suenobu, So-ichi; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Deguchi, Takao; Hashii, Yoshiko; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Hori, Hiroki; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Koji; Horibe, Keizo; Yumura-Yagi, Keiko; Hara, Junichi; Matsumoto, Kenji; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Oda, Megumi; Sato, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    For an overall characterization of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCPALL) with CRLF2 overexpression (OE), we conducted genetic analysis of CRLF2 in 167 pediatric BCPALL patients. CRLF2 OE was detected in 30 (18%) of 167 patients, the P2RY8-CRLF2 fusion was identified in only 3 (1.8%) of 167 patients, all of which demonstrated CRLF2 OE. Moreover, CRLF2 gain was identified in 18 (11%) of 167 patients. Messenger RNA sequencing revealed a novel fusion transcript, CSF2RA-CRLF2, in a case with CRLF2 OE, suggesting that this fusion is associated with CRLF2 OE. In survival analysis, no significant differences in 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival were observed between patients with and without CRLF2 OE (70.7 vs. 75.4%, log rank P = 0.68 and 96.4 vs. 82.1%, log rank P = 0.11, respectively). However, a significant difference in 5-year EFS between CRLF2 OE patients with and without IKZF1 deletion was observed (44.4 vs. 83.1%, log rank P = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, only IKZF1 deletion was a significant predictor of inferior OS (hazard ratio: 2.427, P = 0.04).These findings suggest that CRLF2 OE is not an independent prognostic factor in pediatric BCPALL. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Biologic activity of the novel orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) KPT-335 against canine melanoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Exportin 1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), is a chaperone protein responsible for the export of over 200 target proteins out of the nucleus. The expression and activity of XPO1 is upregulated in several human cancers and its expression is also linked to the development of chemotherapy resistance. Recent studies using both human and murine cancer cell lines have demonstrated that XPO1 is a relevant target for therapeutic intervention. The present study sought to characterize the biologic activity of an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE), KPT-335, against canine melanoma cell lines as a prelude to future clinical trials in dogs with melanoma. Results We evaluated the effects of KPT-335 on 4 canine malignant melanoma cell lines and found that KPT-335 inhibited proliferation, blocked colony formation, and induced apoptosis of treated cells at biologically relevant concentrations of drug. Additionally, KPT-335 downregulated XPO1 protein while inducing a concomitant increase in XPO1 messenger RNA. Lastly, KPT-335 treatment of cell lines upregulated the expression of both protein and mRNA for the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21, and promoted their nuclear localization. Conclusions KPT-335 demonstrates biologic activity against canine melanoma cell lines at physiologically relevant doses, suggesting that KPT-335 may represent a viable treatment option for dogs with malignant melanoma. PMID:25022346

  9. The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6 weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg for 6 weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPARα, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Implications for bcd mRNA localization from spatial distribution of exu protein in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Hazelrigg, T

    1994-06-02

    Subcellular RNA localization in different cell types leads to asymmetric distribution of proteins in these cells. The localization of bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA to the anterior pole of the developing Drosophila oocyte gives rise in embryogenesis to a steep concentration gradient of the bcd protein, a transcription factor that activates expression of zygotic genes needed for anterior development. The exuperantia (exu) gene is necessary for this localization of bcd mRNA. Here we express a chimaeric gene encoding a fusion between the Acquorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the exu protein (Exu) in female germ cells, and find that the fusion protein fluoresces strongly in both live and fixed cells during Drosophila oogenesis. The fusion protein rescues an exu null allele, restoring full fertility to females, and is expressed and localized in a temporal and spatial pattern similar to native Exu. The high sensitivity of the GFP tag provides important new details on the subcellular localization of Exu. The fusion protein is found in particles concentrated at ring canals, where transport occurs between nurse cells and the oocyte. Drugs such as colchicine and taxol that affect microtubule stability alter localization of the particles. We propose that the particles are ribonucleoprotein complexes or vesicles which transport bcd mRNA along microtubules and target it to the anterior oocyte cortex.

  11. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of genetic information between the hematopoietic system and the brain in response to inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Ridder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms behind how the immune system signals to the brain in response to systemic inflammation are not fully understood. Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase specifically in the hematopoietic lineage in a Cre reporter background display recombination and marker gene expression in Purkinje neurons. Here we show that reportergene expression in neurons is caused by intercellular transfer of functional Cre recombinase messenger RNA from immune cells into neurons in the absence of cell fusion. In vitro purified secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs from blood cells contain Cre mRNA, which induces recombination in neurons when injected into the brain. Although Cre-mediated recombination events in the brain occur very rarely in healthy animals, their number increases considerably in different injury models, particularly under inflammatory conditions, and extend beyond Purkinje neurons to other neuronal populations in cortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Recombined Purkinje neurons differ in their miRNA profile from their nonrecombined counterparts, indicating physiological significance. These observations reveal the existence of a previously unrecognized mechanism to communicate RNA-based signals between the hematopoietic system and various organs, including the brain, in response to inflammation.

  12. Interplay of Noisy Gene Expression and Dynamics Explains Patterns of Bacterial Operon Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoshin, Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are organized into operons -- sets of genes co-transcribed into polycistronic messenger RNA. Hypotheses explaining the emergence and maintenance of operons include proportional co-regulation, horizontal transfer of intact ``selfish'' operons, emergence via gene duplication, and co-production of physically interacting proteins to speed their association. We hypothesized an alternative: operons can reduce or increase intrinsic gene expression noise in a manner dependent on the post-translational interactions, thereby resulting in selection for or against operons in depending on the network architecture. We devised five classes of two-gene network modules and show that the effects of operons on intrinsic noise depend on class membership. Two classes exhibit decreased noise with co-transcription, two others reveal increased noise, and the remaining one does not show a significant difference. To test our modeling predictions we employed bioinformatic analysis to determine the relationship gene expression noise and operon organization. The results confirm the overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon architectures and provide evidence against other hypotheses. Our results thereby suggest a central role for gene expression noise in selecting for or maintaining operons in bacterial chromosomes. This demonstrates how post-translational network dynamics may provide selective pressure for organizing bacterial chromosomes, and has practical consequences for designing synthetic gene networks. This work is supported by National Institutes of Health grant 1R01GM096189-01.

  13. Overexpressed Calponin3 by Subsonic Vibration Induces Neural Differentiation of hUC-MSCs by Regulating the Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jin-Hee; Song, Yeo-Ju; Seo, Young-Kwon; Park, Jung-Keug; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we used proteomics to investigate the effects of sonic vibration (SV) on mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cords (hUC-MSCs) during neural differentiation to understand how SV enhances neural differentiation of hUC-MSCs. We investigated the levels of gene and protein related to neural differentiation after 3 or 5 days in a group treated with 40-Hz SV. In addition, protein expression patterns were compared between the control and the 40-Hz SV-treated hUC-MSC groups via a proteomic approach. Among these proteins, calponin3 (CNN3) was confirmed to have 299 % higher expression in the 40-Hz SV stimulated hUC-MSCs group than that in the control by Western blotting. Notably, overexpression of CNN3-GFP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells had positive effects on the stability and reorganization of F-actin compared with that in GFP-transfected cells. Moreover, CNN3 changed the morphology of the cells by making a neurite-like form. After being subjected to SV, messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of glutamate receptors such as PSD95, GluR1, and NR1 as well as intracellular calcium levels were upregulated. These results suggest that the activity of glutamate receptors increased because of CNN3 characteristics. Taken together, these results demonstrate that overexpressed CNN3 during SV increases expression of glutamate receptors and promotes functional neural differentiation of hUC-MSCs.

  14. Cholesterol: the good, the bad, and the ugly - therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Meyers, Harold V; Abdel-Meguid, Sherin S

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits is critical for decreasing the risk of heart disease. Dyslipidemia refers to the abnormal levels of lipids in the blood, including low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), also known as good cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), also known as bad cholesterol, and/or high TG levels that contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this article we reviewed some of the current therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia, with a primary focus on endothelial lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase for raising HDL-C, and the proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the messenger RNA of apolipoprotein B for lowering LDL-C. In addition, we reviewed the role of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) in raising HDL-C, where we discuss three apoAI-based drugs under development. These are its mutated dimer (apoAI-Milano), a complex with phospholipids, and a mimetic peptide. Atherosclerosis, mainly because of dyslipidemia, is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Regarding the title of this article, the 'good' refers to HDL-C, the 'bad' refers to LDL-C, and the 'ugly' refers to atherosclerosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A structural view of microRNA–target recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Leoni, Guido

    2016-01-30

    It is well established that the correct identification of the messenger RNA targeted by a given microRNA (miRNA) is a difficult problem, and that available methods all suffer from low specificity. We hypothesize that the correct identification of the pairing should take into account the effect of the Argonaute protein (AGO), an essential catalyst of the recognition process. Therefore, we developed a strategy named MiREN for building and scoring three-dimensional models of the ternary complex formed by AGO, a miRNA and 22 nt of a target mRNA that putatively interacts with it. We show here that MiREN can be used to assess the likelihood that an RNA molecule is the target of a given miRNA and that this approach is more accurate than other existing methods, usually based on sequence or sequence-related features. Our results also suggest that AGO plays a relevant role in the selection of the miRNA targets. Our method can represent an additional step for refining predictions made by faster but less accurate classical methods for the identification of miRNA targets.

  16. Fragile X related protein 1 clusters with ribosomes and messenger RNAs at a subset of dendritic spines in the mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cook

    Full Text Available The formation and storage of memories in neuronal networks relies on new protein synthesis, which can occur locally at synapses using translational machinery present in dendrites and at spines. These new proteins support long-lasting changes in synapse strength and size in response to high levels of synaptic activity. To ensure that proteins are made at the appropriate time and location to enable these synaptic changes, messenger RNA (mRNA translation is tightly controlled by dendritic RNA-binding proteins. Fragile X Related Protein 1 (FXR1P is an RNA-binding protein with high homology to Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP and is known to repress and activate mRNA translation in non-neuronal cells. However, unlike FMRP, very little is known about the role of FXR1P in the central nervous system. To understand if FXR1P is positioned to regulate local mRNA translation in dendrites and at synapses, we investigated the expression and targeting of FXR1P in developing hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro. We found that FXR1P was highly expressed during hippocampal development and co-localized with ribosomes and mRNAs in the dendrite and at a subset of spines in mouse hippocampal neurons. Our data indicate that FXR1P is properly positioned to control local protein synthesis in the dendrite and at synapses in the central nervous system.

  17. Association between gene expression biomarkers of immunosuppression and blood transfusion in severely injured polytrauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Hew Dt; Brohi, Karim; Pearse, Rupert M; Mein, Charles A; Wozniak, Eva; Prowle, John R; Hinds, Charles J; OʼDwyer, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    To explore the hypothesis that blood transfusion contributes to an immunosuppressed phenotype in severely injured patients. Despite trauma patients using disproportionately large quantities of blood and blood products, the immunomodulatory effects of blood transfusion in this group are inadequately described. A total of 112 ventilated polytrauma patients were recruited. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted from PAXGene tubes collected within 2 hours of the trauma, at 24 hours, and at 72 hours. T-helper cell subtype specific cytokines and transcription factors were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Median injury severity score was 29. Blood transfusion was administered to 27 (24%) patients before the 2-hour sampling point. Transfusion was associated with a greater immediate rise in IL-10 (P = 0.003) and IL-27 (P = 0.04) mRNA levels. Blood products were transfused in 72 (64%) patients within the first 24 hours. There was an association between transfusion at 24 hours and higher IL-10 (P transfused. Multiple regression models confirmed that the transfusion of blood products was independently associated with altered patterns of gene expression. Blood stream infections occur in 15 (20.8%) of those transfused in the first 24 hours, compared with 1 patient (2.5%) not transfused (OR = 10.3 [1.3-81], P = 0.008). The primarily immunosuppressive inflammatory response to polytrauma may be exacerbated by the transfusion of blood products. Furthermore, transfusion was associated with an increased susceptibility to nosocomial infections.

  18. MicroRNAs: an epigenetic tool to study celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán-Gamboa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes recent findings on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in biological processes associated with the regulation of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that have been recently emerged as a new class of modulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs bind to complementary sequences of specific targets of messengers RNA, which can interfere with protein synthesis. We reviewed studies that evaluated the expression patterns of miRNAs in different autoimmune diseases, especially in celiac disease (CD. CD is a chronic enteropathy triggered by gluten proteins, characterized by altered immune responses in genetically susceptible individuals that results in damage to the bowel mucosa. CD has a high prevalence and an effective treatment by a specific diet ("gluten free diet". Genetic factors confer susceptibility but do not explain the whole disease, suggesting that environmental factors do play a relevant role in the development of the condition. The evaluation of the potential role of miRNA is of particular interest in CD given that these epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have been recently described. Improving our understanding of miRNAs in CD will contribute to clarify the role of altered epigenetic regulation in the development and course of this disease.

  19. Quantitative affinity electrophoresis of RNA-small molecule interactions by cross-linking the ligand to acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodram, Sherry N; McCann, Lucas C; Organ, Michael G; Johnson, Philip E

    2013-11-15

    We show that the affinity electrophoresis analysis of RNA-small molecule interactions can be made quantifiable by cross-linking the ligand to the gel matrix. Using an RNA-aminoglycoside model system to verify our method, we attached an acryloyl chloride molecule to the aminoglycosides paromomycin and neomycin B to synthesize an acrylamide-aminoglycoside monomer. This molecule was then used as a component in gel polymerization for affinity electrophoresis, covalently attaching an aminoglycoside molecule to the gel matrix. To test RNA binding to the cross-linked aminoglycosides, we used the aminoglycoside binding RNA molecule derived from thymidylate synthase messenger RNA (mRNA) that contains a C-C mismatch. Binding is indicated by the difference in RNA mobility between gels with cross-linked ligand, with ligand embedded during polymerization, and with no ligand present. Critically, the predicted straight line relationship between the reciprocal of the relative migration of the RNA and the ligand concentration is obtained when using cross-linked aminoglycosides, whereas a straight line is not obtained using embedded aminoglycosides. Average apparent dissociation constants are determined from the slope of the line from these plots. This method allows an easy quantitative comparison between different nucleic acid molecules for a small molecule ligand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bubble-free electrode actuation for micro-preparative scale electrophoresis of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulto, Paul; Kuhn, Phillip; Urban, Gerald A

    2013-08-07

    A microfluidic chip is presented for lysis and one-step RNA purification from bacteria. Bacteria are lysed by joule-heating followed by a gel electrophoresis step for clean-up and subsequent elution of small RNA. Bubble formation during electrophoresis at constant current is suppressed through the use of a silver chloride cathode and a silver anode. To prevent silver chloride sediment in the bulk solution, the anode was immersed in a saturated chloride solution. Salt bridges in the form of polyacrylamide gels are used that could be precisely patterned with the help of phaseguides. Bubble-free actuation could be performed for more than 20 min under a constant current. For longer actuation times, cathodic silver-chloride became depleted and a silver-chloride sediment formed in the anodic microchamber at increasing distance from the anode with time. The chip functioning was verified by extraction of transfer-messenger RNA from Escherichia coli and subsequent amplification using reverse transcription real-time PCR. Incorporation of salt bridges enables effective bubble free actuation of Ag/AgCl electrodes in a microfluidic chip. This opens up new possibilities in a surge towards fully integrated diagnostic cartridges that are miniaturized and disposable.

  1. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Charles F; Pisetsky, David S

    2009-03-10

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for beta-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death.

  2. Direct quantification of gene expression using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Jack G; Ntuen, Edidiong C; Goldsmith, Edie C

    2007-01-01

    Quantification of gene expression provides valuable information regarding the response of cells or tissue to stimuli and often is accomplished by monitoring the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) being transcribed for a particular protein. Although numerous methods are commonly used to monitor gene expression, including Northern blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and RNase protection assay, each method has its own drawbacks and limitations. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) can reduce protocol time, eliminate the need for radioactivity, and provide superior sensitivity and dynamic range for quantification of RNA. In addition, CE-LIF can be used to directly determine the amount of an RNA species present, something that is difficult and not normally accomplished using current methods. Gene expression is detected using a fluorescently labeled riboprobe specific for a given RNA species. This direct approach was validated by analyzing levels of 28S RNA and also used to determine the amount of discoidin domain receptor 2 mRNA in cardiac tissue.

  3. Increased levels of cell-free human placental lactogen mRNA at 28-32 gestational weeks in plasma of pregnant women with placenta previa and invasive placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Akihiro; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-02-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation.

  4. FASTKD2 is an RNA-binding protein required for mitochondrial RNA processing and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Johannes; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Curk, Tomaz; Schwarzl, Thomas; Sauer, Sven; Hentze, Matthias W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial RNA processing is an essential step for the synthesis of the components of the electron transport chain in all eukaryotic organisms, yet several aspects of mitochondrial RNA biogenesis and regulation are not sufficiently understood. RNA interactome capture identified several disease-relevant RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with noncanonical RNA-binding architectures, including all six members of the FASTK (FAS-activated serine/threonine kinase) family of proteins. A mutation within one of these newly assigned FASTK RBPs, FASTKD2, causes a rare form of Mendelian mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. To investigate whether RNA binding of FASTKD2 contributes to the disease phenotype, we identified the RNA targets of FASTKD2 by iCLIP. FASTKD2 interacts with a defined set of mitochondrial transcripts including 16S ribosomal RNA (RNR2) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) messenger RNA. CRISPR-mediated deletion of FASTKD2 leads to aberrant processing and expression of RNR2 and ND6 mRNA that encodes a subunit of the respiratory complex I. Metabolic phenotyping of FASTKD2-deficient cells reveals impaired cellular respiration with reduced activities of all respiratory complexes. This work identifies key aspects of the molecular network of a previously uncharacterized, disease-relevant RNA-binding protein, FASTKD2, by a combination of genomic, molecular, and metabolic analyses. © 2015 Popow et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  5. The role of RNA structure at 5' untranslated region in microRNA-mediated gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wanjun; Xu, Yuming; Xie, Xueying; Wang, Ting; Ko, Jae-Hong; Zhou, Tong

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the secondary structure of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) is important for microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation in humans. mRNAs that are targeted by miRNA tend to have a higher degree of local secondary structure in their 5' UTR; however, the general role of the 5' UTR in miRNA-mediated gene regulation remains unknown. We systematically surveyed the secondary structure of 5' UTRs in both plant and animal species and found a universal trend of increased mRNA stability near the 5' cap in mRNAs that are regulated by miRNA in animals, but not in plants. Intra-genome comparison showed that gene expression level, GC content of the 5' UTR, number of miRNA target sites, and 5' UTR length may influence mRNA structure near the 5' cap. Our results suggest that the 5' UTR secondary structure performs multiple functions in regulating post-transcriptional processes. Although the local structure immediately upstream of the start codon is involved in translation initiation, RNA structure near the 5' cap site, rather than the structure of the full-length 5' UTR sequences, plays an important role in miRNA-mediated gene regulation. © 2014 Gu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, Norbert; Hogan, Michael J; Pelc, Rebecca S; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Andersen, Hanne; DeMaso, Christina R; Dowd, Kimberly A; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Parks, Robert; Wagner, Wendeline; Granados, Alex; Greenhouse, Jack; Walker, Michelle; Willis, Elinor; Yu, Jae-Sung; McGee, Charles E; Sempowski, Gregory D; Mui, Barbara L; Tam, Ying K; Huang, Yan-Jang; Vanlandingham, Dana; Holmes, Veronica M; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Higgs, Stephen; Hensley, Scott E; Madden, Thomas D; Hope, Michael J; Karikó, Katalin; Santra, Sampa; Graham, Barney S; Lewis, Mark G; Pierson, Theodore C; Haynes, Barton F; Weissman, Drew

    2017-03-09

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged as a pandemic associated with severe neuropathology in newborns and adults. There are no ZIKV-specific treatments or preventatives. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine is a high priority. Messenger RNA (mRNA) has emerged as a versatile and highly effective platform to deliver vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins. Here we demonstrate that a single low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of a strain from the ZIKV outbreak in 2013 elicited potent and durable neutralizing antibody responses in mice and non-human primates. Immunization with 30 μg of nucleoside-modified ZIKV mRNA-LNP protected mice against ZIKV challenges at 2 weeks or 5 months after vaccination, and a single dose of 50 μg was sufficient to protect non-human primates against a challenge at 5 weeks after vaccination. These data demonstrate that nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP elicits rapid and durable protective immunity and therefore represents a new and promising vaccine candidate for the global fight against ZIKV.

  7. Zika Virus Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Graham, Barney S

    2017-12-16

    The emergence of Zika virus in Brazil and its association with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome led to accelerated vaccine development efforts. Based on prior flavivirus vaccine development programs, knowledge of flavivirus particle structure, definition of E dimers as the key antigenic target, and deep understanding of neutralizing mechanisms, multiple vaccine strategies have advanced to the stage of clinical evaluation with unprecedented speed. These include nucleic acid (DNA and messenger RNA), whole-inactivated virus, live-attenuated or chimeric virus, and protein or viruslike particle vaccines. Within a year from the declaration by the World Health Organization of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, multiple vaccine candidates entered clinical trials, now totaling 7 products with an additional 40-plus candidate vaccines in preclinical development. The rapid progress in vaccine development demonstrates the capacity of governments, public health organizations, and the scientific community to respond to pandemic threats when sufficient prior knowledge exists, emergency funding is made available, and interagency cooperation is achieved and serves as a paradigm for preparing for future emerging infectious diseases. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Manjunath Mundoor; Shipilova, Anna; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a) Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b) Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link. PMID:27143823

  9. CYP24A1 is a potential biomarker for the progression and prognosis of human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Chuanwen; Hao, Miao; Sun, Ran; Wang, Yuqian; Liu, Tie; Cong, Xianling; Liu, Ya

    2016-04-01

    Our study aims to fully evaluate clinicopathological and prognostic values of CYP24A1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples and matched adjacent nontumor colorectal tissues from 99 CRC patients were studied for CYP24A1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Messenger RNA expression of CYP24A1 was further evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 12 pairs of fresh frozen CRC samples. CYP24A1 expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues compared to corresponding noncancerous tissues. The expression of CYP24A1 protein in CRC was correlated with the depth of tumor invasion (P = .000), lymph node metastasis (P = .030), venous permeation (P = .016), and overall survival (P = .008). A Kaplan-Meier analysis of the CRC patients with high CYP24A1 expression showed significantly reduced overall survival and disease-free survival compared to the patients with low expression (P = 0.026 and .009). A prognostic significance of CYP24A1 was also found in the subgroup of venous permeation condition classification. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that CYP24A1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for CRC recurrence (P = .032). In conclusion, CYP24A1 expression is closely associated with CRC progression, and it might be a novel prognostic biomarker for CRC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effect of andrographolide against concanavalin A-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guojun; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Xiaofang; Lu, Yan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Xiaoying; Ning, Guang

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hepatic protective effect and the molecular mechanisms of andrographolide in concanavalin A-induced liver injury model. Results showed that andrographolide (Ag) attenuated concanavalin A (Con-A)-induced liver injury and inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis. Further results showed that oxidative stress response genes were significantly elevated during the pathogenesis induced by Con-A. Meanwhile, gadolinium chloride and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment, which inactivates Kupffer cells or reduces reactive oxygen species, respectively, prevented the liver injury. So the messenger RNA levels of the oxidative response genes mentioned above were detected, and the following results showed that Ag treatment reduced their expression. Besides, serum lactate dehydrogenase and myeloperoxidase activity was significantly reduced by Ag. Finally, Ag treatment did not further reduce serum tumor necrosis factor-α production compared with NAC treatment alone. Thus, our results indicate that Ag prevents Con-A-induced liver injury and reduced the hepatic oxidative stress response. The hepatic protective effect of Ag indicates that Ag supplementation may be beneficial in the treatment of immune-mediated liver injury.

  11. Harsh parent-child conflict is associated with decreased anti-inflammatory gene expression and increased symptom severity in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder that affects over 7 million children in the United States. Evidence indicates that family stressors are associated with worsening of asthma symptoms, and some research suggests that these stressful experiences engender changes in children's immune systems in ways that exacerbate airway inflammation and contribute to both acute and chronic asthma symptoms. We examined the association between observed experiences of parent-child conflict and the expression of signaling molecules involved in the transduction of anti-inflammatory signals that regulate airway inflammation and obstruction. Fifty-seven children and their parents participated in a conflict task, and coders rated interactions for evidence of harsh and supportive behaviors. Children reported on their perceptions of parental support and reported on their daily asthma symptoms for 2 weeks. We collected peripheral blood in children to measure leukocyte expression of messenger RNA for the glucocorticoid receptor and the β2-adrenergic receptor. Analyses revealed that harsh conflict behaviors were associated with decreased expression of both messenger RNAs and more severe asthma symptoms. Neither supportive behaviors nor perceived parental support was associated with gene expression or asthma symptoms. These findings suggest that harsh interactions with parents are associated with downregulation of key anti-inflammatory signaling molecules and difficulties breathing in children with asthma. Children with asthma who are also victims of maltreatment may be particularly susceptible to transcriptional changes in immune cells that could worsen asthma over time.

  12. Early expression of angiogenesis factors in acute myocardial ischemia and infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Wolf, P L; Escudero, R; Deutsch, R; Jamieson, S W; Thistlethwaite, P A

    2000-03-02

    When the myocardium is deprived of blood, a process of ischemia, infarction, and myocardial remodeling is initiated. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is critical for initiating early cellular responses to hypoxia. We investigated the temporal and spatial patterns of expression of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1alpha) and VEGF in specimens of human heart tissue to elucidate the early molecular responses to myocardial hypoxia. Ventricular-biopsy specimens from 37 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery were collected. The specimens were examined by microscopy for evidence of ischemia, evolving infarction, or a normal histologic appearance. The specimens were also analyzed with the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for HIF-1alpha and VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and by immunohistochemical analysis for the location of the HIF-1alpha and VEGF proteins. HIF-1alpha mRNA was detected in myocardial specimens with pathological evidence of acute ischemia (onset, response to myocardial ischemia or infarction. This response defines, at a molecular level, one of the first adaptations of human myocardium to a deprivation of blood. HIF-1alpha is a useful temporal marker of acutely jeopardized myocardium.

  13. Myostatin blockade with a fully human monoclonal antibody induces muscle hypertrophy and reverses muscle atrophy in young and aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latres, Esther; Pangilinan, Jeffrey; Miloscio, Lawrence; Bauerlein, Roy; Na, Erqian; Potocky, Terra B; Huang, Ying; Eckersdorff, Mark; Rafique, Ashique; Mastaitis, Jason; Lin, Calvin; Murphy, Andrew J; Yancopoulos, George D; Gromada, Jesper; Stitt, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The role of myostatin as a key negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function has supported the concept that inactivation of myostatin could be a useful approach for treating muscle wasting diseases. We generated a myostatin monoclonal blocking antibody (REGN1033) and characterized its effects in vitro using surface plasmon resonance biacore and cell-based Smad2/3 signaling assays. REGN1033 was tested in mice for the ability to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and prevent atrophy induced by immobilization, hindlimb suspension, or dexamethasone. The effect of REGN1033 on exercise training was tested in aged mice. Messenger RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and ex vivo force measurements were performed on skeletal muscle samples from REGN1033-treated mice. The human monoclonal antibody REGN1033 is a specific and potent myostatin antagonist. Chronic treatment of mice with REGN1033 increased muscle fiber size, muscle mass, and force production. REGN1033 prevented the loss of muscle mass induced by immobilization, glucocorticoid treatment, or hindlimb unweighting and increased the gain of muscle mass during recovery from pre-existing atrophy. In aged mice, REGN1033 increased muscle mass and strength and improved physical performance during treadmill exercise. We show that specific myostatin antagonism with the human antibody REGN1033 enhanced muscle mass and function in young and aged mice and had beneficial effects in models of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  14. Expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galac, S; Kool, M M J; van den Berg, M F; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2014-10-01

    We report on a screening for the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in normal canine adrenals (n = 10) and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors (11 adenomas and 26 carcinomas). The relative mRNA expression of SF-1 was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and revealed no differences between normal adrenals, adenomas, and carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated SF-1 protein expression in a nuclear pattern throughout the normal adrenal cortex and a predominantly nuclear staining pattern in adrenocortical tumors. Of the 15 dogs available for follow up, 7 dogs developed hypercortisolism within 2.5 yr after adrenalectomy, with metastatic disease in 6 dogs and adrenocortical tumor regrowth in 1 dog. The relative SF-1 mRNA expression in dogs with early recurrence was greater (2.46-fold, P = 0.020) than in dogs in remission for at least 2.5 yr after adrenalectomy. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of SF-1 expression in normal canine adrenals and adrenocortical tumors. The high SF-1 mRNA expression in carcinomas with early recurrence might indicate its value as a prognostic marker, as well as its potential for therapeutic development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cloning metallothionein gene in Zacco platypus and its potential as an exposure biomarker against cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Woo-Keun; Shin, Hyun Suk; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Young; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-01

    Zacco platypus, pale chub, is an indigenous freshwater fish of East Asia including Korea and has many useful characteristics as indicator species for water pollution. While utility of Z. platypus as an experimental species has been recognized, genetic-level information is very limited and warrants extensive research. Metallothionein (MT) is widely used and well-known biomarker for heavy metal exposure in many experimental species. In the present study, we cloned MT in Z. platypus and evaluated its utility as a biomarker for metal exposure. For this purpose, we sequenced complete complementary DNA (cDNA) of MT in Z. platypus and carried out phylogenetic analysis with its sequences. The transcription-level responses of MT gene following the exposure to CdCl2 were also assessed to validate the utility of this gene as an exposure biomarker. Analysis of cDNA sequence of MT gene demonstrated high conformity with those of other fish. MT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzymatic MT content significantly increased following CdCl2 exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The level of CdCl2 that resulted in significant MT changes in Z. platypus was within the range that was reported from other fish. The MT gene of Z. platypus sequenced in the present study can be used as a useful biomarker for heavy metal exposure in the aquatic environment of Korea and other countries where this freshwater fish species represents the ecosystem.

  16. Pregnancy-specific alterations in the expression of the insulin-like growth factor system during early placental development in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T S; Stevenson, K R; Wathes, D C

    1997-03-01

    The placenta is recognized as an important determinant of fetal growth rate, yet the factors regulating its proliferation remain poorly understood. Components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were localized in the ovine uterus using in situ hybridization between days 13-55 of gestation, the period of implantation and placentome formation. IGF-II messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was intense in the fetal mesoderm, particularly at the tips of the invading placentome villi. Moderate levels of IGF-II mRNA were also observed in the maternal caruncular stroma. In contrast, expression of IGF-1 mRNA was low (compared to estrous levels) and ubiquitous decreasing as gestation advanced. IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 mRNA was not detected until day 29 of gestation, when it appeared restricted to the dense caruncular-like stroma lining the luminal epithelium, colocalized with IGFBP-4. High concentrations of IGFBP-4 mRNA expression were also found in the placentome capsule. IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was intense in the luminal epithelium between days 13-15 of gestation. Subsequently, levels in this region dropped significantly (P established the pattern of expression of the IGFs, IGF-1R, and three of the IGFBPs during establishment of the ovine placenta. It will form the basis for future work to investigate how this system is regulated and to determine the role of the IGFs in placental development.

  17. Tr-1-like CD4+CD25-CD127-/lowFOXP3- cells are the main source of interleukin 10 in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diego L; Cardoso, Tiago M; Queiroz, Adriano; Milanezi, Cristiane M; Bacellar, Olívia; Carvalho, Edgar M; Silva, João S

    2015-03-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells have long been shown to mediate susceptibility to Leishmania infection, mainly via interleukin 10 production. In this work, we showed that the main sources of interleukin 10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis are CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(-/low)FOXP3(-) cells. Compared with uninfected controls, patients with CL had increased frequencies of circulating interleukin 10-producing CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(-/low) cells, which efficiently suppressed tumor necrosis factor α production by the total PBMC population. Also, in CL lesions, interleukin 10 was mainly produced by CD4(+)CD25(-) cells, and interleukin 10 messenger RNA expression was associated with interleukin 27, interleukin 21, and interferon γ expression, rather than with FOXP3 or transforming growth factor β expressions. Active production of both interleukin 27 and interleukin 21, together with production of interferon γ and interleukin 10, was also detected in the lesions. Since these cytokines are associated with the differentiation and activity of Tr-1 cells, our results suggest that this cell population may play an important role in the immunomodulation of CL. Therefore, development of treatments that interfere with this pathway may lead to faster parasite elimination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effect of capilliposide for induction apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-2 cells through up-regulating PUMA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yonghong; Hu, Qiaoying; Piao, Yongfeng; Tang, Qiu; Feng, Jiangguo

    2015-11-01

    To observe the apoptosis of capilliposide against human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-2 cells and to study its primary mechanisms. Vectors pSilencer-PUMA-small interfering RNA (siRNA) were constructed to transcribe functional siRNA specially targeting PUMA. The interfering plasmids were used to transfect CNE-2 cells with lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. PUMA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The proliferation of CNE-2 cells was detected using MTT colorimetry. Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining was applied to detect the apoptosis rate of CNE-2 cells. The protein levels of p53, PUMA, and Bax were detected using Western blot analysis. Recombinant siRNA expression vector targeting PUMA was constructed. MTT assays showed capilliposide inhibited the proliferation of CNE-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition was strengthened along with increased concentrations. Apoptosis detected by flow cytometry in control group, drug group, siRNA group, and drug combined siRNA group was 9.3 ± 2.3%, 31.4 ± 5.6%, 12.3 ± 4.1%, and 13.2 ± 3.7%, respectively. After pretreated by capilliposide, PUMA protein was upregulated, and BAX was distributed to mitochondria in CNE-2 cells using Western blot analysis, but this effect can be interrupted by PUMA-siRNA. Capilliposide could induce the apoptosis of CNE-2 cells, which might be related with the increasing in PUMA-Bax pathway.

  19. Expression of PUMA in Follicular Granulosa Cells Regulated by FoxO1 Activation During Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Qun; Shen, Ming; Wu, Wang-Jun; Li, Bo-Jiang; Weng, Qian-Nan; Li, Mei; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is a main cause of follicular atresia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways involving numerous genes and transcription factors. In this study, we found expression of the p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 subfamily protein, in ovarian GCs during oxidative stress. By overexpression and knockdown of Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), we found that FoxO1 regulates PUMA at the protein level. Moreover, as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to activate FoxO1 by promoting its nuclear import, we used a JNK inhibitor to reduce FoxO1 activation and detected decreased PUMA messenger RNA expression and protein levels during oxidative stress. In addition, in vivo oxidative stress-induced upregulation of PUMA was found following injection of 3 nitropropionic acid in mice. In conclusion, oxidative stress increases PUMA expression regulated by FoxO1 in follicular GCs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. siRNA delivery into cultured primary human myoblasts--optimization of electroporation parameters and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojk, Jasna; Mis, Katarina; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Pavlin, Mojca

    2015-12-01

    Introduction of genetic material into muscle tissue has been extensively researched, including isolation and in vitro expansion of primary myoblasts as a potential source of cells for skeletal and heart muscle tissue engineering applications. In this study, we optimized the electroporation protocol for introduction of short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) against messenger RNA for Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) into cultured primary human myoblasts. We established optimal pulsing protocol for siRNA electro transfection, and theoretically analyzed the effect of electric field and pulse duration on silencing efficiency and electrophoretic displacement of siRNA. Silencing of HIF-1α was determined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot. The most efficient silencing (71% knockdown) was achieved with 8 × 2 ms pulses, E = 0.6 kV/cm. Viability was determined immediately, 1 h and 48 h after electroporation. In general, there was a trade-off between efficient silencing and preserved viability. Electric field and pulse duration are crucial parameters for silencing, since both increase membrane permeabilization and electrophoretic transfer of siRNA. Short-term viability showed immediate toxicity of pulses due to membrane damage, while indirect effects on cell proliferation were observed after 48 h. Presented results are important for faster optimization of electroporation parameters for ex vivo electrotransfer of short RNA molecules into primary human myoblasts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.