WorldWideScience

Sample records for messenger rna interferase

  1. RNA decay by messenger RNA interferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Overgaard, Martin; Winther, Kristoffer Skovbo

    2008-01-01

    Two abundant toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene families, relBE and mazEF, encode mRNA cleaving enzymes whose ectopic overexpression abruptly inhibits translation and thereby induces a bacteriostatic condition. Here we describe and discuss protocols for the overproduction, purification, and analysis of mRNA...... cleaving enzymes such as RelE of Escherichia coli and the corresponding antitoxin RelB. In particular, we describe a set of plasmid vectors useful for the detailed analysis of cleavage sites in model mRNAs....

  2. Translation affects YoeB and MazF messenger RNA interferase activities by different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Gerdes, Kenn

    2008-01-01

    of mRNA is strictly dependent on translation of the mRNA in vivo. Non-translated model mRNAs were not cleaved whereas the corresponding wild-type mRNAs were cleaved efficiently. Model mRNAs carrying frameshift mutations exhibited a YoeB-mediated cleavage pattern consistent with the reading frameshift...... thus giving strong evidence that YoeB cleavage specificity was determined by the translational reading frame. In contrast, site-specific mRNA cleavage by MazF occurred independently of translation. In one case, translation seriously influenced MazF cleavage efficiency, thus solving a previous apparent...

  3. The discovery of mRNA interferases: implication in bacterial physiology and application to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Masayori

    2006-12-01

    Escherichia coli contains a large number of suicide or toxin genes, whose expression leads to cell growth arrest and eventual cell death. This raises intriguing questions as to why E. coli contains so many toxin genes and what are their roles in bacterial physiology. Among these, MazF has been shown to be a sequence-specific endoribonuclease, which cleaves mRNAs at ACA sequences to completely inhibit protein synthesis. MazF is therefore called mRNA interferase. A number of other mRNA interferases with different cleavage specificities have been discovered not only in E. coli, but also in other bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Induction of MazF in the cell leads to cellular dormancy termed quasi-dormancy. In spite of complete cell growth inhibition, cells in the quasi-dormant state are fully capable of energy metabolism, amino acids and nucleic acids biosynthesis and RNA and protein synthesis. The quasi-dormancy may be implicated in cell survival under stress conditions and may play a major role in pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis. The quasi-dormant cells provide an intriguing novel biotechnological system producing only a protein of interest in a high yield. MazF causing Bak-dependent programmed cell death in mammalian cells may be used as a tool for gene therapy against cancer and AIDS. The discovery of a novel way to interfere with mRNA function by mRNA interferases opens a wide variety of avenues in basic as well as applied and clinical sciences. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Messenger RNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cullen

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA) in complex substrata is rarely analyzed, in large part because labile RNA molecules are difficult to purify. Nucleic acid extractions from fungi that colonize soil are particularly difficult and plagued by humic substances that interfere with Taq polymerase (Tebbe and Vahjen 1993 and references therein). Magnetic capture...

  5. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  6. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  7. Messenger RNA Interferase RelE Controls relBE Transcription by Conditional Cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Borch, Jonas; Jørgensen, Mikkel G

    2008-01-01

    by binding to one or more operators in the promoter region while the toxin functions as a co-repressor of transcription. Interestingly, the toxin can also stimulate TA operon transcription. Here we analyse mechanistic aspects of how RelE of Escherichia coli can function both as a co-repressor and derepressor...... of relBE transcription. When RelB was in excess to RelE, two trimeric RelB(2)*RelE complexes bound cooperatively to two adjacent operator-sites in the relBE promoter region and repressed transcription. By contrast, RelE in excess stimulated relBE transcription and released the RelB(2)*RelE complex from...... operator DNA. A mutational analysis of the operator-sites showed that RelE in excess counteracted cooperative binding of the RelB(2)*RelE complexes to the operator-sites. Thus, RelE controls relBE transcription by conditional cooperativity....

  8. Messenger RNA 3' end formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A G

    2008-01-01

    Messenger RNA 3' end formation is an integral step in the process that gives rise to mature, translated messenger RNAs in eukaryotes. With this step, a pre-messenger RNA is processed and polyadenylated, giving rise to a mature mRNA bearing the characteristic poly(A) tract. The poly(A) tract is a fundamental feature of mRNAs, participating in the process of translation initiation and being the focus of control mechanisms that define the lifetime of mRNAs. Thus messenger RNA 3' end formation impacts two steps in mRNA biogenesis and function. Moreover, mRNA 3' end formation is something of a bridge that integrates numerous other steps in mRNA biogenesis and function. While the process is essential for the expression of most genes, it is also one that is subject to various forms of regulation, such that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression may be modulated via the polyadenylation complex. In this review, the current status of understanding of mRNA 3' end formation in plants is discussed. In particular, the nature of mRNA 3' ends in plants is reviewed, as are recent studies that are beginning to yield insight into the functioning and regulation of plant polyadenylation factor subunits.

  9. Messenger RNA surveillance: neutralizing natural nonsense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischelfeldt, Joachim Lütken; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Porse, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Messenger RNA transcripts that contain premature stop codons are degraded by a process termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Although previously thought of as a pathway that rids the cell of non-functional mRNAs arising from mutations and processing errors, new research suggests a more general...

  10. Estrogen Regulation of Messenger RNA Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-17

    has also been demonstrated. The best characterized example of the role of the coding region in mRNA stability is that of tubulin. In most animai cells...Role of Polv(A) Tract in mRNA Degradation Most mRNAs in animai cells possess a 3’-terminal tract of 100-300 adenosine residues (poly(A) tali), This...vertebrate messenger RNAs," Nucl. Acids Res. 15: 8125-8148. Kraft, N, and Shortman, K, (1970). "A suggested control function for the animai tissue

  11. Messenger RNA processing in Methanocaldococcus (Methanococcus) jannaschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Olsen, Gary J

    2009-10-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) processing plays important roles in gene expression in all domains of life. A number of cases of mRNA cleavage have been documented in Archaea, but available data are fragmentary. We have examined RNAs present in Methanocaldococcus (Methanococcus) jannaschii for evidence of RNA processing upstream of protein-coding genes. Of 123 regions covered by the data, 31 were found to be processed, with 30 including a cleavage site 12-16 nucleotides upstream of the corresponding translation start site. Analyses with 3'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and 5'-RACE indicate that the processing is endonucleolytic. Analyses of the sequences surrounding the processing sites for functional sites, sequence motifs, or potential RNA secondary structure elements did not reveal any recurring features except for an AUG translation start codon and (in most cases) a ribosome binding site. These properties differ from those of all previously described mRNA processing systems. Our data suggest that the processing alters the representation of various genes in the RNA pool and therefore, may play a significant role in defining the balance of proteins in the cell.

  12. THE LIFETIME OF BACTERIAL MESSENGER RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, V.; Calvin, M.

    1963-12-01

    Puromycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, appears to act as an inhibitor at additional sites during the induction of {beta}-galactosidase synthesis. No inhibition of the reactions proceeding during the first 20 seconds of induction was observed, but puromycin seems to prevent the accumulation of messenger RNA during the period between 20 seconds and the first appearance of enzyme activity after 3 minutes. When cells from a stationary culture are placed in fresh medium containing inducer for {beta}-galactosidase, growth, as represented by increase in turbidity and by total protein synthesis, starts within 30 seconds. By contrast, {beta}-galactosidase synthesis is greatly delayed compared with induction during exponential growth. Two other inducible enzymes show similar lags, but malic dehydrogenase, which requires no external inducer, shows no lag. The lags are not due to catabolite repression phenomena. They cannot be reduced by pretreatment of the culture with inducer, or by supplementing the fresh medium with amino acids or nucleotides. The lag is also demonstrated by an i{sup -} mutant constitutive for {beta}-galactosidase synthesis. An inhibitor of RNA synthesis, 6-azauracil, preferentially inhibits {beta}-galactosidase synthesis compared with growth in both inducible and constitutive strains. It is suggested that these observations, together with many reports in the literature that inducible enzyme synthesis is more sensitive than total growth to some inhibitors and adverse growth conditions, can be explained by supposing that messenger RNA for normally inducible enzymes is biologically more labile than that for normally constitutive proteins. The implications of this hypothesis for the achievement of cell differentiation by genetic regulation of enzyme synthesis are briefly discussed.

  13. Processivity and coupling in messenger RNA transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Aitken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of messenger RNA processing is now being uncovered by experimental techniques that are capable of detecting individual copies of mRNA in cells, and by quantitative real-time observations that reveal the kinetics. This processing is commonly modelled by permitting mRNA to be transcribed only when the promoter is in the on state. In this simple on/off model, the many processes involved in active transcription are represented by a single reaction. These processes include elongation, which has a minimum time for completion and processing that is not captured in the model.In this paper, we explore the impact on the mRNA distribution of representing the elongation process in more detail. Consideration of the mechanisms of elongation leads to two alternative models of the coupling between the elongating polymerase and the state of the promoter: Processivity allows polymerases to complete elongation irrespective of the promoter state, whereas coupling requires the promoter to be active to produce a full-length transcript. We demonstrate that these alternatives have a significant impact on the predicted distributions. Models are simulated by the Gillespie algorithm, and the third and fourth moments of the resulting distribution are computed in order to characterise the length of the tail, and sharpness of the peak. By this methodology, we show that the moments provide a concise summary of the distribution, showing statistically-significant differences across much of the feasible parameter range.We conclude that processivity is not fully consistent with the on/off model unless the probability of successfully completing elongation is low--as has been observed. The results also suggest that some form of coupling between the promoter and a rate-limiting step in transcription may explain the cell's inability to maintain high mRNA levels at low noise--a prediction of the on/off model that has no supporting evidence.

  14. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA Translation. The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical ...

  15. Rapid important paper Messenger RNA in squid axoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, A; Hunt, T; Santella, L

    1986-01-01

    Using a translation assay we have shown that the axoplasm of the squid giant axon contains significant amounts of mRNA coding for a heterogeneous group of prot sets of proteins specified by glial and neuronal perikaryal mRNA. Messenger RNA is associated with the "microsomal" fraction of the axoplasm. The possible involvement of axoplasmic mRNA in protein synthesis remains to be ascertained. It is known that axoplasmic proteins are synthesized by the isolated giant axon, presumably by the surrounding glia cells.

  16. Study of messenger RNA inactivation and protein degradation in an Escherichia coli cell-free expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireaux Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large amount of recombinant proteins can be synthesized in a few hours with Escherichia coli cell-free expression systems based on bacteriophage transcription. These cytoplasmic extracts are used in many applications that require large-scale protein production such as proteomics and high throughput techniques. In recent years, cell-free systems have also been used to engineer complex informational processes. These works, however, have been limited by the current available cell-free systems, which are not well adapted to these types of studies. In particular, no method has been proposed to increase the mRNA inactivation rate and the protein degradation rate in cell-free reactions. The construction of in vitro informational processes with interesting dynamics requires a balance between mRNA and protein synthesis (the source, and mRNA inactivation and protein degradation (the sink. Results Two quantitative studies are presented to characterize and to increase the global mRNA inactivation rate, and to accelerate the degradation of the synthesized proteins in an E. coli cell-free expression system driven by the endogenous RNA polymerase and sigma factor 70. The E. coli mRNA interferase MazF was used to increase and to adjust the mRNA inactivation rate of the Firefly luciferase (Luc and of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. Peptide tags specific to the endogenous E. coli AAA + proteases were used to induce and to adjust the protein degradation rate of eGFP. Messenger RNA inactivation rate, protein degradation rate, maturation time of Luc and eGFP were measured. Conclusions The global mRNA turnover and the protein degradation rate can be accelerated and tuned in a biologically relevant range in a cell-free reaction with quantitative procedures easy to implement. These features broaden the capabilities of cell-free systems with a better control of gene expression. This cell-free extract could find some applications in

  17. Isolation and Translation of Hordein Messenger RNA from Wild Type and Mutant Endosperms in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders Bøving; Ingwersen, J.

    1978-01-01

    of a different B1 hordein polypeptide, which is revealed by 21 nucleotide substitutions resulting in 9 amino acid changes. Messenger RNA has been isolated from developing barley endosperms by sucrose gradient sedimentation, Sepharose 4B gel filtration and preparative gel electrophoresis. Hordein messenger RNA...... was found to be a major constituent of the total messenger RNA population of the endosperm cell. Polyadenylated hordein messenger RNA sedimented at 11S in sucrose gradients and electrophoretic analysis reveals the presence of at least three RNA species with apparent molecular weights of 0.45, 0.36 and 0.......30 megadaltons. The 11S messenger RNA was translated in vitro into hordein precursor polypeptides which are 2–4 kilodaltons larger than the native hordein polypeptides. The endosperm cell of mutant No. 1508 contained twice as much RNA as the wild type endosperm cell but the same amount of polyadenylated 11S RNA...

  18. Human Bocavirus Capsid Messenger RNA Detection in Children With Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Ampofo, Krow; Tardif, Keith D; Stockmann, Chris; Simmon, Keith E; Hymas, Weston; Flygare, Steven; Kennedy, Brett; Blaschke, Anne; Eilbeck, Karen; Yandell, Mark; McCullers, Jon A; Williams, Derek J; Edwards, Kathryn; Arnold, Sandra R; Bramley, Anna; Jain, Seema; Pavia, Andrew T

    2017-09-15

    The role of human bocavirus (HBoV) in respiratory illness is uncertain. HBoV genomic DNA is frequently detected in both ill and healthy children. We hypothesized that spliced viral capsid messenger RNA (mRNA) produced during active replication might be a better marker for acute infection. As part of the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, children aged <18 years who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and children asymptomatic at the time of elective outpatient surgery (controls) were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were tested for HBoV mRNA and genomic DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HBoV DNA was detected in 10.4% of 1295 patients with CAP and 7.5% of 721 controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.0-2.0]); HBoV mRNA was detected in 2.1% and 0.4%, respectively (OR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.6-26]). When adjusted for age, enrollment month, and detection of other respiratory viruses, HBoV mRNA detection (adjusted OR, 7.6 [95% CI, 1.5-38.4]) but not DNA (adjusted OR, 1.2 [95% CI, .6-2.4]) was associated with CAP. Among children with no other pathogens detected, HBoV mRNA (OR, 9.6 [95% CI, 1.9-82]) was strongly associated with CAP. Detection of HBoV mRNA but not DNA was associated with CAP, supporting a pathogenic role for HBoV in CAP. HBoV mRNA could be a useful target for diagnostic testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. HicA of Escherichia coli defines a novel family of translation-independent mRNA interferases in bacteria and archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel G; Pandey, Deo P; Jaskolska, Milena

    2009-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci are common in free-living bacteria and archaea. TA loci encode a stable toxin that is neutralized by a metabolically unstable antitoxin. The antitoxin can be either a protein or an antisense RNA. So far, six different TA gene families, in which the antitoxins are protein...... a bacteriostatic rather than a bactericidal condition. Nutrient starvation induced strong hicAB transcription that depended on Lon protease. Mining of 218 prokaryotic genomes revealed that hicAB loci are abundant in bacteria and archaea.......Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci are common in free-living bacteria and archaea. TA loci encode a stable toxin that is neutralized by a metabolically unstable antitoxin. The antitoxin can be either a protein or an antisense RNA. So far, six different TA gene families, in which the antitoxins are proteins....... Expression of HicB (145 aa) prevented HicA-mediated inhibition of cell growth. These results suggest that HicB neutralizes HicA and therefore functions as an antitoxin. As with other antitoxins (RelB and MazF), HicB could resuscitate cells inhibited by HicA, indicating that ectopic production of HicA induces...

  20. ESTRADIOL-INDUCED SYNTHESIS OF VITELLOGENIN .3. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VITELLOGENIN MESSENGER-RNA FROM AVIAN LIVER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AB, G.; Roskam, W. G.; Dijkstra, J.; Mulder, J.; Willems, M.; van der Ende, A.; Gruber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The messenger RNA of the hormone-induced protein vitellogenin was isolated from the liver of estrogen-treated roosters. Starting from total polysomal RNA, the vitellogenin messenger was purified 67-fold by oligo (dT)-cellulose chromatography and sizing on a sucrose gradient. The messenger was

  1. microRNA-mediated messenger RNA deadenylation contributes to translational repression in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traude H Beilharz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal microRNAs (miRNAs typically regulate gene expression by binding to partially complementary target sites in the 3' untranslated region (UTR of messenger RNA (mRNA reducing its translation and stability. They also commonly induce shortening of the mRNA 3' poly(A tail, which contributes to their mRNA decay promoting function. The relationship between miRNA-mediated deadenylation and translational repression has been less clear. Using transfection of reporter constructs carrying three imperfectly matching let-7 target sites in the 3' UTR into mammalian cells we observe rapid target mRNA deadenylation that precedes measureable translational repression by endogenous let-7 miRNA. Depleting cells of the argonaute co-factors RCK or TNRC6A can impair let-7-mediated repression despite ongoing mRNA deadenylation, indicating that deadenylation alone is not sufficient to effect full repression. Nevertheless, the magnitude of translational repression by let-7 is diminished when the target reporter lacks a poly(A tail. Employing an antisense strategy to block deadenylation of target mRNA with poly(A tail also partially impairs translational repression. On the one hand, these experiments confirm that tail removal by deadenylation is not strictly required for translational repression. On the other hand they show directly that deadenylation can augment miRNA-mediated translational repression in mammalian cells beyond stimulating mRNA decay. Taken together with published work, these results suggest a dual role of deadenylation in miRNA function: it contributes to translational repression as well as mRNA decay and is thus critically involved in establishing the quantitatively appropriate physiological response to miRNAs.

  2. A Contemporary, Laboratory-Intensive Course on Messenger RNA Transcription and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Sue; Miller, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) plays a pivotal role in the central dogma of molecular biology. Importantly, molecular events occurring during and after mRNA synthesis have the potential to create multiple proteins from one gene, leading to some of the remarkable protein diversity that genomes hold. The North Carolina State University…

  3. Transfer-messenger RNA controls the translation of cell-cycle and stress proteins in Streptomyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barends, Sharief; Zehl, Martin; Bialek, Sylwia

    2010-01-01

    The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation mechanism is highly conserved in bacteria and functions primarily as a system for the rescue of stalled ribosomes and the removal of aberrantly produced proteins. Here, we show that in the antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces...

  4. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Anji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins.

  5. Characterization of long noncoding RNA and messenger RNA signatures in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Wang

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive and life-threatening form of skin cancer, has significantly risen over recent decades. Therefore, it is essential to identify the mechanisms that underlie melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and to explore novel and effective melanoma treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence s uggests that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have vital functions in multiple cancers. However, lncRNA functions in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA expression profiles in primary melanomas, metastatic melanomas and normal skin samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We used GSE15605 as the training set (n = 74 and GSE7553 as the validation set (n = 58. In three comparisons (primary melanoma versus normal skin, metastatic melanoma versus normal skin, and metastatic melanoma versus primary melanoma, 178, 295 and 48 lncRNAs and 847, 1758, and 295 mRNAs were aberrantly expressed, respectively. We performed Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses to examine the differentially expressed mRNAs, and potential core lncRNAs were predicted by lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks. Based on our results, 15 lncRNAs and 144 mRNAs were significantly associated with melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. A subsequent analysis suggested a critical role for a five-lncRNA signature during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. Low expression of U47924.27 was significantly associated with decreased survival of patients with melanoma. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the expression patterns of lncRNAs and mRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis by re-annotating microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO microarray dataset. These findings reveal potential roles for lncRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and provide a rich candidate

  6. A thermostable messenger RNA based vaccine against rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitz, Lothar; Vogel, Annette; Schnee, Margit; Voss, Daniel; Rauch, Susanne; Mutzke, Thorsten; Ketterer, Thomas; Kramps, Thomas; Petsch, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Although effective rabies virus vaccines have been existing for decades, each year, rabies virus infections still cause around 50.000 fatalities worldwide. Most of these cases occur in developing countries, where these vaccines are not available. The reasons for this are the prohibitive high costs of cell culture or egg grown rabies virus vaccines and the lack of a functional cold chain in many regions in which rabies virus is endemic. Here, we describe the excellent temperature resistance of a non-replicating mRNA based rabies virus vaccine encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G). Prolonged storage of the vaccine from -80°C to up to +70°C for several months did not impact the protective capacity of the mRNA vaccine. Efficacy after storage was demonstrated by the induction of rabies specific virus neutralizing antibodies and protection in mice against lethal rabies infection. Moreover, storing the vaccine at oscillating temperatures between +4° and +56°C for 20 cycles in order to simulate interruptions of the cold chain during vaccine transport, did not affect the vaccine's immunogenicity and protective characteristics, indicating that maintenance of a cold chain is not essential for this vaccine.

  7. Beta globin messenger RNA content of bone marrow erythroblasts in heterozygous beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, E J; Pritchard, J; Hillman, D; Glass, J; Forget, B G

    1984-01-01

    RNA from bone marrow erythroblasts and peripheral blood reticulocytes of patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia was analyzed for relative content of alpha and beta globin messenger RNA by molecular hybrization. Erythroblasts from nonthalassemic patients exhibited approximately the same alpha and beta globin mRNA content (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.8-1.0) as circulating reticulocytes (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.74-1.2). The mRNA ratios corresponded well to levels of globin synthesis observed in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Erythroblasts from four patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia also exhibited approximately the same beta/alpha mRNA ratios in bone marrow erythroblasts (0.34-0.59) as in reticulocytes (0.34-0.4): beta globin mRNA was clearly deficient in bone marrow erythroblasts. Globin biosynthesis by erythroblasts of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes was balanced despite the mRNA deficiency (beta/alpha = 0.9-1.0), suggesting that post-translational phenoma (eg, proteolysis of free globin chains), rather than instability of beta mRNA, accounts for the balanced globin chain synthesis frequently observed in bone marrow erythroblasts of patients with beta-thalassemia trait.

  8. Postage for the messenger: Designating routes for Nuclear mRNA Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalizio, Barbara J.; Wente, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of messenger(m) RNA occurs in the nucleus, making the translocation of mRNA across the nuclear envelope (NE) boundary a critical determinant of proper gene expression and cell survival. A major mRNA export route occurs via the NXF1-dependent pathway through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the NE. However, recent findings have discovered new evidence supporting the existence of multiple mechanisms for crossing the NE, including both NPC-mediated and NE budding-mediated pathways. An analysis of the trans-acting factors and cis components that define these pathways reveals shared elements as well as mechanistic differences. We review here the current understanding of the mechanisms that characterize each pathway and highlight the determinants that influence mRNA transport fate. PMID:23583578

  9. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Verhulst, E.C.; Leussen, van M.; Zande, L.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2018-01-01

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid

  10. Differential intragraft cytokine messenger RNA profiles during rejection and repair of clinical heart transplants. A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A; Mol, Wendy M; Niesters, Hubert G M; Maat, Alex P W; van Gelder, Teun; Balk, Aggie H M M; Weimar, Willem; Baan, Carla C

    After clinical heart transplantation, ischemia, acute rejection, and repair mechanisms can trigger the up-regulation of cytokines. To investigate the cytokine profile early after transplantation, we monitored messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte

  11. Increased hepatic ferritin-H messenger RNA levels correlate with those of c-myc in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C.; Habib, N.; Mitry, R.; Reitsma, P.; Vandeventer, S.; Chamuleau, R.

    1997-01-01

    Serum ferritin is elevated in many cancers. Using the subtraction-enhanced display technique, we isolated several cDNA clones including ferritin-H which is overexpressed in rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by diethylnitrosamine. We investigated hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of

  12. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, E.; Verhulst, E. C.; van Leussen, M.; van de Zande, L.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid

  13. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E.; Ramos, S.G.; Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis

  14. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  15. Comment on ``Length-dependent translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-02-01

    In a recent paper by Valleriani [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.042903 83, 042903 (2011)], a simple model for the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) is presented. Using this model, the protein translational ratio r, defined as the ratio of protein translation rate ωtl from mRNA to protein degradation rate ωp, is obtained. The key point in obtaining the translational ratio r is to get the protein translation rate ωtl. In Valleriani 's paper, ωtl is obtained as the mean value of the measured translation rate, which is the ratio of the synthesized protein number to the mRNA lifetime. However, in experiments, different methods might be used to obtain the value of ωtl. Therefore, to apply Valleriani 's model to more general experiments, in this Comment three methods to obtain the translation rate ωtl, and consequently the translational ratio r, are presented. Based on one of the methods which might be employed in most of the experiments, we find that the translational ratio r decays exponentially with mRNA length in prokaryotic cells, and decays reciprocally with mRNA length in eukaryotic cells. This result is slight different from that which was obtained in Valleriani 's paper.

  16. Repression of hspA2 messenger RNA in human testes with abnormal spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, W Y; Han, C T; Hwang, S H; Lee, J H; Kim, S; Kim, Y C

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of hspA2 in testes of infertile men with azoospermia. Prospective study. Center for Reproduction and Genetics, Pundang Je-Saeng General Hospital, Dae-Jin Medical Center, Korea. Azoospermic patients (n = 15) undergoing testicular biopsy for pathologic evaluation were selected. After pathologic evaluation, testicular biopsy specimens were subdivided into three groups: group 1, normal spermatogenesis (n = 5); group 2, spermatocyte arrest (n = 5); and group 3, Sertoli cell-only syndrome (n = 5). The levels of hspA2 mRNA expression were compared in testes of group 1, group 2, and group 3 with the use of a competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Comparison of hspA2 mRNA levels in testes. On competitive RT-PCR analyses for hspA2 mRNA, significant hspA2 expression was observed in group 1, whereas a very low level of hspA2 was expressed in groups 2 and 3. This study demonstrates that hspA2 gene expression is down-regulated in human testes with abnormal spermatogenesis, which in turn suggests that the hspA2 gene might play a specific role during meiosis in human testes.

  17. Phenotypic characterization of neurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells in the neuroleptic-treated rat striatum: a detailed cellular co-expression study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, P.C.; Westmore, K.; Augood, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical phenotype of proneurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells was determined in the acute haloperidol-treated rat striatum using a combination of [ 35 S]-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides. Cellular sites of proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were visualized simultaneously on tissue sections processed to reveal cellular sites of preproenkephalin A messenger RNA or the dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32, messenger RNA. The cellular co-expression of preproenkepahlin A and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was also examined within forebrain structures. Cellular sites of preproenkephalin A and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNAs were visualized using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides whilst sites of preprotachykinin and proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were detected using [ 35 S]-labelled oligos. Cellular sites of enkephalin and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 gene expression were identified microscopically by the concentration of purple alkaline phosphatase reaction product within the cell cytoplasm, whereas sites of substance P and proneurotensin gene expression were identified by the dense clustering of silver grains overlying cells.An intense hybridization signal was detected for all three neuropeptide messenger RNAs in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and septum. Dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNA was detected within the neostriatum but not within the septum. In all forebrain regions examined, with the exception of the islands of Cajella, the cellular expression of enkephalin messenger RNA and substance P messenger RNA was discordant; the two neuropeptide messenger RNAs were detected essentially in different cells, although in the striatum and nucleus accumbens occasional isolated cells were detected which contained both hybridization signals; dense clusters of silver grains overlay alkaline phosphatase-positive cells

  18. Role of messenger RNA-ribosome complex in complementary DNA display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimuddin, Mohammed; Ohtsuka, Isao; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kudou, Motonori; Kimura, Shinnosuke

    2013-07-15

    In vitro display technologies such as ribosome display and messenger RNA (mRNA)/complementary DNA (cDNA) display are powerful methods that can generate library diversities on the order of 10(10-14). However, in mRNA and cDNA display methods, the end use diversity is two orders of magnitude lower than initial diversity and is dependent on the downstream processes that act as limiting factors. We found that in our previous cDNA display protocol, the purification of protein fusions by the use of streptavidin matrices from cell-free translation mixtures had poor efficiency (∼10-15%) that seriously affected the diversity of the purified library. Here, we have investigated and optimized the protocols that provided remarkable purification efficiencies. The stalled ribosome in the mRNA-ribosome complex was found to impede this purification efficiency. Among the various conditions tested, destabilization of ribosomes by appropriate concentration of metal chelating agents in combination with an optimal temperature of 30°C were found to be crucial and effective for nearly complete isolation of protein fusions from the cell-free translation system. Thus, this protocol provided 8- to 10-fold increased efficiency of purification over the previous method and results in retaining the diversity of the library by approximately an order of magnitude-important for directed evolution. We also discuss the possible effects in the fabrication of protein chips. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ribosomal Protein S12 and Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Modulate A-site mRNA Cleavage and Transfer-Messenger RNA Activity in Escherichia coli*

    OpenAIRE

    Holberger, Laura E.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)·SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pa...

  20. Early changes of placenta-derived messenger RNA in maternal plasma – potential value for preeclampsia prediction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surugiu Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the pourpose of the study was to determine if there are any differences between placenta derived plasmatic levels of messenger RNA in normal and future preeclamptic pregnancies and if these placental transcripts can predict preeclampsia long before clinical onset

  1. Gingival Toll-like receptor and cytokine messenger RNA levels in equine periodontitis and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R; Lappin, D F; Dixon, P M; Bennett, D; Riggio, M P

    2017-05-01

    Equine periodontitis is a common and painful condition. However, the disease often goes unnoticed by owners and is thus a major welfare concern. The aetiopathogenesis of the condition remains poorly understood and has been investigated in few studies. The innate immune system is known to play an important role in human periodontitis, but its role in equine periodontitis has not been examined. To quantify the messenger (m)RNA levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines in gingival tissue from orally healthy horses and those affected by periodontitis. Observational study. Gingival tissue samples were taken post-mortem from 13 horses with no clinical signs of oral disease and 20 horses with periodontitis. mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The statistical significance of results was assessed using appropriate t tests. mRNA levels of all TLRs and cytokines were upregulated in equine periodontitis. Significant increases in mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR9, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 (P≤0.05) and IFN-γ (P≤0.01) were observed for both unweighted and age-weighted analyses of diseased gingival tissue samples compared with healthy gingival samples. In comparisons of samples of periodontitis lesions with healthy gingival control samples from the same horse, significant increases in mRNA levels of TLR4, TLR9, IL-10, IFN-γ (P≤0.05), TLR2, IL-1β and IL-12p35 (P≤0.01) were observed. This study has provided an initial insight into the involvement of the immune system in equine periodontitis. Increased mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 indicate substantial microbial challenge in diseased gingival tissue. A mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine response is produced in equine periodontitis. Further studies are required to more fully characterise the role of the innate immune system in this disease. © 2016

  2. Human bitter perception correlates with bitter receptor messenger RNA expression in taste cells123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchock, Sarah V; Mennella, Julie A; Spielman, Andrew I; Reed, Danielle R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alleles of the receptor gene TAS2R38 are responsible in part for the variation in bitter taste perception of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally similar compounds (eg, glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables). At low concentrations, people with the PAV (“taster” amino acid sequence) form of TAS2R38 perceive these bitter compounds, whereas most with the AVI (“nontaster” amino acid sequence) form do not; heterozygotes (PAV/AVI) show the widest range of bitter perception. Objectives: The objectives were to examine individual differences in expression of PAV-TAS2R38 messenger RNA (mRNA) among heterozygotes, to test the hypotheses that the abundance of allele-specific gene expression accounts for the variation in human bitter taste perception, and to relate to dietary intake of bitter-tasting beverages and foods. Design: Heterozygous individuals (n = 22) provided psychophysical evaluation of the bitterness of PROP, glucosinolate-containing broccoli juice, non–glucosinolate-containing carrot juice, and several bitter non-TAS2R38 ligands as well as dietary recalls. Fungiform taste papillae were examined for allele-specific TAS2R38 expression by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: PAV-TAS2R38 mRNA expression was measured in 18 of 22 heterozygous subjects. Relative expression varied widely and positively correlated with ratings of bitterness intensity of PROP (P = 0.007) and broccoli juice (P = 0.004) but not of the control solutions carrot juice (P = 0.26), NaCl (P = 0.68), caffeine (P = 0.24), or urea (P = 0.47). Expression amounts were related to self-reported recent and habitual caffeine intake (P = 0.060, P = 0.005); vegetable intake was too low to analyze. Conclusions: We provide evidence that PAV-TAS2R38 expression amount correlates with individual differences in bitter sensory perception and diet. The nature of this correlation calls for additional research on the molecular mechanisms associated with some individual

  3. Meiotic messenger RNA and noncoding RNA targets of the RNA-binding protein Translin (TSN) in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Iguchi, Naoko; Yang, Juxiang; Handel, Mary Ann; Hecht, Norman B

    2005-10-01

    In postmeiotic male germ cells, TSN, formerly known as testis brain-RNA binding protein, is found in the cytoplasm and functions as a posttranscriptional regulator of a group of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau. In contrast, in pachytene spermatocytes, TSN is found predominantly in nuclei. Tsn-null males show a reduced sperm count and high levels of apoptosis in meiotic cells, suggesting a critical function for TSN during meiosis. To identify meiotic target RNAs that associate in vivo with TSN, we reversibly cross-linked TSN to RNA in testis extracts from 17-day-old and adult mice and immunoprecipitated the complexes with an affinity-purified TSN antibody. Extracts from Tsn-null mice were used as controls. Cloning and sequencing the immunoprecipitated RNAs, we identified four new TSN target mRNAs, encoding diazepam-binding inhibitor-like 5, arylsulfatase A, a tetratricopeptide repeat structure-containing protein, and ring finger protein 139. In contrast to the population of postmeiotic translationally delayed mRNAs that bind TSN, these four mRNAs are initially expressed in pachytene spermatocytes. In addition, anti-TSN also precipitated a nonprotein-coding RNA (ncRNA), which is abundant in nuclei of pachytene spermatocytes and has a putative polyadenylation signal, but no open reading frame. A second similar ncRNA is adjacent to a GGA repeat, a motif frequently associated with recombination hot spots. RNA gel-shift assays confirm that the four new target mRNAs and the ncRNA specifically bind to TSN in testis extracts. These studies have, for the first time, identified both mRNAs and a ncRNA as TSN targets expressed during meiosis.

  4. In vivo expression of ß-galactosidase by rat oviduct exposed to naked DNA or messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA RIOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-oviductal administration of RNA obtained from oviducts of estradiol-treated rats resulted in accelerated egg transport (Ríos et al., 1997. It is probable that estradiol-induced messenger RNA (mRNA entered oviductal cells and was translated into the proteins involved in accelerated egg transport. In order to test this interpretation we deposited in vivo 50 µg of pure ß-galactosidase (ß-gal mRNA, 50 µg of pure DNA from the reporter gene ß-gal under SV40 promoter or the vehicle (control oviducts into the oviductal lumen of rats. Twenty four hours later the ß-gal activity was assayed in oviductal tissue homogenates using o-nitrophenyl-ß-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate. The administration of ß-gal mRNA and pSVBgal plasmid increased ß-gal activity by 71% and 142%, respectively, over the control oviducts. These results indicate that naked DNA and mRNA coding for ß-gal can enter oviductal cells and be translated into an active enzyme. They are consistent with the interpretation that embryo transport acceleration caused by the injection of estradiol-induced RNA in the oviduct involves translation of the injected mRNA

  5. IL-2 induction of IL-1 beta mRNA expression in monocytes. Regulation by agents that block second messenger pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Varesio, L

    1989-01-01

    beta mRNA could be directly induced in purified human monocytes by treatment with Il-2 and, if so, to analyze the second messenger pathways by which it may be controlled. Human monocytes do not spontaneously express IL-1 beta mRNA, but can express the gene as soon as 1 h after treatment with IL-2...

  6. Contrasting responses to interferon β-1b treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Does baseline interleukin- 12p35 messenger RNA predict the efficacy of treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxel van-Dezaire, A.H.H.; Trigt van-Hoff, S.C.J.; Killestein, J.; Schrijver, H.M.; Houwelingen, J.C. van; Polman, C.H.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2000-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β treatment is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) via an as yet unidentified mechanism. In the present study, we investigated whether the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding the interleukin (IL)-12 subunits p40 and p35, IL-12 receptor chains, IL-18,

  7. Genetic recombination in plant-infecting messenger-sense RNA viruses: overview and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Julian Bujarski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RNA recombination is one of the driving forces of genetic variability in (+-strand RNA viruses. Various types of RNA-RNA crossovers were described including crosses between the same or different viral RNAs or between viral and cellular RNAs. Likewise, a variety of molecular mechanisms are known to support RNA recombination, such as replicative events (based on internal or end-to-end replicase switchings along with nonreplicative joining among RNA fragments of viral and/or cellular origin. Such mechanisms as RNA decay or RNA interference are responsible for RNA fragmentation and trans-esterification reactions which are likely accountable for ligation of RNA fragments. Numerous host factors were found to affect the profiles of viral RNA recombinants and significant differences in recombination frequency were observed among various RNA viruses. Comparative analyses of viral sequences allowed for the development of evolutionary models in order to explain adaptive phenotypic changes and co-evolving sites. Many questions remain to be answered by forthcoming RNA recombination research. (i How various factors modulate the ability of viral replicase to switch templates, (ii What is the intracellular location of RNA-RNA template switchings, (iii Mechanisms and factors responsible for non-replicative RNA recombination, (iv Mechanisms of integration of RNA viral sequences with cellular genomic DNA, and (v What is the role of RNA splicing and ribozyme activity. From an evolutionary stand point, it is not known how RNA viruses parasitize new host species via recombination, nor is it obvious what the contribution of RNA recombination is among other RNA modification pathways. We do not understand why the frequency of RNA recombination varies so much among RNA viruses and the status of RNA recombination as a form of sex is not well documented.

  8. The first discovery of RNA interference by RNA restriction enzymes to inhibit protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Masayori

    2017-01-15

    In this article, I review how an RNA restriction enzyme, a highly sequence-specific endoribonuclease, was for the first time discovered in 2003 and how the concept of RNA interference using RNA restriction enzymes or mRNA interferases has been developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blockade of OX40/OX40 ligand to decrease cytokine messenger RNA expression in acute renal allograft rejection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-L; Li, G; Fu, Y-X; Wang, H; Shen, Z-Y

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from renal recipients experiencing acute rejection by blocking OX40-OX40L interactions with recombinant human OX40-Fc fusion protein (rhOX40Fc) in vitro. PBMCs were isolated from 20 recipients experiencing acute rejection episodes (rejection group) and 20 recipients with stable graft function (stable group). Levels of Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ) and Th2 (interleukin [IL]-4) mRNA expressions by PBMCs were measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions. IFN-γ mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the rejection than the stable group (P rejection group, rhOX40Fc reduced significantly the expression of IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA by anti-CD3-monoclonal antibody stimulated PBMCs (P type cytokines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrochemical Branched-DNA Assay for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Free Detection and Quantification of Oncogenes in Messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ai Cheng; Dai, Ziyu; Chen, Baowei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Lurong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel electrochemical branched-DNA (bDNA) assay for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free detection and quantification of p185 BCR-ABL leukemia fusion transcript in the population of messenger RNA (mRNA) extracted from cell lines. The bDNA amplifier carrying high loading of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) tracers was used to amplify targets signal. The targets were captured on microplate well surfaces through cooperative sandwich hybridization prior to the labeling of bDNA. The activity of captured ALP was monitored by square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis of the electroactive enzymatic product in the presence of 1-napthyl-phosphate. The specificity and sensitivity of assay enabled direct detection of target transcript in as little as 4.6 ng mRNA without PCR amplification. In combination with the use of a well-quantified standard, the electrochemical bDNA assay was capable of direct use for a PCR-free quantitative analysis of target transcript in total mRNA population. The approach thus provides a simple, sensitive, accurate and quantitative tool alternate to the RQ-PCR for early disease diagnosis.

  11. Physical change in cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoproteins in cells treated with inhibitors of mRNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfuss, G.; Adam, S.A.; Choi, Y.D.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of intact cells to UV light brings about cross-linking of polyadenylated mRNA to a set of cytoplasmic proteins which are in direct contact with the mRNA in vivo. Substantial amounts of an additional protein of molecular weight 38,000 become cross-linked to the mRNA when cells are treated with inhibitors of mRNA synthesis (actinomycin D, camptothecin, and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole) or after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Cordycepin, which inhibits polyadenylation but not mRNA synthesis, has no such effect. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and of rRNA synthesis are also without effect on 38K cross-linking to mRNA. The onset of the effect of inhibitors of mRNA synthesis on the UV cross-linkable interaction between mRNA and 38K is rapid and reaches a maximal level in less than 60 min, and it is completely and rapidly reversible. In cells treated with actinomycin D, the amount of 38K which becomes cross-linked to mRNA is proportional to the extent of inhibition of mRNA synthesis. The association of 38K with mRNA during transcriptional arrest does not require protein synthesis because simultaneous treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine does not interfere with it. The effectors which promote the interaction of 38K with mRNA do not affect the proteins which are in contact with polyadenylated heterogeneous nuclear RNA and do not markedly affect protein synthesis in the cell. The 38K protein can be isolated with the polyribosomal polyadenylated fraction from which it was purified, and monoclonal antibodies against it were prepared

  12. Ribosomal protein S12 and aminoglycoside antibiotics modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and transfer-messenger RNA activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberger, Laura E; Hayes, Christopher S

    2009-11-13

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA).SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pausing during termination. Streptomycin did not inhibit A-site cleavage in rpsL mutants, which express streptomycin-resistant variants of ribosomal protein S12. However, rpsL strains exhibited reduced A-site mRNA cleavage compared with rpsL(+) cells. Additionally, tmRNA.SmpB-mediated SsrA peptide tagging was significantly reduced in several rpsL strains but could be fully restored in a subset of mutants when treated with streptomycin. The streptomycin-dependent rpsL(P90K) mutant also showed significantly lower levels of A-site cleavage and tmRNA.SmpB activity. Mutations in rpsD (encoding ribosomal protein S4), which suppressed streptomycin dependence, were able to partially restore A-site cleavage to rpsL(P90K) cells but failed to increase tmRNA.SmpB activity. Taken together, these results show that perturbations to A-site structure and function modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and tmRNA.SmpB activity. We propose that tmRNA.SmpB binds to streptomycin-resistant rpsL ribosomes less efficiently, leading to a partial loss of ribosome rescue function in these mutants.

  13. Fetuin and fetuin messenger RNA in granulosa cells of the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Terkelsen, O B; Grete Byskov, A

    2001-01-01

    during maturation of the oocyte. We demonstrated fetuin mRNA in the rat ovary by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized it by in situ hybridization. Fetuin mRNA was present in all granulosa cells of growing and large follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the fetuin...

  14. Illuminating Messengers: An Update and Outlook on RNA Visualization in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke A. van Gijtenbeek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To be able to visualize the abundance and spatiotemporal features of RNAs in bacterial cells would permit obtaining a pivotal understanding of many mechanisms underlying bacterial cell biology. The first methods that allowed observing single mRNA molecules in individual cells were introduced by Bertrand et al. (1998 and Femino et al. (1998. Since then, a plethora of techniques to image RNA molecules with the aid of fluorescence microscopy has emerged. Many of these approaches are useful for the large eukaryotic cells but their adaptation to study RNA, specifically mRNA molecules, in bacterial cells progressed relatively slow. Here, an overview will be given of fluorescent techniques that can be used to reveal specific RNA molecules inside fixed and living single bacterial cells. It includes a critical evaluation of their caveats as well as potential solutions.

  15. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  16. Correlation between mechanical strength of messenger RNA pseudoknots and ribosomal frameshifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Møller; Reihani, S Nader S; Oddershede, Lene B

    2007-01-01

    downstream from the slippery sequence. Although the mechanism is not well understood, frameshifting is known to be stimulated by an mRNA structure such as a pseudoknot. Here, we show that the efficiency of frameshifting relates to the mechanical strength of the pseudoknot. Two pseudoknots derived from...... of frameshifting required a nearly 2-fold larger unfolding force than the other. The observed energy difference cannot be accounted for by any existing model. We propose that the degree of ribosomal frameshifting is related to the mechanical strength of RNA pseudoknots. Our observations support the "9 A model......" that predicts some physical barrier is needed to force the ribosome into the -1 frame. Also, our findings support the recent observation made by cryoelectron microscopy that mechanical interaction between a ribosome and a pseudoknot causes a deformation of the A-site tRNA. The result has implications...

  17. Detection of colony-stimulating factor messenger RNA in single T cells by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, D J; Owens, T; Pearse, M

    1989-01-01

    In situ hybridization has been used to study the accumulation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) mRNA in single cells of a T lymphocyte clone (E9.D4) following antibody-mediated (F23.1) activation via the Ti-T3 complex in filler-independent bulk cultures. The specificity of hybridization for cell...

  18. INDUCTION OF INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA MESSENGER-RNA AFTER FOCAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTINI, M; SAUTER, A; BODDEKE, HWGM

    The expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery

  19. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  20. Fetuin and fetuin messenger RNA in granulosa cells of the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Terkelsen, O B; Grete Byskov, A

    2001-01-01

    The hardening reaction that occurs in the zona pellucida to block polyspermy can be overcome in oocyte cultures in the presence of fetal serum or the serum component fetuin. Fetuin may also prevent precocious zona hardening by inhibiting a ZP2 proteinase released spontaneously by cortical granules...... during maturation of the oocyte. We demonstrated fetuin mRNA in the rat ovary by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized it by in situ hybridization. Fetuin mRNA was present in all granulosa cells of growing and large follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the fetuin...... antrum contained a substantial amount of fetuin, but whether granulosa cells secreted it or it originated in the ovarian blood supply could not be confirmed. We concluded that at least a portion of the fetuin is produced by granulosa cells of growing and large follicles, suggesting that fetuin may...

  1. Detection and Quantification of N 6-Methyladenosine in Messenger RNA by TLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Fray, Rupert G

    2017-01-01

    The base-modified nucleotide, N 6 -methyladenosine, is a relatively abundant modification found in the mRNA of most higher eukaryotes. Methylation levels can change dependent upon environmental conditions, cell differentiation state, or following knockdown of members of the methylase complex, and it is often useful to directly measure and compare N 6 -methyladenosine levels between samples. Two dimensional chromatography of radiolabeled nucleotides, following specific nuclease treatments, provides a robust, sensitive, and reproducible assay for this modification.

  2. Ribosomal Protein S12 and Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Modulate A-site mRNA Cleavage and Transfer-Messenger RNA Activity in Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberger, Laura E.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)·SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pausing during termination. Streptomycin did not inhibit A-site cleavage in rpsL mutants, which express streptomycin-resistant variants of ribosomal protein S12. However, rpsL strains exhibited reduced A-site mRNA cleavage compared with rpsL+ cells. Additionally, tmRNA·SmpB-mediated SsrA peptide tagging was significantly reduced in several rpsL strains but could be fully restored in a subset of mutants when treated with streptomycin. The streptomycin-dependent rpsL(P90K) mutant also showed significantly lower levels of A-site cleavage and tmRNA·SmpB activity. Mutations in rpsD (encoding ribosomal protein S4), which suppressed streptomycin dependence, were able to partially restore A-site cleavage to rpsL(P90K) cells but failed to increase tmRNA·SmpB activity. Taken together, these results show that perturbations to A-site structure and function modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and tmRNA·SmpB activity. We propose that tmRNA·SmpB binds to streptomycin-resistant rpsL ribosomes less efficiently, leading to a partial loss of ribosome rescue function in these mutants. PMID:19776006

  3. CYP1A1 messenger RNA levels in placental tissue as a biomarker of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, R M; Garte, S J; Cosma, G; Bell, D A; Jedrychowski, W; Wahrendorf, J; Randall, M C; Cooper, T B; Ottman, R; Tang, D

    1995-03-01

    The human CYP1A1 gene codes for an inducible enzyme system involved in biotransformation of certain xenobiotics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; some of the metabolites are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Effects of environmental exposures (smoking, air pollution, and diet) on CYP1A1 gene induction in placental tissue and the modulation of induction by the CYP1A1 MspI RFLP were evaluated in two groups from Poland: 70 mother-child pairs from Krakow, a city with elevated air pollution; and 90 pairs from Limanowa, a less polluted area. Compared to placentas from nonsmoking women, CYP1A1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in placentas from current smokers (P meat, cheese, and fish (P < 0.01). The CYP1A1 MspI RFLP was not a significant determinant of CYP1A1 mRNA levels after controlling for smoking and other variables. Human placenta provides a readily available and responsive system that can serve as a model for evaluating environmental and genetic determinants of CYP1A1 induction.

  4. Quantitative correlation between promoter methylation and messenger RNA levels of the reduced folate carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheradpour Albert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methotrexate (MTX uptake is mediated by the reduced folate carrier (RFC. Defective drug uptake in association with decreased RFC expression is a common mechanism of MTX resistance in many tumor types. Heavy promoter methylation was previously identified as a basis for the complete silencing of RFC in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, its role and prevalence in RFC transcription regulation are, however, not widely studied. Methods In the current study, RFC promoter methylation was assessed using methylation specific PCR in a panel of malignant cell lines (n = 8, including MDA-MB-231, and M805, a MTX resistant cell line directly established from the specimen of a patient with malignant fibrohistocytoma, whom received multiple doses of MTX. A quantitative approach of real-time PCR for measuring the extent of RFC promoter methylation was developed, and was validated by direct bisulfite genomic sequencing. RFC mRNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and were related to the extent of promoter methylation in these cell lines. Results A partial promoter methylation and RFC mRNA down-regulation were observed in M805. Using the quantitative approach, a reverse correlation (correlation coefficient = -0.59, p Conclusion This study further suggests that promoter methylation is a potential basis for MTX resistance. The quantitative correlation identified in this study implies that promoter methylation is possibly a mechanism involved in the fine regulation of RFC transcription.

  5. Messenger RNA levels and transcription rates of hepatic lipogenesis genes in genetically lean and fat chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaire Madeleine

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Levels of body fat content in commercial meat chickens have prompted research in order to control the development of this trait. Based on experimentally selected divergent lean and fat lines, many studies have shown that liver metabolism has a major role in the fatness variability. In order to identify which genes are involved in this variability, we investigated the expression of several genes implicated in the hepatic lipid metabolism. The studied genes code for enzymes of fatty acid synthesis [ATP citrate-lyase (ACL, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1], for an apolipoprotein [apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1], and for the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα, which is a transcription factor implied in the regulation of several genes of lipid metabolism. The results show that the fat-line chickens display significantly higher hepatic transcription rates and mRNA levels than the lean-line chickens for the ACL, ME and APOA1 genes. This suggests that these genes could be responsible for the phenotypic fatness variability.

  6. Messenger RNA levels and transcription rates of hepatic lipogenesis genes in genetically lean and fat chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval, S; Lagarrigue, S; Douaire, M

    2000-01-01

    Levels of body fat content in commercial meat chickens have prompted research in order to control the development of this trait. Based on experimentally selected divergent lean and fat lines, many studies have shown that liver metabolism has a major role in the fatness variability. In order to identify which genes are involved in this variability, we investigated the expression of several genes implicated in the hepatic lipid metabolism. The studied genes code for enzymes of fatty acid synthesis [ATP citrate-lyase (ACL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1)], for an apolipoprotein [apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1)], and for the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), which is a transcription factor implied in the regulation of several genes of lipid metabolism. The results show that the fat-line chickens display significantly higher hepatic transcription rates and mRNA levels than the lean-line chickens for the ACL, ME and APOA1 genes. This suggests that these genes could be responsible for the phenotypic fatness variability.

  7. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ito

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and citrate synthase (CS, which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1 and aggrecan (ACAN, was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and

  8. Primary structure of the α-subunit of Na+, K+-ATPase. II. Isolation, reverse transcription, and cloning of messenger RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Broude, N.E.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Grishin, A.V.; Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The messenger RNA coding the α-subunit of Na + ,K + -ATPase has been isolated from the outer medullary layer of porcine kidneys. The mRNA gives a specific hybridization band in the 25S-26S region with three oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of information on the structure of three peptides isolated from a tryptic hydrolyzate of the α-subunit of Na + ,K + -ATPase. The translation of the mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by immunochemical identification of the products of synthesis confirmed the presence of the mRNA of the α-subunit of Na + ,K + -ATPase in an enriched fraction of poly(A + )-RNA. This preparation has been used for the synthesis of cloning of double-stranded cDNA

  9. Primary structure of the. cap alpha. -subunit of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. II. Isolation, reverse transcription, and cloning of messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Broude, N.E.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Grishin, A.V.; Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-10-01

    The messenger RNA coding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase has been isolated from the outer medullary layer of porcine kidneys. The mRNA gives a specific hybridization band in the 25S-26S region with three oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of information on the structure of three peptides isolated from a tryptic hydrolyzate of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase. The translation of the mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by immunochemical identification of the products of synthesis confirmed the presence of the mRNA of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase in an enriched fraction of poly(A/sup +/)-RNA. This preparation has been used for the synthesis of cloning of double-stranded cDNA.

  10. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  11. Neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G protein and messenger RNA expression in bone marrow from a patient with Chediak-Higashi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D; Ward, C J; Stockley, R A; Dalton, R G; Cant, A J; Hoare, S; Crocker, J

    1995-01-01

    Aims—To determine whether neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are expressed, at transcriptional or translational levels, in the bone marrow from a patient with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Methods—Blood neutrophils were isolated from three patients with Chediak-Higashi disease and bone marrow was collected from one. Cell lysates were analysed for neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G activity by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western immunoblotting. Northern blotting was used to detect messenger RNA (mRNA) for cathepsin G, elastase and β-actin in bone marrow extracts, and immunohistochemistry was used to localise the enzymes in marrow myeloid cells. Results—Elastase and cathepsin G were not detected in blood neutrophils from the patients with Chediak-Higashi disease, but were present in bone marrow cells, although immunohistochemistry showed they were not within cytoplasmic granules. The concentrations of elastase and cathepsin G in Chediak-Higashi bone marrow were about 25 and 15%, respectively, of those in normal marrow. Quantitative scanning of northern blots showed that elastase and cathepsin G mRNA, corrected for β-actin mRNA, were expressed equally in normal marrow. Conclusions—Transcription of elastase and cathepsin G mRNA in promyelocytes of patients with Chediak-Higashi disease is normal, but the protein products are deficient in these cells and absent in mature neutrophils. This suggests that the translated proteins are not packaged into azurophil granules but are degaded or secreted from the cells. Images PMID:16695972

  12. Labeling of eukaryotic messenger RNA 5' terminus with phosphorus -32: use of tobacco acid pyrophosphatase for removal of cap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockard, R.E.; Rieser, L.; Vournakis, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation of the potential applications of 5'- 32 P-end-labeled mRNA, not only for screening recombinant clones and mapping gene structure, but also for revealing possible nucleotide sequence and structural signals within mRNA molecules themselves, which may be important for eukaryotic mRNA processing and turnover and for controlling differential rates of translational initiation. Three major problems, however, have retarded progress in this area, lack of methods for efficient and reproducible removal of m7G5ppp5'-cap structures, which maintain the integrity of an RNA molecule; inability to generate a sufficient amount of labeled mRNA, owing to the limited availability of most pure mRNA species; and the frequent problem of RNA degradation during in vitro end-labeling owing to RNAse contamination. The procedures presented here permit one to decap and label minute quantities of mRNA, effectively. Tobacco acid pyrophosphatase is relatively efficient in removing cap structures from even nanogram quantities of available mRNA, and enough radioactivity can be easily generated from minute amounts ofintact mRNA with very high-specific-activity [gamma- 32 P]ATP and the inhibition of ribonuclease contamination with diethylpyrocarbonate. These procedures can be modified and applied to almost any other type of RNA molecule as well. In Section III of this volume, we explore in detail how effectively 5'-end-labeled mRNA can be used not only for nucleotide sequence analysis, but also for mapping mRNA secondary structure

  13. Capillary electrophoresis of a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to target messenger RNA markers for body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Cordula; Hanson, Erin; Ballantyne, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression is a promising new method for the identification of body fluids. A number of mRNA markers have been identified for the forensically most relevant body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, and menstrual blood. Apart from a significant improvement in specificity compared to conventional protein-based methods, other important advantages of body fluid identification by mRNA profiling include the possibility of simultaneously isolating RNA and DNA from the same piece of stain and the ability to multiplex numerous RNA markers for the identification of one or several body fluids. RNA profiling can be incorporated into current DNA analysis pipelines.

  14. Comparative study of candidate housekeeping genes for quantification of target gene messenger RNA expression by real-time PCR in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Goukos, Dimitris; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Balla, Iliana G; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Daikos, George L; Ladas, Spiros D

    2013-12-01

    Mucosal expression of immunological mediators is modified in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Quantification of target gene messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts depends on the normalization to a housekeeping or reference gene. Stability of housekeeping gene expression is critical for the accurate measurement of transcripts of the target gene. No studies have addressed the optimization of reference gene performance for mRNA studies in healthy intestinal mucosa and during mucosal inflammation. RNA was extracted from endoscopically obtained intestinal biopsies from healthy control subjects and patients with active IBD or non-IBD inflammatory diseases. Comparative analysis of 10 candidate housekeeping genes for quantitative real-time PCR was carried out according to predefined criteria, including use of the Web-based RefFinder platform. We demonstrate that intestinal inflammation may significantly affect the stability of mucosal expression of housekeeping genes. Commonly used controls, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, β-actin, or β2-microglobulin displayed high variability within the control group and/or between the healthy and inflamed mucosae. In contrast, we have identified novel genes with optimal stability, which may be used as appropriate housekeeping controls. The ribosomal proteins encoding genes (RPLPO and RPS9) were the most stable because their expression was not affected by interindividual differences, the presence of inflammation, or intestinal location. Normalization ofthe mRNA expression of mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α was highly dependent on the specific reference gene and varied significantly when normalized to genes with high or low stability. Validation for optimal performance of the housekeeping gene is required for target mRNA quantification in healthy intestine and IBD-associated lesions. Suboptimal reference gene expression may explain conflicting results from published studies on IBD gene expression.

  15. Anabolic-androgenic steroid treatment induces behavioral disinhibition and downregulation of serotonin receptor messenger RNA in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambar, G; Chiavegatto, S

    2009-03-01

    Nandrolone is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that is highly abused by individuals seeking enhanced physical strength or body appearance. Supraphysiological doses of this synthetic testosterone derivative have been associated with many physical and psychiatric adverse effects, particularly episodes of impulsiveness and overt aggressive behavior. As the neural mechanisms underlying AAS-induced behavioral disinhibition are unknown, we investigated the status of serotonergic system-related transcripts in several brain areas of mice receiving prolonged nandrolone administration. Male C57BL/6J mice received 15 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate subcutaneously once daily for 28 days, and different sets of animals were used to investigate motor-related and emotion-related behaviors or 5-HT-related messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. AAS-injected mice had increased body weight, were more active and displayed anxious-like behaviors in novel environments. They exhibited reduced immobility in the forced swim test, a higher probability of being aggressive and more readily attacked opponents. AAS treatment substantially reduced mRNA levels of most investigated postsynaptic 5-HT receptors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Interestingly,the 5-HT(1B) mRNA level was further reduced in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. There was no alteration of 5-HT system transcript levels in the midbrain. In conclusion,high doses of AAS nandrolone in male mice recapitulate the behavioral disinhibition observed in abusers. Furthermore, these high doses downregulate 5-HT receptor mRNA levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Our combined findings suggest these areas as critical sites for AAS-induced effects and a possible role for the 5-HT(1B) receptor in the observed behavioral disinhibition.

  16. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning in a porcine model leads to rapid changes in cardiac extracellular vesicle messenger RNA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Svennerholm

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrate in an in vivo model that myocardial ischemic preconditioning influences the composition of mRNA in EV, including gene transcripts for proteins associated with the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The finding that preconditioned parental cells release EV containing mRNA that is qualitatively different from those released by non-preconditioned cells shows the importance of the external milieu on parental cell EV production.

  17. Tissue-specific control of rat malic enzyme activity and messenger RNA levels by a high carbohydrate diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Dozin, B; Rall, J E; Nikodem, V M

    1986-01-01

    In euthyroid rats fed a high carbohydrate fat-free diet for 10 days, the mass of cellular malic enzyme mRNA in liver is increased 7- to 8-fold above the basal level. Malic enzyme activity is stimulated to the same extent. This effect does not result from an increase either in the transcriptional activity of the malic enzyme gene, as determined by nuclear run-off transcription assay, or in the content of intranuclear malic enzyme RNA sequences. Mathematical modeling shows that this increase in...

  18. SIMULTANEOUS EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF G-CSF AND IL-6 MESSENGER-RNA IN ADHERENT HUMAN MONOCYTES AND FIBROBLASTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELLENGA, E; VANDERVINNE, B; DEWOLF, JTM; HALIE, MR

    The regulation of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was studied in human adherent monocytes in response to the protein kinase C activator, oleolyl-acetylglycerol (OAG), the calcium-ionophore A23187 and the cyclic AMP elevating agents, dibutyryl c-AMP

  19. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  20. Effect of nonylphenol on giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) via oral treatment: toxicity and messenger RNA expression of hemocyte genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Ye, Yu-Zhi

    2009-02-19

    A previous in vitro study has indicated that two alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) could potentially damage hemocytes and influence cellular immunity of prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nonylphenol (NP) on susceptibility to a pathogen and on the mRNA expression of hemocyte genes, including four immune-related genes. NP at different concentrations was fed continuously to prawn (M. rosenbergii) for 1, 3, 6, and 9 days. Challenging prawns with Lactobacillus garvieae resulted in 44-50%, 20-24% and 10-12% mortality were detected after prawns were fed with 100, 10 and 1microNP/prawn for 6 days, respectively. In comparison with control prawns fed with phosphate-buffered solution (PBS), the increase of mRNA levels of four immune-related genes, alpha-2 microglobulin (alpha-2m), antimicrobial peptides (amp), peroxinectin (pon), and prophenoloxidase (propo), was detected on days 1, 3 and 6 after feeding with 100microg/prawn; on day 9, only the mRNA level of amp of the NP-treated group was significantly increased, while that of the remaining groups was not different from that of the control. In addition, two other hemocyte genes were also studied, including a respiration-related gene, cytochrome oxidase subunit (cos), and an unknown gene, L12X3. The mRNA level of cos was elevated during the experimental period, but an increase of L12X3 expression was detected only on day 1 after treatment. Regarding sensitivity of these genes to NP, the results from NP-treated prawns on day 1 after treatment revealed (1) that mRNA expression of the six genes in the 100-microg-NP-treated group was significantly different from that of control group, (2) that the mRNA levels of three immune-related genes (amp, pon and propo) in 10-microg-treated group were significantly higher than that of control group, and (3) that a significant change of propo was detected in 1-microg-treated group. These results suggest that NP may enhance the immune

  1. Distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid β protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid β proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid β protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein

  2. The Detection of Messenger RNA for Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Cytokeratin 20 in Peritoneal Washing Fluid in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ji; Chung, Woo Chul; Choi, Sooa; Jung, Yun Duk; Lee, Jaejun; Chae, Seung Yun; Jun, Kyong Hwa; Chin, Hyung Min

    2017-04-25

    Peritoneal micrometastasis is known to play an important role in the recurrence of gastric cancer. However, its effects remain equivocal. Herein, we examine the messenger RNA (mRNA) as tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cytokeratin 20 (CK20), in peritoneal washing fluid. Moreover, we evaluate whether these results could predict the recurrence of gastric cancer following curative resection. We prospectively enrolled 132 patients with gastric cancers, who had received an operation, between January 2010 and January 2013. The peritoneal lavage fluid was collected at the operation field and semi-quantitative PCR was performed using the primers for CEA and CK20. We excluded patients with stage IA (n=28) early gastric cancer, positive cytologic examination of peritoneal washings (n=7), and those who were lost during follow up (n=18). A total of 79 patients with gastric cancers were enrolled, and the mean follow-up period was 39.95±19.25 months (range, 5-72 months). According to the multivariate analysis, T4 stage at the initial diagnosis was significantly associated with recurrence. All cases of recurrence were CEA positive and 6 cases were CK20 positive. The positive and negative predictive values of CEA were 32.0% and 100%, respectively, whereas those of CK20 were 37.5% and 71.4%, respectively. Disease free survival of CK20-negative cases was 36.17±20.28 months and that of CK20-positive cases was 32.06±22.95 months (p=0.39). It is unlikely that the real time polymerase chain reaction results of mRNA for CEA and CK20 in peritoneal washing fluid can predict recurrence. However, negative results can convince surgeons to perform curative R0 resection.

  3. The Transfer-Messenger RNA-Small Protein B System Plays a Role in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaohui; Huan, Haixia; Xu, Huiqing; Gao, Qingqing; Xiong, Liping; Gao, Ruxia; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is capable of colonizing outside of the intestinal tract and evolving into a systemic infection. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is a member of the ExPEC group and causes avian colibacillosis. Transfer-mRNA-small protein B (tmRNA-SmpB)-mediated trans-translation is a bacterial translational control system that directs the modification and degradation of proteins, the biosynthesis of which has stalled or has been interrupted, facilitating the rescue of ribosomes stalled at the 3′ ends of defective mRNAs that lack a stop codon. We found that disruption of one, or both, of the smpB or ssrA genes significantly decreased the virulence of the APEC strain E058, as assessed by chicken infection assays. Furthermore, the mutants were obviously attenuated in colonization and persistence assays. The results of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that the transcription levels of the transcriptional regulation gene rfaH and the virulence genes kpsM, chuA, and iss were significantly decreased compared to those of the wild-type strain. Macrophage infection assays showed that the mutant strains reduced the replication and/or survival ability in the macrophage HD11 cell line compared to that of the parent strain, E058. However, no significant differences were observed in ingestion by macrophages and in chicken serum resistance between the mutant and the wild-type strains. These data indicate that the tmRNA-SmpB system is important in the pathogenesis of APEC O2 strain E058. PMID:24013628

  4. Translational recognition of the 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine of globin messenger RNA as a function of ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L Y; Rhoads, R E

    1978-06-13

    The translation of rabbit globin mRNA in cell-free systems derived from either wheat germ or rabbit reticulocyte was studied in the presence of various analogues of the methylated 5' terminus (cap) as a function of ionic strength. Inhibition by these analogues was strongly enhanced by increasing concentrations of KCl, K(OAc), Na(OAc), or NH4(OAc). At appropriate concentrations of K(OAc), both cell-free systems were equally sensitive to inhibition by m7GTP. At 50 mM K(OAc), the reticulocyte system was not sensitive to m7GMP or m7GTP, but at higher concentrations up to 200 mM K(OAc), both nucleotides caused strong inhibition. The compound in m7G5'ppp5'Am was inhibitory at all concentrations of K(OAc) ranging from 50 to 200 mM, although more strongly so at the higher concentrations. Over the same range of nucleotide concentrations, the compounds GMP, GTP, and G5'ppp5'Am were not inhibitors. The mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the translation product was that of globin at all K(OAc) concentrations in the presence of m7GTP. Globin mRNA from which the terminal m7GTP group had been removed by chemical treatment (periodate-cyclohexylamine-alkaline phosphatase) or enzymatic treatment (tobacco acid pyrophosphatase-alkaline phosphatase) was translated less efficiently than untreated globin mRNA at higher K(OAc) concentrations, but retained appreciable activity at low K(OAc) concentrations.

  5. Development of Anti-Human Mesothelin-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor Messenger RNA-transfected Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes for Ovarian Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chien-Fu; Xu, Xuequn; Li, Linhong; Ma, Ying; Jin, Qiu; Viley, Angelia; Allen, Cornell; Natarajan, Pachai; Shivakumar, Rama; Peshwa, Madhusudan V; Emens, Leisha A

    2018-04-02

    CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T/natural killer (NK)-cell therapies can result in durable clinical responses in B-cell malignancies. However, CAR-based immunotherapies have been much less successful in solid cancers, in part due to "on-target off-tumor" toxicity related to expression of target tumor antigens on normal tissue. Based on preliminary observations of safety and clinical activity in proof-of-concept clinical trials, tumor antigen-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) CAR transfection into selected, activated, and expanded T/NK cells may permit prospective control of "on-target off-tumor" toxicity. To develop a commercial product for solid tumors, mesothelin was selected as an antigen target based on its association with poor prognosis and overexpression in multiple solid cancers. It was hypothesized that selecting, activating, and expanding cells ex vivo prior to mRNA CAR transfection would not be necessary, thus simplifying the complexity and cost of manufacturing. Now, the development of anti-human mesothelin mRNA CAR transfected peripheral blood lymphocytes (CARMA-hMeso) is reported, demonstrating the manufacture and cryopreservation of multiple cell aliquots for repeat administrations from a single human leukapheresis. A rapid, automated, closed system for cGMP-compliant transfection of mRNA CAR in up to 20 × 10 9 peripheral blood lymphocytes was developed. Here we show that CARMA-hMeso cells recognize and lyse tumor cells in a mesothelin-specific manner. Expression of CAR was detectable over approximately 7 days in vitro, with a progressive decline of CAR expression that appears to correlate with in vitro cell expansion. In a murine ovarian cancer model, a single intraperitoneal injection of CARMA-hMeso resulted in the dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth and improved survival of mice. Furthermore, repeat weekly intraperitoneal administrations of the optimal CARMA-hMeso dose further prolonged disease control and survival

  6. Contrasting Storage Protein Synthesis and Messenger RNA Accumulation during Development of Zygotic and Somatic Embryos of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, J E; Pramanik, S K; Bewley, J D

    1992-05-01

    During development on hormone-free media, somatic embryos pass through distinct morphological stages that superficially resemble those of zygotic embryo development (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary stages). Despite these similarities, they differ from zygotic embryos in the extent of cotyledonary development and the patterns of synthesis and quantitative expression of seed-specific storage proteins (7S, 11S, and 2S proteins). Alfin (7S) is the first storage protein synthesized in developing zygotic embryos (stage IV). The 11S (medicagin) and 2S (Low Molecular Weight, LMW) storage proteins are not detectable until the following stage of development (stage V), although all three are present before the completion of embryo enlargement. Likewise, the 7S storage protein is the first to be synthesized in developing somatic embryos (day 5). Medicagin is evident by day 7 and the LMW protein by day 10. In contrast to zygotic embryos, alfin remains the predominant storage protein in somatic embryos throughout development. Not only are the relative amounts of medicagin and the LMW protein reduced in somatic embryos but the LMW protein is accumulated much later than the other proteins. Quantification of the storage protein mRNAs (7S, 11S, and 2S) by northern blot analysis confirms that there are substantial differences in the patterns of message accumulation in zygotic and somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In zygotic embryos, the 7S, 11S, and 2S storage protein mRNAs are abundant during maturation and, in particular, during the stages of maximum protein synthesis (alfin, stages VI and VII; medicagin, stage VII; LMW, stage VII). In somatic embryos, the predominance of the 7S storage protein is correlated with increased accumulation of its mRNA, whereas the limited synthesis of the 11S storage protein is associated with much lower steady-state levels of its message. The mRNA for the LMW protein is present already by 3 days after transfer to hormone-free media

  7. Isolation and characterization of the messenger RNA and the gene coding for a proline-rich zein from corn endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-zein, a proline-rich protein from corn endosperm, was investigated at the molecular level. Immunological and electrophoretic data indicated that gamma-zein was deposited into protein bodies in corn endosperm. Both isolated polysomes and poly(A) + mRNA were found to direct into vitro synthesis of gamma-zein in a wheat germ system. In vitro synthesized gamma-zein was immunoprecipitated from the total in vitro translation products. A cDNA expression library was constructed by reverse transcription of total poly(A) + mRNA using pUC8 plasmid as vector and E. coli strain DH1 as host. The library was screened for the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein by specific antibodies. The library was also screened with 32 P-labeled gamma-zein and alpha-zein cDNA probes. The results indicated that gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed in E. coli while alpha-zein was not. Seven independently selected clones, six of which were selected by antibody and one by a cDNA probe, were sequenced. A comparison of sequence information from seven clones revealed that their overlapping regions were identical. This suggests that gamma-zein is encoded by a single gene. This finding is in conflict with what was expected on the basis of extensive charge heterogeneity of gamma-zein in isoelectric focusing. Individual bands cut from an IEF gel were rerun and shown to give several bands suggesting that the charge heterogeneity of gamma-zein may be an artifact. Sequence information of gamma-zein indicated that the gene encodes a mature protein whose primary structure includes 204 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 21,824 daltons

  8. Messenger RNA for membrane-type 2 matrix metalloproteinase, MT2-MMP, is expressed in human placenta of first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, S F; Hastrup, N; Larsen, J F; Lund, L R; Pyke, C

    2000-01-01

    An intimately regulated cell surface activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is believed to be of critical importance for the control of trophoblast invasion. A histological investigation of the expression and localization of three different MMPs, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2/gelatinase A) was performed by in situ hybridization on consecutive sections from human placentae of first trimester pregnancies. Cytokeratin immunostaining identified trophoblast cells. Both normal and tubal implantation sites were studied. We observed a high degree of coexpression of MT2-MMP, MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs in single extravillous cytotrophoblasts that had invaded the endometrium and tubal wall. Furthermore, mRNAs for all three genes were also seen in cytotrophoblasts of cell islands. In contrast to this coexpression pattern, MT2-MMP expression was absent from cell columns and decidual cells, in which signals for MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs were seen. The present data on the cellular expression of MT2-MMP mRNA in placenta extend our knowledge of the proteolytic events that take place during early pregnancy. The data suggest that MT2-MMP, capable of activating MMP-2 in vitro, is involved in the invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblast, possibly related to the physiological activation of MMP-2. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  9. Changes in growth hormone (GH) messenger RNA (GH mRNA) expression in the rat anterior pituitary after single interferon (IFN) alpha administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, W.; Braczkowski, R.; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B.; Kosiewicz, J.; Korzonek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interferon a (IFN-a) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects which, via different pathways, influences the secretion of certain cytokines and hormones. Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary has physiological effects on various target tissues. The question is how IFN-a administered in various types of disease influences GH secretion. This study investigated the acute effect of IFN-a on GH mRNA expression in the rat anterior pituitary. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the cellular expression of GH mRNA by in situ hybridisation in the anterior pituitary after a single administration of IFN-a. Material and methods: Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of IFN-a or saline. The rat pituitaries were taken 2 and 4 hours after IFN/saline administration and kept frozen until in situ hybridisation histochemistry. A 31 - base 35S -labelled oligonucleotide probe complementary to part of the exonic mRNA sequence coding for GH mRNA was used. All control and experimental sections were hybridised in the same hybridisation reaction. Results: Acute administration of interferon a increased GH mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary in the 4-hour group in comparison with the control group, and there was no difference between the control group and the 2-hour rats. Conclusion: A single IFN-a administration was found to exert an influence on anterior pituitary GH mRNA expression. These observations may pave the way for presenting a possible new action of IFN-a. (author) GH mRNA, anterior pituitary, interferon

  10. Regional age-related changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, messenger RNA levels and activity in SAMP8 brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidon Gérard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO is a multifunctional molecule synthesized by three isozymes of the NO synthase (NOSs acting as a messenger/modulator and/or a potential neurotoxin. In rodents, the role of NOSs in sleep processes and throughout aging is now well established. For example, sleep parameters are highly deteriorated in senescence accelerated-prone 8 (SAMP8 mice, a useful animal model to study aging or age-associated disorders, while the inducible form of NOS (iNOS is down-regulated within the cortex and the sleep-structures of the brainstem. Evidence is now increasing for a role of iNOS and resulting oxidative stress but not for the constitutive expressed isozyme (nNOS. To better understand the role of nNOS in the behavioural impairments observed in SAMP8 versus SAMR1 (control animals, we evaluated age-related variations occurring in the nNOS expression and activity and nitrites/nitrates (NOx- levels, in three brain areas (n = 7 animals in each group. Calibrated reverse transcriptase (RT and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and biochemical procedures were used. Results We found that the levels of nNOS mRNA decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus of 8- vs 2-month-old animals followed by an increase in 12-vs 8-month-old animals in both strains. In the brainstem, levels of nNOS mRNA decreased in an age-dependent manner in SAMP8, but not in SAMR1. Regional age-related changes were also observed in nNOS activity. Moreover, nNOS activity in hippocampus was found lower in 8-month-old SAMP8 than in SAMR1, while in the cortex and the brainstem, nNOS activities increased at 8 months and afterward decreased with age in SAMP8 and SAMR1. NOx- levels showed profiles similar to nNOS activities in the cortex and the brainstem but were undetectable in the hippocampus of SAMP8 and SAMR1. Finally, NOx- levels were higher in the cortex of 8 month-old SAMP8 than in age-matched SAMR1. Conclusion Concomitant variations occurring in NO levels

  11. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroft, Scott L.

    2017-05-01

    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  12. Detection of carcinoembryonic antigen messenger RNA in blood using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to predict recurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhi-qiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in peripheral blood as an indicator of tumor recurrence has not been clearly established, particularly for gastric cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the relationship between CTCs in peripheral blood at initial diagnosis and clinicopathologic findings in patients with gastric carcinoma. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 123 gastric carcinoma patients at initial diagnosis. mRNA was extracted and amplified for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA mRNA detection using real-time RT-PCR. Periodic 3-month follow-up examinations included serum CEA measurements and imaging. Results The minimum threshold for corrected CEA mRNA score [(CEA mRNA/GAPDH mRNA × 106] was set at 100. Forty-five of 123 patients (36.6% were positive for CEA mRNA expression. CEA mRNA expression significantly correlated with T stage and postoperative recurrence status (P = 0.001. Recurrent disease was found in 44 of 123 cases (35.8%, and 25 of these (56.8% were positive for CEA mRNA. Of these patients, CEA mRNA was more sensitive than serum CEA in indicating recurrence. Three-year disease-free survival of patients positive for CEA mRNA was significantly poorer than of patients negative for CEA mRNA (P Conclusions CEA mRNA copy number in peripheral blood at initial diagnosis was significantly associated with disease recurrence in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Real-time RT-PCR detection of CEA mRNA levels at initial diagnosis appears to be a promising predictor for disease recurrence in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.

  13. Effects of dietary nitrogen concentration on messenger RNA expression and protein abundance of urea transporter-B and aquaporins in ruminal papillae from lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    RNA expression of UT-B was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas mRNA expression of AQP3, 7, and 10 were greater in the high N compared with the low N fed cows. Using peptide-derived rabbit antibodies to cow AQP3, 7, and 8, immunoblotting revealed bands of approximately 27, 27, and 24 kDa in ruminal...

  14. Effects of aging on insulin synthesis and secretion. Differential effects on preproinsulin messenger RNA levels, proinsulin biosynthesis, and secretion of newly made and preformed insulin in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S Y; Halban, P A; Rowe, J W

    1988-01-01

    Aging in men and rodents is associated with a marked decline in glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells (B cells). Secreted insulin is the end result of a series of steps along the biosynthetic protein-secretion pathway, including insulin gene transcription, processing of transcripts to preproinsulin mRNA, translation of mRNA, segregation and processing of newly made proinsulin in secretory vesicles, proinsulin to insulin conversion, transport of vesicles to the plasma m...

  15. Maternally recruited DCP1A and DCP2 contribute to messenger RNA degradation during oocyte maturation and genome activation in mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Flemr, Matyáš; Strnad, Hynek; Svoboda, Petr; Schultz, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-12 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034; GA MŠk ME09039 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gamete biology * maternal mRNA degradation * meiotic maturation * mRNA decapping * oocyte maturation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.451, year: 2013

  16. Influences of sex, incubation temperature, and environmental quality on gonadal estrogen and androgen receptor messenger RNA expression in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C; Milnes, Matthew R; Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroid hormone receptors play a vital role in transforming ligand signals into gene expression. We have shown previously that gonads from wild-caught juvenile alligators express greater levels of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) than estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2). Furthermore, sexually dimorphic ESR2 mRNA expression (female > male) observed in animals from the reference site (Lake Woodruff, FL, USA) was lost in alligators from the contaminated Lake Apopka (FL, USA). We postulated that environmental contaminant exposure could influence gonadal steroid hormone receptor expression. Here, we address questions regarding gonadal estrogen and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in 1-yr-old, laboratory-raised alligators. What are relative expression levels within gonads? Do these levels vary between sexes or incubation temperatures? Can contaminant exposure change these levels? We observed a similar pattern of expression (ESR1 > AR > ESR2) in ovary and testis. However, both incubation temperature and environment modulated expression. Males incubated at 33.5 degrees C expressed greater AR levels than females incubated at 30 degrees C; dimorphic expression was not observed in animals incubated at 32 degrees C. Compared to Lake Woodruff alligators, Lake Apopka animals of both sexes showed lesser ESR2 mRNA expression levels. Employing cluster analyses, we integrated these receptor expression patterns with those of steroidogenic factors. Elevated ESR2 and CYP19A1 expressions were diagnostic of alligator ovary, whereas elevated HSD3B1, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 expressions were indicative of testis. In contrast, AR, ESR1, and NR5A1 showed variable expressions that were not entirely associated with sex. These findings demonstrate that the mRNA expression of receptors required for steroid hormone signaling are modified by exposure to environmental factors, including temperature and contaminants.

  17. Complementary DNA and derived amino acid sequence of the α subunit of human complement protein C8: evidence for the existence of a separate α subunit messenger RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.G.; Howard, O.M.Z.; Ng, S.C.; Whitehead, A.S.; Colten, H.R.; Sodetz, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The entire amino acid sequence of the α subunit (M/sub r/ 64,000) of the eight component of complement (C8) was determined by characterizing cDNA clones isolated from a human liver cDNA library. Two clones with overlapping inserts of net length 2.44 kilobases (kb) were isolated and found to contain the entire α coding region [1659 base pairs (bp)]. The 5' end consists of an untranslated region and a leader sequence of 30 amino acids. This sequence contains an apparent initiation Met, signal peptide, and propeptide which ends with an arginine-rich sequence that is characteristic of proteolytic processing sites found in the pro form of protein precursors. The 3' untranslated region contains two polyadenylation signals and a poly(A)sequence. RNA blot analysis of total cellular RNA from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 revealed a message size of ∼2.5 kb. Features of the 5' and 3' sequences and the message size suggest that a separate mRNA codes for α and argues against the occurrence of a single-chain precursor form of the disulfide-linked α-λ subunit found in mature C8. Analysis of the derived amino acid sequence revealed several membrane surface seeking domains and a possible transmembrane domain. Analysis of the carbohydrate composition indicates 1 or 2 asparagine-linked but no O-linked oligosaccharide chains, a result consistent with predictions from the amino acid sequence. Most significantly, it exhibits a striking overall homology to human C9, with values of 24% on the basis of identity and 46% when conserved substitutions are allowed. As described in an accompanying report this homology also extends to the β subunit of C8

  18. [Differential display of messenger RNA and identification of selenocysteine lyase gene in hepatocellular carcinoma cells transiently expressing hepatitis C virus core protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Jesús Orlando; Luz Gunturiz, María; Henao, Luis Felipe; Navas, María Cristina; Balcázar, Norman; Gómez, Luis Alberto

    2006-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus is associated with diverse liver diseases including acute and chronic hepatitis, steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have explored viral mechanisms involved in the establishment of persistent infection and oncogenic Hepatitis C virus. Expression assays of Hepatitis C virus core protein suggest that this protein has transforming and carcinogenic properties with multifunctional activities in host cells. Characterization of expressed genes in cells expressing Core protein is important in order to identify candidate genes responsible for these pathogenic alterations. To compare and identify gene expression profiles in the human hepatocarcinoma derived cell line, HepG2, with transient expression of Hepatitis C virus Core protein. We have used comparative PCR-mediated differential display of mRNA from HepG2 hepatocarcinoma with and without transient expression of HCV Core protein or green fluorescent protein, previously obtained using the Semliki Forest Virus-based expression, through transduction of recombinant particles, rSFV-Core and rSFV-GFP, respectively. We observed differences in band intensities of mRNA in HepG2 cells transduced with rSFV-Core compared with those detected in cells without transduction, and transduced with rSFV-GFP. Cloning and sequencing of a gene fragment (258 bp) that was expressed differentially in HepG2 cells transduced with rSFV-Core, was identified as selenocystein lyase. The results confirm that HCV Core protein expressed in HepG2 is associated with specific changes in mRNA expression, including the gene for selenocystein lyase. This gene may be involved in the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Contrasting Storage Protein Synthesis and Messenger RNA Accumulation during Development of Zygotic and Somatic Embryos of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, Joan E.; Pramanik, Saroj K.; Bewley, J. Derek

    1992-01-01

    During development on hormone-free media, somatic embryos pass through distinct morphological stages that superficially resemble those of zygotic embryo development (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary stages). Despite these similarities, they differ from zygotic embryos in the extent of cotyledonary development and the patterns of synthesis and quantitative expression of seed-specific storage proteins (7S, 11S, and 2S proteins). Alfin (7S) is the first storage protein synthesized in developing zygotic embryos (stage IV). The 11S (medicagin) and 2S (Low Molecular Weight, LMW) storage proteins are not detectable until the following stage of development (stage V), although all three are present before the completion of embryo enlargement. Likewise, the 7S storage protein is the first to be synthesized in developing somatic embryos (day 5). Medicagin is evident by day 7 and the LMW protein by day 10. In contrast to zygotic embryos, alfin remains the predominant storage protein in somatic embryos throughout development. Not only are the relative amounts of medicagin and the LMW protein reduced in somatic embryos but the LMW protein is accumulated much later than the other proteins. Quantification of the storage protein mRNAs (7S, 11S, and 2S) by northern blot analysis confirms that there are substantial differences in the patterns of message accumulation in zygotic and somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In zygotic embryos, the 7S, 11S, and 2S storage protein mRNAs are abundant during maturation and, in particular, during the stages of maximum protein synthesis (alfin, stages VI and VII; medicagin, stage VII; LMW, stage VII). In somatic embryos, the predominance of the 7S storage protein is correlated with increased accumulation of its mRNA, whereas the limited synthesis of the 11S storage protein is associated with much lower steady-state levels of its message. The mRNA for the LMW protein is present already by 3 days after transfer to hormone-free media

  20. Effect of N-Feruloylserotonin and Methotrexate on Severity of Experimental Arthritis and on Messenger RNA Expression of Key Proinflammatory Markers in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Pašková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, leading to progressive destruction of joints and extra-articular tissues, including organs such as liver and spleen. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a potential immunomodulator, natural polyphenol N-feruloylserotonin (N-f-5HT, with methotrexate (MTX, the standard in RA therapy, in the chronic phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA in male Lewis rats. The experiment included healthy controls (CO, arthritic animals (AA, AA given N-f-5HT (AA-N-f-5HT, and AA given MTX (AA-MTX. N-f-5HT did not affect the body weight change and clinical parameters until the 14th experimental day. Its positive effect was rising during the 28-day experiment, indicating a delayed onset of N-f-5HT action. Administration of either N-f-5HT or MTX caused reduction of inflammation measured as the level of CRP in plasma and the activity of LOX in the liver. mRNA transcription of TNF-α and iNOS in the liver was significantly attenuated in both MTX and N-f-5HT treated groups of arthritic rats. Interestingly, in contrast to MTX, N-f-5HT significantly lowered the level of IL-1β in plasma and IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver and spleen of arthritic rats. This speaks for future investigations of N-f-5HT as an agent in the treatment of RA in combination therapy with MTX.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein-3 is an indicator of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Taguchi, Kenichi; Ohno, Shinji; Tokunaga, Eriko; Yamashita, Nami; Kubo, Makoto; Nakamura, Masafumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of the expressions of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in phyllodes tumors (PTs). Immunohistochemical staining for IMP3 and EGFR was performed in 130 cases of primary PTs (83 benign, 28 borderline, 19 malignant), 34 recurrent/metastatic PTs, and 26 fibroadenomas (FAs). Among the primary tumors, a high expression of IMP3 was significantly more frequently present in malignant PTs (17/19, 89%) than in the FAs (0/26, 0%), benign PTs (0/83, 0%) and borderline PTs (3/28, 11%). The recurrent and metastatic lesions of malignant PTs also showed high IMP3 expression (3/5 [60%] and 6/6 [100%], respectively). Most malignant PTs showed strong IMP3 expression at the interductal area or more diffusely, whereas weak and focal (low) expression of IMP3 was limited to the periductal area in FAs and benign PTs. EGFR overexpression was significantly correlated with tumor grade and high IMP3 expression. Overexpressions of IMP3 and EGFR were significantly associated with shorter periods of metastasis-free and disease-free survival. The results suggest that high expressions of IMP3 and EGFR with a characteristic staining pattern may be helpful for both identifying malignant PT and predicting the prognosis of these tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  3. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    -termination to be a global phenomena in gene regulation. The influence of codon usage in the early coding region on messenger stability was examined, in order to establish how fast or slow the ribosome has to decode the sequence for it to protect the messenger from degradation. The experiments demonstrated that very fast...

  4. MESSENGER'S First Flyby of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th close flyby of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER'S first flyby on January 14th, 2008 will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  5. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  6. Geodesy at Mercury with MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria t.; Peale, Stanley J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    In 2011 the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft will enter Mercury orbit and begin the mapping phase of the mission. As part of its science objectives the MESSENGER mission will determine the shape and gravity field of Mercury. These observations will enable the topography and the crustal thickness to be derived for the planet and will determine the small libration of the planet about its axis, the latter critical to constraining the state of the core. These measurements require very precise positioning of the MESSENGER spacecraft in its eccentric orbit, which has a periapsis altitude as low as 200 km, an apoapsis altitude near 15,000 km, and a closest approach to the surface varying from latitude 60 to about 70 N. The X-band tracking of MESSENGER and the laser altimetry are the primary data that will be used to measure the planetary shape and gravity field. The laser altimeter, which has an expected range of 1000 to 1200 km, is expected to provide significant data only over the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. For the southern hemisphere, radio occultation measurements obtained as the spacecraft passes behind the planet as seen from Earth and images obtained with the imaging system will be used to provide the long-wavelength shape of the planet. Gravity, derived from the tracking data, will also have greater resolution in the northern hemisphere, but full global models for both topography and gravity will be obtained at low harmonic order and degree. The limiting factor for both gravity and topography is expected to be knowledge of the spacecraft location. Present estimations are that in a combined tracking, altimetry, and occultation solution the spacecraft position uncertainty is likely to be of order 10 m. This accuracy should be adequate for establishing an initial geodetic coordinate system for Mercury that will enable positioning of imaged features on the surface, determination of

  7. Effect of escitalopram versus placebo on GRα messenger RNA expression in peripheral blood cells of healthy individuals with a family history of depression - a secondary outcome analysis from the randomized AGENDA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. GRα mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Four weeks of intervention with escitalopram decreased the relative change from baseline in the expression...... of GRα mRNA compared with placebo (p = 0.002). Conclusion These findings from a randomized trial suggest that a 4-week escitalopram administration to healthy participants results in a decrease in GRα mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood compared with inert placebo. The decrease in GRα m...

  8. 12 CFR 7.1012 - Messenger service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Bank Powers § 7.1012 Messenger service. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a “messenger... its customers to pick up from, and deliver to, specific customers at locations such as their homes or offices, items relating to transactions between the bank and those customers. (b) Pick-up and delivery of...

  9. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    : the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture...... of the SARSE editor makes it a flexible tool to improve all RNA alignments with relatively little human intervention. Online documentation and software are available at (http://sarse.ku.dk)....

  10. Effect of Thymine Starvation on Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzati, Denise

    1966-01-01

    Luzzati, Denise (Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Paris, France). Effect of thymine starvation on messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1435–1446. 1966.—During the course of thymine starvation, the rate of synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA, the rapidly labeled fraction of the RNA which decays in the presence of dinitrophenol or which hybridizes with deoxyribonucleic acid) decreases exponentially, in parallel with the viability of the thymine-starved bacteria. The ability of cell-free extracts of starved bacteria to incorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates into RNA was determined; it was found to be inferior to that of extracts from control cells. The analysis of the properties of cell-free extracts of starved cells shows that their decreased RNA polymerase activity is the consequence of a modification of their deoxyribonucleic acid, the ability of which to serve as a template for RNA polymerase decreases during starvation. PMID:5332402

  11. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  12. MESSENGER'S First and Second Flybys of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only approximately 1000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th and October 6th, 2008 close flybys of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  13. MESSENGER SPICE KERNELS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the complete set of MESSENGER SPICE data files (''kernel files''), which can be accessed using SPICE software. The SPICE data contains...

  14. Recognition of the bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanylate by its cognate riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulshina, Nadia; Baird, Nathan J.; Ferré-D' Amaré, Adrian R.; (UWASH); (FHCRC)

    2009-12-03

    The cyclic diguanylate (bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate, c-di-GMP) riboswitch is the first known example of a gene-regulatory RNA that binds a second messenger. c-di-GMP is widely used by bacteria to regulate processes ranging from biofilm formation to the expression of virulence genes. The cocrystal structure of the c-di-GMP responsive GEMM riboswitch upstream of the tfoX gene of Vibrio cholerae reveals the second messenger binding the RNA at a three-helix junction. The two-fold symmetric second messenger is recognized asymmetrically by the monomeric riboswitch using canonical and noncanonical base-pairing as well as intercalation. These interactions explain how the RNA discriminates against cyclic diadenylate (c-di-AMP), a putative bacterial second messenger. Small-angle X-ray scattering and biochemical analyses indicate that the RNA undergoes compaction and large-scale structural rearrangement in response to ligand binding, consistent with organization of the core three-helix junction of the riboswitch concomitant with binding of c-di-GMP.

  15. RNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2013 ... RÉSUMÉ. Objectif : La présente étude est conduite dans les régions de Maradi et Zinder situées dans le Centre-Sud du. Niger où la pratique de la régénération naturelle assistée des ligneux dans les champs (RNA) a permis de reverdir plus de 5 millions d'hectares. Le but de ce travail est d'évaluer ...

  16. Higgs mass from neutrino-messenger mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakti, Pritibhajan; Khosa, Charanjit K.; Mummidi, V.S.; Vempati, Sudhir K.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs particle at 125 GeV has put strong constraints on minimal messenger models of gauge mediation, pushing the stop masses into the multi-TeV regime. Extensions of these models with matter-messenger mixing terms have been proposed to generate a large trilinear parameter, A t , relaxing these constraints. The detailed survey of these models (DOI: 10.1007/JHEP05(2013)055; 10.1007/JHEP08(2013)093 ) so far considered messenger mixings with only MSSM superfields. In the present work, we extend the survey to MSSM with inverse-seesaw mechanism. The neutrino-sneutrino corrections to the Higgs mass in the inverse seesaw model are not significant in the minimal gauge mediation model, unless one considers messenger-matter interaction terms. We classify all possible models with messenger-matter interactions and perform thorough numerical analysis to find out the promising models. We found that out of the 17 possible models 9 of them can lead to Higgs mass within the observed value without raising the sfermion masses significantly. The successful models have stop masses ∼1.5 TeV with small or negligible mixing and yet a light CP even Higgs at 125 GeV.

  17. Higgs mass from neutrino-messenger mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byakti, Pritibhajan [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India); Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,2A & 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Khosa, Charanjit K. [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mummidi, V.S. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Vempati, Sudhir K. [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2017-03-06

    The discovery of the Higgs particle at 125 GeV has put strong constraints on minimal messenger models of gauge mediation, pushing the stop masses into the multi-TeV regime. Extensions of these models with matter-messenger mixing terms have been proposed to generate a large trilinear parameter, A{sub t}, relaxing these constraints. The detailed survey of these models (DOI: 10.1007/JHEP05(2013)055; 10.1007/JHEP08(2013)093 ) so far considered messenger mixings with only MSSM superfields. In the present work, we extend the survey to MSSM with inverse-seesaw mechanism. The neutrino-sneutrino corrections to the Higgs mass in the inverse seesaw model are not significant in the minimal gauge mediation model, unless one considers messenger-matter interaction terms. We classify all possible models with messenger-matter interactions and perform thorough numerical analysis to find out the promising models. We found that out of the 17 possible models 9 of them can lead to Higgs mass within the observed value without raising the sfermion masses significantly. The successful models have stop masses ∼1.5 TeV with small or negligible mixing and yet a light CP even Higgs at 125 GeV.

  18. Streptomycin Action: Greater Inhibition of Escherichia coli Ribosome Function with Exogenous than with Endogenous Messenger Ribonucleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Apirion, David; Schlessinger, David

    1969-01-01

    Inhibition of protein synthesis by streptomycin was tested in extracts from a strain of Escherichia coli sensitive to streptomycin. Three kinds of messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) were employed: endogenous cellular RNA, extracted cellular RNA, and phage R17 RNA. Protein synthesis directed by extracted cellular RNA was inhibited three- to fourfold more than protein synthesis directed by endogenous RNA. With R17 RNA as messenger, nearly total inhibition of protein synthesis at initiation was again observed. The greater inhibition of function of extracted RNA, which must initiate new polypeptide chains in vitro, is in accord with the observation that in whole cells streptomycin blocks ribosomes at an early stage in protein synthesis. When streptomycin was added at successively later times during protein synthesis, the subsequent inhibition was progressively less. This was observed with either extracted cellular RNA or phage R17 RNA. A model is presented that can explain the less drastic inhibition by streptomycin of messenger RNA that is already functioning on ribosomes. PMID:4895843

  19. Mobile MSN Messenger: Still a Complement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nyberg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how mobile instant messaging services can fit into the users’ current communication behavior, Ericsson Research performed a qualitative user study in Sweden in May 2007. The results showed that the respondents were positive towards (free of charge mobile MSN Messenger and perceived it as an ex¬tension of the computer-based version that could be used anywhere. However, although MSN Messenger on the com¬puter definitely was considered as a ‘must-have’ application, the mobile version was only perceived as a ‘nice-to-have’ application and a complement to text mes¬saging (SMS. Almost one year later, in April 2008, Ericsson Research performed a short qualita¬tive follow-up study with the same set of respondents to un¬derstand if and how the mobile MSN Messenger usage had changed. The results actually revealed that none of the re¬spondents used mobile MSN Messenger anymore as the application no longer was free of charge. On a general level, the study highlights important considera¬tions when intro¬ducing computer-based concepts and Internet services in a mo¬bile environment.

  20. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves | LIGO-G1601377-v2. Deeper searches. • Devasthal 3.6m, Mt. Abu 2.5m. • Indian ten-meter class telescope? • SALT / other partner programs. • Thirty Meter Telescope. » A proposal for EMGW already submitted! • Radio followup: » uGMRT. » SKA. Varun Bhalerao ...

  1. Intercultural Learning via Instant Messenger Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Erben, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating the viability of instant messenger (IM) interaction to facilitate intercultural learning in a foreign language class. Eight students in a Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) class participated in the study. Each student was paired with a native speaker (NS) of Chinese, and each pair…

  2. Analysis of RNA metabolism in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Jo Ann; Nielsen, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Here we focus on the biogenesis and function of messenger RNA (mRNA) in fission yeast cells. Following a general introduction that also briefly touches on other classes of RNA, we provide an overview of methods used to analyze mRNAs throughout their life cycles.......Here we focus on the biogenesis and function of messenger RNA (mRNA) in fission yeast cells. Following a general introduction that also briefly touches on other classes of RNA, we provide an overview of methods used to analyze mRNAs throughout their life cycles....

  3. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical outcomes. Brain wiring, damage, and developmental defects Researchers have ...

  4. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission

  5. Multi-messenger aspects of cosmic neutrinos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlers Markus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of TeV-PeV neutrinos by IceCube has opened a new window to the high-energy Universe. I will discuss this signal in the context of multi-messenger astronomy. For extragalactic source scenarios the corresponding gamma-rays are not directly observable due to interactions with the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma ray background observed by Fermi-LAT contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. Interestingly, the overall energy density of the observed neutrino flux is close to a theoretical limit for neutrino production in ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources and might indicate a common origin of these phenomena. I will highlight various multi-messenger relations and their implications for neutrino source scenarios.

  6. The Energy Messenger, Number 1, Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancil, J.

    1995-01-01

    'The Energy Messenger' is a Department of Energy publication on energy activities of interest to American Indians. The first issue of 1995 (in a magazine format) includes articles on: tribes winning grants to develop energy resources, recruiting of internships for DOE, information about Title XXVI-Indian Energy Resources, American Indian Heritage Month, tribal perspective on DOE actions, joint ventures between tribes and the DOE, and brief description of recent DOE activities

  7. The Energy Messenger, Number 1, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancil, J. [ed.

    1995-01-01

    `The Energy Messenger` is a Department of Energy publication on energy activities of interest to American Indians. The first issue of 1995 (in a magazine format) includes articles on: tribes winning grants to develop energy resources, recruiting of internships for DOE, information about Title XXVI-Indian Energy Resources, American Indian Heritage Month, tribal perspective on DOE actions, joint ventures between tribes and the DOE, and brief description of recent DOE activities.

  8. Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2010-01-01

    We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.

  9. Pathophysiological implications of the chemical messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez Fernandez, E.

    2009-01-01

    To maintain a physical organization and a different composition of its surroundings environment, living beings use a great part of the energy that they produce. Vital processes require an elevated number of reactions which are regulated and integrated by chemical messengers. They use autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and synaptic signals through receptors of cell surface, nuclear or associated with ionic channels, enzymes, trim eric G proteins and to intracellular kinases. Through these mechanisms pheromones play an important role in the relationships between different individuals, and hormones are able to regulate the integrative functions of our organism. In the nervous system, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, sensors and receptors between other messengers, play functions of great relevance, while growth factors stimulate cell proliferation and cytokines have many effects but the most important is the ones related with the control of the immflamatory process. Alterations of these messengers permit us a better understanding of the diseases and possibly of its treatments in a near future. Modifications of the expression of genes from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are responsible of monogenic, polygenic and mitochondrial diseases, while alterations in the activities of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters are related with schizophrenia, Parkinson disease and depression, respectively. Other example is the hyperthyroidism of the Graves-Bassedow disease due to the competitive interference of the LATS immunoglobulin with TSH at the level of the follicular cells producing thyroid hormones Twenty five years ago in the reviews on the mechanisms of insulin action, there was presentations in which the insulin receptor was located in the plasma membrane of the target cells while in the cytoplasm only a big interrogative was observed, that at present is replaced by chemical mediators cascades responsible of the multiple effects of insulin. This finding is similar

  10. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  11. Streptomycin causes misreading of natural messenger by interacting with ribosomes after initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, P C; Wallace, B J; Davis, B D

    1978-01-01

    The induction of misreading by streptomycin in vitro, previously observed with synthetic messengers, is now demonstrated with natural (endogenous or viral) messenger by the use of extracts of temperature sensitive mutants lacking Glu--tRNA or Val--tRNA synthetase. With chain-elongating but noninitiating ribosomes (i.e., purified polysomes) deprived of an aminoacyl--tRNA, streptomycin and other aminoglycosides, over a wide range of concentrations, stimulate incorporation. With ribosomes initiating in the presence of streptomycin stimulation is also observed but it is restricted, just like phenotypic suppression in cells, to very low streptomycin concentrattions which evidently allow some ribosomes to initiate and later encounter them in the course of chain elongation. The stimulation is accompanied by an increase in the size of the products; hence, it is evidently due to substitution of an incorrect aminoacyl--tRNA for a missing one. The test introduced here also has revealed a misreading effect of streptomycin on resistant ribosomes. In addition, significant intrinsic misreading was observed without streptomycin, indicating that under optimal conditions for in vitro protein synthesis an empty codon is frequently read by an incorrect aminoacyl--tRNA.

  12. PEMBUATAN SYSTEM CORPORATE MESSENGER PADA JARINGAN LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Puspa Dewi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate messenger is the one of the application that can be used for communication in a local area network. The backgrounds of this topic are needs of sending message process in the LAN. The messages which want to be presented are not only in a text format, but also can be in audio visual format. Computer client will connect to the server. When the connection has been established, the client continued the authentication and started sending message between client and server. Audio and video message sending can be done with peer to peer connection with entering the IP address first from remote user that we want to communicate with. The evaluation of this application was done by using 3 computers and as the result, we found that authentication process can work properly, sending text message was done properly and communication using audio can be heard clearly. In addition to video sending message, we could see directly in remote client. The average time to show the video on remote client is 3.771 seconds. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Corporate messenger merupakan suatu aplikasi yang dapat digunakan untuk berkomunikasi dalam sebuah Local Area Network. Hal ini dilatarbelakangi oleh perlu adanya proses pengiriman pesan secara bersama-sama dalam sebuah Local Area Network. Pesan yang ingin dikomunikasikan tidak hanya berupa teks, tetapi dapat juga menggunakan video maupun audio Komputer client akan melakukan koneksi dengan server. Jika sudah terjadi koneksi dengan server, maka client tersebut akan melanjutkan dengan autentikasi dan kemudian dapat melakukan pengiriman pesan dengan client yang telah terdaftar dalam database server. Pengiriman pesan audio dan video terjadi dengan koneksi peer to peer dengan terlebih dahulu memasukkan IP address dari remote user yang ingin diajak berkomunikasi. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menggunakan tiga buah komputer dan diperoleh bahwa proses autentikasi dapat berjalan dengan baik, pengiriman pesan teks dapat dilakukan

  13. Mercury's Interior from MESSENGER Radio Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A.; Mazarico, E.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provided precise radio tracking data in orbit about Mercury for more than 4 years, from March 2011 to April 2015. These geodetic measurements enable us to investigate the interior structure of the planet from the inner core to the crust. The first three years of radio data allowed us to determine the gravity field of Mercury with a resolution of 150 km in the northern hemisphere (degree and order 50 in spherical harmonics) since the periapsis was located at higher latitudes (>65˚N) and 200-500 km altitudes. The comparison of this gravity solution with Mercury's topography, which was retrieved by using over 25 million individual measurements of the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), resulted in a preliminary map of the crustal thickness of the planet. However, those results were limited by the resolution of the gravity field since the topography was defined in spherical harmonics up to degree and order 125. The last year of the MESSENGER extended mission was dedicated to a low-altitude campaign, where the spacecraft periapsis was maintained at altitudes between 25 and 100 km. The radio data collected during this mission phase allowed us to significantly improve the resolution of the gravity field locally in the northern hemisphere up to degree and order 100 in spherical harmonics. We present the gravity anomalies and crustal thickness maps that lead to a better understanding on the formation and evolution of specific regions. We present our estimated orientation model, which slightly differs from the solutions that were obtained by using Earth-based radar measurements and the co-registration of MESSENGER imaging and altimetry data. These previous estimates provide a direct measurement of the surface response, whereas the orientation model from gravity is more sensitive to the inner and outer core. A discrepancy between core and surface obliquities may provide fundamental

  14. Emerging roles in plant biotechnology for the second messenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second messengers are small transient molecules that transmit and/or modulate environmental or hormonal signals linking them to complex and often systemic physiological responses. Recent reports have renewed interest in the second messenger guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) since it has been shown ...

  15. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments

  16. MESSENGER MERCURY RSS/MLA LEVEL 5 DERIVED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival results from radio science investigations conducted during the MESSENGER mission. Radio measurements were made using the MESSENGER...

  17. Expression of P450c17 messenger ribonucleic acid in postmenopausal human ovary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, M; Puche, C; Cabero, A; Cabero, L; Meseguer, A

    1999-03-01

    To investigate the expression of the P450c17 gene in postmenopausal human ovaries compared with normal cycling ovaries. Prospective nonrandomized clinical research study. Servei de Medicina Reproductiva and Centre d'Investigacions en Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Hospitals Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. Six premenopausal women and four postmenopausal women undergoing bilateral oophorectomy for nonovarian gynecologic disease. Extraction of 10 mL of peripheral venous blood for hormone measurements. Extraction of RNA from surgically removed ovaries for Northern blot, ribonuclease protection, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Southern blot assays. Definition of the reproductive cycle state of each patient and determination of the level of P450c17 gene expression in all samples with the use of the semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Southern blot assay. P450c17 messenger RNA levels in postmenopausal ovaries varied considerably between samples. Although the levels were similar to those detected in the early follicular phase, one of the samples had levels as high as those observed in the late follicular phase. Although the degree varied from one sample to another, all the postmenopausal ovaries studied expressed the P450c17 gene at the messenger RNA level. In a sample from a patient with endometrial adenocarcinoma, the level was as high as the levels observed in the late follicular phase.

  18. Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere: Modeling MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee; Vervack, Ronald J.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a surface-bounded exosphere comprised of atomic species including hydrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and likely oxygen. Because it is collisionless. the exosphere's composition represents a balance of the active source and loss processes. The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment. GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has made high spatial-resolution observations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium near Mercury's surface and in the extended, anti-sunward direction. The most striking feature of these data has been the substantial differences in the spatial distribution of each species, Our modeling demonstrates that these differences cannot be due to post-ejection dynamics such as differences in photo-ionization rate and radiation pressure. but instead point to differences in the source mechanisms and regions on the surface from which each is ejected. The observations of calcium have revealed a strong dawn/dusk asymmetry. with the abundance over the dawn hemisphere significantly greater than over the dusk. To understand this asymmetry, we use a Monte Carlo model of Mercury's exosphere that we developed to track the motions of exospheric neutrals under the influence of gravity and radiation pressure. Ca atoms can be ejected directly from the surface or produced in a molecular exosphere (e.g., one consisting of CaO). Particles are removed from the system if they stick to the surface or escape from the model region of interest (within 15 Mercury radii). Photoionization reduces the final weighting given to each particle when simulating the Ca radiance. Preliminary results suggest a high temperature ( I-2x 10(exp 4) K) source of atomic Ca concentrated over the dawn hemisphere. The high temperature is consistent with the dissociation of CaO in a near-surface exosphere with scale height <= 100 km, which imparts 2 eV to the freshly produced Ca atom. This

  19. Messenger Observations of Mercury's Bow Shock and Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin J. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Raines, M.; Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft made the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14.2008 (1). New observations of solar wind interaction with Mercury were made with MESSENGER'S Magnetometer (MAG) (2.3) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) - composed of the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) (3,4). These MESSENGER observations show that Mercury's magnetosphere has a large-scale structure that is distinctly Earth-like, but it is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions [5]. Fig. 1 provides a schematic view of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - neutral atmosphere - solid planet system at Mercury.

  20. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  1. Biogenesis, assembly, and export of viral messenger ribonucleoproteins in the influenza A virus infected cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Ashley; Fodor, Ervin

    2013-08-01

    The flow of genetic information from sites of transcription within the nucleus to the cytoplasmic translational machinery of eukaryotic cells is obstructed by a physical blockade, the nuclear double membrane, which must be overcome in order to adhere to the central dogma of molecular biology, DNA makes RNA makes protein. Advancement in the field of cellular and molecular biology has painted a detailed picture of the molecular mechanisms from transcription of genes to mRNAs and their processing that is closely coupled to export from the nucleus. The rules that govern delivering messenger transcripts from the nucleus must be obeyed by influenza A virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae that has adopted a nuclear replication cycle. The negative-sense genome of influenza A virus is segmented into eight individual viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and single-stranded RNA encapsidated in viral nucleoprotein. Influenza A virus mRNAs fall into three major categories, intronless, intron-containing unspliced and spliced. During evolutionary history, influenza A virus has conceived a way of negotiating the passage of viral transcripts from the nucleus to cytoplasmic sites of protein synthesis. The major mRNA nuclear export NXF1 pathway is increasingly implicated in viral mRNA export and this review considers and discusses the current understanding of how influenza A virus exploits the host mRNA export pathway for replication.

  2. Why Argonaute is needed to make microRNA target search fast and reliable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.; Chandradoss, S.D.; Depken, S.M.; Joo, C.

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) interferes with the translation of cognate messenger RNA (mRNA) by finding, preferentially binding, and marking it for degradation. To facilitate the search process, Argonaute (Ago) proteins come together with miRNA, forming a dynamic search complex. In this review we use the

  3. RNA Localization in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization is a mechanism by which polarized cells can regulate protein synthesis to specific subcellular compartments in a spatial and temporal manner, and plays a pivotal role in multiple physiological processes from embryonic development to cell differentiation......, regulation of the blood brain barrier and glial scar tissue formation. Despite the involvement in various CNS functions only a limited number of studies have addressed mRNA localization in astrocytes. This PhD project was initially focused on developing and implementing methods that could be used to asses mRNA...... localization in astrocyte protrusions, and following look into the subcellular localization pattern of specific mRNA species of both primary astrocytes isolated from cortical hemispheres of newborn mice, and the mouse astrocyte cell line, C8S. The Boyden chamber cell fractionation assay was optimized, in a way...

  4. MESSENGER MERCURY MDIS LEVEL 5 DEM V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== The MESSENGER MDIS DEMs are derived products. A DEM is a gridded (raster) product that records elevation values of a given terrain in each pixel....

  5. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  6. Mercury's global evolution: New views from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, S. A., II; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Grott, M.; McCoy, T.; Stanley, S.

    2015-12-01

    MESSENGER's exploration of Mercury has revealed the planet's rich and dynamic history and provided new constraints on the processes that control its internal evolution. Mercury's surface records evidence of an extensive geological history. This evidence includes resurfacing by impacts and volcanism prior to the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) and a subsequent rapid waning of effusive volcanism. Volcanism is an important indicator of the history of melt production. Thousands of globally distributed, contractional tectonic landforms collectively have accommodated a decrease in Mercury's radius of 5-7 km since the end of the LHB. Such contraction results from planetary cooling and crystallization within Mercury's metallic core. Measurements of surface chemistry have provided constraints on internal radiogenic heat production necessary to understand more fully Mercury's thermal evolution. Elemental abundances also reveal that Mercury is strongly chemically reduced, suggesting that the core's iron is alloyed with silicon as well as sulfur, which constrains the dynamics and crystallization of the metallic core. Magnetometer observations show that Mercury's dynamo-generated, dominantly dipolar field is displaced ~500 km northward along the rotation axis. Low-altitude magnetic field observations late in the mission led to the discovery of crustal magnetization in Mercury's ancient crust, dating to at least 3.7 Ga, which places a new constraint on the timing of the dynamo. Monte Carlo parameterized mantle convection models, constrained by these observations, indicate that for global contraction of 7 km or less, mantle convection persists to the present ~40% of the time, with the likelihood of modern convection decreasing with less global contraction. Slow present cooling in these models indicates that dynamo generation is strongly influenced by both a static layer at the top of the core and convective motions within the core driven by compositional buoyancy.

  7. Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field from MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, A.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present a regional spherical-harmonic based crustal magnetic field model for Mercury between latitudes 45° and 70° N, derived from MESSENGER magnetic field data. In addition to contributions from the core dynamo, the bow shock, and the magnetotail, Mercury's magnetic field is also influenced by interactions with the solar wind. The resulting field-aligned currents generate magnetic fields that are typically an order of magnitude stronger at spacecraft altitude than the field from sources within Mercury's crust. These current sources lie within the satellite path and so the resulting magnetic field can not be modeled using potential-field approaches. However, these fields are organized in the local-time frame and their spatial structure differs from that of the smaller-scale crustal field. We account for large-scale magnetic fields in the local-time reference frame by subtracting from the data a low-degree localized vector spherical-harmonic model including curl components fitted at satellite altitude. The residual data exhibit consistent signals across individual satellite tracks in the body fixed reference frame, similar to those obtained via more rudimentary along-track filtering approaches. We fit a regional internal-source spherical-harmonic model to the night-time radial component of the residual data, allowing a maximum spherical-harmonic degree of L = 150. Due to the cross-track spacing of the satellite tracks, spherical-harmonic degrees beyond L = 90 are damped. The strongest signals in the resulting model are in the region around the Caloris Basin and over Suisei Planitia, as observed previously. Regularization imposed in the modeling allows the field to be downward continued to the surface. The strongest surface fields are 30 nT. Furthermore, the regional power spectrum of the model shows a downward dipping slope between spherical-harmonic degrees 40 and 80, hinting that the main component of the crustal field lies deep within the crust.

  8. Coupling of rates of transcription, translation, and messenger ribonucleic acid degradation in streptomycin-dependent mutants of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R S; Schlessinger, D

    1976-01-01

    The growth rates of streptomycin-dependent mutants varied in proportion to the level of streptomycin supplied; growth also varied characteristically from one dependent strain to another at a given streptomycin concentration. When cells growing at different rates (over a threefold range) were treated with rifampin, direct proportionality was observed for three parameters: (i) the rates of shutoff of transcription of total ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomal RNA, as measured by pulse labeling at later times; (ii) the translation time for molecules of beta-galactosidase; and (iii) the rate of chemical degradation of messenger RNA. In contrast, the rate of functional inactivation of both total and beta-galactosidase messenger RNA was about the same at all growth rates. None of the variations of growth or other parameters were observed in an otherwise isogenic streptomycin-resistant strain treated with streptomycin. Since the mutational change in strd mutants and the site of action of streptomycin are in the 30S ribosomal subunits, it is suggested that the rate of ribosome function is set by the dependent lesion (and the level of streptomycin). One possibility is that the other correlated effects are mechanistically "coupled" to ribosome function, but the apparent coupling could also be an indirect result of differential effects of streptomycin on variables such as ribosomal miscoding and nucleotide pool size. However, since the rate of functional inactivation of messenger RNA is constant even when the RNA is broken down two- to fourfold more slowly, translation yield tends to be proportional to the growth rate of the dependent strains.

  9. Some Metabolites Act as Second Messengers in Yeast Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamat Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of some key metabolic intermediates play essential roles in regulating the longevity of the chronologically aging yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These key metabolites are detected by certain ligand-specific protein sensors that respond to concentration changes of the key metabolites by altering the efficiencies of longevity-defining cellular processes. The concentrations of the key metabolites that affect yeast chronological aging are controlled spatially and temporally. Here, we analyze mechanisms through which the spatiotemporal dynamics of changes in the concentrations of the key metabolites influence yeast chronological lifespan. Our analysis indicates that a distinct set of metabolites can act as second messengers that define the pace of yeast chronological aging. Molecules that can operate both as intermediates of yeast metabolism and as second messengers of yeast chronological aging include reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, glycerol, trehalose, hydrogen peroxide, amino acids, sphingolipids, spermidine, hydrogen sulfide, acetic acid, ethanol, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerol. We discuss several properties that these second messengers of yeast chronological aging have in common with second messengers of signal transduction. We outline how these second messengers of yeast chronological aging elicit changes in cell functionality and viability in response to changes in the nutrient, energy, stress, and proliferation status of the cell.

  10. RNA captor: a tool for RNA characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Clepet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the genome era, characterizing the structure and the function of RNA molecules remains a major challenge. Alternative transcripts and non-protein-coding genes are poorly recognized by the current genome-annotation algorithms and efficient tools are needed to isolate the less-abundant or stable RNAs. RESULTS: A universal RNA-tagging method using the T4 RNA ligase 2 and special adapters is reported. Based on this system, protocols for RACE PCR and full-length cDNA library construction have been developed. The RNA tagging conditions were thoroughly optimized and compared to previous methods by using a biochemical oligonucleotide tagging assay and RACE PCRs on a range of transcripts. In addition, two large-scale full-length cDNA inventories relying on this method are presented. CONCLUSION: The RNA Captor is a straightforward and accessible protocol. The sensitivity of this approach was shown to be higher compared to previous methods, and applicable on messenger RNAs, non-protein-coding RNAs, transcription-start sites and microRNA-directed cleavage sites of transcripts. This strategy could also be used to study other classes of RNA and in deep sequencing experiments.

  11. How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshon, B.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach (Epo) Team

    2010-12-01

    How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science In the film The Last Starfighter, an alien civilization grooms their future champion—a kid on Earth—using a video game. As he gains proficiency in the game, he masters the skills he needs to pilot a starship and save their civilization. The NASA MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team is using the same tactic to train citizen scientists to help the Science Team explore the planet Mercury. We are building a new series of games that appear to be designed primarily for fun, but that guide players through a knowledge and skill set that they will need for future science missions in support of MESSENGER mission scientists. As players score points, they gain expertise. Once they achieve a sufficiently high score, they will be invited to become participants in Mercury Zoo, a new program being designed by Zooniverse. Zooniverse created Galaxy Zoo and Moon Zoo, programs that allow interested citizens to participate in the exploration and interpretation of galaxy and lunar data. Scientists use the citizen interpretations to further refine their exploration of the same data, thereby narrowing their focus and saving precious time. Mercury Zoo will be designed with input from the MESSENGER Science Team. This project will not only support the MESSENGER mission, but it will also add to the growing cadre of informed members of the public available to help with other citizen science projects—building on the concept that engaged, informed citizens can help scientists make new discoveries. The MESSENGER EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for Educational Resources (CERES) at Montana State University (MSU) - Bozeman; National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE); Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL); National Air and Space Museum (NASM); Science

  12. RNA-Based Vaccines in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. McNamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Instant messenger-facilitated knowledge sharing and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.; Leung, D.

    2014-01-01

    The instant messenger (IM) is frequently encountered as a facilitator of communication in both social and working contexts. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the extent to which IMs bring organizational benefits, thereby overcoming interruptions to work. In this study, we focus on how IM tools

  14. A Reliable Instant Messenger in Erlang: Design and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Mario Moro; Chechina, Natalia; Trinder, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the design and evaluation of two Erlang-based instant messenger systems using Distributed Erlang (D-Erlang) and Scalable Distributed Erlang (SD-Erlang). The purpose of these systems is to serve as real-world benchmarks to test the performance of the SD Erlang library.

  15. Transfecting Human Monocytes with RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannull, Jens; Nair, Smita K

    2016-01-01

    Targeting monocytes as a delivery system for drugs or nucleic acids, and thereby harnessing their natural tissue-infiltrating capacity, has become an area of intense investigation in both basic and clinical research. Herein we describe an efficient method to deliver mRNA (messenger RNA) or siRNA (small interfering RNA) into human monocytes by electroporation. This method can be applied in the laboratory to monocytes isolated via magnetic bead-based techniques, or in a clinical setting using monocytes that were collected via counterflow centrifugation elutriation using the Elutra(®) Cell Separation System. We further demonstrate that electroporation of monocytes with RNA represents a robust and highly relevant approach to modify monocytes for cell-based therapies. Last, the procedure described can readily be adapted to monocytes from different species, hence facilitating research in animal models.

  16. PENILAIAN KUALITAS PEMAMPATAN CITRA PADA APLIKASI-APLIKASI INSTANT MESSENGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiru Nurfitri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Useful image compression to compress the file size of the image thus saving storage and speed up the transfer process. This study aims to measuring on the quality of the image as compressed by instant messenger application by comparing the initial image or the input image with the image compression results. The assessment is based on objective criteria by using research methods of comparative research. The objective criteria used is the compression ratio, PSNR, the quality index, and SSIM. From this research it is known that each - each instant messenger applications have a compression ratio that varies. In addition, PSNR, SSIM, and quality index are different too. From the analysis concluded that the order of the image that has a fairly high compression ratio and good quality is the Line

  17. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brümmer, Felix [SISSA/ISAS,Via Bonomea 265, Trieste I-34136 (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); CERN Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-10

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3){sub F} symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3){sub F} is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3){sub F} breaking.

  18. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.

    2014-04-15

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3){sub F} symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3){sub F} is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3){sub F} breaking.

  19. Mercury's Atmosphere and Magnetosphere: MESSENGER Third Flyby Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Johnson, Catherine L.; Gloeckler, George; Killen, Rosemary M.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; hide

    2009-01-01

    MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury en route to orbit insertion about the innermost planet took place on 29 September 2009. The earlier 14 January and 6 October 2008 encounters revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is highly dipolar and stable over the 35 years since its discovery by Mariner 10; that a structured, temporally variable exosphere extends to great altitudes on the dayside and forms a long tail in the anti-sunward direction; a cloud of planetary ions encompasses the magnetosphere from the dayside bow shock to the downstream magnetosheath and magnetotail; and that the magnetosphere undergoes extremely intense magnetic reconnect ion in response to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field. Here we report on new results derived from observations from MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), Magnetometer (MAG), and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) taken during the third flyby.

  20. 12th International Conference on Second Messengers and Phosphoproteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuháčková, Zdena

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2004), s. 89-91 ISSN 1211-2526. [International conference on second messengers and phosphoproteins /12./. Montreal, 03.08.2004-07.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/04/0550; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : MTOR -PI3-K signalling * p70 S 6 kinase * v-Src Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. Sodium ion exosphere of Mercury during MESSENGER flybys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paral, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Rankin, R.; Schriver, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 19 (2010), L19102/1-L19102/5 ISSN 0094-8276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : MESSENGER flybys * solar wind sputtering * photo-stimulated desorption Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.505, year: 2010 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010GL044413/abstract

  2. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  3. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations during the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; McClintock, William E.; Benna, Mehdi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18,2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na. K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29. 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He(+), 0(+), and Na(+),

  4. The Morphology of Craters on Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Oliver S.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Herrick, Robert R.; Chappelow, John E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic data measured from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft were used for investigations of the relationship between depth and diameter for impact craters on Mercury. Results using data from the MESSENGER flybys of the innermost planet indicate that most of the craters measured with MLA are shallower than those previously measured by using Mariner 10 images. MDIS images of these same MLA-measured craters show that they have been modified. The use of shadow measurement techniques, which were found to be accurate relative to the MLA results, indicate that both small bowl-shaped and large complex craters that are fresh possess depth-to-diameter ratios that are in good agreement with those measured from Mariner 10 images. The preliminary data also show that the depths of modified craters are shallower relative to fresh ones, and might provide quantitative estimates of crater in-filling by subsequent volcanic or impact processes. The diameter that defines the transition from simple to complex craters on Mercury based on MESSENGER data is consistent with that reported from Mariner 10 data.

  5. RNA structure probing : biochemical structure analysis of autoimmune-related RNA molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, A.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Next to the well known messenger, ribosomal and transfer RNAs, a large number of small structural RNA molecules exist. These RNAs are bound to proteins, forming ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). RNPs are often targets for autoantibodies occurring in an autoimmune disease.Chapter 1 introduces

  6. Protection of specific maternal messenger RNAs by the P body protein CGH-1 (Dhh1/RCK) during Caenorhabditis elegans oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Peter R.; Atalay, Arzu; Robida, Stacey; Reinke, Valerie; Blackwell, T. Keith

    2008-01-01

    During oogenesis, numerous messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are maintained in a translationally silenced state. In eukaryotic cells, various translation inhibition and mRNA degradation mechanisms congregate in cytoplasmic processing bodies (P bodies). The P body protein Dhh1 inhibits translation and promotes decapping-mediated mRNA decay together with Pat1 in yeast, and has been implicated in mRNA storage in metazoan oocytes. Here, we have investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans whether Dhh1 and Pat1 generally function together, and how they influence mRNA sequestration during oogenesis. We show that in somatic tissues, the Dhh1 orthologue (CGH-1) forms Pat1 (patr-1)-dependent P bodies that are involved in mRNA decapping. In contrast, during oogenesis, CGH-1 forms patr-1–independent mRNA storage bodies. CGH-1 then associates with translational regulators and a specific set of maternal mRNAs, and prevents those mRNAs from being degraded. Our results identify somatic and germ cell CGH-1 functions that are distinguished by the involvement of PATR-1, and reveal that during oogenesis, numerous translationally regulated mRNAs are specifically protected by a CGH-1–dependent mechanism. PMID:18695045

  7. Isolation of RNA from tumor samples: single-step guanidinium acid-phenol method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Naomi; Leek, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The guanidinium acid-phenol method of RNA extraction is relatively fast (4 h) and is useful for the processing of large numbers of samples, without the need for ultracentrifugation. This protocol produces total RNA that includes ribosomal, transfer, and messenger RNA. This high-quality RNA is suitable for Northern blot analysis, dot-blot hybridization, poly (A) RNA selection, in vitro translation, cDNA library construction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, ribonuclease protection assay, and primer extension experiments.

  8. Induction of vascular endothelial growth factor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in stored micrografts by aminoguanidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugluger, Walter; Rohrbacher, Wolfgang; Moser, Karl; Moser, Claudia; Laciak, Katharina; Hugeneck, Joerg

    2005-11-01

    Aminoguanidine (AMG) has been found to inhibit apoptotic cell death in hair follicle micrografts and improves the viability of isolated micrografts during the storage period in hair restoration surgery. In this study, we investigated the effect of AMG on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) synthesis of growth factors in stored micrografts and primary cultures of follicle-derived cell populations. Hair follicles were obtained from 10 different patients undergoing routine micrograft transplant and were stored for 5 hours at room temperature in phosphate-buffered saline containing different concentrations of AMG. After a culture period of 72 hours, quantitative changes of mRNA for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Primary cell cultures of dermal papilla and outer root sheath cells were stimulated for 72 hours with AMG followed by RT-PCR measurement of growth factor mRNA. A dose-dependent induction of VEGF mRNA could be demonstrated in stored micrografts after stimulation with AMG (unstimulated: 1.0 [0.7-2.2]; AMG 10 pg/mL: 5.6 [3.1-9.7], p micrografts by AMG. Although the clinical relevance in post-transplant hair growth and wound healing needs further evaluation, the possibility of actively influencing growth factor production in isolated micrografts during the storage period is the basis for the development of hair follicle growth-promoting storage solutions in the future.

  9. Involvement of second messengers in regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auwerx, J.H. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). ECHEM Labs.); Chait, A.; Wolfbauer, G.; Deeb, S.S. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (USA). Dept. of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Transcription of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene in the human monocytic leukemic cell line THP-1 and in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep-G2 is regulated by second messengers of the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C (DAG-PKC), inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-Ca/sup 2+/, and cyclic AMP pathways. Exogeneous phospholipase C (which releases DAG and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate), PKC activators (phorbol esters and DAG), Ca/sup 2+/ ionophores, and a cyclic AMP analog all transiently induced accumulation of LDL-R mRNA. The effects of these three signal-transducing pathways were to a large extend additive. Furthermore, PKC stimulation effected an increase in LDL binding, which suggested that the increase in LDL-R mRNA resulted in an increase in functional cell surface receptor activity. These results suggest that uptake of cholesterol by these cells is under control of both intracellular cholesterol levels and external signals.

  10. MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin. James A.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER'S second flyby of Mercury on October 6,2008, very intense reconnection was observed between the planet's magnetic field and a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The dawn magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field normal to its surface, approx.14 nT, that implies a rate of reconnection approx.10 times the typical rate at Earth and a cross-magnetospheric electric potential drop of approx.30 kV. The highest magnetic field observed during this second flyby, approx.160 nT, was found at the core of a large dayside flux transfer event (FTE). This FTE is estimated to contain magnetic flux equal to approx.5% that of Mercury's magnetic tail or approximately one order of magnitude higher fraction of the tail flux than is typically found for FTEs at Earth. Plasmoid and traveling compression region (TCR) signatures were observed throughout MESSENGER'S traversal of Mercury's magnetotail with a repetition rate comparable to the Dungey cycle time of approx.2 min. The TCR signatures changed from south-north, indicating tailward motion, to north-south, indicating sunward motion, at a distance approx.2.6 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius) behind the terminator indicating that the near-Mercury magnetotail neutral line was crossed at that point. Overall, these new MESSENGER observations suggest that magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause is very intense relative to what is found at Earth and other planets, while reconnection in Mercury's tail is similar to that in other planetary magnetospheres, but with a very short Dungey cycle time.

  11. Mapping the Topography of Mercury with MESSENGER Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E..; Zubor, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter onboard MESSENGER involves unique design elements that deal with the challenges of being in orbit around Mercury. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of seven instruments on NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. MESSENGER was launched on 3 August 2004, and entered into orbit about Mercury on 18 March 2011 after a journey through the inner solar system. This involved six planetary flybys, including three of Mercury. MLA is designed to map the topography and landforms of Mercury's surface. It also measures the planet's forced libration (motion about the spin axis), which helps constrain the state of the core. The first science measurements from orbit taken with MLA were made on 29 March 2011 and continue to date. MLA had accumulated about 8.3 million laser ranging measurements to Mercury's surface, as of 31 July 2012, i.e., over six Mercury years (528 Earth days). Although MLA is the third planetary lidar built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MLA must endure a much harsher thermal environment near Mercury than the previous instruments on Mars and Earth satellites. The design of MLA was derived in part from that of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on Mars Global Surveyor. However, MLA must range over greater distances and often in off-nadir directions from a highly eccentric orbit. In MLA we use a single-mode diode-pumped Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser that is highly collimated to maintain a small footprint on the planet. The receiver has both a narrow field of view and a narrow spectral bandwidth to minimize the amount of background light detected from the sunlit hemisphere of Mercury. We achieve the highest possible receiver sensitivity by employing the minimum receiver detection threshold.

  12. Mercury's complex exosphere: results from MESSENGER's third flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J; McClintock, William E; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Anderson, Brian J; Burger, Matthew H; Bradley, E Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2010-08-06

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal altitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere.

  13. Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Phillips, Roger J; Peale, Stanton J; Head, James W; Hauck, Steven A; McNutt, Ralph L; Oberst, Jürgen; Neumann, Gregory A; Lemoine, Frank G; Sun, Xiaoli; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Harmon, John K

    2008-07-04

    A 3200-kilometers-long profile of Mercury by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft spans approximately 20% of the near-equatorial region of the planet. Topography along the profile is characterized by a 5.2-kilometer dynamic range and 930-meter root-mean-square roughness. At long wavelengths, topography slopes eastward by 0.02 degrees , implying a variation of equatorial shape that is at least partially compensated. Sampled craters on Mercury are shallower than their counterparts on the Moon, at least in part the result of Mercury's higher gravity. Crater floors vary in roughness and slope, implying complex modification over a range of length scales.

  14. Mercury's Complex Exosphere: Results from MESSENGER's Third Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Anderson, Brian J.; Burger, Matthew H.; Bradley, E. Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal attitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere,

  15. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED EPS CDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. The system...

  16. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 4 NEUTRON SPECTROMETER DDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer (NS) 'derived' data records (DDRs). The NS experiment is a neutron spectrometer...

  17. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 4 NEUTRON SPECTROMETER DDR V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer (NS) 'derived' data records (DDRs). The NS experiment is a neutron spectrometer...

  18. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 3 NEUTRON SPECTROMETER CDR V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer (NS) calibrated data records (CDRs). The NS experiment is a neutron spectrometer...

  19. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED FIPS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. The system...

  20. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED FIPS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as DDRs. The system...

  1. MESSENGER E/V/H MERCURY LASER ALTIMETER 2 EDR RAW DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) uncalibrated observations, also known as Experiment Data Records, or EDRs....

  2. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED FIPS DDR V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as DDRs. The system...

  3. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 3 NEUTRON SPECTROMETER CDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer (NS) calibrated data records (CDRs). The NS experiment is a neutron spectrometer...

  4. Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas B; Jensen, Trine I; Clausen, Bettina H

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so......-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more...... of miR-7 targets. In the mouse brain, we observe overlapping co-expression of ciRS-7 and miR-7, particularly in neocortical and hippocampal neurons, suggesting a high degree of endogenous interaction. We further show that the testis-specific circRNA, sex-determining region Y (Sry), serves as a miR-138...

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, estrogenic responses and biotransformation system in the liver of salmon exposed to tributyltin and second messenger activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlikova, Nela; Kortner, Trond M.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which organotin compounds produce modulations of the endocrine systems and other biological responses are not fully understood. In this study, juvenile salmon were force-fed diet containing TBT (0: solvent control, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg fish) for 72 h. Subsequently, fish exposed to solvent control and 10 mg TBT were exposed to waterborne concentration (200 μg/l) of the adenylate cyclase (AC) stimulator, forskolin for 2 and 4 h. The overall aim of the study was to explore whether TBT endocrine disruptive effects involve second messenger activation. Liver was sampled from individual fish (n = 8) at the end of the exposures. The transcription patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotype and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1), aromatase isoform, estrogen receptor-α (ERα), pregnane X receptor (PXR), CYP3A and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Our data showed a consistent increase in PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ mRNA and protein expression after TBT exposure that were inversely correlated with ACOX1 mRNA levels. Forskolin produced PPAR isotype-specific mRNA and protein effects that were modulated by TBT. ACOX1 expression was decreased (at 2 h) and increased (at 4 h) by forskolin and the presence of TBT potentiated these effects. TBT apparently increased mRNA and protein levels of cyp19a, compared to the solvent control, whereas cyp19b mRNA levels were unaffected by TBT treatment. Combined TBT and forskolin exposure produced respective decrease and increase of mRNA levels of cyp19a and cyp19b, compared with control. TBT decreased ERα mRNA at low dose (1 mg/kg) and forskolin exposure alone produced a consistent decrease of ERα mRNA levels that were not affected by the presence of TBT. Interestingly, PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels were differentially affected, either decreased or increased, after exposure to TBT and forskolin, singly and also in combination. GST mRNA was

  6. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate mi......RNA expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  7. Gravity, Topography, and Magnetic Field of Mercury from Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn; Goosens, Sander; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a 12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60 deg N, and apoapsis at approximately 15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a dynamic range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and topography have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68 deg N, 33 deg E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR2 = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M=3.30 x 10(exp 23) kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of Cm/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe

  8. Germination Potential of Dormant and Nondormant Arabidopsis Seeds Is Driven by Distinct Recruitment of Messenger RNAs to Polysomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basbouss-Serhal, Isabelle; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy is a complex evolutionary trait that temporally prevents seed germination, thus allowing seedling growth at a favorable season. High-throughput analyses of transcriptomes have led to significant progress in understanding the molecular regulation of this process, but the role of posttranscriptional mechanisms has received little attention. In this work, we have studied the dynamics of messenger RNA association with polysomes and compared the transcriptome with the translatome in dormant and nondormant seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during their imbibition at 25°C in darkness, a temperature preventing germination of dormant seeds only. DNA microarray analysis revealed that 4,670 and 7,028 transcripts were differentially abundant in dormant and nondormant seeds in the transcriptome and the translatome, respectively. We show that there is no correlation between transcriptome and translatome and that germination regulation is also largely translational, implying a selective and dynamic recruitment of messenger RNAs to polysomes in both dormant and nondormant seeds. The study of 5′ untranslated region features revealed that GC content and the number of upstream open reading frames could play a role in selective translation occurring during germination. Gene Ontology clustering showed that the functions of polysome-associated transcripts differed between dormant and nondormant seeds and revealed actors in seed dormancy and germination. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the essential role of selective polysome loading in this biological process. PMID:26019300

  9. Characterization of miRNA Expression in Human Degenerative Lumbar Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Døssing, Kristina B V; Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short ∼22 nucleotide RNA sequences that regulate messengerRNA translation. miRNAs have shown to play a role in synthesis of inflammatory mediators. Since inflammation play a role in intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration, the objective was to isolate miRNA from human lumbar...... intervertebral disks and subsequently characterize the difference in miRNA expression between the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP)....

  10. Guide totheNomenclatureofKinetoplastidRNA Editing: AProposal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simpson, L.; Aphasizhev, R.; Lukeš, Julius; Cruz-Reyes, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2010), s. 2-6 ISSN 1434-4610 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TRYPANOSOMA-BRUCEI MITOCHONDRIA * BINDING COMPLEX * EDITOSOME INTEGRITY * MESSENGER-RNA * U-DELETION * LEISHMANIA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2010

  11. Insights into the Nature of Mercury's Exosphere: Early Results from the MESSENGER Orbital Mission Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft has been making routine observations of Mercury's exosphere since March 29, 2011. Correlations of the spatial distributions of Ca, Mg, and Na with MESSENGER magnetic field and energetic particle distribution data provide insight into the processes that populate the neutral exosphere

  12. Using an Instant Messenger to Learn a Foreign Language in a Peer-Tutoring Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Joeun; Yoo, Yungtai; Lee, Kyungsuk; Jung, Bokmoon; Baek, Youngkyun

    2017-01-01

    This study explores useful ways of using an instant messenger in a peer-tutoring environment when two students exchange their mother languages. Seven learners of Korean and seven Korean students learning English were paired randomly to conduct language exchange via an instant messenger, KakaoTalk. The pairs (five of male and female pair and two of…

  13. Gravity field and internal structure of Mercury from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Hauck, Steven A; Lemoine, Frank G; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Peale, Stanton J; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L; Torrence, Mark H; Perry, Mark E; Rowlands, David D; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W; Taylor, Anthony H

    2012-04-13

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR(2) = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(m)/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. A model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  14. MESSENGER observations of magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A; Acuña, Mario H; Anderson, Brian J; Baker, Daniel N; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E; Ho, George C; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C; Trávnícek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres is controlled by magnetic reconnection, a process that determines the degree of connectivity between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and a planet's magnetic field. During MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury, a steady southward IMF was observed and the magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field, indicating a reconnection rate ~10 times that typical at Earth. Moreover, a large flux transfer event was observed in the magnetosheath, and a plasmoid and multiple traveling compression regions were observed in Mercury's magnetotail, all products of reconnection. These observations indicate that Mercury's magnetosphere is much more responsive to IMF direction and dominated by the effects of reconnection than that of Earth or the other magnetized planets.

  15. New Understanding of Mercury's Magnetosphere from MESSENGER'S First Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, M.; Korth, Haje; hide

    2008-01-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft on 14 January 2008 have revealed new features of the solar system's smallest planetary magnetosphere. The interplanetary magnetic field orientation was unfavorable for large inputs of energy from the solar wind and no evidence of magnetic substorms, internal magnetic reconnection, or energetic particle acceleration was detected. Large-scale rotations of the magnetic field were measured along the dusk flank of the magnetosphere and ultra-tow frequency waves were frequently observed beginning near closest approach. Outbound the spacecraft encountered two current-sheet boundaries across which the magnetic field intensity decreased in a step-like manner. The outer current sheet is the magnetopause boundary. The inner current sheet is similar in structure, but weaker and -1000 km closer to the planet. Between these two current sheets the magnetic field intensity is depressed by the diamagnetic effect of planetary ions created by the photo-ionization of Mercury's exosphere.

  16. The evolution of Mercury's crust: a global perspective from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W; Robinson, Mark S; Solomon, Sean C; Murchie, Scott L; Blewett, David T; Domingue, Deborah L; McCoy, Timothy J; Ernst, Carolyn M; Head, James W; Watters, Thomas R; Chabot, Nancy L

    2009-05-01

    Mapping the distribution and extent of major terrain types on a planet's surface helps to constrain the origin and evolution of its crust. Together, MESSENGER and Mariner 10 observations of Mercury now provide a near-global look at the planet, revealing lateral and vertical heterogeneities in the color and thus composition of Mercury's crust. Smooth plains cover approximately 40% of the surface, and evidence for the volcanic origin of large expanses of plains suggests that a substantial portion of the crust originated volcanically. A low-reflectance, relatively blue component affects at least 15% of the surface and is concentrated in crater and basin ejecta. Its spectral characteristics and likely origin at depth are consistent with its apparent excavation from a lower crust or upper mantle enriched in iron- and titanium-bearing oxides.

  17. The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, John F.; Smith, James C.; Sun, Xiaoli; Bartels, Arlin E.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne marie; McGarry, Jan F.; Trunzo, Raymond; Britt, Jamie L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload science instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, which launched on 3 August 2004. The altimeter will measure the round trip time-of-flight of transmitted laser pulses reflected from the surface of the planet that, in combination with the spacecraft orbit position and pointing data, gives a high-precision measurement of surface topography referenced to Mercury's center of mass. The altimeter measurements will be used to determine the planet's forced librations by tracking the motion of large-scale topographic features as a function of time. MLA's laser pulse energy monitor and the echo pulse energy estimate will provide an active measurement of the surface reflectivity at 1064 nm. This paper describes the instrument design, prelaunch testing, calibration, and results of post-launch testing.

  18. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin. PMID:25310649

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    Using a CD4+ T-cell-transplanted SCID mouse model of colitis, we have analyzed TGF-beta transcription and translation in advanced disease. By in situ hybridization, the epithelium of both control and inflamed tissues transcribed TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNAs, but both were expressed significantly...... TGF-beta. By ELISA, very low levels (0-69 pg/mg) of soluble total or active TGF-beta were detected in hypotonic tissue lysates. TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 are produced by SCID mouse colon and transcription is increased in the colitis caused by transplantation of CD4+ T-cells, but this does not result...

  20. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin.

  1. Alternate Splicing of CD44 Messenger RNA in Prostate Cancer Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    University of Colorado Health Science Center); to the physical necessities of the move; and to the need to recruit by advertising ; and to administrative...Chien J, Wong E, Nikes E, Noble MJ, Pantazis CG, Shah GV. Constitutive activation of stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gsα-QL)-medicated...for cyclic AMP- dependent protein kinase A in calcitonin action. Int J Cancer 2005, 117:551-560. 17. Chien J, Wong E, Nikes E, Noble MJ, Pantazis CG

  2. MCT-1 protein interacts with the cap complex and modulates messenger RNA translational profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line; Shi, B; Nandi, S

    2006-01-01

    -regulation of MCT-1 was able to modulate the translation profiles of BCL2L2, TFDP1, MRE11A, cyclin D1, and E2F1 mRNAs, despite equivalent levels of mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Our data establish a role for MCT-1 in translational regulation, and support a linkage between translational control and oncogenesis....

  3. A premature stopcodon in thyroglobulin messenger RNA results in familial goiter and moderate hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Graaf, S. A.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; Veenboer, G. J.; Cammenga, M.; Santos, C.; Targovnik, H. M.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Medeiros-Neto, G.

    1999-01-01

    Impaired thyroglobulin (Tg) synthesis is one of the putative causes for dyshormonogenesis of the thyroid gland. This type of hypothyroidism is characterized by intact iodide trapping, normal organification of iodide, and usually low serum Tg levels in relation to high TSH, and when untreated the

  4. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    -beta1 showed that all cells produced perinuclear latent TGF-beta1. The epithelial cell basal latent protein resulted in only low levels of subepithelial active protein, which co-localized with collagen IV and laminin in diseased and control tissue. Infiltrating cells expressed very low levels of active...

  6. Nitric Oxide: The Coming of the Second Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferid Murad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available (Excerpt The concept of communications between cells or cell signaling dates back over 100 years to Pavlov. He discovered that neuronal signals, first generated by the smell of food and later by the ringing of a bell, enhanced gastric secretion. The neurons communicated with cells in the stomach. Today it is well established that cell signaling is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout the body and even between unicellular organisms such as yeast, fungi, and bacteria. The molecules that are used for the purpose of communicating between cells are diverse and comprise amino acids, peptides, proteins, and other organic molecules. These molecules, which number in the hundreds, were initially called “first messengers” and are now called hormones, cytokines, growth factors, paracrine substances, neurotransmitters, and a variety of other names. These molecules find their target cell by identifying and binding to a receptor that is mostly located on the surface of the target cell. This binding ensures the specificity of the interaction, since only cells with specific receptors will bind to specific ligands. The binding of the ligand to the receptor initiates a biochemical cascade, resulting in the accumulation of an intracellular second messenger, which then goes on to trigger the desired effect on the cell. The first second messenger, which was discovered in 1957, was cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP. Others came along in the ensuing 10–15 years. Today, we know there are many such molecules, including cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, nitric oxide (NO, calcium, diacylglycerol, phosphatidylinositols, and more, some surely yet to be discovered. Many of these discoveries eventually led to a Nobel Prize.

  7. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: scientific objectives and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Gold, Robert E.; Acuña, Mario H.; Baker, Daniel N.; Boynton, William V.; Chapman, Clark R.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Gloeckler, George; Head, James W., III; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Peale, Stanton J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Robinson, Mark S.; Slavin, James A.; Smith, David E.; Strom, Robert G.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2001-12-01

    Mercury holds answers to several critical questions regarding the formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets. These questions include the origin of Mercury's anomalously high ratio of metal to silicate and its implications for planetary accretion processes, the nature of Mercury's geological evolution and interior cooling history, the mechanism of global magnetic field generation, the state of Mercury's core, and the processes controlling volatile species in Mercury's polar deposits, exosphere, and magnetosphere. The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission has been designed to fly by and orbit Mercury to address all of these key questions. After launch by a Delta 2925H-9.5, two flybys of Venus, and two flybys of Mercury, orbit insertion is accomplished at the third Mercury encounter. The instrument payload includes a dual imaging system for wide and narrow fields-of-view, monochrome and color imaging, and stereo; X-ray and combined gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers for surface chemical mapping; a magnetometer; a laser altimeter; a combined ultraviolet-visible and visible-near-infrared spectrometer to survey both exospheric species and surface mineralogy; and an energetic particle and plasma spectrometer to sample charged species in the magnetosphere. During the flybys of Mercury, regions unexplored by Mariner 10 will be seen for the first time, and new data will be gathered on Mercury's exosphere, magnetosphere, and surface composition. During the orbital phase of the mission, one Earth year in duration, MESSENGER will complete global mapping and the detailed characterization of the exosphere, magnetosphere, surface, and interior.

  8. MESSENGER Observations of ULF Waves in Mercury's Foreshock Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Chi, Peter J.; Bardsen, Scott; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Slavin, James A.; Korth, Haje

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth s is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury s bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury s foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury s foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the 1-Hz waves in the Earth s foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth s foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  9. Trypanosome RNA editing: the complexity of getting U in and taking U out

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Read, L. K.; Lukeš, Julius; Hashimi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), s. 33-51 ISSN 1757-7004 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21974S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 289007 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : messenger RNA * guide RNA * mitochondria Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.838, year: 2016

  10. Reference genes for real-time PCR quantification of messenger RNAs and microRNAs in mouse model of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Hanušová, Veronika; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing health problem worldwide. Among other ways, nutritional intervention using phytochemicals is important method for treatment and prevention of this disease. Recent studies have shown that certain phytochemicals could alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity. For study of the obesity and its treatment, monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mice with developed central obesity, insulin resistance and liver lipid accumulation are frequently used animal models. To understand the mechanism of phytochemicals action in obese animals, the study of selected genes expression together with miRNA quantification is extremely important. For this purpose, real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and reproducible method, but it depends on proper normalization entirely. The aim of present study was to identify the appropriate reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in MSG mice treated with green tea catechins, potential anti-obesity phytochemicals. Two sets of reference genes were tested: first set contained seven commonly used genes for normalization of messenger RNA, the second set of candidate reference genes included ten small RNAs for normalization of miRNA. The expression stability of these reference genes were tested upon treatment of mice with catechins using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. Selected normalizers for mRNA quantification were tested and validated on expression of quinone oxidoreductase, biotransformation enzyme known to be modified by catechins. The effect of selected normalizers for miRNA quantification was tested on two obesity- and diabetes- related miRNAs, miR-221 and miR-29b, respectively. Finally, the combinations of B2M/18S/HPRT1 and miR-16/sno234 were validated as optimal reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in liver and 18S/RPlP0/HPRT1 and sno234/miR-186 in small intestine of MSG mice. These

  11. RNA topology

    OpenAIRE

    Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D.

    2013-01-01

    A new variety on non-coding RNA has been discovered by several groups: circular RNA (circRNA). This discovery raises intriguing questions about the possibility of the existence of knotted RNA molecules and the existence of a new class of enzymes changing RNA topology, RNA topoisomerases.

  12. Reliable PCR quantitation of estrogen, progesterone and ERBB2 receptor mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is independent of prior macro-dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Hennig, Guido; Kyndi, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression analysis on messenger RNA (mRNA) purified from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is increasingly used for research purposes. Tissue heterogeneity may question specificity and interpretation of results from mRNA isolated from a whole slide section, and thresholds for minimal...

  13. The role of RNA structure at 5' untranslated region in microRNA-mediated gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wanjun; Xu, Yuming; Xie, Xueying; Wang, Ting; Ko, Jae-Hong; Zhou, Tong

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the secondary structure of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) is important for microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation in humans. mRNAs that are targeted by miRNA tend to have a higher degree of local secondary structure in their 5' UTR; however, the general role of the 5' UTR in miRNA-mediated gene regulation remains unknown. We systematically surveyed the secondary structure of 5' UTRs in both plant and animal species and found a universal trend of increased mRNA stability near the 5' cap in mRNAs that are regulated by miRNA in animals, but not in plants. Intra-genome comparison showed that gene expression level, GC content of the 5' UTR, number of miRNA target sites, and 5' UTR length may influence mRNA structure near the 5' cap. Our results suggest that the 5' UTR secondary structure performs multiple functions in regulating post-transcriptional processes. Although the local structure immediately upstream of the start codon is involved in translation initiation, RNA structure near the 5' cap site, rather than the structure of the full-length 5' UTR sequences, plays an important role in miRNA-mediated gene regulation. © 2014 Gu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  14. Internet messenger based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Internet messenger (IM) has become an important educational technology component in college education, IM makes it possible for students to engage in learning and collaborating at smart virtual class learning (SVCL) using ubiquitous computing. However, the model of IM-based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application to improve engagement and behavior are still limited. In addition, the expectation that IM based SVCL using ubiquitous computing could improve engagement and behavior on smart class cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present the model of IM-based SVCL using ubiquitous computing and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous computing and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect and its contribution to learning

  15. Topicality and impact in social media: diverse messages, focused messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user's interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact.

  16. The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, John F.; Smith, James C.; Sun, Xiaoli; Bartels, Arlin E.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Krebs, Danny J.; McGarry, Jan F.; Trunzo, Raymond; Novo-Gradac, Anne Marie; Britt, Jamie L.; Karsh, Jerry; Katz, Richard B.; Lukemire, Alan T.; Szymkiewicz, Richard; Berry, Daniel L.; Swinski, Joseph P.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2007-08-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload science instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, which launched on August 3, 2004. The altimeter will measure the round-trip time of flight of transmitted laser pulses reflected from the surface of the planet that, in combination with the spacecraft orbit position and pointing data, gives a high-precision measurement of surface topography referenced to Mercury’s center of mass. MLA will sample the planet’s surface to within a 1-m range error when the line-of-sight range to Mercury is less than 1,200 km under spacecraft nadir pointing or the slant range is less than 800 km. The altimeter measurements will be used to determine the planet’s forced physical librations by tracking the motion of large-scale topographic features as a function of time. MLA’s laser pulse energy monitor and the echo pulse energy estimate will provide an active measurement of the surface reflectivity at 1,064 nm. This paper describes the instrument design, prelaunch testing, calibration, and results of postlaunch testing.

  17. Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Hauck, Steven A., II; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Peale, Stanton J.; Margot, Jean-Luc; hide

    2012-01-01

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/M(R(exp 2) = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(sub m)/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. A model for Mercury s radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  18. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.

  19. Attacked from All Sides: RNA Decay in Antiviral Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome M. Molleston

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5′ or 3′ end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5′ degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs. The 3′ degradation machinery (RNA exosome is emerging as a downstream effector of a diverse array of vRNA sensors. This review discusses our current understanding of the roles of the RNA decay machinery in controlling viral infection.

  20. Attacked from All Sides: RNA Decay in Antiviral Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleston, Jerome M.; Cherry, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA) to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5′ or 3′ end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5′ degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA) for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs. The 3′ degradation machinery (RNA exosome) is emerging as a downstream effector of a diverse array of vRNA sensors. This review discusses our current understanding of the roles of the RNA decay machinery in controlling viral infection. PMID:28054965

  1. Structure-function studies of nucleocytoplasmic transport of retroviral genomic RNA by mRNA export factor TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplova, Marianna; Wohlbold, Lara; Khin, Nyan W.; Izaurralde, Elisa; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2011-01-01

    Messenger RNA export is mediated by the TAP-p15 heterodimer, which belongs to the family of NTF2-like export receptors. TAP-p15 heterodimers also bind to the constitutive transport element (CTE) present in simian type D retroviral RNAs, and mediate export of viral unspliced RNAs to the host cytoplasm. We have solved the crystal structure of the RNA recognition and leucine-rich repeat motifs of TAP bound to one symmetrical-half of CTE RNA. L-shaped conformations of protein and RNA are involved in a mutual molecular embrace on complex formation. We have monitored the impact of structure-guided mutations on binding affinities in vitro and transport assays in vivo. Our studies define the principles by which CTE RNA subverts the mRNA export receptor TAP, thereby facilitating nuclear export of viral genomic RNAs, and more generally, provide insights on cargo RNA recognition by mRNA export receptors. PMID:21822283

  2. Regulation of gene expression in neuronal tissue by RNA interference and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    mediated by microRNAs are crucial for the correct function of the mammalian brain. We are addressing A-to-I editing and regulation by microRNAs with spatio-temporal resolution in the embryonic porcine brain by Solexa sequencing of microRNAs and 454 sequencing of edited neuronal messenger RNAs, resulting...... microRNA expression and targeting, specifically in neurons of knockout mice or transgenic mice, were also performed. One study revealed that disrupting the expression of Argonaute2, the main effector of miRNA function, leads to a reduction of the microRNA abundance for a specific subset of micro......RNAs is able to target the GLP 3’ untranslated region, causing reduced expression of the targeted transcript. In the third study a procedure for global detection of microRNA targeting specifically in neurons is demonstrated, using Solexa sequencing of microRNA and messenger RNA segments binding to Argonaute2...

  3. An mRNA is capped by a 2', 5' lariat catalyzed by a group I-like ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Westhof, Eric; Johansen, Steinar

    2005-01-01

    Twin-ribozyme introns are formed by two ribozymes belonging to the group I family and occur in some ribosomal RNA transcripts. The group I-like ribozyme, GIR1, liberates the 5' end of a homing endonuclease messenger RNA in the slime mold Didymium iridis. We demonstrate that this cleavage occurs...... by a transesterification reaction with the joining of the first and the third nucleotide of the messenger by a 2',5'-phosphodiester linkage. Thus, a group I-like ribozyme catalyzes an RNA branching reaction similar to the first step of splicing in group II introns and spliceosomal introns. The resulting short lariat...

  4. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 2 NEUTRON SPECTROMETER RAW DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER NS uncalibrated observations, also known as EDRs. The NS experiment is a neutron spectrometer designed to...

  5. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 3 UVVS CALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS UVVS calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. The MASCS UVVS experiment is a scanning grating...

  6. MESSENGER E/V/H XRS CALIBRATED (CDR) SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER XRS calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. Each XRS observation results in four X-ray spectra. When...

  7. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 3 VIRS CALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. The MASCS VIRS experiment is a fixed concave...

  8. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 2 UVVS UNCALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS UVVS uncalibrated observations, also known as EDRs. The MASCS UVVS experiment is a scanning grating...

  9. MESSENGER V/H RADIO SCIENCE SUBSYSTEM 1 EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting radio science data acquired during the MESSENGER mission. The radio observations...

  10. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 4 VIRS DERIVED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS derived observations, also known as DDRs. The MASCS VIRS experiment is a fixed concave grating...

  11. MESSENGER H XRS 5 REDUCED DATA RECORD (RDR) FOOTPRINTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER XRS reduced data record (RDR) footprints which are derived from the navigational meta-data for each...

  12. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 5 VIRS DERIVED ANALYSIS DATA V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS derived analysis product, also known as the DAP. The DAP is a 500 meter per pixel mosaic map of...

  13. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 5 VIRS DERIVED ANALYSIS DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS derived analysis product, also known as the DAP. The DAP is a 500 meter per pixel mosaic map of...

  14. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED EPS DDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) advanced data products, also known as DDR/DAPs. The...

  15. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 4 VIRS DERIVED DATA V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS derived observations, also known as DDRs. The MASCS VIRS experiment is a fixed concave grating...

  16. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 2 GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER RAW DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER GRS uncalibrated observations, also known as EDRs. The GRS experiment is a gamma ray spectrometer designed...

  17. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 3 GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER CALIBDATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER GRS calibrated observations (CDRs) and the reduced data product (RDR). The GRS experiment is a gamma ray...

  18. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 4 UVVS DERIVED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS UVVS derived data records, also known as DDRs. There are three types of UVVS DDRs: surface,...

  19. Messenger RNAs in synaptosomal fractions from rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, M; Capano, C P; Aiello, A; Iannetti, E; Cupello, A; Giuditta, A

    2001-12-30

    Synaptosomal fractions from rat brain have been analyzed with semi-quantitative RT-PCR methods to determine their content of mRNAs coding for presynaptic, postsynaptic, glial, and neuronal proteins. Each mRNA was determined with reference to the standard HPRT mRNA. In our analyses, mRNAs were considered to be associated with synaptosomes only if their relative amounts were higher than in microsomes prepared in a polysome stabilizing medium, rich in Mg(++) and K(+) ions, or in the homogenate. According to this stringent criterion, the following synaptosomal mRNAs could not be attributed to microsomal contamination and were assumed to derive from the subcellular structures known to harbor their translation products, i.e. GAT-1 mRNAs from presynaptic terminals and glial processes, MAP2 mRNA from dendrites, GFAP mRNA from glial processes, and TAU mRNA from neuronal fragments. This interpretation is in agreement with the involvement of extrasomatic mRNAs in local translation processes.

  20. FASTKD2 is an RNA-binding protein required for mitochondrial RNA processing and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Johannes; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Curk, Tomaz; Schwarzl, Thomas; Sauer, Sven; Hentze, Matthias W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial RNA processing is an essential step for the synthesis of the components of the electron transport chain in all eukaryotic organisms, yet several aspects of mitochondrial RNA biogenesis and regulation are not sufficiently understood. RNA interactome capture identified several disease-relevant RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with noncanonical RNA-binding architectures, including all six members of the FASTK (FAS-activated serine/threonine kinase) family of proteins. A mutation within one of these newly assigned FASTK RBPs, FASTKD2, causes a rare form of Mendelian mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. To investigate whether RNA binding of FASTKD2 contributes to the disease phenotype, we identified the RNA targets of FASTKD2 by iCLIP. FASTKD2 interacts with a defined set of mitochondrial transcripts including 16S ribosomal RNA (RNR2) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) messenger RNA. CRISPR-mediated deletion of FASTKD2 leads to aberrant processing and expression of RNR2 and ND6 mRNA that encodes a subunit of the respiratory complex I. Metabolic phenotyping of FASTKD2-deficient cells reveals impaired cellular respiration with reduced activities of all respiratory complexes. This work identifies key aspects of the molecular network of a previously uncharacterized, disease-relevant RNA-binding protein, FASTKD2, by a combination of genomic, molecular, and metabolic analyses. © 2015 Popow et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Orbital Normalization of MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. A.; Peplowski, P. N.; Evans, L. G.; Hamara, D. K.; Boynton, W. V.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) measures energy spectra of gamma rays emanating from the surface of Mercury. Analysis of these spectra provides elemental abundances of surface material. The MESSENGER mission necessarily provides some data normalization challenges for GRS analysis. So as to keep the spacecraft cool while orbiting the dayside of the planet, the orbits are highly eccentric, with altitudes varying from 200-500 km to ~ 15,000 km. A small fraction of time is spent at the low altitudes where gamma-ray signals are largest, requiring a large number of orbits to yield sufficient counting statistics for elemental analysis. Also, the sunshade must always shield the spacecraft from the Sun, which causes the orientation of the GRS often to be far from nadir-pointing, so the detector efficiency and attenuation of gamma rays from the planet must be known for a wide range of off-nadir orientations. An efficiency/attenuation map for the expected ranges of orientations and energies was constructed in a ground calibration experiment for a limited range of orientations using a nuclear reactor and radioisotope sources, and those results were extended to other orientations by radiation transport computations using as input a computer-aided design model of the spacecraft and its composition. This normalization has allowed abundance determinations of elements K, Th, and U from radioisotopes of these elements in the Mercury regolith during the first quarter of the year-long mission. These results provide constraints on models of Mercury's chemical and thermal evolution. The normalization of gamma-ray spectra for surface elements not having radioisotopes is considerably more complex; these gamma rays come from neutron inelastic-scatter and capture reactions in the regolith, where the neutrons are generated by cosmic ray impact onto the planet. A radiation transport computation was performed to generate the expected count rates in the neutron-generated gamma

  2. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that {beta}-endorphin 1-31 ({beta}-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca{sup 2+} uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that {beta}-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} uptake was not affected by {beta}-END 1-31. {beta}-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca{sup 2+} uptake by either cell type. Using ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, {beta}-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E{sub 1} (PGE{sub 1}) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. {beta}-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by {beta}-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca{sup 2+} influx was not a major mechanism involved.

  3. Limits to Mercury's Magnesium Exosphere from MESSENGER Second Flyby Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Bradley, E. Todd; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery measurements of Mercury's exospheric magnesium, obtained by the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment, GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) probe during its second Mercury flyby, are modeled to constrain the source and loss processes for this neutral species. Fits to a Chamberlain exosphere reveal that at least two source temperatures are required to reconcile the distribution of magnesium measured far from and near the planet: a hot ejection process at the equivalent temperature of several tens of thousands of degrees K, and a competing, cooler source at temperatures as low as 400 K. For the energetic component, our models indicate that the column abundance that can be attributed to sputtering under constant southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions is at least a factor of five less than the rate dictated by the measurements, Although highly uncertain, this result suggests that another energetic process, such as the rapid dissociation of exospheric MgO, may be the main source of the distant neutral component. If meteoroid and micrometeoroid impacts eject mainly molecules, the total amount of magnesium at altitudes exceeding approximately 100 km is found to be consistent with predictions by impact vaporization models for molecule lifetimes of no more than two minutes. Though a sharp increase in emission observed near the dawn terminator region can be reproduced if a single meteoroid enhanced the impact vapor at equatorial dawn, it is much more likely that observations in this region, which probe heights increasingly near the surface, indicate a reservoir of volatile Mg being acted upon by lower-energy source processes.

  4. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  5. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. de Groot-Kruseman; C.C. Baan (Carla); E.M. Hagman; W.M. Mol (Wendy); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); P.E. Zondervan (Pieter); W. Weimar (Willem); A.H.M.M. Balk (Aggie); A.W.P.M. Maat (Alex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after

  6. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, H A; Baan, C C; Hagman, E M; Mol, W M; Niesters, H G; Maat, A P; Zondervan, P E; Weimar, W; Balk, A H

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after transplantation. The presence of IL-2

  7. Fragile X related protein 1 clusters with ribosomes and messenger RNAs at a subset of dendritic spines in the mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cook

    Full Text Available The formation and storage of memories in neuronal networks relies on new protein synthesis, which can occur locally at synapses using translational machinery present in dendrites and at spines. These new proteins support long-lasting changes in synapse strength and size in response to high levels of synaptic activity. To ensure that proteins are made at the appropriate time and location to enable these synaptic changes, messenger RNA (mRNA translation is tightly controlled by dendritic RNA-binding proteins. Fragile X Related Protein 1 (FXR1P is an RNA-binding protein with high homology to Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP and is known to repress and activate mRNA translation in non-neuronal cells. However, unlike FMRP, very little is known about the role of FXR1P in the central nervous system. To understand if FXR1P is positioned to regulate local mRNA translation in dendrites and at synapses, we investigated the expression and targeting of FXR1P in developing hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro. We found that FXR1P was highly expressed during hippocampal development and co-localized with ribosomes and mRNAs in the dendrite and at a subset of spines in mouse hippocampal neurons. Our data indicate that FXR1P is properly positioned to control local protein synthesis in the dendrite and at synapses in the central nervous system.

  8. Co-translational mRNA decay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqian; Sweet, Thomas J; Chamnongpol, Sangpen; Baker, Kristian E; Coller, Jeff

    2009-09-10

    The rates of RNA decay and transcription determine the steady-state levels of all messenger RNA and both can be subject to regulation. Although the details of transcriptional regulation are becoming increasingly understood, the mechanism(s) controlling mRNA decay remain unclear. In yeast, a major pathway of mRNA decay begins with deadenylation followed by decapping and 5'-3' exonuclease digestion. Importantly, it is hypothesized that ribosomes must be removed from mRNA before transcripts are destroyed. Contrary to this prediction, here we show that decay takes place while mRNAs are associated with actively translating ribosomes. The data indicate that dissociation of ribosomes from mRNA is not a prerequisite for decay and we suggest that the 5'-3' polarity of mRNA degradation has evolved to ensure that the last translocating ribosome can complete translation.

  9. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  10. MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach Arranges a Ride to the Innermost Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Hirshon, B.; Vanhala, H.; Solomon, S. C.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach Team

    2010-12-01

    Exploration of the mysterious planet Mercury offers an unprecedented opportunity for teachers, students, and citizens to tag along for the ride, and the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team for MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) is making sure the public gets quite a show. Since 2004, when MESSENGER was launched, MESSENGER has been gathering intriguing data and information about the Solar System's innermost planet. That journey will continue at a quickened pace after March 18, 2011, when MESSENGER enters into orbit around Mercury for one year of observations of the planet and its environment. The EPO Team - an extensive network of individuals and institutions - has sought to convey the excitement and complexity of the mission as MESSENGER's team overcomes challenges, achieves triumphs, and shares the adventure of space exploration with the American and global public. The EPO Team has developed a broad and comprehensive set of educational and outreach activities, ranging from curricular materials, teacher training, and unique mission-related student investigations to museum displays and special outreach to underserved communities and minority students. One of the most visible aspects of this effort is the MESSENGER Educator Fellows program: master science educators who conduct teacher training workshops throughout the nation for pre-K-12 educators. Educator Fellows train teachers on the EPO Team's MESSENGER Education Modules, which are also relevant to other NASA missions reaching important milestones this year (see http://www.messenger-education.org/teachers/educ_modules.php). By the time MESSENGER goes into orbit, Educator Fellows will have trained an estimated 18,000 teachers, who in turn, facilitate classroom experiences to over 1.8 million students. The EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for

  11. RNA Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparvath, Steffen Lynge

    introducerede vores gruppe den enkeltstrengede RNA-origami metode, der giver mulighed for cotranscriptional foldning af veldefinerede nanostrukturer, og er en central del af arbejdet præsenteret heri. Denne ph.d.-afhandling udforsker potentielle anvendelser af RNA-origami nanostrukturer, som nanomedicin eller...... biosensorer. Afhandlingen består af en introduktion til RNA-nanoteknologi feltet, en introduktion af enkeltstrenget RNA-origami design, og fire studier, der beskriver design, produktion og karakterisering af både strukturelle og funktionelle RNA-origamier. Flere RNA-origami designs er blevet undersøgt, og...... projekterne, der indgår i denne afhandling, inkluderer de nyeste fremskridt indenfor strukturel RNA-nanoteknologi og udvikling af funktionelle RNA-baserede enheder. Det første studie beskriver konstruktion og karakterisering af en enkeltstrenget 6-helix RNA-origami stuktur, som er den første demonstration af...

  12. Comparing Strategies for Health Information Dissemination: Messengers That Can Help or Hinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jessica; Greenberg, Patricia; Bagga, Margy Barbieri; Casarett, David; Propert, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    To test the effects of different messengers on the dissemination of health information. An experimental study exposed participants to 12 news articles pertaining to 1 of 3 health topics framed from the perspective of 4 generic messengers: religious figures, doctors, celebrity patients, or ordinary patients. Participants select as many of the 12 articles as desired. A cancer clinic within a large, urban hospital serving a sociodemographically diverse patient population. Eighty-nine patients with a history of cancer. The primary outcome was the frequency with which each news story was selected. Summary statistics and a general estimating equation model. For each health topic, news articles using celebrity messengers were the least likely to be selected; almost half of the participants (36 [41.4%] of 87) rejected all such articles. Articles linked to religious figures were equally unpopular ( P = .59). Articles that used doctors or ordinary patients as the messenger were very likely to be selected: Nearly all women (84 [96.6%] of 87) selected at least one of these. Furthermore, the odds of choosing articles linked to celebrities or religious leaders were statistically significantly lower than the odds of choosing those linked to ordinary patients or doctors ( P < .01). Commonly used generic messengers had large effects on the dissemination of information. Health materials linked to celebrities or religious figures were consistently less likely to be selected than those linked to ordinary patients, or doctors.

  13. Biomaterials for mRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K G; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R; Zetter, Bruce R; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-12-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice.

  14. Cloning and detection of HIV-1-encoded microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Shinya; Fujii, Yoichi R

    2006-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-to 25-nucleotides (nt) long and interact with messenger RNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi). We have shown that HIV-1 nef double-stranded RNA from AIDS patients who are long-term nonprogressors, inhibits HIV-1 transcription; and that nef-derived miRNA, miR-N367, is produced in human T-cells persistently infected with HIV-1. The miR-N367 can block HIV-1 Nef expression and long terminal repeat (LTR) transcription, suggesting that miR-N367 might suppress both Nef function and HIV-1 transcription through the RNAi pathway. Protocols are presented here for cloning HIV-1-encoded miRNA and confirming miRNA expression by Northern blot hybridization.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, estrogenic responses and biotransformation system in the liver of salmon exposed to tributyltin and second messenger activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlikova, Nela [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); RECETOX Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, CZ62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Kortner, Trond M. [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The mechanisms by which organotin compounds produce modulations of the endocrine systems and other biological responses are not fully understood. In this study, juvenile salmon were force-fed diet containing TBT (0: solvent control, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg fish) for 72 h. Subsequently, fish exposed to solvent control and 10 mg TBT were exposed to waterborne concentration (200 {mu}g/l) of the adenylate cyclase (AC) stimulator, forskolin for 2 and 4 h. The overall aim of the study was to explore whether TBT endocrine disruptive effects involve second messenger activation. Liver was sampled from individual fish (n = 8) at the end of the exposures. The transcription patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotype and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1), aromatase isoform, estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}), pregnane X receptor (PXR), CYP3A and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Our data showed a consistent increase in PPAR{alpha}, PPAR{beta} and PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein expression after TBT exposure that were inversely correlated with ACOX1 mRNA levels. Forskolin produced PPAR isotype-specific mRNA and protein effects that were modulated by TBT. ACOX1 expression was decreased (at 2 h) and increased (at 4 h) by forskolin and the presence of TBT potentiated these effects. TBT apparently increased mRNA and protein levels of cyp19a, compared to the solvent control, whereas cyp19b mRNA levels were unaffected by TBT treatment. Combined TBT and forskolin exposure produced respective decrease and increase of mRNA levels of cyp19a and cyp19b, compared with control. TBT decreased ER{alpha} mRNA at low dose (1 mg/kg) and forskolin exposure alone produced a consistent decrease of ER{alpha} mRNA levels that were not affected by the presence of TBT. Interestingly, PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels were differentially affected, either decreased or increased, after exposure to TBT and forskolin, singly

  16. The effect of addiction to mobile messenger software and mental health among physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bagherianfar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the present study is to the effect of addiction to mobile messenger software on mental health among physical education university students of Torbat-e-Heydarieh city.  Materials and Methods: The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study included all physical education university students of Torbat-e-Heydarieh city. 169 students out of 302 were chosen as the sample of study, for which stratified sampling method was applied. In order to collect data, Goldberg general health questionnaire and addiction to mobile messenger software inventory were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive and illative statistics.  Results: The research findings showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between addiction to mobile messenger software's and mental health among the students of physical education (P

  17. Alternative RNA Splicing of CSF3R in Promoting Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    this work, which was accepted for presentation at the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/ Oncology and American Society of Hematology annual...occur in up to 85% of all patients with MDS. This group of proteins acts as a team to process the instructions (messenger RNA) that lead to the

  18. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Marka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  19. Male and Female Buying Decision Making Processes Seen From BlackBerry Messenger Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Deviana Stefani; Ibrahim, Jusuf I

    2014-01-01

    This study observes the male and female buying decision making processes seen from BlackBerry Messenger texts. It focuses on the way of how male and female customers make a buying decision in the online shop via BlackBerry Messenger. The data are analyzed by using the theory of the consumer decision-making process by Lamb, Hair, McDaniel (2003) which includes five stages. I found that the female customers have almost two times total more than male customers in the four stages in consumer deci...

  20. Linking the Universe to the Community: Students as Starry Messengers for IYA2009---Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, C. A.; Lebrón Santos, M. E.

    2008-11-01

    This poster presents a project to establish a working team of undergraduate students (``Starry Messengers'') to promote and experience the wonders of space science and education with all the senses. The students are expected to assist during the activities of the IYA2009. During 2008 the students will receive the appropriate instruction on observational astronomy through two workshops. An innovative model of inclusion will be developed, adapting all materials to include the visually impaired. We will encourage the participation of at least one visually impaired student or teacher on the Starry Messenger team. The workshops will serve as templates for future K--12 teacher workshops.

  1. Mercury's Exosphere During MESSENGER's Second Flyby: Detection of Magnesium and Distinct Distributions of Neutral Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Killen, Rosemary M.; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer observed emission from Mercury's neutral exosphere. These observations include the first detection of emission from magnesium. Differing spatial distributions for sodium, calcium, and magnesium were revealed by observations beginning in Mercury's tail region, approximately 8 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet, continuing past the nightside, and ending near the dawn terminator. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  2. DBIRD complex integrates alternative mRNA splicing with RNA polymerase II transcript elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Close, Pierre; East, Philip; Dirac-Svejstrup, A Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Alternative messenger RNA splicing is the main reason that vast mammalian proteomic complexity can be achieved with a limited number of genes. Splicing is physically and functionally coupled to transcription, and is greatly affected by the rate of transcript elongation. As the nascent pre-mRNA em...... elongation, particularly across areas encompassing affected exons. Together, these data indicate that the DBIRD complex acts at the interface between mRNP particles and RNAPII, integrating transcript elongation with the regulation of alternative splicing.......Alternative messenger RNA splicing is the main reason that vast mammalian proteomic complexity can be achieved with a limited number of genes. Splicing is physically and functionally coupled to transcription, and is greatly affected by the rate of transcript elongation. As the nascent pre...... and help to integrate transcript elongation with mRNA splicing remain unclear. Here we characterize the human interactome of chromatin-associated mRNP particles. This led us to identify deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) and ZNF326 (which we call ZNF-protein interacting with nuclear mRNPs and DBC1 (ZIRD...

  3. Induction of CXC chemokine mRNA expression in chicken oviduct epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis via the type three secretion system-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The messenger-RNA (mRNA) expression of selected cytokines and chemokines in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) was determined following in vitro infection with wild type or type three secretion system (T3SS) mutant Salmonella enteritidis (SE) strains. All SE strains examined in this stu...

  4. Annotating RNA motifs in sequences and alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paul P; Eldai, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    RNA performs a diverse array of important functions across all cellular life. These functions include important roles in translation, building translational machinery and maturing messenger RNA. More recent discoveries include the miRNAs and bacterial sRNAs that regulate gene expression, the thermosensors, riboswitches and other cis-regulatory elements that help prokaryotes sense their environment and eukaryotic piRNAs that suppress transposition. However, there can be a long period between the initial discovery of a RNA and determining its function. We present a bioinformatic approach to characterize RNA motifs, which are critical components of many RNA structure-function relationships. These motifs can, in some instances, provide researchers with functional hypotheses for uncharacterized RNAs. Moreover, we introduce a new profile-based database of RNA motifs--RMfam--and illustrate some applications for investigating the evolution and functional characterization of RNA. All the data and scripts associated with this work are available from: https://github.com/ppgardne/RMfam. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. La escritura simbólica y el lenguaje escrito en los usuarios del Messenger The Symbols and Written Language of Users of Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica García Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio es el resultado de un trabajo de tesis de comunicación en el que se aborda el tema de la utilización del lenguaje en el Messenger y sus posibles repercusiones en los manuscritos de los estudiantes de nivel medio superior. Es un estudio desarrollado entre adolescentes usuarios del Messenger, que utilizan la gama de símbolos y signos que les proporciona esta herramienta, para sustituir la escritura que comúnmente se usa en los manuscritos. La metodología es del enfoque cualitativo y se trata de un estudio comparativo basado en el modelo de comunicación referencial. El trabajo empírico se realizó entre un total de 16 jóvenes de dos escuelas diferentes de nivel medio superior, cuya edad está entre los 15 y 17 años, los cuales a su vez se integraron en dos grupos de ocho sujetos para el estudio en una primera etapa y otros ocho en una segunda. Básicamente se diferenciaron los que utilizan con mucha frecuencia el Messenger y los que lo utilizan muy poco, o no lo utilizan. Las técnicas de recolección de datos fueron: observación durante sesiones de chat, escritos a máquina (ordenador y manuscritos. La técnica para la interpretación de los datos fue de análisis de contenido. Los resultados sugieren que existe escasa relación entre la utilización de signos y símbolos en el Messenger y la calidad en la redacción de los textos, particularmente en los manuscritos.This work presents the results of a postgraduate thesis on communication, particularly the use of language. Messenger is one of the most popular ways for communicating by signs and symbols. This study was carried out on junior high school students in state education. This research explores the possible impact on junior high school students’ written work due to their use of Messenger. To address this question, the referential communication model with the qualitative approach was used in order to carry out a comparative study. Data were gathered from 16

  6. Right ventricular long noncoding RNA expression in human heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Su, Yan Ru; Clark, Travis; Brittain, Evan; Absi, Tarek; Maltais, Simon; Hemnes, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human heart failure (HF) has not been widely studied. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we compared lncRNA expression in 22 explanted human HF hearts with lncRNA expression in 5 unused donor human hearts. We used Cufflinks to identify isoforms and DESeq to identify differentially expressed genes. We identified the noncoding RNAs by cross-reference to Ensembl release 73 (Genome Reference Consortium human genome build 37) and explored possible functional roles using a variety of online tools. In HF hearts, RNA-Seq identified 84,793 total messenger RNA coding and noncoding different transcripts, including 13,019 protein-coding genes, 2,085 total lncRNA genes, and 1,064 pseudogenes. By Ensembl noncoding RNA categories, there were 48 lncRNAs, 27 pseudogenes, and 30 antisense RNAs for a total of 105 differentially expressed lncRNAs in HF hearts. Compared with donor hearts, HF hearts exhibited differential expression of 7.7% of protein-coding genes, 3.7% of lncRNAs (including pseudogenes), and 2.5% of pseudogenes. There were not consistent correlations between antisense lncRNAs and parent genes and between pseudogenes and parent genes, implying differential regulation of expression. Exploratory in silico functional analyses using online tools suggested a variety of possible lncRNA regulatory roles. By providing a comprehensive profile of right ventricular polyadenylated messenger RNA transcriptome in HF, RNA-Seq provides an inventory of differentially expressed lncRNAs, including antisense transcripts and pseudogenes, for future mechanistic study. PMID:25992278

  7. Selective charging of tRNA isoacceptors induced by amino-acid starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmar, K. A.; Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Elf, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aminoacylated (charged) transfer RNA isoacceptors read different messenger RNA codons for the same amino acid. The concentration of an isoacceptor and its charged fraction are principal determinants of the translation rate of its codons. A recent theoretical model predicts that amino-acid...... by isoacceptors that retain high charging can be used for efficient translation of genes that are essential during amino-acid starvation. Selective charging can explain anomalous patterns of codon usage in the genes for different families of proteins....

  8. Polymorphisms within micro-RNA-binding sites and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landi, D.; Gemignani, F.; Naccarati, Alessio; Pardini, Barbara; Vodička, Pavel; Vodičková, Ludmila; Novotný, J.; Försti, A.; Hemminki, K.; Canzian, F.; Landi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2008), s. 579-584 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2626; GA ČR GA310/07/1430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Colorectal cancer * Messenger RNA * Micro-RNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.930, year: 2008

  9. 29 CFR 516.30 - Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped workers employed under special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped... handicapped workers employed under special certificates as provided in section 14 of the Act. (a) With respect... education, or handicapped workers employed at special minimum hourly rates under Special Certificates...

  10. Farm Women, Solidarity, and "The Suffrage Messenger": Nebraska Suffrage Activism on the Plains, 1915-1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In 1914 Nebraska men once again voted against the amendment that would have granted full suffrage to Nebraska women. This article focuses on the three years immediately after that defeat. It explores the remaining seventeen issues of the "Suffrage Messenger" and asks the following question: how did the suffrage newspaper portray and…

  11. Mobile Immersion: An Experiment Using Mobile Instant Messenger to Support Second-Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Immersion has been an acclaimed approach for second-language acquisition, but is not available to most students. The idea of this study was to create a mobile immersion environment on a smartphone using a mobile instant messenger, WhatsApp™. Forty-five Form-1 (7th grade) students divided into the Mobile Group and Control Group participated in a…

  12. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  13. Social and Virtual Networks: Evaluating Synchronous Online Interviewing Using Instant Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliffe, Vanessa; Gavin, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of the quality and utility of synchronous online interviewing for data collection in social network research. Synchronous online interviews facilitated by Instant Messenger as the communication medium, were undertaken with ten final year university students. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of…

  14. Observations of Mercury’s Neutral Hydrogen Exosphere During the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J.; Hurley, Dana; Pryor, Wayne R.

    2017-10-01

    Because of the difficulty of observing H Lyman α at Mercury remotely, the MESSENGER mission afforded the first chance since the Mariner 10 flybys to investigate the neutral hydrogen exosphere of Mercury in detail. Mariner 10 discovered H at Mercury, but left many questions about the puzzling temperature and density distributions unanswered. Sparse observations during the MESSENGER flybys of Mercury suggested that the H exosphere was grossly similar to what was observed by Mariner 10, but with higher overall emission levels, and they provided no answers to the outstanding issues from Mariner 10. Observations of H Lyman α emission by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) component of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) instrument onboard MESSENGER were conducted regularly throughout the MESSENGER orbital phase. These observations provide a much more complete picture of the H exosphere at Mercury. We present an analysis of the UVVS orbital observations, focusing on the temporal and spatial distribution of the hydrogen about the planet. Preliminary models will be shown, and the UVVS data will be compared and contrasted to the Mariner 10 data to address the long-outstanding questions about this element of Mercury’s complex exosphere. Support from the NASA Discovery Data Analysis Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  16. Phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D promotes RNA replication of a plant RNA virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu Hyodo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA, a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids, but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV. We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate.

  17. Vanillin inhibits translation and induces messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granule formation in saccharomyces cerevisiae: application and validation of high-content, image-based profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Aya; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Suga, Yohei; Izawa, Shingo; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin, generated by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose, acts as a potent inhibitor of the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the cellular processes affected by vanillin using high-content, image-based profiling. Among 4,718 non-essential yeast deletion mutants, the morphology of those defective in the large ribosomal subunit showed significant similarity to that of vanillin-treated cells. The defects in these mutants were clustered in three domains of the ribosome: the mRNA tunnel entrance, exit and backbone required for small subunit attachment. To confirm that vanillin inhibited ribosomal function, we assessed polysome and messenger ribonucleoprotein granule formation after treatment with vanillin. Analysis of polysome profiles showed disassembly of the polysomes in the presence of vanillin. Processing bodies and stress granules, which are composed of non-translating mRNAs and various proteins, were formed after treatment with vanillin. These results suggest that vanillin represses translation in yeast cells.

  18. Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Sharon K.; Mata, Miguel A.; Zhang, Liang; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA) that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses. PMID:23872491

  19. cWords - systematic microRNA regulatory motif discovery from mRNA expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Horskjær; Jacobsen, Anders; Krogh, Anders

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by small RNAs and RNA binding proteins is of fundamental importance in development of complex organisms, and dysregulation of regulatory RNAs can influence onset, progression and potentially be target for treatment of many diseases. Post...... increasingly important tools for the identification of post-transcriptional regulatory motifs and the inference of the regulators and their targets. RESULTS:cWords is a method designed for regulatory motif discovery in differential case-control mRNA expression datasets. We have improved the algorithms......-transcriptional regulation by small RNAs is mediated through partial complementary binding to messenger RNAs leaving nucleotide signatures or motifs throughout the entire transcriptome. Computational methods for discovery and analysis of sequence motifs in high-throughput mRNA expression profiling experiments are becoming...

  20. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  1. Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plants: In Vivo Functions of RNA-Binding Proteins Implicated in the Splicing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher plants emerges as an important layer of regulation upon exposure to exogenous and endogenous cues. Accordingly, mutants defective in RNA-binding proteins predicted to function in the splicing process show severe phenotypic alterations. Among those are developmental defects, impaired responses to pathogen threat or abiotic stress factors, and misregulation of the circadian timing system. A suite of splicing factors has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we summarize recent insights on how defects in these splicing factors impair plant performance.

  2. RNA oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L. K.; Cejvanovic, V.; Henriken, T.

    2015-01-01

    RNA modification has attracted increasing interest as it is realized that epitranscriptomics is important in disease development. In type 2 diabetes we have suggested that high urinary excretion of 8-oxo-2'-Guanosine (8oxoGuo), as a measure of global RNA oxidation, is associated with poor survival.......9 significant hazard ratio for death compared with the quartile with the lowest 8oxoGuo excretion when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoker status, s-HbA1c, urine protein excretion and s-cholesterol. We conclude that it is now established that RNA oxidation is an independent risk factor for death in type 2...... diabetes. In agreement with our previous finding, DNA oxidation did not show any prognostic value. RNA oxidation represents oxidative stress intracellularly, presumably predominantly in the cytosol. The mechanism of RNA oxidation is not clear, but hypothesized to result from mitochondrial dysfunction...

  3. WhatsApp Messenger as an Adjunctive Tool for Telemedicine: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Koch, Hilton; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre; Dias Belangero, William; Esteves Santos Pires, Robinson; Labronici, Pedro

    2017-07-21

    The advent of telemedicine has allowed physicians to deliver medical treatment to patients from a distance. Mobile apps such as WhatsApp Messenger, an instant messaging service, came as a novel concept in all fields of social life, including medicine. The use of instant messaging services has been shown to improve communication within medical teams by providing means for quick teleconsultation, information sharing, and starting treatment as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive systematic review of present literature on the use of the WhatsApp Messenger app as an adjunctive health care tool for medical doctors. Searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library using the term "whatsapp*" in articles published before January 2016. A bibliography of all relevant original articles that used the WhatsApp Messenger app was created. The level of evidence of each study was determined according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence ranking system produced by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The impact and the indications of WhatsApp Messenger are discussed in order to understand the extent to which this app currently functions as an adjunctive tool for telemedicine. The database search identified a total of 30 studies in which the term "whatsapp*" was used. Each article's list of references was evaluated item-by-item. After literature reviews, letters to the editor, and low-quality studies were excluded, a total of 10 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. Of these studies, 9 had been published in the English language and 1 had been published in Spanish. Five were published by medical doctors. The pooled data presents compelling evidence that the WhatsApp Messenger app is a promising system, whether used as a communication tool between health care professionals, as a means of communication between health care professionals and the general public, or as a learning tool for providing health care information

  4. Mercury Conditions for the MESSENGER Mission Simulated in High- Solar-Radiation Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, planned for launch in March 2004, will perform two flybys of Mercury before entering a year-long orbit of the planet in September 2009. The mission will provide opportunities for detailed characterization of the surface, interior, atmosphere, and magnetosphere of the closest planet to the Sun. The NASA Glenn Research Center and the MESSENGER spacecraft integrator, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, have partnered under a Space Act Agreement to characterize a variety of critical components and materials under simulated conditions expected near Mercury. Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, which is equipped with a solar simulator, can simulate the vacuum and high solar radiation anticipated in Mercury orbit. The MESSENGER test hardware includes a variety of materials and components that are being characterized during the Tank 6 vacuum tests, where the hardware will be exposed to up to 11 suns insolation, simulating conditions expected in Mercury orbit. In 2002, ten solar vacuum tests were conducted, including beginning of life, end of life, backside exposure, and solar panel thermal shock cycling tests. Components tested include candidate solar array panels, sensors, thermal shielding materials, and communication devices. As an example, for the solar panel thermal shock cycling test, two candidate solar array panels were suspended on a lift mechanism that lowered the panels into a liquid-nitrogen-cooled box. After reaching -140 C, the panels were then lifted out of the box and exposed to the equivalent of 6 suns (8.1 kilowatts per square meters). After five cold soak/heating cycles were completed successfully, there was no apparent degradation in panel performance. An anticipated 100-hr thermal shield life test is planned for autumn, followed by solar panel flight qualification tests in winter. Glenn's ongoing support to the MESSENGER program has been instrumental in

  5. siRNA Versus miRNA as Therapeutics for Gene Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny K W Lam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovered a little over two decades ago, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding RNAs with important roles in gene regulation. They have recently been investigated as novel classes of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide range of disorders including cancers and infections. Clinical trials of siRNA- and miRNA-based drugs have already been initiated. siRNAs and miRNAs share many similarities, both are short duplex RNA molecules that exert gene silencing effects at the post-transcriptional level by targeting messenger RNA (mRNA, yet their mechanisms of action and clinical applications are distinct. The major difference between siRNAs and miRNAs is that the former are highly specific with only one mRNA target, whereas the latter have multiple targets. The therapeutic approaches of siRNAs and miRNAs are therefore very different. Hence, this review provides a comparison between therapeutic siRNAs and miRNAs in terms of their mechanisms of action, physicochemical properties, delivery, and clinical applications. Moreover, the challenges in developing both classes of RNA as therapeutics are also discussed.

  6. A small RNA activates CFA synthase by isoform-specific mRNA stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Kathrin Sophie; Papenfort, Kai; Fekete, Agnes; Vogel, Jörg

    2013-11-13

    Small RNAs use a diversity of well-characterized mechanisms to repress mRNAs, but how they activate gene expression at the mRNA level remains not well understood. The predominant activation mechanism of Hfq-associated small RNAs has been translational control whereby base pairing with the target prevents the formation of an intrinsic inhibitory structure in the mRNA and promotes translation initiation. Here, we report a translation-independent mechanism whereby the small RNA RydC selectively activates the longer of two isoforms of cfa mRNA (encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthase) in Salmonella enterica. Target activation is achieved through seed pairing of the pseudoknot-exposed, conserved 5' end of RydC to an upstream region of the cfa mRNA. The seed pairing stabilizes the messenger, likely by interfering directly with RNase E-mediated decay in the 5' untranslated region. Intriguingly, this mechanism is generic such that the activation is equally achieved by seed pairing of unrelated small RNAs, suggesting that this mechanism may be utilized in the design of RNA-controlled synthetic circuits. Physiologically, RydC is the first small RNA known to regulate membrane stability.

  7. Intracellular microRNA profiles form in the Xenopus laevis oocyte that may contribute to asymmetric cell division

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šídová, Monika; Šindelka, Radek; Castoldi, M.; Benes, V.; Kubista, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11157 (2015) ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : VG1 MESSENGER-RNA * VEGETAL CORTEX * FROG OOCYTE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  8. Radiative natural SUSY spectrum from deflected AMSB scenario with messenger-matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei [School of Physics, Zhengzhou University,Zhengzhou 450000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China); Yang, Jin Min [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Zhang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China)

    2016-04-29

    A radiative natural SUSY spectrum are proposed in the deflected anomaly mediation scenario with general messenger-matter interactions. Due to the contributions from the new interactions, positive slepton masses as well as a large |A{sub t}| term can naturally be obtained with either sign of deflection parameter and few messenger species (thus avoid the possible Landau pole problem). In this scenario, in contrast to the ordinary (radiative) natural SUSY scenario with under-abundance of dark matter (DM), the DM can be the mixed bino-higgsino and have the right relic density. The 125 GeV Higgs mass can also be easily obtained in our scenario. The majority of low EW fine tuning points can be covered by the XENON-1T direct detection experiments.

  9. Expected Geochemical and Mineralogical Properties of Meteorites from Mercury: Inferences from Messenger Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; McCoy, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and many types of asteroid bodies have been identified among our global inventory of meteorites, however samples of Mercury and Venus have not been identified. The absence of mercurian and venusian meteorites could be attributed to an inability to recognize them in our collections due to a paucity of geochemical information for Venus and Mercury. In the case of mercurian meteorites, this possibility is further supported by dynamical calculations that suggest mercurian meteorites should be present on Earth at a factor of 2-3 less than meteorites from Mars [1]. In the present study, we focus on the putative mineralogy of mercurian meteorites using data obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which has provided us with our first quantitative constraints on the geochemistry of planet Mercury. We have used the MESSENGER data to compile a list of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics that a meteorite from Mercury is likely to exhibit.

  10. MESSENGER observations of Mercury's exosphere: detection of magnesium and distribution of constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Vervack, Ronald J; Bradley, E Todd; Killen, Rosemary M; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L; Burger, Matthew H; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2009-05-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a tenuous exosphere that is supplied primarily by the planet's surface materials and is known to contain sodium, potassium, and calcium. Observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer during MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed the presence of neutral magnesium in the tail (anti-sunward) region of the exosphere, as well as differing spatial distributions of magnesium, calcium, and sodium atoms in both the tail and the nightside, near-planet exosphere. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby, as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  11. Planetary science. Low-altitude magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER reveal Mercury's ancient crustal field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine L; Phillips, Roger J; Purucker, Michael E; Anderson, Brian J; Byrne, Paul K; Denevi, Brett W; Feinberg, Joshua M; Hauck, Steven A; Head, James W; Korth, Haje; James, Peter B; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Philpott, Lydia C; Siegler, Matthew A; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Solomon, Sean C

    2015-05-22

    Magnetized rocks can record the history of the magnetic field of a planet, a key constraint for understanding its evolution. From orbital vector magnetic field measurements of Mercury taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft at altitudes below 150 kilometers, we have detected remanent magnetization in Mercury's crust. We infer a lower bound on the average age of magnetization of 3.7 to 3.9 billion years. Our findings indicate that a global magnetic field driven by dynamo processes in the fluid outer core operated early in Mercury's history. Ancient field strengths that range from those similar to Mercury's present dipole field to Earth-like values are consistent with the magnetic field observations and with the low iron content of Mercury's crust inferred from MESSENGER elemental composition data. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Evidence for young volcanism on Mercury from the third MESSENGER flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M; Ernst, Carolyn M; Denevi, Brett W; Chapman, Clark R; Head, James W; Fassett, Caleb I; Merline, William J; Solomon, Sean C; Watters, Thomas R; Strom, Robert G; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marchi, Simone; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-08-06

    During its first two flybys of Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft acquired images confirming that pervasive volcanism occurred early in the planet's history. MESSENGER's third Mercury flyby revealed a 290-kilometer-diameter peak-ring impact basin, among the youngest basins yet seen, having an inner floor filled with spectrally distinct smooth plains. These plains are sparsely cratered, postdate the formation of the basin, apparently formed from material that once flowed across the surface, and are therefore interpreted to be volcanic in origin. An irregular depression surrounded by a halo of bright deposits northeast of the basin marks a candidate explosive volcanic vent larger than any previously identified on Mercury. Volcanism on the planet thus spanned a considerable duration, perhaps extending well into the second half of solar system history.

  13. Return to Mercury: a global perspective on MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L; Watters, Thomas R; Lawrence, David J; Feldman, William C; Head, James W; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Murchie, Scott L; Phillips, Roger J; Slavin, James A; Zuber, Maria T

    2008-07-04

    In January 2008, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft became the first probe to fly past the planet Mercury in 33 years. The encounter revealed that Mercury is a dynamic system; its liquid iron-rich outer core is coupled through a dominantly dipolar magnetic field to the surface, exosphere, and magnetosphere, all of which interact with the solar wind. MESSENGER images confirm that lobate scarps are the dominant tectonic landform and record global contraction associated with cooling of the planet. The history of contraction can be related to the history of volcanism and cratering, and the total contractional strain is at least one-third greater than inferred from Mariner 10 images. On the basis of measurements of thermal neutrons made during the flyby, the average abundance of iron in Mercury's surface material is less than 6% by weight.

  14. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail increased by factors of 2 to 3.5 over intervals of 2 to 3 min. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approx.10 times less and typical durations are approx.1 hour. The extreme tail loading observed at Mercury implies that the relative intensity of sub storms must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail field enhancements and the characteristic time for the Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere. suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles, but no acceleration signatures were seen during the MESSENGER flyby.

  15. Expression and Functional Role of Reprogramming-Related Long Noncoding RNA (lincRNA-ROR) in Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shiyu; Yao, Jie; Chen, Yang; Geng, Peiliang; Zhang, Haibo; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Xinguang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the expression and function of reprogramming-related long noncoding RNA (lincRNA-ROR) in glioma and glioma stem cells (GSCs). With real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed lincRNA-ROR expression levels in 26 primary glioma patients and the expression correlation of lincRNA-ROR with SOX11 and KLF4. To explore its functional role, gain- and loss-of-function studies were performed to assess the effect of lincRNA-ROR on cell proliferation, expression rate of GSCs marker CD133, and glioma stem sphere-forming ability in vitro. We found that the lincRNA-ROR expression was significantly lower in glioma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of lincRNA-ROR expression by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly elevated the cell proliferation and enhanced the CD133 expression rate and glioma stem sphere-forming ability in U87 cells, while overexpression of lincRNA-ROR in U87 cells showed the opposite effect. Moreover, we found that the expression of lincRNA-ROR was negatively correlated with stem cell factor KLF4 and the "up- and down-regulation" of lincRNA-ROR resulted in inverse modulation of KLF4 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Our results suggest that the reprogramming-related lincRNA-ROR may serve as a novel tumor suppressor gene in glioma, which can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell and self-renewal of GSCs, partly by inhibiting the KLF4 expression. Further research about lincRNA-ROR may provide a novel biomarker and therapeutic target of glioma for cancer clinic in future.

  16. The space environment of Mercury at the times of the second and third MESSENGER flybys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, D. N.; Odstrčil, D.; Anderson, B.J.; Arge, C. N.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Korth, H.; Mayer, L. R.; Raines, J.M.; Schriver, D.; Slavin, J.A.; Solomon, S.C.; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Zurbuchen, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 15 (2011), s. 2066-2074 ISSN 0032-0633 Grant - others:NASA(US) NASW-00002; NASA(US) NAS5-97271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mercury * Solar wind * Interplanetary magnetic field * Magnetospheres * MESSENGER Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.224, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032063311000481

  17. HIGH-RESOLUTION TOPOGRAPHY OF MERCURY FROM MESSENGER ORBITAL STEREO IMAGING – THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE QUADRANGLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Preusker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We produce high-resolution (222 m/grid element Digital Terrain Models (DTMs for Mercury using stereo images from the MESSENGER orbital mission. We have developed a scheme to process large numbers, typically more than 6000, images by photogrammetric techniques, which include, multiple image matching, pyramid strategy, and bundle block adjustments. In this paper, we present models for map quadrangles of the southern hemisphere H11, H12, H13, and H14.

  18. Optimal and fast \\cal {E}/\\cal {B} separation with a dual messenger field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Doogesh Kodi; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-02-01

    We adapt our recently proposed dual messenger algorithm for spin field reconstruction and showcase its efficiency and effectiveness in Wiener filtering polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. Unlike conventional preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solvers, our preconditioner-free technique can deal with high-resolution joint temperature and polarization maps with inhomogeneous noise distributions and arbitrary mask geometries with relative ease. Various convergence diagnostics illustrate the high quality of the dual messenger reconstruction. In contrast, the PCG implementation fails to converge to a reasonable solution for the specific problem considered. The implementation of the dual messenger method is straightforward and guarantees numerical stability and convergence. We show how the algorithm can be modified to generate fluctuation maps, which, combined with the Wiener filter solution, yield unbiased constrained signal realizations, consistent with observed data. This algorithm presents a pathway to exact global analyses of high-resolution and high-sensitivity CMB data for a statistically optimal separation of \\cal {E} and \\cal {B} modes. It is therefore relevant for current and next-generation CMB experiments, in the quest for the elusive primordial \\cal {B}-mode signal.

  19. Dissection of the couplings between cellular messengers and the circadian clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jian; Edmunds, L.N.

    1995-12-01

    It has been known in recent years that living cells can exhibit circadian rhythms in totally different physiological processes. Intracellular messengers were demonstrated to mediate the entrained pathways linking rhythmic components between circadian clock and its output signalling. Levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in synchronized cells, and activities of the two key enzymes (AC and PDE) responsible for the cyclic AMP metabolism were measured by applying the isotopic techniques. Bimodal circadian oscillations of the messenger levels and the enzyme activities were disclosed in LD: 12, 12 cycle and constant darkness, as well as in the dividing and non-dividing cultures of the Euglena ZC mutant. Interference experiments with the enzyme activator and inhibitor such as forskolin, 8-Br-cGMP and LY 83583, and analysis of the cell division cycle (CDC) and coupling messengers suggested that the peak pulse of cyclic AMP, circadian oscillation of the AC-cAMP-PDE system and phase-dependent regulation by cyclic GMP might be important coupling factors in downstream mediation between the circadian clock and the CDC. (7 figs.)

  20. Monte Carlo Modeling of Sodium in Mercury's Exosphere During the First Two MESSENGER Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; McClintock, William E.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Mouawad, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model of the distribution of neutral sodium in Mercury's exosphere and tail using data from the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft during the first two flybys of the planet in January and September 2008. We show that the dominant source mechanism for ejecting sodium from the surface is photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and that the desorption rate is limited by the diffusion rate of sodium from the interior of grains in the regolith to the topmost few monolayers where PSD is effective. In the absence of ion precipitation, we find that the sodium source rate is limited to approximately 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) per square centimeter per second, depending on the sticking efficiency of exospheric sodium that returns to the surface. The diffusion rate must be at least a factor of 5 higher in regions of ion precipitation to explain the MASCS observations during the second MESSENGER f1yby. We estimate that impact vaporization of micrometeoroids may provide up to 15% of the total sodium source rate in the regions observed. Although sputtering by precipitating ions was found not to be a significant source of sodium during the MESSENGER flybys, ion precipitation is responsible for increasing the source rate at high latitudes through ion-enhanced diffusion.

  1. Dashboard Monitoring System Berbasis Web Sebagai Pemantau Layanan liteBIG Instant Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigih Forda Nama

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini hampir semua pengguna ponsel pintar menggunakan layanan perpesanan instan sebagai media komunikasi dikarenakan layanan perpesanan instan lebih hemat biaya dengan hanya menggunakan jaringan internet dibandingkan layanan pesan singkat (SMS. Layanan yang diberikan harus dapat melayani pengguna dengan baik agar pesan yang dikirim oleh pengirim dapat diterima oleh penerima dengan cepat dan akurat. Layanan ini juga harus dijaga keandalannya untuk menjamin kualitas pelayanan dan untuk menghindari ketidaknyamanan pengguna. Sehingga, diperlukan adanya sistem pemantauan berupa perangkat lunak untuk pengawasan status layanan setiap saat dapat diakses dari manapun dan kapanpun. PT.Sandika Cahaya Mandiri memiliki produk layanan perpesanan instan dengan brand name liteBIG Messenger. Perusahaan ini memerlukan perangkat lunak untuk pemantauan layanan liteBIG Messenger. Dengan adanya perangkat lunak pemantauan layanan, petugas pemantauan dapat melihat secara realtime status layanan utama pada setiap komputer server, pemakaian sumber daya (cpu, memory, dan harddisk, dan statistik pengguna baru liteBIG Messenger  melalui antarmuka web. Petugas pemantauan juga akan mendapat pemberitahuan ketika terjadi masalah pada layanan sehingga masalah dapat lebih dini diketahui dan downtime dapat dikurangi.

  2. cDNA clone for the alpha-chain of human beta-hexosaminidase: deficiency of alpha-chain mRNA in Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerowitz, R; Proia, R L

    1984-09-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone containing sequences complementary to mRNA encoding the alpha-chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. RNA from a human lung fibroblast strain, IMR90, was enriched for beta-hexosaminidase messenger by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase A. This preparation was used to construct cDNA recombinant plasmids by the Okayama-Berg vector primer procedure. After transformation of Escherichia coli, 385 ampicillin-resistant colonies were obtained, 44 of which contained inserts in the plasmid DNA. Differential hybridization, with cDNA probes prepared from polysomal RNA enriched or depleted for beta-hexosaminidase messenger, was used to screen the recombinant plasmids for sequences encoding beta-hexosaminidase. One clone, p beta H alpha-1, containing a cDNA insert of approximately equal to 240 base pairs, was identified in this manner. The plasmid hybrid-selected a messenger from placental RNA that programed a translation system to synthesize the alpha-chain of beta-hexosaminidase. p beta H alpha-1 hybridized to an mRNA of approximately equal to 1.9 kilobases in preparations enriched separately in messenger for the alpha-chain or for both alpha- and beta-chains (by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against isolated alpha-chain or against beta-hexosaminidase A, respectively). It did not hybridize to an RNA preparation enriched for messenger of beta-chain by immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase B. The 1.9-kilobase mRNA was observed in poly(A)+ RNA preparations from control fibroblasts and from fibroblasts of a Tay-Sachs patient that synthesize an altered alpha-chain; however, it was not seen in similar preparations from fibroblasts of four Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs patients.

  3. MESSENGER E/V/H MLA 3/4 CDR/RDR DATA V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Reduced Data Record (RDR) products. The MLA is a solid-state pulsed laser...

  4. MESSENGER E/V/H MLA 3/4 CDR/RDR DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Calibrated Data Record (CDR) and Reduced Data Record (RDR) products. The MLA...

  5. Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Included Protein 6 Messenger RNA in Porcine Preovulatory Ovarian Follicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagyová, Eva; Němcová, Lucie; Procházka, Radek

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2009), s. 231-235 ISSN 0916-8818 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Preovulatory Ovarian Follicles * TNFAIP6 * female fertility Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2009

  6. On cryptographic security of end-to-end encrypted connections in WhatsApp and Telegram messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Zapechnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the available possibilities for improving secure messaging with end-to-end connections under conditions of external violator actions and distrusted service provider. We made a comparative analysis of cryptographic security mechanisms for two widely used messengers: Telegram and WhatsApp. It was found that Telegram is based on MTProto protocol, while WhatsApp is based on the alternative Signal protocol. We examine the specific features of messengers implementation associated with random number generation on the most popular Android mobile platform. It was shown that Signal has better security properties. It is used in several other popular messengers such as TextSecure, RedPhone, GoogleAllo, FacebookMessenger, Signal along with WhatsApp. A number of possible attacks on both messengers were analyzed in details. In particular, we demonstrate that the metadata are poorly protected in both messengers. Metadata security may be one of the goals for further studies.

  7. Structural basis of RNA polymerase II backtracking, arrest and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-03-10

    During gene transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) II moves forwards along DNA and synthesizes messenger RNA. However, at certain DNA sequences, Pol II moves backwards, and such backtracking can arrest transcription. Arrested Pol II is reactivated by transcription factor IIS (TFIIS), which induces RNA cleavage that is required for cell viability. Pol II arrest and reactivation are involved in transcription through nucleosomes and in promoter-proximal gene regulation. Here we present X-ray structures at 3.3 Å resolution of an arrested Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II complex with DNA and RNA, and of a reactivation intermediate that additionally contains TFIIS. In the arrested complex, eight nucleotides of backtracked RNA bind a conserved 'backtrack site' in the Pol II pore and funnel, trapping the active centre trigger loop and inhibiting mRNA elongation. In the reactivation intermediate, TFIIS locks the trigger loop away from backtracked RNA, displaces RNA from the backtrack site, and complements the polymerase active site with a basic and two acidic residues that may catalyse proton transfers during RNA cleavage. The active site is demarcated from the backtrack site by a 'gating tyrosine' residue that probably delimits backtracking. These results establish the structural basis of Pol II backtracking, arrest and reactivation, and provide a framework for analysing gene regulation during transcription elongation.

  8. Methylation of miRNA genes and oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, V I; Rykov, S V; Fridman, M V; Braga, E A

    2015-02-01

    Interaction between microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA of target genes at the posttranscriptional level provides fine-tuned dynamic regulation of cell signaling pathways. Each miRNA can be involved in regulating hundreds of protein-coding genes, and, conversely, a number of different miRNAs usually target a structural gene. Epigenetic gene inactivation associated with methylation of promoter CpG-islands is common to both protein-coding genes and miRNA genes. Here, data on functions of miRNAs in development of tumor-cell phenotype are reviewed. Genomic organization of promoter CpG-islands of the miRNA genes located in inter- and intragenic areas is discussed. The literature and our own results on frequency of CpG-island methylation in miRNA genes from tumors are summarized, and data regarding a link between such modification and changed activity of miRNA genes and, consequently, protein-coding target genes are presented. Moreover, the impact of miRNA gene methylation on key oncogenetic processes as well as affected signaling pathways is discussed.

  9. Pseudouridine andN6-methyladenosine modifications weaken PUF protein/RNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Pavanapuresan P; AlSadhan, Ishraq; Merriman, Dawn K; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Herschlag, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    RNA modifications are ubiquitous in biology, with over 100 distinct modifications. While the vast majority were identified and characterized on abundant noncoding RNA such as tRNA and rRNA, the advent of sensitive sequencing-based approaches has led to the discovery of extensive and regulated modification of eukaryotic messenger RNAs as well. The two most abundant mRNA modifications-pseudouridine (Ψ) and N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A)-affect diverse cellular processes including mRNA splicing, localization, translation, and decay and modulate RNA structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that RNA modifications directly affect interactions between RNA-binding proteins and target RNA. We show that Ψ and m 6 A weaken the binding of the human single-stranded RNA binding protein Pumilio 2 (hPUM2) to its consensus motif, with individual modifications having effects up to approximately threefold and multiple modifications giving larger effects. While there are likely to be some cases where RNA modifications essentially fully ablate protein binding, here we see modest responses that may be more common. Such modest effects could nevertheless profoundly alter the complex landscape of RNA:protein interactions, and the quantitative rather than qualitative nature of these effects underscores the need for quantitative, systems-level accounting of RNA:protein interactions to understand post-transcriptional regulation. © 2017 Vaidyanathan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. Pathophysiological implications of the chemical messengers; Implicaciones fisiopatologicas de los mensajeros quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Fernandez, E.

    2009-07-01

    To maintain a physical organization and a different composition of its surroundings environment, living beings use a great part of the energy that they produce. Vital processes require an elevated number of reactions which are regulated and integrated by chemical messengers. They use autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and synaptic signals through receptors of cell surface, nuclear or associated with ionic channels, enzymes, trim eric G proteins and to intracellular kinases. Through these mechanisms pheromones play an important role in the relationships between different individuals, and hormones are able to regulate the integrative functions of our organism. In the nervous system, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, sensors and receptors between other messengers, play functions of great relevance, while growth factors stimulate cell proliferation and cytokines have many effects but the most important is the ones related with the control of the immflamatory process. Alterations of these messengers permit us a better understanding of the diseases and possibly of its treatments in a near future. Modifications of the expression of genes from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are responsible of monogenic, polygenic and mitochondrial diseases, while alterations in the activities of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters are related with schizophrenia, Parkinson disease and depression, respectively. Other example is the hyperthyroidism of the Graves-Bassedow disease due to the competitive interference of the LATS immunoglobulin with TSH at the level of the follicular cells producing thyroid hormones Twenty five years ago in the reviews on the mechanisms of insulin action, there was presentations in which the insulin receptor was located in the plasma membrane of the target cells while in the cytoplasm only a big interrogative was observed, that at present is replaced by chemical mediators cascades responsible of the multiple effects of insulin. This finding is similar

  11. Key science issues after MESSENGER and current observation plans of BepiColombo MMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Go; Hayakawa, Hajime; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Little had been known about the Hermean magnetosphere until MESSENGER explored the region. The region is formed as the weak planetary magnetic field stands against the intense solar wind in the close proximity of the Sun. Various prediction had been given by noting the difference in the parameters from the well-studied terrestiral magnetosphere of a similar setting and scaling the well-knowns to the Hermean environment. MESSENGER results, however, show a wide varieity of phenomena that are out of the scope of what one could have reasonably argued. The micro-magnetosphere of Mercury is much more dynamic than one had predicted. BepiColombo MMO, the JAXA spacecraft of the BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission which will be launched in 2018 and will arrive at Mercury in 2025, is equipped to study the space environment of the planet Mercury. BepiColombo MMO is mainly designed for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we are now working to optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. Here we review MESSENGER results and how MMO will contribute to deepen our understanding of space plasmas by addressing the puzzles raised by MESSEGNER.

  12. MESSENGER Searches for Less Abundant or Weakly Emitting Species in Mercury's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    Mercury's exosphere is composed of material that originates at the planet's surface, whether that material is native or delivered by the solar wind and micrometeoroids. Many exospheric species have been detected by remote sensing, including H and He by Mariner 10, Na, K, and Ca by ground-based observations, and H, Na, Ca, Mg, and Ca+ by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Other exospheric species, including Fe, AI, Si, 0, S, Mn, CI, Ti, OH, and their ions, are expected to be present on the basis of MESSENGER surface measurements and models of Mercury's surface chemistry. Here we report on searches for these species made with the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS). No obvious signatures of the listed species have yet been observed in Mercury's exosphere by the UVVS as of this writing. It is possible that detections are elusive because the optimum regions of the exosphere have not been sampled. The Sun-avoidance constraints on MESSENGER place tight limits on instrument boresight directions, and some regions are probed infrequently. If there are strong spatial gradients in the distribution of weakly emitting species, a high-resolution sampling of specific regions may be required to detect them. Summing spectra over time will also aid in the ability to detect weaker emission. Observations to date nonetheless permit strong upper limits to be placed on the abundances of many undetected species, in some cases as functions of time and space. As those limits are lowered with time, the absence of detections can provide insight into surface composition and the potential source mechanisms of exospheric material.

  13. Radiative transfer modeling of MESSENGER VIRS spectra: Detection and mapping of submicroscopic iron and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, David; Lucey, Paul G.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2017-09-01

    We model the spectral effects of submicroscopic Fe and submicroscopic C particles within a transparent mineral host in order to investigate whether such materials could reproduce the major spectral characteristics of Mercury's reflectance spectra (i.e., low reflectance relative to the Moon, a lack of Fe absorption features in the near infrared, and an increasing continuum slope between visible and near-infrared wavelengths). By using the radiative transfer technique to model the VIRS (Visible and Infrared Spectrograph) spectral dataset obtained from the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) mission, we found that our spectral models based on nanophase and microphase Fe and C consistently fit the VIRS data (except of regions of Mercury's low-reflectance material). Our models show that the mean global submicroscopic Fe abundance is 2.5 wt%, which exceeds the total Fe abundances obtained from the MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) and the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) and the global average submicroscopic C abundance is 1.9 wt%, which is within the three-standard-deviation level of the MESSENGER GRS C measurements for Mercury's northern hemisphere. We also produced nanophase and microphase Fe and C abundance maps that show: (1) submicroscopic C is present at percent levels across the surface, (2) the spatial variations of submicroscopic particle abundances are correlated to the maximum surface temperature, (3) lower concentrations of nanophase Fe in fresh craters and their ejecta, (4) the submicroscopic Fe abundance is lower in the northern volcanic plains and Caloris basin than the global average, (5) the submicroscopic C and Fe abundances are very low around NE Rachmaninoff, a pyroclastic deposit, and (6) the submicroscopic particle abundances vary between low-reflectance material (LRM) deposits. In correlating these maps to geology and surface temperatures, we concluded that Ostwald ripening is responsible for the longitudinal and

  14. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Fast Transients. Multi-wavelength Observations and Multi-messenger Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingale, R.; Mészáros, P.

    2017-07-01

    The current status of observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts and some other related transients, including ultra-long bursts and tidal disruption events, is reviewed. We consider the impact of multi-wavelength data on the formulation and development of theoretical models for the prompt and afterglow emission including the standard fireball model utilizing internal shocks and external shocks, photospheric emission, the role of the magnetic field and hadronic processes. In addition, we discuss some of the prospects for non-photonic multi-messenger detection and for future instrumentation, and comment on some of the outstanding issues in the field.

  15. Glycosaminoglycan Analysis by Cryogenic Messenger-Tagging IR Spectroscopy Combined with IMS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Neelam; Masellis, Chiara; Kamrath, Michael Z; Clemmer, David E; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2017-07-18

    We combine ion mobility spectrometry with cryogenic, messenger-tagging, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to identify different isomeric disaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS), which are representatives of two major subclasses of glycosaminoglycans. Our analysis shows that while CS and HS disaccharide isomers have similar drift times, they can be uniquely distinguished by their vibrational spectrum between ∼3200 and 3700 cm -1 due to their different OH hydrogen-bonding patterns. We suggest that this combination of techniques is well suited to identify and characterize glycan isomers directly, which presents tremendous challenges for existing methods.

  16. Particle Tracing of Heavy Ions in Hermean Exosphere With Applications to the MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paral, J.; Travnicek, P.; Rankin, R.; Kabin, K.

    2008-12-01

    We carry out Monte Carlo simulations of heavy particle species which are released from the surface of the planet Mercury as neutral particles and later on they are ionized. We consider three major sources of particle injection, namely Photon stimulated desorption, Solar wind sputtering and Micro-meteoroid vaporisation to build neutral exosphere. Then, we investigate the resulting exosphere and identify regions of particle acceleration due to the electromagnetic fields as well as distribution of ionization in the simulation box. The results are put into the context of the MESSENGER mission which measure the in situ data during its first fly by on January, 14 2008.

  17. Mercury's Hollows: New Information on Distribution and Morphology from MESSENGER Observations at Low Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, D. T.; Stadermann, A. C.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    MESSENGER's orbital mission at Mercury led to the discovery of an unusual landform not known from other airless rocky bodies of the Solar System. Hollows are irregularly shaped, shallow, rimless depressions, often occurring in clusters and with high-reflectance interiors and halos. The fresh appearance of hollows suggests that they are relatively young features. For example, hollows are uncratered, and talus aprons downslope of hollows in certain cases appear to be covering small impact craters (100-200 in diameter). Hence, some hollows may be actively forming at present. The characteristics of hollows are suggestive of formation via destruction of a volatile-bearing phase (possibly one or more sulfides) through solar heating, micrometeoroid bombardment, and/or ion impact. Previous analysis showed that hollows are associated with low-reflectance material (LRM), a color unit identified from global color images. The material hosting hollows has often been excavated from depth by basin or crater impacts. Hollows are small features (tens of meters to several kilometers), so their detection and characterization with MESSENGER's global maps have been limited. MESSENGER's low-altitude orbits provide opportunities for collection of images at high spatial resolutions, which reveal new occurrences of hollows and offer views of hollows with unprecedented detail. As of this writing, we have examined more than 21,000 images with pixel sizes Shadow-length measurements were made on 280 images, yielding the depths of 1343 individual hollows. The mean depth is 30 m, with a standard deviation of 17 m. We also explored correlations between the geographic locations of hollows and maps provided by the MESSENGER geochemical sensors (X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Spectrometers), including the abundances of Al/Si, Ca/Si, Fe/Si, K, Mg/Si, and S/Si, as well as total neutron cross-section. No clear compositional trends emerged; it is likely that any true compositional preference for terrain

  18. MESSENGER Observations of the Spatial Distribution of Planetary Ions Near Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Gloeckler, George; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Global measurements by MESSENGER of the fluxes of heavy ions at Mercury, particularly sodium (Na(+)) and oxygen (O(+)), exhibit distinct maxima in the northern magnetic-cusp region, indicating that polar regions are important sources of Mercury's ionized exosphere, presumably through solar-wind sputtering near the poles. The observed fluxes of helium (He(+)) are more evenly distributed, indicating a more uniform source such as that expected from evaporation from a helium-saturated surface. In some regions near Mercury, especially the nightside equatorial region, the Na(+) pressure can be a substantial fraction of the proton pressure.

  19. Altered expression of circulating microRNA in plasma of patients with primary osteoarthritis and in silico analysis of their pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica M Borgonio Cuadra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze a set of circulating microRNA (miRNA in plasma from patients with primary Osteoarthritis (OA and describe the biological significance of altered miRNA in OA based on an in silico analysis of their target genes. METHODS: miRNA expression was analyzed using TaqMan Low Density Arrays and independent assays. The search for potential messenger RNA (mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNA was performed by means of the miRWalk and miRecords database; we conducted the biological relevance of the predicted miRNA targets by pathway analysis with the Reactome and DAVID databases. RESULTS: We measured the expression of 380 miRNA in OA; 12 miRNA were overexpressed under the OA condition (p value, ≤0.05; fold change, >2. These results were validated by the detection of some selected miRNA by quantitative PCR (qPCR. In silico analysis showed that target messenger RNA (mRNA were potentially regulated by these miRNA, including genes such as SMAD1, IL-1B, COL3A, VEGFA, and FGFR1, important in chondrocyte maintenance and differentiation. Some metabolic pathways affected by the miRNA: mRNA ratio are signaling Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, and Nerve growth factor (NGF, these latter two involved in the process of pain. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 12 miRNA in the plasma of patients with primary OA. Specific miRNA that are altered in the disease could be released into plasma, either due to cartilage damage or to an inherent cellular mechanism. Several miRNA could regulate genes and pathways related with development of the disease; eight of these circulating miRNA are described, to our knowledge, for first time in OA.

  20. Accurate microRNA target prediction correlates with protein repression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simossis Victor A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small endogenously expressed non-coding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression through translation repression or messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNA regulation is performed through pairing of the microRNA to sites in the messenger RNA of protein coding genes. Since experimental identification of miRNA target genes poses difficulties, computational microRNA target prediction is one of the key means in deciphering the role of microRNAs in development and disease. Results DIANA-microT 3.0 is an algorithm for microRNA target prediction which is based on several parameters calculated individually for each microRNA and combines conserved and non-conserved microRNA recognition elements into a final prediction score, which correlates with protein production fold change. Specifically, for each predicted interaction the program reports a signal to noise ratio and a precision score which can be used as an indication of the false positive rate of the prediction. Conclusion Recently, several computational target prediction programs were benchmarked based on a set of microRNA target genes identified by the pSILAC method. In this assessment DIANA-microT 3.0 was found to achieve the highest precision among the most widely used microRNA target prediction programs reaching approximately 66%. The DIANA-microT 3.0 prediction results are available online in a user friendly web server at http://www.microrna.gr/microT

  1. Expression and Characterization of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP-2 mRNA in the Developing Chicken Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-30

    publication as well as for the thesis. His patience and support of my educational endeavors is again greatly appreciated. I am also very appreciative of Dr...messenger RNA in the human fetus S, cience 236: 193-197. Hansson, H.A., Holmgren, A., Norstedt, G. and Rozell, B. (1989). Changes in the distribution

  2. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.

  3. MESSENGER Orbital Observations of Large-Amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at Mercury's Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Torbjorn; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of Kelvi\\ n-Helmholtz (KH) waves at Mercury's magnetopause during MESSENGER's first Mercury year in orb it. The waves were identified on the basis of the well-established sawtooth wave signatures that are associated with non-linear KH vortices at the magnetopause. MESSENGER frequently observed such KH waves in the dayside region of the magnetosphere where the magnetosheath flow velocity is still sub -sonic, which implies that instability growth rates at Mercury's magnetopau are much larger than at Earth. We attribute these greater rates to the limited wave energy dissipation in Mercury's highly resistive regolith. The wave amplitude was often on the order of ' 00 nT or more, and the wave periods were - 10- 20 s. A clear dawn-dusk asymmetry is present in the data, in that all of the observed wave events occurred in the post-noon and dusk-side sectors of the magnetopause. This asymmetry is like ly related to finite Larmor-radius effects and is in agreement with results from particle-in-cell simulations of the instability. The waves were observed almost exclusively during periods when the north-south component of the magnetosheath magnetic field was northward, a pattern similar to that for most terrestrial KH wave events. Accompanying plasma measurements show that the waves were associated with the transport of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere.

  4. Time Domain Astronomy with Fermi GBM in the Multi-messenger Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fermi GBM team, GBM-LIGO team

    2018-01-01

    As the Multi-Messenger era begins with detections of gravitational waves with LIGO/Virgo and neutrinos with IceCube, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) provides context observations of gamma-ray transients between 8 keV and 40 MeV. Fermi GBM has a wide field of view, high uptime, and both in-orbit triggering and high time resolution continuous data enabling offline searches for weaker transients. GBM detects numerous gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), soft gamma-ray repeaters, X-ray bursters, solar flares and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Longer timescale transients, predominantly in our galaxy so far, are detected using the Earth occultation technique and epoch-folding for periodic sources. The GBM team has developed two ground-based searches to enhance detections of faint transients, especially short GRBs. The targeted search uses the time and location of an event detected with another instrument to coherently search the GBM data, increasing the sensitivity to a transient. The untargeted search agnostically searches the GBM data for all directions and times to find weaker transients. This search finds about 80 short GRBs per year, adding to the 40 per year triggered on-orbit. With its large field of view, high duty cycle and increasingly sophisticated detection methods, Fermi GBM is expected to have a major role in the Multi-Messenger era.

  5. Online De-Radicalization? Countering Violent Extremist Narratives: Message, Messenger and Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ashour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Is “online de-radicalization” possible? Given the two growing phenomena of “online radicalization” and “behavioral/ideological/organizational de-radicalization,” this article outlines a broad strategy for countering the narratives of violent extremists. It argues that an effective counter-narrative should be built on three pillars. The first is an effective comprehensive message that dismantles and counter-argues against every dimension of the extremist narrative, namely the theological, political, historical, instrumental and socio-psychological dimensions. The second pillar is the messengers. The article argues that for the first time in the history of Jihadism a “critical mass” of former militants, who rebelled not only against the current behaviour of their former colleagues but also against the ideology supporting it, has come into existence. This “critical mass” can constitute the core of credible messengers, especially the few de-radicalized individuals and groups that still maintain influence and respect among vulnerable communities. The third pillar is the dissemination and attraction strategy of the counter-narratives(s which focuses on the role of the media. The author of the article outlines a broad framework, which is a part of a UN-sponsored, comprehensive research project on countering the extremists narrative.

  6. Active site structure and catalytic mechanism of phosphodiesterase for degradation of intracellular second messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2002-03-01

    Phosphodiesterases are clinical targets for a variety of biological disorders, because this superfamily of enzymes regulate intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides that serve as the second messengers playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes. Understanding structure and mechanism of a phosphodiesterase will provide a solid basis for rational design of the more efficient therapeutics. Although a three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human phosphodiesterase 4B2B was recently reported, it was uncertain whether a critical bridging ligand in the active site is a water molecule or a hydroxide ion. The identity of this bridging ligand has been determined by performing first-principles quantum chemical calculations on models of the active site. All the results obtained indicate that this critical bridging ligand in the active site of the reported X-ray crystal structure is a hydroxide ion, rather than a water molecule, expected to serve as the nucleophile to initialize the catalytic degradation of the intracellular second messengers.

  7. Modeling of the Magnetosphere of Mercury at the Time of the First MESSENGER Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benna, Mehdi; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft flyby of Mercury on 14 January 2008 provided a new opportunity to study the intrinsic magnetic field of the innermost planet and its interaction with the solar wind, The model presented in this paper is based on the solution of the three-dimensional, bi-f1uid equations for solar wind protons and electrons in the absence of mass loading, In this study we provide new estimates of Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind conditions that prevailed at the time of the flyby. We show that the location of the boundary layers and the strength of the magnetic field along the spacecraft trajectory can be reproduced with a solar wind ram pressure P(sub sw) = 6.8 nPa and a planetary magnetic dipole having a magnitude of 210 R(sub M)(exp 3)- nT and an offset of 0.18 R(sub M) to the north of the equator, where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius. Analysis of the plasma flow reveals the existence of a stable drift belt around the planet; such a belt can account for the locations of diamagnetic decreases observed by the MESSENGER Magnetometer. Moreover, we determine that the ion impact rate at the n011hern cusp was four times higher than at the southern cusp, a result that provides a possible explanation for the observed north-south asymmetry in exospheric sodium in the neutral tail.

  8. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  9. Effects of the foliar-applied protein "Harpin(Ea)" (messenger) on tomatoes infected with Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, M; Montes, M; De Prado, R

    2005-01-01

    The active ingredient in Messenger, is Harpin(Ea), a naturally occurring protein derived from Erwinia amylovora, a causal agent of fire blight. When Messenger is applied to a plant, the protein Harpin(Ea) binds foliar receptors to it. The receptors recognize the presence of Harpin(Ea), sending a signal that a pathogen is present, actually "tricking" the plant into thinking that it is under attack. This binding process triggers a cascade of responses affecting a global change of gene expressions, stimulating several distinct biochemical pathways within the plant responsible for growth and disease and insect resistance. The objective of this work is to characterize the development of an induced resistance against Phytophthora infestans. No effective treatment is currently available against this pathogenic agent, which causes the loss of complete harvests of different crops. Tomato plants with and without Messenger applications were inoculated with Phytophthora infestans in the same way. In addition, some plants with and without Messenger applications were not inoculated. Inoculated plants were symptomatologically checked for local and systemic symptoms. Evaluations of the number of tomatoes produced, with or without damage, and their growth, were also carried out. Based on the data obtained from the assays, significant changes were observed in the parameters measured due to Messenger treatment. The severe damage of this disease was reduced in the plants which received Messenger applications. These results open up new pathways in the control of diseases like Phytophthora infestans, in which effective means to combat them still do not exist, or these means are harmful to the environment.

  10. Origins and Early Evolution of the tRNA Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Tamura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern transfer RNAs (tRNAs are composed of ~76 nucleotides and play an important role as “adaptor” molecules that mediate the translation of information from messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Many studies suggest that the contemporary full-length tRNA was formed by the ligation of half-sized hairpin-like RNAs. A minihelix (a coaxial stack of the acceptor stem on the T-stem of tRNA can function both in aminoacylation by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and in peptide bond formation on the ribosome, indicating that it may be a vestige of the ancestral tRNA. The universal CCA-3′ terminus of tRNA is also a typical characteristic of the molecule. “Why CCA?” is the fundamental unanswered question, but several findings give a comprehensive picture of its origin. Here, the origins and early evolution of tRNA are discussed in terms of various perspectives, including nucleotide ligation, chiral selectivity of amino acids, genetic code evolution, and the organization of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC. The proto-tRNA molecules may have evolved not only as adaptors but also as contributors to the composition of the ribosome.

  11. Origins and Early Evolution of the tRNA Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Koji

    2015-12-03

    Modern transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are composed of ~76 nucleotides and play an important role as "adaptor" molecules that mediate the translation of information from messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Many studies suggest that the contemporary full-length tRNA was formed by the ligation of half-sized hairpin-like RNAs. A minihelix (a coaxial stack of the acceptor stem on the T-stem of tRNA) can function both in aminoacylation by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and in peptide bond formation on the ribosome, indicating that it may be a vestige of the ancestral tRNA. The universal CCA-3' terminus of tRNA is also a typical characteristic of the molecule. "Why CCA?" is the fundamental unanswered question, but several findings give a comprehensive picture of its origin. Here, the origins and early evolution of tRNA are discussed in terms of various perspectives, including nucleotide ligation, chiral selectivity of amino acids, genetic code evolution, and the organization of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The proto-tRNA molecules may have evolved not only as adaptors but also as contributors to the composition of the ribosome.

  12. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. RESULTS: Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  13. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-05-18

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  14. Coronal mass ejection hits mercury: A.I.K.E.F. hybrid-code results compared to MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, W.; Heyner, D.; Liuzzo, L.; Motschmann, U.; Shiota, D.; Kusano, K.; Shibayama, T.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury is the closest orbiting planet around the sun and is therefore embedded in an intensive and highly varying solar wind. In-situ data from the MESSENGER spacecraft of the plasma environment near Mercury indicates that a coronal mass ejection (CME) passed the planet on 23 November 2011 over the span of the 12 h MESSENGER orbit. Slavin et al. (2014) derived the upstream parameters of the solar wind at the time of that orbit, and were able to explain the observed MESSENGER data in the cusp and magnetopause segments of MESSENGER's trajectory. These upstream parameters will be used for our first simulation run. We use the hybrid code A.I.K.E.F. which treats ions as individual particles and electrons as a mass-less fluid, to conduct hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetospheric response to the impact of the CME on ion gyro time scales. Results from the simulation are in agreement with magnetic field measurements from the inner day-side magnetosphere and the bow-shock region. However, at the planet's nightside, Mercury's plasma environment seemed to be governed by different solar wind conditions, in conclusion, Mercury's interaction with the CME is not sufficiently describable by only one set of upstream parameters. Therefore, to simulate the magnetospheric response while MESSENGER was located in the tail region, we use parameters obtained from the MHD solar wind simulation code SUSANOO (Shiota et al. (2014)) for our second simulation run. The parameters of the SUSANOO model achieve a good agreement of the data concerning the plasma tail crossing and the night-side approach to Mercury. However, the polar and closest approach are hardly described by both upstream parameters, namely, neither upstream dataset is able to reproduce the MESSENGER crossing of Mercury's magnetospheric cusp. We conclude that the respective CME was too variable on the timescale of the MESSENGER orbit to be described by only two sets of upstream conditions. Our results suggest locally strong

  15. Effects of electrons and neutrons on the synthesis of RNA in resistant and sensitive strains of the slime-mould Dictyostelium discoideum and the modifying effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    RNA synthesis was investigated after irradiation in resistant and sensitive lines of the slime-mould Dictyostelium discoideum. When 3 H adenine was used as a precursor to RNA, incorporation increased after irradiation in the resistant WT line but not in the sensitive line (gammas-13). The extent of RNA synthesis after irradiation was correlated with the shoulder width on the survival curve of the resistant line. When this was reduced by irradiating with neutrons, or treatment with caffeine RNA synthesis was also reduced. No preferential synthesis of one RNA species occurred; there was increased labelling in all RNA species after irradiation. Sucrose gradient analysis of ribosomal RNA extracted from irradiated cells and free of messenger RNA revealed no apparent difference in composition from that extracted from unirradiated cells. Increased RNA synthesis after irradiation may form part of the recovery process in the resistant cells. (author)

  16. RNA search engines empower the bacterial intranet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendooven, Tom; Luisi, Ben F

    2017-08-15

    RNA acts not only as an information bearer in the biogenesis of proteins from genes, but also as a regulator that participates in the control of gene expression. In bacteria, small RNA molecules (sRNAs) play controlling roles in numerous processes and help to orchestrate complex regulatory networks. Such processes include cell growth and development, response to stress and metabolic change, transcription termination, cell-to-cell communication, and the launching of programmes for host invasion. All these processes require recognition of target messenger RNAs by the sRNAs. This review summarizes recent results that have provided insights into how bacterial sRNAs are recruited into effector ribonucleoprotein complexes that can seek out and act upon target transcripts. The results hint at how sRNAs and their protein partners act as pattern-matching search engines that efficaciously regulate gene expression, by performing with specificity and speed while avoiding off-target effects. The requirements for efficient searches of RNA patterns appear to be common to all domains of life. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. In situ structures of the segmented genome and RNA polymerase complex inside a dsRNA virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Ding, Ke; Yu, Xuekui; Chang, Winston; Sun, Jingchen; Hong Zhou, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Viruses in the Reoviridae, like the triple-shelled human rotavirus and the single-shelled insect cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV), all package a genome of segmented double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) inside the viral capsid and carry out endogenous messenger RNA synthesis through a transcriptional enzyme complex (TEC). By direct electron-counting cryoelectron microscopy and asymmetric reconstruction, we have determined the organization of the dsRNA genome inside quiescent CPV (q-CPV) and the in situ atomic structures of TEC within CPV in both quiescent and transcribing (t-CPV) states. We show that the ten segmented dsRNAs in CPV are organized with ten TECs in a specific, non-symmetric manner, with each dsRNA segment attached directly to a TEC. The TEC consists of two extensively interacting subunits: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and an NTPase VP4. We find that the bracelet domain of RdRP undergoes marked conformational change when q-CPV is converted to t-CPV, leading to formation of the RNA template entry channel and access to the polymerase active site. An amino-terminal helix from each of two subunits of the capsid shell protein (CSP) interacts with VP4 and RdRP. These findings establish the link between sensing of environmental cues by the external proteins and activation of endogenous RNA transcription by the TEC inside the virus.

  18. Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): A Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Friedrich, U. & Lenke, J. Improved Enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mesophilic Dairy Starter Cultures by Using Multiplex Quantitative Real...messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes. Anal. Biochem. 390, 109-114 (2009). 13. Waters, L. & Storz, G. Regulatory RNAs in bacteria . Cell. 136, 615...Video Article Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection Kelly

  19. cDNA clone for the alpha-chain of human beta-hexosaminidase: deficiency of alpha-chain mRNA in Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Myerowitz, R; Proia, R L

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone containing sequences complementary to mRNA encoding the alpha-chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. RNA from a human lung fibroblast strain, IMR90, was enriched for beta-hexosaminidase messenger by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase A. This preparation was used to construct cDNA recombinant plasmids by the Okayama-Berg vector primer procedure. After transformation of Escherichia coli, 385 ampicillin-resistant colonies...

  20. Interactions between RNAP III transcription machinery and tRNA processing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimbasseri, G Aneeshkumar

    2018-04-01

    Eukaryotes have at least three nuclear RNA polymerases to carry out transcription. While RNA polymerases I and II are responsible for ribosomal RNA transcription and messenger RNA transcription, respectively, RNA Polymerase III transcribes approximately up to 300 nt long noncoding RNAs, including tRNA. For all three RNAPs, the nascent transcripts generated undergo extensive post-transcriptional processing. Transcription of mRNAs by RNAP II and their processing are coupled with the aid of the C-terminal domain of the RNAP II. RNAP I transcription and the processing of its transcripts are co-localized to the nucleolus and to some extent, rRNA processing occurs co-transcriptionally. Here, I review the current evidence for the interaction between tRNA processing factors and RNA polymerase III. These interactions include the moonlighting functions of tRNA processing factors in RNAP III transcription and the indirect effect of tRNA transcription levels on tRNA modification machinery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design, simplified cloning, andin-silicoanalysis of multisite small interfering RNA-targeting cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghban-Kohnehrouz, Bahram; Nayeri, Shahnoush

    2016-03-01

    Multiple gene silencing is being required to target and tangle metabolic pathways in eukaryotes and researchers have to develop a subtle method for construction of RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes. Although, several vectors have been developed due to different screening and cloning strategies but still some potential limitations remain to be dissolved. Here, we worked out a simple cloning strategy to develop multisite small interfering RNA (siRNA) cassette from different genes by two cloning steps. In this method, effective siRNA sites in the target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were determined using in silico analysis and consecutively arranged to reduce length of inverted repeats. Here, we used one-step (polymerase chain reaction) PCR by designed long primer sets covering the selected siRNA sites. Rapid screening, cost-effective and shorten procedure are advantages of this method compare to PCR classic cloning. Validity of constructs was confirmed by optimal centroid secondary structures with high stability in plants.

  2. The Interplay between the RNA Decay and Translation Machinery in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Adam M; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2018-01-08

    RNA decay plays a major role in regulating gene expression and is tightly networked with other aspects of gene expression to effectively coordinate post-transcriptional regulation. The goal of this work is to provide an overview of the major factors and pathways of general messenger RNA (mRNA) decay in eukaryotic cells, and then discuss the effective interplay of this cytoplasmic process with the protein synthesis machinery. Given the transcript-specific and fluid nature of mRNA stability in response to changing cellular conditions, understanding the fundamental networking between RNA decay and translation will provide a foundation for a complete mechanistic understanding of this important aspect of cell biology. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Ott; Kindt, Jared T; Qavi, Abraham J; Kaplinski, Lauris; Glynn, Barry; Barry, Thomas; Kurg, Ants; Bailey, Ryan C

    2012-01-01

    A label-free biosensing method for the sensitive detection and identification of bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is presented employing arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators. Species specific tmRNA molecules are targeted by complementary DNA capture probes that are covalently attached to the sensor surface. Specific hybridization is monitored in near real-time by observing the resonance wavelength shift of each individual microring. The sensitivity of the biosensing platform allowed for detection down to 53 fmol of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA, equivalent to approximately 3.16×10(7) CFU of bacteria. The simplicity and scalability of this biosensing approach makes it a promising tool for the rapid identification of different bacteria via tmRNA profiling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxygen regulation of uricase and sucrose synthase synthesis in soybean callus tissue is exerted at the mRNA level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Z T; Larsen, K; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lowering oxygen concentration on the expression of nodulin genes in soybean callus tissue devoid of the microsymbiont has been examined. Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from tissue cultivated in 4% oxygen and in normal atmosphere. Quantitative mRNA hybridization experiments using nodule...... the callus tissue was incubated at reduced oxygen concentration. Concomitant with the increase in mRNA level a 6-fold increase in specific activity of sucrose synthase was observed. Two messengers representing poly-ubiquitin precursors also responded to lowering the oxygen concentration. The increase...

  5. Altered insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid splicing in liver is associated with deterioration of glucose tolerance in the spontaneously obese and diabetic rhesus monkey: Analysis of controversy between monkey and human studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ze; Shuldiner, A.R.; Zenilman, M.E. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    There are two insulin receptor (IR) isoforms (designated type A and type B), derived from alternative splicing of exon 11 of the IR gene. Recently, we reported that an increase in the exon 11- (i.e. lacking exon 11) (type A) IR messenger RNA (mRNA) variant in muscle is associated with hyperinsulinemia, an early risk factor for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), in the spontaneously obese, diabetic rhesus monkey. To explore further the role of IR mRNA splicing in insulin resistance of NIDDM, we studied liver, another target organ that is resistant to insulin action in NIDDM. The relative amounts of the two IR mRNA-splicing variants in liver were quantitated by RT-PCR in normal, prediabetic, and diabetic (NIDDM) monkeys. The percentage of the exon 11- mRNA variant in liver (n = 24) was significantly correlated with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.55, P < 0.01) and intravenous glucose disappearance rate (r = -0.45, P < 0.05). The exon 11- mRNA variant was increased significantly from 29.8 {+-} 1.6% in monkeys with normal fasting glucose to 39.2 {+-} 2.9% in monkeys with elevated fasting glucose (P < 0.01). These studies provide the first direct evidence in vivo that the relative expression of the two IR mRNA-splicing variants is altered in liver and suggest that increased expression of the exon 11- IR isoform may contribute to hepatic insulin resistance and NIDDM or may compensate for some yet unidentified defect. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Magnetic Tail Loading and Unloading During its Third Flyby of Mercury: Substorms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury on September 29, 2009, a variable interplanetary magnetic field produced a series of several minute enhancements of the tail magnetic field hy factors of approx. 2 to 3.5. The magnetic field flaring during these intervals indicates that they result from loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. The unloading intervals were associated with plasmoids and traveling compression regions, signatures of tail reconnection. The peak tail magnetic flux during the smallest loading events equaled 30% of the magnetic flux emanating from Mercury, and may have reached 100% for the largest event. In this case the dayside magnetic shielding is reduced and solar wind flux impacting the surface may be greatly enhanced. Despite the intensity of these events and their similarity to terrestrial substorm magnetic flux dynamics, no energetic charged particles with energies greater than 36 keV were observed.

  7. NEUTRINOS AS COSMIC MESSENGERS IN THE ERA OF ICECUBE, ANTARES AND KM3NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli F. Katz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using neutrinos as cosmic messengers for observation of non-thermal processes in the Universe is a highly attractive and promising vision, which has been pursued in various neutrino telescope projects for more than two decades. Recent results from ground-based TeV gamma-ray observatories and refinements of model calculations of the expected neutrino fluxes indicate that Gigaton target volumes will be necessary to establish neutrino astronomy. A first neutrino telescope of that size, IceCube, is operational at the South Pole. Based on experience with the smaller first-generation ANTARES telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, the multi-Gigaton KM3NeT device is in preparation. These neutrino telescopes are presented, and some selected results and the expected KM3NeT performance are discussed.

  8. Second messenger-mediated tactile response by a bacterial rotary motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Isabelle; Deshpande, Siddharth; Sprecher, Kathrin S; Pfohl, Thomas; Jenal, Urs

    2017-10-27

    When bacteria encounter surfaces, they respond with surface colonization and virulence induction. The mechanisms of bacterial mechanosensation and downstream signaling remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a tactile sensing cascade in Caulobacter crescentus in which the flagellar motor acts as sensor. Surface-induced motor interference stimulated the production of the second messenger cyclic diguanylate by the motor-associated diguanylate cyclase DgcB. This led to the allosteric activation of the glycosyltransferase HfsJ to promote rapid synthesis of a polysaccharide adhesin and surface anchoring. Although the membrane-embedded motor unit was essential for surface sensing, mutants that lack external flagellar structures were hypersensitive to mechanical stimuli. Thus, the bacterial flagellar motor acts as a tetherless sensor reminiscent of mechanosensitive channels. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. A Two-Sided Market Model of Optimal Price Structure for Instant Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant messenger (IM is one of the most popular Internet applications all over the world. This paper examines the pricing problem of IM based on two-sided market model. IM serves as a two-sided platform, which gets both Internet users and advertisers on board. This paper concludes that IM operator adopts a heavily skewed price structure that favors IM users both under monopolistic case and under horizontal differentiated duopolistic case. When advertising revenue is large enough relatively to marginal cost for serving IM users, IM users can enjoy free service provided by IM operators. The competitive equilibrium of duopolistic case is not necessarily symmetric when advertisers choose singlehoming. Even in the symmetric equilibrium platform would rather deter all advertisers.

  10. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI AUTORESPONDER BERBASIS INSTANT MESSENGER GOOGLE HANGOUTS (Studi Kasus Perusahaan Valuta Asing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ita anariyanti ni putu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Money Changer adalah salah satu bidang usaha dimana frekuensi pergantian data tinggi dan dibutuhkan penyajian informasi yang bersifat cepat dan real time. Aplikasi Autoresponder adalah salah satu pemanfaatan teknologi untuk mempermudah mendapatkan informasi valuta asing. Aplikasi dirancang untuk mampu memberikan respon/ jawaban ataupun hanya sekedar menampung dari sebuah masukan secara otomatis dari layanan instant messenger Google Hangouts. Dari aplikasi ini, cukup dengan meregistrasi diri sebagai teman dari akun Gmail valas server. Selanjutnya dari Google Hangouts dapat melakukan cek nilai valuta asing dengan masukan keyword tertentu. Keuntungan yang bisa diberikan oleh aplikasi Autoresponder dilihat dari sisi pengembang adalah biaya untuk proses produksi maupun perawatan yang minimum karena aplikasi Autoresponder menggunakan open source.

  11. MESSENGER observations of the composition of Mercury's ionized exosphere and plasma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H; Raines, Jim M; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Slavin, James A; Koehn, Patrick L; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    The region around Mercury is filled with ions that originate from interactions of the solar wind with Mercury's space environment and through ionization of its exosphere. The MESSENGER spacecraft's observations of Mercury's ionized exosphere during its first flyby yielded Na+, O+, and K+ abundances, consistent with expectations from observations of neutral species. There are increases in ions at a mass per charge (m/q) = 32 to 35, which we interpret to be S+ and H2S+, with (S+ + H2S+)/(Na+ + Mg+) = 0.67 +/- 0.06, and from water-group ions around m/q = 18, at an abundance of 0.20 +/- 0.03 relative to Na+ plus Mg+. The fluxes of Na+, O+, and heavier ions are largest near the planet, but these Mercury-derived ions fill the magnetosphere. Doubly ionized ions originating from Mercury imply that electrons with energies less than 1 kiloelectron volt are substantially energized in Mercury's magnetosphere.

  12. The major-element composition of Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R; Starr, Richard D; Weider, Shoshana Z; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Ebel, Denton S; Ernst, Carolyn M; Evans, Larry G; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Schlemm, Charles E; Solomon, Sean C; Sprague, Ann L

    2011-09-30

    X-ray fluorescence spectra obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury indicate that the planet's surface differs in composition from those of other terrestrial planets. Relatively high Mg/Si and low Al/Si and Ca/Si ratios rule out a lunarlike feldspar-rich crust. The sulfur abundance is at least 10 times higher than that of the silicate portion of Earth or the Moon, and this observation, together with a low surface Fe abundance, supports the view that Mercury formed from highly reduced precursor materials, perhaps akin to enstatite chondrite meteorites or anhydrous cometary dust particles. Low Fe and Ti abundances do not support the proposal that opaque oxides of these elements contribute substantially to Mercury's low and variable surface reflectance.

  13. Radioactive elements on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER: implications for the planet's formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, Patrick N; Evans, Larry G; Hauck, Steven A; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Gillis-Davis, Jeffery J; Ebel, Denton S; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Nittler, Larry R; Solomon, Sean C; Rhodes, Edgar A; Sprague, Ann L; Starr, Richard D; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer measured the average surface abundances of the radioactive elements potassium (K, 1150 ± 220 parts per million), thorium (Th, 220 ± 60 parts per billion), and uranium (U, 90 ± 20 parts per billion) in Mercury's northern hemisphere. The abundance of the moderately volatile element K, relative to Th and U, is inconsistent with physical models for the formation of Mercury requiring extreme heating of the planet or its precursor materials, and supports formation from volatile-containing material comparable to chondritic meteorites. Abundances of K, Th, and U indicate that internal heat production has declined substantially since Mercury's formation, consistent with widespread volcanism shortly after the end of late heavy bombardment 3.8 billion years ago and limited, isolated volcanic activity since.

  14. MESSENGER observations of transient bursts of energetic electrons in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, George C; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Gold, Robert E; Baker, Daniel N; Slavin, James A; Anderson, Brian J; Korth, Haje; Starr, Richard D; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER spacecraft began detecting energetic electrons with energies greater than 30 kilo-electron volts (keV) shortly after its insertion into orbit about Mercury. In contrast, no energetic protons were observed. The energetic electrons arrive as bursts lasting from seconds to hours and are most intense close to the planet, distributed in latitude from the equator to the north pole, and present at most local times. Energies can exceed 200 keV but often exhibit cutoffs near 100 keV. Angular distributions of the electrons about the magnetic field suggest that they do not execute complete drift paths around the planet. This set of characteristics demonstrates that Mercury's weak magnetic field does not support Van Allen-type radiation belts, unlike all other planets in the solar system with internal magnetic fields.

  15. Topography of the Northern Hemisphere of Mercury from MESSENGER Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber,Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Hauck, Steven A., Jr.; Peale, Stanton J.; Barnouin, Oliver S.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Laser altimetry by the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a topographic model of the northern hemisphere of Mercury. The dynamic range of elevations is considerably smaller than those of Mars or the Moon. The most prominent feature is an extensive lowland at high northern latitudes that hosts the volcanic northern plains. Within this lowland is a broad topographic rise that experienced uplift after plains emplacement. The interior of the 1500-km-diameter Caloris impact basin has been modified so that part of the basin floor now stands higher than the rim. The elevated portion of the floor of Caloris appears to be part of a quasi-linear rise that extends for approximately half the planetary circumference at mid-latitudes. Collectively, these features imply that long-wavelength changes to Mercury s topography occurred after the earliest phases of the planet s geological history.

  16. The jabber chat tool EFDA Messenger and screen sharing tool EFDATV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Beck, S.; Wilhelm, B.

    2008-01-01

    Two Remote Participation (RP) tools are described. The first tool, named EFDA Messenger, is a secure Instant Messaging (IM) tool based on a Jabber server that only accepts SSL encrypted communication and does not allow file transfers as well as audio and video transmissions. This tool is useful to have as another mean of communication during video or teleconferences. The second tool, named EFDATV, is a multipurposeVirtual Network Computing (VNC) based desktop screen sharing system used to share presentations via the Internet. A Java enabled web browser or a VNC client is sufficient for the presenter and the audience to use EFDATV. It is also possible from an EFDATV channel to connect to another VNC server and broadcast the view from that VNC server

  17. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  18. A More Minimal Messenger Model of Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking?

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    1997-01-01

    This Letter addresses a provocative question: ``Can the standard electroweak Higgs doublets and their color-triplet partners be the messengers of a low energy gauge-mediated SUSY breaking?" Such a possibility does not seem to be immediately ruled out. If so, it can lead to a very economical scheme with clear-cut predictions quite distinct from those of the conventional gauge-mediated scenario. Namely, we get (i) a single light Higgs below the original SUSY- breaking scale; (ii) tan(beta) = 1; (iii) flavor non-universal, but automatically flavor-conserving soft scalar masses; (iv) a light colored scalar with peculiar phenomenology. The familiar mu problem looses its meaning in this approach.

  19. Second messenger signaling mechanisms of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program: an integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fubiao; Collins, Sheila

    2017-09-26

    β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are well established for conveying the signal from catecholamines to adipocytes. Acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) they stimulate lipolysis and also increase the activity of brown adipocytes and the 'browning' of adipocytes within white fat depots (so-called 'brite' or 'beige' adipocytes). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are enriched with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is a regulated proton channel that allows the dissipation of chemical energy in the form of heat. The discovery of functional brown adipocytes in humans and inducible brown-like ('beige' or 'brite') adipocytes in rodents have suggested that recruitment and activation of these thermogenic adipocytes could be a promising strategy to increase energy expenditure for obesity therapy. More recently, the cardiac natriuretic peptides and their second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) have gained attention as a parallel signaling pathway in adipocytes, with some unique features. In this review, we begin with some important historical work that touches upon the regulation of brown adipocyte development and physiology. We then provide a synopsis of some recent advances in the signaling cascades from β-adrenergic agonists and natriuretic peptides to drive thermogenic gene expression in the adipocytes and how these two pathways converge at a number of unexpected points. Finally, moving from the physiologic hormonal signaling, we discuss yet another level of control downstream of these signals: the growing appreciation of the emerging roles of non-coding RNAs as important regulators of brown adipocyte formation and function. In this review, we discuss new developments in our understanding of the signaling mechanisms and factors including new secreted proteins and novel non-coding RNAs that control the function as well as the plasticity of the brown/beige adipose tissue as it responds to the energy needs and environmental

  20. Mercury surface composition: how the new insights from MESSENGER can drive the future exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Cristian; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Zambon, Francesca; Serventi, Giovanna; Altieri, Francesca; De Sanctis, MariaCristina; Sgavetti, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The surface composition of Mercury, as well as the relationship between morphological expressions and lithologies, is one of the most interesting goal to be still explored. After Mariner10, despite relevant differences observed in geophysical characteristics, Mercury surface composition was compared to the Moon (Murray et al, 1974, Science), and, subsequently, lunar surface was considered as analogue (e.g., Blewett et al., 2002, Meteor.Planet.Sci.). After MESSENGER, Mercury surface appeared mainly volcanic in origin. Plains (intercrater and smooth) seem to have a primary flood effusive origin, and even cratered terrains could have the same origin with a higher crater concentration. These volcanic units range from high reflectance red plains to low reflectance blue plains (Denevi et al., 2009, Science). No absorption is present in the visible and near-infrared spectra, indicating very low abundance of transitional elements in silicates (i.e. very low iron and titanium, e.g. FeO elements in such concentrations indicates a probably highly reduced parent material. S content may reflect a possible variability in the redox environment (Weider et al., 2012, JGR). Differently, the northern young plains characterized by flood volcanism, showing thermal erosion (Head et al., 2011, Science) and associated to komatitic-like magmatism, have higher Al/Si, Na, K, and relative lower Mg/Si, Ca/Si, with respect to older plains. All of these indications evidence different geochemical units (Weider et al., 2015, EPSL). MESSENGER has introduced new evidences about morphology and composition of Hermean surface. The understanding of this information should drive the future investigation about Mercury surface analogues. Understanding which volcanic material and in which environment could be formed is an important goal to indicate the possible analogues appropriate for Mercury crust. This step will be important to hypothesize the spectral characteristics we could expect studying the

  1. Linking The Universe To The Community: Students As Starry Messengers For IYA2009-Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Carmen; Lebrón, M.

    2008-05-01

    This poster presents a project at Puerto Rico to establish a working team of undergraduate students (Starry Messengers) to promote and experience the wonders of space science and education with all the senses. The students are expected to assist during the activities of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). During 2008 the students will receive the appropriate instruction on observational astronomy through two workshops. These workshops follow the active learning model and therefore prepare students for outreach activities in astronomy. An innovative model of inclusion will be developed, adapting all the activities and material to include blind or visually impaired. We will encourage the participation of at least one visually impaired student or teacher on the Starry Messengers team. The greatest challenge in this project will be to develop adequate accessible activities in astronomy. The workshops will be held at the Arecibo Observatory and "El Parque de las Ciencias" Planetarium. These two centers have the facilities to develop the workshops and have the adequate settings for the participants to gain experience with astronomy research and outreach. This project targets underrepresented groups in science and engineering: hispanic students and students with visual impairments. The inquiry-based learning activities and material designed as part of the program will also be made available to the public to further promote excellence in astronomy. The workshops will serve as templates for future K-12 teacher workshops. This work has been funded by the NASA IDEAS-ER program. We would like to acknowledge the support from the Arecibo Observatory. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a Cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  2. MESSENGER Magnetic Field Observations of Upstream Ultra-Low Frequency Waves at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Boardsen, S.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Anderosn, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth's is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury's bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury's foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury's foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the I-Hz waves in the Earth's foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth's foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at near 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at near 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  3. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  4. The Effectiveness of Using WhatsApp Messenger as One of Mobile Learning Techniques to Develop Students' Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Said Fathy El Said Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to determine the effectiveness of using a WhatsApp Messenger as one of mobile learning techniques to develop students' writing skills. Participants were 30 second year college students, English department from a private university in Saudi Arabia. The experimental group (N = 15) used WhatsApp technology to develop…

  5. Cellular distribution of the NMDA-receptor activated synapto-nuclear messenger Jacob in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhaylova, Marina; Karpova, A.; Bär, J.; Bethge, P.; Yuanxiang, P.; Chen, Yinan; Zuschratter, W.; Behnisch, T.; Kreutz, M.R.

    In previous work, we found that the protein messenger Jacob is involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling to the nucleus and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mediated gene expression in hippocampal primary neurons. Particularly, extrasynaptic NMDAR activation drives

  6. Just How Important Is the Messenger versus the Message? The Case of Framing Physician-Assisted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider-Markel, Donald P.; Joslyn, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    As a political issue, death and dying topics only sometimes reach the political agenda. However, some issues, such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been highly salient. This article explores attitudes toward PAS by examining the malleability of opinion when respondents are exposed to issue frames and when specific messengers present those…

  7. The Effects of a Synchronous Communication Tool (Yahoo Messenger) on Online Learners' Sense of Community and Their Multimedia Authoring Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Kwei

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that developing a community of learners is the key to a successful online-learning experience. In this study, the instructor of a multimedia authoring course adopted a synchronous communication tool (Yahoo Messenger) to interact with learners orally on a weekly basis and, thereby, to establish a sense among the learners that…

  8. Triggering of RNA interference with RNA-RNA, RNA-DNA, and DNA-RNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, Kirill A; Viard, Mathias; Kagiampakis, Ioannis; Case, Christopher L; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Hofmann, Jen; Vrzak, Ashlee; Kireeva, Maria; Kasprzak, Wojciech K; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2015-01-27

    Control over cellular delivery of different functionalities and their synchronized activation is a challenging task. We report several RNA and RNA/DNA-based nanoparticles designed to conditionally activate the RNA interference in various human cells. These nanoparticles allow precise control over their formulation, stability in blood serum, and activation of multiple functionalities. Importantly, interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation assays indicate the significantly lower responses for DNA nanoparticles compared to the RNA counterparts, suggesting greater potential of these molecules for therapeutic use.

  9. Urinary RNA-based biomarkers for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignano, Filippo; Rossi, Lorena; Maugeri, Antonio; Gallà, Valentina; Conteduca, Vincenza; De Giorgi, Ugo; Casadio, Valentina; Schepisi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the commonest malignancy in the male population worldwide. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most important biomarker for the detection, follow-up and therapeutic monitoring of PCa. Defects in PSA specificity have elicited research for new biomarkers to improve early diagnosis and avoid false-positive results. This review evaluates urinary RNA-based biomarkers. Urine is a versatile body fluid for non-invasive biomarker detection in case of urological malignancies. The importance of RNA-based biomarkers has been demonstrated by the current use of PCA3, a long non coding RNA biomarker already approved by the Food and Drugs Administration. Through the years, other urinary RNA biomarkers have been evaluated, including the well-known TMPRSS2:ERG transcript, as well as many messenger RNAs, long non coding RNAs and micro-RNA. Validation of a specific urinary RNA-based marker or an algorithm of different biomarkers levels as diagnostic markers for PCa could be useful to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of HBV replication by siRNA in a stable HBV-producing cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masayoshi; Wu, Catherine H; Wu, George Y

    2003-10-01

    Potent inhibition of endogenous gene expression by RNA interference has been achieved by using sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing through the action of small interfering RNA molecules (siRNA). In these reports, the natural function of genes could be deduced through the ensuing loss of function. Based on the extraordinary effectiveness in silencing endogenous genes, we wondered whether siRNA could be applied against viral replication in a hepatitis B virus (HBV) model using HBV-specific siRNA. To test this idea, HepG2 2.2.15, a human hepatoblastoma cell line that constitutively produces infectious HBV particles, was transfected with HBV-specific siRNAs and controls. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion into culture media was inhibited by 78%, 67%, and 42% with siRNA against the polyadenylation (PA), precore (PreC), and surface (S) regions, respectively, compared with controls as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After exposure to HBVPA siRNA, Northern blot analysis showed that HBV pregenomic RNA levels were decreased by 72%, and levels of HBV RNA containing the polyadenylation signal sequence were suppressed by 86%, as detected by RNase protection assay. Levels of HBV core-associated DNA, a replication intermediate, also decreased by 71%. Immunocytochemistry revealed that 30% to 40% of the cells transfected with HBVPA siRNA were completely negative for detectable HBsAg levels. Controls consisting of treatment with HBV-specific siRNA alone, lipofection reagent alone, or random double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) lipofection complex failed to decrease HBV surface antigen, HBV messenger RNA (mRNA), or core-associated HBV-DNA levels. In conclusion, siRNA inhibits hepatitis B viral replication in a cell culture system. Future studies are needed to explore the specific delivery of siRNA to liver cells in vivo and the applicability of this approach.

  11. MicroRNA and mRNA Transcriptome Profiling in Primary Human Astrocytes Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Casselli

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is caused by infection with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb, which is transmitted to humans by deer ticks. The infection manifests usually as a rash and minor systemic symptoms; however, the bacteria can spread to other tissues, causing joint pain, carditis, and neurological symptoms. Lyme neuroborreliosis presents itself in several ways, such as Bell's palsy, meningitis, and encephalitis. The molecular basis for neuroborreliosis is poorly understood. Analysis of the changes in the expression levels of messenger RNAs and non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, following Bb infection could therefore provide vital information on the pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of neuroborreliosis. To this end, we used cultured primary human astrocytes, key responders to CNS infection and important components of the blood-brain barrier, as a model system to study RNA and microRNA changes in the CNS caused by Bb. Using whole transcriptome RNA-seq, we found significant changes in 38 microRNAs and 275 mRNAs at 24 and 48 hours following Bb infection. Several of the RNA changes affect pathways involved in immune response, development, chromatin assembly (including histones and cell adhesion. Further, several of the microRNA predicted target mRNAs were also differentially regulated. Overall, our results indicate that exposure to Bb causes significant changes to the transcriptome and microRNA profile of astrocytes, which has implications in the pathogenesis, and hence potential treatment strategies to combat this disease.

  12. Selective small-molecule inhibition of an RNA structural element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, John A.; Wang, Hao; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Balibar, Carl J.; Xiao, Li; Galgoci, Andrew M.; Malinverni, Juliana C.; Mayhood, Todd; Villafania, Artjohn; Nahvi, Ali; Murgolo, Nicholas; Barbieri, Christopher M.; Mann, Paul A.; Carr, Donna; Xia, Ellen; Zuck, Paul; Riley, Dan; Painter, Ronald E.; Walker, Scott S.; Sherborne, Brad; de Jesus, Reynalda; Pan, Weidong; Plotkin, Michael A.; Wu, Jin; Rindgen, Diane; Cummings, John; Garlisi, Charles G.; Zhang, Rumin; Sheth, Payal R.; Gill, Charles J.; Tang, Haifeng; Roemer , Terry (Merck)

    2015-09-30

    Riboswitches are non-coding RNA structures located in messenger RNAs that bind endogenous ligands, such as a specific metabolite or ion, to regulate gene expression. As such, riboswitches serve as a novel, yet largely unexploited, class of emerging drug targets. Demonstrating this potential, however, has proven difficult and is restricted to structurally similar antimetabolites and semi-synthetic analogues of their cognate ligand, thus greatly restricting the chemical space and selectivity sought for such inhibitors. Here we report the discovery and characterization of ribocil, a highly selective chemical modulator of bacterial riboflavin riboswitches, which was identified in a phenotypic screen and acts as a structurally distinct synthetic mimic of the natural ligand, flavin mononucleotide, to repress riboswitch-mediated ribB gene expression and inhibit bacterial cell growth. Our findings indicate that non-coding RNA structural elements may be more broadly targeted by synthetic small molecules than previously expected.

  13. Extracellular RNA Communication (ExRNA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Until recently, scientists believed RNA worked mostly inside the cell that produced it. Some types of RNA help translate genes into proteins that are necessary for...

  14. Hypothesis: A Role for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Mediating and Relieving MicroRNA-Guided Translational Repression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Plante

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-guided messenger RNA (mRNA translational repression is believed to be mediated by effector miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein (miRNP complexes harboring fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. Recent studies documented the nucleic acid chaperone properties of FMRP and characterized its role and importance in RNA silencing in mammalian cells. We propose a model in which FMRP could facilitate miRNA assembly on target mRNAs in a process involving recognition of G quartet structures. Functioning within a duplex miRNP, FMRP may also mediate mRNA targeting through a strand exchange mechanism, in which the miRNA* of the duplex is swapped for the mRNA. Furthermore, FMRP may contribute to the relief of miRNA-guided mRNA repression through a reverse strand exchange reaction, possibly initiated by a specific cellular signal, that would liberate the mRNA for translation. Suboptimal utilization of miRNAs may thus account for some of themolecular defects in patients with the fragile X syndrome.

  15. Amplification-Free Multi-RNA-Type Profiling for Cancer Risk Stratification via Alternating Current Electrohydrodynamic Nanomixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin M; Dey, Shuvashis; Trau, Matt

    2018-03-12

    Simultaneous analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-multi-RNA-type profiling-is increasingly crucial in cancer diagnostics. Yet, rapid multi-RNA-type profiling is challenging due to enzymatic amplification reliance and RNA-type-dependent characteristics. Here, a nanodevice is reported to uniquely use alterable alternating current electrohydrodynamic (ac-EHD) forces to enhance probe-target hybridization prior to direct native RNA target detection, without target amplification or surface functionalization. To exemplify clinical applicability, noninvasive screening of next-generation prostate cancer (PCa) RNA biomarkers (of different types) in patient urine samples is performed. A strong correlation between multi-RNA-type expression and aggressive PCa is found, and the nanodevice performance is statistically evaluated. It is believed that this miniaturized system exhibits great potential for cancer risk stratification via multi-RNA-type profiling. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Annexin II mRNA expression in bovine oocytes during follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fabiano Santos da Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the expression of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein annexin-II (Ann-II messenger RNA (mRNA during preantral follicle development and in oocytes from antral follicles of different diameters ( 8 mm. The action of retinol on Ann-II mRNA expression in mature oocytes was also examined. Only oocytes from secondary preantral follicles expressed Ann-II mRNA and at the germinal vesicle stage expression by oocytes from follicles larger than 8 mm was significantly higher (p < 0.05 compared with oocytes from follicles smaller than 3 mm or between 5 and 8 mm. Ann-II mRNA expression by metaphase II oocytes from follicles larger than 8 mm was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that from oocytes from follicles smaller than 3 mm, with oocytes from both these size-classes showing similar levels of Ann-II mRNA expression as oocytes recovered from 5-8 mm follicles. In the presence of retinol, Ann-II mRNA expression was higher than when retinol was absent (p < 0.05. Our data indicate that Ann-II mRNA expression is highest in competent oocytes and that retinol increases Ann-II mRNA and may be involved in the regulation of oocyte competence by decreasing the translation and/or degradation of Ann-II mRNA.

  17. MicroRNA-184 Regulates Corneal Lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldo, Sammy; Yuen, Don; Theis, Jaci; Ng, Melissa; Ecoiffier, Tatiana; Chen, Lu

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by binding to complimentary sequences of target messenger RNA. Their roles in corneal lymphangiogenesis are largely unknown. This study was to investigate the specific role of microRNA-184 (mir-184) in corneal lymphangiogenesis (LG) in vivo and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in vitro. Standard murine suture placement model was used to study the expressional change of mir-184 in corneal inflammatory LG and the effect of synthetic mir-184 mimic on this process. Additionally, a human LEC culture system was used to assess the effect of mir-184 overexpression on cell functions in vitro. Expression of mir-184 was significantly downregulated in corneal LG and, accordingly, its synthetic mimic suppressed corneal lymphatic growth in vivo. Furthermore, mir-184 overexpression in LECs inhibited their functions of adhesion, migration, and tube formation in vitro. These novel findings indicate that mir-184 is involved critically in LG and potentially could be used as an inhibitor of the process. Further investigation holds the promise for divulging new therapies for LG disorders, which occur inside and outside the eye.

  18. Ribogenomics: the Science and Knowledge of RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayan Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleic acid (RNA deserves not only a dedicated field of biological research — a discipline or branch of knowledge — but also explicit definitions of its roles in cellular processes and molecular mechanisms. Ribogenomics is to study the biology of cellular RNAs, including their origin, biogenesis, structure and function. On the informational track, messenger RNAs (mRNAs are the major component of ribogenomes, which encode proteins and serve as one of the four major components of the translation machinery and whose expression is regulated at multiple levels by other operational RNAs. On the operational track, there are several diverse types of RNAs — their length distribution is perhaps the most simplistic stratification — involving in major cellular activities, such as chromosomal structure and organization, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional/post-transcriptional regulation, RNA processing and routing, translation and cellular energy/metabolism regulation. An all-out effort exceeding the magnitude of the Human Genome Project is of essence to construct just mammalian transcriptomes in multiple contexts including embryonic development, circadian and seasonal rhythms, defined life-span stages, pathological conditions and anatomy-driven tissue/organ/cell types.

  19. Assessing the Crustal Stratigraphy of Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, C. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Barnouin, O. S.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Head, J. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Watters, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flyby images revealed subtle color variations across Mercury's surface, many of which are associated with impact craters and basins. Impact craters that excavated material spectrally distinct from the surrounding pre-impact surface serve as windows into the subsurface, allowing observations of material at depth that would otherwise remain hidden to remote observations. Previous localized studies of spectrally distinct, excavated material suggested the presence of buried volcanic plains and a heterogeneous crustal stratigraphy and support the important role of volcanism in the evolution of the crust. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has since acquired global color (1 km/pixel) and high-resolution monochrome (250 m/pixel) base maps of the innermost planet, taken under illumination and observation geometries optimized for observing both color and morphology. These base maps, along with detailed targeted observations (up to 80 m/pixel color and 10 m/pixel monochrome), allow detailed co-mapping of geologic and spectral features across Mercury's surface. Such mapping, along with the use of scaling laws and melt-volume calculations to bound the depth of origin of crater ejecta and central peak structures, allows us to investigate many aspects of Mercury's crustal stratigraphy, including, but not limited to, the following topics: (1) The stratigraphy of four of Mercury's younger large basins: Caloris (1550 km in diameter), Rembrandt (720 km), Beethoven (630 km), and Tolstoj (360 km), which have all been flooded by spectrally distinct volcanic plains. Post-flooding craters of varying sizes enable an estimation of the thickness of the volcanic fill and the nature of the pre-flooding basin floor. These measurements will help to constrain models for subsequent compensation, uplift, and deformation; and incorporation of topography and gravity data link basin fill with the broader lithospheric evolution of Mercury. (2) The depth of origin

  20. The effect of 648 nm diode laser irradiation on second messengers in senescent human keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins Evans, D.; Abrahamse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Background/purpose: Stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) is defined as the long-term effect of subcytotoxic stress on proliferative cell types. Cells in SIPS display differences at the level of protein expression which affect energy metabolism, defense systems, redox potential, cell morphology and transduction pathways. This study aimed to determine the effect of laser irradiation on second messengers in senescent cells and to establish if that effect can be directly linked to changes in cellular function such as cell viability or proliferation. Materials and Methods: Human keratinocyte cell cultures were modified to induce premature senescence using repeated sub-lethal stresses of 200 uM H2O2 or 5% OH every day for four days with two days recovery. SIPS was confirmed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Control conditions included normal, repeated stress of 500 uM H2O2 to induce apoptosis and 200 uM PBN as an anti-oxidant or free radical scavenger. Cells were irradiated with 1.5 J/cm2 on day 1 and 4 using a 648 nm diode laser (3.3 mW/cm2) and cellular responses were measured 1 h post irradiation. The affect on second messengers was assessed by measuring cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) while functional changes were assessed using cell morphology, ATP cell viability, LDH membrane integrity and WST-1 cell proliferation. Results: Results indicate an increase in NO and a decrease in cGMP and Ca2+ in 200 uM H2O2 irradiated cells while PBN irradiated cells showed a decrease in cAMP and an increase in ATP viability and cell proliferation. Conclusion: Laser irradiation influences cell signaling which ultimately changes the biological function of senescent cells. If laser therapy can stimulate the biological function of senescent cells it may be beneficial to conditions such as immune senescence, skin ageing, muscle atrophy, premature ageing of arteries in patients with advanced heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders and

  1. What Might We Learn About Magnetospheric Substorms at the Earth from the MESSENGER Measurements at Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite observations at the Earth, supported by theory and modeling, have established a close connection between the episodes of intense magnetospheric convection termed substorms and the occurrence of magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause results in strong energy input to the magnetosphere. This energy can either be stored or used immediately to power the magnetospheric convection that produces the phenomena that collectively define the 'substorm.' However, many aspects of magnetic reconnection and the dynamic response of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere system at the Earth during substorms remain poorly understood. For example, the rate of magnetic reconnection is thought to be proportional to the local Alfven speed, but the limited range of changes in this solar wind parameter at 1 AU have made it difficult to detect its influence over energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere. In addition, the electrical conductance of the ionosphere and how it changes in response to auroral charged particle precipitation are hypothesized to play a critical role in the development of substorms, but the nature of this electrodynamic interaction remain difficult to deduce from Earth observations alone. The amount of energy the terrestrial magnetosphere can store in its tail, the duration of the storage, and the trigger(s) for its dissipation are all thought to be determined by not only the microphysics of the cross-tail current layer, but also the properties of the coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere system. Again, the separation of microphysics effects from system response has proved very difficult using measurements taken only at the Earth. If MESSENGER'S charged particle and magnetic field measurements confirm the occurrence of terrestrial-style substorms in Mercury's miniature magnetosphere, then it may be possible to determine how magnetospheric convection, field-aligned currents, charged particle acceleration

  2. Finding Order in Randomness: Single-Molecule Studies Reveal Stochastic RNA Processing | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing a functional eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) requires the coordinated activity of several large protein complexes to initiate transcription, elongate nascent transcripts, splice together exons, and cleave and polyadenylate the 3’ end. Kinetic competition between these various processes has been proposed to regulate mRNA maturation, but this model could lead to multiple, randomly determined, or stochastic, pathways or outcomes. Regulatory checkpoints have been suggested as a means of ensuring quality control. However, current methods have been unable to tease apart the contributions of these processes at a single gene or on a time scale that could provide mechanistic insight. To begin to investigate the kinetic relationship between transcription and splicing, Daniel Larson, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleagues employed a single-molecule RNA imaging approach to monitor production and processing of a human β-globin reporter gene in living cells.

  3. Nascent RNA sequencing reveals widespread pausing and divergent initiation at human promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Leighton J; Waterfall, Joshua J; Lis, John T

    2008-12-19

    RNA polymerases are highly regulated molecular machines. We present a method (global run-on sequencing, GRO-seq) that maps the position, amount, and orientation of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases genome-wide. In this method, nuclear run-on RNA molecules are subjected to large-scale parallel sequencing and mapped to the genome. We show that peaks of promoter-proximal polymerase reside on approximately 30% of human genes, transcription extends beyond pre-messenger RNA 3' cleavage, and antisense transcription is prevalent. Additionally, most promoters have an engaged polymerase upstream and in an orientation opposite to the annotated gene. This divergent polymerase is associated with active genes but does not elongate effectively beyond the promoter. These results imply that the interplay between polymerases and regulators over broad promoter regions dictates the orientation and efficiency of productive transcription.

  4. Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz M. A. Fontoura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses.

  5. MicroRNA: an Emerging Therapeutic Target and Intervention Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decheng Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs with posttranscriptional regulatory functions. To date, more than 600 human miRNAs have been experimentally identified, and estimated to regulate more than one third of cellular messenger RNAs. Accumulating evidence has linked the dysregulated expression patterns of miRNAs to a variety of diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and viral infections. MiRNAs provide its particular layer of network for gene regulation, thus possessing the great potential both as a novel class of therapeutic targets and as a powerful intervention tool. In this regard, synthetic RNAs that contain the binding sites of miRNA have been shown to work as a “decoy” or “miRNA sponge” to inhibit the function of specific miRNAs. On the other hand, miRNA expression vectors have been used to restore or overexpress specific miRNAs to achieve a long-term effect. Further, double-stranded miRNA mimetics for transient replacement have been experimentally validated. Endogenous precursor miRNAs have also been used as scaffolds for the induction of RNA interference. This article reviews the recent progress on this emerging technology as a powerful tool for gene regulation studies and particularly as a rationale strategy for design of therapeutics.

  6. RNA Sequencing Analysis of Salivary Extracellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majem, Blanca; Li, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wong, David T W

    2017-01-01

    Salivary biomarkers for disease detection, diagnostic and prognostic assessments have become increasingly well established in recent years. In this chapter we explain the current leading technology that has been used to characterize salivary non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the extracellular RNA (exRNA) fraction: HiSeq from Illumina® platform for RNA sequencing. Therefore, the chapter is divided into two main sections regarding the type of the library constructed (small and long ncRNA libraries), from saliva collection, RNA extraction and quantification to cDNA library generation and corresponding QCs. Using these invaluable technical tools, one can identify thousands of ncRNA species in saliva. These methods indicate that salivary exRNA provides an efficient medium for biomarker discovery of oral and systemic diseases.

  7. ER/K linked GPCR-G protein fusions systematically modulate second messenger response in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Rabia U; Dysthe, Matthew; Ritt, Michael; Sunahara, Roger K; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2017-08-10

    FRET and BRET approaches are well established for detecting ligand induced GPCR-G protein interactions in cells. Currently, FRET/BRET assays rely on co-expression of GPCR and G protein, and hence depend on the stoichiometry and expression levels of the donor and acceptor probes. On the other hand, GPCR-G protein fusions have been used extensively to understand the selectivity of GPCR signaling pathways. However, the signaling properties of fusion proteins are not consistent across GPCRs. In this study, we describe and characterize novel sensors based on the Systematic Protein Affinity Strength Modulation (SPASM) technique. Sensors consist of a GPCR and G protein tethered by an ER/K linker flanked by FRET probes. SPASM sensors are tested for the β2-, α1-, and α2- adrenergic receptors, and adenosine type 1 receptor (A 1 R), tethered to Gαs-XL, Gαi 2 , or Gαq subunits. Agonist stimulation of β2-AR and α2-AR increases FRET signal comparable to co-expressed FRET/BRET sensors. SPASM sensors also retain signaling through the endogenous G protein milieu. Importantly, ER/K linker length systematically tunes the GPCR-G protein interaction, with consequent modulation of second messenger signaling for cognate interactions. SPASM GPCR sensors serve the dual purpose of detecting agonist-induced changes in GPCR-G protein interactions, and linking these changes to downstream signaling.

  8. Arnold Sommerfeld. Atomic physicist and messenger of culture 1868-1951. A biography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Arnold Sommerfeld is beside Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and Max Planck one of the founders of modern atomic and quantum theory. His career began in the 1890th years at the University of Goettingen, the world center of mathematics of that time. Since 1906 he created on the professorship for theoretical physics at the Munich university one of the most important schools of science, the students of which are well-known theorists of the atomic era like as the Nobel-price winners Hans Bethe, Peter Debye, Wolfgang Pauli, and Werner Heisenberg. He also developed far beyond his subject an unprecedented impact. He travelled as ''messenger of culture'' in many countries in order to advertise in the years after the first world war for the reputation of Germany as culture nation. By the nationalsocialism the Munich ''nursery of theoretical physics'' however was prepared an inglorious end, because Sommerfeld counted for a ''main propagandist of Jewish theories''. By the example of this life of a physicist also the eventful history of a whole subject.

  9. Role of WhatsApp Messenger in the Laboratory Management System: A Boon to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorwal, Pranav; Sachdev, Ritesh; Gautam, Dheeraj; Jain, Dharmendra; Sharma, Pooja; Tiwari, Assem Kumar; Raina, Vimarsh

    2016-01-01

    The revolution of internet and specifically mobile internet has occurred at a blinding pace over the last decade. With the advent of smart phones, the hand held device has become much more than a medium of voice calling. Healthcare has been catching up with the digital revolution in the form of Hospital Information System and Laboratory Information System. However, the advent of instant messaging services, which are abundantly used by the youth, can be used to improve communication and coordination among the various stake holders in the healthcare sector. We have tried to look at the impact of using the WhatsApp messenger service in the laboratory management system, by forming multiple groups of the various subsections of the laboratory. A total of 35 members used this service for a period of 3 months and their response was taken on a scale of 1 to 10. There was significant improvement in the communication in the form of sharing photographic evidence, information about accidents, critical alerts, duty rosters, academic activities and getting directives from seniors. There was also some increase in the load of adding information to the application and disturbance in the routine activities; but the benefits far outweighed the minor hassles. We thereby suggest and foresee another communication revolution which will change the way information is shared in a healthcare sector, with hospital specific dedicated apps.

  10. Disturbances in lipid second messengers generation by stimulated blood lymphocytes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan H. M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main objective of this study was the comparative investigation of diverse lipid second messenger (LSM generation by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL at different (5, 10, 30 and 60 s time points of cell co-stimulation by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in norm and breast cancer (BC. Methods. Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Results. The data obtained indicate that some mechanisms of LSM generation/utilization in stimulated crude HPBL were significantly altered in BC compared to norm. Particularly, the reliable generation of arachidonyl-1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG at the initial step (5 s of cell stimulation observed in norm was depressed in BC and reached the value below the basal level in unstimulated cells. It is important that the disturbances in 1,2-DAG formation in HPBL obtained from patients with BC were identical with those observed earlier in other forms of cancer. Conclusions. We conclude that the regularities revealed are common characteristics for all the types of malignancy studied and can be used as additional testing parameters for cancer definition and individual correction of the chemotherapy programs for disease treatment

  11. POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics) Science and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Perkins, Jeremy S.; POEMMA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In this poster we describe the preliminary design of POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics). The two satellites flying in formation consists of an innovative Schmidt telescope design optimized for low energy threshold and large geometry factor for observations. The 4 meter mirror was designed to fit in a dual manifest launch vehicle. A novel corrector lens and fast optics are design to optimized the full field of view to 45 degrees. The large focal surface will be populated by two systems: a multi-anode PMT (MAPMT) array for fluorescence detection and a Silicon PM (SiPM) array for Cherenkov detection around the limb of the Earth. At an altitude of 525 km, the LEO orbit will have a 28.5o inclination the mission can be launched from KSC and have a mission life of 3 years with a 5 year goal. The mission will improve by orders of magnitude the observations of ultra-high energy cosmic rays above tens of EeV and search for neutrinos above tens of PeVs.

  12. Topographic roughness of the northern high latitudes of Mercury from MESSENGER Laser Altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Wenzhe; Cai, Yuzhen; Xiao, Zhiyong; Tian, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We investigated topographic roughness for the northern hemisphere (>45°N) of Mercury using high-resolution topography data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on board the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Our results show that there are distinct differences in the bidirectional slope and root-mean-square (RMS) height among smooth plains (SP), intercrater plains (ICP), and heavily cratered terrain (HCT), and that the ratios of the bidirectional slope and RMS height among the three geologic units are both about 1:2:2.4. Most of Mercury's surface exhibits fractal-like behavior on the basis of the linearity in the deviograms, with median Hurst exponents of 0.66, 0.80, and 0.81 for SP, ICP, and HCT, respectively. The median differential slope map shows that smooth plains are smooth at kilometer scale and become rough at hectometer scale, but they are always rougher than lunar maria at the scales studied. In contrast, intercrater plains and heavily cratered terrain are rough at kilometer scale and smooth at hectometer scale, and they are rougher than lunar highlands at scale ˜2 km. We suggest that these scale-dependent roughness characteristics are mainly caused by the difference in density and shape of impact craters between Mercury and the Moon.

  13. Multi-messenger Light Curves from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Internal Shock Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heinze, Jonas; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Murase, Kohta, E-mail: bustamanteramirez.1@osu.edu, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de, E-mail: jonas.heinze@desy.de, E-mail: murase@psu.edu [Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA16802 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma-rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure can be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  14. Multi-messenger light curves from gamma-ray bursts in the internal shock model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP); Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Murase, Kohta [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure tend to be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  15. Multi-messenger studies of compact binary mergers in the in the ngVLA era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    We explore some of the scientific opportunities that the next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will open in the field of multi-messenger time-domain astronomy. We focus on compact binary mergers, golden astrophysical targets of ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as advanced LIGO. A decade from now, a large number of these mergers is likely to be discovered by a world-wide network of GW detectors. We discuss how a radio array with 10 times the sensitivity of the current Karl G. Jansky VLA and 10 times the resolution, would enable resolved radio continuum studies of binary merger hosts, probing regions of the galaxy undergoing star formation (which can be heavily obscured by dust and gas), AGN components, and mapping the offset distribution of the mergers with respect to the host galaxy light. For compact binary mergers containing at least one neutron star (NS), from which electromagnetic counterparts are expected to exist, we show how the ngVLA would enable direct size measurements of the relativistic merger ejecta and probe, for the first time directly, their dynamics.

  16. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T

    2018-01-18

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10 -5 . By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10 -5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, [Formula: see text] = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10 -7 . Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, [Formula: see text] = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10 -14 , which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain [Formula: see text] to be <4 × 10 -14 per year.

  17. The Gravity Field, Orientation, and Ephemeris of Mercury from MESSENGER Observations After Three Years in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan M.; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Gregory; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed three years of radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury and determined the gravity field, planetary orientation, and ephemeris of the innermost planet. With improvements in spatial coverage, force modeling, and data weighting, we refined an earlier global gravity field both in quality and resolution, and we present here a spherical harmonic solution to degree and order 50. In this field, termed HgM005, uncertainties in low-degree coefficients are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to the earlier global field, and we obtained a preliminary value of the tidal Love number k(sub 2) of 0.451+/-0.014. We also estimated Mercury's pole position, and we obtained an obliquity value of 2.06 +/- 0.16 arcmin, in good agreement with analysis of Earth-based radar observations. From our updated rotation period (58.646146 +/- 0.000011 days) and Mercury ephemeris, we verified experimentally the planet's 3: 2 spin-orbit resonance to greater accuracy than previously possible. We present a detailed analysis of the HgM005 covariance matrix, and we describe some near-circular frozen orbits around Mercury that could be advantageous for future exploration.

  18. Large Impact Basins on Mercury: Global Distribution, Characteristics, and Modification History from MESSENGER Orbital Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Klimczak, Christian; Strom, Robert G.; Chapman, Clark R.; Prockter, Louise M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The formation of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) was an important process in the early evolution of Mercury and influenced the planet's topography, stratigraphy, and crustal structure. We catalog and characterize this basin population on Mercury from global observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft, and we use the new data to evaluate basins suggested on the basis of the Mariner 10 flybys. Forty-two certain or probable impact basins are recognized a few additional basins that may have been degraded to the point of ambiguity are plausible on the basis of new data but are classified as uncertain. The spatial density of large basins (D greater than or equal to 500 km) on Mercury is lower than that on the Moon. Morphological characteristics of basins on Mercury suggest that on average they are more degraded than lunar basins. These observations are consistent with more efficient modification, degradation, and obliteration of the largest basins on Mercury than on the Moon. This distinction may be a result of differences in the basin formation process (producing fewer rings), greater relaxation of topography after basin formation (subduing relief), and/or higher rates of volcanism during the period of heavy bombardment on Mercury compared to the Moon (burying basin rings and interiors).

  19. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10-5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10-5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, J2⊙J2⊙ = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10-7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, GM⊙°/GM⊙GM⊙°/GM⊙ = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10-14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain ∣∣G°∣∣/GG°/G to be <4 × 10-14 per year.

  20. Differential expression and genetic variation of hepatic messenger RNAs from genetically lean and fat chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Wilfrid; Bourneuf, Emmanuelle; Douaire, Madeleine; Diot, Christian

    2002-10-16

    Although excessive adiposity has become a major drawback in meat type chicken production, few of the genes involved in this process have been characterized so far. In order to identify putative genes involved in adiposity, we performed differential display analysis of RNAs extracted from the liver of divergently selected lean and fat chickens. Twenty-six differential products were selected and purified by single strand conformation polymorphism gel electrophoresis before sequencing and Northern blot analyses. An orthologous sequence of a mammalian cytochrome P450 2C subfamily member was proven to be differentially expressed in the liver of lean and fat chickens and could play an important role in the regulation of adiposity. In mammals, these genes are involved in detoxification of xenobiotics and metabolism of some important biological compounds. Four other genes were found differentially expressed to a lower extent. Some unidentified products were shown to be lean or fat specific, with sequence polymorphism and liver specific expression, strongly suggesting that the related gene could be directly involved in adiposity. Our data indicate that differential display can evidence genes with differential expression and with sequence polymorphism, making this strategy more accurate for differential analysis of messenger RNAs.

  1. Formation and actions of calcium-mobilizing messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putney, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of surface membrane receptors can activate a phospholipase C, which degrades phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate liberating a calcium mobilizing second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP 3 ]. The coupling of surface receptors to the phospholipase C involves one or more quanine nucleotide-dependent regulatory proteins that are similar but not identical to those that regulate adenylate cyclase. (1,4,5)IP 3 has been shown to release Ca 2+ from a portion of the endoplasmic reticulum and is believed responsible for the initial phase of Ca 2+ mobilization ascribed to internal Ca 2+ release. (1,4,5)IP 3 acts by binding to a specific receptor that either is a component of, or regulates, a Ca 2+ ion channel. The release of Ca 2+ from the (1,4,5)IP 3 -sensitive component of the endoplasmic reticulum may secondarily activate the second phase of Ca 2+ mobilization, which involves Ca 2+ entry. (1,4,5)IP 3 is metabolized by two pathways. One involves the action of a 5-phosphatase that degrades (1,4,5)IP 3 to inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, whereas the other involves a 3-kinase that phosphorylates (1,4,5)IP 3 to produce inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. The significance of this dual metabolism is not known, but it may be important in rapidly extinguishing the Ca 2+ -releasing activity (1,4,5)IP 3

  2. Organism-specific rRNA capture system for application in next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Kam Li

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing is a powerful tool in studying RNomics. However, the highly abundance of ribosomal RNAs (rRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA have predominated in the sequencing reads, thereby hindering the study of lowly expressed genes. Therefore, rRNA depletion prior to sequencing is often performed in order to preserve the subtle alteration in gene expression especially those at relatively low expression levels. One of the commercially available methods is to use DNA or RNA probes to hybridize to the target RNAs. However, there is always a concern with the non-specific binding and unintended removal of messenger RNA (mRNA when the same set of probes is applied to different organisms. The degree of such unintended mRNA removal varies among organisms due to organism-specific genomic variation. We developed a computer-based method to design probes to deplete rRNA in an organism-specific manner. Based on the computation results, biotinylated-RNA-probes were produced by in vitro transcription and were used to perform rRNA depletion with subtractive hybridization. We demonstrated that the designed probes of 16S rRNAs and 23S rRNAs can efficiently remove rRNAs from Mycobacterium smegmatis. In comparison with a commercial subtractive hybridization-based rRNA removal kit, using organism-specific probes is better in preserving the RNA integrity and abundance. We believe the computer-based design approach can be used as a generic method in preparing RNA of any organisms for next-generation sequencing, particularly for the transcriptome analysis of microbes.

  3. ANALISIS PREFERENSI KONSUMEN DALAM PENGGUNAAN SOCIAL MESSENGER DI KOTA BANDUNG TAHUN 2014 (Studi Kasus : LINE, KAKAOTALK, WECHAT, WHATSAPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noventi Ersa Putri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui “preferensi konsumen dalam penggunaan Social Messenger di kota Bandung”. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksploratif dan deskriptif, dengan meng- gunakan teknik Nonprobability sampling dan purposive sampling, dengan jumlah sampel 384 responden. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah Conjoint Analysis. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa keseluruhan responden menjadikan atribut fasilitas fi tur sebagai preferensi utama dalam memilih social messenger dengan nilai kepentingan tertinggi yaitu 48.361% dan level tertinggi yang menjadi preferensi fasilitas fi tur adalah free chat dengan nilai kepentingan sebesar 0.603% dan atribut desain sesuai kebutuhan pelanggan sebagai atribut terendah dengan nilai kepentingan 15.256% dan level ter- tinggi yang menjadi preferensi desain sesuai kebutuhan pelanggan adalah memiliki tampilan yang menarik dengan nilai kepentingan sebesar 0.078%.

  4. Brand Awareness Strategy: Role of Blackberry Messenger(Case in Sumber Tiket Murah Travel: PIN 2144C41F)

    OpenAIRE

    Pane, Dian; Lestari, Baroroh

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research is to explore the role of Blackberry Messenger (BBM) as one of marketingcommunication`s tool by analyzing Sumber Tiket Murah travel strategy in advertising its brand. BBM belongs toBlackberry Smartphone application and nowdays recently used as mobile sales promotion. The level of brandawareness is the output based on four stages e.g recognition, recall, top of mind, brand dominance. It used aqualitative approach using a written interview to gather information thr...

  5. Tumor-specific RNA interference targeting Pokemon suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yining; Xu, Shuxiong; Wang, Xiangwei; Shi, Hua; Sun, Zhaolin; Yang, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    To explore the exact mechanism of Pokemon in prostate cancer. Pokemon is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Its main function is suppression of the p14ARF (alternate reading frame) tumor suppressor gene. Although Pokemon expression has been found to be increased in various types of lymphoma, the exact mechanism of the gene in prostate cancer is not clear. In the present study, prostate cancer cells were transfected with the specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression vector targeting Pokemon. The expression of Pokemon messenger RNA and its protein was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cell growth and cell apoptosis were also examined using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that specific RNA interference (RNAi) could decrease the expression levels of Pokemon gene messenger RNA and protein in prostate cancer cells. In addition, that specific RNAi significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate. In vivo experiments showed that specific RNAi inhibited the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells and significantly suppressed tumor growth. Therefore, an RNAi-targeted Pokemon gene strategy could be a potential approach to prostate cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organophosphorus compounds preferentially affect second messenger systems coupled to M2/M4 receptors in rat frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, T R; Mundy, W R

    1996-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that organophosphate insecticides, in addition to inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, can bind directly at a subset of muscarinic receptors, which also bind cis-methyldioxolane with high affinity. Muscarinic receptors are known to act through at least two second messenger systems, either the stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover (mediated through the M1 and M3 receptor subtypes) or the inhibition of cAMP formation (mediated through the M2 and M4 receptor subtypes). We have investigated the action of the active forms of parathion, malathion, and chlorpyrifos (paraoxon, malaoxon, and chlorpyrifos oxon, respectively) on these second messenger systems in cortical slices from adult male Long-Evans rats. Paraoxon, malaoxon, and chlorpyrifos oxon (10(-8) to 10(-4) M) inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect on cAMP formation was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (10 microM). These results suggest that paraoxon, malaoxon, and chlorpyrifos oxon can act as agonists at the M2 and/or M4 subset of muscarinic receptors. In addition, chlorpyrifos may have another site of action. In contrast, none of the organophosphates had any effect on basal or carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The differential activity on these two second messenger systems make it unlikely that the observed effects on cAMP formation are due to increases in endogenous acetylcholine resulting from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase.

  7. Great times for small molecules: c-di-AMP, a second messenger candidate in Bacteria and Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute

    2008-08-19

    Successful cell division in pro- and eukaryotes is ensured by checkpoints that regulate cell cycle progression. Structural and biochemical analyses of the DNA integrity scanning protein (DisA) have recently shown that its domain of unknown function, DUF147 [renamed DAC (for diadenylate cyclase)], has diadenylate cyclase activity. This diadenylate cyclase activity is abolished when DisA binds to branched DNA substrates, which arise during DNA double-strand breaks that can spontaneously occur during DNA replication. This finding identifies cyclic di(3'-->5')-adenylic acid (c-di-AMP) as a second messenger candidate that signals DNA integrity in Bacillus subtilis during sporulation, a specialized cell division process that leads to formation of a dormant cell called a spore. The DAC domain is widespread in Bacteria and Archaea; moreover, it is found in proteins containing diverse domains, suggesting that c-di-AMP acts as a second messenger molecule in response to various signals besides branched DNA. To elucidate the biological importance and molecular mechanisms of action for c-di-AMP and the recently recognized second messenger c-di-GMP will require a multidisciplinary approach.

  8. MESSENGER, MErcury: Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging; A Mission to Orbit and Explore the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    MESSENGER is a scientific mission to Mercury. Understanding this extraordinary planet and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the processes that have governed the formation, evolution, and dynamics of the terrestrial planets. MESSENGER is a MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission to orbit Mercury for one Earth year after completing two flybys of that planet following two flybys of Venus. The necessary flybys return significant new data early in the mission, while the orbital phase, guided by the flyby data, enables a focused scientific investigation of this least-studied terrestrial planet. Answers to key questions about Mercury's high density, crustal composition and structure, volcanic history, core structure, magnetic field generation, polar deposits, exosphere, overall volatile inventory, and magnetosphere are provided by an optimized set of miniaturized space instruments. Our goal is to gain new insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system, including Earth. By traveling to the inner edge of the solar system and exploring a poorly known world, MESSENGER fulfills this quest.

  9. T7-RNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    T7-RNA Polymerase grown on STS-81. Structure-Function Relationships of RNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is the key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of RNA, a process known as transcription. Principal Investigator's include Dr. Dan Carter, Dr. B.C. Wang, and Dr. John Rose of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  10. Mesoporous silica nanorods toward efficient loading and intracellular delivery of siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijue; She, Xiaodong; Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2018-02-01

    The technology of RNA interference (RNAi) that uses small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence the gene expression with complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence has great potential for the treatment of cancer in which certain genes were usually found overexpressed. However, the carry and delivery of siRNA to the target site in the human body can be challenging for this technology to be used clinically to silence the cancer-related gene expression. In this work, rod shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were developed as siRNA delivery system for specific intracellular delivery. The rod MSNs with an aspect ratio of 1.5 had a high surface area of 934.28 m2/g and achieved a siRNA loading of more than 80 mg/g. With the epidermal growth factor (EGF) grafted on the surface of the MSNs, siRNA can be delivered to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed colorectal cancer cells with high intracellular concentration compared to MSNs without EGF and lead to survivin gene knocking down to less than 30%.

  11. NOVOMIR: De Novo Prediction of MicroRNA-Coding Regions in a Single Plant-Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teune, Jan-Hendrik; Steger, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small regulatory, noncoding RNA molecules that are transcribed as primary miRNAs (pri-miRNA) from eukaryotic genomes. At least in plants, their regulatory activity is mediated through base-pairing with protein-coding messenger RNAs (mRNA) followed by mRNA degradation or translation repression. We describe NOVOMIR, a program for the identification of miRNA genes in plant genomes. It uses a series of filter steps and a statistical model to discriminate a pre-miRNA from other RNAs and does rely neither on prior knowledge of a miRNA target nor on comparative genomics. The sensitivity and specificity of NOVOMIR for detection of premiRNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana is ~0.83 and ~0.99, respectively. Plant pre-miRNAs are more heterogeneous with respect to size and structure than animal pre-miRNAs. Despite these difficulties, NOVOMIR is well suited to perform searches for pre-miRNAs on a genomic scale. NOVOMIR is written in Perl and relies on two additional, free programs for prediction of RNA secondary structure (RNALFOLD, RNASHAPES). PMID:20871826

  12. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: new insights into geological processes and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W., III; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Blewett, David T.; Chapman, Clark R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Evans, Larry G.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Helbert, Jörn; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Merline, William J.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larrz R.; Phillips, Roger J.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Sprague, Ann L.; Strom, Robert G.; Vilas, Faith; Watters, Thomas R.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2008-09-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, a part of NASA's Discovery Program, was designed to answer six questions [1]: (1) What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high ratio of metal to silicate? (2) What is the geological history of Mercury? (3) What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? (4) What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? (5) What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? (6) What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks near Mercury? MESSENGER is currently midway through a complex interplanetary cruise phase that involves three flybys of Mercury. The first of these, on 14 January 2008, provided important new information relating to several of the questions above [2-13]. Here we summarize observations made during the flyby that are most relevant to new insights about geological processes that have operated on Mercury and implications for the planet's history [3, 8-13]. The instruments that provided the most direct information on the geological history of Mercury during this first encounter were the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) [14], the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) [15], and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [16]. Among the many specific questions remaining following the Mariner 10 mission to Mercury (1974- 1975) were (1) the level of mineralogical and compositional diversity of the crust, which appeared relatively bland in Mariner 10 data, (2) the nature of the rest of the huge Caloris impact basin seen only partially in Mariner 10 images, (3) the origin of the extensive plains observed on the surface (ponded impact ejecta or extrusive lava flows?), (4) the diversity and global distribution of tectonic features that have deformed the crust and their implications for strain as a function of time, and (5) the bombardment chronology and geological history of Mercury [1, 17-19]. The viewing

  14. Application of quantum dots as vectors in targeted survivin gene siRNA delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao JJ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianjiang Zhao, Xiaoling Qiu, Zhiping Wang, Jie Pan, Jun Chen, Jiusong Han Department of Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Gene silencing using short interfering RNA (siRNA is becoming an attractive approach for probing gene function in mammalian cells. This study evaluated the specificity and efficiency of quantum dots (QDs as non-viral gene vectors for delivery of survivin siRNA and downregulation of survivin gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells. Water-dispersible cationically-modified QDs were electrostatically attached to anionic siRNA molecules and complexed with siRNA for downregulating expression of the survivin gene. Cellular uptake and allocation of QD–siRNA complexes in Tca8113 cells were monitored using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to quantify survivin messenger RNA (mRNA levels. CdSe QDs were observed with high intensity fluorescence under confocal laser scanning microscopy. Tca8113 cells were successfully transfected by QDs with survivin siRNA, and the red fluorescence from CdSe QDs and green fluorescein amidite fluorescence from siRNA could both be easily observed after 6 hours of incubation. The release of siRNA into the cytoplasm was verified through real-time PCR quantification that showed reduced survivin mRNA levels. In this study, survivin siRNA successfully complexed with water-soluble CdSe QDs and exhibited excellent fluorescent properties and downregulated the expression of the survivin gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells. QDs are a novel non-viral gene delivery vector. Keywords: quantum dots, survivin, siRNA delivery, transfection, Tca8113, tongue cancer cells

  15. RNA amplification for successful gene profiling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of clinical samples is often limited by the amount of material available to study. While proteins cannot be multiplied in their natural form, DNA and RNA can be amplified from small specimens and used for high-throughput analyses. Therefore, genetic studies offer the best opportunity to screen for novel insights of human pathology when little material is available. Precise estimates of DNA copy numbers in a given specimen are necessary. However, most studies investigate static variables such as the genetic background of patients or mutations within pathological specimens without a need to assess proportionality of expression among different genes throughout the genome. Comparative genomic hybridization of DNA samples represents a crude exception to this rule since genomic amplification or deletion is compared among different specimens directly. For gene expression analysis, however, it is critical to accurately estimate the proportional expression of distinct RNA transcripts since such proportions directly govern cell function by modulating protein expression. Furthermore, comparative estimates of relative RNA expression at different time points portray the response of cells to environmental stimuli, indirectly informing about broader biological events affecting a particular tissue in physiological or pathological conditions. This cognitive reaction of cells is similar to the detection of electroencephalographic patterns which inform about the status of the brain in response to external stimuli. As our need to understand human pathophysiology at the global level increases, the development and refinement of technologies for high fidelity messenger RNA amplification have become the focus of increasing interest during the past decade. The need to increase the abundance of RNA has been met not only for gene specific amplification, but, most importantly for global transcriptome wide, unbiased amplification. Now gene

  16. Combinatorics of RNA-RNA interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Thomas J X; Reidys, Christian

    2012-01-01

    RNA-RNA binding is an important phenomenon observed for many classes of non-coding RNAs and plays a crucial role in a number of regulatory processes. Recently several MFE folding algorithms for predicting the joint structure of two interacting RNA molecules have been proposed. Here joint structure...... means that in a diagram representation the intramolecular bonds of each partner are pseudoknot-free, that the intermolecular binding pairs are noncrossing, and that there is no so-called "zigzag" configuration. This paper presents the combinatorics of RNA interaction structures including...

  17. Calibration, Projection, and Final Image Products of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Becker, Kris J.; Blewett, David T.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Hash, Christopher D.; Hawkins, S. Edward; Keller, Mary R.; Laslo, Nori R.; Nair, Hari; Robinson, Mark S.; Seelos, Frank P.; Stephens, Grant K.; Turner, F. Scott; Solomon, Sean C.

    2018-02-01

    We present an overview of the operations, calibration, geodetic control, photometric standardization, and processing of images from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER spacecraft's mission at Mercury (18 March 2011-30 April 2015). We also provide a summary of all of the MDIS products that are available in NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). Updates to the radiometric calibration included slight modification of the frame-transfer smear correction, updates to the flat fields of some wide-angle camera (WAC) filters, a new model for the temperature dependence of narrow-angle camera (NAC) and WAC sensitivity, and an empirical correction for temporal changes in WAC responsivity. Further, efforts to characterize scattered light in the WAC system are described, along with a mosaic-dependent correction for scattered light that was derived for two regional mosaics. Updates to the geometric calibration focused on the focal lengths and distortions of the NAC and all WAC filters, NAC-WAC alignment, and calibration of the MDIS pivot angle and base. Additionally, two control networks were derived so that the majority of MDIS images can be co-registered with sub-pixel accuracy; the larger of the two control networks was also used to create a global digital elevation model. Finally, we describe the image processing and photometric standardization parameters used in the creation of the MDIS advanced products in the PDS, which include seven large-scale mosaics, numerous targeted local mosaics, and a set of digital elevation models ranging in scale from local to global.

  18. Medical Information Exchange: Pattern of Global Mobile Messenger Usage among Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil; Dagan, Elad; Wolf, Michael; Duvdevani, Shay; Alon, Eran E

    2016-11-01

    Information technology has revolutionized health care. However, the development of dedicated mobile health software has been lagging, leading to the use of general mobile applications to fill in the void. The use of such applications has several legal, ethical, and regulatory implications. We examined the experience and practices governing the usage of a global mobile messenger application (WhatsApp) for mobile health purposes in a national cohort of practicing otolaryngologists in Israel, a known early adaptor information technology society. Cross-sectional data were collected from practicing otolaryngologists and otolaryngology residents via self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of a demographic section, a section surveying the practices of mobile application use, mobile health application use, and knowledge regarding institutional policies governing the transmission of medical data. The sample included 22 otolaryngology residents and 47 practicing otolaryngologists. Of the physicians, 83% worked in academic centers, and 88% and 40% of the physicians who worked in a hospital setting or a community clinic used WhatsApp for medical use, respectively. Working with residents increased the medical usage of WhatsApp from 50% to 91% (P = .006). Finally, 72% were unfamiliar with any institutional policy regarding the transfer of medical information by personal smartphones. Mobile health is becoming an integral part of modern medical systems, improving accessibility, efficiency, and possibly quality of medical care. The need to incorporate personal mobile devices in the overall information technology standards, guidelines, and regulation is becoming more acute. Nonetheless, practices must be properly instituted to prevent unwanted consequences. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  19. Mercury's Solar Wind Interaction as Characterized by Magnetospheric Plasma Mantle Observations With MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; DiBraccio, Gina A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze 94 traversals of Mercury's southern magnetospheric plasma mantle using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The mean and median proton number densities in the mantle are 1.5 and 1.3 cm-3, respectively. For sodium number density these values are 0.004 and 0.002 cm-3. Moderately higher densities are observed on the magnetospheric dusk side. The mantle supplies up to 1.5 × 108 cm-2 s-1 and 0.8 × 108 cm-2 s-1 of proton and sodium flux to the plasma sheet, respectively. We estimate the cross-electric magnetospheric potential from each observation and find a mean of 19 kV (standard deviation of 16 kV) and a median of 13 kV. This is an important result as it is lower than previous estimations and shows that Mercury's magnetosphere is at times not as highly driven by the solar wind as previously thought. Our values are comparable to the estimations for the ice giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, but lower than Earth. The estimated potentials do have a very large range of values (1-74 kV), showing that Mercury's magnetosphere is highly dynamic. A correlation of the potential is found to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude, supporting evidence that dayside magnetic reconnection can occur at all shear angles at Mercury. But we also see that Mercury has an Earth-like magnetospheric response, favoring -BZ IMF orientation. We find evidence that -BX orientations in the IMF favor the southern cusp and southern mantle. This is in agreement with telescopic observations of exospheric emission, but in disagreement with modeling.

  20. MESSENGER and Mariner 10 Flyby Observations of Magnetotail Structure and Dynamics at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian Jay; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The first (M1), second (M2), and third (M3) MESSENGER flybys of Mercury traversed the planet's magnetotail from 1.25 to 3.25 RM downstream of the planet, where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius (2440 km). The encounters took place under northward, southward, and variable-polarity interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), respectively. The magnetic field strength B in Mercury's magnetotail follows a power law decrease with increasing antisunward distance |X|, B approximately |X|(sup G), with G varying from -5.4 for northward to -1.6 for southward IMF. Low-latitude boundary layers (LLBLs) containing strong northward magnetic field were detected at the tail flanks during two of the flybys. The observed thickness of the LLBL was 33% and 16% of the radius of the tail during M1 and M3, respectively, but the boundary layer was completely absent during M2. Clear signatures of tail reconnection are evident in the M2 and M3 magnetic field measurements. Plasmoids and traveling compression regions were observed during M2 and M3 with typical durations of approximately 1-3 s, suggesting diameters of approximately 500-1500 km. Overall, the response of Mercury's magnetotail to the steady southward IMF during M2 appeared very similar to steady magnetospheric convection events at Earth, which are believed to be driven by quasi-continuous reconnection. In contrast, the M3 measurements are dominated by tail loading and unloading events that resemble the large-scale magnetic field reconfigurations observed during magnetospheric substorms at Earth.

  1. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 , the second messenger for intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P 3 have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with [ 3 H]-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 , which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 , while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P 3 was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 has any functional effects on Ca 2+ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from [ 3 H]-Ins(1,4,5)P 3 using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. [ 3 H]-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 up to 10 μM does not release Ca 2+ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P 3 -induced Ca 2+ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 on plasma membrane Ca 2+ fluxes are presently being investigated

  2. Reporters Transiently Transfected into Mammalian Cells Are Highly Sensitive to Translational Repression Induced by dsRNA Expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejepínská, Jana; Malík, Radek; Wagner, Susan; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), e87517 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0085; GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Grant - others:EMBO(DE) 1483 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA * INITIATION FACTOR-II * PROTEIN-KINASE PKR * GENE-EXPRESSION * MOUSE OOCYTES * MESSENGER-RNAS * HAIRPIN RNA * PHOSPHORYLATION * TRANSCRIPTION * INTERFERENCE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  3. RNA structures regulating nidovirus RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Born, Erwin van den

    2006-01-01

    Viruses depend on their host cell for the production of their progeny. The genetic information that is required to regulate this process is contained in the viral genome. In the case of plus-stranded RNA viruses, like nidoviruses, the RNA genome is directly involved in translation (resulting in the

  4. Targeted Sterically Stabilized Phospholipid siRNA Nanomedicine for Hepatic and Renal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Khaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery, small interfering RNA (siRNA has been considered a potent tool for modulating gene expression. It has the ability to specifically target proteins via selective degradation of messenger RNA (mRNA not easily accessed by conventional drugs. Hence, RNA interference (RNAi therapeutics have great potential in the treatment of many diseases caused by faulty protein expression such as fibrosis and cancer. However, for clinical application siRNA faces a number of obstacles, such as poor in vivo stability, and off-target effects. Here we developed a unique targeted nanomedicine to tackle current siRNA delivery issues by formulating a biocompatible, biodegradable and relatively inexpensive nanocarrier of sterically stabilized phospholipid nanoparticles (SSLNPs. This nanocarrier is capable of incorporating siRNA in its core through self-association with a novel cationic lipid composed of naturally occuring phospholipids and amino acids. This overall assembly protects and delivers sufficient amounts of siRNA to knockdown over-expressed protein in target cells. The siRNA used in this study, targets connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, an important regulator of fibrosis in both hepatic and renal cells. Furthermore, asialoglycoprotein receptors are targeted by attaching the galactosamine ligand to the nanocarries which enhances the uptake of nanoparticles by hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells, the major producers of CTGF in fibrosis. On animals this innovative nanoconstruct, small interfering RNA in sterically stabilized phospholipid nanoparticles (siRNA-SSLNP, showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and accumulated mostly in hepatic and renal tissues making siRNA-SSLNP a suitable system for targeting liver and kidney fibrotic diseases.

  5. Electrophoretic study of newly synthesized RNA during oral regeneration of the heterotrichous ciliate protozoan Stentor coeruleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohatier, J.; Bernard, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 63 - Aubiere (France). Departement de Zoologie et Protistoligie); Amalric, F. (Centre de Recherche de Biochemie et de Genetique Cellulaires, Toulouse (France))

    1983-01-01

    An electrophoretic study was made of RNA newly formed during two periods of preferential /sup 3/H-uridine uptake in Stentor undergoing traumatic regeneration of oral apparatus. Three main categories of RNA were detected during both periods: ribosomal RNAs 18S and 28S, low molecular weight RNAs 4-6S and polydispersed RNAs 7S-22S. Among the latter, an RNA 7-8S was detected in large amounts during both periods, and an RNA 16-18S appeared in the second period. This last RNA was also found in total RNA for the whole regeneration cycle (8 h) and in total RNA from dividing intact cells (16 h). The percentage of oligo(dT)-cellulose-bound RNA, always low, was highest at early stages. Electrophoretic analysis showed that most of the new species were poly A/sup -/. Although poly A/sup +/RNAs are preferentially synthesized at the beginning of morphogenesis, the existence of poly A/sup -/ messengers in Stentor cannot be excluded.

  6. Nanotechnologies in delivery of mRNA therapeutics using nonviral vector-based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, S; Rosenecker, J

    2017-03-01

    Because of its safe and effective protein expression profile, in vitro transcribed messenger RNA (IVT-mRNA) represents a promising candidate in the development of novel therapeutics for genetic diseases, vaccines or gene editing strategies, especially when its inherent shortcomings (for example, instability and immunogenicity) have been partially addressed via structural modifications. However, numerous unsolved technical difficulties in successful in vivo delivery of IVT-mRNA have greatly hindered the applications of IVT-mRNA in clinical development. Recent advances in nanotechnology and material science have yielded many promising nonviral delivery systems, some of which were able to efficiently facilitate targeted in vivo delivery of IVT-mRNA in safe and noninvasive manners. The diversity and flexibility of these delivery systems highlight the recent progress of IVT-mRNA-based therapy using nonviral vectors. In this review, we summarize recent advances of existing and emerging nonviral vector-based nanotechnologies for IVT-mRNA delivery and briefly summarize the interesting but rarely discussed applications on simultaneous delivery of IVT-mRNA with DNA.

  7. RNA modifications by oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...... other RNA molecules show virtually no oxidation. The iron-storage disease hemochromatosis exhibits the most prominent general increase in RNA oxidation ever observed. Oxidation of RNA primarily leads to strand breaks and to oxidative base modifications. Oxidized mRNA is recognized by the ribosomes...

  8. Three Pillars of Success: The Partners, The Messenger, The Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Our ability to deal with climate impacts in coastal cities and bring change, hinges on our ability to effectively communicate impacts. Incorporating sea level rise and climate impacts into city planning and community action plans is too often done in response to a devastating impact rather than through preventative planning. In New York the impact came in the form of Hurricane Sandy. Prior to Sandy, NYC, NY State and regional scientists had prepared planning documents, reports and communications directed at public officials and decision makers, warning of potential impacts from a changing climate. Presentations and reports identified the most exposed locations and infrastructure, but disbelief and a false sense of time mired any meaningful change. Effective communication about climate and impacts is at the root of planning and resilience. To be meaningful it must come from a trusted messenger, use well vetted materials that address both larger climate processes and drivers and local impacts, be accessible to the non-science community, and incorporate multiple modes of communication. The Polar Explorer: Sea Level app is a tool that has been used to this end (http://www.polarexplorer.org). An interactive multi-layered communication tool, it uses vetted data structured through a series of commonly asked questions and displayed through visualizations. We have been partnering with New York State, local community groups, and state and educational organizations to reach a broad cross section of the public with information useful for planning. We have co-presented at conferences for local planning and advisory groups, and incorporated the use of the app into local planning charrettes and have found the visualizations, interactivity of the delivery and the layered scaffolding make the app a useful tool for planners and decision makers. The app includes the physical science drivers of climate change and the social science impacts, and a look at the past the present and

  9. Mercury's radius change estimates revisited using high incidence angle MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Popa, C.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    obtained in the present study are up to five times higher with respect to previous estimates. Our results are more compatible with recent studies suggesting that the Mercury's radius contraction could have been up to 5-6 km throughout its thermal evolution than previous results, supporting the idea that Mercury could have recorded more tectonism than that required to account for 1-2 km of radial contraction. These estimates should be confirmed by further observations over significant portions of the planet and at most favorable sun angle conditions using data from the MESSENGER orbital phase and the high resolution basemaps which will be provided by the next BepiColombo mission.

  10. Nitric oxide in guard cells as an important secondary messenger during stomatal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunja eGayatri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available he modulation of guard cell function is the basis of stomatal closure, essential for optimizing water use and CO2 uptake by leaves. Nitric oxide (NO in guard cells plays a very important role as a secondary messenger during stomatal closure induced by effectors, including hormones. For example, exposure to abscisic acid (ABA triggers a marked increase in NO of guard cells, well before stomatal closure. In guard cells of multiple species, like Arabidopsis, Vicia and pea, exposure to ABA or methyl jasmonate or even microbial elicitors (e.g. chitosan induces production of NO as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS. The role of NO in stomatal closure has been confirmed by using NO donors (e.g. SNP and NO scavengers (like cPTIO and inhibitors of NOS (L-NAME or NR (tungstate. Two enzymes: a L-NAME-sensitive, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-like enzyme and a tungstate-sensitive nitrate reductase (NR, can mediate ABA-induced NO rise in guard cells. However, the existence of true NOS in plant tissues and its role in guard cell NO-production are still a matter of intense debate. Guard cell signal transduction leading to stomatal closure involves the participation of several components, besides NO, such as cytosolic pH, ROS, free Ca2+ and phospholipids. Use of fluorescent dyes has revealed that the rise in NO of guard cells occurs after the increase in cytoplasmic pH and ROS. The rise in NO causes an elevation in cytosolic free Ca2+ and promotes the efflux of cations as well as anions from guard cells. Stomatal guard cells have become a model system to study the signalling cascade mechanisms in plants, particularly with NO as a dominant component. The interrelationships and interactions of NO with cytosolic pH, ROS, and free Ca2+ are quite complex and need further detailed examination. While assessing critically the available literature, the present review projects possible areas of further work related to NO-action in stomatal guard cells.

  11. Venus upper clouds and the UV-absorber from MESSENGER/MASCS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia Munoz, Antonio; Irwin, Patrick; Peralta, Javier; Holsclaw, Greg; McClintock, William

    2014-11-01

    In June 2007, the MESSENGER spacecraft performed its second Venus flyby on its route to Mercury. The spacecraft’s MASCS instrument (VIRS channel) acquired numerous spectra of the sunlight reflected from the equatorial region of the planet at wavelengths from the near ultraviolet (300nm) to the near infrared (1450 nm). In this work we present an analysis of the data and their spectral and spatial variability following the mission footprint on the Venus disk. In order to reproduce the observed reflectivity and obtain information on the upper clouds and the unknown UV absorber, we use the NEMESIS retrieval code, including SO2 , CO2 and H2O absorption together with absorption and scattering by mode-1, -2 and -3 cloud particles. This spectral range provides sensitivity to the uppermost cloud levels, above 60 km. Vertical profiles of the mode-1 and mode-2 particles have been retrieved along the equatorial region of Venus, with average retrieved sounding levels of 70 +/- 2 km at 1 micron, in good agreement with previous investigations. This spectral range is also very interesting because of the existence of a mysterious absorber in the blue and UV side of the reflected spectra, whose origin remains as one of the key questions about the Venus atmosphere. Here we report a comparison with some of the previously proposed absorbers: (1) sulfur-related compounds (amorphous and liquid sulfur, S3, S4, S8, S2O); (2) chlorine related species (Cl2, FeCl3); (3) organics (C3O2, Croconic acid). Preliminary results show that the first group provides better fits to the data, although combinations of the proposed agents might be required in order to produce better results. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009- 10701, AYA2012-38897-C02-01, and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, PRICIT-S2009/ESP-1496, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13, and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. S.P.-H. acknowledges support from the Jose Castillejo Program funded by Ministerio de Educaci

  12. THERMAL EFFECTS ON CAMERA FOCAL LENGTH IN MESSENGER STAR CALIBRATION AND ORBITAL IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Burmeister

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyse images taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENviorment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER spacecraft for the camera’s thermal response in the harsh thermal environment near Mercury. Specifically, we study thermally induced variations in focal length of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS. Within the several hundreds of images of star fields, the Wide Angle Camera (WAC typically captures up to 250 stars in one frame of the panchromatic channel. We measure star positions and relate these to the known star coordinates taken from the Tycho-2 catalogue. We solve for camera pointing, the focal length parameter and two non-symmetrical distortion parameters for each image. Using data from the temperature sensors on the camera focal plane we model a linear focal length function in the form of f(T = A0 + A1 T. Next, we use images from MESSENGER’s orbital mapping mission. We deal with large image blocks, typically used for the production of a high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM. We analyzed images from the combined quadrangles H03 and H07, a selected region, covered by approx. 10,600 images, in which we identified about 83,900 tiepoints. Using bundle block adjustments, we solved for the unknown coordinates of the control points, the pointing of the camera – as well as the camera’s focal length. We then fit the above linear function with respect to the focal plane temperature. As a result, we find a complex response of the camera to thermal conditions of the spacecraft. To first order, we see a linear increase by approx. 0.0107 mm per degree temperature for the Narrow-Angle Camera (NAC. This is in agreement with the observed thermal response seen in images of the panchromatic channel of the WAC. Unfortunately, further comparisons of results from the two methods, both of which use different portions of the available image data, are limited. If leaving uncorrected, these effects may pose significant difficulties in

  13. Real-time dynamics of RNA Polymerase II clustering in live human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Transcription is the first step in the central dogma of molecular biology, when genetic information encoded on DNA is made into messenger RNA. How this fundamental process occurs within living cells (in vivo) is poorly understood,[1] despite extensive biochemical characterizations with isolated biomolecules (in vitro). For high-order organisms, like humans, transcription is reported to be spatially compartmentalized in nuclear foci consisting of clusters of RNA Polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing all messenger RNAs. However, little is known of when these foci assemble or their relative stability. We developed an approach based on photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM) combined with a temporal correlation analysis, which we refer to as tcPALM. The tcPALM method enables the real-time characterization of biomolecular spatiotemporal organization, with single-molecule sensitivity, directly in living cells.[2] Using tcPALM, we observed that RNA Polymerase II clusters form transiently, with an average lifetime of 5.1 (+/- 0.4) seconds. Stimuli affecting transcription regulation yielded orders of magnitude changes in the dynamics of the polymerase clusters, implying that clustering is regulated and plays a role in the cells ability to effect rapid response to external signals. Our results suggest that the transient crowding of enzymes may aid in rate-limiting steps of genome regulation.

  14. Effect of thyroid hormones on acetylcholinesterase mRNA levels in the slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregelj, P; Crne-Finderle, N; Sketelj, J

    2003-01-01

    In the rat, the level of acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA in the typical slow soleus muscles is only about 20-30% of that in the fast extensor digitorum longus muscles. The expression of contractile proteins in muscles is influenced by thyroid hormones and hyperthyroidism makes the slow soleus muscle faster. The influence of thyroid hormones on the levels of acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA level in the slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat was studied in order to examine the effect of thyroid hormones on muscle acetylcholinesterase expression. Hyperthyroidism was induced in rats by daily thyroid hormone injection or thyroid hormone releasing tablet implantation. Hind-limb suspension was applied to produce muscle unloading. Muscle denervation or reinnervation was achieved by sciatic nerve transection or crush. Acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA levels were analyzed by Northern blots and evaluated densitometrically. Hyperthyroidism increased the levels of acetylcholinesterase messenger RNA in the slow soleus muscles close to the levels in the fast extensor digitorum longus. The effect was the same in the unloaded soleus muscles. Acetylcholinesterase expression increased also in the absence of innervation (denervation), in the presence of changed nerve activation pattern (reinnervation), and under enhanced tonic neural activation of the soleus muscle (electrical stimulation). However, the changes were substantially smaller than those observed in the control soleus muscles. Enhancement of acetylcholinesterase expression in the soleus muscles by the thyroid hormones is, therefore, at last in part due to hormonal effect on the muscle itself. On the contrary, increased level of the thyroid hormones had no influence on acetylcholinesterase expression in the normal fast extensor digitorum longus muscles. However, some enhancing influence was apparent whenever the total number of nerve-induced muscle activations per day in the extensor

  15. The RNA Recognition Motif of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3g (eIF3g) Is Required for Resumption of Scanning of Posttermination Ribosomes for Reinitiation on GCN4 and Together with eIF3i Stimulates Linear Scanning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cuchalová, Lucie; Kouba, Tomáš; Herrmannová, Anna; Dányi, István; Chiu, W.-L.; Valášek, Leoš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 19 (2010), s. 4671-4686 ISSN 0270-7306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : OPEN READING FRAMES * START CODON SELECTION * MESSENGER-RNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.188, year: 2010

  16. Working with RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Working with RNA is not a special discipline in molecular biology. However, RNA is chemically and structurally different from DNA and a few simple work rules have to be implemented to maintain the integrity of the RNA. Alkaline pH, high temperatures, and heavy metal ions should be avoided when po...

  17. RNA self-assembly and RNA nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Wade W; Jaeger, Luc

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Nanotechnology's central goal involves the direct control of matter at the molecular nanometer scale to build nanofactories, nanomachines, and other devices for potential applications including electronics, alternative fuels, and medicine. In this regard, the nascent use of nucleic acids as a material to coordinate the precise arrangements of specific molecules marked an important milestone in the relatively recent history of nanotechnology. While DNA served as the pioneer building material in nucleic acid nanotechnology, RNA continues to emerge as viable alternative material with its own distinct advantages for nanoconstruction. Several complementary assembly strategies have been used to build a diverse set of RNA nanostructures having unique structural attributes and the ability to self-assemble in a highly programmable and controlled manner. Of the different strategies, the architectonics approach uniquely endeavors to understand integrated structural RNA architectures through the arrangement of their characteristic structural building blocks. Viewed through this lens, it becomes apparent that nature routinely uses thermodynamically stable, recurrent modular motifs from natural RNA molecules to generate unique and more complex programmable structures. With the design principles found in natural structures, a number of synthetic RNAs have been constructed. The synthetic nanostructures constructed to date have provided, in addition to affording essential insights into RNA design, important platforms to characterize and validate the structural self-folding and assembly properties of RNA modules or building blocks. Furthermore, RNA nanoparticles have shown great promise for applications in nanomedicine and RNA-based therapeutics. Nevertheless, the synthetic RNA architectures achieved thus far consist largely of static, rigid particles that are still far from matching the structural and functional complexity of natural responsive structural elements such

  18. Kommunikasjonskultur i sosiale medier i Japan og Norge. Sammenlikning av smarttelefon-apper mellom LINE og Facebook Messenger

    OpenAIRE

    Abumi, Asaki

    2015-01-01

    Denne oppgaven analyser hvordan norske og japanske brukere kommuniserer på sosiale medier på smarttelefoner. Analysen er basert på en spørreundersøkelse med 20 deltagere fra Japan som bruker appen LINE, og 20 deltagere fra Norge som bruker Facebook Messenger. Informantene består av unge universitetsstudenter fra 18 til 25 år. Resultatene viser blant annet at japanere foretrekker LINE fordi den har et stort utvalg av søte sticker, som gjør kommunikasjon lettere for japanere som bor i et stort ...

  19. Compact, Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser for the MESSENGER Mission to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X.; Lindauer, Steven J.; Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Antony

    2004-01-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument which is an instrument on the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4 percent efficiency with a near diffraction limited beam. It has passed all space flight environmental tests at system, instrument, and satellite integration. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically ISESAT and Mars Global Surveyor; but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  20. Dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA from ribosomes is perturbed by streptomycin and by strA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, A B; Menninger, J R

    1984-01-01

    Peptidyl-tRNA may dissociate preferentially from ribosomes during protein synthesis when it is inappropriate to, does not correctly complement, the messenger RNA. To test this idea, growing cultures of Escherichia coli were treated with streptomycin to increase the frequency of errors during protein synthesis. Since the treated cells had a temperature-sensitive peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase and could not destroy dissociated peptidyl-tRNA, it was possible to measure the rate of its accumulation after raising the temperature to non-permissive conditions. Both low and high doses of streptomycin enhanced the rate of dissociation and accumulation of peptidyl-tRNA. The rank order of rates of dissociation/accumulation of various isoaccepting tRNA families was not significantly altered by the drug treatment. We concluded that streptomycin stimulated a normal pathway for dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA. Two streptomycin- resistant strains of E. coli had higher rates of dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA than did their sensitive parent strain. When treated with high doses of the drug, the resistant strains showed slightly reduced rates of dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA. These results were interpreted in terms of a two state, two site model for protein synthesis: streptomycin enhances the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to a tight state of the ribosome A site; the strA mutation enhances translocation to a loose state of the ribosome P site.

  1. Deficiency in the Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme UBE2A in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is Linked to Deficits in a Natural Circular miRNA-7 Sponge (circRNA; ciRS-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the highly specialized functions for small non-coding single-stranded RNA (ssRNA in the transcriptome of the human central nervous system (CNS continues to evolve. Circular RNAs (circRNAs, a recently discovered class of ssRNA enriched in the brain and retina, are extremely stable and intrinsically resilient to degradation by exonuclease. Conventional methods of ssRNA, microRNA (miRNA, or messenger RNA (mRNA detection and quantitation requiring free ribonucleotide ends may have considerably underestimated the quantity and significance of CNS circRNA in the CNS. Highly-specific small ssRNAs, such as the ~23 nucleotide (nt Homo sapien microRNA-7 (hsa-miRNA-7; chr 9q21.32, are not only abundant in the human limbic system but are, in addition, associated with a ~1400 nt circRNA for miRNA-7 (ciRS-7 in the same anatomical region. Structurally, ciRS-7 contains about ~70 tandem anti-miRNA-7 sequences and acts as an endogenous, anti-complementary miRNA-7 “sponge” that attracts, binds, and, hence, quenches, natural miRNA-7 functions. Using a combination of DNA and miRNA array technologies, enhanced LED-Northern and Western blot hybridization, and the magnesium-dependent exoribonuclease and circRNA-sensitive probe RNaseR, here we provide evidence of a significantly misregulated ciRS-7-miRNA-7-UBE2A circuit in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD neocortex (Brodmann A22 and hippocampal CA1. Deficits in ciRS-7-mediated “sponging events”, resulting in excess ambient miRNA-7 appear to drive the selective down-regulation in the expression of miRNA-7-sensitive mRNA targets, such as that encoding the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2A (UBE2A; chr Xq24. UBE2A, which normally serves as a central effector in the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system, coordinates the clearance of amyloid peptides via proteolysis, is known to be depleted in sporadic AD brain and, hence, contributes to amyloid accumulation and the formation of senile plaque deposits

  2. Messenger RNas : their utilization and degradation during pollen germination and tube growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During pollen germination and tube growth at least 230 new proteins are synthesized, as determined by 35S-methionime labeling and two dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the labeled proteins. The same number and pattern of protein spots is seen whether or not actinomycin D is included in the, medium, indicating that the mRNAs present in the unger-minated pollen grain and those newly synthesized code for the same proteins. The genetic program during at least the latter part of pollen maturation prior to anthesis and that during pollen germination and tube growth thus appears to be similar if not identical. During the first hour of pollen tube growth about 500/0 of the protein synthesis that occurs utilizes previously synthesized mRNAs. The remaining 50% occurs on newly made mRNAs. The ungerminated mature pollen grain contains 196 pg of RNA and approximately 6 X 106 molecules of poly(A+ RNA, i.e. mRNAs. The rate of protein synthesis corrected for internal pool changes in the labeled amino acid used (3H-leucine is highest during the first 15 min of pollen tube growth. The rate decreases rapidly thereafter for the next 45 min. Concurrent with the reduction in rate of protein synthesis there is a reduction in the poly(A content of the pollen RNA and in the amount of poly(A per pollen, grain. The total RNA per pollen grain, however, appears not to change during this period.

  3. Quaking promotes monocyte differentiation into pro-atherogenic macrophages by controlling pre-mRNA splicing and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ruben G; Shiue, Lily; Prins, Jurriën; de Boer, Hetty C; Singh, Anjana; Fagg, W Samuel; van Gils, Janine M; Duijs, Jacques M G J; Katzman, Sol; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan O; Böhringer, Stefan; Leung, Wai Y; Kielbasa, Szymon M; Donahue, John P; van der Zande, Patrick H J; Sijbom, Rick; van Alem, Carla M A; Bot, Ilze; van Kooten, Cees; Jukema, J Wouter; Van Esch, Hilde; Rabelink, Ton J; Kazan, Hilal; Biessen, Erik A L; Ares, Manuel; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van der Veer, Eric P

    2016-03-31

    A hallmark of inflammatory diseases is the excessive recruitment and influx of monocytes to sites of tissue damage and their ensuing differentiation into macrophages. Numerous stimuli are known to induce transcriptional changes associated with macrophage phenotype, but posttranscriptional control of human macrophage differentiation is less well understood. Here we show that expression levels of the RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) are low in monocytes and early human atherosclerotic lesions, but are abundant in macrophages of advanced plaques. Depletion of QKI protein impairs monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation into macrophages and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq and microarray analysis of human monocyte and macrophage transcriptomes, including those of a unique QKI haploinsufficient patient, reveal striking changes in QKI-dependent messenger RNA levels and splicing of RNA transcripts. The biological importance of these transcripts and requirement for QKI during differentiation illustrates a central role for QKI in posttranscriptionally guiding macrophage identity and function.

  4. Quaking promotes monocyte differentiation into pro-atherogenic macrophages by controlling pre-mRNA splicing and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ruben G.; Shiue, Lily; Prins, Jurriën; de Boer, Hetty C.; Singh, Anjana; Fagg, W. Samuel; van Gils, Janine M.; Duijs, Jacques M. G. J.; Katzman, Sol; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan O.; Böhringer, Stefan; Leung, Wai Y.; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Donahue, John P.; van der Zande, Patrick H.J.; Sijbom, Rick; van Alem, Carla M. A.; Bot, Ilze; van Kooten, Cees; Jukema, J. Wouter; Van Esch, Hilde; Rabelink, Ton J.; Kazan, Hilal; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Ares Jr., Manuel; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van der Veer, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of inflammatory diseases is the excessive recruitment and influx of monocytes to sites of tissue damage and their ensuing differentiation into macrophages. Numerous stimuli are known to induce transcriptional changes associated with macrophage phenotype, but posttranscriptional control of human macrophage differentiation is less well understood. Here we show that expression levels of the RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) are low in monocytes and early human atherosclerotic lesions, but are abundant in macrophages of advanced plaques. Depletion of QKI protein impairs monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation into macrophages and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq and microarray analysis of human monocyte and macrophage transcriptomes, including those of a unique QKI haploinsufficient patient, reveal striking changes in QKI-dependent messenger RNA levels and splicing of RNA transcripts. The biological importance of these transcripts and requirement for QKI during differentiation illustrates a central role for QKI in posttranscriptionally guiding macrophage identity and function. PMID:27029405

  5. Raman crystallography of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Chen, Jui-Hui; Yajima, Rieko; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chase, Elaine; Chadalavada, Durga M; Golden, Barbara L; Carey, Paul R; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2009-10-01

    Raman crystallography is the application of Raman spectroscopy to single crystals. This technique has been applied to a variety of protein molecules where it has provided unique information about biopolymer folding, substrate binding, and catalysis. Here, we describe the application of Raman crystallography to functional RNA molecules. RNA represents unique opportunities and challenges for Raman crystallography. One issue that confounds studies of RNA is its tendency to adopt multiple non-functional folds. Raman crystallography has the advantage that it isolates a single state of the RNA within the crystal and can evaluate its fold, metal ion binding properties (ligand identity, stoichiometry, and affinity), proton binding properties (identity, stoichiometry, and affinity), and catalytic potential. In particular, base-specific stretches can be identified and then associated with the binding of metal ions and protons. Because measurements are carried out in the hanging drop at ambient, rather than cryo, conditions and because RNA crystals tend to be approximately 70% solvent, RNA dynamics and conformational changes become experimentally accessible. This review focuses on experimental setup and procedures, acquisition and interpretation of Raman data, and determination of physicochemical properties of the RNA. Raman crystallographic and solution biochemical experiments on the HDV RNA enzyme are summarized and found to be in excellent agreement. Remarkably, characterization of the crystalline state has proven to help rather than hinder functional characterization of functional RNA, most likely because the tendency of RNA to fold heterogeneously is limited in a crystalline environment. Future applications of Raman crystallography to RNA are briefly discussed.

  6. Identifying Cancer Subtypes from miRNA-TF-mRNA Regulatory Networks and Expression Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taosheng Xu

    Full Text Available Identifying cancer subtypes is an important component of the personalised medicine framework. An increasing number of computational methods have been developed to identify cancer subtypes. However, existing methods rarely use information from gene regulatory networks to facilitate the subtype identification. It is widely accepted that gene regulatory networks play crucial roles in understanding the mechanisms of diseases. Different cancer subtypes are likely caused by different regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, there are great opportunities for developing methods that can utilise network information in identifying cancer subtypes.In this paper, we propose a method, weighted similarity network fusion (WSNF, to utilise the information in the complex miRNA-TF-mRNA regulatory network in identifying cancer subtypes. We firstly build the regulatory network where the nodes represent the features, i.e. the microRNAs (miRNAs, transcription factors (TFs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs and the edges indicate the interactions between the features. The interactions are retrieved from various interatomic databases. We then use the network information and the expression data of the miRNAs, TFs and mRNAs to calculate the weight of the features, representing the level of importance of the features. The feature weight is then integrated into a network fusion approach to cluster the samples (patients and thus to identify cancer subtypes. We applied our method to the TCGA breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM datasets. The experimental results show that WSNF performs better than the other commonly used computational methods, and the information from miRNA-TF-mRNA regulatory network contributes to the performance improvement. The WSNF method successfully identified five breast cancer subtypes and three GBM subtypes which show significantly different survival patterns. We observed that the expression patterns of the features in some miRNA-TF-mRNA

  7. Mpn1, Mutated in Poikiloderma with Neutropenia Protein 1, Is a Conserved 3′-to-5′ RNA Exonuclease Processing U6 Small Nuclear RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Shchepachev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN is a rare genodermatosis associated with mutations in the C16orf57 gene, which codes for the uncharacterized protein hMpn1. We show here that, in both fission yeasts and humans, Mpn1 processes the spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA posttranscriptionally. In Mpn1-deficient cells, U6 molecules carry 3′ end polyuridine tails that are longer than those in normal cells and lack a terminal 2′,3′ cyclic phosphate group. In mpn1Δ yeast cells, U6 snRNA and U4/U6 di-small nuclear RNA protein complex levels are diminished, leading to precursor messenger RNA splicing defects, which are reverted by expression of either yeast or human Mpn1 and by overexpression of U6. Recombinant hMpn1 is a 3′-to-5′ RNA exonuclease that removes uridines from U6 3′ ends, generating terminal 2′,3′ cyclic phosphates in vitro. Finally, U6 degradation rates increase in mpn1Δ yeasts and in lymphoblasts established from individuals affected by PN. Our data indicate that Mpn1 promotes U6 stability through 3′ end posttranscriptional processing and implicate altered U6 metabolism as a potential mechanism for PN pathogenesis.

  8. An RNA Topoisomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; di Gate, Russell J.; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    1996-09-01

    A synthetic strand of RNA has been designed so that it can adopt two different topological states (a circle and a trefoil knot) when ligated into a cyclic molecule. The RNA knot and circle have been characterized by their behavior in gel electrophoresis and sedimentation experiments. This system allows one to assay for the existence of an RNA topoisomerase, because the two RNA molecules can be interconverted only by a strand passage event. We find that the interconversion of these two species can be catalyzed by Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase III, indicating that this enzyme can act as an RNA topoisomerase. The conversion of circles to knots is accompanied by a small amount of RNA catenane generation. These findings suggest that strand passage must be considered a potential component of the folding and modification of RNA structures.

  9. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    While increasing evidence appoints diverse types of RNA as key players in the regulatory networks underlying cellular differentiation and metabolism, the potential functions of thousands of conserved RNA structures encoded in mammalian genomes remain to be determined. Since the functions of most...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA......-protein pulldown combined with mass spectrometry analysis is applied for in vivo as well as in vitro identification of RNA-binding proteins, the latter succeeding in verifying known RNA-protein interactions. Secondly, acknowledging the significance of flexible promoter usage for the diversification...

  10. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA......-protein pulldown combined with mass spectrometry analysis is applied for in vivo as well as in vitro identification of RNA-binding proteins, the latter succeeding in verifying known RNA-protein interactions. Secondly, acknowledging the significance of flexible promoter usage for the diversification...... of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...

  11. Detecting riboSNitches with RNA folding algorithms: a genome-wide benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Meredith; Solem, Amanda; Qu, Kun; Chang, Howard Y; Laederach, Alain

    2015-02-18

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) secondary structure prediction continues to be a significant challenge, in particular when attempting to model sequences with less rigidly defined structures, such as messenger and non-coding RNAs. Crucial to interpreting RNA structures as they pertain to individual phenotypes is the ability to detect RNAs with large structural disparities caused by a single nucleotide variant (SNV) or riboSNitches. A recently published human genome-wide parallel analysis of RNA structure (PARS) study identified a large number of riboSNitches as well as non-riboSNitches, providing an unprecedented set of RNA sequences against which to benchmark structure prediction algorithms. Here we evaluate 11 different RNA folding algorithms' riboSNitch prediction performance on these data. We find that recent algorithms designed specifically to predict the effects of SNVs on RNA structure, in particular remuRNA, RNAsnp and SNPfold, perform best on the most rigorously validated subsets of the benchmark data. In addition, our benchmark indicates that general structure prediction algorithms (e.g. RNAfold and RNAstructure) have overall better performance if base pairing probabilities are considered rather than minimum free energy calculations. Although overall aggregate algorithmic performance on the full set of riboSNitches is relatively low, significant improvement is possible if the highest confidence predictions are evaluated independently. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Protection Against Lethal Marburg Virus Infection Mediated by Lipid Encapsulated Small Interfering RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursic-Bedoya, Raul; Mire, Chad E.; Robbins, Marjorie; Geisbert, Joan B.; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian; Geisbert, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Marburg virus (MARV) infection causes severe morbidity and mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics available for treating MARV infection. Here, we present the in vitro development and in vivo evaluation of lipid-encapsulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of MARV infection. Methods. The activity of anti-MARV siRNAs was assessed using dual luciferase reporter assays followed by in vitro testing against live virus. Lead candidates were tested in lethal guinea pig models of 3 different MARV strains (Angola, Ci67, Ravn). Results. Treatment resulted in 60%–100% survival of guinea pigs infected with MARV. Although treatment with siRNA targeting other MARV messenger RNA (mRNA) had a beneficial effect, targeting the MARV NP mRNA resulted in the highest survival rates. NP-718m siRNA in lipid nanoparticles provided 100% protection against MARV strains Angola and Ci67, and 60% against Ravn. A cocktail containing NP-718m and NP-143m provided 100% protection against MARV Ravn. Conclusions. These data show protective efficacy against the most pathogenic Angola strain of MARV. Further development of the lipid nanoparticle technology has the potential to yield effective treatments for MARV infection. PMID:23990568

  13. Natural selection and algorithmic design of mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barry; Skiena, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences serve as templates for proteins according to the triplet code, in which each of the 4(3) = 64 different codons (sequences of three consecutive nucleotide bases) in RNA either terminate transcription or map to one of the 20 different amino acids (or residues) which build up proteins. Because there are more codons than residues, there is inherent redundancy in the coding. Certain residues (e.g., tryptophan) have only a single corresponding codon, while other residues (e.g., arginine) have as many as six corresponding codons. This freedom implies that the number of possible RNA sequences coding for a given protein grows exponentially in the length of the protein. Thus nature has wide latitude to select among mRNA sequences which are informationally equivalent, but structurally and energetically divergent. In this paper, we explore how nature takes advantage of this freedom and how to algorithmically design structures more energetically favorable than have been built through natural selection. In particular: (1) Natural Selection--we perform the first large-scale computational experiment comparing the stability of mRNA sequences from a variety of organisms to random synonymous sequences which respect the codon preferences of the organism. This experiment was conducted on over 27,000 sequences from 34 microbial species with 36 genomic structures. We provide evidence that in all genomic structures highly stable sequences are disproportionately abundant, and in 19 of 36 cases highly unstable sequences are disproportionately abundant. This suggests that the stability of mRNA sequences is subject to natural selection. (2) Artificial Selection--motivated by these biological results, we examine the algorithmic problem of designing the most stable and unstable mRNA sequences which code for a target protein. We give a polynomial-time dynamic programming solution to the most stable sequence problem (MSSP), which is asymptotically no more complex

  14. Ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) to improve engagement and behavior for smart campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    The recent popularity of internet messenger based smartphone technologies has motivated some university lecturers to use them for educational activities. These technologies have enormous potential to enhance the teaching and ubiquitous learning experience for smart campus development. However, the design ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application of mobile and ubiquitous learning in smart campus settings to improve engagement and behavior is still limited. In addition, the expectation that mobile learning could improve engagement and behavior on smart campus cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present ubiquitous learning model design and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior using IIMG for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous learning and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect, and its contribution to learning.

  15. Observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves Along the Dusk-Side Boundary of Mercury's Magnetosphere During MESSENGER's Third Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardsen, Scott A.; Sundberg, Torgjoern; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Solomon, Sean C.; Blomberg, Lars G.

    2010-01-01

    During the third MESSENGER flyby of Mercury on 29 September 2009, 15 crossings of the dusk-side magnetopause were observed in the magnetic field data over a 2-min period, during which the spacecraft traveled a distance of 0.2 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius). The quasi-periodic nature of the magnetic field variations during the crossings, the characteristic time separations of approx.16 s between pairs of crossings, and the variations of the magnetopause normal directions indicate that the signals are likely the signature of surface waves highly steepened at their leading edge that arose from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. At Earth, the Kelvin- Helmholtz instability is believed to lead to the turbulent transport of solar wind plasma into Earth's plasma sheet. This solar wind entry mechanism could also be important at Mercury. Citation: Boardsen, S. A., T. Sundberg, J. A.Slavin, B. J. Anderson, H. Korth, S. C. Solomon, and L. G. Blomberg (2010), Observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves along the dusk-side boundary of Mercury s magnetosphere during MESSENGER's third flyby,

  16. The plant hormone abscisic acid stimulates the proliferation of human hemopoietic progenitors through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfì, Sonia; Fresia, Chiara; Ferraris, Chiara; Bruzzone, Santina; Fruscione, Floriana; Usai, Cesare; Benvenuto, Federica; Magnone, Mirko; Podestà, Marina; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Albanesi, Ennio; Damonte, Gianluca; Salis, Annalisa; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2009-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a hormone involved in pivotal physiological functions in higher plants, such as response to abiotic stress and control of seed dormancy and germination. Recently, ABA was demonstrated to be autocrinally produced by human granulocytes, beta pancreatic cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and to stimulate cell-specific functions through a signaling pathway involving the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). Here we show that ABA expands human uncommitted hemopoietic progenitors (HP) in vitro, through a cADPR-mediated increase of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Incubation of CD34(+) cells with micromolar ABA also induces transcriptional effects, which include NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and transcription of genes encoding for several cytokines. Human MSC stimulated with a lymphocyte-conditioned medium produce and release ABA at concentrations sufficient to exert growth-stimulatory effects on co-cultured CD34(+) cells, as demonstrated by the inhibition of colony growth in the presence of an anti-ABA monoclonal antibody. These results provide a remarkable example of conservation of a stress hormone and of its second messenger from plants to humans and identify ABA as a new hemopoietic growth factor involved in the cross-talk between HP and MSC.

  17. Intense energetic electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high-resolution observations from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N; Dewey, Ryan M; Lawrence, David J; Goldsten, John O; Peplowski, Patrick N; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Anderson, Brian J; Ho, George C; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C

    2016-03-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer, as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X-Ray Spectrometer and Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work greatly extends our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near-tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently "injected" onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary nightside. The electrons populate the plasma sheet and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and prenoon sectors, at times executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form "quasi-trapped" populations.

  18. Multi-messenger constraints and pressure from dark matter annihilation into e--e+ pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechakama, Maneenate

    2013-01-01

    Despite striking evidence for the existence of dark matter from astrophysical observations, dark matter has still escaped any direct or indirect detection until today. Therefore a proof for its existence and the revelation of its nature belongs to one of the most intriguing challenges of nowadays cosmology and particle physics. The present work tries to investigate the nature of dark matter through indirect signatures from dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs in two different ways, pressure from dark matter annihilation and multi-messenger constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross-section. We focus on dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs and adopt a model-independent approach, where all the electrons and positrons are injected with the same initial energy E 0 ∝m dm c 2 . The propagation of these particles is determined by solving the diffusion-loss equation, considering inverse Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, Coulomb collisions, bremsstrahlung, and ionization. The first part of this work, focusing on pressure from dark matter annihilation, demonstrates that dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs may affect the observed rotation curve by a significant amount. The injection rate of this calculation is constrained by INTEGRAL, Fermi, and H.E.S.S. data. The pressure of the relativistic electron-positron gas is computed from the energy spectrum predicted by the diffusion-loss equation. For values of the gas density and magnetic field that are representative of the Milky Way, it is estimated that the pressure gradients are strong enough to balance gravity in the central parts if E 0 0 . By comparing the predicted rotation curves with observations of dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies, we show that the pressure from dark matter annihilation may improve the agreement between theory and observations in some cases, but it also imposes severe constraints on the model parameters (most notably, the

  19. Mercury: a prediction for bulk chemical composition and internal structure in readiness for new MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft has confirmed that Mercury's magnetic field is dominantly dipolar and due to an active dynamo in a molten outer core (Solomon et al, 2008 Science 321 59). An energy source is needed to maintain this dynamo. Either liquid iron is freezing at the surface of an inner solid core (as proposed here) or solid iron is precipitating within an outer sulphur-rich core (Chen et al, 2008 GRL 35 L07201). If the outer core does not contain sulphur and consists solely of pure metal (Fe, Ni, Cr,..), then an active dynamo is inconsistent with previous numerical models for the radiogenic thermal evolution of the planet. Those earlier models found that the present temperature at the core/mantle boundary (CMB) is ~ 500 K below the melting temperature of metal ~ 2030 K for a CMB pressure of 70 kbar. The earlier calculations were based on low lunar abundances of U and Th. Here I present a new model for the bulk chemical composition, thermal evolution and current internal structure of Mercury. The model is based on the modern Laplacian theory of solar system origin (Prentice, 1978 Moon Planets 19 341; 2001 Earth Moon & Planets 87 11; 2006 Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. (PASA) 23 1; 2008 - URL below). A key feature of this theory is that the planets formed from a concentric system of gas rings (n = 0, 1, 2,..) that were shed by the contracting protosolar cloud. The temperatures Tn of the rings scale with mean orbital radius Rn closely as Tn ~ Rn-0.9. Mercury plays a crucial role in calibrating this relationship because of a condensation process of metal/silicate fractionation (Lewis, 1972 EPSL 15 286). Choosing Tn ~ 1630 K for mean orbit gas ring pressure of 0.17 bar, the condensate consists mostly of Fe-Ni-Cr (mass fraction 0.671), gehlenite (0.190) and Mg-silicates (0.081). It has mean density 5.30 g/cm3. Na, K and S are absent. The mass fractions of U and Th, namely 5.66 × 10-8 & 2.08 × 10-7, are a factor of 4.3 times greater than those of the proto-Earth condensate

  20. Glucocorticoid control of rat growth hormone gene expression: Effect on cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleic acid production and degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, B.J.; Gardner, D.G.; Baxter, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on the production and degradation of rat GH (rGH) cytoplasmic mRNA was studied in cultured rat pituitary tumor (GC) cells. The incorporation of [3H]uridine into both rGH cytoplasmic mRNA and the pyrimidine nucleotide precursor pool was determined in hormone-treated and control cells. From these measurements glucocorticoid effects on absolute production rates of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA were determined and compared to effects on rGH mRNA accumulation. Rat GH mRNA half-life was then calculated based on a first-order decay model. Rat GH mRNA half-life was also directly assayed by: (1) pulse-chase studies and (2) measuring the kinetics of decay of rGH mRNA in cells after transfer from serum-containing to hormone-deficient media. From these independent analyses rGH mRNA half-life estimates ranged from 28-55 h in different experiments. Within individual experiments there was little variability of rGH mRNA decay rates; glucocorticoids were found not to alter the stability of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA. Glucocorticoid induction of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation was accounted for solely on the basis of increased mRNA production

  1. A personalized microRNA microarray normalization method using a logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Howell, Paul; Qian, Xuemin; Huang, Kun; Riker, Adam I; Ju, Jingfang; Xi, Yaguang

    2010-01-15

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a set of newly discovered non-coding small RNA molecules. Its significant effects have contributed to a number of critical biological events including cell proliferation, apoptosis development, as well as tumorigenesis. High-dimensional genomic discovery platforms (e.g. microarray) have been employed to evaluate the important roles of miRNAs by analyzing their expression profiling. However, because of the small total number of miRNAs and the absence of well-known endogenous controls, the traditional normalization methods for messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling analysis could not offer a suitable solution for miRNA analysis. The need for the establishment of new adaptive methods has come to the forefront. Locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based miRNA array was employed to profile miRNAs using colorectal cancer cell lines under different treatments. The expression pattern of overall miRNA profiling was pre-evaluated by a panel of miRNAs using Taqman-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) miRNA assays. A logistic regression model was built based on qRT-PCR results and then applied to the normalization of miRNA array data. The expression levels of 20 additional miRNAs selected from the normalized list were post-validated. Compared with other popularly used normalization methods, the logistic regression model efficiently calibrates the variance across arrays and improves miRNA microarray discovery accuracy. Datasets and R package are available at http://gauss.usouthal.edu/publ/logit/.

  2. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Charles F; Pisetsky, David S

    2009-03-10

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for beta-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death.

  3. Insights into RNA binding by the anticancer drug cisplatin from the crystal structure of cisplatin-modified ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Sergey V.; Söll, Dieter; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cisplatin is a widely prescribed anticancer drug, which triggers cell death by covalent binding to a broad range of biological molecules. Among cisplatin targets, cellular RNAs remain the most poorly characterized molecules. Although cisplatin was shown to inactivate essential RNAs, including ribosomal, spliceosomal and telomeric RNAs, cisplatin binding sites in most RNA molecules are unknown, and therefore it remains challenging to study how modifications of RNA by cisplatin contributes to its toxicity. Here we report a 2.6Å-resolution X-ray structure of cisplatin-modified 70S ribosome, which describes cisplatin binding to the ribosome and provides the first nearly atomic model of cisplatin–RNA complex. We observe nine cisplatin molecules bound to the ribosome and reveal consensus structural features of the cisplatin-binding sites. Two of the cisplatin molecules modify conserved functional centers of the ribosome—the mRNA-channel and the GTPase center. In the mRNA-channel, cisplatin intercalates between the ribosome and the messenger RNA, suggesting that the observed inhibition of protein synthesis by cisplatin is caused by impaired mRNA-translocation. Our structure provides an insight into RNA targeting and inhibition by cisplatin, which can help predict cisplatin-binding sites in other cellular RNAs and design studies to elucidate a link between RNA modifications by cisplatin and cisplatin toxicity. PMID:27079977

  4. In vitro and in vivo mRNA delivery using lipid-enveloped pH-responsive polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xingfang; Fricke, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Daniel; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable core-shell structured nanoparticles with a poly(β-amino-ester) (PBAE) core enveloped by a phospholipid bilayer shell were developed for in vivo mRNA delivery, with a view toward delivery of mRNA-based vaccines. The pH-responsive PBAE component was chosen to promote endosome disruption, while the lipid surface layer was selected to minimize toxicity of the polycation core. Messenger RNA was efficiently adsorbed via electrostatic interactions onto the surface of these net positively-charged nanoparticles. In vitro, mRNA-loaded particle uptake by dendritic cells (DCs) led to mRNA delivery into the cytosol with low cytotoxicity, followed by translation of the encoded protein in these difficult-to-transfect cells at a frequency of ~30%. Particles loaded with mRNA administered intranasally in mice led to the expression of the reporter protein luciferase in vivo as soon as 6 h after administration, a timepoint when naked mRNA given i.n. showed no expression. At later timepoints, luciferase expression was detected in naked mRNA-treated mice, but this group showed a wide variation in levels of transfection, compared to particle-treated mice. This system may thus be promising for non-invasive delivery of mRNA-based vaccines. PMID:21417235

  5. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, Charles F.; Pisetsky, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for β-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death

  6. Antisense RNA: a genetic approach to cell resistance against Parvovirus; RNA antisentido: una aproximacion de resistencia genetica a Parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Martinez, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    The Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp), an autonomous Parvovirus that replicates cytolytically in the A9 mouse fibroblast cell line, was interfered by constitutive expression of an antisense RNA targeted against the major non-structural NS-1 protein. Permanently transfected A9 clones expressing NS-1 antisense, showed increased proliferative capacity upon virus infection, and likewise cultures infected at low multiplicity by MVMp reached confluence overcoming virus growth. Correspondingly, an inhibition in virus multiplication was demonstrated by a significant lower virus production and plaque forming ability in clones expressing antisense RNa. At the molecular level, several fold reduction in viral DNA, RNA and proteins was quantitated by respective analysis of Southern, RNase protection and bidimensional gels. Remarkably, the accumulation of all three viral messengers(R1,R2,R3) was decreased both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, suggesting that antisense-mediated inhibition is primarily exerted at the level of viral transcription or nuclear post-transcriptional events. Thus, this system illustrates the possibility to create an antisense-mediated protective stage to highly cytotoxic viruses in permissive cells, by down-modulation the expression of a transactivator of virus genes. (author)180 refs., 25 figs.

  7. Antisense RNA: a genetic approach to cell resistance against Parvovirus. RNA antisentido: una aproximacion de resistencia genetica a Parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Martinez, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp), an autonomous Parvovirus that replicates cytolytically in the A9 mouse fibroblast cell line, was interfered by constitutive expression of an antisense RNA targeted against the major non-structural NS-1 protein. Permanently transfected A9 clones expressing NS-1 antisense, showed increased proliferative capacity upon virus infection, and likewise cultures infected at low multiplicity by MVMp reached confluence overcoming virus growth. Correspondingly, an inhibition in virus multiplication was demonstrated by a significant lower virus production and plaque forming ability in clones expressing antisense RNa. At the molecular level, several fold reduction in viral DNA, RNA and proteins was quantitated by respective analysis of Southern, RNase protection and bidimensional gels. Remarkably, the accumulation of all three viral messengers(R1,R2,R3) was decreased both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, suggesting that antisense-mediated inhibition is primarily exerted at the level of viral transcription or nuclear post-transcriptional events. Thus, this system illustrates the possibility to create an antisense-mediated protective stage to highly cytotoxic viruses in permissive cells, by down-modulation the expression of a transactivator of virus genes. (author)180 refs., 25 figs.

  8. Reliable PCR quantitation of estrogen, progesterone and ERBB2 receptor mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is independent of prior macro-dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Hennig, Guido; Kyndi, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression analysis on messenger RNA (mRNA) purified from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is increasingly used for research purposes. Tissue heterogeneity may question specificity and interpretation of results from mRNA isolated from a whole slide section, and thresholds for minimal...... tumor content in the paraffin block or macrodissection are used to avoid contamination from non-neoplastic tissue. The aim was to test if mRNA from tissue surrounding breast cancer affected quantification of estrogen receptor α (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR) and human epidermal growth factor...... receptor 2 (ERBB2), by comparing gene expression from whole slide and tumor-enriched sections, and correlating gene expression from whole slide sections with corresponding immunohistochemistry. Gene expression, based on mRNA extracted from a training set (36 paraffin blocks) and two validation sets (133...

  9. tmRNA-mediated trans-translation as the major ribosome rescue system in a bacterial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyouta eHimeno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available tmRNA (transfer messenger RNA; also known as 10Sa RNA or SsrA RNA is a small RNA molecule that is conserved among bacteria. It has structural and functional similarities to tRNA: it has an upper half of the tRNA-like structure, its 5’ end is processed by RNase P, it has typical tRNA-specific base modifications, it is aminoacylated with alanine, it binds to EF-Tu after aminoacylation and it enters the ribosome with EF-Tu and GTP. However, tmRNA lacks an anticodon, and instead it has a coding sequence for a short peptide called tag-peptide. An elaborate interplay of actions of tmRNA as both tRNA and mRNA with the help of a tmRNA-binding protein, SmpB, facilitates trans-translation, which produces a single polypeptide from two mRNA molecules. Initially alanyl-tmRNA in complex with EF-Tu and SmpB enters the vacant A-site of the stalled ribosome like aminoacyl-tRNA but without a codon-anticodon interaction, and subsequently truncated mRNA is replaced with the tag-encoding region of tmRNA. During these processes, not only tmRNA but also SmpB structurally and functionally mimics both tRNA and mRNA. Thus trans-translation rescues the stalled ribosome, thereby allowing recycling of the ribosome. Since the tag-peptide serves as a target of AAA+ proteases, the trans-translation products are preferentially degraded so that they do not accumulate in the cell. Although alternative rescue systems have recently been revealed, trans-translation is the only system that universally exists in bacteria. Furthermore, it is unique in that it employs a small RNA and that it prevents accumulation of nonfunctional proteins from truncated mRNA in the cell. It might play the major role in rescuing the stalled translation in the bacterial cell.

  10. Consideraciones gráficas y lingüísticas del lenguaje cibernético: el chat y el messenger

    OpenAIRE

    Cabedo Nebot, Adrián

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende estudiar el comportamiento lingüístico de intercambios comunicativos en plataformas cibernéticas como el chat o el Messenger. Así mismo, el planteamiento inicial es investigar si el lenguaje cibernético constituye un código particular, diferenciado del código del lenguaje habitual. This work tries to study linguistic behavior of communicative exchanges in cybernetic platforms like chat or Messenger. Likewise, the initial approach is to investigate if the cybernetic la...

  11. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase and Glucocorticoid Receptor Messenger RNA Expression in Porcine Placentae: Effects of Stage of Gestation, Breed, and Uterine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-06

    for this study [21]. On the appropriate day of gestation, gilts were slaughtered in the U.S. De- partment of Agriculture Meat Animal Research Center...H.G. Klemcke,2,4 R. Sampath Kumar,3,5 K. Yang,5 J.L. Vallet,4 and R.K. Christenson4 USDA-ARS,4 Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay...relevant isoform [14, 15]. The GRb isoform is unable to bind glu- cocorticoid hormones but may form heterodimers with GRa, thereby altering the ability

  12. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA expression is correlated to clinical outcomes in mycophenolate mofetil-treated kidney transplant patients, whereas inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombogaard, Ferdi; Peeters, Annemiek M. A.; Baan, Carla C.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Quaedackers, Monique E.; Vulto, Arnold G.; Weimar, Willem; van Gelder, Teun

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the pharmacodynamic biomarker inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity in renal transplant recipients has been proposed to reflect the biological effect better than using pharmacokinetic parameters to monitor mycophenolate mofetil therapy. The IMPDH assays are however

  13. Effects of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the proteolipid protein and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 messenger RNA gene expression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Semnani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The cuprizone multiple sclerosis (MS animal model is characteristic for toxic demyelination and represents a reversible demyelination and remyelination system. It has been shown that green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG might be effective in improving the symptoms and pathological conditions associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases in several animal models. In this study the effects of EGCG on proteolipid protein (PLP and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (Olig1 expression in the cerebral cortex of a murine model of cuprizone-induced demyelination was investigated. C57BL/6 mice were treated with cuprizone for six weeks in order to induce demyelination. Immediately after the cessation of cuprizone the animals were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 for each group. The first two groups were injected intraperitoneally (IP with EGCG in the amount of 50 mg/kg/daily body weight for 2 and 4 weeks. The second two groups (SHAM were injected IP with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS for 2 and 4 weeks, and the third two groups were left without injection as controls. After two and four weeks the mice were killed and the cerebral cortex was collected and the expression of Plp and Olig1 was studied by real-time PCR. The results showed significant increases in PLP and Olig1 expression in the EGCG-treated groups as compared to the SHAM and control groups (p < 0.0001. It is concluded that EGCG increases PLP and Olig1 expression in the cerebral cortex of a mouse model of MS induced by cuprizone.

  14. Effect of N-Feruloylserotonin and Methotrexate on Severity of Experimental Arthritis and on Messenger RNA Expression of Key Proinflammatory Markers in Liver

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašková, L.; Kuncírová, V.; Poništ, S.; Mihálová, D.; Nosál, R.; Harmatha, Juraj; Hrádková, I.; Čavojský, T.; Bilka, F.; Šišková, K.; Paulíková, I.; Bezáková, L.; Bauerová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, June (2016), č. článku 7509653. ISSN 2314-8861 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : rheumatoid arthritis * chronic inflammatory disease * serotonin phenylpropanoids Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.276, year: 2016 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/7509653/

  15. RNA silencing and HIV: A hypothesis for the etiology of the severe combined immunodeficiency induced by the virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Linda B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel intrinsic HIV-1 antisense gene was previously described with RNA initiating from the region of an HIV-1 antisense initiator promoter element (HIVaINR. The antisense RNA is exactly complementary to HIV-1 sense RNA and capable of forming ~400 base-pair (bp duplex RNA in the region of the long terminal repeat (LTR spanning the beginning portion of TAR in the repeat (R region and extending through the U3 region. Duplex or double-stranded RNA of several hundred nucleotides in length is a key initiating element of RNA interference (RNAi in several species. This HIVaINR antisense RNA is also capable of forming multiple stem-loop or hairpin-like secondary structures by M-fold analysis, with at least one that perfectly fits the criteria for a microRNA (miRNA precursor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs interact in a sequence-specific manner with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs to induce either cleavage of the message or impede translation. Human mRNA targets of the predicted HIVaINR antisense RNA (HAA microRNAs include mRNA for the human interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain (IL-2RG, also called the common gamma (γc receptor chain, because it is an integral part of 6 receptors mediating interleukin signalling (IL-2R, IL-4R, IL-7R, IL-9R, IL-15R and IL-21R. Other potential human mRNA targets include interleukin-15 (IL-15 mRNA, the fragile × mental retardation protein (FMRP mRNA, and the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1 mRNA, amongst others. Thus the proposed intrinsic HIVaINR antisense RNA microRNAs (HAAmiRNAs of the human immunodeficiency virus form complementary targets with mRNAs of a key human gene in adaptive immunity, the IL-2Rγc, in which genetic defects are known to cause an X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (X-SCID, as well as mRNAs of genes important in innate immunity. A new model of intrinsic RNA silencing induced by the HIVaINR antisense RNA in the absence of Tat is proposed, with elements suggestive of both small

  16. Successful reprogramming of cellular protein production through mRNA delivered by functionalized lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Kjellman, Tomas; Bartesaghi, Stefano; Wallin, Simonetta; Wu, Xiaoqiu; Kvist, Alexander J; Dabkowska, Aleksandra; Székely, Noémi; Radulescu, Aurel; Bergenholtz, Johan; Lindfors, Lennart

    2018-04-10

    The development of safe and efficacious gene vectors has limited greatly the potential for therapeutic treatments based on messenger RNA (mRNA). Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) formed by an ionizable cationic lipid (here DLin-MC3-DMA), helper lipids (distearoylphosphatidylcholine, DSPC, and cholesterol), and a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) lipid have been identified as very promising delivery vectors of short interfering RNA (siRNA) in different clinical phases; however, delivery of high-molecular weight RNA has been proven much more demanding. Herein we elucidate the structure of hEPO modified mRNA-containing LNPs of different sizes and show how structural differences affect transfection of human adipocytes and hepatocytes, two clinically relevant cell types. Employing small-angle scattering, we demonstrate that LNPs have a disordered inverse hexagonal internal structure with a characteristic distance around 6 nm in presence of mRNA, whereas LNPs containing no mRNA do not display this structure. Furthermore, using contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering, we show that one of the lipid components, DSPC, is localized mainly at the surface of mRNA-containing LNPs. By varying LNP size and surface composition we demonstrate that both size and structure have significant influence on intracellular protein production. As an example, in both human adipocytes and hepatocytes, protein expression levels for 130 nm LNPs can differ as much as 50-fold depending on their surface characteristics, likely due to a difference in the ability of LNP fusion with the early endosome membrane. We consider these discoveries to be fundamental and opening up new possibilities for rational design of synthetic nanoscopic vehicles for mRNA delivery. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. How to design a single-cell RNA-sequencing experiment: pitfalls, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Molin, Alessandra; Di Camillo, Barbara

    2018-01-31

    The sequencing of the transcriptome of single cells, or single-cell RNA-sequencing, has now become the dominant technology for the identification of novel cell types in heterogeneous cell populations or for the study of stochastic gene expression. In recent years, various experimental methods and computational tools for analysing single-cell RNA-sequencing data have been proposed. However, most of them are tailored to different experimental designs or biological questions, and in many cases, their performance has not been benchmarked yet, thus increasing the difficulty for a researcher to choose the optimal single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiment and analysis workflow. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the current available experimental and computational methods developed to handle single-cell RNA-sequencing data and, based on their peculiarities, we suggest possible analysis frameworks depending on specific experimental designs. Together, we propose an evaluation of challenges and open questions and future perspectives in the field. In particular, we go through the different steps of scRNA-seq experimental protocols such as cell isolation, messenger RNA capture, reverse transcription, amplification and use of quantitative standards such as spike-ins and Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMIs). We then analyse the current methodological challenges related to preprocessing, alignment, quantification, normalization, batch effect correction and methods to control for confounding effects. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, Norbert; Hogan, Michael J; Pelc, Rebecca S; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Andersen, Hanne; DeMaso, Christina R; Dowd, Kimberly A; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Parks, Robert; Wagner, Wendeline; Granados, Alex; Greenhouse, Jack; Walker, Michelle; Willis, Elinor; Yu, Jae-Sung; McGee, Charles E; Sempowski, Gregory D; Mui, Barbara L; Tam, Ying K; Huang, Yan-Jang; Vanlandingham, Dana; Holmes, Veronica M; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Higgs, Stephen; Hensley, Scott E; Madden, Thomas D; Hope, Michael J; Karikó, Katalin; Santra, Sampa; Graham, Barney S; Lewis, Mark G; Pierson, Theodore C; Haynes, Barton F; Weissman, Drew

    2017-03-09

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged as a pandemic associated with severe neuropathology in newborns and adults. There are no ZIKV-specific treatments or preventatives. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine is a high priority. Messenger RNA (mRNA) has emerged as a versatile and highly effective platform to deliver vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins. Here we demonstrate that a single low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of a strain from the ZIKV outbreak in 2013 elicited potent and durable neutralizing antibody responses in mice and non-human primates. Immunization with 30 μg of nucleoside-modified ZIKV mRNA-LNP protected mice against ZIKV challenges at 2 weeks or 5 months after vaccination, and a single dose of 50 μg was sufficient to protect non-human primates against a challenge at 5 weeks after vaccination. These data demonstrate that nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP elicits rapid and durable protective immunity and therefore represents a new and promising vaccine candidate for the global fight against ZIKV.

  19. Tau mRNA 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio is increased in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Escudero, Vega; Gargini, Ricardo; Martín-Maestro, Patricia; García, Esther; García-Escudero, Ramón; Avila, Jesús

    2017-08-10

    Neurons frequently show an imbalance in expression of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) relative to the coding DNA sequence (CDS) region of mature messenger RNAs (mRNA). The ratio varies among different cells or parts of the brain. The Map2 protein levels per cell depend on the 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio rather than the total mRNA amount, which suggests powerful regulation of protein expression by 3'UTR sequences. Here we found that MAPT (the microtubule-associated protein tau gene) 3'UTR levels are particularly high with respect to other genes; indeed, the 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio of MAPT is balanced in healthy brain in mouse and human. The tau protein accumulates in Alzheimer diseased brain. We nonetheless observed that the levels of RNA encoding MAPT/tau were diminished in these patients' brains. To explain this apparently contradictory result, we studied MAPT mRNA stoichiometry in coding and non-coding regions, and found that the 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio was higher in the hippocampus of Alzheimer disease patients, with higher tau protein but lower total mRNA levels. Our data indicate that changes in the 3'UTR-to-CDS ratio have a regulatory role in the disease. Future research should thus consider not only mRNA levels, but also the ratios between coding and non-coding regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of cat and dog Cdkal1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ichiro Yamamoto, Shingo Ishikawa, Li Gebin, Hiroshi Takemitsu, Megumi Fujiwara, Nobuko Mori, Yutaka Hatano, Tomoko Suzuki, Akihiro Mori, Nobuhiro Nakao, Koh Kawasumi, Toshinori Sako, Toshiro AraiLaboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit–associated protein 1–like 1 (CDKAL1 gene encodes methylthiotransferase, and the gene contains risk variants for type 2 diabetes in humans. In this study, we performed complementary DNA cloning for Cdkal1 in the cat and dog and characterized the tissue expression profiles of its messenger RNA. Cat and dog Cdkal1 complementary DNA encoded 576 and 578 amino acids, showing very high sequence homology to mammalian CDKAL1 (>88.4%. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Cdkal1 messenger RNA is highly expressed in smooth muscle and that tissue distribution of Cdkal1 is similar in cats and dogs. Genotyping analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism for cat Cdkal1 revealed that obese cats had different tendencies from normal cats. These findings suggest that the cat and dog Cdkal1 gene is highly conserved among mammals and that cat Cdkal1 may be a candidate marker for genetic diagnosis of obesity.Keywords: cat, dog, Cdkal1, obese, cDNA cloning, Q-PCR

  1. Topology of RNA-RNA Interaction Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Huang, Fenix Wenda; Penner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The topological filtration of interacting RNA complexes is studied, and the role is analyzed of certain diagrams called irreducible shadows, which form suitable building blocks for more general structures. We prove that, for two interacting RNAs, called interaction structures, there exist...

  2. iRNA-seq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Grud Skat; Schmidt, Søren Fisker; Larsen, Bjørk Ditlev

    2015-01-01

    current methods for genome-wide determination of transcriptional activity, i.e. global run-on (GRO)-seq and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) ChIP-seq, demonstrate that iRNA-seq provides similar results in terms of number of regulated genes and their fold change. However, unlike the current methods that are all...

  3. WhatsApp messenger as a tool to supplement medical education for medical students on clinical attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Lewis; Antbring, Richard; Mahmood, Asad

    2017-01-06

    Instant messaging applications have the potential to improve and facilitate communication between hospital doctors and students, hence generating and improving learning opportunities. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of instant messaging communication to supplement medical education for medical students whilst on clinical attachment. A total of 6 WhatsApp Messenger (WhatsApp Inc.) groups were created for medical students on clinical attachment. These were used to provide communication within Problem Based Learning (PBL) groups for a duration of 8 weeks. The frequency and type of communication were recorded. Students' opinions were evaluated through a structured interview process at the end of the study period. A thematic analysis was performed on the content of the instant messaging groups and on the results of the structured interviews. All of the participants were active in their respective messaging groups (19 students and 6 tutors). A total of 582 messages, 22 images and 19 webpage links were sent. Thematic analysis on content of the instant messaging groups identified the following themes: organisational, educational and social. Thematic analysis on the content of interviews identified themes such as the ease of use of instant messaging, benefit of instant messaging to foster understanding and learning, and the ability to access recorded discussions. The findings of this study illustrate a method by which communication within PBL groups can be facilitated by the use of instant messaging. The results indicate the feasibility and acceptability of WhatsApp Messenger in supplementing PBL teaching for medical students, and provides a framework for studies to investigate use amongst larger cohorts of students.

  4. Surface mapping via unsupervised classification of remote sensing: application to MESSENGER/MASCS and DAWN/VIRS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, M.; Le Scaon, R.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.

    2017-12-01

    Machine-learning achieved unprecedented results in high-dimensional data processing tasks with wide applications in various fields. Due to the growing number of complex nonlinear systems that have to be investigated in science and the bare raw size of data nowadays available, ML offers the unique ability to extract knowledge, regardless the specific application field. Examples are image segmentation, supervised/unsupervised/ semi-supervised classification, feature extraction, data dimensionality analysis/reduction.The MASCS instrument has mapped Mercury surface in the 400-1145 nm wavelength range during orbital observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We have conducted k-means unsupervised hierarchical clustering to identify and characterize spectral units from MASCS observations. The results display a dichotomy: a polar and equatorial units, possibly linked to compositional differences or weathering due to irradiation. To explore possible relations between composition and spectral behavior, we have compared the spectral provinces with elemental abundance maps derived from MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS).For the Vesta application on DAWN Visible and infrared spectrometer (VIR) data, we explored several Machine Learning techniques: image segmentation method, stream algorithm and hierarchical clustering.The algorithm successfully separates the Olivine outcrops around two craters on Vesta's surface [1]. New maps summarizing the spectral and chemical signature of the surface could be automatically produced.We conclude that instead of hand digging in data, scientist could choose a subset of algorithms with well known feature (i.e. efficacy on the particular problem, speed, accuracy) and focus their effort in understanding what important characteristic of the groups found in the data mean. [1] E Ammannito et al. "Olivine in an unexpected location on Vesta's surface". In: Nature 504.7478 (2013), pp. 122-125.

  5. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Aran, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-04-10

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  6. Quantitative affinity electrophoresis of RNA-small molecule interactions by cross-linking the ligand to acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodram, Sherry N; McCann, Lucas C; Organ, Michael G; Johnson, Philip E

    2013-11-15

    We show that the affinity electrophoresis analysis of RNA-small molecule interactions can be made quantifiable by cross-linking the ligand to the gel matrix. Using an RNA-aminoglycoside model system to verify our method, we attached an acryloyl chloride molecule to the aminoglycosides paromomycin and neomycin B to synthesize an acrylamide-aminoglycoside monomer. This molecule was then used as a component in gel polymerization for affinity electrophoresis, covalently attaching an aminoglycoside molecule to the gel matrix. To test RNA binding to the cross-linked aminoglycosides, we used the aminoglycoside binding RNA molecule derived from thymidylate synthase messenger RNA (mRNA) that contains a C-C mismatch. Binding is indicated by the difference in RNA mobility between gels with cross-linked ligand, with ligand embedded during polymerization, and with no ligand present. Critically, the predicted straight line relationship between the reciprocal of the relative migration of the RNA and the ligand concentration is obtained when using cross-linked aminoglycosides, whereas a straight line is not obtained using embedded aminoglycosides. Average apparent dissociation constants are determined from the slope of the line from these plots. This method allows an easy quantitative comparison between different nucleic acid molecules for a small molecule ligand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stimulation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in vitro RNA Synthesis by Microtubule-Associated Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Virginia M.; Harmon, Shirley A.; Summers, Donald F.

    1986-08-01

    Microtubule-associated proteins purified from bovine brains stimulated the in vitro transcription and replication reactions of vesicular stomatitis virus. The products of these reactions were intact messenger or genome-sized RNA species. A preparation from HeLa cells containing tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins also stimulated vesicular stomatitis virus transcription in vitro. This observation is in accord with previous studies, which suggested that a host cell factor was involved with the function of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase, and others that indicated that several animal viruses displayed an association with host cell cytoskeletal elements during their replication cycles. We show evidence in this report of a host cell protein that seems to have a functional role in interacting with the virion polymerase.

  8. Regulation of axon guidance by compartmentalized nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colak, Dilek; Ji, Sheng-Jian; Porse, Bo T

    2013-01-01

    Growth cones enable axons to navigate toward their targets by responding to extracellular signaling molecules. Growth-cone responses are mediated in part by the local translation of axonal messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, the mechanisms that regulate local translation are poorly understood. Here we...... show that Robo3.2, a receptor for the Slit family of guidance cues, is synthesized locally within axons of commissural neurons. Robo3.2 translation is induced by floor-plate-derived signals as axons cross the spinal cord midline. Robo3.2 is also a predicted target of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.......2 expression. These data show that local translation is regulated by mRNA stability and that NMD acts locally to influence axonal pathfinding....

  9. Mathematical and Biological Modelling of RNA Secondary Structure and Its Effects on Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary structures within the 5′ untranslated regions of messenger RNAs can have profound effects on the efficiency of translation of their messages and thereby on gene expression. Consequently they can act as important regulatory motifs in both physiological and pathological settings. Current approaches to predicting the secondary structure of these RNA sequences find the structure with the global-minimum free energy. However, since RNA folds progressively from the 5′ end when synthesised or released from the translational machinery, this may not be the most probable structure. We discuss secondary structure prediction based on local-minimisation of free energy with thermodynamic fluctuations as nucleotides are added to the 3′ end and show that these can result in different secondary structures. We also discuss approaches for studying the extent of the translational inhibition specified by structures within the 5′ untranslated region.

  10. WhatsApp Messenger as a Learning Tool: An Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Learning without Instructor Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenazi, Ali A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which pre-service teachers can utilize WhatsApp Messenger to create an effective learning platform without instructor interference. Twenty-six male pre-service teachers created a WhatsApp group and interacted through it independently for nine weeks. Each pre-service teacher was required to share a minimum of…

  11. Taxonomer: an interactive metagenomics analysis portal for universal pathogen detection and host mRNA expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Steven; Simmon, Keith; Miller, Chase; Qiao, Yi; Kennedy, Brett; Di Sera, Tonya; Graf, Erin H; Tardif, Keith D; Kapusta, Aurélie; Rynearson, Shawn; Stockmann, Chris; Queen, Krista; Tong, Suxiang; Voelkerding, Karl V; Blaschke, Anne; Byington, Carrie L; Jain, Seema; Pavia, Andrew; Ampofo, Krow; Eilbeck, Karen; Marth, Gabor; Yandell, Mark; Schlaberg, Robert

    2016-05-26

    High-throughput sequencing enables unbiased profiling of microbial communities, universal pathogen detection, and host response to infectious diseases. However, computation times and algorithmic inaccuracies have hindered adoption. We present Taxonomer, an ultrafast, web-tool for comprehensive metagenomics data analysis and interactive results visualization. Taxonomer is unique in providing integrated nucleotide and protein-based classification and simultaneous host messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript profiling. Using real-world case-studies, we show that Taxonomer detects previously unrecognized infections and reveals antiviral host mRNA expression profiles. To facilitate data-sharing across geographic distances in outbreak settings, Taxonomer is publicly available through a web-based user interface. Taxonomer enables rapid, accurate, and interactive analyses of metagenomics data on personal computers and mobile devices.

  12. Plant science. Genomic-scale exchange of mRNA between a parasitic plant and its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunjune; LeBlanc, Megan L; Wafula, Eric K; dePamphilis, Claude W; Westwood, James H

    2014-08-15

    Movement of RNAs between cells of a single plant is well documented, but cross-species RNA transfer is largely unexplored. Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) is a parasitic plant that forms symplastic connections with its hosts and takes up host messenger RNAs (mRNAs). We sequenced transcriptomes of Cuscuta growing on Arabidopsis and tomato hosts to characterize mRNA transfer between species and found that mRNAs move in high numbers and in a bidirectional manner. The mobile transcripts represented thousands of different genes, and nearly half the expressed transcriptome of Arabidopsis was identified in Cuscuta. These findings demonstrate that parasitic plants can exchange large proportions of their transcriptomes with hosts, providing potential mechanisms for RNA-based interactions between species and horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. A model-based strategy to investigate the role of microRNA regulation in cancer signalling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Vera, Julio; Schmitz, Ulf; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a model-based approach to link miRNA translational control with cell signalling networks. MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that are able to regulate the activity and the stability of specific messenger RNA and have been implicated in tumour progression due to their ability to translationally regulate critical oncogenes and tumour suppressors. In our approach, data on protein-protein interactions and miRNA regulation, obtained from bioinformatics databases, are integrated with quantitative experimental data using mathematical modelling. Predictive computational simulations and qualitative (bifurcation) analyses of those mathematical models are employed to further support the investigation of such multifactorial networks in the context of cancer progression. We illustrate our approach with the C-Myc/E2F signalling network, involved in the progression of several tumour subtypes, including colorectal cancer.

  14. WhatsApp Messenger is useful and reproducible in the assessment of tibial plateau fractures: inter- and intra-observer agreement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Koch, Hilton Augusto; Mendes, Carlos Henrique; Bergamin, André; de Souza, Felipe Serrão; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer agreement in the initial diagnosis and classification by means of plain radiographs and CT scans of tibial plateau fractures photographed and sent via WhatsApp Messenger. The increasing popularity of smartphones has driven the development of technology for data transmission and imaging and generated a growing interest in the use of these devices as diagnostic tools. The emergence of WhatsApp Messenger technology, which is available for various platforms used by smartphones, has led to an improvement in the quality and resolution of images sent and received. The images (plain radiographs and CT scans) were obtained from 13 cases of tibial plateau fractures using the iPhone 5 (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) and were sent to six observers via the WhatsApp Messenger application. The observers were asked to determine the standard deviation and type of injury, the classification according to the Schatzker and the Luo classifications schemes, and whether the CT scan changed the classification. The six observers independently assessed the images on two separate occasions, 15 days apart. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for both periods of the study ranged from excellent to perfect (0.75WhatsApp Messenger. The authors now propose the systematic use of the application to facilitate faster documentation and obtaining the opinion of an experienced consultant when not on call. Finally, we think the use of the WhatsApp Messenger as an adjuvant tool could be broadened to other clinical centres to assess its viability in other skeletal and non-skeletal trauma situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. piRNA-3312: A Putative Role for Pyrethroid Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juxin; Ye, Wenyun; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Xueli; Guo, Qin; Huang, Yun; Ma, Lei; Sun, Yan; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang

    2017-07-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a newly identified class of small noncoding RNAs. They are associated with chromatin organization, messenger RNA stability, and genome structure. Although the overexpression of piRNA-3312 in deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain of Culex pipiens pallens (L.) was observed in our previous large-scale transcriptome data, the roles of piRNA in insecticide resistance have not been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate how piRNA-3312 is involved in insecticide resistance. The lower expression level of piRNA-3312 in deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain of Cx. pipiens pallens was confirmed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Overexpression of piRNA-3312 in the DR strain made the mosquitoes more sensitive to deltamethrin, whereas inhibiting the expression of piRNA-3312 in the DS strain made the mosquitoes more resistant to deltamethrin. Piwi-interacting RNA-3312 was also found to bind 3' UTR (Untranslated Regions) of gut esterase 1 gene and could induce its degradation. In addition, knockdown of gut esterase 1 gene increased the sensitivity of DR strain to deltamethrin. In conclusion, we found that piRNA-3312 targeted the gut esterase 1 gene to negatively regulate the insecticide resistance. This finding facilitates the understanding of various functions of piRNAs and their association with insecticide resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Protein functional features are reflected in the patterns of mRNA translation speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-09

    The degeneracy of the genetic code makes it possible for the same amino acid string to be coded by different messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences. These "synonymous mRNAs" may differ largely in a number of aspects related to their overall translational efficiency, such as secondary structure content and availability of the encoded transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Consequently, they may render different yields of the translated polypeptides. These mRNA features related to translation efficiency are also playing a role locally, resulting in a non-uniform translation speed along the mRNA, which has been previously related to some protein structural features and also used to explain some dramatic effects of "silent" single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work we perform the first large scale analysis of the relationship between three experimental proxies of mRNA local translation efficiency and the local features of the corresponding encoded proteins. We found that a number of protein functional and structural features are reflected in the patterns of ribosome occupancy, secondary structure and tRNA availability along the mRNA. One or more of these proxies of translation speed have distinctive patterns around the mRNA regions coding for certain protein local features. In some cases the three patterns follow a similar trend. We also show specific examples where these patterns of translation speed point to the protein's important structural and functional features. This support the idea that the genome not only codes the protein functional features as sequences of amino acids, but also as subtle patterns of mRNA properties which, probably through local effects on the translation speed, have some consequence on the final polypeptide. These results open the possibility of predicting a protein's functional regions based on a single genomic sequence, and have implications for heterologous protein expression and fine-tuning protein function.

  17. Assembling RNA Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2017-01-01

    RNA nanoparticles are designed and self-assembled according to noncanonical interactions of naturally conserved RNA motifs and/or canonical Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions, which have potential applications in gene therapy and nanomedicine. These artificially engineered nanoparticles are mainly synthesized from in vitro transcribed RNAs, purified by denaturing and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and characterized with native PAGE, AFM, and TEM technologies. The protocols of in vitro transcription, denaturing and native PAGE, and RNA nanoparticle self-assembly are described in detail.

  18. Generation of siRNA Nanosheets for Efficient RNA Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Jong Bum

    2016-04-01

    After the discovery of small interference RNA (siRNA), nanostructured siRNA delivery systems have been introduced to achieve an efficient regulation of the target gene expression. Here we report a new siRNA-generating two dimensional nanostructure in a formation of nanosized sheet. Inspired by tunable mechanical and functional properties of the previously reported RNA membrane, siRNA nanosized sheets (siRNA-NS) with multiple Dicer cleavage sites were prepared. The siRNA-NS has two dimensional structure, providing a large surface area for Dicer to cleave the siRNA-NS for the generation of functional siRNAs. Furthermore, downregulation of the cellular target gene expression was achieved by delivery of siRNA-NS without chemical modification of RNA strands or conjugation to other substances.

  19. RNA/PNA Approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this approach we want to develop structural analogue of the leader that might have higher affinity towards the Phosphoprotein, but would impair the dimerization process and viral leader RNA binding.

  20. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....