WorldWideScience

Sample records for messaging architecture message

  1. A Massively Scalable Architecture for Instant Messaging & Presence

    Schippers, Jorrit; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Punt, Henk; Wegdam, M.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Thomas, N.; Bradley, J.; Knottenbelt, W.; Dingle, N.; Harder, U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the scalability of Instant Messaging & Presence (IM&P) architectures. We take a queueing-based modelling and analysis approach to ��?nd the bottlenecks of the current IM&P architecture at the Dutch social network Hyves, as well as of alternative architectures. We use the

  2. Towards a reusable architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare

    Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; do Prado, Antonio Francisco; Hammoudi, S.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Cordeiro, J.; Dietz, J.L.G.

    The main objective of this paper is to present a reusable architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare environments meant to be generally applicable to different applications in the healthcare domain. This architecture has been designed by integrating different concepts and technologies

  3. The message architecture of the LEP control system

    Altaber, J.; van der Stok, P.; Frammery, V.; Gareyte, C.; Rausch, R.

    1985-01-01

    The LEP control system will be constructed as a global communication system where microprocessors will be used everywhere, from the management of the communication mechanisms, the execution of complex control procedures, and the supervision of the equipment. To achieve this, the global control problem has been cut into sizeable functions which will be encapsulated into microprocessor modules containing enough hardware for the function to be mostly self-contained. This leads to a function architecture where messages are exchanged between the functions on miscellaneous media. It is shown how these message exchanges can be organized into a uniform flow of data all through the system

  4. Low Power LDPC Code Decoder Architecture Based on Intermediate Message Compression Technique

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Togawa, Nozomu; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi

    Reducing the power dissipation for LDPC code decoder is a major challenging task to apply it to the practical digital communication systems. In this paper, we propose a low power LDPC code decoder architecture based on an intermediate message-compression technique which features as follows: (i) An intermediate message compression technique enables the decoder to reduce the required memory capacity and write power dissipation. (ii) A clock gated shift register based intermediate message memory architecture enables the decoder to decompress the compressed messages in a single clock cycle while reducing the read power dissipation. The combination of the above two techniques enables the decoder to reduce the power dissipation while keeping the decoding throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture improves the power efficiency up to 52% and 18% compared to that of the decoder based on the overlapped schedule and the rapid convergence schedule without the proposed techniques respectively.

  5. Subtle Messages.

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  6. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  7. DMS message design workshops.

    2009-03-01

    This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...

  8. An architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare based on the use of intelligent agents

    Cavalini, L.T.; Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Cavalini, Luciana Tricai; do Prado, Antonio Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This paper proposes an architecture for the exchange of context-aware messages in Pervasive Healthcare environments. Materials and methods: In Pervasive Healthcare, novel information and communication technologies are applied to support the provision of health services anywhere, at anytime,

  9. Mixed messages

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  10. A SECURE MESSAGE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR COMPUTER NETWORKS EMPLOYING SMART CARDS

    Geylani KARDAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce a mobile system architecture which employs smart cards for secure message transmission in computer networks. The use of smart card provides two security services as authentication and confidentiality in our design. The security of the system is provided by asymmetric encryption. Hence, smart cards are used to store personal account information as well as private key of each user for encryption / decryption operations. This offers further security, authentication and mobility to the system architecture. A real implementation of the proposed architecture which utilizes the JavaCard technology is also discussed in this study.

  11. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  12. Applying a message oriented middleware architecture to the TJ-II remote participation system

    Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.; Pereira, A.; Vega, J.

    2006-01-01

    A message oriented middleware (MOM) has been introduced into the TJ-II data acquisition system to on-line distribute information. Java message service (JMS) has been chosen as the messaging application program interface (API) in order to ensure multiplatform portability. A library of C++ classes providing interface for JMS Java classes has been developed. This allows C++ programs to inter-communicate through JMS. In addition, a set of C wrapper functions has also been developed to provide basic messaging functionalities for C or FORTRAN programs. These functions are used in TJ-II LabView data acquisition applications. Several software applications that take advantage of the MOM architecture have been developed. Firstly, a general-user application allows monitoring of the data acquisition systems. Secondly, a simple application permits the visualization of TJ-II monitor signals with on-line data refreshing. These applications are written in the Java language, thereby ensuring its portability. These software tools provide new functionalities to the TJ-II remote participation system and are equally used in the local environment

  13. Applying a message oriented middleware architecture to the TJ-II remote participation system

    Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: edi.sanchez@ciemat.es; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pereira, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    A message oriented middleware (MOM) has been introduced into the TJ-II data acquisition system to on-line distribute information. Java message service (JMS) has been chosen as the messaging application program interface (API) in order to ensure multiplatform portability. A library of C++ classes providing interface for JMS Java classes has been developed. This allows C++ programs to inter-communicate through JMS. In addition, a set of C wrapper functions has also been developed to provide basic messaging functionalities for C or FORTRAN programs. These functions are used in TJ-II LabView data acquisition applications. Several software applications that take advantage of the MOM architecture have been developed. Firstly, a general-user application allows monitoring of the data acquisition systems. Secondly, a simple application permits the visualization of TJ-II monitor signals with on-line data refreshing. These applications are written in the Java language, thereby ensuring its portability. These software tools provide new functionalities to the TJ-II remote participation system and are equally used in the local environment.

  14. EMI Messaging Guidelines

    Cons, L.

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.

  15. Unified Internet Messaging

    Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan

    2015-01-01

    As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...

  16. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  17. A Service-Oriented Healthcare Message Alerting Architecture in an Asia Medical Center: A Case Study

    Jin-Shin Lai

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates how our development team has used some information technologies to let physicians obtain an instant abnormal laboratory result report for critical patient care services. We have implementeda healthcare message alerting system (HMAS on a healthcare short message service (HSMS engine and the distributed healthcare-oriented service environment (DiHOSE in the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH. The HSMS engine has a general interface for all applications which could easily send any kind of alerting messages. Fundamentally, the DiHOSE uses HL7 standard formats to process the information exchange behaviors and can be flexibly extended for reasonable user requirements. The disease surveillance subsystem is an integral part of NTUH new hospital information system which is based on DiHOSE and the disease surveillance subsystem would send alerting messages through the HSMS engine. The latest cell phone message alerting subsystem, a case study, in NTUH proved that the DiHOSE could integrate the user required functions without much work. We concluded that both HSMS and DiHOSE can generalize and extend application demands efficiently.

  18. A Pub/Sub Message Distribution Architecture for Disruption Tolerant Networks

    Carrilho, Sergio; Esaki, Hiroshi

    Access to information is taken for granted in urban areas covered by a robust communication infrastructure. Nevertheless most of the areas in the world, are not covered by such infrastructures. We propose a DTN publish and subscribe system called Hikari, which uses nodes' mobility in order to distribute messages without using a robust infrastructure. The area of Disruption/Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) focuses on providing connectivity to locations separated by networks with disruptions and delays. The Hikari system does not use node identifiers for message forwarding thus eliminating the complexity of routing associated with many forwarding schemes in DTN. Hikari uses nodes paths' information, advertised by special nodes in the system or predicted by the system itself, for optimizing the message dissemination process. We have used the Paris subway system, due to it's complexity, to validate Hikari and to analyze it's performance. We have shown that Hikari achieves a superior deliver rate while keeping redundant messages in the system low, which is ideal when using devices with limited resources for message dissemination.

  19. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    Cons, Lionel; Paladin, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures will support the growth of the WLCG messaging service.

  20. Instant Messaging by SIP

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  1. SDN-enabled hybrid emergency message transmission architecture in internet-of-vehicles

    Zhu, Wanting; Gao, Deyun; Zhao, Weicheng; Zhang, Hongke; Chiang, Hua-Pei

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing number of vehicles connected to the Internet-of-Things (IoT), Internet-of-Vehicles (IoV) is becoming a hot research topic. It can improve traffic safety and efficiency and promote the development of the intelligent transportation that is a very important element in Smart Cities. As an important part of the safety application in IoV, the emergency message transmission is designed to inform all the vehicles in the relevant area timely of the accident information through the multi-hop broadcast communication. In this paper, we propose a hybrid emergency message transmission (HEMT), which introduces the SDN technology into the vehicular network environment and utilizes the flexibility of inter-vehicle communication. By deploying SDN-enabled central controller and RSU switches, we can obtain reliable and fast emergency message dissemination. Moreover, considering the space between the coverages of RSUs caused by the sparse deployment, we also use inter-vehicle multi-hop broadcast communication to improve the message coverage ratio by adding the packet modification module on the RSU switch. Simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  2. The message is the message-maker.

    Chalkley, A B

    1977-03-01

    For those engaged in family planning or other demographic work of an active kind, serious errors can be made and much money and skill wasted unless there is a clear idea of available means of communication. Literacy and media-diffusion figures offer vague parameters, especially in Asia, and the role of spoken communication -- considered key in "illiterate" societies -- is even more difficult to assess. For mass media, the starting point is "diffusion rates" representing numbers of TV sets owned or newspapers sold per 1000 population and so on -- measures of quantity. This article surveys the population growth rates, urban-rural distribution, educational levels, literacy rates, numbers of newspapers bought, radios and TVs owned (per 1000 population) for 12 Asian countries, and discusses their meaning in terms of media use. Chief among the points made are that print media still have an enormous role to play in the developing countries -- newspaper diffusion rates are quite high, even in countries with low urban population (especially India). The quality of electronic media (too often considered the natural "wave of the future" everywhere) varies but is generally not high. Where they are fully developed their role is vital -- but it might be noted that it is the message makers themselves who are most vital. Choosing the right medium and the proper message for it is essential.

  3. An Examination of Adolescent Recall of Anti-Smoking Messages: Attitudes, Message Type, and Message Perceptions.

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R

    2017-04-01

    Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.

  4. Popular Mobilization Messaging

    James Garrison

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper examines the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Unit’s (PMU messaging on the organisation’s website and social media platforms through early January 2017 to develop a more nuanced understanding of the PMU’s outlook, both present and future. After providing an overview of the PMU’s media presence online, the paper discusses how the organisation promotes its core narrative: that it is a cross-confessional and patriotic force for the defence of all Iraqis against a brutal and evil IS. The paper then addresses the PMU’s use of messaging to refute the sectarian portrayal of the organisation in some quarters before turning to the way the PMU approaches regional and international states in its media. Finally, the paper summarises the PMU’s messaging strategy and discusses how this strategy implies a less threatening future for the organisation than is often anticipated.

  5. SMS Messaging Applications

    Pero, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones are the most common communication device on the planet, and Short Message Service (SMS) is the chief channel for companies to offer services, accept requests, report news, and download binary files over cell phones. This guide describes the protocols and best practices (things that ensure you won't get sued or lose your right to offer a service) you need to know to make SMS messaging part of an organizational service. Issues such as character sets, differences among vendors, common practices in Europe and North America, and API choices are covered.

  6. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    Cons, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures wil...

  7. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  8. Microprocessorized message multiplexer

    Ejzman, S.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    The 'Microprocessorized Message Multiplexer' is an elementary development tool used to create and debug the software of a target microprocessor (User Module: UM). It connects together four devices: a terminal, a cassette recorder, the target microprocessor and a host computer where macro and editor for the M 6800 microprocessor are resident [fr

  9. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  10. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  11. 3. Secure Messaging

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Electronic Commerce - Secure Messaging. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0008-0017 ...

  12. Does the Screening Status of Message Characters Affect Message Effects?

    Alber, Julia M.; Glanz, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Public health messages can be used to increase awareness about colorectal cancer screenings. Free or inexpensive images for creating health messages are readily available, yet little is known about how a pictured individual's engagement in the behavior of interest affects message outcomes. Participants (N = 360), aged 50 to 75 years, completed an…

  13. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  14. Message from Fermilab Director

    2009-01-01

    With this issue’s message, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone opens a new series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, wrote a message in Tuesday’s edition of Fermilab TodayPerspectivesNothing is more important for our worldwide particle physics community than successfully turning on the LHC later this year. The promise for great discoveries is huge, and many of the plans for our future depend on LHC results. Those of us planning national programmes in anticipation of data from the LHC face formidable challenges to develop future facilities that are complementary to the LHC, whatever the physics discoveries may be. At Fermilab, this has led us to move forcefully with a programme at the intensity frontier, where experiments with neutrinos and rare decays open a complementary window into nature. Our ultimate goal for a unified picture of nat...

  15. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require and application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI 'C' and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process

  16. Designing for scale: optimising the health information system architecture for mobile maternal health messaging in South Africa (MomConnect).

    Seebregts, Christopher; Dane, Pierre; Parsons, Annie Neo; Fogwill, Thomas; Rogers, Debbie; Bekker, Marcha; Shaw, Vincent; Barron, Peter

    2018-01-01

    MomConnect is a national initiative coordinated by the South African National Department of Health that sends text-based mobile phone messages free of charge to pregnant women who voluntarily register at any public healthcare facility in South Africa. We describe the system design and architecture of the MomConnect technical platform, planned as a nationally scalable and extensible initiative. It uses a health information exchange that can connect any standards-compliant electronic front-end application to any standards-compliant electronic back-end database. The implementation of the MomConnect technical platform, in turn, is a national reference application for electronic interoperability in line with the South African National Health Normative Standards Framework. The use of open content and messaging standards enables the architecture to include any application adhering to the selected standards. Its national implementation at scale demonstrates both the use of this technology and a key objective of global health information systems, which is to achieve implementation scale. The system's limited clinical information, initially, allowed the architecture to focus on the base standards and profiles for interoperability in a resource-constrained environment with limited connectivity and infrastructural capacity. Maintenance of the system requires mobilisation of national resources. Future work aims to use the standard interfaces to include data from additional applications as well as to extend and interface the framework with other public health information systems in South Africa. The development of this platform has also shown the benefits of interoperability at both an organisational and technical level in South Africa.

  17. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  18. Getting Your Message Across: Mobile Phone Text Messaging

    Beecher, Constance C.; Hayungs, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Want to send a message that 99% of your audience will read? Many Extension professionals are familiar with using social media tools to enhance Extension programming. Extension professionals may be less familiar with the use of mobile phone text-based marketing tools. The purpose of this article is to introduce SMS (short message system) marketing…

  19. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  20. A Visualized Message Interface (VMI) for intelligent messaging services

    Endo, T.; Kasahara, H.; Nakagawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    In CCITT, Message Handling Systems (MHS) have been studied from the viewpoint of communications protocol standardization. In addition to MHS services, Message Processing (MP) services, such as image processing, filing and retrieving services, will come into increasing demand in office automation field. These messaging services, including MHS services, can be thought of as Intelligent Messaging (IM) services. IM services include many basic services, optional user facilities and service parameters. Accordingly, it is necessary to deal with these parameters and MP procedures in as systematic and user-friendly a manner as possible. As one step towards realizing a user-friendly IM services interface, the characteristics of IM service parameters are studied and a Visualized Message Interface (VMI) which resembles a conventional letter exchange format is presented. The concept of VMI formation is discussed using the generic document structure concept as well as a Screen Interface and Protocol Interface conversion package

  1. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  2. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  3. Upon a Message-Oriented Trading API

    Claudiu VINTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the premises for a trading system application-programming interface (API based on a message-oriented middleware (MOM, and present the results of our research regarding the design and the implementation of a simulation-trading system employing a service-oriented architecture (SOA and messaging. Our research has been conducted with the aim of creating a simulation-trading platform, within the academic environment, that will provide both the foundation for future experiments with trading systems architectures, components, APIs, and the framework for research on trading strategies, trading algorithm design, and equity markets analysis tools. Mathematics Subject Classification: 68M14 (distributed systems.

  4. Using Publish-Subscribe Messaging for System Status and Automation

    Smith, Danford S.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) system is a message-based plug-and-play open system architecture used in many of NASA mission operations centers. This presentation will focus on the use of GMSEC standard messages to report and analyze the status of a system and enable the automation of the system's components. In GMSEC systems, each component reports its status using a keep-alive message and also publishes status and activities as log messages. In addition, the components can accept functional directive messages from the GMSEC message bus. Over the past several years, development teams have found ways to utilize these messages to create innovative display pages and increasingly sophisticated approaches to automation. This presentation will show the flexibility and value of the message-based approach to system awareness and automation.

  5. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  6. MEDITERRANEAN VISUAL MESSAGES: THE CONUNDRUM OF IDENTITY, ISMS, AND MEANING IN CONTEMPORARY EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Egypt like many of the Mediterranean countries is an amalgam of influences. Its rich history and unique geographical position afforded many opportunities for the emergence of architectural trends and movements. This article presents a new positional interpretation of contemporary Egyptian architecture. It is culled from a spectrum of issues I have presented in several events and published in local and international conferences and trade magazines. However, it calls for a fresh look at the issue of meaning in architecture by critically analyzing the current status of architecture in Egypt through a reading of trends that emerged over the last decade. The article discusses the concepts of Mediterraneanism and Middle Easternism in association with the situation of architecture and urbanism in Egypt. A number of ISMS including postmodernism, historical revivalism, critical regionalism and confusing symbolism are identified and reviewed and representative examples are critically analyzed. The article concludes by outlining an approach for a deeper insight toward the understanding of meaning in Egyptian architecture.

  7. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  8. MEDITERRANEAN VISUAL MESSAGES: THE CONUNDRUM OF IDENTITY, ISMS, AND MEANING IN CONTEMPORARY EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2007-01-01

    Egypt like many of the Mediterranean countries is an amalgam of influences. Its rich history and unique geographical position afforded many opportunities for the emergence of architectural trends and movements. This article presents a new positional interpretation of contemporary Egyptian architecture. It is culled from a spectrum of issues I have presented in several events and published in local and international conferences and trade magazines. However, it calls for a fresh look at the iss...

  9. Designing for scale: optimising the health information system architecture for mobile maternal health messaging in South Africa (MomConnect)

    Seebregts, C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MomConnect is a national initiative coordinated by the South African National Department of Health that sends text-based mobile phone messages free of charge to pregnant women who voluntarily register at any public healthcare facility in South...

  10. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  11. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require an application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI open-quote C close-quote and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process

  12. Reactions to threatening health messages.

    Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-11-21

    Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  13. Architecture for WSN Nodes Integration in Context Aware Systems Using Semantic Messages

    Larizgoitia, Iker; Muguira, Leire; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming extremely popular in the development of context aware systems. Traditionally WSN have been focused on capturing data, which was later analyzed and interpreted in a server with more computational power. In this kind of scenario the problem of representing the sensor information needs to be addressed. Every node in the network might have different sensors attached; therefore their correspondent packet structures will be different. The server has to be aware of the meaning of every single structure and data in order to be able to interpret them. Multiple sensors, multiple nodes, multiple packet structures (and not following a standard format) is neither scalable nor interoperable. Context aware systems have solved this problem with the use of semantic technologies. They provide a common framework to achieve a standard definition of any domain. Nevertheless, these representations are computationally expensive, so a WSN cannot afford them. The work presented in this paper tries to bridge the gap between the sensor information and its semantic representation, by defining a simple architecture that enables the definition of this information natively in a semantic way, achieving the integration of the semantic information in the network packets. This will have several benefits, the most important being the possibility of promoting every WSN node to a real semantic information source.

  14. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  15. Radiating Messages: An International Perspective.

    Walker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…

  16. Re: Design Changing the Message

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  17. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  18. The Media and the Message.

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)

  19. Spatial variation in messaging effects

    Warshaw, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    There is large geographic variation in the public's views about climate change in the United States. Research now shows that climate messages can influence public beliefs about the scientific consensus on climate change, particularly in the places that are initially more skeptical.

  20. The Message Logging System for NOνA Experiment

    Lu Qiming; Kowalkowski, J B; Biery, K A

    2011-01-01

    The message logging system provides the infrastructure for all of the distributed processes in the data acquisition (DAQ) to report status messages of various severities in a consistent manner to a central location, as well as providing the tools for displaying and archiving the messages. The message logging system has been developed over a decade, and has been run successfully on CDF and CMS experiments. The most recent work to the message logging system is to build it as a stand-alone package with the name MessageFacility which works for any generic framework or applications, with NOνA as the first driving user. System designs and architectures, as well as the efforts of making it a generic library will be discussed. We also present new features that have been added.

  1. Reactions to threatening health messages

    ten Hoor Gill A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  2. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  3. Increasing the Operational Value of Event Messages

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Smith, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the health of a space mission has traditionally been performed using telemetry analysis tools. Parameter values are compared to known operational limits and are plotted over various time periods. This presentation begins with the notion that there is an incredible amount of untapped information contained within the mission s event message logs. Through creative advancements in message handling tools, the event message logs can be used to better assess spacecraft and ground system status and to highlight and report on conditions not readily apparent when messages are evaluated one-at-a-time during a real-time pass. Work in this area is being funded as part of a larger NASA effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center to create component-based, middleware-based, standards-based general purpose ground system architecture referred to as GMSEC - the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center. The new capabilities and operational concepts for event display, event data analyses and data mining are being developed by Lockheed Martin and the new subsystem has been named GREAT - the GMSEC Reusable Event Analysis Toolkit. Planned for use on existing and future missions, GREAT has the potential to increase operational efficiency in areas of problem detection and analysis, general status reporting, and real-time situational awareness.

  4. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  5. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    Charguéraud , Arthur

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise ...

  6. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...

  7. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan

    2011-01-01

    University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...

  8. Message exchange in the building industry

    Vries, de B.; Somers, L.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A process model is described for exchanging information in the building industry. In this model participants send and receive messages. On receipt of a message an activity is executed if all required information is available. Otherwise a message will be sent to another participant to obtain the

  9. Framing of health information messages.

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-12-07

    -planned subgroup analyses based on the type of message (screening, prevention, and treatment). The primary outcome was behaviour. We did not assess any adverse outcomes. We included 35 studies involving 16,342 participants (all health consumers) and reporting 51 comparisons.In the context of attribute framing, participants in one included study understood the message better when it was framed negatively than when it was framed positively (1 study; SMD -0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.94 to -0.22); moderate effect size; low quality evidence). Although positively-framed messages may have led to more positive perception of effectiveness than negatively-framed messages (2 studies; SMD 0.36 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.85); small effect size; low quality evidence), there was little or no difference in persuasiveness (11 studies; SMD 0.07 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.37); low quality evidence) and behavior (1 study; SMD 0.09 (95% CI -0.14 to 0.31); moderate quality evidence).In the context of goal framing, loss messages led to a more positive perception of effectiveness compared to gain messages for screening messages (5 studies; SMD -0.30 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10); small effect size; moderate quality evidence) and may have been more persuasive for treatment messages (3 studies; SMD -0.50 (95% CI -1.04 to 0.04); moderate effect size; very low quality evidence). There was little or no difference in behavior (16 studies; SMD -0.06 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.03); low quality evidence). No study assessed the effect on understanding. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, the available low to moderate quality evidence suggests that both attribute and goal framing may have little if any consistent effect on health consumers' behaviour. The unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Future research needs to investigate these conditions.

  10. Reactions to threatening health messages

    ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; K?hninger, Constanze; K?lgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Sch?tt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence th...

  11. A message to school girls.

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  12. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  13. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  14. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  15. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  16. Entity-based Classification of Twitter Messages

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Twitter is a popular micro-blogging service on theWeb, where people can enter short messages, which then become visible to some other users of the service. While the topics of these messages varies, there are a lot of messages where the users express their opinions about some companies or their products. These messages are a rich source of information for companies for sentiment analysis or opinion mining. There is however a great obstacle for analyzing the messages directly: as the company n...

  17. Guidelines for designing messages in risk communication

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko

    2004-07-01

    Risk Communication Study Team (hereafter called RC team) has designed messages for risk communication based on the analysis of the local residents' opinions which were expressed in several questionnaire surveys. The messages are described in a side format (Power Point format) every single content. This report provides basic guidelines for making messages that are used for risk communication, and does not include concrete messages which RC team designed. The RC team has already published the report entitled 'Information materials for risk communication' (JNC TN8450 2003-008) separately, and it gives the concrete messages. This report shows general cautions and checklists in designing messages, comments on the messages from outside risk communication experts, and opinions from local residents. (author)

  18. Improving the effectiveness of fundraising messages: The impact of charity goal attainment, message framing, and evidence on persuasion

    Das, E.; Kerkhof, P.; Kuiper, J.

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a

  19. ZeroMQ messaging for many applications

    Hintjens, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Dive into ØMQ (aka ZeroMQ), the smart socket library that gives you fast, easy, message-based concurrency for your applications. With this quick-paced guide, you’ll learn hands-on how to use this scalable, lightweight, and highly flexible networking tool for exchanging messages among clusters, the cloud, and other multi-system environments. ØMQ maintainer Pieter Hintjens takes you on a tour of real-world applications, using extended examples in C to help you work with ØMQ’s API, sockets, and patterns. Learn how to use specific ØMQ programming techniques, build multithreaded applications, and create your own messaging architectures. You’ll discover how ØMQ works with several programming languages and most operating systems—with little or no cost. Learn ØMQ’s main patterns: request-reply, publish-subscribe, and pipeline Work with ØMQ sockets and patterns by building several small applications Explore advanced uses of ØMQ’s request-reply pattern through working examples Build reliable request...

  20. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Barks Amanda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.

  1. Hand hygiene posters: motivators or mixed messages?

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-07-01

    Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically.

  2. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem

    2012-01-01

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  3. Diabetes education via mobile text messaging.

    Wangberg, Silje C; Arsand, Eirik; Andersson, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    Living with diabetes makes great educational demands on a family. We have tested the feasibility of using the mobile phone short message service (SMS) for reaching people with diabetes information. We also assessed user satisfaction and perceived pros and cons of the medium through interviews. Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes received messages for 11 weeks. The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages. Overall, the SMS seems to hold promise as means of delivering diabetes information.

  4. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-01-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  5. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2012-08-19

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  6. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  7. Message Received: Virtual Ethnography in Online Message Boards

    Kevin F. Steinmetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet begins to encapsulate more people within online communities, it is important that the social researcher have well-rounded ethnographic methodologies for observing these phenomena. This article seeks to contribute to methodology by detailing and providing insights into three specific facets of virtual ethnography that need attention: space and time, identity and authenticity, and ethics. Because the Internet is a globalized and instantaneous medium where space and time collapse, identity becomes more playful, and ethics become more tenuous; understanding these aspects is crucial to the study of online social groups. A second focus of this article is to apply these notions to the study of online message boards—a frequently used medium for online communication that is frequently overlooked by methodologists.

  8. Message framing in social networking sites.

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  9. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875

  10. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  11. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  12. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    2013-10-28

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval... comments. Please submit your comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative...

  13. Undergraduates' Text Messaging Language and Literacy Skills

    Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…

  14. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission

  15. Messages about Sexuality: An Ecological Perspective

    Boone, Tanya L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…

  16. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  17. Synchronous message-based communication for distributed heterogeneous systems

    Wilkinson, N.; Dohan, D.

    1992-01-01

    The use of a synchronous, message-based real-time operating system (Unison) as the basis of transparent interprocess and inter-processor communication over VME-bus is described. The implementation of a synchronous, message-based protocol for network communication between heterogeneous systems is discussed. In particular, the design and implementation of a message-based session layer over a virtual circuit transport layer protocol using UDP/IP is described. Inter-process communication is achieved via a message-based semantic which is portable by virtue of its ease of implementation in other operating system environments. Protocol performance for network communication among heterogeneous architecture is presented, including VMS, Unix, Mach and Unison. (author)

  18. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  19. Hand hygiene posters: selling the message.

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-02-01

    This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders.

  20. Designing Anti-Binge Drinking Prevention Messages: Message Framing vs. Evidence Type.

    Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.

  1. Improving the Effectiveness of Fundraising Messages: The Impact of Charity Goal Attainment, Message Framing, and Evidence on Persuasion

    Das, Enny; Kerkhof, Peter; Kuiper, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a positive message frame. In addition, building on…

  2. Text messages as a learning tool for midwives | Woods | South ...

    The use of cell phone text messaging to improve access to continuing ... with 50 of the message recipients, demonstrated that the text messages were well received by ... services, such as the management of HIV-infected children and adults.

  3. A Message Without a Code?

    Tom Conley

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The photographic paradox is said to be that of a message without a code, a communication lacking a relay or gap essential to the process of communication. Tracing the recurrence of Barthes's definition in the essays included in Image/Music/Text and in La Chambre claire , this paper argues that Barthes's definition is platonic in its will to dematerialize the troubling — graphic — immediacy of the photograph. He writes of the image in order to flee its signature. As a function of media, his categories are written in order to be insufficient and inadequate; to maintain an ineluctable difference between language heard and letters seen; to protect an idiom of loss which the photograph disallows. The article studies the strategies of his definition in «The Photographic Paradox» as instrument of abstraction, opposes the notion of code, in an aural sense, to audio-visual markers of closed relay in advertising, and critiques the layout and order of La Chambre claire in respect to Barthes's ideology of absence.

  4. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim, M.; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K 1 and K 2 ; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K 1 , and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K 2 . Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K 2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K 2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K 2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K 2 . The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K 2 and then by K 1 , using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K 2 provides the authentication and with key K 1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  5. Management and Archiving e-mail Messages in Governmental Organization

    Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen

    2006-01-01

    The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.

  6. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Khan Munziba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  7. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive.

    Uskul, Ayse K; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a message about health risks of caffeine consumption among individuals prescreened to be regular caffeine consumers. After being primed for individualism, European Americans who read a health message that focused on the personal self were more likely to accept the message-they found it more persuasive, believed they were more at risk and engaged in more message-congruent behaviour. These effects were also found among Asian Americans who were primed for collectivism and who read a health message that focused on relational obligations. The findings point to the importance of investigating the role of situational cues in persuasive effects of health messages and suggest that matching content to primed frame consistent with the chronic frame may be a way to know what to match messages to.

  8. Comment ameliorer la selection et le traitement des messages verbaux? (How to Improve the Selection and Processing of Verbal Messages)

    Rivenez, Marie; Darwin, Chris; Guillaume, Anne

    2005-01-01

    L'objectif de cette recherche est d'ameliorer la selection des messages verbaux. Nous cherchons a determiner les facteurs influencant le traitement d'un message verbal lorsque l'attention est portee sur un autre message...

  9. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers

  10. Anxiety, Construct Differentiation, and Message Production.

    Shepherd, Gregory J.; Condra, Mollie B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the nature of the construct differentiation/anxiety relationship in light of messages produced. Considers recent and complex conceptualizations of social-cognitive development and anxiety. Finds no significant relationship between state anxiety and construct differentiation. (MM)

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL STRATEGIES IN TEXT MESSAGING AMONG ...

    Text messaging is the application of abridged morphological forms in order ... the emergence of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in the world. ... Our thesis statement is that these morphological patterns as used in SMS are ...

  12. Photometric requirements for portable changeable message signs.

    2001-09-01

    This project reviewed the performance of pchangeable message signs (PCMSs) and developed photometric standards to establish performance requirements. In addition, researchers developed photometric test methods and recommended them for use in evaluati...

  13. Wyoming CV Pilot Traveler Information Message Sample

    Department of Transportation — This dataset contains a sample of the sanitized Traveler Information Messages (TIM) being generated by the Wyoming Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot. The full set of TIMs...

  14. Getting the message across: age differences in the positive and negative framing of health care messages.

    Shamaskin, Andrea M; Mikels, Joseph A; Reed, Andrew E

    2010-09-01

    Although valenced health care messages influence impressions, memory, and behavior (Levin, Schneider, & Gaeth, 1998) and the processing of valenced information changes with age (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005), these 2 lines of research have thus far been disconnected. This study examined impressions of, and memory for, positively and negatively framed health care messages that were presented in pamphlets to 25 older adults and 24 younger adults. Older adults relative to younger adults rated positive pamphlets more informative than negative pamphlets and remembered a higher proportion of positive to negative messages. However, older adults misremembered negative messages to be positive. These findings demonstrate the age-related positivity effect in health care messages with promise as to the persuasive nature and lingering effects of positive messages. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.

  16. Message-driven factors influencing opening and forwarding of mobile advertising messages

    Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Martí Parreño, José

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to analyse the influence of message-driven factors -informativeness, ubiquity, frequency and personalization- on consumer attitude and behaviour -opening and forwarding- towards mobile advertising messages. A theoretical model was developed and empirically tested using a sample of 355 Spanish teenager mobile users. Findings show that frequency is the dimension accounting the most -and significantly- of the four message-driven factors analysed on attitude toward mobile advertisi...

  17. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive

    Uskul, Ayse K.; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a me...

  18. Persuasive messages. Development of persuasive messages may help increase mothers' compliance of their children's immunization schedule.

    Gore, P; Madhavan, S; Curry, D; McClurg, G; Castiglia, M; Rosenbluth, S A; Smego, R A

    1998-01-01

    Effective immunization campaigns can be designed by determining which persuasion strategy is most effective in attracting the attention of mothers of preschoolers. The authors assess the impact of three persuasional strategies: fear-arousal, motherhood-arousal, and rational messages, on mothers of preschoolers who are late for their immunizations. The fear-arousal message was found to be most effective, followed by the motherhood-arousal, and then the rational message, in attracting mothers' attention to their child's immunization status.

  19. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    Arthur Charguéraud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise and systematically useful to the programmer, but also to handle a full-blown programming language and to cope with large-sized programs efficiently. In this work, we present a modification to the traditional ML type inference algorithm implemented in OCaml that, by significantly reducing the left-to-right bias, allows us to report error messages that are more helpful to the programmer. Our algorithm remains fully predictable and continues to produce fairly concise error messages that always help making some progress towards fixing the code. We implemented our approach as a patch to the OCaml compiler in just a few hundred lines of code. We believe that this patch should benefit not just to beginners, but also to experienced programs developing large-scale OCaml programs.

  20. Recent computer attacks via Instant Messaging

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...

  1. Gender messages in contemporary popular Malay songs

    Collin Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 contemporary Malay songs were analysed using Fairclough’s (1992 method of text analysis. The content of the songs that conveyed messages about gender were the basis for analysis. The results showed that the messages revolve mainly around socially constructed gender roles and expectations in romantic relationships. Gender stereotypes are also used in the songs to reinforce men’s and women’s roles in romantic relationships. The results also showed that, while listeners acknowledge the songs’ messages about gender, their own perceptions of gender and what it means to be a gendered being in today’s world are neither represented nor discussed fully in the songs analysed. It is hoped the findings from this, particularly the mismatch between projected and perceived notions of gender, contribute to the field of popular Malay music studies in particular, and popular music studies in general where gender messages in popular songs and their influence on listeners’ perceptions of their own gender is concerned.

  2. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  3. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... of text messages increases quit rates among young smokers....

  4. Art messaging to engage homeless young adults.

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.

  5. A System for Exchanging Control and Status Messages in the NOvA Data Acquisition

    Biery, K.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Foulkes, S.C.; Guglielmo, G.M.; Piccoli, L.P.; Votava, M.E.V.; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for NOvA, a future neutrino experiment at Fermilab, we are developing a system for passing control and status messages in the data acquisition system. The DAQ system will consist of applications running on approximately 450 nodes. The message passing system will use a publish-subscribe model and will provide support for sending messages and receiving the associated replies. Additional features of the system include a layered architecture with custom APIs tailored to the needs of a DAQ system, the use of an open source messaging system for handling the reliable delivery of messages, the ability to send broadcasts to groups of applications, and APIs in Java, C++, and Python. Our choice for the open source system to deliver messages is EPICS. We will discuss the architecture of the system, our experience with EPICS, and preliminary test results

  6. A System for Exchanging Control and Status Messages in the NOvA Data Acquisition

    Biery, K.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Foulkes, S.C.; Guglielmo, G.M.; Piccoli, L.P.; Votava, M.E.V.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    In preparation for NOvA, a future neutrino experiment at Fermilab, we are developing a system for passing control and status messages in the data acquisition system. The DAQ system will consist of applications running on approximately 450 nodes. The message passing system will use a publish-subscribe model and will provide support for sending messages and receiving the associated replies. Additional features of the system include a layered architecture with custom APIs tailored to the needs of a DAQ system, the use of an open source messaging system for handling the reliable delivery of messages, the ability to send broadcasts to groups of applications, and APIs in Java, C++, and Python. Our choice for the open source system to deliver messages is EPICS. We will discuss the architecture of the system, our experience with EPICS, and preliminary test results.

  7. Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.

    Nabi, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research.

  8. Effects of Electronic Word - of - Mouth Messages

    Choong Hoon Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.

  9. Supervising simulations with the Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Greenslade, Mark; Carenton, Nicolas; Denvil, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of High Performance Computing (HPC) environments spread throughout France. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime is called libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group). libIGCM has recently been enhanced so as to support realtime operational use cases. Such use cases include simulation monitoring, data publication, environment metrics collection, automated simulation control … etc. At the core of this enhancement is the Prodiguer messaging platform. libIGCM now emits information, in the form of messages, for remote processing at IPSL servers in Paris. The remote message processing takes several forms, for example: 1. Persisting message content to database(s); 2. Notifying an operator of changes in a simulation's execution status; 3. Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; 4. Dynamically updating controlled vocabularies; 5. Notifying downstream applications such as the Prodiguer web portal; We will describe how the messaging platform has been implemented from a technical perspective and demonstrate the Prodiguer web portal receiving realtime notifications.

  10. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. The message development tool: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice.

    Mattson, Marifran; Basu, Ambar

    2010-07-01

    That messages are essential, if not the most critical component of any communicative process, seems like an obvious claim. More so when the communication is about health--one of the most vital and elemental of human experiences (Babrow & Mattson, 2003). Any communication campaign that aims to change a target audience's health behaviors needs to centralize messages. Even though messaging strategies are an essential component of social marketing and are a widely used campaign model, health campaigns based on this framework have not always been able to effectively operationalize this key component, leading to cases where initiating and sustaining prescribed health behavior has been difficult (MacStravic, 2000). Based on an examination of the VERB campaign and an Australian breastfeeding promotion campaign, we propose a message development tool within the ambit of the social marketing framework that aims to extend the framework and ensure that the messaging component of the model is contextualized at the core of planning, implementation, and evaluation efforts.

  12. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Berg, Jeremy E [Rochester, MN; Faraj, Ahmad A [Rochester, MN

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  13. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Fusion is based on high quality full length articles. However, in the words of the journal home page, `Nuclear Fusion welcomes Letters as a means to quickly communicate new, maybe preliminary, results which make a significant advancement of the knowledge in the field. Letters should be comprehensive and short, aiming for four printed pages including figures.' I would like to take the opportunity to reiterate this message and to say that, as Editor, I would welcome the submission of high quality Letters. Publishing procedures In-house, Nuclear Fusion's publishing procedures are subject to continuous scrutiny for potential improvements. Of particular note from 2008 are faster than ever peer review and publishing times that have been achieved despite the very rigorous processing to which submissions are subject. Readers may have noticed the implementation of the new article numbering system, announced by the Publisher, Yasmin McGlashan in 2008 Nucl. Fusion 48 010101. This new scheme gives us more flexibilty and has led to faster online publication. The Nuclear Fusion Office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also due to the tireless and largely unsung efforts of the Nuclear Fusion Office in Vienna and IOP Publishing in Bristol. I would like to express my personal thanks to Maria, Katja, Sophy, Sarah, Rachael and Yasmin for the support that they have given to me, the authors and the referees. Season's Greetings I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors a successful and happy 2009 and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2008.

  14. Hashtag (# as Message Identity in Virtual Community

    Urip Mulyadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer Mediated Communication or CMC is able to present a virtual community, where the people inside have the same interest to share information related to events, activities, competitions, entertainment, history, event and others in Semarang City for publication. This research attempted to describe that hashtags can be utilized as the identity of a message in a communications network on Facebook Group MIK Semar. The results of this study are hashtags have changed how we build a virtual community, as the use of hashtags in Facebook Group MIK SEMAR as message identity to build better relationship and support communication among its members.

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle modelling using MESSAGE

    Guiying Zhang; Dongsheng Niu; Guoliang Xu; Hui Zhang; Jue Li; Lei Cao; Zeqin Guo; Zhichao Wang; Yutong Qiu; Yanming Shi; Gaoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities of application of MESSAGE tool for the modelling of a Nuclear Energy System at the national level, one of the possible open nuclear fuel cycle options based on thermal reactors has been modelled using MESSAGE. The steps of the front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear reactor operation are described. The optimal structure for Nuclear Power Development and optimal schedule for introducing various reactor technologies and fuel cycle options; infrastructure facilities, nuclear material flows and waste, investments and other costs are demonstrated. (author)

  16. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  17. What's in a message? Delivering sexual health promotion to young people in Australia via text messaging

    Hellard Margaret E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in communication technologies have dramatically changed how individuals access information and communicate. Recent studies have found that mobile phone text messages (SMS can be used successfully for short-term behaviour change. However there is no published information examining the acceptability, utility and efficacy of different characteristics of health promotion SMS. This paper presents the results of evaluation focus groups among participants who received twelve sexual health related SMS as part of a study examining the impact of text messaging for sexual health promotion to on young people in Victoria, Australia. Methods Eight gender-segregated focus groups were held with 21 males and 22 females in August 2008. Transcripts of audio recordings were analysed using thematic analysis. Data were coded under one or more themes. Results Text messages were viewed as an acceptable and 'personal' means of health promotion, with participants particularly valuing the informal language. There was a preference for messages that were positive, relevant and short and for messages to cover a variety of topics. Participants were more likely to remember and share messages that were funny, rhymed and/or tied into particular annual events. The message broadcasting, generally fortnightly on Friday afternoons, was viewed as appropriate. Participants said the messages provided new information, a reminder of existing information and reduced apprehension about testing for sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions Mobile phones, in particular SMS, offer health promoters an exciting opportunity to engage personally with a huge number of individuals for low cost. The key elements emerging from this evaluation, such as message style, language and broadcast schedule are directly relevant to future studies using SMS for health promotion, as well as for future health promotion interventions in other mediums that require short formats, such

  18. Positive mood can increase or decrease message scrutiny: the hedonic contingency view of mood and message processing.

    Wegener, D T; Petty, R E; Smith, S M

    1995-07-01

    Currently dominant explanations of mood effects on persuasive message processing (i.e., cognitive capacity and feelings as information) predict that happy moods lead to less message scrutiny than neutral or sad moods. The hedonic contingency view (D. T. Wegener & R. E. Petty, 1994) predicts that happy moods can sometimes be associated with greater message processing activity because people in a happy mood are more attentive than neutral or sad people to the hedonic consequences of their actions. Consistent with this view, Experiment 1 finds that a happy mood can lead to greater message scrutiny than a neutral mood when the message is not mood threatening. Experiment 2 finds that a happy mood leads to greater message scrutiny than a sad mood when an uplifting message is encountered, but to less message scrutiny when a depressing message is encountered.

  19. University Advertising and Universality in Messaging

    Diel, Stan R.; Katsinas, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    University and college institutional advertisements, which typically are broadcast as public service announcements during the halftime of football games, were the subject of a quantitative analysis focused on commonality in messaging and employment of the semiotic theory of brand advertising. Findings indicate advertisements focus on students'…

  20. Message transfer in a communication network

    Examples of transport processes on networks include the traffic of informa- tion packets [1–4], transport processes on biological networks [5,6], and road traffic. ... for this system. In the case of single message transfer, we study the dependence of average travel times on the hub density, and find that travel times fall off as a.

  1. Message passing with parallel queue traversal

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Brightwell, Ronald B [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, K Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-01

    In message passing implementations, associative matching structures are used to permit list entries to be searched in parallel fashion, thereby avoiding the delay of linear list traversal. List management capabilities are provided to support list entry turnover semantics and priority ordering semantics.

  2. Message Integrity Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Qleibo, Haider W.

    2009-01-01

    WSNs are susceptible to a variety of attacks. These attacks vary in the way they are performed and executed; they include but not limited to node capture, physical tampering, denial of service, and message alteration. It is of paramount importance to protect gathered data by WSNs and defend the network against illegal access and malicious…

  3. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages.

    Desai, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  4. An approach for message exchange using archetypes.

    Moraes, João L C; Souza, Wanderley L; Cavalini, Luciana T; Pires, Luís F; Prado, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    The application of ICT on the whole range of health sector activities, known as e-health, can simplify the access to health care services and will only be acceptable for realistic scenarios if it supports efficient information exchange amongst the caregivers and their patients. The aim of this paper is present an approach for message exchange to realistic scenarios.

  5. Graphical route information on variable message signs

    Alkim, T.P.; Mede, P.H.J. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on experiments in the Netherlands on the use of graphical route information panels (GRIP) as part of variable message systems (VMS) providing information to drivers. GRIP appear to be as safe as regular VMS. Digestion of the information presented is initially quicker for regular VMS, but

  6. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  7. An Interpersonal Approach to Writing Negative Messages.

    Salerno, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that textbook advice regarding buffers and negative messages is simplistic and frequently wrong, and analyses 22 job-refusal letters and their effectiveness. Claims that recent research on cognitive complexity and social perspective-taking suggests the need for more sophisticated audience analysis protocols for dealing with the negative…

  8. Interactive or interruptive? Instant messaging at work

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of instant messaging (IM) technology at work is controversial, due to the interruptions it may cause and the difficulties associated with quantifying its benefits for individuals, teams and organizations. In this study, we investigate the use and impact of IM tools in the workplace. Based on

  9. Using Instant Messaging for Online Reference Service

    Forster, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Many libraries are using co-browsing chat products to provide reference services to their patrons, whilst their patrons are online and using the internet. The concept of such an online service is highly desirable, but many libraries are concerned that they will never be able to afford such a system. This may have changed: Instant Messaging (IM)…

  10. Effectiveness of safety and public service announcement messages on dynamic message signs.

    2014-07-01

    The number of transportation agencies that use dynamic message signs (DMS) to provide traffic information to motorists has increased dramatically over the past four decades. This growing trend of DMS deployment is a reflection of the public interest ...

  11. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; JANSSENS, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts. on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement...

  12. Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward brand

    Majid Esmaeilpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers' attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. Purpose - The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. Design/methodology/approach – The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, data were analyzed through smart PLS software. Findings –The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source have impact on consumer attitudes toward the brand. It was also found that intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brand. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Data collection tool was questionnaire in this study, and questionnaire has some disadvantages that can affect the results. Additionally, this study was conducted in Bushehr city (Iran. Therefore, we should be cautious in generalizing the findings. Originality/value – In this study, the effect of message appeal and message source credibility on consumer attitude to brand was examined. The risk taking level of consumer and his involvement level were considered

  13. Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward the brand

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in the recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in the Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, we analysed the data through smart PLS software. The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source impact the consumer attitudes toward the brand. We also found that the intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brands. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role.

  14. Preventing messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment

    Blocksome, Michael A; Chen, Dong; Gooding, Thomas; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeff

    2014-01-14

    Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate and interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.

  15. Outpatient blood pressure monitoring using bi-directional text messaging.

    Anthony, Chris A; Polgreen, Linnea A; Chounramany, James; Foster, Eric D; Goerdt, Christopher J; Miller, Michelle L; Suneja, Manish; Segre, Alberto M; Carter, Barry L; Polgreen, Philip M

    2015-05-01

    To diagnose hypertension, multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements are recommended. We randomized patients into three groups: EMR-only (patients recorded BP measurements in an electronic medical record [EMR] web portal), EMR + reminders (patients were sent text message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR), and bi-directional text messaging (patients were sent a text message asking them to respond with their current BP). Subjects were asked to complete 14 measurements. Automated messages were sent to each patient in the bi-directional text messaging and EMR + reminder groups twice daily. Among 121 patients, those in the bi-directional text messaging group reported the full 14 measurements more often than both the EMR-only group (P text messaging is an effective way to gather patient BP data. Text-message-based reminders alone are an effective way to encourage patients to record BP measurements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Instant Messaging on School Performance in Adolescents.

    Grover, Karan; Pecor, Keith; Malkowski, Michael; Kang, Lilia; Machado, Sasha; Lulla, Roshni; Heisey, David; Ming, Xue

    2016-06-01

    Instant messaging may compromise sleep quality and school performance in adolescents. We aimed to determine associations between nighttime messaging and daytime sleepiness, self-reported sleep parameters, and/or school performance. Students from 3 high schools in New Jersey completed anonymous questionnaires assessing sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, messaging habits, and academic performance. Of the 2,352 students sampled, 1,537 responses were contrasted among grades, sexes, and messaging duration, both before and after lights out. Students who reported longer duration of messaging after lights out were more likely to report a shorter sleep duration, higher rate of daytime sleepiness, and poorer academic performance. Messaging before lights out was not associated with higher rates of daytime sleepiness or poorer academic performance. Females reported more messaging, more daytime sleepiness, and better academic performance than males. There may be an association between text messaging and school performance in this cohort of students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The Effectiveness of Campaign Messages on Turnout and Vote Choice

    Friedel, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study campaign effects on turnout and vote choice. I analyze different campaign messages and the way they affect voters across various situations. First, through an online survey experiment, I study the impact of campaign messages and ideological cues on voters as they make inferences on candidates. Next, through a field experiment, I test whether microtargeted messages or general messages on the economy have any effect on turnout. Lastly, using online survey data, I e...

  18. Flow of emotional messages in artificial social networks

    Chmiel, Anna; Holyst, Janusz A.

    2010-01-01

    Models of message flows in an artificial group of users communicating via the Internet are introduced and investigated using numerical simulations. We assumed that messages possess an emotional character with a positive valence and that the willingness to send the next affective message to a given person increases with the number of messages received from this person. As a result, the weights of links between group members evolve over time. Memory effects are introduced, taking into account t...

  19. Teaching Students the Persuasive Message through Small Group Activity

    Creelman, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Teaching students to write persuasive messages is a critical feature of any undergraduate business communications course. For the persuasive writing module in the author's course, students write a persuasive message on the basis of the four-part indirect pattern often used for sales or fund-raising messages. The course text she uses identifies…

  20. The Message Reporting System of the ATLAS DAQ System

    Caprini, M; Kolos, S; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    The Message Reporting System (MRS) in the ATLAS data acquisition system (DAQ) is one package of the Online Software which acts as a glue of various elements of DAQ, High Level Trigger (HLT) and Detector Control System (DCS). The aim of the MRS is to provide a facility which allows all software components in ATLAS to report messages to other components of the distributed DAQ system. The processes requiring a MRS are on one hand applications that report error conditions or information and on the other hand message processors that receive reported messages. A message reporting application can inject one or more messages into the MRS at any time. An application wishing to receive messages can subscribe to a message group according to defined criteria. The application receives messages that fulfill the subscription criteria when they are reported to MRS. The receiver message processing can consist of anything from simply logging the messages in a file/terminal to performing message analysis. The inter-process comm...

  1. Using Text-Messaging in the Secondary Classroom

    Thomas, Kevin; Orthober, Corrie

    2011-01-01

    To examine the potential uses of and barriers to text-messaging in secondary schools, three classes (66 students) of high school students used their personal mobile phones to receive out of school, course-related text-messages from teachers. Forty-six students (70%) agreed to receive text-messages. Findings indicate that participants found…

  2. Driver memory for in-vehicle visual and auditory messages

    1999-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted in a driving simulator to evaluate effects of in-vehicle message modality and message format on comprehension and memory for younger and older drivers. Visual icons and text messages were effective in terms of high co...

  3. Understanding health food messages on Twitter for health literacy promotion.

    Zhou, J; Liu, F; Zhou, H

    2018-05-01

    With the popularity of social media, Twitter has become an important tool to promote health literacy. However, many health-related messages on Twitter are dead-ended and cannot reach many people. This is unhelpful for health literacy promotion. This article aims to examine the features of online health food messages that people like to retweet. We adopted rumour theory as our theoretical foundation and extracted seven characteristics (i.e. emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, external evidence, argument length, hashtags, and direct messages). A total of 10,025 health-related messages on Twitter were collected, and 1496 messages were randomly selected for further analysis. Each message was treated as one unit and then coded. All the hypotheses were tested with logistic regression. Emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, argument length, and direct messages in a Twitter message had positive effects on people's retweet behaviour. The effect of external evidence was negative. Hashtags had no significant effect after consideration of other variables. Online health food messages containing positive emotions, including pictures, containing direct messages, having an authoritative sender, having longer arguments, or not containing external URLs are more likely to be retweeted. However, a message only containing positive or negative emotions or including direct messages without any support information will not be retweeted.

  4. Lol: New Language and Spelling in Instant Messaging

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; McFall, G. Peggy; Pugh, Nicole; Routledge, Lisa; Sumida-MacDonald, Heather; Kwong, Trudy E.

    2010-01-01

    Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat, and other forms of electronic communication appears to have generated a "new language" of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation. In this naturalistic study, adolescents collected their instant messaging conversations for a 1-week period and then completed a…

  5. 19 CFR 4.7d - Container status messages.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container status messages. 4.7d Section 4.7d... TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.7d Container status messages. (a) Container status messages required. In addition to the advance filing requirements pursuant...

  6. A Novel Message Scheduling Framework for Delay Tolerant Networks Routing

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Naik, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    new message scheduling framework for epidemic and two-hop forwarding routing in DTNs, such that the forwarding/dropping decision can be made at a node during each contact for either optimal message delivery ratio or message delivery delay. Extensive

  7. MMS: An electronic message management system for emergency response

    Andersen, H.B.; Garde, H.; Andersen, V.

    1998-01-01

    among messages can be viewed in a graphic tree-like display. By employing the extensive filtration facilities offered by the MMS. users are able to monitor the current status of messages. And, in general, filtration provides users with means of surveying a possibly large number of responses to messages...... contingency plan and procedures to be applied during predefined stages of an emergency....

  8. Politeness Strategies Used in Text Messaging

    Shahrzad Eshghinejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of short message service (SMS communication through a cell phone is use of politeness strategies. As it is extensively argued that females are more polite language users, the present study sought to describe the strategies used by these two groups and to find out whether there is any significant difference between male and female English as a foreign language (EFL learners in the use of positive and negative politeness strategies in sending SMS to their professors, considering that there is an asymmetric power relation and social distance between them. To this end, a corpus of 300 L1 (Persian and L2 (English request messages was compiled. Results of qualitative and quantitative data analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Results of the study have implication in politeness research.

  9. Text Messaging for Addiction: A Review

    Keoleian, Victoria; Polcin, Douglas; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seeking treatment for addiction often experience barriers due to cost, lack of local treatment resources, or either school or work schedule conflicts. Text messaging-based addiction treatment is inexpensive and has the potential to be widely accessible in real time. We conducted a comprehensive literature review identifying 11 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating text messaging-based interventions for tobacco smoking, 4 studies for reducing alcohol consumption, 1 pilot study in former methamphetamine (MA) users, and 1 study based on qualitative interviews with cannabis users. Abstinence outcome results in RCTs of smokers willing to make a quit attempt have been positive overall in the short term and as far out as at 6 and 12 months. Studies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption have been promising. More data are needed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of this approach for other substance use problems. PMID:25950596

  10. Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention

    Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

    2011-02-01

    Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

  11. The perfect message at the perfect moment.

    Kalyanam, Kirthi; Zweben, Monte

    2005-11-01

    Marketers planning promotional campaigns ask questions to boost the odds that the messages will be accepted: Who should receive each message? What should be its content? How should we deliver it? The one question they rarely ask is, when should we deliver it? That's too bad, because in marketing, timing is arguably the most important variable of all. Indeed, there are moments in a customer's relationship with a business when she wants to communicate with that business because something has changed. If the company contacts her with the right message in the right format at the right time, there's a good chance of a warm reception. The question of "when" can be answered by a new computer-based model called "dialogue marketing," which is, to date, the highest rung on an evolutionary ladder that ascends from database marketing to relationship marketing to one-to-one marketing. Its principle advantages over older approaches are that it is completely interactive, exploits many communication channels, and is "relationship aware": that is, it continuously tracks every nuance of the customer's interaction with the business. Thus, dialogue marketing responds to each transition in that relationship at the moment the customer requires attention. Turning a traditional marketing strategy into a dialogue-marketing program is a straightforward matter. Begin by identifying the batch communications you make with customers, then ask yourself what events could trigger those communications to make them more timely. Add a question or call to action to each message and prepare a different treatment or response for each possible answer. Finally, create a series of increasingly urgent calls to action that kick in if the question or call to action goes unanswered by the customer. As dialogue marketing proliferates, it may provide the solid new footing that Madison Avenue seeks.

  12. Mobile phone messaging for preventive health care.

    Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip

    2012-12-12

    Preventive health care promotes health and prevents disease or injuries by addressing factors that lead to the onset of a disease, and by detecting latent conditions to reduce or halt their progression. Many risk factors for costly and disabling conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) can be prevented, yet healthcare systems do not make the best use of their available resources to support this process. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), could offer a convenient and cost-effective way to support desirable health behaviours for preventive health care. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging interventions as a mode of delivery for preventive health care, on health status and health behaviour outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies using SMS or MMS as a mode of delivery for any type of preventive health care. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features

  13. Encoding and decoding messages with chaotic lasers

    Alsing, P.M.; Gavrielides, A.; Kovanis, V.; Roy, R.; Thornburg, K.S. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the strange attractor of a chaotic loss-modulated solid-state laser utilizing return maps based on a combination of intensity maxima and interspike intervals, as opposed to those utilizing Poincare sections defined by the intensity maxima of the laser (I=0,Ie<0) alone. We find both experimentally and numerically that a simple, intrinsic relationship exists between an intensity maximum and the pair of preceding and succeeding interspike intervals. In addition, we numerically investigate encoding messages on the output of a chaotic transmitter laser and its subsequent decoding by a similar receiver laser. By exploiting the relationship between the intensity maxima and the interspike intervals, we demonstrate that the method utilized to encode the message is vital to the system close-quote s ability to hide the signal from unwanted deciphering. In this work alternative methods are studied in order to encode messages by modulating the magnitude of pumping of the transmitter laser and also by driving its loss modulation with more than one frequency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Blind sensor calibration using approximate message passing

    Schülke, Christophe; Caltagirone, Francesco; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of approximately sparse data has led a variety of communities to take great interest in compressed sensing algorithms. Although these are very successful and well understood for linear measurements with additive noise, applying them to real data can be problematic if imperfect sensing devices introduce deviations from this ideal signal acquisition process, caused by sensor decalibration or failure. We propose a message passing algorithm called calibration approximate message passing (Cal-AMP) that can treat a variety of such sensor-induced imperfections. In addition to deriving the general form of the algorithm, we numerically investigate two particular settings. In the first, a fraction of the sensors is faulty, giving readings unrelated to the signal. In the second, sensors are decalibrated and each one introduces a different multiplicative gain to the measurements. Cal-AMP shares the scalability of approximate message passing, allowing us to treat large sized instances of these problems, and experimentally exhibits a phase transition between domains of success and failure. (paper)

  15. Antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines.

    Steinberg, Alissa; Paisley, Judy; Bandayrel, Kristofer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, antioxidants have taken centre stage in media and advertising messages. While 80% of Canadians think they are well-informed about nutrition, many are confused about the health effects of specific nutrients. Forty-six percent of Canadians seek information from newspapers and books, and 67% of women rely on magazines. We examined the content and accuracy of antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines. The top three Canadian magazines targeted at women readers were selected. A screening tool was developed, pilot tested, and used to identify eligible articles. A coding scheme was created to define variables, which were coded and analyzed. Seventy-seven percent of 36 magazine issues contained articles that mentioned antioxidants (n=56). Seventy-one percent (n=40) of articles reported positive health effects related to antioxidant consumption, and 36% and 40% of those articles framed those effects as definite and potential, respectively (p<0.01). The articles sampled conveyed messages about positive antioxidant health effects that are not supported by current evidence. Improved standards of health reporting are needed. Nutrition professionals may need to address this inaccuracy when they develop communications on antioxidants and health risk.

  16. ZeroMQ: Messaging Made Simple

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2007, ZeroMQ has defined a new product category of thin, fast, open source message transports. This little library has now grown into a large, vibrant community of projects tied together with standard protocols and APIs. Applications, written in any language, talk to each other over TCP, multicast, or inproc transports, using a single socket-based API, and a set of "patterns" (pub-sub, request-reply, dealer-router, pipeline). ZeroMQ handles message framing, batching, and I/O, but ignores aspects like serialization and persistence. By focussing on the essentials, and acting as a toolkit rather than a pre-packaged solution, ZeroMQ turns the complex problem of distributed computing into a relatively simple recipe. About the speaker Pieter Hintjens is a writer, programmer, and public speaker who has spent decades building large software systems, organizations, and businesses. He designed the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) in 2006 for JPMorganChase and left ...

  17. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  18. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Cox, A.D.; Cox, D.; Zimet, G.D.; Bruijn, G.J. de; Putte, B. van den; Vries, H. de; Werrij, M.Q.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour

  19. Messaging Attacks on Android: Vulnerabilities and Intrusion Detection

    Khodor Hamandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Android is the leading mobile operating system in number of users worldwide. On the security side, Android has had significant challenges despite the efforts of the Android designers to provide a secure environment for apps. In this paper, we present numerous attacks targeting the messaging framework of the Android system. Our focus is on SMS, USSD, and the evolution of their associated security in Android and accordingly the development of related attacks. Also, we shed light on the Android elements that are responsible for these attacks. Furthermore, we present the architecture of an intrusion detection system (IDS that promises to thwart SMS messaging attacks. Our IDS shows a detection rate of 87.50% with zero false positives.

  20. The prototype message broadcast system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1990-11-01

    A prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system. A simple version of this system is to be used in the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) at the SSC site in 1991. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. The prototype message broadcast system for the superconducting super collider

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system

  2. Manipulative Use of Short Messaging Service (SMS Text Messages by Nigerian Telecommunications Companies

    Ayoola, Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an application of Relevance Theory for the interpretation of short messaging service (SMS text messages emanating from Nigerian telecommunications companies to their subscribers. The aim of the research was to identify and describe the manipulative strategies employed by Nigerian telecommunications companies to induce subscribers to part with their money through sales promotion lotteries. 100 SMS texts were purposively extracted from the cell phones of randomly selected residents of Lagos Nigeria who had received promotional SMS text messages from three major Nigerian telecommunications companies. Using Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory (1995 as its theoretical framework, the paper described the manipulative use of SMS by Nigerian telecommunications companies. The analysis revealed that SMS text messages were encoded to achieve maximization of relevance through explicature and implicature; contextual implication and strengthening; and the reduction of processing effort through violating the maxim of truthfulness and the creative use of graphology. The paper concludes that SMS text-messages were used manipulatively by Nigerian telecommunications companies to earn indirect income from sales promotion lottery.

  3. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  4. Engineered cell-cell communication via DNA messaging

    Ortiz Monica E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has selected for organisms that benefit from genetically encoded cell-cell communication. Engineers have begun to repurpose elements of natural communication systems to realize programmed pattern formation and coordinate other population-level behaviors. However, existing engineered systems rely on system-specific small molecules to send molecular messages among cells. Thus, the information transmission capacity of current engineered biological communication systems is physically limited by specific biomolecules that are capable of sending only a single message, typically “regulate transcription.” Results We have engineered a cell-cell communication platform using bacteriophage M13 gene products to autonomously package and deliver heterologous DNA messages of varying lengths and encoded functions. We demonstrate the decoupling of messages from a common communication channel via the autonomous transmission of various arbitrary genetic messages. Further, we increase the range of engineered DNA messaging across semisolid media by linking message transmission or receipt to active cellular chemotaxis. Conclusions We demonstrate decoupling of a communication channel from message transmission within engineered biological systems via the autonomous targeted transduction of user-specified heterologous DNA messages. We also demonstrate that bacteriophage M13 particle production and message transduction occurs among chemotactic bacteria. We use chemotaxis to improve the range of DNA messaging, increasing both transmission distance and communication bit rates relative to existing small molecule-based communication systems. We postulate that integration of different engineered cell-cell communication platforms will allow for more complex spatial programming of dynamic cellular consortia.

  5. TXT@WORK: pediatric hospitalists and text messaging.

    Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Steinberger, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Many studies assess provider-patient communication through text messaging; however, minimal research has addressed communication among physicians. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of text messaging by pediatric hospitalists. A brief, anonymous, electronic survey was distributed through the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Hospital Medicine Listserv in February 2012. Survey questions assessed work-related text messaging. Of the 106 pediatric hospitalist respondents, 97 met inclusion criteria. Most were female (73%) and had been in practice text messages, some (12%) more than 10 times per shift. More than half (53%) received work-related text messages when not at work. When asked to identify all potential work recipients, most often sent work-related text messages to other pediatric hospitalists (64%), fellows or resident physicians (37%), and subspecialists/consulting physicians (28%). When asked their preferred mode for brief communication, respondents' preferences varied. Many (46%) respondents worried privacy laws can be violated by sending/receiving text messages, and some (30%) reported having received protected health information (PHI) through text messages. However, only 11% reported their institution offered encryption software for text messaging. Physicians were using text messaging as a means of brief, work-related communication. Concerns arose regarding transfer of PHI using unsecure systems and work-life balance. Future research should examine accuracy and effectiveness of text message communication in the hospital, as well as patient privacy issues.

  6. Crafting a Real-Time Information Aggregator for Mobile Messaging

    Jenq-Shiou Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile messaging is evolving beyond SMS (Short Message Service text messaging with the introduction of MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service. In the past, such a scheme is used for peer-to-peer communication. Messages are generally displayed on a cellular phone with a limited-sized screen. However, such a visualizing process is not suitable to broadcast real-time SMS/MMS messages to people in public. To facilitate the instancy and publicity, we develop a real-time information aggregator—Visualizing SMS and MMS Messages System (VSMMS—to realize the concept by integrating SMS and MMS messaging over GSM/GPRS/UMTS onto a remote display device. The device exhibits messages on a larger display device in public. VSMMS features a revolutionized variation of mass media broadcasting. In this paper, we practically illustrate how to design and implement VSMMS and use a M/M/1 model to conduct a theoretical analysis about the message delay in the system queue. Meanwhile, we make an empirical performance evaluation about the message transmission time over different networks.

  7. Quantum messages with signatures forgeable in arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Kim, Taewan; Choi, Jeong Woon; Jho, Nam-Su; Lee, Soojoon

    2015-01-01

    Even though a method to perfectly sign quantum messages has not been known, the arbitrated quantum signature scheme has been considered as one of the good candidates. However, its forgery problem has been an obstacle to the scheme becoming a successful method. In this paper, we consider one situation, which is slightly different from the forgery problem, that we use to check whether at least one quantum message with signature can be forged in a given scheme, although all the messages cannot be forged. If there are only a finite number of forgeable quantum messages in the scheme, then the scheme can be secured against the forgery attack by not sending forgeable quantum messages, and so our situation does not directly imply that we check whether the scheme is secure against the attack. However, if users run a given scheme without any consideration of forgeable quantum messages, then a sender might transmit such forgeable messages to a receiver and in such a case an attacker can forge the messages if the attacker knows them. Thus it is important and necessary to look into forgeable quantum messages. We show here that there always exists such a forgeable quantum message-signature pair for every known scheme with quantum encryption and rotation, and numerically show that there are no forgeable quantum message-signature pairs that exist in an arbitrated quantum signature scheme. (paper)

  8. System of message for gamma-radiation monitor

    Bolic, M.D.; Koturovic, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Paper describes a system of voice messages for gamma-radiation monitor based on PC. The systems reproduces recorded messages that is simpler than the process of their synthesis. Message choice is based on combination of recorded digital results and/or received reference messages or warnings. The system of generation of voice messages applies the Windows based software. The total memory array required to create independent voice system is maximum 1.7 mbyte. The monitor may be used for continuous monitoring of radioactivity level with 5-8 s period of message repetition. Another option of the system operation is based on monitor application for the environment monitoring. Period of messages in this case is equal to 5-30 min [ru

  9. Conception d’une architecture de services d’intelligence ambiante pour l’optimisation de la qualité de service de transmission de messages en e-santé

    Guizani , Nachoua

    2016-01-01

    Routing policy management of eHealth messages in ubiquitous environment leads to address several key issues, such as taking into account the diversity and specificity of the different use cases and actors, as well as the dynamicity of the medical, social, logistic and environmental contexts.We propose an original, autonomous and adaptive service orchestration methodology aiming at optimizing message flow and personalizing transmission quality by timely sending the messages to the appropriate ...

  10. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages

    Cole, Galen E.; Keller, Punam A.; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces. PMID:26877714

  11. When communications collide with recipients' actions: effects of post-message behavior on intentions to follow the message recommendation.

    Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B; Kumkale, G Tarcan

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance.

  12. When Communications Collide With Recipients’ Actions: Effects of Post-Message Behavior on Intentions to Follow the Message Recommendation

    Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B.; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance. PMID:15018672

  13. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages.

    Cole, Galen E; Keller, Punam A; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces.

  14. Getting your message out with social marketing.

    Manoff, R K

    1997-09-01

    This article was based on a speech presented at a Plenary Session of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The address describes the nature of social marketing with examples and some lessons learned in developing countries. The earliest social marketers were Moses with the Ten Commandments of God and Indian religious authorities with fertility motifs inscribed on temple walls. Modern marketers of beer and snack food preempted the ancients and made social marketing more ingenious. The strategy shifted to supplying a product to satisfy a consumer want. Messages became a two-way process that minimized feedback shock. Focus groups were used to probe consumers' thoughts. Research must probe the total environment of the "problem." In Brazil, breast feeding promotions revealed that the perceived problem may not be the real problem, and there was no single magic solution. Most tropical disease prevention approaches do not rely on multistage strategies. The oral rehydration therapy (ORT) strategy became a world-wide model when strategists realized that the formula had to be easy to remember, diarrhea had to be recognized as a disease, and the function of ORT had to be clearly defined. The Bangladesh Social Marketing Campaign was successful in getting men to discuss family planning with their wives and establishing the family planning worker as a heroine. Effective messages must uncover points of resistance to the message. Public health advances in the 19th century were due to social policy to improve water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. The iodization of salt in Ecuador was possible with political will, public awareness, redirection of perception, and motivation of demand. Social marketing resources exist in all countries nowadays. Only medical and scientific professionals can promote concern about tropical diseases and raise the prevention priority on the public agenda.

  15. Electronic folklore among teenagers: SMS messages

    Cvjetićanin Tijana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT media made way for a new form of folklore communication. Newly developed media, such as mobile phones, make it possible for their users to participate in electronically mediated communication, thus approaching the form of oral communication. The exchange of special type of SMS text messages represents a new way of transmitting contemporary folklore short forms. These messages use poetic language, they have standard style themes, patterns and formulas, and they form different genres and categories corresponding with already existing familiar folklore forms. The communication process that happens during the exchange of these messages also has folklore’s characteristics: it takes place within small groups, the communication is informal, the texts circulate in chain style, and undergo different transformation which generates the making of variants, etc. This form of electronic folklore is especially popular among teenagers, where it’s social functions and meanings are also most emphasized. Within this population, it adds to an older tradition of children’s written folklore poetry albums. Like poetry albums, SMS exchange influences the development of girls’ gender identity, providing also a socially defined channel for contacts between the sexes. It also functions as a mechanism of socialization and stratification within the group. At the same time, it creates a new field of meaning, which derives from the very media’s novelty and significance. In this sense, the exchange of SMS represents a symbolic act of acknowledging one’s belonging to the group of mobile telephone users. In this way, a new phenomenon is being symbolically processed through a new form of folklore.

  16. Real Time Assessment of Young Adults' Attitudes toward Tobacco Messages.

    Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-01-01

    We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine factors related to attitude towards message and intentions to use tobacco. Messages depicting e-cigarettes (p < .001) or hookah (p < .05) were associated with significantly more favorable attitudes compared with traditional cigarettes. Positive attitude towards the message was significantly associated with intention to use the depicted product (p < .001). Messages depicting e-cigarettes and hookah were significantly associated with higher intention to use. Message source was not significantly related to attitudes towards the message or product use intentions. Marketing featuring e-cigarettes and hookah is an important target for future regulation. Given that pro-tobacco and e-cigarette messages are prevalent online, future research should consider the Internet and social media as important venues for counter-marketing and intervention efforts.

  17. A Novel Message Scheduling Framework for Delay Tolerant Networks Routing

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Multicopy routing strategies have been considered the most applicable approaches to achieve message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). Epidemic routing and two-hop forwarding routing are two well-reported approaches for delay tolerant networks routing which allow multiple message replicas to be launched in order to increase message delivery ratio and/or reduce message delivery delay. This advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of additional buffer space and bandwidth overhead. Thus, to achieve efficient utilization of network resources, it is important to come up with an effective message scheduling strategy to determine which messages should be forwarded and which should be dropped in case of buffer is full. This paper investigates a new message scheduling framework for epidemic and two-hop forwarding routing in DTNs, such that the forwarding/dropping decision can be made at a node during each contact for either optimal message delivery ratio or message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed message scheduling framework can achieve better performance than its counterparts.

  18. The religious message in action - a case study

    René Gothóni

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available We understand a religious message to be the product of a religious movement. In studying such a message, it is very much to the purpose to place it in the context in which it operates. The cultural and social context of a religious message is some religious movement. Hence, the message should be examined against that framework. Each message has a certain structure, and its detection is of prime importance. Messages are not only part of the tradition, but themselves unique in their respective communicative situations. Thus, in our view, structural analysis does not have analytical use-value unless the message's symbols are set into their communicative context. The aim of this paper is dual: On the one hand, we intend to analyze and clarify the structure of a religious message of the Laestadian movement, how the message operates, also how the members of that movement respond to the codes of the message, and what kind of functions it fulfills; on the other, to develop and test an analytical model which would combine structural and interactional analysis.

  19. Counselling young cannabis users by text message

    Laursen, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer...... factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS...

  20. Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.

    Howard-Jones, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.

  1. Starting Off on the Best Foot: A Review of Message Framing and Message Tailoring, and Recommendations for the Comprehensive Messaging Strategy for Sustained Behavior Change.

    Pope, J Paige; Pelletier, Luc; Guertin, Camille

    2018-09-01

    Health promotion programs represent a salient means through which physical activity promoters can cultivate positive health behavior change and maintenance. The messages communicated within these programs serve as an essential component as they are often used to convey valuable information, resources, or tools that facilitate health behavior initiation and sustained engagement. Identifying the most effective way to communicate health promotion information is, therefore, of considerable importance to ensuring that people not only attend to these messages, but also connect with and internalize the information conveyed within them. This paper was written to (1) summarize and evaluate the most prominent reviewed research approaches of message framing and tailoring to message design; and (2) offer a comprehensive messaging strategy to promote sustained health behavior change. A review of the literature demonstrated that a messaging strategy that has consistently led to healthy behavior change has yet to be identified. Furthermore, scholars have articulated that a multi-theoretical approach that places emphasis on facilitating motivation and healthy behavior change needs to be employed. Thus, this paper proposes and provides recommendations for employing the Comprehensive Messaging Strategy for Sustained Behavior Change (CMSSBC), which advocates tailoring messages to peoples' stage of change and framing them to focus on self-determined motives and intrinsic goals.

  2. Proximity-Based Asynchronous Messaging Platform for Location-Based Internet of Things Service

    Hyeong gon Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT opens up tremendous opportunities to provide location-based applications. However, despite the services around a user being physically adjacent, common IoT platforms use a centralized structure, like a cloud-computing architecture, which transfers large amounts of data to a central server. This raises problems, such as traffic concentration, long service latency, and high communication cost. In this paper, we propose a physical distance-based asynchronous messaging platform that specializes in processing personalized data and location-based messages. The proposed system disperses traffic using a location-based message-delivery protocol, and has high stability.

  3. Persuasiveness of Anti-Smoking Messages: Self-Construal and Message Focus

    Yang, Bo; Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of independent vs interdependent self-construal in non-smokers' responses to an anti-smoking message that focuses on either personal or relational consequences of smoking. Design/methodology/approach: Two web-based experimental studies were conducted among US college non-smokers. In the…

  4. (In-)Secure messaging with the Silent Circle instant messaging protocol

    Verschoor, S.R.; Lange, T.

    2016-01-01

    Silent Text, the instant messaging application by the company Silent Circle, provides its users with end-to-end encrypted communication on the Blackphone and other smartphones. The underlying protocol, SCimp, has received many extensions during the update to version 2, but has not been subjected to

  5. Language Implications for Advertising in International Markets: A Model for Message Content and Message Execution.

    Beard, John; Yaprak, Attila

    A content analysis model for assessing advertising themes and messages generated primarily for United States markets to overcome barriers in the cultural environment of international markets was developed and tested. The model is based on three primary categories for generating, evaluating, and executing advertisements: rational, emotional, and…

  6. Comics: a medium for today's development messages.

    Opilas, E A

    1978-03-01

    Filipino illustrated magazines, or the comics, may yet prove to be the most effective media, if not the most effective, for spreading the country's development messages. Long criticized by intellectuals and the social elite, the comics have been grossly underrated in their potential to inform, persuade, and even influence the life-style of the people. The government's Commission on Population (Popcom) has developed an information-education-communication program using the comics, among other media, to disseminate stories on family planning, responsible parenthood, and related topics. Its best quality is popular appeal, and for publishers and distribution outlets, the comics provide good business. A review of these materials shows that their themes reflect the following topics or issues: 1) population trends and consequences; 2) socioeconomic benefits of family planning; 3) customs which influence family planning; 4) family planning concepts; 5) family planning methods; 6) human sexuality and reproduction; 7) the husband-wife relationship; 8) guides for family planning motivation or communication; and 9) guides for teaching family planning. The materials were developed with 4 qualities in mind so as to attract audience or reader interest: simplicity, familiarity, realism, and attractiveness of materials. The consensus is that in the comics, population and development agencies may have found a "secret weapon" in getting these messages across, and that this new-found use for the illustrated magazines may be giving them a new respectability without in any way diminishing their popular appeal.

  7. Experimental effects of climate messages vary geographically

    Zhang, Baobao; van der Linden, Sander; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Howe, Peter D.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Social science scholars routinely evaluate the efficacy of diverse climate frames using local convenience or nationally representative samples1-5. For example, previous research has focused on communicating the scientific consensus on climate change, which has been identified as a `gateway' cognition to other key beliefs about the issue6-9. Importantly, although these efforts reveal average public responsiveness to particular climate frames, they do not describe variation in message effectiveness at the spatial and political scales relevant for climate policymaking. Here we use a small-area estimation method to map geographical variation in public responsiveness to information about the scientific consensus as part of a large-scale randomized national experiment (n = 6,301). Our survey experiment finds that, on average, public perception of the consensus increases by 16 percentage points after message exposure. However, substantial spatial variation exists across the United States at state and local scales. Crucially, responsiveness is highest in more conservative parts of the country, leading to national convergence in perceptions of the climate science consensus across diverse political geographies. These findings not only advance a geographical understanding of how the public engages with information about scientific agreement, but will also prove useful for policymakers, practitioners and scientists engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  8. The impact of cultural exposure and message framing on oral health behavior: Exploring the role of message memory

    Brick, Cameron; McCully, Scout N.; Updegraff, John A.; Ehret, Phillip J.; Areguin, Maira A.; Sherman, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health messages are more effective when framed to be congruent with recipient characteristics, and health practitioners can strategically decide on message features to promote adherence to recommended behaviors. We present exposure to United States (U.S.) culture as a moderator of the impact of gain- vs. loss-frame messages. Since U.S. culture emphasizes individualism and approach orientation, greater cultural exposure was expected to predict improved patient choices and memory for gain-framed messages, whereas individuals with less exposure to U.S. culture would show these advantages for loss-framed messages. Methods 223 participants viewed a written oral health message in one of three randomized conditions: gain-frame, loss-frame, or no-message control, and were given ten flosses. Cultural exposure was measured with the proportions of life spent and parents born in the U.S. At baseline and one week later, participants completed recall tests and reported recent flossing behavior. Results Message frame and cultural exposure interacted to predict improved patient decisions (increased flossing) and memory maintenance for the health message over one week. E.g., those with low cultural exposure who saw a loss-frame message flossed more. Incongruent messages led to the same flossing rates as no message. Memory retention did not explain the effect of message congruency on flossing. Limitations Flossing behavior was self-reported. Cultural exposure may only have practical application in either highly individualistic or collectivistic countries. Conclusions In healthcare settings where patients are urged to follow a behavior, asking basic demographic questions could allow medical practitioners to intentionally communicate in terms of gains or losses to improve patient decision making and treatment adherence. PMID:25654986

  9. Impact of Cultural Exposure and Message Framing on Oral Health Behavior: Exploring the Role of Message Memory.

    Brick, Cameron; McCully, Scout N; Updegraff, John A; Ehret, Phillip J; Areguin, Maira A; Sherman, David K

    2016-10-01

    Health messages are more effective when framed to be congruent with recipient characteristics, and health practitioners can strategically choose message features to promote adherence to recommended behaviors. We present exposure to US culture as a moderator of the impact of gain-frame versus loss-frame messages. Since US culture emphasizes individualism and approach orientation, greater cultural exposure was expected to predict improved patient choices and memory for gain-framed messages, whereas individuals with less exposure to US culture would show these advantages for loss-framed messages. 223 participants viewed a written oral health message in 1 of 3 randomized conditions-gain-frame, loss-frame, or no-message control-and were given 10 flosses. Cultural exposure was measured with the proportions of life spent and parents born in the US. At baseline and 1 week later, participants completed recall tests and reported recent flossing behavior. Message frame and cultural exposure interacted to predict improved patient decisions (increased flossing) and memory maintenance for the health message over 1 week; for example, those with low cultural exposure who saw a loss-frame message flossed more. Incongruent messages led to the same flossing rates as no message. Memory retention did not explain the effect of message congruency on flossing. Flossing behavior was self-reported. Cultural exposure may only have practical application in either highly individualistic or collectivistic countries. In health care settings where patients are urged to follow a behavior, asking basic demographic questions could allow medical practitioners to intentionally communicate in terms of gains or losses to improve patient decision making and treatment adherence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Countering Islamic State Messaging Through “Linkage-Based” Analysis

    J.M. Berger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic State’s recent losses on the battlefield, including significant casualties within its media and propaganda division, offer a unique opportunity to inject competing and alternative messages into the information space. This paper proposes that the content of such messages should be guided by a linkage-based analysis of existing Islamic State messaging. A linkage-based analysis of a top-level 2017 audio message by Islamic State spokesperson Abu Hasan al Muhajir offers several potential insights into crafting effective content for competing and alternative messages. A comparison of the 2017 work to earlier Islamic State messaging also reveals specific opportunities to undermine the credibility of the organisation’s broader propaganda programme by highlighting the organisation’s repeated failure to follow through on its extravagantly promised commitment to achieving its stated goals.

  11. VISUAL ART AND REGULATORY FIT MESSAGES ON CONSUMER EVALUATIONS

    Danielle Mantovani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate that the art infusion effect, in which the presence of visual art causes a positive impact on consumers’ perceptions of products and advertising messages, might have a moderation effect on regulatory fit and non-fit messages. We investigate the impact of visual art on advertisement evaluations in regulatory (non- fit conditions. Regulatory focus theory suggests that consumers rely on their motivational focus (prevention vs. promotion for their evaluations and decisions. Usually, consumers prefer products that fit with their personal motivational focus. In the present study, the results of three experiments indicate that using visual art with a promotion or prevention fit message is recommended, while non-art images increase message persuasiveness when non-fit messages are presented. Therefore, not all information compatible with the consumer’s motivational focus are best evaluated. When non-art images are presented, non-fit messages might be more persuasive.

  12. RSA Key Development Using Fingerprint Image on Text Message

    Rahman, Sayuti; Triana, Indah; Khairani, Sumi; Yasir, Amru; Sundari, Siti

    2017-12-01

    Along with the development of technology today, humans are very facilitated in accessing information and Communicate with various media, including through the Internet network . Messages are sent by media such as text are not necessarily guaranteed security. it is often found someone that wants to send a secret message to the recipient, but the messages can be known by irresponsible people. So the sender feels dissappointed because the secret message that should be known only to the recipient only becomes known by the irresponsible people . It is necessary to do security the message by using the RSA algorithm, Using fingerprint image to generate RSA key.This is a solution to enrich the security of a message,it is needed to process images firstly before generating RSA keys with feature extraction.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF ADS-B MESSAGES TRAFFIC VIA SATELLITE COMMUNICATION CHANNEL

    Volodymyr Kharchenko; Wang Bo; Andrii Grekhov; Marina Kovalenko

    2014-01-01

    For modelling of ADS-B messages transmition with the help of low-orbit satellite complex Іrіdіumdifferent models of communication channel "Aircraft-to-Satellites-to-Ground Stations" were built using NetCrackerProfessіonal 4.1 software. Influence of aircraft and satellites amount on average link utilization and message travellingtime was studied for telecommunication channels with intersatellite link and bent-pipe architecture. The effect ofcommunication channel "saturation" during simultaneou...

  14. Tendency to Message Delivery in Internet Viral Marketing

    Mostafa Ghazizadeh; Ahmad Sardari; Seyyed Reza Shojaee; Mehdi Samizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of this research is to review and determine the factors associated with tendency to forward the marketing messages in viral marketing plans of Fast-food industries. In other words, in this study, the effects of three critical determinants, i.e. commercial intention, attractiveness, and media richness have been examined on receivers' intention to forward marketing message in Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz. Findings imply that receivers’ attitude toward the message has pos...

  15. Error message recording and reporting in the SLC control system

    Spencer, N.; Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Thompson, K.

    1985-01-01

    Error or information messages that are signaled by control software either in the VAX host computer or the local microprocessor clusters are handled by a dedicated VAX process (PARANOIA). Messages are recorded on disk for further analysis and displayed at the appropriate console. Another VAX process (ERRLOG) can be used to sort, list and histogram various categories of messages. The functions performed by these processes and the algorithms used are discussed

  16. Error message recording and reporting in the SLC control system

    Spencer, N.; Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Thompson, K.

    1985-04-01

    Error or information messages that are signaled by control software either in the VAX host computer or the local microprocessor clusters are handled by a dedicated VAX process (PARANOIA). Messages are recorded on disk for further analysis and displayed at the appropriate console. Another VAX process (ERRLOG) can be used to sort, list and histogram various categories of messages. The functions performed by these processes and the algorithms used are discussed

  17. An Optimal Non-Interactive Message Authentication Protocol

    Pasini, Sylvain; Vaudenay, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Vaudenay recently proposed a message authentication protocol which is interactive and based on short authenticated strings (SAS). We study here SAS-based non-interactive message authentication protocols (NIMAP). We start by the analysis of two popular non-interactive message authentication protocols. The first one is based on a collision-resistant hash function and was presented by Balfanz et al. The second protocol is based on a universal hash function family and was proposed by Gehrmann, Mi...

  18. Subjective knowledge and fear appeal effectiveness: implications for message design.

    Nabi, Robin L; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Carpentier, Francesca Dillman

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the role of perceived health knowledge on the effectiveness of fear-based persuasive appeals. Undergraduates (N = 263) read a strong fear, weak fear, or efficacy-only message encouraging breast or testicular self-examination. As expected, results indicated that men high in subjective knowledge were less reactant and more persuaded by the efficacy-only message whereas those low in subjective knowledge did not evidence this pattern. Contrary to expectation, women high in subjective knowledge had comparable reactions to each of the 3 messages. Implications for fear appeal theory and message design are discussed.

  19. Motivating Smoking Cessation Text Messages: Perspectives from Pregnant Smokers.

    Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Leavitt, Leah E; Macherelli, Laura E; Turner, Monique M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze cessation text-messages written by pregnant smokers to elucidate the target population's preferred content and message attributes. To achieve this goal, the objectives of this study are three-fold; to qualitatively code messages written by pregnant smokers for frame, type of appeal, and intended target. Study participants were recruited as part of a larger trial of pregnant smokers who were enrolled in a text-messaging program or control group and surveyed 1 month post-enrollment. Each participant was asked to write a brief message to another pregnant smoker and two independent coders qualitatively analyzed responses. User generated messages (N = 51) were equally loss and gain framed, and the most common appeals were: fear, guilt, cognitive, hope and empathy, in order of most to least frequent. The target of the majority of the messages was the baby. Allowing pregnant smokers to write cessation text-messages for other pregnant women can provide relevant insight into intervention content. Specifically, pregnant smokers appear to equally promote gain and loss frames, but may prefer messages that include components of fear and guilt related to the impact of smoking on their baby. Additional research is needed to systematically uncover perspectives of pregnant smokers to ensure interventions are optimally effective.

  20. Creating Effective Media Messaging for Rural Smoke-free Policy.

    Riker, Carol A; Butler, Karen M; Ricks, JaNelle M; Record, Rachael A; Begley, Kathy; Anderson, Debra Gay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives were to (1) explore perceived effectiveness of existing smoke-free print advertisements in rural communities and (2) generate message content, characteristics, and media delivery channels that resonate with residents. Qualitative methods design. Thirty-nine rural adults recruited by community partners. Content analysis of findings from individuals in four focus groups who participated in general discussion and reviewed eight print ads related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and smoke-free policy. Six content themes were identified: smoking/SHS dangers, worker health, analogies, economic impact, rights, and nostalgia. Seven message characteristics were recognized: short/to the point, large enough to read, graphic images, poignant stories, statistics/charts/graphs, message sender, and messages targeting different groups. Four media delivery channels were considered most effective: local media, technology, billboard messages, and print materials. Seeking input from key informants is essential to reaching rural residents. Use of analogies in media messaging is a distinct contribution to the literature on effective smoke-free campaigns. Other findings support previous studies of effective messaging and delivery channels. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of themes related to message content in smoke-free ads and delivery strategies. Effective media messaging can lead to policy change in rural communities to reduce exposure to SHS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bidirectional Text Messaging to Improve Adherence to Recommended Lipid Testing.

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Morrison, Caitlin; Griffin, Jonathan; Anderson, Nick; Edwards, Kelly; Green, Jeff; Waldren, Cleary; Reiter, William

    2017-01-01

    Synergies between technology and health care in the United States are accelerating, increasing opportunities to leverage these technologies to improve patient care. This study was a collaboration between an academic study team, a rural primary care clinic, and a local nonprofit informatics company developing tools to improve patient care through population management. Our team created a text messaging management tool, then developed methods for and tested the feasibility of bidirectional text messaging to remind eligible patients about the need for lipid testing. We measured patient response to the text messages, then interviewed 8 patients to explore their text messaging experience. Of the 129 patients the clinic was able to contact by phone, 29.4% had no cell phone or text-messaging capabilities. An additional 20% refused to participate. Two thirds of the 28 patients who participated in the text messaging intervention (67.9%) responded to at least 1 of the up to 3 messages. Seven of 8 interviewed patients had a positive text-messaging experience. Bidirectional text messaging is a feasible and largely acceptable form of communication for test reminders that has the potential to reach large numbers of patients in clinical care. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  2. Mental health message appeals and audience engagement: Evidence from Australia.

    Yap, Jo En; Zubcevic-Basic, Nives; Johnson, Lester W; Lodewyckx, Michaela A

    2017-09-07

    Social media platforms are increasingly used to disseminate social marketing messages about mental health and wellbeing. This study presents a range of message appeals used in social media enabled mental health promotion and stigma reduction messages. Furthermore, it examines the relationship between the type of message appeals and audience engagement. A content analysis of 65 organisation-generated YouTube videos about depression and anxiety and stigma reduction was conducted. The most utilised message appeal was Sorrow, followed by Affiliation, Ease/Convenience, Hope, Humour, Guilt/Shame, Heroic/Successful, and Fear. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the type of message appeals and audience engagement in terms of the number of likes, comments, and shares. The analysis revealed that Sorrow is the most useful message appeal for generating audience comments. However, Sorrow is negatively associated with the number of likes and shares. The results suggest that mental health promotion messages may engage a larger audience through Affiliation and Hope as they have a positive impact on the number of shares. This could, in effect, turn audiences into vocal advocates for mental health promotion and stigma reduction messages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A one-way text messaging intervention for obesity.

    Ahn, Ahleum; Choi, Jaekyung

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, there has been a startling increase in the number of people who are obese or overweight. Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Mobile phone messaging is an important means of human communication globally. Because the mobile phone can be used anywhere at any time, mobile phone messaging has the potential to manage obesity. We investigated the effectiveness of a one-way text messaging intervention for obesity. Participants' body mass index and waist circumference were measured at the beginning of the programme and again after 12 weeks. The text message group received text messages about exercise, dietary intake, and general information about obesity three times a week, while the control group did not receive any text messages from the study. Of the 80 participants, 25 subjects in the text message group and 29 participants in the control group completed the study. After adjusting for baseline body mass index, the body mass index was significantly lower in the text message group than in the control group (27.9 vs. 28.3; p = 0.02). After adjusting for the baseline waist circumference, the difference of waist circumference between the text message group and control group was not significant (93.4 vs. 94.6; p = 0.13). The one-way text messaging intervention was a simple and effective way to manage obesity. The one-way text messaging intervention may be a useful method for lifestyle modification in obese subjects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message

  5. Refusals and Rejections: Designing Messages to Serve Multiple Goals.

    Saeki, Mimako; O'Keefe, Barbara J.

    1994-01-01

    Tests a rational model of the elaboration of themes found in rejection messages, using Japanese and American participants. Finds partial support for the initial rational model but notes two key revisions: identifies two new themes in rejection messages and suggests substantial differences in the way Americans and Japanese elaborate themes to serve…

  6. Identifying spam e-mail messages using an intelligence algorithm

    Parichehr Ghaedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in using email for delivering various types of messages such as social, financial, etc. There are also people who use email messages to promote products and services or even to do criminal activities called Spam email. These unwanted messages are sent to different target population for different purposes and there is a growing interest to develop methods to filter such email messages. This paper presents a method to filter Spam email messages based on the keyword pattern. In this article, a multi-agent filter trade based on the Bayes rule, which has benefit of using the users’ interest, keywords and investigation the message content according to its topic, has been used. Then Nested Neural Network has been used to detect the spam messages. To check the authenticity of this proposed method, we test it for a couple of email messages, so that it could determine spams and hams from each other, effectively. The result shows the superiority of this method over the previous ones including filters with Multi-Layer Perceptron that detect spams.

  7. Tracing How Normative Messages May Influence Physical Activity Intention.

    van Bavel, René; Esposito, Gabriele; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2017-04-01

    Normative messages have been shown to increase intention to do physical activity. We traced how "positive" and "negative" normative messages influenced physical activity intention by comparing constructs of the model of goal-directed behavior with descriptive norms (MGDB + DNs) across control and treatment groups in an experiment. For this purpose, 16-24-year-old respondents (n = 1,200) in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania were asked about their age, sex, and levels of physical activity before being exposed to positive and negative normative messages and completing a questionnaire with MGDB + DNs scales. Different MGDB + DNs constructs were influenced by the normative messages: compared with the control, the negative message group showed stronger attitudes (p = .003) and the positive message group showed higher positive anticipated emotions (p = .005). The positive message's effect is consistent with the literature on conformity to social norms. The negative message's effect lends itself to interpretations based on social identity and deviance regulation theories.

  8. Advertising Message Customisation/Standardisation And Corporate And Consumer Culture

    Cristea Sanda Ligia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Advertising translators should be familiarised with the cultural conventions in the target market so that they can re-create the message conveyed in ads. However, advertising message adaptation depends not only on the customer profile but also on corporate culture. The paper focuses on the correlation between these elements and the linguistic choices made by some copywriters.

  9. Preferred breast cancer message sources and frames amongst ...

    This descriptive study set out to verify the Kenyan women's knowledge of the various risk factors associated with breast cancer, their preferred framing of the breast cancer messages and their preferred channels for receiving those messages. Three hundred and ninety-three (393) women aged 20-64 years from the Kisumu ...

  10. Children's Text Messaging: Abbreviations, Input Methods and Links with Literacy

    Kemp, N.; Bushnell, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of mobile phone text-messaging method (predictive and multi-press) and experience (in texters and non-texters) on children's textism use and understanding. It also examined popular claims that the use of text-message abbreviations, or "textese" spelling, is associated with poor literacy skills. A sample of 86…

  11. College Students' Text Messaging, Use of Textese and Literacy Skills

    Drouin, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I examined reported frequency of text messaging, use of textese and literacy skills (reading accuracy, spelling and reading fluency) in a sample of American college students. Participants reported using text messaging, social networking sites and textese more often than was reported in previous (2009) research, and their frequency…

  12. The Message Is the Massage: Orality and Literacy Once More.

    Brandt, Deborah

    1989-01-01

    Reappraises conventional distinctions between oral-like and literate-like discourse, particularly Tannen's distinction between involvement focus and message focus. Treats message as an embodiment of involvement, and cohesion as an aspect of a developing writer-reader relationship. Offers speculations for rethinking "literate…

  13. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  14. Instant messaging at the hospital: supporting articulation work?

    Iversen, Tobias Buschmann; Melby, Line; Toussaint, Pieter

    2013-09-01

    Clinical work is increasingly fragmented and requires extensive articulation and coordination. Computer systems may support such work. In this study, we investigate how instant messaging functions as a tool for supporting articulation work at the hospital. This paper aims to describe the characteristics of instant messaging communication in terms of number and length of messages, distribution over time, and the number of participants included in conversations. We also aim to determine what kind of articulation work is supported by analysing message content. Analysis of one month's worth of instant messages sent through the perioperative coordination and communication system at a Danish hospital. Instant messaging was found to be used extensively for articulation work, mostly through short, simple conversational exchanges. It is used particularly often for communication concerning the patient, specifically, the coordination and logistics of patient care. Instant messaging is used by all actors involved in the perioperative domain. Articulation work and clinical work are hard to separate in a real clinical setting. Predefined messages and strict workflow design do not suffice when supporting communication in the context of collaborative clinical work. Flexibility is of vital importance, and this needs to be reflected in the design of supportive communication systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Persuasion with Unintelligible Messages: A Cognitive Response Analysis.

    Padgett, Vernon R.; Brock, Timothy C.

    Theories of persuasion have long assumed a process which includes comprehension of the message by the recipient. Several hundred undergraduates at Ohio State University and Marshall University (Ohio) participated in six experiments examining persuasion and the use of unintelligible messages. Subjects in individual cubicles of a university language…

  16. Short message service or disService: issues with text messaging in a complex medical environment.

    Wu, Robert; Appel, Lora; Morra, Dante; Lo, Vivian; Kitto, Simon; Quan, Sherman

    2014-04-01

    Hospitals today are experiencing major changes in their clinical communication workflows as conventional numeric paging and face-to-face verbal conversations are being replaced by computer mediated communication systems. In this paper, we highlight the importance of understanding this transition and discuss some of the impacts that may emerge when verbal clinical conversations are replaced by short text messages. In-depth interviews (n=108) and non-participatory observation sessions (n=260h) were conducted on the General Internal Medicine wards at five academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Canada. From our analysis of the qualitative data, we identified two major themes. De-contextualization of complex issues led to an increase in misinterpretation and an increase in back and forth messaging for clarification. Depersonalization of communication was due to less verbal conversations and face-to-face interactions and led to a negative impact on work relationships. Text-based communication in hospital settings led to the oversimplification of messages and the depersonalization of communication. It is important to recognize and understand these unintended consequences of new technology to avoid the negative impacts to patient care and work relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  18. Pilot study of psychotherapeutic text messaging for depression.

    Pfeiffer, Paul N; Henry, Jennifer; Ganoczy, Dara; Piette, John D

    2017-08-01

    Background Text messaging services could increase access to psychotherapeutic content for individuals with depression by avoiding barriers to in-person psychotherapy such as cost, transportation, and therapist availability. Determining whether text messages reflecting different psychotherapeutic techniques exhibit differences in acceptability or effectiveness may help guide service development. Objectives We aimed to determine: (1) the feasibility of delivering a psychotherapy-based text messaging service to people with depression identified via the internet, (2) whether there is variation in satisfaction with messages according to the type of psychotherapeutic technique they represent, and (3) whether symptoms of depression vary according to receipt of each message type and participants' satisfaction with the messages they received. Methods For this study 190 US adults who screened positive for a major depressive episode (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10) were recruited from online advertisements. Participants received a daily psychotherapy-based text message 6 days per week for 12 weeks. Text messages were developed by a team of psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers to reflect three psychotherapeutic approaches: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), behavioural activation, and cognitive restructuring. Each week the message type for the week was randomly assigned from one of the three types, allowing for repeats. Participants were asked daily to rate each message. On the 7th day of each week, participants completed a two-item depression screener (PHQ-2). Web-based surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks were used as the primary measure of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9). Results Of the 190 participants enrolled, 85 (45%) completed the 6-week web survey and 67 (35%) completed the 12-week survey. The mean baseline PHQ-9 score was 19.4 (SD 4.2) and there was a statistically significant mean improvement in PHQ-9 scores of -2.9 (SD 6.0; p

  19. Alternative Data Storage Solution for Mobile Messaging Services

    David C. C. Ong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices have become relatively more powerful with additional features which have the capability to provide multimedia streaming. Better, faster and more reliable data storage solutions in the mobile messaging platform have become more essential with these additional improvements. The existing mobile messaging infrastructure, in particular the data storage platform has become less proficient in coping with the increased demand for its services. This demand especially in the mobile messaging area (i.e. SMS – Short Messaging Service, MMS – Multimedia Messaging Service, which may well exceeded 250,000 requests per second, means that the need to evaluate competing data management systems has become not only necessary but essential. This paper presents an evaluation of SMS and MMS platforms using different database management systems – DBMS and recommends the best data management strategies for these platforms.

  20. Secure Media Independent Handover Message Transport in Heterogeneous Networks

    Cho Choong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 framework for Media Independent Handover (MIH provides seamless vertical handover support for multimode mobile terminals. MIH messages are exchanged over various wireless media between mobile terminals and access networks to facilitate seamless handover. This calls for the need to secure MIH messages against network security threats in the wireless medium. In this paper, we first analyze IPSec/IKEv2 and DTLS security solution for secure MIH message transport. We show that handover latency can be an impediment to the use of IPSec and DTLS solutions. To overcome the handover overhead and hence minimize authentication time, a new secure MIH message transport solution, referred as MIHSec in this paper, is proposed. Experimental results are obtained for MIH between WLAN and Ethernet networks and the impacts of MIH message security on the handover latency are evaluated for IPSec, DTLS, and MIHSec security solutions. The effectiveness of MIHSec is demonstrated.

  1. Actors with Multi-Headed Message Receive Patterns

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee; Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    style actors with receive clauses containing multi-headed message patterns. Patterns may be non-linear and constrained by guards. We provide a number of examples to show the usefulness of the extension. We also explore the design space for multi-headed message matching semantics, for example first-match......The actor model provides high-level concurrency abstractions to coordinate simultaneous computations by message passing. Languages implementing the actor model such as Erlang commonly only support single-headed pattern matching over received messages. We propose and design an extension of Erlang...... and rule priority-match semantics. The various semantics are inspired by the multi-set constraint matching semantics found in Constraint Handling Rules. This provides us with a formal model to study actors with multi-headed message receive patterns. The system can be implemented efficiently and we have...

  2. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices.

  3. A one-mode-for-all predictor for text messaging

    Vimala Balakrishnan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the enhancements made on the current mobile phone messaging software, namely the predictive text entry. In addition, the application also has a facility to abbreviate any unabbreviated words that exist in the dictionary, so that the message length can be reduced. The application was tested in a computer-simulated mobile environment and the results of the tests are presented here. These additional features will potentially enable users to send messages at a reduced length and thus reduce the cost of sending messages. Moreover, users who are not adept in using the abbreviations can now do so with features made available on their mobile phones. It is believed that these additional features will also encourage more users to use the predictive software as well as further improve users’ messaging satisfaction.

  4. Flow of Emotional Messages in Artificial Social Networks

    Chmiel, Anna; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    Models of message flows in an artificial group of users communicating via the Internet are introduced and investigated using numerical simulations. We assumed that messages possess an emotional character with a positive valence and that the willingness to send the next affective message to a given person increases with the number of messages received from this person. As a result, the weights of links between group members evolve over time. Memory effects are introduced, taking into account that the preferential selection of message receivers depends on the communication intensity during the recent period only. We also model the phenomenon of secondary social sharing when the reception of an emotional e-mail triggers the distribution of several emotional e-mails to other people.

  5. Framing Effects in Narrative and Non-Narrative Risk Messages.

    Steinhardt, Joseph; Shapiro, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Narrative messages are increasingly popular in health and risk campaigns, yet gain/loss framing effects have never been tested with such messages. Three experiments examined framing in narrative messages. Experiment 1 found that only the character's decision, not framing, influenced judgments about characters in a narrative derived from a prospect theory context. Experiment 2 found that a framing effect that occurred when presented in a decision format did not occur when the same situation was presented as a narrative. Using a different story/decision context, Experiment 3 found no significant difference in preference for surgery over radiation therapy in a narrative presentation compared to a non-narrative presentation. The results suggest that health and risk campaigns cannot assume that framing effects will be the same in narrative messages and non-narrative messages. Potential reasons for these differences and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Creating buzz: the neural correlates of effective message propagation.

    Falk, Emily B; Morelli, Sylvia A; Welborn, B Locke; Dambacher, Karl; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2013-07-01

    Social interaction promotes the spread of values, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we report on neural responses to ideas that are destined to spread. We scanned message communicators using functional MRI during their initial exposure to the to-be-communicated ideas. These message communicators then had the opportunity to spread the messages and their corresponding subjective evaluations to message recipients outside the scanner. Successful ideas were associated with neural responses in the communicators' mentalizing systems and reward systems when they first heard the messages, prior to spreading them. Similarly, individuals more able to spread their own views to others produced greater mentalizing-system activity during initial encoding. Unlike prior social-influence studies that focused on the individuals being influenced, this investigation focused on the brains of influencers. Successful social influence is reliably associated with an influencer-to-be's state of mind when first encoding ideas.

  7. Text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention: a narrative review.

    Kong, Grace; Ells, Daniel M; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-05-01

    Smoking cessation interventions delivered via text messaging on mobile phones may enhance motivations to quit smoking. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the text messaging interventions' theoretical contents, frequency and duration, treatment outcome, and sample characteristics such as age and motivation to quit, to better inform the future development of this mode of intervention. Studies were included if text messaging was primarily used to deliver smoking cessation intervention and published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. All articles were coded by two independent raters to determine eligibility and to extract data. Twenty-two studies described 15 text messaging interventions. About half of the interventions recruited adults (ages 30-40) and the other half targeted young adults (ages 18-29). Fourteen interventions sent text messages during the quit phase, 10 had a preparation phase and eight had a maintenance phase. The number of text messages and the duration of the intervention varied. All used motivational messages grounded in social cognitive behavioral theories, 11 used behavioral change techniques, and 14 used individually tailored messages. Eleven interventions also offered other smoking cessation tools. Three interventions yielded smoking cessation outcomes greater than the control condition. The proliferation of text messaging in recent years suggests that text messaging interventions may have the potential to improve smoking cessation rates. Detailed summary of the interventions suggests areas for future research and clinical application. More rigorous studies are needed to identify components of the interventions that can enhance their acceptability, feasibility and efficacy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Short Message Service (SMS) Texting Symbols: A Functional Analysis of 10,000 Cellular Phone Text Messages

    Beasley, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of symbolic expressions (e.g., "BTW," "LOL," "UR") in an SMS text messaging corpus consisting of over 10,000 text messages. More specifically, the purpose was to determine, not only how frequently these symbolic expressions are used, but how they are utilized in terms of the language functions…

  9. Empowerment in the process of health messaging for rural low-income mothers: an exploratory message design project.

    Aldoory, Linda; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost; Duggal, Mili; Briones, Rowena Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Rural, low-income mothers face challenges to their health equal to or greater than those of low-income mothers from urban areas. This study put health message design into the hands of low-income rural mothers. The current study filled a research gap by analyzing a participatory process used to design health messages tailored to the everyday lives of rural low-income mothers. A total of forty-three mothers participated in nine focus groups, which were held from 2012 to 2013, in eight states. The mothers were from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Participants discussed food security, physical activity, and oral health information. They created messages by considering several elements: visuals, length of message, voice/perspective, self-efficacy and personal control, emotional appeals, positive and negative reinforcements, and steps to health behavior change. This study was innovative in its focus on empowerment as a key process to health message design.

  10. Systematic and heuristic processing of majority and minority-endorsed messages: the effects of varying outcome relevance and levels of orientation on attitude and message processing.

    Martin, Robin; Hewstone, Miles; Martin, Pearl Y

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the conditions under which majority and minority sources instigate systematic processing of their messages. Both experiments crossed source status (majority vs. minority) with message quality (strong vs. weak arguments). In each experiment, message elaboration was manipulated by varying either motivational (outcome relevance, Experiment 1) or cognitive (orientating tasks, Experiment 2) factors. The results showed that when either motivational or cognitive factors encouraged low message elaboration, there was heuristic acceptance of the majority position without detailed message processing. When the level of message elaboration was intermediate, there was message processing only for the minority source. Finally, when message elaboration was high, there was message processing for both source conditions. These results show that majority and minority influence is sensitive to motivational and cognitive factors that constrain or enhance message elaboration and that both sources can lead to systematic processing under specific circumstances.

  11. Immediate increase in food intake following exercise messages.

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2009-07-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., "active"). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent.

  12. Hybrid Message-Embedded Cipher Using Logistic Map

    Mishra, Mina; Mankar, V. H.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed hybrid message embedded scheme consists of hill cipher combined with message embedded chaotic scheme. Message-embedded scheme using non-linear feedback shift register as non-linear function and 1-D logistic map as chaotic map is modified, analyzed and tested for avalanche property and strength against known plaintext attack and brute-force attack. Parameter of logistic map acts as a secret key. As we know that the minimum key space to resist brute-force attack is 2100, and it is ...

  13. The serial message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Xue

    2015-12-01

    The conventional message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms is the so-called flooding schedule. It has the disadvantage that the updated messages cannot be used until next iteration, thus reducing the convergence speed . In this case, the Layered Decoding algorithm (LBP) based on serial message-passing schedule is proposed. In this paper the decoding principle of LBP algorithm is briefly introduced, and then proposed its two improved algorithms, the grouped serial decoding algorithm (Grouped LBP) and the semi-serial decoding algorithm .They can improve LBP algorithm's decoding speed while maintaining a good decoding performance.

  14. Expanding the Scope of Instant Messaging with Bidirectional Haptic Communication

    Kim, Youngjae; Hahn, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    This work was conducted on the combination of two fields, i.e., haptic and social messaging. Haptic is one of the most attention-drawing fields and the biggest buzzwords among nextgeneration users. Haptic is being applied to conventional devices such as the cellular phone and even the door lock. Diverse forms of media such as blogs, social network services, and instant messengers are used to send and receive messages. That is mainly why we focus on the messaging experience, the most frequent ...

  15. Impact of locus of control on health message effectiveness.

    Kong, Ying; Shen, Fuyuan

    2011-10-01

    This article examined how individuals' locus of control might moderate the effect of health message frames. An experiment was conducted whereby participants read either individual- or social-responsibility message frames after their locus of control was primed. Results indicated that messages presented in individual-responsibility frames were more persuasive when people were primed with internal locus of control, whereas social-responsibility framed appeals were more persuasive when people were primed with external locus of control. These results were found for individuals in both high and low cognitive load conditions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of valid and comprehensible guidelines for message development potentially enhances the effects of advertising messages and improves the possibility of measuring such effects. Moreover, such guidelines also have potential implications for the managerial communication processes...... (client-agency and intra-agency) involved in the development of advertising messages. The purpose of the study described in this paper is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the common aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age......-test with the target group (n=500), as well as interviews with the involved advertising agency and client2 staff....

  17. Readiness of the Defense Message System to Replace the Automatic Digital Network

    1998-01-01

    .... The Defense Information Systems Agency began developing the Defense Message System (DMS) in 1988 to replace messaging functions provided by AUTODIN and electronic mail systems. Audit Objectives...

  18. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages.

    Moorman, Marjolein; van den Putte, Bas

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two separate waves from current cigarette smokers with varying levels of nicotine dependence (N=151). In the second wave, participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the first group, participants read a smoking cessation message which emphasized the benefits of quitting (positive frame). In the second group participants read a message which emphasized the costs of not quitting (negative frame). Results show that smokers' intentions to quit smoking and their level of nicotine dependence jointly influence the persuasiveness of positive and negative message frames. When nicotine dependence and quitting intention are both high, a negative frame works best. Conversely, a positive frame is preferable when nicotine dependence or quitting intention is low. Smokers' level of processing is proposed as the underlying mechanism explaining the different effects of message frames.

  19. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing.

    Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-12-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This 'risk-framing hypothesis', which was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message-framing research for the better part of two decades and has enduring appeal to researchers and practitioners. It has found its way into several health communication handbooks and is communicated to the general public. The present article examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis anew by providing a review of the health message-framing literature. In spite of its ongoing appeal, we conclude that the hypothesis has severe theoretical flaws. In addition, we find that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and inconsistent. It seems that, in applying prospect theory's tenets to a health-promotion context, some of the theory's key aspects have been lost in translation. At the close of the article, we offer a research agenda for the future, arguing that, above all, new methodology is needed to bring the message-framing literature further.

  20. 'Hidden messages' emerging from Afrocentric management perspectives

    H. Van den Heuvel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to examine how 'African management' discourse has emerged in South Africa. Altogether, it has stimulated debates - sometimes in controversial ways - on 'taboo issues', e.g. relating to 'cultural diversity' and 'ethnicity'. The stimulation of such debates within organisations is probably a more valuable contribution than a static, essentialised 'African identity' that it proclaims. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws on a qualitative research project conducted in South Africa in 2003-2004. Its relevance lies in gaining in-depth insights into ('non-western' local management discourse. It seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge on political and cultural contexts in which South African organizations operate, and how they impact on local management perspectives, and vice versa. Findings: The research findings make clear how and under what circumstances 'African management' discourse has come about in South Africa, and how it could be interpreted. Implications: 'African management' advocates allegedly attempt to revise dominant management thinking and promote 'humane-ness' and participatory decision-making in South African organisations, in search of a contextualised management approach. Amongst others, it has produced new meanings of 'Africanness' and has opened up space for 'hidden messages', resentments and aspirations to become openly articulated. This throws another light on phenomena such as cultural diversity and ethnicity that usually tend to be 'neutralised'. This may turn out to be far healthier for blooming organisational cultures in South Africa than relentlessly hammering on prescribed 'corporate values'. Originality/Value: This paper informs the reader in detail about the emergence and evolvement of 'African management' discourse in South Africa. It is a unique attempt to develop an interpretative viewpoint on this intriguing phenomenon that offers a potentially valuable contribution in reading

  1. Message strategies in direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: a content analysis using Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel.

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Lancaster, Alyse R

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study applies Taylor's (1999) six-segment message strategy wheel to direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical television commercials to understand message strategies adopted by pharmaceutical advertisers to persuade consumers. A convenience sample of 96 DTC commercial campaigns was analyzed. The results suggest that most DTC drug ads used a combination approach, providing consumers with medical and drug information while simultaneously appealing to the viewer's ego-related needs and desires. In contrast to ration and ego strategies, other approaches including routine, acute need, and social are relatively uncommon while sensory was the least common message strategy. Findings thus recognized the educational value of DTC commercials.

  2. The Effect of Education through Short Message Service (SMS) Messages on Diabetic Patients Adherence.

    Adikusuma, Wirawan; Qiyaam, Nurul

    2017-05-12

    Poor adherence and a lack of understanding of medication instructions for oral antidiabetic use are key factors that inhibit the control of glycemic levels. The aforementioned situation needs intervention to improve medication adherence and the therapy. This study was conducted with a quasi-experimental design with prospective data collection. The subjects of this study were 50 outpatients with type 2 diabetes melitus (T2DM) who had received oral antidiabetic medicine therapy at least six months prior to adherence measurement. The patients were classified into two groups-the control group and the intervention group. The intervention group received Short Message Service (SMS) messages of diabetes education, while the control group did not. Data collection was conducted by doing interviews and administering the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) questionnaire. The results showed the increase in adherence in the intervention group as 1.15 ± 1.04 and that in the control group as 0.72 ± 0.90. These results indicated that there were significant differences in MMAS score between the control and intervention groups ( p < 0.05). The decrease in fasting blood glucose and glucose measured 2 h postprandially was greater in the intervention group than that in the control group. It was concluded that the provision of education through SMS had a positive effect on medication adherence and glycemic levels.

  3. Diffusion of Mass Media Messages among Brazilian Farmers.

    Schneider, Ivo A.; Fett, John H.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to discover the nature of the flow of messages about recommended agricultural practices first introduced through the mass media in a developing country, and to explore the role opinion leaders plan in the process. (GW)

  4. Alert Messaging in the CMS Distributed Workflow System

    Maxa, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    WMAgent is the core component of the CMS workload management system. One of the features of this job managing platform is a configurable messaging system aimed at generating, distributing and processing alerts: short messages describing a given alert-worthy information or pathological condition. Apart from the framework's sub-components running within the WMAgent instances, there is a stand-alone application collecting alerts from all WMAgent instances running across the CMS distributed computing environment. The alert framework has a versatile design that allows for receiving alert messages also from other CMS production applications, such as PhEDEx data transfer manager. We present implementation details of the system, including its Python implementation using ZeroMQ, CouchDB message storage and future visions as well as operational experiences. Inter-operation with monitoring platforms such as Dashboard or Lemon is described.

  5. Image and Issue Political Information: Message Content or Interpretation?

    Johnston, Deirdre D.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the existence of a cognitive bias that affects an individual's processing of political advertisements. Finds that whether voters see messages as issue or image material depends on their predisposition. (RS)

  6. Updated spam filters reduce amount of messages in spam folder

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The flow of spam (unsolicited e-mail) targetting CERN mailboxes is constantly increasing: 96% of the 2 million mails received daily at CERN consist in successfully filtered spam, but spammers get smarter and detecting spam is becoming ever more difficult. In order to address this evolution, a new spam-detection software engine will progressively be deployed in next weeks. The aim is to decrease number of SPAM messages which are delivered to users’ Inboxes and to spam folders. Users can notify mail service about SPAM messages. To submit a spam message one can send it as an attachment. For more details please refer to the help pages (see links below). Useful links: To report spam messages please refer to information on http://cern.ch/mail/Help/?fdid=31 To configure spam filtering for your CERN mailbox, go to http://cern.ch/mail and click ‘spam fight’. Thank you for your collaboration. CERN Mail Services

  7. MESSAGE 2 space experiment with Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R. rubrum S1H inoculated on solid agar rich media was sent to the ISS in October 2003 (MESSAGE-part 2 experiment). After 10 days flight R. rubrum cultures returned...

  8. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after

  9. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect ...

    2016-06-16

    Jun 16, 2016 ... quency of conversations is positively related to health behaviour. For example ... consumption became more negative, the participants' intentions to refrain from ..... people, and perceived personal relevance of the message.

  10. Message Correlation Analysis Tool for NOvA

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A complex running system, such as the NOvA online data acquisition, consists of a large number of distributed but closely interacting components. This paper describes a generic realtime correlation analysis and event identification engine, named Message Analyzer. Its purpose is to capture run time abnormalities and recognize system failures based on log messages from participating components. The initial design of analysis engine is driven by the DAQ of the NOvA experiment. The Message Analyzer performs filtering and pattern recognition on the log messages and reacts to system failures identified by associated triggering rules. The tool helps the system maintain a healthy running state and to minimize data corruption. This paper also describes a domain specific language that allows the recognition patterns and correlation rules to be specified in a clear and flexible way. In addition, the engine provides a plugin mechanism for users to implement specialized patterns or rules in generic languages such as C++.

  11. Message Correlation Analysis Tool for NOvA

    Lu Qiming; Biery, Kurt A; Kowalkowski, James B

    2012-01-01

    A complex running system, such as the NOvA online data acquisition, consists of a large number of distributed but closely interacting components. This paper describes a generic real-time correlation analysis and event identification engine, named Message Analyzer. Its purpose is to capture run time abnormalities and recognize system failures based on log messages from participating components. The initial design of analysis engine is driven by the data acquisition (DAQ) of the NOvA experiment. The Message Analyzer performs filtering and pattern recognition on the log messages and reacts to system failures identified by associated triggering rules. The tool helps the system maintain a healthy running state and to minimize data corruption. This paper also describes a domain specific language that allows the recognition patterns and correlation rules to be specified in a clear and flexible way. In addition, the engine provides a plugin mechanism for users to implement specialized patterns or rules in generic languages such as C++.

  12. GOOF: OCTOPUS error messages, ORDER, ORDERLIB, FLOE, CHAT, and LOD

    Whitten, G.

    1977-07-10

    This is a compilation of the error messages returned by five parts of the Livermore timesharing system: the ORDER batch-processor, the ORDERLIB subroutine library, the FLOE operating system, the CHAT compiler, and the LOD loader.

  13. Future-based Static Analysis of Message Passing Programs

    Wytse Oortwijn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Message passing is widely used in industry to develop programs consisting of several distributed communicating components. Developing functionally correct message passing software is very challenging due to the concurrent nature of message exchanges. Nonetheless, many safety-critical applications rely on the message passing paradigm, including air traffic control systems and emergency services, which makes proving their correctness crucial. We focus on the modular verification of MPI programs by statically verifying concrete Java code. We use separation logic to reason about local correctness and define abstractions of the communication protocol in the process algebra used by mCRL2. We call these abstractions futures as they predict how components will interact during program execution. We establish a provable link between futures and program code and analyse the abstract futures via model checking to prove global correctness. Finally, we verify a leader election protocol to demonstrate our approach.

  14. Message correlation analysis tool for NOvA

    Lu, Qiming [Fermilab; Biery, Kurt A. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, James B. [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    A complex running system, such as the NOvA online data acquisition, consists of a large number of distributed but closely interacting components. This paper describes a generic real-time correlation analysis and event identification engine, named Message Analyzer. Its purpose is to capture run time abnormalities and recognize system failures based on log messages from participating components. The initial design of analysis engine is driven by the data acquisition (DAQ) of the NOvA experiment. The Message Analyzer performs filtering and pattern recognition on the log messages and reacts to system failures identified by associated triggering rules. The tool helps the system maintain a healthy running state and to minimize data corruption. This paper also describes a domain specific language that allows the recognition patterns and correlation rules to be specified in a clear and flexible way. In addition, the engine provides a plugin mechanism for users to implement specialized patterns or rules in generic languages such as C++.

  15. Multi-level scaling properties of instant-message communications

    Chen, Guanxiong; Han, Xiaopu; Wang, Binghong

    2010-08-01

    To research the statistical properties of human's communication behaviors is one of the highlight areas of Human Dynamics. In this paper, we analyze the instant message data of QICQ from volunteers, and discover that there are many forms of non-Poisson characters, such as inter-event distributions of sending and receiving messages, communications between two friends, log-in activities, the distribution of online time, quantities of messages, and so on. These distributions not only denote the pattern of human communication activities, but also relate to the statistical property of human behaviors in using software. We find out that most of these exponents distribute between -1 and -2, which indicates that the Instant Message (IM) communication behavior of human is different from Non-IM communication behaviors; there are many fat-tail characters related to IM communication behavior.

  16. A clinician's artificial organ? Instant messaging applications in medical care.

    Tazegul, Gokhan; Bozoglan, Humeyra; Ogut, Tahir S; Balcı, Mustafa K

    2017-09-15

    After the development of the first phone at the end of 19th century, communication technologies took a great leap forward in the 20th century. With the birth of the "smartphone" in the 21st century, communication technologies exponentially evolved and became an important part of our daily routine. Effective communications between clinicians is critical in medical care and miscommunications are a source of errors. Although telecommunication technologies have proliferated dramatically in the last decade, there is scarce evidence-based information on the use of this technology in medical care. For the purposes of medical communication, we can now consult each other about patients individually and within a group via instant messaging applications by using text messages, photos, audio messages and even videos. In this review, we examine the uses and drawbacks of instant messaging applications in medical communications.

  17. Evidence of Premeditation in Skin Messages in Suicide.

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-03-01

    A 34-year-old man with manic-depressive disorder was found dead sitting in a vehicle with a hose running from the exhaust pipe to the cabin. Numerous suicide notes were found inside his house. At autopsy, the decedent was wearing jeans and a long-sleeved windcheater. Upon removal of his clothes, a series of messages were also found written on the legs and forearm. Death was due to carbon monoxide toxicity with a blood level of carboxyhemoglobin of 84%. Skin messages represent a rare form of suicide note that may suggest that a suicide has not been planned, as the decedent may have used the nearest surface to write on. This case demonstrates, however, that skin messages may be more organized, being written prior to dressing and setting up the fatal episode. They also may compliment other notes and messages. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Placement Design of Changeable Message Signs on Curved Roadways

    Zhongren Wang, Ph.D. P.E. T.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a fundamental framework for Changeable Message Sign (CMS placement design along roadways with horizontal curves. This analytical framework determines the available distance for motorists to read and react to CMS messages based on CMS character height, driver's cone of vision, CMS pixel's cone of legibility, roadway horizontal curve radius, and CMS lateral and vertical placement. Sample design charts were developed to illustrate how the analytical framework may facilitate CMS placement design.

  19. Secure authentication of classical messages with single photons

    Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Fu-Chen, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for secure authentication of classical messages with single photons and a hashed function. The security analysis of this scheme is also given, which shows that anyone cannot forge valid message authentication codes (MACs). In addition, the lengths of the authentication key and the MACs are invariable and shorter, in comparison with those presented authentication schemes. Moreover, quantum data storage and entanglement are not required in this scheme. Therefore, this scheme is more efficient and economical. (general)

  20. Subliminal messages exert long-term effects on decision making

    Ruch, Simon; Züst, Marc; Henke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Subliminal manipulation is often considered harmless because its effects typically decay within a second. So far, subliminal long-term effects on behavior were only observed in studies which repeatedly presented highly familiar information such as single words. These studies suggest that subliminal messages are only slowly stored and might not be stored at all if they provide novel, unfamiliar information. We speculated that subliminal messages might affect delayed decision making especially ...

  1. HL7 Messaging Engine with Customizable Translation System

    PRODAN, R.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new client-server messaging engine used to exchange clinical data between various medical software applications. Our portal uses the HL7 (Health Level Seven messaging standard to provide translated clinical data to HL7 and non-HL7 client applications. We used HL7 because this standard is worldwide used to facilitate the communication between clinical applications.

  2. How message framing affects consumer attitudes in food crises

    Mitchell, V-W.; Bakewell, C.; Jackson, P. R.; Heslin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between consumer risk perceptions and behaviour when information about food risks is framed in a positive or negative way.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - Using food consumption scenarios in an on-line experiment consumers perceived risk and risk tolerance is examined when messages are framed in three different news-type stories.\\ud \\ud Findings - As anticipated, message framing emerged as a significant predictor of perce...

  3. Instant messaging an effective way of communication in workplace

    Maina, Tirus Muya

    2013-01-01

    The modern workplace is inherently collaborative, and this collaboration relies on effective communication among coworkers. Instant messaging is the multitasking tools of choice most people chatting over IM do other things at the same time.The use of IM in workplace is less intrusive than the use of phone, more immediate than email and has added advantage due to the ability to detect presence.In order for institution to maximize increased business productivity using instant messaging its impe...

  4. Pitch range variations improve cognitive processing of audio messages

    Rodero Antón, Emma; Potter, Rob F.; Prieto Vives, Pilar, 1965-

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the effect of different speaker intonation strategies in audio messages on attention, autonomic arousal, and memory. An experiment was conducted in which participants listened to 16 radio commercials produced to vary in pitch range across sentences. Dependent variables were self-reported effectiveness and adequacy, psychophysiological arousal and attention, immediate word recall and recognition of information. Results showed that messages conveyed with pitch variations ach...

  5. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Informasi Layanan Short Messaging Service (SMS)

    Rossy W, Cahyo; Wellem, Theophilus; Utomo, Wiranto Herry

    2006-01-01

    Development progress of Communication technology increase in a line with the people demand of the technology, such as Wireless communication technology, especially, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), which known as a digital mobile phone. Mobile phone used to send and receive short message in GSM network known as Short Messaging Service (SMS), besides communicate with another person by voice. In recent years, SMS is not just used for text-based communication tool between mobile pho...

  6. Language Features and Culture Features on Short Message

    王佳

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone is regarded as“the fifth media”after newspaper,radio,TV and the Internet.The mobile phone short message further highlights the importance of written signs in communication.“The thumb revolution”is eagerly anticipating one kind of trend by the hand replace of mouth,sound substitute for the quiet around us. My paper will analyze the language features and the culture features of mobile phone short messages which are written in Chinese and English.

  7. Managing the Risks and Rewards of Instant Messaging

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    You probably think instant messaging (IM) as something teenagers do to chat up friends online, whether across the street or across the world. But IM has some buttoned-down business benefits, as well as some risks you may not be aware of. Unlike e-mail, in which you fire off messages to recipients who read them when they next check their in-box,…

  8. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  9. Micro-cultural customization of organ donation propagation messages.

    Dunkel, Anke; Nakamoto, Kent; Schulz, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    Organ transplantation is plagued by limited availability of organs. This study investigated the effect of messages promoting organ donation which were customized according to the language-defined micro-cultures in Switzerland. Community-, informative-, and emotional-oriented messages were carried by conventional flyers. A 3 × 3 between-subjects experiment was conducted with short- and long-term willingness to donate, long-term signing of organ donation card and long-term interpersonal communication on organ donation as outcome variables. The culturally customized interventions appeared to have no immediate effect and consequently no differential effect on willingness to donate organs and on signing a donor card. Among the Swiss Germans, of the three messages, the community-oriented one instigated less interpersonal communication. Findings are consistent with a mechanism in which the message does not have an immediate effect on willingness to donate organs but motivates further thought and related behaviors that lead to higher commitment and later increased willingness to donate. Targeting not only the message but also the objective that drives the messages must be considered. Campaigns should include elements that build on the unfolding commitment process to promote the follow-up actions that lead to greater willingness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Covert Channel Pada Aliran Data Websocket untuk Komunikasi Messaging XMPP

    Yoga Dwitya Pramudita

    2015-07-01

    Abstract Instant Messaging communication services provide a variety of communication features that can be used by the user, such as text messaging (text messages both online and offline. One of the standard protocol that supports this service is XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol. XMPP communication using XML documents, making it vulnerable to passive attacks monitoring content of  communications. To overcome this drawback the solution is encrypted communications. The other solutions that try to offer in this research is the use of a covert channel to send hidden messages. In this research will create a browser based XMPP client application that is capable to deliver XMPP communication and also provide covert channel communication. XMPP communication can be built on a web-based application using WebSocket protocol. This protocol will exploit field masking-key to load the covert channel messages that is sent during the session XMPP communication takes place. From the test results, the client application is able to produce a covert channel communication with a data width of 3 bytes in each packet. The client application is also able to perform covert communication channel in a communication link with the condition of the probability of packet loss rate below 10%.   Keywords— WebSocket, XMPP, masking-key, Covert Channel, browser based application.

  11. Secure message authentication system for node to node network

    Sindhu, R.; Vanitha, M. M.; Norman, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Message verification remains some of the best actual methods for prevent the illegal and dis honored communication after presence progressed to WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). Intend for this purpose, several message verification systems must stand established, created on both symmetric key cryptography otherwise public key cryptosystems. Best of them will have some limits for great computational then statement above in count of deficiency of climb ability then flexibility in node settlement occurrence. In a polynomial based system was newly presented for these problems. Though, this system then situations delay will must the dimness of integral limitation firm in the point of polynomial: once the amount of message transferred remains the greater than the limitation then the opponent will completely improve the polynomial approaches. This paper suggests using ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography). Though using the node verification the technique in this paper permits some nodes to transfer a limitless amount of messages lacking misery in the limit problem. This system will have the message cause secrecy. Equally theoretic study then model effects show our planned system will be effective than the polynomial based method in positions of calculation then statement above in privacy points though message basis privacy.

  12. Effects of media messages on parent-child sexual communication.

    Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Silber Ashley, Olivia; Khan, Munziba

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important reproductive health outcome. Consistent, positive perceptions of communication by parents and children can promote behavioral outcomes such as delaying sexual debut and increasing contraceptive use. The authors investigated whether exposure to messages from the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC), a social marketing campaign to promote increased parent-child sexual communication, led to increased children's self-reports of communication. Also, the authors examined whether PSUNC message exposure increased agreement about communication between parents and their children. In a randomized experimental design, the authors surveyed children of parents exposed and not exposed to PSUNC messages. Parents and children completed online instruments asking matched questions about sexual attitudes, beliefs, and communication. The authors matched 394 parents and children for analysis. They used ordinal logistic regression modeling and kappa statistics. Children of parents exposed to PSUNC messages were more likely to (a) report sexual communication than were those not exposed and (b) agree with their parents about extent and content. Parent-child pairs of the same gender, younger pairs, and non-White pairs were more likely to agree. Overall, PSUNC message exposure appears to have promoted more extensive sexual communication. Future research should examine behavioral mechanisms and message receptivity among subgroups of parents and children.

  13. An analysis of patient-provider secure messaging at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers: message content and resolution through secure messaging.

    Shimada, Stephanie L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Rothendler, James A; Zirkle, Maryan; Zhao, Shibei; Feng, Hua; Fix, Gemmae M; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Martin, Tracey; Johnson, Sharon A; Tulu, Bengisu; Gordon, Howard S; Simon, Steven R; Woods, Susan S

    2017-09-01

    We sought to understand how patients and primary care teams use secure messaging (SM) to communicate with one another by analyzing secure message threads from 2 Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. We coded 1000 threads of SM communication sampled from 40 primary care teams. Most threads (94.5%) were initiated by patients (90.4%) or caregivers (4.1%); only 5.5% were initiated by primary care team members proactively reaching out to patients. Medication renewals and refills (47.2%), scheduling requests (17.6%), medication issues (12.9%), and health issues (12.7%) were the most common patient-initiated requests, followed by referrals (7.0%), administrative issues (6.5%), test results (5.4%), test issues (5.2%), informing messages (4.9%), comments about the patient portal or SM (4.1%), appreciation (3.9%), self-reported data (2.8%), life issues (1.5%), and complaints (1.5%). Very few messages were clinically urgent (0.7%) or contained other potentially challenging content. Message threads were mostly short (2.7 messages), comprising an average of 1.35 discrete content types. A substantial proportion of issues (24.2%) did not show any evidence of being resolved through SM. Time to response and extent of resolution via SM varied by message content. Proactive SM use by teams varied, but was most often for test results (32.7%), medication-related issues (21.8%), medication renewals (16.4%), or scheduling issues (18.2%). The majority of messages were transactional and initiated by patients or caregivers. Not all content categories were fully addressed over SM. Further education and training for both patients and clinical teams could improve the quality and efficiency of SM communication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  14. Key finding and messages (Rapporteur's report)

    Brown, Peter

    2003-01-01

    It is clear that the fundamental environmental principle of User Pays is being applied to waste management. This is very important, as the principle is one of the basic tenets of the environmental movement. For Radioactive waste management to be in accord with the principle is a powerful and positive statement. There are Acts of Parliament, Decrees, or Directives, which provide the authority for the funds to be established and preserved. This is important as it demonstrates, at the highest possible level, that there will be funds available to deal with the issue of waste management, including disposal, in the future. This is a powerful message that makes clear that the issue is important and that it will be addressed. Some countries establish decommissioning and waste management funds together. In other cases the two funds are separate. In addition to a moral requirement based in the principle of User Pays, and a legal requirement to establish funds for decommissioning and/or disposal there is a clear statement in the IAEA Convention on Safety or Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management (1997) that adequate financial resources be available for long-term management and disposal. These three fundamental requirements clearly signal that this is an important financial issue, and that the nuclear community takes it seriously. We clearly pay homage to the principle of User Pays and have identified the requirement to establish funds not only in state legislation but also as a requirement in an international convention. Clearly there is a capability to determine the dimension and magnitude of all of the potential waste liabilities and to develop a waste management strategy to deal with these liabilities. However, the cost estimation of these liabilities contain considerable uncertainties as they are projected over many years into the future. There are considerable uncertainties related to the growth of the funds as a result of the chosen investment strategy, the

  15. INVESTIGATION OF ADS-B MESSAGES TRAFFIC VIA SATELLITE COMMUNICATION CHANNEL

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For modelling of ADS-B messages transmition with the help of low-orbit satellite complex Іrіdіumdifferent models of communication channel "Aircraft-to-Satellites-to-Ground Stations" were built using NetCrackerProfessіonal 4.1 software. Influence of aircraft and satellites amount on average link utilization and message travellingtime was studied for telecommunication channels with intersatellite link and bent-pipe architecture. The effect ofcommunication channel "saturation" during simultaneous data transmission through a satellite communicationchannel from many planes was investigated.

  16. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 6: NASIS message file

    1973-01-01

    The message file for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System (NASIS) is discussed. The message file contains all the message and term explanations for the system. The data contained in the file can be broken down into three separate sections: (1) global terms, (2) local terms, and (3) system messages. The various terms are defined and their use within the system is explained.

  17. NASIS data base management system - IBM 360/370 OS MVT implementation. 6: NASIS message file

    1973-01-01

    The message file for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System (NASIS) is discussed. The message file contains all the message and term explanations for the system. The data contained in the file can be broken down into three separate sections: (1) global terms, (2) local terms, and (3) system messages. The various terms are defined and their use within the system is explained.

  18. A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages

    Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and

  19. Text messaging intervention for teens and young adults with diabetes.

    Markowitz, Jessica T; Cousineau, Tara; Franko, Debra L; Schultz, Alan T; Trant, Meredith; Rodgers, Rachel; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults use text messaging as their primary mode of communication, thus providing an opportunity to use this mode of communication for mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Youth with diabetes are an important group for these mHealth initiatives, as diabetes management requires an enormous amount of daily effort and this population has difficulty achieving optimal diabetes management. Goal setting and self-efficacy are 2 factors in the management of diabetes. We examined the feasibility of a healthy lifestyle text messaging program targeting self-efficacy and goal setting among adolescents and young adults with diabetes. Participants, ages 16-21, were assigned to either a text messaging group, which received daily motivational messages about nutrition and physical activity, or a control group, which received paper-based information about healthy lifestyle. Both groups set goals for nutrition and physical activity and completed a measure of self-efficacy. Participants' mean age was 18.7 ± 1.6 years old, with diabetes duration of 10.0 ± 4.6 years, and A1c of 8.7 ± 1.7%. The text messaging intervention was rated highly and proved to be acceptable to participants. Self-efficacy, glycemic control, and body mass index did not change over the course of the short, 1-month pilot study. Positive, daily, motivational text messages may be effective in increasing motivation for small goal changes in the areas of nutrition and physical activity. These interventions may be used in the future in youth with diabetes to improve diabetes care. Utilizing more targeted text messages is an area for future research. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. A message-queuing framework for STAR's online monitoring and metadata collection

    Arkhipkin, D; Lauret, J; Betts, W

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience on migrating STARs Online Services (Run Control System, Data Acquisition System, Slow Control System and Subsystem Monitoring) from direct read/write database accesses to a modern non-blocking message-oriented infrastructure. Based on the Advanced Messaging Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and standards, this novel approach does not specify the message data structure, allowing great flexibility in its use. After careful consideration, we chose Google Protocol Buffers as our primary (de)serialization format for structured data exchange. This migration allows us to reduce the overall system complexity and greatly improve the reliability of the metadata collection and the performance of our online services in general. We will present this new framework through its software architecture overview, providing details about our staged and non-disruptive migration process as well as details of the implementation of pluggable components to provide future improvements without compromising stability and availability of services.

  1. Hooked on a feeling: Affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking

    Colin Tucker Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because implicit evaluations are thought to underlie many aspects of behavior, researchers have started looking for ways to change them. We examine whether and when persuasive messages alter strongly-held implicit evaluations of smoking. In smokers, an affective anti-smoking message led to more negative implicit evaluations on four different implicit measures as compared to a cognitive anti-smoking message which seemed to backfire. Additional analyses suggested that the observed effects were mediated by the feelings and emotions raised by the messages. In non-smokers, both the affective and cognitive message engendered slightly more negative implicit evaluations. We conclude that persuasive messages change implicit evaluations in a way that depends on properties of the message and of the participant. Thus, our data open new avenues for research directed at tailoring persuasive messages to change implicit evaluations.

  2. Hooked on a feeling: affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking.

    Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Because implicit evaluations are thought to underlie many aspects of behavior, researchers have started looking for ways to change them. We examine whether and when persuasive messages alter strongly held implicit evaluations of smoking. In smokers, an affective anti-smoking message led to more negative implicit evaluations on four different implicit measures as compared to a cognitive anti-smoking message which seemed to backfire. Additional analyses suggested that the observed effects were mediated by the feelings and emotions raised by the messages. In non-smokers, both the affective and cognitive message engendered slightly more negative implicit evaluations. We conclude that persuasive messages change implicit evaluations in a way that depends on properties of the message and of the participant. Thus, our data open new avenues for research directed at tailoring persuasive messages to change implicit evaluations.

  3. The communication effects of audience situation and message framing on smoking cessation

    Yang, Dong-jenn

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the communication effects of smoking cessation by using message framing (positive messages/negative messages) and audience situation (smoker/nonsmoker and high/low self-efficacy). The study used 207 valid homogeneous subjects and a between-subject experiment method was employed for analyses. The results showed that the communication effects were influenced by the interactive effects of message framing and audience situation, and for smokers, positive messages have a more s...

  4. Parent opinions about use of text messaging for immunization reminders.

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn Rose; Chesser, Amy K; Paschal, Angelia M; Hart, Traci A; Williams, Katherine S; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna

    2012-06-06

    Adherence to childhood immunization schedules is a function of various factors. Given the increased use of technology as a strategy to increase immunization coverage, it is important to investigate how parents perceive different forms of communication, including traditional means and text-message reminders. To examine current forms of communication about immunization information, parents' satisfaction levels with these communication modes, perceived barriers and benefits to using text messaging, and the ideal content of text messages for immunization reminders. Structured interviews were developed and approved by two Institutional Review Boards. A convenience sample of 50 parents was recruited from two local pediatric clinics. The study included a demographics questionnaire, the shortened form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA), questions regarding benefits and barriers of text communication from immunization providers, and preferred content for immunization reminders. Content analyses were performed on responses to barriers, benefits, and preferred content (all Cohen's kappas > 0.70). Respondents were mostly female (45/50, 90%), white non-Hispanic (31/50, 62%), between 20-41 years (mean = 29, SD 5), with one or two children (range 1-9). Nearly all (48/50, 96%) had an S-TOFHLA score in the "adequate" range. All parents (50/50, 100%) engaged in face-to-face contact with their child's physician at appointments, 74% (37/50) had contact via telephone, and none of the parents (0/50, 0%) used email or text messages. Most parents were satisfied with the face-to-face (48/50, 96%) and telephone (28/50, 75%) communication. Forty-nine of the 50 participants (98%) were interested in receiving immunization reminders by text message, and all parents (50/50, 100%) were willing to receive general appointment reminders by text message. Parents made 200 comments regarding text-message reminders. Benefits accounted for 63.5% of comments (127/200). The

  5. [Nutritional health messages transmitted through television advertising. Trends and errors].

    Ortega, R M; Andrés, P; Jiménez, L M; Ortega, A

    1995-01-01

    The present study analyzes de publicity messages with a alimentary-nutritional content (n = 448), aired by 2 television channels (one public and one private), during 6 hours a day in the first week of October 1993, examining the most frequent tendencies and errors, and whether or not they are adhering to the nutritional standards intended to improve the health of the population. With this aim, a questionnaire was designed, which was submitted to a control prior to doing the study, and which permitted the same study during the years 1991, 1992, and 1993. The message which was most used to promote the sales of the products, was the taste, followed by quality, novelty, health, nutritional and natural. The messages indicating that the product reduces or minimizes fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar, alcohol, ... are few or lower than those observed in other populations. In some cases the messages may be useful in re-enforcing the standards of the nutritional educators and health care professionals who try to improve the diet and the health of the public. However, in the majority of cases, the message of the advertisements may mislead or confuse the consumer with irrelevant or incomplete information. They also frequently contribute to the promotion of an extremely thin body image, which guides the food choice of a large percentage of the population. The results of the study may help in the planning of nutritional education of the population, and they emphasize the need for a greater supervision and control of the advertisements.

  6. "Playing Hooky" Health Messages: Apprehension, Impression Management, and Deception.

    Barrett, Ashley; Murphy, Melissa; Blackburn, Kate

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates playing hooky in higher education classrooms and associates this behavior with students' communicative dispositions, instructor perceptions, and language use. We define "playing hooky" as students skipping class and explaining their absence to their instructor with deceptive health messages. The purpose of Study 1, an online survey (N = 177), is to further understand the characteristics of students who engage in this type of deceptive health communication. Study 1 measures communication apprehension and perceived instructor credibility in students who had played hooky from class and those who had not. Findings reveal that students who communicate playing hooky health messages (a) reported more instructor communication apprehension and (b) perceived the instructors with whom they had played hooky to be less credible. Study 2 uses facework theory and MEH analysis to reveal the different linguistic strategies students use to communicate (a) truthful health messages (N = 165) and (b) deceptive heath messages (N = 82) to their instructor following an absence. Results demonstrate that students' facework strategies are more geared toward saving instructors' negative face in the deceptive health message condition. Implications of both studies are offered.

  7. MESA: Message-Based System Analysis Using Runtime Verification

    Shafiei, Nastaran; Tkachuk, Oksana; Mehlitz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach and framework for run-time verication of large, safety critical messaging systems. This work was motivated by verifying the System Wide Information Management (SWIM) project of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). SWIM provides live air traffic, site and weather data streams for the whole National Airspace System (NAS), which can easily amount to several hundred messages per second. Such safety critical systems cannot be instrumented, therefore, verification and monitoring has to happen using a nonintrusive approach, by connecting to a variety of network interfaces. Due to a large number of potential properties to check, the verification framework needs to support efficient formulation of properties with a suitable Domain Specific Language (DSL). Our approach is to utilize a distributed system that is geared towards connectivity and scalability and interface it at the message queue level to a powerful verification engine. We implemented our approach in the tool called MESA: Message-Based System Analysis, which leverages the open source projects RACE (Runtime for Airspace Concept Evaluation) and TraceContract. RACE is a platform for instantiating and running highly concurrent and distributed systems and enables connectivity to SWIM and scalability. TraceContract is a runtime verication tool that allows for checking traces against properties specified in a powerful DSL. We applied our approach to verify a SWIM service against several requirements.We found errors such as duplicate and out-of-order messages.

  8. Hill Cipher and Least Significant Bit for Image Messaging Security

    Muhammad Husnul Arif

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of information through cyberspace has many benefits as an example fast estimated time, unlimited physical distance and space limits, etc. But in these activities can also pose a security risk for confidential information. It is necessary for the safety that can be used to protect data transmitted through the Internet. Encryption algorithm that used to encrypt message to be sent (plaintext into messages that have been randomized (ciphertext is cryptography and steganography algorithms. In application of cryptographic techniques that will be used is Hill Cipher. The technique is combined with steganography techniques Least Significant Bit. The result of merging techniques can maintain the confidentiality of messages because people who do not know the secret key used will be difficult to get the message contained in the stego-image and the image that has been inserted can not be used as a cover image. Message successfully inserted and extracted back on all samples with a good image formats * .bmp, * .png , * .jpg at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels , 256 x 256 pixels. MSE and PSNR results are not influenced file format or file size, but influenced by dimensions of image. The larger dimensions of the image, then the smaller MSE that means error of image gets smaller.

  9. Mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments.

    Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; de Jongh, Thyra; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip

    2013-12-05

    This review is an update of the original Cochrane review published in July 2012. Missed appointments are a major cause of inefficiency in healthcare delivery with substantial monetary costs for the health system, leading to delays in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patients' forgetfulness is one of the main reasons for missed appointments. Patient reminders may help reduce missed appointments. Modes of communicating reminders for appointments to patients include face-to-face communication, postal messages, calls to landlines or mobile phones, and mobile phone messaging. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), could provide an important, inexpensive delivery medium for reminders for healthcare appointments. To update our review assessing the effects of mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments. Secondary objectives include assessment of costs; health outcomes; patients' and healthcare providers' evaluation of the intervention and perceptions of safety; and possible harms and adverse effects associated with the intervention. Original searches were run in June 2009. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL,The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 8), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to August 2012), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to August 2012), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to August 2012) and CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to August 2012). We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing mobile phone messaging as reminders for healthcare appointments. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions.   Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third

  10. Message framing and defensive processing: a cultural examination.

    Ko, Deborah M; Kim, Heejung S

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that health messages on safer sexual practices that focus on relational consequences are more persuasive than messages that focus on personal consequences. However, we theorize that it is defensiveness against personal risk framing that threatens the self among people from more individualistic cultures. Two studies tested this idea. Study 1 showed that European Americans were less persuaded by personal framing than by relational framing but that this pattern was not found for Asian Americans, who are more collectivistic. Study 2 showed that these defensive patterns were eliminated among European American participants when a person's self-image was affirmed. These results suggest defensive processes as the mechanism behind the differences in message framing effectiveness and motivate a closer look at cultural patterns.

  11. Songs as a Medium for Embedded Reproductive Messages

    Dawn R. Hobbs

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that sensational news stories as well as popular romance novels often feature themes related to important topics in evolutionary psychology. In the first of four studies described in this paper we examined the song lyrics from three Billboard charts: Country, Pop, and R&B. A content analysis of the lyrics revealed 18 reproductive themes that read like an outline for a course in evolutionary psychology. Approximately 92% of the 174 songs that made it into the Top Ten in 2009 contained one or more reproductive messages, with an average of 10.49 reproductive phrases per song. Although differences in the frequency of different themes between charts were found, further analyses showed that the most popular/bestselling songs contained significantly more reproductive messages. An analysis of the lyrics of opera arias and art songs also revealed evidence for many of the same embedded reproductive messages extending back more than 400 years.

  12. Content analysis of Student's short messages; Tehran's universities

    Masoud Kowsari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cell phone, as an unlimited media, in comparison with others, has deeply changed the modes of interpersonal connections. Accessibility, and inexpensiveness, in addition to the transcendence of normal face to face relation restrictions, could be taken for granted as most fascinating features of SMS. Therefore, content analysis of the SMS could help to clarify the communicative subjectivities in interpersonal communications. This study tends to analyze the content of 2651 short messages exchanged among 80 students both genders, in various universities in Tehran. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Who are the main senders of the messages? In what time are the SMS s frequently s sent or received? What are the most frequent contents? Is there any relationship between the gender of recipients/senders and the content of the messages? Whether the contents are related to the marital statue of the receiver and sender or not?

  13. Geocoding location expressions in Twitter messages: A preference learning method

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolving location expressions in text to the correct physical location, also known as geocoding or grounding, is complicated by the fact that so many places around the world share the same name. Correct resolution is made even more difficult when there is little context to determine which place is intended, as in a 140-character Twitter message, or when location cues from different sources conflict, as may be the case among different metadata fields of a Twitter message. We used supervised machine learning to weigh the different fields of the Twitter message and the features of a world gazetteer to create a model that will prefer the correct gazetteer candidate to resolve the extracted expression. We evaluated our model using the F1 measure and compared it to similar algorithms. Our method achieved results higher than state-of-the-art competitors.

  14. Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.

    Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements.

  15. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM

    Rosa Solorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.

  16. Analysis Of Aspects Of Messages Hiding In Text Environments

    Afanasyeva Olesya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the work are researched problems, which arise during hiding of messages in text environments, being transmitted by electronic communication channels and the Internet. The analysis of selection of places in text environment (TE, which can be replaced by word from the message is performed. Selection and replacement of words in the text environment is implemented basing on semantic analysis of text fragment, consisting of the inserted word, and its environment in TE. For implementation of such analysis is used concept of semantic parameters of words coordination and semantic value of separate word. Are used well-known methods of determination of values of these parameters. This allows moving from quality level to quantitative level analysis of text fragments semantics during their modification by word substitution. Invisibility of embedded messages is ensured by providing preset values of the semantic cooperation parameter deviations.

  17. Syntactic Aspects in Text Messages of University of Zimbabwe Students

    Leslei Kahari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is a syntactic analysis of text messages in English language used by University of Zimbabwe students. The study specifically focuses on sentences where there are omissions of pronouns, auxiliary verbs and where contractions occur. The study also analyzes the impact of sociolinguistic variables on the sentence structure of English language in text messages. The fifty respondents’ forwarded two messages each from their sent items on their cell phones to the researcher and to understand the factors triggering the syntactic structures the researcher carried out unstructured interviews. The data collected showed that cell phone texting has indeed been affected by the socio-economic factors and these factors trigger omissions of important elements of English language sentence structure such as ,pronouns, auxiliary verbs and contraction of phrases.

  18. UNDERSTANDING OUR AUDIENCE: MESSAGES FROM CONCEPT TO COMPLETION

    Tharwat EL-Sakran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Arab Emirates (UAE is a business hub for a great number of multinational and international companies that conduct daily communication activities in English, which has made efficient and audience sensitive written communication an essential requirement in today’s workplace. With computer-mediated communication (CMC taking over face-to-face communication, this has created an essential need for students to learn efficient and appropriate communication styles pertinent to communication via emails. This study presents a pragmatic approach for teaching the how of writing appropriate and effective professional email messages. Comparisons of pre-and post-teaching email messages point to significant improvements in the quality of post teaching email messages.

  19. Tobacco-prevention messages online: social marketing via the Web.

    Lin, Carolyn A; Hullman, Gwen A

    2005-01-01

    Antitobacco groups have joined millions of other commercial or noncommercial entities in developing a presence on the Web. These groups primarily represent the following different sponsorship categories: grassroots, medical, government, and corporate. To obtain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in the message design of antitobacco Web sites, this project analyzed 100 antitobacco Web sites ranging across these four sponsorship categories. The results show that the tobacco industry sites posted just enough antismoking information to appease the antismoking publics. Medical organizations designed their Web sites as specialty sites and offered mostly scientific information. While the government sites resembled a clearinghouse for antitobacco related information, the grassroots sites represented the true advocacy outlets. In general, the industry sites provided the weakest persuasive messages and medical sites fared only slightly better. Government and grassroots sites rated most highly in presenting their antitobacco campaign messages on the Web.

  20. Computer-mediated mobile messaging as collaboration support for nurses.

    Karpati, Peter; Toussaint, Pieter Jelle; Nytrø, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration in hospitals is coordinated mainly by communication, which currently happens by face-to-face meetings, phone calls, pagers, notes and the electronic patient record. These habits raise problems e.g., delayed notifications and unnecessary interruptions. Dealing with these problems could save time and improve the care. Therefore we designed and prototyped a mobile messaging solution based on two specific scenarios coming from observations at a cardiology department of a Norwegian hospital. The main focus was on supporting the work of nurses. One prototype supported patient management while another one dealt with messages related to medication planning. The evaluation of the prototypes suggested that messaging-based collaboration support is worth to explore and also gave ideas for improvement.

  1. Smoking Cessation Following Text Message Intervention in Pregnant Women.

    Forinash, Alicia B; Yancey, Abigail; Chamness, Danielle; Koerner, Jamie; Inteso, Christina; Miller, Collin; Gross, Gilad; Mathews, Katherine

    2018-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has detrimental effects on mother and fetus. Text messaging has been utilized to improve patient care. To evaluate the impact of text messaging on smoking cessation rates among pregnant women in addition to standard of care (SOC) smoking cessation services. Our SOC includes pharmacist-driven education with or without nicotine patch or bupropion. This randomized, open-label, prospective trial was conducted at a maternal fetal care center from May 2014 to January 2016. Pregnant patients in the preparation stage of change were randomized to text messaging or SOC. The primary outcome was smoking cessation verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (eCO) 2 weeks from quit date. All received clinical pharmacist weekly calls for 3 weeks and biweekly visits until pharmacotherapy completion. The text messaging group also received predetermined motivational messages. Of 49 randomized patients, 13 withdrew, and 6 were lost to follow-up. The remaining included 14 texting and 16 SOC patients. eCO-verified cessation was achieved by 57.1% in the texting group versus 31.3% in the control ( P = 0.153). Overall, 64.3% of the texting group achieved an eCO below 8 ppm at ≥1 visit versus 37.5% in the control group ( P = 0.143). No difference was found in birth outcomes. The study was underpowered because of slow enrollment and high drop-out rates. Text messaging had minimal impact on improving smoking cessation rates in the obstetric population. However, further research is warranted because of the underpowered nature of this trial. Given the detrimental effects of smoking in pregnancy, more comprehensive cessation strategies are warranted.

  2. Electronic messaging and communication with living kidney donors.

    Ruck, Jessica M; Zhou, Sheng; Thomas, Alvin G; Cramm, Shannon L; Massie, Allan B; Montgomery, John R; Berger, Jonathan C; Henderson, Macey L; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-02-01

    New regulations require living kidney donor (LKD) follow-up for 2 years, but donor retention remains poor. Electronic communication (eg, text messaging and e-mail) might improve donor retention. To explore the possible impact of electronic communication, we recruited LKDs to participate in an exploratory study of communication via telephone, e-mail, or text messaging postdonation; communication through this study was purely optional and did not replace standard follow-up. Of 69 LKDs recruited, 3% requested telephone call, 52% e-mail, and 45% text messaging. Telephone response rate was 0%; these LKDs were subsequently excluded from analysis. Overall response rates with e-mail or text messaging at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 94%, 87%, 81%, 72%, and 72%. Lower response rates were seen in African Americans, even after adjusting for age, sex, and contact method (incidence rate ratio (IRR) nonresponse 2.07 5.81 16.36 , P = .001). Text messaging had higher response rates than e-mail (IRR nonresponse 0.11 0.28 0.71 , P = .007). Rates of nonresponse were similar by sex (IRR 0.68, P = .4) and age (IRR 1.00, P > .9). In summary, LKDs strongly preferred electronic messaging over telephone and were highly responsive 2 years postdonation, even in this nonrequired, nonincentivized exploratory research study. These electronic communication tools can be automated and may improve regulatory compliance and postdonation care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Universal controller for concentration-diffusion of messages

    Yon, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a line controller with memory (CLM) designed for data transmission in information processing systems, in this case a THAC 4020 computer, by ensuring power, flexibility and safety of data transmission in noticeable economic conditions. This controller relies on two essential characteristics: message processing at the bit level, and direct storage of messages in a ferrite-torus-based memory without intervention of the computer and even without slowing down its activity. After a recall of issues and techniques related to data transmission, the author defines and discusses the functional specifications of the controller [fr

  4. Text Messaging Interventions on Cancer Screening Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Uy, Catherine; Lopez, Jennifer; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E; Liang, Peter S

    2017-08-24

    Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify the effectiveness of this promising intervention

  5. EXIT Chart Analysis of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for LDPC codes are analyzed using EXIT charts. For the analysis, the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. For the special case of a hard decision channel, this leads to the well know Gallager B algorithm, while the analysis can...... be extended to channels with larger output alphabets. By increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to four symbols, a gain of more than 1.0 dB is achieved using optimized codes. For this code optimization, the mixing property of EXIT functions has to be modified to the case of binary message......-passing decoders....

  6. Layered virus protection for the operations and administrative messaging system

    Cortez, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.

  7. Main messages for the new nuclear unit in Finland

    Nikula, Anneli

    2001-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted last year, on 15th November, to the Council of State an application for a decision in principle concerning the construction of additional nuclear capacity. In this presentation, the main messages to decision makers for the new unit are discussed. Also the studies, which the messages are based on, are described. According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act, a company considering a nuclear plant project must apply for a decision in principle from the Government beforehand. The Government then decides whether the project is in accordance with the overall good of the society. If the decision is positive, it needs ratification by the Parliament. Before the Government decision, various interested parties are heard, including the municipality of location and the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. The phase of statements is underway and they all will be ready by the end of March 2001. The entire application process takes approximately 1-2 years. The main messages arguing for more nuclear power in Finland were as follows. The new nuclear power plant unit replaces old fossil power plants and satisfies the need for additional demand of electricity; makes possible to meet the requirements of the Kyoto agreement; reduces the dependence on the imported energy and assures a stable and predictable electricity price. Messaging concerning a new nuclear power plant unit is made in co-operation with several organisations. The most important of them, in addition to the company shareholders, are the companies which have shown interested in the new project as well as the Finnish Energy Industries Federation (Finergy) and the Confederation of Finnish Industry and Employers. A transparency folder 'Nuclear electricity 2000' was put together of the messages in collaboration with the organisations. The folder was distributed to about 400 opinion leaders in the energy field. To ensure the consistency of the messages, several interest group meetings

  8. Verifying Safety Messages Using Relative-Time and Zone Priority in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Banani, Sam; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Kittipiyakul, Somsak

    2018-01-01

    In high-density road networks, with each vehicle broadcasting multiple messages per second, the arrival rate of safety messages can easily exceed the rate at which digital signatures can be verified. Since not all messages can be verified, algorithms for selecting which messages to verify are required to ensure that each vehicle receives appropriate awareness about neighbouring vehicles. This paper presents a novel scheme to select important safety messages for verification in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). The proposed scheme uses location and direction of the sender, as well as proximity and relative-time between vehicles, to reduce the number of irrelevant messages verified (i.e., messages from vehicles that are unlikely to cause an accident). Compared with other existing schemes, the analysis results show that the proposed scheme can verify messages from nearby vehicles with lower inter-message delay and reduced packet loss and thus provides high level of awareness of the nearby vehicles. PMID:29652840

  9. Partisan Responses to Public Health Messages: Motivated Reasoning and Sugary Drink Taxes.

    Gollust, Sarah E; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the public's motivated reasoning of competitive messages about sugary drink taxes, a public health policy approach attempted with some recent success in the United States. In an experiment embedded in a nationally representative survey fielded in the fall of 2012, we randomized participants ( N  = 5,147) to receive one of four messages: control, a strong protax message, a two-sided message, or a message refuting arguments made in soda company antitax messages. The protax message showed no effects on tax support, while the two-sided message depressed Republicans' support. The refutation message boosted independents' support but produced backlash among Republicans. This motivated response was pronounced among Republicans who were plausibly previously exposed to the sugary drink tax debate. These findings reinforce the communication challenges in an increasingly politicized US health policy discourse. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  10. Increasing the effectiveness of messages promoting responsible undergraduate drinking: tailoring to personality and matching to context.

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Miller, Megan M

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the serious problem of college student binge drinking by identifying factors that improve the effectiveness of messages encouraging responsible drinking presented through a website simulation. We tested schema matching (i.e., whether the message matches the person's self-schema type or not) and two types of context matching (i.e., whether the message matches the topic or values of the message context) to determine their relative influence on the effectiveness of the message. We expected that messages matched to any of these factors would be more effective than messages not matched. Schema matching reduced intentions to drink while staying in/home, but topic matching reduced intentions to drink when going out, suggesting that different factors are important for messages targeting drinking behavior in different locations. Significant interactions between topic matching and value matching on message evaluation variables indicated that the message should not match the message context too closely. That is, there appears to be a matching threshold: Increasing the number of factors the message matches does not increase message effectiveness, possibly because it makes the message too redundant with the surrounding content.

  11. Should women be "All About That Bass?": Diverse body-ideal messages and women's body image.

    Betz, Diana E; Ramsey, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N=189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women's responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  13. Using Instant Messaging Systems as a Platform for Electronic Voting

    Meletiadou, Anastasia; Grimm, Rüdiger

    Many Instant Messaging (IM) systems like Skype or Spark offer ex tended services such as file sharing, VoIP, or a shared whiteboard. As the name suggests, IM applications are predominantly used for spontaneous text-based communication for private or business purposes. In this paper we explore their potential to serve as platforms for secure collaborative applications like electronic contract negotiation, e-payment or electronic voting. Such applications have to deal with challenges like time constraints (“instant” com munication is desired), integration of media channels and the absence of one uni fying “sphere of control” covering all participants. In this paper, we address these challenges by discussing one particular secure collaborative application: secure decision processes for small groups. We provide the following contribu tions: (1) we define three varying scenarios and corresponding security require ments (2) we present an IM-based architecture implementing these scenarios, in cluding a Video-based authentication mechanism, and (3) we discuss poten tial attack patterns.

  14. A qualitative study of college student responses to conflicting messages in advertising: anti-binge drinking public service announcements versus wine promotion health messages.

    Ahn, Ho-Young; Wu, Lei; Kelly, Stephanie; Haley, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students deal with conflicting health messages in advertising regarding binge drinking and wine promotion. Phenomenological in-depth long interviews were conducted beyond the point of redundancy (N = 16). The results of this study indicated that students' meaning making regarding the conflicting messages relied greatly upon how consistent either message was with their prior beliefs about alcohol. Additionally, not all students perceived the messages to be contradictory; these students saw the messages as being constructed for different purposes and as such incomparable. Overall, students who perceived conflict responded to the topic with apathy fueled by advertising skepticism. Employing qualitative methodology to understand how college students respond to conflicting messages will assist health promotion practitioners develop more effective alcohol abuse prevention messages and provide suggestions for researchers for studying this phenomenon from other perspectives in the future. Implications are further discussed within.

  15. Promoting walking in older adults: Perceived neighborhood walkability influences the effectiveness of motivational messages.

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2017-06-01

    Positively framed messages seem to promote walking in older adults better than negatively framed messages. This study targeted elderly people in communities unfavorable to walking. Walking was measured with pedometers during baseline (1 week) and intervention (4 weeks). Participants ( n = 74) were informed about either the benefits of walking or the negative consequences of not walking. Perceived neighborhood walkability was assessed with a modified version of the Neighborhood Walkability Scale. When perceived walkability was high, positively framed messages were more effective than negatively framed messages in promoting walking; when perceived walkability was low, negatively framed messages were comparably effective to positively framed messages.

  16. Photo-sharing social media for eHealth: analysing perceived message effectiveness of sexual health information on Instagram.

    O'Donnell, Nicole Hummel; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2017-10-01

    Health professionals increasingly use social media to communicate health information, but it is unknown how visual message presentation on these platforms affects message reception. This study used an experiment to analyse how young adults (n = 839) perceive sexual health messages on Instagram. Participants were exposed to one of four conditions based on visual message presentation. Messages with embedded health content had the highest perceived message effectiveness ratings. Additionally, message sensation value, attitudes and systematic information processing were significant predictors of perceived message effectiveness. Implications for visual message design for electronic health are discussed.

  17. A Software Implementation of a Satellite Interface Message Processor.

    Eastwood, Margaret A.; Eastwood, Lester F., Jr.

    A design for network control software for a computer network is described in which some nodes are linked by a communications satellite channel. It is assumed that the network has an ARPANET-like configuration; that is, that specialized processors at each node are responsible for message switching and network control. The purpose of the control…

  18. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  19. Message Testing to Create Effective Health Communication Campaigns

    Domigan, Juliane; Glassman, Tavis J.; Miller, Jeff; Hug, Heather; Diehr, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to assess a health communication campaign designed to reduce distracted driving among college students within the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing central interviewing techniques, participants were asked qualitative and quantitative items soliciting feedback concerning the efficacy of the messages.…

  20. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: THE TOOLS OF MESSAGE MAPPING

    Risk Communication in Action: The Tools of Message Mapping, is a workbook designed to guide risk communicators in crisis situations. The first part of this workbook will review general guidelines for risk communication. The second part will focus on one of the most robust tools o...

  1. Messages to new mothers: an analysis of breast pump advertisements.

    Sheehan, Athena; Bowcher, Wendy L

    2017-04-01

    The mass media is replete with all kinds of advice, products and ideas about 'motherhood' with advertising being a major source of information on the latest products and consumer trends. Advertising is a key means of promoting ideas about infant feeding, and yet, there has been little in the way of critical analyses of breast pump advertisements in order to reveal the kinds of messages they convey about this method of feeding. This article makes an important step towards addressing this gap through analysing three advertisements for breast pumps from a popular Australian magazine for mothers. We utilize a social semiotic framework to investigate not just what choices are made in the design of the ads but also what those choices mean in terms of the overall message of the ads. Our analysis identifies three core messages: 'breastfeeding and breast pumping are the same with the purpose being to produce breast milk only', 'using breast pumps facilitates quality time with the baby' and 'mothers need outside expertise (including breast pumps) to ensure baby's development'. We believe it is important for those who provide information and support for breastfeeding women to be aware of the subtle, naturalized messages that ads convey so that they may better understand what may be underlying women's decisions regarding methods of infant feeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Instant Messaging: A Written or an Oral Genre?

    Majidi, Mojdeh

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Instant Messaging from the new rhetorical genre perspective. Considering IM as a primary genre (Bakhtin, 1986) I intend to examine its social motive and social and textual features. Also, using Vygotsky's (1978, 1986) concept of situated learning, I will explain how IM users learn the genre to communicate through it.…

  3. Sarcastic soulmates: Intimacy and irony markers in social media messaging

    Hallmann, K.; Kunneman, F.A.; Liebrecht, C.C.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Mulken, M.J.P. van

    2016-01-01

    Verbal irony, or sarcasm, presents a significant technical and conceptual challenge when it comes to automatic detection. Moreover, it can be a disruptive factor in sentiment analysis and opinion mining, because it changes the polarity of a message implicitly. Extant methods for automatic detection

  4. Protocol-Based Verification of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés; Eduardo R. B. Marques, Eduardo R. B.; Martins, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We present ParTypes, a type-based methodology for the verification of Message Passing Interface (MPI) programs written in the C programming language. The aim is to statically verify programs against protocol specifications, enforcing properties such as fidelity and absence of deadlocks. We develo...

  5. Developing and Testing Rational Models of Message Design.

    O'Keefe, Barbara J.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to an article in the same issue regarding research methods for conversational cognition. Argues for a noncognitive view of rational models in communication research. Sets out an analysis of the kinds of claims made by rational models of message design. Discusses the implications of this analysis for studies of the cognitive processes…

  6. Message from Jimmy Smits: La Vida Real PSA (:30)

    2010-04-13

    A message in Spanish from actor Jimmy Smits about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  7. Message from Jimmy Smits: La Vida Real PSA (:20)

    2010-04-13

    A message in Spanish from actor Jimmy Smits about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  8. Interarrival times of message propagation on directed networks

    Mihaljev, Tamara; de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2011-08-01

    One of the challenges in fighting cybercrime is to understand the dynamics of message propagation on botnets, networks of infected computers used to send viruses, unsolicited commercial emails (SPAM) or denial of service attacks. We map this problem to the propagation of multiple random walkers on directed networks and we evaluate the interarrival time distribution between successive walkers arriving at a target. We show that the temporal organization of this process, which models information propagation on unstructured peer to peer networks, has the same features as SPAM reaching a single user. We study the behavior of the message interarrival time distribution on three different network topologies using two different rules for sending messages. In all networks the propagation is not a pure Poisson process. It shows universal features on Poissonian networks and a more complex behavior on scale free networks. Results open the possibility to indirectly learn about the process of sending messages on networks with unknown topologies, by studying interarrival times at any node of the network.

  9. Archiving AIS messages in a Geo-DBMS

    Meijers, B.M.; Quak, C.W.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Bregt, Arnold; Sarjakoski, Tapani; Lammeren, Ron van; Rip, Frans

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of two studies for using a geographical database management system for archiving Automated Identification System (AIS) message data. In this paper, we analyse the storage (using MongoDB and PostgreSQL) and we give a more in-depth description of a possible data model

  10. A Message from Nelson Mandela to the Youth of America.

    Mandela, Nelson

    1995-01-01

    Presents a message to young people from Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa. Calls for a bridge between the youth of Africa and the United States. Asserts that racial divisions in the United States are major social issues that must be solved. (CFR)

  11. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Infant Safe Sleep Public Campaign Messaging.

    Peacock, Nadine R; Altfeld, Susan; Rosenthal, Allison L; Garland, Caitlin E; Massino, Jill M; Smith, Sherri L; Rowe, Hillary L; Wagener, Sarah E

    2018-03-01

    The 1994 Back to Sleep public education campaign resulted in dramatic reductions in sleep-related infant deaths, but comparable progress in recent years has been elusive. We conducted qualitative analyses of recent safe sleep campaigns from 13 U.S. cities. Goals were to (a) determine whether the campaigns reflect the full range of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2011 safe sleep recommendations, (b) describe tone and framing of the messages (e.g., use of fear appeals), (c) describe targeting/tailoring of messages to priority populations, and (d) ascertain whether the campaigns have been evaluated for reach and/or effectiveness. Methods included computer-assisted analyses of campaign materials and key informant interviews. All campaigns included "ABC" (Alone, Back, Crib) messaging; many ignored other AAP recommendations such as breastfeeding, room-sharing, immunizations, and avoiding smoke exposure. Campaigns frequently targeted priority populations such as African Americans. Fear appeals were used in three quarters of the campaigns, and 60% of the fear-based campaigns used guilt/blame messaging. We did not find published evaluation data for any of the campaigns. More attention is needed in public education campaigns to the full range of AAP recommendations, and evaluations are needed to determine the impact of these interventions on knowledge, behavior, and health outcomes.

  13. Using a treatment partner and text messaging to improve adherence ...

    This paper reports on preliminary qualitative research preceding a randomised ... Results: The caregivers interviewed were all mothers of MHSU who took .... combination: (1) pragmatic reasons; (2) the need to compare ..... treatment partner should contact the participants i.e. through ... notes to verbal face to face messages.

  14. Getting the message across: perceived effectiveness of political campaign communication

    van Spanje, J.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Elenbaas, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Azrout, R.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Do political actors communicate effectively during electoral campaigns? We introduce a novel concept in electoral research, the "perceived effectiveness of political parties' election campaigns." This evaluation concentrates on the extent to which a party is seen as getting its message across to the

  15. Short message service (SMS) language and written language skills ...

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the ...

  16. Persuasive Structures in Advergames. Conveying Advertising Messages through Digital Games

    de la Hera Conde-Pumpido, T.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the game industry and changes in the advertising landscape in recent years have led to a keen interest of marketers in using digital games for advertising purposes. Digital games specifically designed for a brand with the aim of conveying an advertising message, are known as

  17. Review Media messaging: a synthesis of lessons from the literature ...

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... work together and draw on methodological pluralism to produce the most useful evaluations. ... Messaging is most successful when it uses a multi-media approach and when it is combined with ... This type of pedagogy is dialogical and allows for engagement with the youth, ...

  18. Messages Are Everywhere: Reading Perceptions, Habits, and Preferences of Undergraduates

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Villagómez, Amanda; Konkol, Danielle; Haskell, Chris; McCulley, Meleah; Campbell, Denise

    2013-01-01

    As society continues to evolve, so do the methods that are used for text-based communication. Electronic books, mobile phone text messaging, and an array of internet-based texts are now combined with traditional print forms of text, broadly expanding text-based communication. However, student perceptions of reading may still be limited to…

  19. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Message Display System

    M. U. M. Bakura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The technology of displaying message is an important part of communication and advertisement. In recent times, Wireless communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going with Smartphone technology. This work describes the design and implementation of a microcontroller based messaging display system. The messaging display system will be interfaced with an android application which will then be used to display information from the comfort of one‘s phone to an LCD screen using the Bluetooth application interface. The work employs the use of an ATMEGA328p Microcontroller mounted on an Arduino board, a Bluetooth Module (HC-06 and an LCD screen. Most of these electronic display systems were using wired cable connections, the Bluetooth technology used in this work is aimed at solving the problem of wired cable connections.The microcontroller provides all the functionality of the display notices and wireless control. A desired text message from a mobile phone is sent via android mobile application to the Bluetooth module located at the receiving end. The Mobile Application was created using online software called App Inventor. When the entire system was connected and tested, it functioned as designed without any noticeable problems. The Bluetooth module responded to commands being sent from the android application appropriately and in a timely manner. The system was able to display 80 characters on the 4 x 20 LCD within the range of 10m as designated by the Bluetooth datasheet.

  20. A Wireless Text Messaging System Improves Communication for Neonatal Resuscitation.

    Hughes Driscoll, Colleen A; Schub, Jamie A; Pollard, Kristi; El-Metwally, Dina

    Handoffs for neonatal resuscitation involve communicating critical delivery information (CDI). The authors sought to achieve ≥95% communication of CDI during resuscitation team requests. CDI included name of caller, urgency of request, location of delivery, gestation of fetus, status of amniotic fluid, and indication for presence of the resuscitation team. Three interventions were implemented: verbal scripted handoff, Spök text messaging, and Engage text messaging. Percentages of CDI communications were analyzed using statistical process control. Following implementation of Engage, the communication of all CDI, except for indication, was ≥95%; communication of indication occurred 93% of the time. Control limits for most CDI were narrower with Engage, indicating greater reliability of communication compared to the verbal handoff and Spök. Delayed resuscitation team arrival, a countermeasure, was not higher with text messaging compared to verbal handoff ( P = 1.00). Text messaging improved communication during high-risk deliveries, and it may represent an effective tool for other delivery centers.

  1. Using package MESSAGE for optimization studies of nuclear power structures

    Andrianov, A.A.; Fedorova, E.V.; Korobejnikov, V.V.; Poplavskaya, E.V.; Rachkova, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    The results of optimization research of Russia nuclear power strategies, obtained for different assumptions concerning availability of natural uranium resources were presented. The ability of energy planning package MESSAGE (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts) application for elaborating breeding parameters requirements of fast sodium reactors and assessing the required scale of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises development was demonstrated [ru

  2. Teens Share Sexually Explicit Messages: Simple Rebellion or Dangerous Behavior?

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular form of communication among teenagers is "sexting," sending nude photos via text messaging, reported The Orange County Register (3/20/09). This "flirtation" technique has sparked quite a bit of debate: is this simply a form of rebellion or is it dangerous behavior that could have adverse penalties? Although many teens say…

  3. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect ...

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately ...

  4. Shaping guanxi networks at work through instant messaging

    Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.

    Instant messaging (IM) has become increasingly prevalent in social life. However, the use of IM at work remains controversial, owing to its unclear benefits to organizations. In this study, we employ media performance theories and the concept model of communicative ecology to examine the impact of

  5. Christmas Messages by heads of state Multimodality and media adaptations

    Sauer, C.L.A.; Fetzer, A.; Lauerbach, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter investigates the multimodal quality of Christmas Messages by European heads of state on TV from a functional-pragmatic and semiotic angle. It defines them as dealing with multiple types of materialities from different modes and sub-modes. Section 1 develops the central concept of

  6. Message films in Africa: A look into the past

    Rachael Diang′a

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Message Film-making has characterised much of films produced in post-independent Kenya. The country produced very few films in the 1980s, when indigenous film-making actually began to take root. Liberalisation of the economy, embracement of the digital technology and democratization in the 1990s paved way for a more stable film culture in the decade. A more promising growth of the film industry has been largely witnessed since the turn of the 21st century. Through this period, I note a strong tendency to produce films that are loaded with social messages deemed urgent and important to the target audience. In making these films, the film-makers hope to make a positive impact in the lives of the target audiences. These films tend to valorise the message, sometimes, neglecting the basic filmic codes, a practice that renders the films less entertaining. This endangers the growth of the industry since local films find very stiff competition from foreign films that are common on Kenyan screens. This study therefore investigates possible roots of message film-making in Africa that directly influence the tendencies in Kenya by making references to other African countries’ film experiences. My assumption is that Kenya’s cultural experiences are shared by other African countries.

  7. Track-stitching using graphical models and message passing

    Van der Merwe, LJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to stitch tracks together, two tasks are required, namely tracking and track stitching. In this study track stitching is performed using a graphical model and message passing (belief propagation) approach. Tracks are modelled as nodes in a...

  8. Learning experiences in population education: proposed guidelines and core messages.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the 1984 Regional Workshop for the Development of Packages of Adequate Learning Requirements in Population Education, the participants tackled the problem of non-institutionalization of population education into the formal and non-formal educational curricula in their countries. Based on their deliberations, several sets of guidelines and core messages were formulated to provide countries with a more definite direction that will hopefully ensure the functional and effective integration of population education in their respective national school and out-of-school curriculum system. Useful packages of learning materials in population education should help realize the country's population policy and goals within the broader framework of socioeconomic development, and the content of the package should comprehensively cover the core messages of the country's Population Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Program. The population knowledge base of the package should be accurate and relevant; the package should provide for graphic and visual presentation and for assessment of effects on the target groups. Proposed core messages in population education discuss the advantages of small family size and delayed marriage, and aspects of responsible parenthood. Other messages discuss population resource development and population-related beliefs and values.

  9. Streaming-based verification of XML signatures in SOAP messages

    Somorovsky, Juraj; Jensen, Meiko; Schwenk, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    approach for XML processing, the Web Services servers easily become a target of Denial-of-Service attacks. We present a solution for these problems: an external streaming-based WS-Security Gateway. Our implementation is capable of processing XML Signatures in SOAP messages using a streaming-based approach...

  10. The role of dispositional factors in moderating message framing effects.

    Covey, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Health messages can be framed in terms of the benefits of adopting a recommendation (gain frame) or the costs of not adopting a recommendation (loss frame). In recent years, research has demonstrated that the relative persuasiveness of gain and loss frames can depend on a variety of dispositional factors. This article synthesizes this growing literature to develop our understanding of the moderators of framing. A systematic review of published literature on gain and loss framing was conducted. Articles were retrieved that tested the interaction between framing and moderators representing individual differences in how people are predisposed to think, feel, and behave. The significance and direction of framing main effects and interactions were noted and effect size data extracted where available. Forty-seven reports published between January 1990 and January 2012 were retrieved that reported on 50 unique experiments testing 23 different moderators. Significant interactions with typically small to medium simple main effect sizes were found in 37 of the 50 studies. Consistent interactions were found for factors such as ambivalence, approach-avoidance motivation, regulatory focus, need for cognition, and self-efficacy beliefs. Less consistent effects were found for perceived riskiness of activity, issue involvement, and perceived susceptibility/severity. The relative effectiveness of gain- or loss-framed messages can depend on the disposition of the message recipient. Tailoring the frame to the individual therefore has the potential to maximize message persuasiveness. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  11. 47 CFR 80.327 - Urgency signals and messages.

    2010-10-01

    ....327 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.327 Urgency signals and messages. (a) The urgency signal indicates that the...

  12. Functional effectiveness of threat appeals in exercise promotion messages

    Olivier Mairesse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more than 70% of individuals in Western societies can be categorized as sedentary and inactivity has been recognized to lead to a series of serious physical and psychological disorders, the importance of physical activity promotion is ever more emphasized. Many social marketing campaigns use threat (or fear appeals to promote healthy behaviors. Theoretical models, such as the Extended Parallel Process Model integrate concepts as 'perceived threat' and 'perceived efficacy' to explain how such messages operate and can cause diverse behavioral reactions. It is however still not entirely clear how these different aspects are valuated and combined to determine desired versus undesired response behaviors in individuals. In a functional integration task, threat-appeal based exercise promotion messages varying in psychological threat and efficacy content were shown to sedentary employees in order to assess how they affect their intention to engage in physical exercise. Our results show that individuals can be categorized in 4 different clusters depending on the way they valuate threat and efficacy appeals: i.e. individuals sensitive to both types of cues, those sensitive to either the threat or the efficacy component in the message and those insensitive to either one of them. As different segments of receivers of the message react differently to threat and efficacy combinations, it is concluded that different approaches to designing effective mass media campaigns may be required for effective exercise promotion.

  13. Emergency Message Dissemination System for Smartphones During Natural Disasters

    Wu, Xian; Mazurowski, Maciej; Chen, Zhen; Meratnia, Nirvana

    This paper revolves around the concept of utilizing the modern smartphone communication capabilities to transmit messages through an ad hoc network during a disaster, which renders the traditional cellular base station inaccessible. Due to dynamic and decentralized nature of the considered

  14. Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally

    Dobele, A.; Lindgreen, A.; Beverland, M.; Vanhamme, J.; Wijk, van R.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we identify that successful viral marketing campaigns trigger an emotional response in recipients. Working under this premise, we examine the effects of viral messages containing the six primary emotions (surprise, joy, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust) on recipients' emotional

  15. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:20)

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  16. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:60)

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  17. Evaluation of Source of Messages on AIDS by College Students

    tor's expert ability: the higher the opinion the more effective the message. Others have also stated that there is more attitude change when the communi- cation possesses high credibility rather than low credibility 2, and the communicator who is trusted produces more attitude change than one who is not . Thus more attitude ...

  18. A message passing algorithm for the evaluation of social influence

    Vassio, Luca; Fagnani, Fabio; Frasca, Paolo; Ozdaglar, Asuman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new measure of node centrality in social networks, the Harmonic Influence Centrality, which emerges naturally in the study of social influence over networks. Next, we introduce a distributed message passing algorithm to compute the Harmonic Influence Centrality of each

  19. Visions of Students Today: A Message from the Editors

    Wentzell, G. W.; Richlin, L.; Cox. M. D.

    2012-01-01

    In Michael Wesch's (2007) now widely seen video "A Vision of Students Today" (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o), a camera pans across a large, traditional classroom where college students hold up messages about themselves as members of the current generation of learners, who have been dubbed Millennials (Howe & Strauss, 2000). The video…

  20. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  1. Source, Message, and Recipient Factors in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Stoltenberg, Cal D.; McNeill, Brian W.

    This paper reviews recent social psychology studies on the influence of message characteristics, issue involvement, and the subject's cognitive response on perceptions of the communicator. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is used as a framework to discuss various approaches to persuasion, particularly central and peripheral routes to…

  2. Cognitive Processing of Fear-Arousing Message Content.

    Hale, Jerold L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates two models (the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Heuristic-Systematic Model) of the cognitive processing of fear-arousing messages in undergraduate students. Finds in three of the four conditions (low fear, high fear, high trait anxiety) that cognitive processing appears to be antagonistic. Finds some evidence of concurrent…

  3. WhatsApp Messaging: Achievements and Success in Academia

    Nitza, Davidivitch; Roman, Yavich

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant rise in the use of technological means in general and in academic teaching in particular. Many programs have been developed that include computer-assisted teaching, as well as online courses at educational institutions. The current study focuses on WhatsApp messaging and its use in academia. Studies…

  4. Privacy implications of presence sharing in mobile messaging applications

    Buchenscheit, Andreas; Könings, Bastian; Neubert, Andreas; Schaub, Florian; Schneider, Matthias; Kargl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mobile messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, provide a free alternative for mobile texting on smartphones. Mobile messengers typically also share presence information about users to indicate when a user is online. We investigated the privacy implications of such presence updates, using WhatsApp

  5. Instant Messaging Language in Jordanian Female School Students' Writing

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb A.; Rabab'ah, Bayan B.; Suleiman, Nour A.

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the existence of Instant Messaging language phenomenon among female teenagers in some Jordanian private schools and its influence on their learning experience, mainly literacy. It also raises questions about the characteristics of textese as well as teachers' attitude towards their students' use of SMS language in their…

  6. Young People's Everyday Literacies: The Language Features of Instant Messaging

    Haas, Christina; Takayoshi, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine writing in the context of new communication technologies as a kind of everyday literacy. Using an inductive approach developed from grounded theory, we analyzed a 32,000-word corpus of college students' Instant Messaging (IM) exchanges. Through our analysis of this corpus, we identify a fifteen-item taxonomy of IM…

  7. The Effect of Instant Messaging on Lecture Retention

    McVaugh, Nathan Kant

    2012-01-01

    The impact of instant message interruptions via computer on immediate lecture retention for college students was examined. While watching a 24-minute video of a classroom lecture, students received various numbers of related-to-lecture ("Is consistent use of the eye contact method necessary for success?") versus not-related-to lecture…

  8. Design and Evaluation of Hapticons for Instant Messaging

    Rovers, A.F.; Essen, van H.A.; Buss, M.; Fritschi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) is a popular chatting platform on the internet and increasingly permeates teenage life. Even intimate and emotional content is discussed. As touch is a powerful signal for emotional content, haptic signals, and especially hapticons could contribute to overcome the inevitable

  9. Mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments.

    Car, Josip; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; de Jongh, Thyra; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Atun, Rifat

    2012-07-11

    Missed appointments are a major cause of inefficiency in healthcare delivery, with substantial monetary costs for the health system, leading to delays in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patients' forgetfulness is one of the main reasons for missed appointments, and reminders may help alleviate this problem. Modes of communicating reminders for appointments to patients include face-to-face communication, postal messages, calls to landlines or mobile phones, and mobile phone messaging. Mobile phone messaging applications such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS) could provide an important, inexpensive delivery medium for reminders for healthcare appointments. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments. Secondary objectives include assessment of patients' and healthcare providers' evaluation of the intervention; costs; and possible risks and harms associated with the intervention. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL,The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009). We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies assessing mobile phone messaging as reminders for healthcare appointments. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions.   Two review authors independently assessed all

  10. From a Distance: Robust Reference Service via Instant Messaging

    Meulemans, Yvonne Nalani; Carr, Allison; Ly, Pearl

    2010-01-01

    Reference service via instant messaging (IM) has significant potential to benefit distance learners. There has been wide experimentation with IM to expand reference services in libraries across the US, with mixed results. Concern has been expressed that IM cannot provide the same reference experience as face-to-face interactions. One academic…

  11. The Berne Model and Advertising Messages: A Psychographic Study.

    Martin, Charles H.

    This study relates Eric Berne's theory of Transactional Analysis to the effectiveness of advertising messages. A 30 item Personality Mode Test was constructed in order to assess subject agreement with statements reflecting Berne's three personality states: parent (social evaluative), adult (controlled rationality), and child (emotiveness). After…

  12. Running a reliable messaging infrastructure for CERN's control system

    Ehm, F.

    2012-01-01

    The current middle-ware for CERN's Control System is based on 2 implementations: CORBA-based Controls Middle-Ware (CMW) and Java Messaging Service (JMS). The JMS service is realized using the open source messaging product ActiveMQ and had became an increasing vital part of beam operations as data need to be transported reliably for various areas such as the beam protection system, post mortem analysis, beam commissioning or the alarm system. The current JMS service is made of 18 brokers running either in clusters or as single nodes. The main service is deployed as a 2 node cluster providing fail-over and load balancing capabilities for high availability. Non-critical applications running on virtual machines or desktop machines read data via a third broker to decouple the load from the operational main cluster. This scenario has been introduced last year and the statistics showed an up-time of 99.998% and an average data serving rate of 1.6 G-Byte per minute represented by around 150 messages per second. Deploying, running, maintaining and protecting such messaging infrastructure is not trivial and includes setting up of careful monitoring and failure pre-recognition. Naturally, lessons have been learnt and their outcome is very important for the current and future operation of such service. (author)

  13. Statistics of Epidemics in Networks by Passing Messages

    Shrestha, Munik Kumar

    Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. In this thesis, we show how message-passing approach can be a helpful tool for simulating epidemic models in disordered medium like networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. The sort of dynamics we consider are stochastic, where randomness can arise from the stochastic events or from the randomness of network structures. As in belief propagation, variables or messages in message-passing approach are defined on the directed edges of a network. However, unlike belief propagation, where the posterior distributions are updated according to Bayes' rule, in message-passing approach we write differential equations for the messages over time. It takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. In our first results, we develop a message-passing approach to threshold models of behavior popular in sociology. These are models, first proposed by Granovetter, where individuals have to hear about a trend or behavior from some number of neighbors before adopting it themselves. In thermodynamic limit of large random networks, we provide an exact analytic scheme while calculating the time dependence of the probabilities and thus learning about the whole dynamics of bootstrap percolation, which is a simple model known in statistical physics for exhibiting discontinuous phase transition. As an application, we apply a similar model to financial networks, studying when bankruptcies spread due to the sudden devaluation of shared assets in overlapping portfolios. We predict that although diversification may be good for individual institutions, it can create dangerous systemic effects, and as a result

  14. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Papp, III, Albert Louis [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  15. I spy with my little eye: cognitive processing of framed physical activity messages.

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Castelhano, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose was to examine the relative cognitive processing of gain-framed versus loss-framed physical activity messages following exposure to health risk information. Guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, the secondary purpose was to examine the relation between dwell time, message recall, and message-relevant thoughts, as well as perceived risk, personal relevance, and fear arousal. Baseline measures of perceived risk for inactivity-related disease and health problems were administered to 77 undergraduate students. Participants read population-specific health risk information while wearing a head-mounted eye tracker, which measured dwell time on message content. Perceived risk was then reassessed. Next, participants read PA messages while the eye tracker measured dwell time on message content. Immediately following message exposure, recall, thought-listing, fear arousal, and personal relevance were measured. Dwell time on gain-framed messages was significantly greater than loss-framed messages. However, message recall and thought-listing did not differ by message frame. Dwell time was not significantly related to recall or thought-listing. Consistent with the Extended Parallel Process Model, fear arousal was significantly related to recall, thought-listing, and personal relevance. In conclusion, gain-framed messages may evoke greater dwell time than loss-famed messages. However, dwell time alone may be insufficient for evoking further cognitive processing.

  16. Patient-clinician mobile communication: analyzing text messaging between adolescents with asthma and nurse case managers.

    Yoo, Woohyun; Kim, Soo Yun; Hong, Yangsun; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of digital mobile devices among adolescents, mobile texting messaging is emerging as a new channel for patient-clinician communication for this population. In particular, it can promote active communication between healthcare clinicians and adolescents with asthma. However, little is known about the content of the messages exchanged in medical encounters via mobile text messaging. Therefore, this study explored the content of text messaging between clinicians and adolescents with asthma. We collected a total of 2,953 text messages exchanged between 5 nurse case managers and 131 adolescents with asthma through a personal digital assistant. The text messages were coded using a scheme developed by adapting categories from the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Nurse case managers sent more text messages (n=2,639) than adolescents with asthma. Most messages sent by nurse case managers were targeted messages (n=2,475) directed at all adolescents with asthma, whereas there were relatively few tailored messages (n=164) that were created personally for an individual adolescent. In addition, both targeted and tailored messages emphasized task-focused behaviors over socioemotional behaviors. Likewise, text messages (n=314) sent by adolescents also emphasized task-focused over socioemotional behaviors. Mobile texting messaging has the potential to play an important role in patient-clinician communication. It promotes not only active interaction, but also patient-centered communication with clinicians. In order to achieve this potential, healthcare clinicians may need to focus on socioemotional communication as well as task-oriented communication.

  17. 'Message in a mobile' : mixed-messages, tales of missing and mobile communities at the University of Khartoum

    Lamoureaux, S.

    2011-01-01

    This detailed, meticulous ethnographic study on mobile phone use among Nuba students at the University of Khartoum in Sudan, distinguishes itself from other studies by taking a focused look at the linguistic content of mobile phone interactions via text-messaging, portraying it as a site for the

  18. Message Collision Avoidance Protocols for Detecting Stray Nodes in a Scuba Diving Group Using Ultrasonic Multi-Hop Message Communication

    Shinya Kaido

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in underwater communication and some progress has been made in this area. However, underwater communication is still immature compared with terrestrial communication. A prime reason for this is that the underwater environment is intrinsically not suitable for propagation of electric waves. Instead, ultrasonic waves are mainly used for underwater communication. Since ultrasonic waves cannot provide sufficient communication speed or capacity, they cannot use existing network technologies, which assume use of radio waves. In particular, communication in shallow water is still an uncharted territory. Few communication technologies are employed in environments where people enjoy scuba diving. This paper addresses problems faced by recreational scuba divers. It proposes constructing an ad hoc mesh-shaped network between divers within a group and use ultrasonic waves as transmission media in order to enable the detection of a stray diver. It also proposes a communication protocol in which messages are relayed in multiple hops, and a message collision avoidance method, which is intended to reduce the rate of packet loss caused by message propagation delay. We have implemented the proposed methods in a network simulator, and compared them with an existing communication method that has no message collision avoidance function, in terms of the packet loss rate, the stray driver detection rate, and the rate of the ability to communicate in multiple hops.

  19. The Impact of the Public Authorities’ Messages – the European Central Bank Case

    Ioan Talpos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The public authorities (the agency messages could play a key role in the social subjects’ decisions. How and when the agency communicates the path of its future policies influences the present social and economic architecture. The aim of this paper is to advance an explanatory framework for the connections between the transparency and credibility of the public authorities and the volatility of the social output. In order to provide some empirical evidences, the paper will consider the case of the European Central Bank as a representative monetary authority. The main output of the paper resides in the thesis that, with a certain consistency, there are some connections between the agency’s mandates, the types of the messages transmitted by the agency and the volatility of the obtained results, and also in the idea that an agency entrusted with a “strong” mandate could transmit “mixed” type messages (i.e. “informative-persuasive” ones which, in special conditions, could influence the decisions of certain categories of clients and/ or non-members. Of course, the following core question still remains: “How sustainable could be the effects induced by the impact of different agency messages received by the various beneficiaries?” And this, because in the end “The one who knows does not speak and the one who speaks does not know” (LAO ZI - DAO DE JING.

  20. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    1996-03-01

    an ever-increasing rate and in the course of this process the star has swollen to its present, enormous size. Moreover, IRAS 04553-6825 is now blowing away its atmosphere. It loses material at a prodigious rate: each month, the equivalent of one Earth mass disappears into the surrounding space, at velocities of up to 25 kilometers per second. Were the mass-loss to continue in this way, the star would soon evaporate completely. It may never get that far, though. There is little doubt that, much before, it will end its life by exploding as a bright supernova. In February 1987, another star in the LMC exploded as a supernova, becoming as bright as the combined light of all the stars in the entire LMC. In fact, IRAS 04553-6825 might already have exploded some time ago, but due to the finite velocity of light - it takes the light 170,000 years to travel the distance from the LMC to us - the message about its fiery death may not have reached us yet. Our Sun is not expected to die this way; the death as a brilliant supernova is reserved for much heavier stars. Stellar dust and the existence of life Billions of years ago, the silicate-rich minerals that now make up most of the rocks and sand on Earth surrounded another dying star, similar to IRAS 04553-6825 . These minerals contain the silicon-oxide molecules which were then illuminated by the light of the red supergiant star and had shone brightly as SiO masers before they condensed into dust and were blown away into space. After many millions, perhaps even billions of years, they finally ended up in the rocks of planet Earth. Not only rocks and sand, but all things we use in daily life ultimately owe their existence to stars like IRAS 04553-6825 , ranging from the food we eat to the air we breathe, from the bicycle we drive to the brain in our head. This is because massive stars such as IRAS 04553-6825 produce heavy elements like oxygen, iron and carbon. We consist of these elements, and almost everything we use is made up

  1. IWSSA 2009 PC Co-chairs' Message

    Chung, Lawrence; Noguera, Manuel; Subramanian, Nary; Garrido, José Luis

    Important changes in society are being predicted for the very near future. In many countries, governments look ahead by increasing reserve funds and budgets for strategically critical areas in order to identify key issues and find effective solutions. Not surprisingly, many institutions are launching research and development programs focused on health-care, elderly people, quality of life, social inclusion, energy, education, ecology, etc. Innovation is required for systems supporting such a new assisted, interactive and collaborative world. System and software designers have to be able to address how to reflect in the same system/software architecture a great amount of (sometimes conflicting) requirements. In particular, user-oriented nonfunctional requirements and developer-oriented non-functional requirements (or design constraints) gain special relevance due to the new environments in which the systems have to operate.

  2. Increasing available FIFO space to prevent messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment

    Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Gooding, Thomas [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Parker, Jeff [Rochester, MN

    2012-02-07

    Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate an interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.

  3. Data communications in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    Davis, Kristan D; Faraj, Daniel A

    2013-07-09

    Algorithm selection for data communications in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, endpoints coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including associating in the PAMI data communications algorithms and ranges of message sizes so that each algorithm is associated with a separate range of message sizes; receiving in an origin endpoint of the PAMI a data communications instruction, the instruction specifying transmission of a data communications message from the origin endpoint to a target endpoint, the data communications message characterized by a message size; selecting, from among the associated algorithms and ranges, a data communications algorithm in dependence upon the message size; and transmitting, according to the selected data communications algorithm from the origin endpoint to the target endpoint, the data communications message.

  4. Towards a context-aware multi-channel messaging model for African banks: preliminary investigations

    Salami, O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancements have provided Banks several means of sending messages to their customers. In the context of business-to-customer interaction, Single Channel Messaging (SCM) model is prominently used by most Banks in Africa. SCM...

  5. Using dual-phase message signs to display airline information : technical summary.

    2010-01-01

    Changeable Message Signs are electronic traffic signs that can be programmed to display : important messages that vary according to current roadway conditions, including the : presence of traffic congestion and accidents. CMSs can also be used to dis...

  6. Multiple Effects of Messages with Multiple Goals: Some Perceived Outcomes of Responses to Sexual Harassment.

    Bingham, Shereen G.; Burleson, Brant R.

    1989-01-01

    Tests the perceived effectiveness of different messages responding to sexual harassment in the organizational environment. Finds that none of the messages were perceived as being particularly effective at stopping the harasser's offensive conduct. (MM)

  7. Evaluation of dynamic message signs and their potential impact on traffic flow.

    2013-04-01

    Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has a rich data archive of the messages posted to the : Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) and the time stamps when they were posted and taken down. The archive : also contains traffic information surrounding the ...

  8. Psychological distance cues in online messages: Interrelatedness of probability and spatial distance

    Sungur, H.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.; Hartmann, T.

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence reveals that people rely on heuristic cues when processing online information. The current research, by adopting a construal level theory approach, examined whether psychological distance cues within online messages influence message processing. According to construal level theory,

  9. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents’ Text Messaging

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Sam; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2011-01-01

    This brief report presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents’ electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, email, and Instant Messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid by the investigators, and use of text messaging was examined when participants were 15 years old and in the 10th grade (N=175, 81 girls). BlackBerries are configured so that the content of all text messages, email messages, and Instant Messages is saved to a secure server and organized in a highly secure, searchable, online archive. This paper describes the technology used to devise this method and ethical considerations. Evidence for validity is presented, including information on use of text messaging to show that participants used these devices heavily and frequencies of profane and sexual language in a two-day sample of text messaging to demonstrate that they were communicating openly. PMID:22004337

  10. Predictive Validity of an Empirical Approach for Selecting Promising Message Topics: A Randomized-Controlled Study

    Lee, Stella Juhyun; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura Anne; Tan, Andy S. L.; Kybert-Momjian, Ani; Liu, Jiaying; Hornik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Several message topic selection approaches propose that messages based on beliefs pretested and found to be more strongly associated with intentions will be more effective in changing population intentions and behaviors when used in a campaign. This study aimed to validate the underlying causal assumption of these approaches which rely on cross-sectional belief–intention associations. We experimentally tested whether messages addressing promising themes as identified by the above criterion were more persuasive than messages addressing less promising themes. Contrary to expectations, all messages increased intentions. Interestingly, mediation analyses showed that while messages deemed promising affected intentions through changes in targeted promising beliefs, messages deemed less promising also achieved persuasion by influencing nontargeted promising beliefs. Implications for message topic selection are discussed. PMID:27867218

  11. Two-way text messaging: an interactive mobile learning environment in higher education

    Premadasa, H. K. Salinda; Meegama, R. G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Short messaging service (SMS) is perhaps the most popular mobile technology prevalent among students in higher education due to its ubiquitous nature and the capability of two-way communication. However, a major limitation in two-way text messaging is sending back a part of received data with the reply message. This limitation results in users of a mobile learning environment being unable to reply back to the correct destination. This article presents a two-way text messaging system that can ...

  12. An exploration of appearance and health messages present in pregnancy magazines.

    Boepple, Leah; Thompson, J Kevin

    2017-12-01

    This study explored appearance-related images and messages present in pregnancy magazines (e.g. Fit Pregnancy, Pregnancy & Newborn, and Pregnancy Magazine). A substantial portion of advertisements and articles promoted appearance-related products or products for postpartum weight loss. Health messages and messages related to diet and exercise were also present. Images also sexualized pregnant women's bodies. Appearance-related messages aimed toward pregnant women may be problematic and may contribute to body dissatisfaction in these women.

  13. Kompresi Teks Menggunakan Algoritma Huffman Dan Md5 Pada Instant Messaging Smartphone Android

    Chulkamdi, M. Taofik; Pramono, Sholeh Hadi; Yudaningtyas, Erni

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging is one of Android social media application that make user possible to send short messages directly in the same time (real time) using text to another user that online in the some network, more ever a lot of user using this application as an alternative communication via short message service (SMS). Remembering how important this application, so writer make an instant message application with small text transmission that will provide in the current needs with Huffman algorith...

  14. Randomized Trial of a Smartphone Mobile Application Compared to Text Messaging to Support Smoking Cessation

    Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Bettinghaus, Erwin P.; Shane, James H.; Zimmerman, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text messaging has successfully supported smoking cessation. This study compares a mobile application with text messaging to support smoking cessation. Materials and Methods: Young adult smokers 18–30 years old (n=102) participated in a randomized pretest–posttest trial. Smokers received a smartphone application (REQ-Mobile) with short messages and interactive tools or a text messaging system (onQ), managed by an expert system. Self-reported usability of REQ-Mobile and qu...

  15. DIRECTIONAL OPPORTUNISTIC MECHANISM IN CLUSTER MESSAGE CRITICALITY LEVEL BASED ZIGBEE ROUTING

    B.Rajeshkanna *1, Dr.M.Anitha 2

    2018-01-01

    The cluster message criticality level based zigbee routing(CMCLZOR) has been proposed for routing the cluster messages in wireless smart energy home area networks. It employs zigbee opportunistic shortcut tree routing(ZOSTR) and AODV individually for routing normal messages and highly critical messages respectively. ZOSTR allows the receiving nodes to compete for forwarding a packet with the priority of left-over hops rather than stating single next hop node like unicast protocols. Since it h...

  16. MODEL LOYALITAS PADA PENGGUNAAN BRAND INSTANT MESSAGING OLEH REMAJA

    Muhammad Gustiasa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Instant messaging is one of the communication services that teenagers often use. Referring to its often socializing psychography, many instant messaging brands that compete get market share through marketing communications strategies. The condition of consumer loyalty as the ultimate goal of marketing communication here has its own challenges. Brand switching almost does not cost (zero cost so consumers often use two or more brands at once in their smartphone or gadget. This research builds and tests consumer loyalty model using brand instant messaging by adolescent. This type of quantitative research is selected by Structural Equation Modeling analysis. There are five hypothesis tests with six variables obtained through the results of previous research factor analysis and literature review. The analysis shows that the model is not fit and only two hypotheses accepted the significance of the influence between the variables. The first hypothesis received is the influence between information exposure variable to the level of brand attribute knowledge. The next hypothesis received significance is the influence of consumer satisfaction levels and perceptions of social support to consumer brand user loyalty.   Instant messaging merupakan salah satu layanan komunikasi yang kerap digunakan remaja. Mengacu pada psikografisnya yang kerap bersosialisasi, banyak merek instant messaging yang berkompetisi mendapatkan market share melalui strategi komunikasi pemasaran. Kondisi loyalitas konsumen sebagai tujuan akhir komunikasi pemasaran disini memiliki tantangan tersendiri. Perpindahan merek (brand switching nyaris tidak membutuhkan biaya (zero cost sehingga konsumen sering menggunakan dua atau lebih merek sekaligus dalam smartphone atau gadgetnya. Penelitian ini membangun dan menguji model loyalitas konsumen penggunaan brand instant messaging oleh remaja. Tipe penelitian kuantitatif dipilih dengan analisis Structural Equation Modeling. Terdapat lima

  17. Monkeys on the Screen?: Multicultural Issues in Instructional Message Design

    Debbie McAnany

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available With the shift in numbers between Canadian-born students in the university classroom and the increased number of international students, it is a primary concern for instructors and instructional designers to know and understand learner characteristics in order to create effective instructional messages and materials. Recognizing how culture might shape cognition and learning, we can value and design for the diversity of students and maximize their learning while improving the learning environment for all students. To celebrate cultural diversity and meet the challenges associated with designing for diverse learning styles and educational experiences, this paper offers a review of the literature and proposes a systematic three-fold approach to the creation and evaluation of multicultural instructional messages and materials: first, “Do no harm”; second, “Know your learner”; and third, “Incorporate global concepts and images into instructional messages.” Résumé Avec le renversement des proportions d’étudiants nés au Canada et d’étudiants internationaux qui sont de plus en plus nombreux dans nos universités, connaître et comprendre les caractéristiques des apprenants constitue maintenant une préoccupation majeure pour les instructeurs et les concepteurs pédagogiques afin de créer des messages et du matériel pédagogiques efficaces. En prenant en considération la façon dont la culture peut influencer la cognition et l’apprentissage, nous pouvons tenir compte de la diversité des étudiants lors de la conception et ainsi maximiser leur apprentissage tout en améliorant l’environnement d’apprentissage pour tous les étudiants. Dans le but de célébrer la diversité culturelle tout en relevant les défis associés à la conception pour divers styles d’apprentissage et d’expériences éducatives, le présent article présente un examen de la documentation et propose une approche systématique en trois volets pour

  18. Mitigating Psychological Reactance: The Role of Message-Induced Empathy in Persuasion

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of message-induced state empathy in persuasion. Message-induced empathy is conceptualized as a perception-action process that consists of affective, cognitive, and associative components. Twenty professionally produced public service announcements (PSAs) were used as stimuli messages in a 2 (high vs. low empathy) x 2…

  19. Two-Way Text Messaging: An Interactive Mobile Learning Environment in Higher Education

    Premadasa, H. K. Salinda; Meegama, R. G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Short messaging service (SMS) is perhaps the most popular mobile technology prevalent among students in higher education due to its ubiquitous nature and the capability of two-way communication. However, a major limitation in two-way text messaging is sending back a part of received data with the reply message. This limitation results in users of…

  20. Exploring Message Meaning: A Qualitative Media Literacy Study of College Freshmen

    Ashley, Seth; Lyden, Grace; Fasbinder, Devon

    2012-01-01

    Critical media literacy demands understanding of the deeper meanings of media messages. Using a grounded theory approach, this study analyzed responses by first-year college students with no formal media literacy education to three types of video messages: an advertisement, a public relations message and a news report. Students did not exhibit…

  1. Gender Equity On-line: Messages Portrayed with and about the New Technologies.

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson; And Others

    This paper examines gender messages within advertisements and informational, technology-focused materials that are targeted toward a general population of consumers. The pattern of gender bias in visual messages and stereotyping which prevails in advertising appears to be carrying the same messages from print to television and into the newest…

  2. Engaging Students in Active Learning: The Case for Personalized Multimedia Messages.

    Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that personalized messages in a multimedia science lesson can promote deep learning by actively engaging students in the elaboration of the materials and reducing processing load. Instructional messages were presented in either a personalized style or a neutral style. Results reveal that personalized messages produced better…

  3. The Effect of Bilingualism on Communication Efficiency in Text Messages (SMS)

    Carrier, L. Mark; Benitez, Sandra Y.

    2010-01-01

    The widespread use of cell phones has led to the proliferation of messages sent using the Short Messaging Service (SMS). The 160-character limit on text messages encourages the use of shortenings and other shortcuts in language use. When bilingual speakers use SMS, their access to multiple sources of vocabulary, sentence structure, and other…

  4. Two Women with Multiple Disabilities Communicate with Distant Partners via a Special Text Messaging System

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa A.; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Carrella, Luigina

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the research on a special text messaging system, which allows persons with multiple disabilities to (a) write and send messages to distant partners and (b) have messages from those partners read out to them. The study involved two women with multiple disabilities (including blindness or minimal residual vision). The system…

  5. Age Differences in Children's Perceptions of Message Intent: An Exploratory Study.

    Blosser, Betsy J.; Roberts, Donald F.

    To determine when and how children begin to differentiate among messages with different goals and to examine whether such differentiation leads to differences in interpretational strategies, 90 children between the ages of 4 and 11 viewed each of five different television messages representing four different message types. The types were: (1)…

  6. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  7. Diffusion of Messages from an Electronic Cigarette Brand to Potential Users through Twitter.

    Kar-Hai Chu

    Full Text Available This study explores the presence and actions of an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette brand, Blu, on Twitter to observe how marketing messages are sent and diffused through the retweet (i.e., message forwarding functionality. Retweet networks enable messages to reach additional Twitter users beyond the sender's local network. We follow messages from their origin through multiple retweets to identify which messages have more reach, and the different users who are exposed.We collected three months of publicly available data from Twitter. A combination of techniques in social network analysis and content analysis were applied to determine the various networks of users who are exposed to e-cigarette messages and how the retweet network can affect which messages spread.The Blu retweet network expanded during the study period. Analysis of user profiles combined with network cluster analysis showed that messages of certain topics were only circulated within a community of e-cigarette supporters, while other topics spread further, reaching more general Twitter users who may not support or use e-cigarettes.Retweet networks can serve as proxy filters for marketing messages, as Twitter users decide which messages they will continue to diffuse among their followers. As certain e-cigarette messages extend beyond their point of origin, the audience being exposed expands beyond the e-cigarette community. Potential implications for health education campaigns include utilizing Twitter and targeting important gatekeepers or hubs that would maximize message diffusion.

  8. Measuring Future Worker Productivity via Business Email Message Creation: Implications for Education

    Hagler, Barbara E.; Erthal, Margaret; Walzer, Dona; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to determine if relationships exist among college students' business email message productivity score and (a) email message quality score, (b) text keying method used to create email message, and (c) self-reported college English grade. Background: Email is increasingly the communication channel preferred for…

  9. Faster Isn't Smarter: Messages about Math, Teaching, and Learning in the 21st Century

    Seeley, Cathy L.

    2009-01-01

    NCTM Past President Cathy L. Seeley shares her messages on today's most relevant topics and issues in education. Based on Cathy L. Seeley's award-winning NCTM President's Messages, and including dozens of new messages, this must-have K-12 resource offers straight talk and common sense about some of today's most important, thought-provoking issues…

  10. Investigating message-framing effects in the context of a tailored intervention promoting physical activity.

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Werrij, M.Q.; Vries, de H.

    2010-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains associated with healthy behaviour or the losses associated with unhealthy behaviour. It has been argued that gain-framed messages promoting physical activity (PA) are more effective than loss-framed messages, but empirical findings are

  11. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual…

  12. Exploring Students' Acceptance of Team Messaging Services: The Roles of Social Presence and Motivation

    Huang, Yong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Team messaging services represent a type of cloud computing applications that support not only the messaging among users but also the collaboration in a team. Accordingly, team messaging services have great potential to facilitate students' collaboration. However, only few studies utilized such services to support students' collaboration and…

  13. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  14. Texting for Health: The Use of Participatory Methods to Develop Healthy Lifestyle Messages for Teens

    Hingle, Melanie; Nichter, Mimi; Medeiros, Melanie; Grace, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test messages and a mobile phone delivery protocol designed to influence the nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of adolescents. Design: Nine focus groups, 4 classroom discussions, and an 8-week pilot study exploring message content, format, origin, and message delivery were conducted over…

  15. 47 CFR 64.3100 - Restrictions on mobile service commercial messages.

    2010-10-01

    ... subscriber; (2) Include a functioning return electronic mail address or other Internet-based mechanism that... of mobile service commercial messages and/or commercial electronic mail messages, and that does not... electronic mail messages with a functioning option and clear and conspicuous instructions to reject further...

  16. Fighting obesity or obese persons? Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages.

    Puhl, R; Peterson, J L; Luedicke, J

    2013-06-01

    This study examined public perceptions of obesity-related public health media campaigns with specific emphasis on the extent to which campaign messages are perceived to be motivating or stigmatizing. In summer 2011, data were collected online from a nationally representative sample of 1014 adults. Participants viewed a random selection of 10 (from a total of 30) messages from major obesity public health campaigns from the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, and rated each campaign message according to positive and negative descriptors, including whether it was stigmatizing or motivating. Participants also reported their familiarity with each message and their intentions to comply with the message content. Participants responded most favorably to messages involving themes of increased fruit and vegetable consumption, and general messages involving multiple health behaviors. Messages that have been publicly criticized for their stigmatizing content received the most negative ratings and the lowest intentions to comply with message content. Furthermore, messages that were perceived to be most positive and motivating made no mention of the word 'obesity' at all, and instead focused on making healthy behavioral changes without reference to body weight. These findings have important implications for framing messages in public health campaigns to address obesity, and suggest that certain types of messages may lead to increased motivation for behavior change among the public, whereas others may be perceived as stigmatizing and instill less motivation to improve health.

  17. Lateralized goal framing: how selective presentation impacts message effectiveness.

    McCormick, Michael; Seta, John J

    2012-11-01

    We tested whether framing a message as a gain or loss would alter its effectiveness by using a dichotic listening procedure to selectively present a health related message to the left or right hemisphere. A significant goal framing effect (losses > gains) was found when right, but not left, hemisphere processing was initially enhanced. The results support the position that the contextual processing style of the right hemisphere is especially sensitive to the associative implications of the frame. We discussed the implications of these findings for goal framing research, and the valence hypothesis. We also discussed how these findings converge with prior valence framing research and how they can be of potential use to health care providers.

  18. One Message, Many Voices: Mobile Audio Counselling in Health Education.

    Pimmer, Christoph; Mbvundula, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Health workers' use of counselling information on their mobile phones for health education is a central but little understood phenomenon in numerous mobile health (mHealth) projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on empirical data from an interpretive case study in the setting of the Millennium Villages Project in rural Malawi, this research investigates the ways in which community health workers (CHWs) perceive that audio-counselling messages support their health education practice. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: phone-aided audio counselling (1) legitimises the CHWs' use of mobile phones during household visits; (2) helps CHWs to deliver a comprehensive counselling message; (3) supports CHWs in persuading communities to change their health practices. The findings show the complexity and interplay of the multi-faceted, sociocultural, political, and socioemotional meanings associated with audio-counselling use. Practical implications and the demand for further research are discussed.

  19. Managing Gradual Typing with Message-Safety in Dart

    Ernst, Erik; Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme

    . This supports evolution from a dynamically typed programto a strictly statically typed form. We present a formal model of Dart that elucidates how a core of the language and its standard type system works. This allows us to characterize message-safe programs and present a theorem stating that such programs......This paper establishes a notion of message-safe programs as a natural intermediate point between dynamically typed and statically typed Dart programs. Unlike traditional static type checking, the type system in the Dart programming language is unsound by design. The rationale has been...... that this allows compile-time detection of likely errors and enables code completion in integrated development environments, without being restrictive on programmers. We show that, despite unsoundness, judicious use of type annotations can ensure useful properties of the runtime behavior of Dart programs...

  20. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    García JoséAPérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  1. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Omar Jehovani López Orozco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  2. Hemodynamic signals of mixed messages during a social exchange.

    Zucker, Nancy L; Green, Steven; Morris, James P; Kragel, Philip; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Bulik, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S

    2011-06-22

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize hemodynamic activation patterns recruited when the participants viewed mixed social communicative messages during a common interpersonal exchange. Mixed messages were defined as conflicting sequences of biological motion and facial affect signals that are unexpected within a particular social context (e.g. observing the reception of a gift). Across four social vignettes, valenced facial expressions were crossed with rejecting and accepting gestures in a virtual avatar responding to presentation of a gift from the participant. The results indicate that conflicting facial affect and gesture activated superior temporal sulcus, a region implicated in expectancy violations, as well as inferior frontal gyrus and putamen. Scenarios conveying rejection differentially activated the insula and putamen, regions implicated in embodied cognition, and motivated learning, as well as frontoparietal cortex. Characterizing how meaning is inferred from integration of conflicting nonverbal communicative cues is essential to understand nuances and complexities of human exchange.

  3. Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages

    Renes, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical–quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels. (fast track communication)

  4. Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages

    Renes, Joseph M.

    2017-07-01

    The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical-quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels.

  5. Librarians’ messages to publishers: turning research into practice

    Bernie Folan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In early 2017 a piece of research was carried out via questionnaire asking librarians to share the messages they wanted to convey to publishers. There was the option of anonymous submission to encourage candour. This research aimed to supplement messages offered to publishers and other organizations via library advisory board meetings, conference talks and other channels. The hope is to facilitate understanding and to progress the library/publisher partnership that is essential for a healthy future for research communication. A lightning talk at the 2017 UKSG Annual Conference summarized the key findings. This article now shares the findings in more depth and delves into the detail of the most recurrent themes. It also features some organizational case studies which illustrate how the findings are being used practically and/or how these organizations ensure they understand the needs of the libraries they work with. These case studies may help other publishers with the implementation of listening programmes.

  6. Heritage messages of a post-nuclear nature

    Storm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anna Storm, a scholar examining post-industrial landscapes, explained how abandoned industrial sites often carry a multitude of meanings, from pride to fear, from technological beauty to danger. After some time nature takes over these sites, either due to a conscious human strategy or as spontaneous overgrowth. Like scars, they ambiguously combine a variety of physical and mental properties. There is a thin line between 'healing' and 'concealing'; the presenter asked, for instance, how future generations will perceive a closed nuclear waste repository covered by forests. More generally, she encouraged reflection with regard to the potential heritage messages of post-nuclear sites, and proposed the mirroring of human nature interactions to articulate, over time, the message that 'something happened here'

  7. Analysis and Design of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are studied by using extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts. The channel delivers hard or soft decisions and the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. A hard decision channel results...... message-passing decoders. Finally, it is shown that errors on cycles consisting only of degree two and three variable nodes cannot be corrected and a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a cycle-free subgraph is derived....... in the well-know Gallager B algorithm, and increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to two bits yields a gain of more than 1.0 dB in the required signal to noise ratio when using optimized codes. The code optimization requires adapting the mixing property of EXIT functions to the case of binary...

  8. Media and message strategies: consumer input for hospital advertising.

    Flexner, W A; Berkowitz, E N

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the results of the study suggest that a potentially large segment of consumers views advertising as an appropriate way to communicate about hospital services and rates. These consumers are unique not by traditional measures of audience/patient sociodemographic characteristics, but rather by their values and outlook toward hospitals and health care providers. Effective hospital advertising should recognize this segment's perspective in the message that are part of overall advertising strategy.

  9. The effectiveness of quantum operations for eavesdropping on sealed messages

    Lopata, Paul A; Bahder, Thomas B

    2007-01-01

    A quantum protocol is described which enables a user to send sealed messages and that allows for the detection of active eavesdroppers. We examine a class of eavesdropping strategies, those that make use of quantum operations, and we determine the information gain versus disturbance caused by these strategies. We demonstrate this tradeoff with an example and we compare this protocol to quantum key distribution, quantum direct communication, and quantum seal protocols

  10. Basic Functional Capabilities for a Military Message Processing Service

    1974-09-01

    Rey, California 90291 I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADORESS 2. MREPORT OWNtL Advanced Research Projects Agency September 1974 1400 Wilson Blvd. Is...WOROD (Conionwo m trevre aide If tneeoooy arm idmentify by egekA INber) automated message processing, command and control , writer-to-reader service...Characterizations During Preparation 31 Post-Preparation Phases 38 Transmission 38 Delivery 39 Reception 41 Archival 44 Administrativo Functions 44

  11. Optimizing Short Message Text Sentiment Analysis for Mobile Device Forensics

    Aboluwarin , Oluwapelumi; Andriotis , Panagiotis; Takasu , Atsuhiro; Tryfonas , Theo

    2016-01-01

    Part 2: MOBILE DEVICE FORENSICS; International audience; Mobile devices are now the dominant medium for communications. Humans express various emotions when communicating with others and these communications can be analyzed to deduce their emotional inclinations. Natural language processing techniques have been used to analyze sentiment in text. However, most research involving sentiment analysis in the short message domain (SMS and Twitter) do not account for the presence of non-dictionary w...

  12. Consideration of environmental pollution in MESSAGE-type energy models

    Rentz, O.; Hanicke, T.; Hempelmann, R.

    1981-10-01

    Macroeconomic and microeconomic data are acquired and processed to obtain a model-adequate data base. The MESSAGE model is adapted and implemented. Modifications for specific problems are described. Aspects of environmental pollution are considered for the various energy supply concepts. The model conception is flexible with regard to new technologies, in particular in the field of primary and secondary energy sources, and to cogeneration products (district heat, electric power). (HP) [de

  13. Social dominance orientation moderates the effectiveness of mindset messages.

    Hoyt, Crystal L; B Forsyth, Rachel; Burnette, Jeni L

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we examine whether differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) moderate the effectiveness of mindsets of intelligence messages. We suggest that SDO is a foundational ideological belief system, on which individuals vary, that maintains the desire to endorse fixed beliefs about the nature of human intelligence. Thus, attempts to change individuals' mindsets should be met with resistance from those who strongly endorse the social dominance ideology - individuals high on SDO. In contrast, individuals low on SDO are less likely to use mindsets of intelligence to justify an ideological belief system, and thus, mindset manipulations should be effective for them. We test these predictions across three experimental studies (N Study1  = 271, N Study2  = 207, N Study3  = 313). Across the studies, we find that individuals who are high, relative to low, on SDO have more fixed beliefs about the nature of intelligence and show smaller effects of manipulations of mindsets. However, when comparing to a control condition, there was no evidence that high-SDO participants resisted the growth message that contradicts their ideology more than the fixed one that supports it; additionally, low-SDO participants showed heightened responsiveness to a fixed message. We discuss implications for theoretical advances in our understanding of mindsets. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Secure Certificateless Authentication and Road Message Dissemination Protocol in VANETs

    Haowen Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial component of Internet-of-Thing (IoT, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have attracted increasing attentions from both academia and industry fields in recent years. With the extensive VANETs deployment in transportation systems of more and more countries, drivers’ driving experience can be drastically improved. In this case, the real-time road information needs to be disseminated to the correlated vehicles. However, due to inherent wireless communicating characteristics of VANETs, authentication and group key management strategies are indispensable for security assurance. Furthermore, effective road message dissemination mechanism is of significance. In this paper, we address the above problems by developing a certificateless authentication and road message dissemination protocol. In our design, certificateless signature and the relevant feedback mechanism are adopted for authentication and group key distribution. Subsequently, message evaluating and ranking strategy is introduced. Security analysis shows that our protocol achieves desirable security properties. Additionally, performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is efficient compared with the state of the art.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HASH FUNCTION FOR GENERATING HASHED MESSAGE

    Amir Ghaeedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a method of sending confidential information in a way that the existence of the channel in this communication remains secret. A collaborative approach between steganography and digital signature provides a high secure hidden data. Unfortunately, there are wide varieties of attacks that affect the quality of image steganography. Two issues that required to be addressed are large size of the ciphered data in digital signature and high bandwidth. The aim of the research is to propose a new method for producing a dynamic hashed message algorithm in digital signature and then embedded into image for enhancing robustness of image steganography with reduced bandwidth. A digital signature with smaller hash size than other hash algorithms was developed for authentication purposes. A hash function is used in the digital signature generation. The encoder function encoded the hashed message to generate the digital signature and then embedded into an image as a stego-image. In enhancing the robustness of the digital signature, we compressed or encoded it or performed both operations before embedding the data into the image. This encryption algorithm is also computationally efficient whereby for messages with the sizes less than 1600 bytes, the hashed file reduced the original file up to 8.51%.

  16. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development.

    Mason, Alicia M; Miller, Claude H

    2013-07-01

    To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR) content claims of commercial food advertisers. A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. RESULTS provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims). As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1) good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2) an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.

  17. A human language corpus for interstellar message construction

    Elliott, John

    2011-02-01

    The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

  18. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development

    Alicia M. Mason

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR content claims of commercial food advertisers. METHODS: A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. Results: Results provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims. CONCLUSIONS: As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1 good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2 an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.

  19. Technical Evaluation Report 6: Chat and Instant Messaging Systems

    Jennifer Stein

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Text-based conferencing can be both asynchronous (i.e., participants log into the conference at separate times, and synchronous (i.e., interaction takes place in real time. It is thus subject to the same wide variation as the online audio- and video-conferencing methods (see the earlier Reports in this series. Synchronous text-based approaches (e.g., online chat groups and instant messaging systems are highly popular among online users generally owing to their ability to bring together special-interest groups from around the world without cost. In distance education (DE, however, synchronous chat methods are less widely used, owing in part to the problems of arranging for working adults in different time zones to join a discussion group simultaneously. Instant text messaging is more popular among DE users in view of the choice it provides between responding to a message immediately (synchronous communication or after a delay (asynchronous. The different synchronous and asynchronous approaches are likely to become more widely used in parallel with one another, as they are integrated in individual product packages.

  20. Mobile phone messaging for communicating results of medical investigations.

    Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; de Jongh, Thyra; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Car, Josip; Atun, Rifat

    2012-06-13

    Mobile phone messaging, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), has rapidly grown into a mode of communication with a wide range of applications, including communicating the results from medical investigations to patients. Alternative modes of communication of results include face-to-face communication, postal messages, calls to landlines or mobile phones, through web-based health records and email. Possible advantages of mobile phone messaging include convenience to both patients and healthcare providers, reduced waiting times for health services and healthcare costs. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging for communicating results of medical investigations, on people's healthcare-seeking behaviour and health outcomes. Secondary objectives include assessment of participants' evaluation of the intervention, direct and indirect healthcare costs and possible risks and harms associated with the intervention. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009). We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies assessing mobile phone messaging for communicating results of medical tests, between a healthcare provider or 'treatment buddy' and patient. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions.

  1. Affective and executive network processing associated with persuasive antidrug messages.

    Ramsay, Ian S; Yzer, Marco C; Luciana, Monica; Vohs, Kathleen D; MacDonald, Angus W

    2013-07-01

    Previous research has highlighted brain regions associated with socioemotional processes in persuasive message encoding, whereas cognitive models of persuasion suggest that executive brain areas may also be important. The current study aimed to identify lateral prefrontal brain areas associated with persuasive message viewing and understand how activity in these executive regions might interact with activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Seventy adolescents were scanned using fMRI while they watched 10 strongly convincing antidrug public service announcements (PSAs), 10 weakly convincing antidrug PSAs, and 10 advertisements (ads) unrelated to drugs. Antidrug PSAs compared with nondrug ads more strongly elicited arousal-related activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Within antidrug PSAs, those that were prerated as strongly persuasive versus weakly persuasive showed significant differences in arousal-related activity in executive processing areas of the lateral pFC. In support of the notion that persuasiveness involves both affective and executive processes, functional connectivity analyses showed greater coactivation between the lateral pFC and amygdala during PSAs known to be strongly (vs. weakly) convincing. These findings demonstrate that persuasive messages elicit activation in brain regions responsible for both emotional arousal and executive control and represent a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neural processes responsible for persuasion and subsequent behavior change.

  2. 'Yeast mail': a novel Saccharomyces application (NSA) to encrypt messages.

    Rosemeyer, Helmut; Paululat, Achim; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2014-09-01

    The universal genetic code is used by all life forms to encode biological information. It can also be used to encrypt semantic messages and convey them within organisms without anyone but the sender and recipient knowing, i.e., as a means of steganography. Several theoretical, but comparatively few experimental, approaches have been dedicated to this subject, so far. Here, we describe an experimental system to stably integrate encrypted messages within the yeast genome using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based, one-step homologous recombination system. Thus, DNA sequences encoding alphabetical and/or numerical information will be inherited by yeast propagation and can be sent in the form of dried yeast. Moreover, due to the availability of triple shuttle vectors, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can also be used as an intermediate construction device for transfer of information to either Drosophila or mammalian cells as steganographic containers. Besides its classical use in alcoholic fermentation and its modern use for heterologous gene expression, we here show that baker's yeast can thus be employed in a novel Saccharomyces application (NSA) as a simple steganographic container to hide and convey messages. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Prevention messages and AIDS risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.

  4. Event-Driven Messaging for Offline Data Quality Monitoring at ATLAS

    Onyisi, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During LHC Run 1, the information flow through the offline data quality monitoring in ATLAS relied heavily on chains of processes polling each other's outputs for handshaking purposes. This resulted in a fragile architecture with many possible points of failure and an inability to monitor the overall state of the distributed system. We report on the status of a project undertaken during the LHC shutdown to replace the ad hoc synchronization methods with a uniform message queue system. This enables the use of standard protocols to connect processes on multiple hosts; reliable transmission of messages between possibly unreliable programs; easy monitoring of the information flow; and the removal of inefficient polling-based communication.

  5. "Where Is the Love?" Expanding and Theorizing With LGBTQ Memorable Messages of Sex and Sexuality.

    Rubinsky, Valerie; Cooke-Jackson, Angela

    2017-12-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) women exist as a population with an increased complexity in the relationship between themselves and their sexuality. For the LGBTQ community, sexual behaviors are often silenced or erased. This exploratory qualitative research examines 186 memorable messages that emerged from 91 LGBTQ women and gender minorities who participated in a national study. Each participant was asked to share memorable messages they received about sex, sexuality, and sexual health. Consistent with past research, "advice" was a common memorable messages form; however, negative attributes and media-derived messages emerged. The results contribute to understanding the messages that LGTBQ individuals confront on topics of sex and sexuality.

  6. Sequential organization of text messages and mobile phone calls in interconnected communication sequences

    Laursen, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates how text messages and mobile phone calls interrelate as parts of continuous communication sequences. Based on the recorded mobile communication of 14-year-olds in Denmark and a conversation-analytic approach, the article will show that after a text message in a continuous....../promise of a call). In itself, the change from text message to conversation requires no interactional efforts from the participants. However, changes of mode are related to the different communicative possibilities the text message and the phone call offer: text messages and calls have distinct formal qualities...

  7. Climate Literacy for Kids: Finding Medium, Message, and Stance

    Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Jackson, R.; Greene, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    As part of NASA's Global Climate Change (climate.nasa.gov) website (winner of the 2011Webby Award for Best Science Site), Climate Kids (climate.nasa.gov/kids) presents positive role models for green careers and encourages kids to be good climate citizens. But before they will care, they must understand. Climate Kids helps kids understand climate science by communicating at their own science awareness and maturity level, and by giving them concrete ways to start helping Earth now. Climate Kids, as informal education, speaks to upper-elementary-school-age kids in their own language and using some of their favorite media. In addition to simple, liberally illustrated text explanations of the basic science concepts, cartoons and games reinforce the concepts in a fun way. A growing section on green careers interviews enthusiastic individuals currently practicing their professions. In explaining what they do, these individuals reinforce the climate science concepts and "how to help" suggestions elsewhere on the site. The games also reinforce the green career choices. "Green Careers" currently features a "green" general contractor, a home energy auditor, a water-wise landscaper, a recycling program educator, and a renewable energy scientist. The message of the scientist, who designs wind energy farms and "architectural wind" arrays, is reinforced by the "Power-up" game. In this game, players move a wind turbine up or down to capture the wind and move a solar array back and forth to stay out of cloud shadows. Depending on how many "windows" of the game's "city" light up using these alternative energy sources, the player earns a bronze, silver, gold, or platinum "medal." A recycling game reinforces the messages of the recycling program educator about the importance of recycling in saving energy, what can and cannot be recycled, and how long trash items remain in a landfill before decomposing. In the game, a variety of throw-away objects rains down from the top of the screen

  8. Gain versus loss-framed messaging and colorectal cancer screening among African Americans: A preliminary examination of perceived racism and culturally targeted dual messaging.

    Lucas, Todd; Hayman, Lenwood W; Blessman, James E; Asabigi, Kanzoni; Novak, Julie M

    2016-05-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of gain versus loss-framed messaging as well as culturally targeted personal prevention messaging on African Americans' receptivity to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. This research also examined mechanistic functions of perceived racism in response to message framing. Community samples of African Americans (N = 132) and White Americans (N = 50) who were non-compliant with recommended CRC screening completed an online education module about CRC, and were either exposed to a gain-framed or loss-framed message about CRC screening. Half of African Americans were exposed to an additional and culturally targeted self-control message about personal prevention of CRC. Theory of planned behavior measures of attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control, and intentions to obtain a CRC screen served as primary outcomes. The effect of messaging on perceived racism was also measured as an outcome. Consistent with prior research, White Americans were more receptive to CRC screening when exposed to a loss-framed message. However, African Americans were more receptive when exposed to a gain-framed message. The contrary effect of loss-framed messaging on receptivity to screening among African Americans was mediated by an increase in perceived racism. However, including an additional and culturally targeted prevention message mitigated the adverse effect of a loss-framed message. This study identifies an important potential cultural difference in the effect of message framing on illness screening among African Americans, while also suggesting a culturally relevant linking mechanism. This study also suggests the potential for simultaneously presented and culturally targeted messaging to alter the effects of gain and loss-framed messaging on African Americans. What is already known on this subject? African Americans are at an increased risk of both developing and dying from colorectal cancer (CRC). These disparities can be

  9. Audience reactions and receptivity to HIV prevention message concepts for people living with HIV.

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan

    2010-04-01

    This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.

  10. Developing mobile phone text messages for tobacco risk communication among college students: a mixed methods study.

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Machado, Tamara C; Calabro, Karen S; Vanderwater, Elizabeth A; Vidrine, Damon J; Pasch, Keryn P; Marani, Salma K; Buchberg, Meredith; Wagh, Aditya; Russell, Sophia C; Czerniak, Katarzyna W; Botello, Gabrielle C; Dobbins, Mackenzie H; Khalil, Georges E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-01-31

    Engaging young adults for the purpose of communicating health risks associated with nicotine and tobacco use can be challenging since they comprise a population heavily targeted with appealing marketing by the evolving tobacco industry. The Food and Drug Administration seeks novel ways to effectively communicate risks to warn about using these products. This paper describes the first step in developing a text messaging program delivered by smartphones that manipulate three messaging characteristics (i.e., depth, framing, and appeal). Perceptions of community college students were described after previewing text messages designed to inform about risks of using conventional and new tobacco products. Thirty-one tobacco users and nonusers, aged 18-25 participated in five focus discussions held on two community college campuses. Attendees reviewed prototype messages and contributed feedback about text message structure and content. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo Version 10. Most participants were female and two-thirds were ethnic minorities. A variety of conventional and new tobacco products in the past month were used by a third of participants. Three identified domains were derived from the qualitative data. These included perceived risks of using tobacco products, receptivity to message content, and logistical feedback regarding the future message campaign. Overall, participants found the messages to be interesting and appropriate. A gap in awareness of the risks of using new tobacco products was revealed. Feedback on the prototype messages was incorporated into message revisions. These findings provided preliminary confirmation that the forthcoming messaging program will be appealing to young adults.

  11. Addressing medication nonadherence by mobile phone: development and delivery of tailored messages.

    Gatwood, Justin; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Erickson, Steven R; An, Lawrence C; Piette, John D; Farris, Karen B

    2014-01-01

    Medication nonadherence remains a significant public health problem, and efforts to improve adherence have shown only limited impact. The tailoring of messages has become a popular method of developing communication to influence specific health-related behaviors but the development and impact of tailored text messages on medication use is poorly understood. The aim of this paper is to describe an approach to developing theory-based tailored messages for delivery via mobile phone to improve medication adherence among patients with diabetes. Kreuter's five-step tailoring process was followed to create tailored messages for mobile phone delivery. Two focus group sessions, using input from 11 people, and expert review of message content were used to adapt the survey instrument on which the messages were tailored and edit the developed messages for the target population. Following established tailoring methods a library of 168 theory-driven and 128 medication-specific tailored messages were developed and formatted for automated delivery to mobile phones. Concepts from the Health Belief Model and Self-Determination Theory were used to craft the messages and an algorithm was applied to determine the order and timing of messages with the aim of progressively influencing disease and treatment-related beliefs driving adherence to diabetes medication. The process described may be applied to future investigations aiming to improve medication adherence in patients with diabetes and the effectiveness of the current messages will be tested in a planned analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How consumers evaluate eWOM (electronic word-of-mouth) messages.

    Doh, Sun-Jae; Hwang, Jang-Sun

    2009-04-01

    This experiment explored how consumers evaluate electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) messages about products. Each participant was exposed a 10-message set in a single board. Five groups were manipulated in terms of their ratios of positive and negative messages. The result showed significant differences across various sets of eWOM messages. Although more positive sets showed higher scores in many cases, this was not true in all situations, especially for the case of credibility. Involvement and prior knowledge partially moderated the relationship between the ratio of messages and the eWOM effect. The credibility of Web sites and eWOM messages can be damaged in the long run if all of the eWOM messages are positive.

  13. Reaching adolescent girls through social networking: a new avenue for smoking prevention messages.

    Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire

    2012-09-01

    Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.

  14. Text Messaging to Communicate With Public Health Audiences: How the HIPAA Security Rule Affects Practice

    Karasz, Hilary N.; Eiden, Amy; Bogan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Text messaging is a powerful communication tool for public health purposes, particularly because of the potential to customize messages to meet individuals’ needs. However, using text messaging to send personal health information requires analysis of laws addressing the protection of electronic health information. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule is written with flexibility to account for changing technologies. In practice, however, the rule leads to uncertainty about how to make text messaging policy decisions. Text messaging to send health information can be implemented in a public health setting through 2 possible approaches: restructuring text messages to remove personal health information and retaining limited personal health information in the message but conducting a risk analysis and satisfying other requirements to meet the HIPAA Security Rule. PMID:23409902

  15. Message banking: Perceptions of persons with motor neuron disease, significant others and clinicians.

    Oosthuizen, Imke; Dada, Shakila; Bornman, Juan; Koul, Rajinder

    2017-07-31

    Message banking is an intervention strategy that has the potential to facilitate effective communication for people with motor neuron disease when their condition deteriorates to the extent that they cannot communicate using natural speech. The aim of the current study was to determine and compare the perceptions on message banking of three stakeholder groups, namely, persons with motor neuron disease, their significant others and speech-language pathologists. A comparative group survey design was used. Participants listened to a short presentation about message banking, after which they individually completed a questionnaire. Although most participants reported that they had never heard of message banking, all were interested in it. The survey results revealed statistically significant differences between the various groups of stakeholders regarding the relevance of message banking and types of messages to bank. The study concluded that there is limited awareness about message banking amongst all participant groups.

  16. Persuasive communication about AIDS prevention: need for cognition determines the impact of message format.

    Bakker, A B

    1999-04-01

    Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed.

  17. The effects of narrative and message framing on engagement and eating intention among a sample of adult Hispanics.

    Wirtz, John G; Kulpavaropas, Supathida

    2014-01-01

    To test the effect of narrative messages and gain- and loss-framed messages on persuasive outcomes with a sample of Hispanic adults. A 2 (message type: narrative, non-narrative) × 2 (message frame: gain-framed, loss-framed) between subjects posttest only. Data were collected at 2 outdoor festivals in West Texas. Participants were a convenience sample of 72 Hispanic adults (mean age, 40.6 years). Main outcome measures were message engagement, message relevance, attitude toward message, healthy eating intention, and physical activity intention. Data analysis included analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance. There was no significant difference between narrative and non-narrative messages. Gain-framed messages were rated more positively, whereas loss-framed messages were considered more engaging and also produced higher intentions to eat healthy and to become physically active. The interaction between message type and message framing was not significant. Loss-framed messages produced the unanticipated effect of higher message engagement and higher intention. This finding suggests that messages emphasizing losses associated with unhealthy eating and lack of physical activity may be more effective when targeting Hispanic adults than messages emphasizing potential gains. The lack of difference between narrative and non-narrative messages suggests there is no disadvantage to using narratives, but also no advantage. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency of Risk-Related News Media Messages in 2016 Coverage of Zika Virus.

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal; Meyer, Diane; Kronk, Marissa; Ravi, Sanjana; Pechta, Laura E; Lubell, Keri M; Rose, Dale A

    2018-01-03

    News media plays a large role in the information the public receives during an infectious disease outbreak, and may influence public knowledge and perceptions of risk. This study analyzed and described the content of U.S. news media coverage of Zika virus and Zika response during 2016. A random selection of 800 Zika-related news stories from 25 print and television news sources was analyzed. The study examined 24 different messages that appeared in news media articles and characterized them using theories of risk perception as messages with characteristics that could increase perception of risk (risk-elevating messages; n = 14), messages that could decrease perception of risk (risk-minimizing messages; n = 8), or messages about travel or testing guidance (n = 2). Overall, 96% of news stories in the study sample contained at least one or more risk-elevating message(s) and 61% contained risk-minimizing message(s). The frequency of many messages changed after local transmission was confirmed in Florida, and differed between sources in locations with or without local transmission in 2016. Forty percent of news stories included messages about negative potential outcomes of Zika virus infection without mentioning ways to reduce risk. Findings from this study may help inform current federal, state, and local Zika responses by offering a detailed analysis of how news media are covering the outbreak and response activities as well as identifying specific messages appearing more or less frequently than intended. Findings identifying the types of messages that require greater emphasis may also assist public health communicators in responding more effectively to future outbreaks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Matching Message Design and Depressed Cognition: An Exploration of Attention Patterns for Gain- and Loss-Framed Depression Help-Seeking Messages.

    Lueck, Jennifer A

    2017-07-01

    Although disproportionally affected by depression, most depressed college students do not seek the help they need. Research has recently uncovered the potential negative effects of depression help-seeking messages if depressed cognition is not considered in the health message design process. It is unclear if depression determines whether and how individuals pay attention to gain- and loss-framed depression help-seeking messages-a mechanism that has significant implications for the strategic planning of health communication interventions. In order to enable the effective matching of message design and audience features, this study investigated attention patterns for gain (n = 75)- and loss (n = 78)-framed depression help-seeking messages using eye-tracking technology and self-report measures. The results confirmed that depression is a characteristic of risk avoidance and negative cognition. Depressed participants tended to pay more attention to disease information that was placed in a loss-framed rather than a gain-framed depression help-seeking message. Using negative message framing strategies for health messages seeking to educate about depression symptoms might therefore be a useful persuasive strategy-particularly when disseminated to vulnerable populations affected by depression. Furthermore, the present study emphasizes the effective use of eye-tracking technology in communication research.

  20. Effects of argument quality, source credibility and self-reported diabetes knowledge on message attitudes: an experiment using diabetes related messages.

    Lin, Tung-Cheng; Hwang, Lih-Lian; Lai, Yung-Jye

    2017-05-17

    Previous studies have reported that credibility and content (argument quality) are the most critical factors affecting the quality of health information and its acceptance and use; however, this causal relationship merits further investigation in the context of health education. Moreover, message recipients' prior knowledge may moderate these relationships. This study used the elaboration likelihood model to determine the main effects of argument quality, source credibility and the moderating effect of self-reported diabetes knowledge on message attitudes. A between-subjects experimental design using an educational message concerning diabetes for manipulation was applied to validate the effects empirically. A total of 181 participants without diabetes were recruited from the Department of Health, Taipei City Government. Four group messages were manipulated in terms of argument quality (high and low) × source credibility (high and low). Argument quality and source credibility of health information significantly influenced the attitude of message recipients. The participants with high self-reported knowledge participants exhibited significant disapproval for messages with low argument quality. Effective health information should provide objective descriptions and cite reliable sources; in addition, it should provide accurate, customised messages for recipients who have high background knowledge level and ability to discern message quality. © 2017 Health Libraries Group Health Information & Libraries Journal.

  1. Formative Research regarding Kidney Disease Health Information in a Latino American Sample: Associations among Message Frame, Threat, Efficacy, Message Effectiveness, and Behavioral Intention

    Maguire, Katheryn C.; Gardner, Jay; Sopory, Pradeep; Jian, Guowei; Roach, Marcia; Amschlinger, Joe; Moreno, Marcia; Pettey, Gary; Piccone, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Using prospect theory and the extended parallel process model, this study examined the effect of gain/loss message framing on perceptions of severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self efficacy (derived from the extended parallel process model), as well as perception of message effectiveness and behavioral intention in a community based…

  2. Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review.

    Hammond, David

    2011-09-01

    To review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages. Articles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant 'grey' literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack. Relevant articles available prior to January 2011 were screened for six methodological criteria. A total of 94 original original articles met inclusion criteria, including 72 quantitative studies, 16 qualitative studies, 5 studies with both qualitative and qualitative components, and 1 review paper: Canada (n=35), USA (n=29) Australia (n=16), UK (n=13), The Netherlands (n=3), France (n=3), New Zealand (n=3), Mexico (n=3), Brazil (n=2), Belgium (n=1), other European countries (n=10), Norway (n=1), Malaysia (n=1) and China (n=1). The evidence indicates that the impact of health warnings depends upon their size and whereas obscure text-only warnings appear to have little impact, prominent health warnings on the face of packages serve as a prominent source of health information for smokers and non-smokers, can increase health knowledge and perceptions of risk and can promote smoking cessation. The evidence also indicates that comprehensive warnings are effective among youth and may help to prevent smoking initiation. Pictorial health warnings that elicit strong emotional reactions are significantly more effective. Health warnings on packages are among the most direct and prominent means of communicating with smokers. Larger warnings with pictures are significantly more effective than smaller, text-only messages.

  3. Can a text message a week improve breastfeeding?

    Gallegos, Danielle; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Previte, Josephine; Parkinson, Joy

    2014-11-06

    Breastfeeding is recognised as the optimal method for feeding infants with health gains made by reducing infectious diseases in infancy; and chronic diseases, including obesity, in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Despite this, exclusivity and duration in developed countries remains resistant to improvement. The objectives of this research were to test if an automated mobile phone text messaging intervention, delivering one text message a week, could increase "any" breastfeeding rates and improve breastfeeding self-efficacy and coping. Women were eligible to participate if they were: over eighteen years; had an infant less than three months old; were currently breastfeeding; no diagnosed mental illness; and used a mobile phone. Women in the intervention group received MumBubConnect, a text messaging service with automated responses delivered once a week for 8 weeks. Women in the comparison group received their usual care and were sampled two years after the intervention group. Data collection included online surveys at two time points, week zero and week nine, to measure breastfeeding exclusivity and duration, coping, emotions, accountability and self-efficacy. A range of statistical analyses were used to test for differences between groups. Hierarchical regression was used to investigate change in breastfeeding outcome, between groups, adjusting for co-variates. The intervention group had 120 participants at commencement and 114 at completion, the comparison group had 114 participants at commencement and 86 at completion. MumBubConnect had a positive impact on the primary outcome of breastfeeding behaviors with women receiving the intervention more likely to continue exclusive breastfeeding; with a 6% decrease in exclusive breastfeeding in the intervention group, compared to a 14% decrease in the comparison group (p issues. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12614001091695.

  4. Vapor Store Owner Beliefs and Messages to Customers.

    Cheney, Marshall K; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is becoming increasingly popular but little is known about the role of the local vapor store in promoting use and influencing customer attitudes and beliefs about vaping. Thirty-three vapor store owners were interviewed about their personal beliefs and attitudes about e-cigarettes and what they told customers about the health impact of using e-cigarettes. Interviews were recorded then transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Vapor store owners used the internet to obtain information about vaping, most often from YouTube and industry sources. Owners often did not have the training to critically evaluate research studies posted on the internet. Owners promoted vaping as a healthier alternative to smoking and often compared it to a medical treatment. Owners considered ingredients in the e-liquid as safe to use if it was safe to eat and discussed other foods vapor ingredients were found in. Owners also discussed the safety of secondhand vapor. Owners described the health impact of nicotine in e-liquid by comparing nicotine to caffeine and promoted the nicotine in e-liquid as coming from vegetables rather than tobacco. Finally, owners talked about vaping as a habit rather than a continued addiction to nicotine. Local store owners are an important source of health information for current and potential e-cigarette users but their messages to customers may be based on incomplete or misinterpreted information. Understanding local store owner messages to customers in addition to internet-based messages is an important area for future public health research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  6. Instant messaging and nursing students' clinical learning experience.

    Pimmer, Christoph; Brühlmann, Florian; Odetola, Titilayo Dorothy; Dipeolu, Oluwafemi; Gröhbiel, Urs; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2018-05-01

    Although learning in clinical settings is a key element of nursing education, for many learners these are challenging developmental contexts often marked by isolation and a lack of belongingness. Despite the massive appropriation of mobile instant messaging (MIM) platforms and the connective properties attendant to them, very little is known about their role in and impact on nursing students' clinical learning experiences. To address this gap, the study, which was part of a multinational research project on the use of mobile social media in health professions education in developing countries, examined the use of the instant messaging platform WhatsApp by nursing students during placements and potential associations with socio-professional indicators. The survey involved a total number of 196 nursing students from 5 schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The findings suggest that students used WhatsApp relatively frequently and they perceived that this platform strongly enhanced their communication with other students and nurses. WhatsApp use during placements was positively associated with students' maintained social capital with peer students, the development of a professional identity, placement satisfaction and with reduced feelings of isolation from professional communities. The determinants that influenced WhatsApp use during placements were perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. No associations were found between WhatsApp use during placement and age, attitude, subjective norms and placement duration. This study is one of the first of its kind that points to the relevance of mobile instant messaging as part of nursing students' (inter)personal learning environments in clinical settings and, particularly, in the development setting under investigation. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings, to enhance the understanding of the impact mechanisms, and to evaluate a more systematic use of MIM in clinical learning contexts. Copyright © 2018

  7. Messages about appearance, food, weight and exercise in "tween" television.

    Simpson, Courtney C; Kwitowski, Melissa; Boutte, Rachel; Gow, Rachel W; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-12-01

    Tweens (children ages ~8-14years) are a relatively recently defined age group, increasingly targeted by marketers. Individuals in this age group are particularly vulnerable to opinions and behaviors presented in media messages, given their level of cognitive and social development. However, little research has examined messages about appearance, food, weight, and exercise in television specifically targeting tweens, despite the popularity of this media type among this age group. This study used a content analytic approach to explore these messages in the five most popular television shows for tweens on the Disney Channel (as of 2015). Using a multiple-pass approach, relevant content in episodes from the most recently completed seasons of each show was coded. Appearance related incidents occurred in every episode; these most frequently mentioned attractiveness/beauty. Food related incidents were also present in every episode; typically, these situations were appearance and weight neutral. Exercise related incidents occurred in 53.3% of episodes; the majority expressed resistance to exercise. Weight related incidents occurred in 40.0% of the episodes; the majority praised the muscular ideal. Women were more likely to initiate appearance incidents, and men were more likely to initiate exercise incidents. These results suggest that programs specifically marketed to tweens reinforce appearance ideals, including stereotypes about female attractiveness and male athleticism, two constructs linked to eating pathology and body dissatisfaction. Given the developmental vulnerability of the target group, these findings are concerning, and highlight potential foci for prevention programming, including media literacy, for tweens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Changing knowledge and beliefs through an oral health pregnancy message.

    Bates, S Brady; Riedy, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy can be a critical and important period in which to intervene to improve oral health in both the mother and her child. This study examined an online approach for promoting awareness of oral health messages targeted at pregnant women, and whether this type of health messaging impacts oral health knowledge and beliefs. The study was conducted in three parts: production and pilot testing of a brief commercial, Web site/commercial launch and testing, and dissemination and monitoring of the commercial on a video-sharing site. The brief commercial and pre- and postsurveys were produced and pilot tested among a convenience sample of pregnant women (n = 13). The revised commercial and surveys were launched on a newly created Web site and monitored for activity. After 2 months, the commercial was uploaded to a popular video-sharing Web site. Fifty-five individuals completed both the pre- and postsurveys after the Web site was launched. No one responded 100 percent correctly on the presurvey; 77.4 percent responded correctly about dental visits during pregnancy, 66.0 percent about cavity prevention, and 50.9 percent about transmission of bacteria by saliva. Most respondents recalled the correct information on the posttest; 100 percent or close to 100 percent accurately responded about visiting the dentist during pregnancy and preventing cavities, while 79.2 percent responded correctly to the transmission question. Social media can effectively provide dental health messages during pregnancy. This approach can play an important role in increasing awareness and improving oral health of both mother and child. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Little Houses and Casas Pequenas: Message Formulation and Syntactic Form in Unscripted Speech with Speakers of English and Spanish

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Konopka, Agnieszka E.

    2008-01-01

    During unscripted speech, speakers coordinate the formulation of pre-linguistic messages with the linguistic processes that implement those messages into speech. We examine the process of constructing a contextually appropriate message and interfacing that message with utterance planning in English ("the small butterfly") and Spanish ("la mariposa…

  10. Influence of Advertisement Message on Fitbar Billboard Towards Brand Awareness and Its Implication to Brand Image

    Yuliana Riana Pand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The assumption that snacks could cause problem in diet and bodyweight, makes this study interesting. Because this product, Fitbar, appears on the market as a healthy snack that is contrary to this assumption. This product is about to prove that there is a healthy and tasty snack as snacks. Marketing communications through advertising billboards with the media aims to reach the target market. Fitbar billboard ads convey the message content in the form of information about the attributes and benefits of products such as nutritional content and product slogans. This study uses path analysis techniques to determine the effect of variable X (advertisement message to variable Y (brand awareness and its implications on the variable Z (brand image. The results showed that the content of the message components such as message structure, message display, message format, and the source of the message have contributed in the formation of brand awareness, which further on has implications on brand image. Influence on brand awareness message content is equal to 0.609. The effect of variable X (message and Y (brand awareness to variable Z (brand image amounted to 0,365. Therefore, the use of billboards media in conveying the message to the target market of Fitbar products is to build brand awareness and the implications for brand image. 

  11. Characteristics of electronic patient-provider messaging system utilisation in an urban health care organisation

    Sean Patrick Mikles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Research suggests that electronic messaging can improve patient engagement. Studies indicate that a ‘digital divide’ may exist, where certain patient populations may be using electronic messaging less frequently. This study aims to determine which patient characteristics are associated with different levels of usage of an electronic patient-provider messaging system in a diverse urban population.Methods Cross-sectional electronic health record data were extracted for patients 10 years of age or older who live in New York City and who visited a set of clinics between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012. Regression analyses determined which participant characteristics were associated with the sending of electronic messages.Results Older, female, English-speaking participants of white race who received more messages, had any diagnoses, more office visits and a provider who sent messages were more likely to send more messages. Non-Millennial, non-white participants who received fewer messages, had more office visits, any diagnoses, a provider who saw fewer patients with patient portal accounts, lived in a low socioeconomic status neighbourhood, and did not have private insurance were more likely to send zero messages.Conclusion This study found significant differences in electronic messaging usage based on demographic, socioeconomic and health-related patient characteristics. Future studies are needed to support these results and determine the causes of observed associations.

  12. Developing a theory driven text messaging intervention for addiction care with user driven content.

    Muench, Frederick; Weiss, Rebecca A; Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon

    2013-03-01

    The number of text messaging interventions designed to initiate and support behavioral health changes have been steadily increasing over the past 5 years. Messaging interventions can be tailored and adapted to an individual's needs in their natural environment-fostering just-in-time therapies and making them a logical intervention for addiction continuing care. This study assessed the acceptability of using text messaging for substance abuse continuing care and the intervention preferences of individuals in substance abuse treatment in order to develop an interactive mobile text messaging intervention. Fifty individuals enrolled in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment completed an assessment battery relating to preferred logistics of mobile interventions, behavior change strategies, and types of messages they thought would be most helpful to them at different time points. Results indicated that 98% participants were potentially interested in using text messaging as a continuing care strategy. Participants wrote different types of messages that they perceived might be most helpful, based on various hypothetical situations often encountered during the recovery process. Although individuals tended to prefer benefit driven over consequence driven messages, differences in the perceived benefits of change among individuals predicted message preference. Implications for the development of mobile messaging interventions for the addictions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Young children's perceptions of fire-safety messages: do framing and parental mediation matter?

    Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced.

  14. Exploring the use of text and instant messaging in higher education classrooms

    Sharon Lauricella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examined how higher education students used text and instant messaging for academic purposes with their peers and faculty. Specifically, comfort level, frequency of use, usefulness, reasons for messaging and differences between peer-to-peer and peer-to-instructor interactions were examined. Students noted that they were very comfortable with using both text and instant messaging. Text messaging was used weekly with instructors and daily with peers. Instant messaging was used rarely with instructors but weekly with peers. Students rated text messaging as very useful and instant messaging as moderately useful for academic purposes. Key reasons cited for using both text and instant messaging included saving time, resolving administrative issues, convenience and ease of use. Text messaging appears to be the preferred mode of communication for students with respect to communicating with both peers and instructors. It is concluded that both text and instant messaging are useful and viable tools for augmenting student's communication among peers and faculty in higher education.

  15. Confirm Content Validity and Sender Authenticity for Text Messages by Using QR Code

    Firas Mohammed Aswad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In light of the information revolution taking place in the modern world, therefore it becomes necessary and important to save this electronic messages. So we offered this technique to ensure the safety of the content of the messages and authenticity of the sender through  networks communication by converting the message's symbols to numbers , each one of this symbols (letters, numbers, symbols will converted into three digits, the first digit represents the ASCII code of the symbol , the second digit represents the frequency of this symbol in the message (the number of times this symbol is appear in the message, and the third digit represents the total number of the locations of the symbol (calculates the symbol location from the first symbol in the message to this symbol itself and blanks also calculated too .The digital signature of the sender will converted to numbers like the symbols of message we explained it before, and this numbers of the digital signature will gathering together to produce three numbers only, this number will gathering with each numbers of the message's symbols, the final  numbers will converted to QR Code , the QR Code will placed with the message and sent to the recipient. The recipient returns the steps of the sender (produce QR Code from the received message and compared it the received QR Codes, if it is match or not. The recipient will ensure that the content is secure, and confirms the authenticity of the sender.

  16. Promoting participation in physical activity using framed messages: an application of prospect theory.

    Latimer, Amy E; Rench, Tara A; Rivers, Susan E; Katulak, Nicole A; Materese, Stephanie A; Cadmus, Lisa; Hicks, Althea; Keany Hodorowski, Julie; Salovey, Peter

    2008-11-01

    Messages designed to motivate participation in physical activity usually emphasize the benefits of physical activity (gain-framed) as well as the costs of inactivity (loss-framed). The framing implications of prospect theory suggest that the effectiveness of these messages could be enhanced by providing gain-framed information only. We compared the effectiveness of gain-, loss-, and mixed-framed messages for promoting moderate to vigorous physical activity. Randomized trial. Sedentary, healthy callers to the US National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service (N=322) received gain-, loss-, or mixed-framed messages on three occasions (baseline, Week 1, and Week 5). Social cognitive variables and self-reported physical activity were assessed at baseline, Week 2, and Week 9. Separate regression analyses were conducted to examine message effects at each assessment point. At Week 2, gain- and mixed-framed messages resulted in stronger intentions and greater self-efficacy than loss-framed messages. At Week 9, gain-framed messages resulted in greater physical activity participation than loss- or mixed-framed messages. Social cognitive variables at Week 2 did not mediate the Week 9 framing effects on physical activity participation. Using gain-framed messages exclusively may be a means of increasing the efficacy of physical activity materials.

  17. ANALYSIS OF MARKOV NETWORK WITH INCOMES, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE MESSAGES

    V. V. Naumenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov queuing network with income in transient regime is considered. It has positive and negative messages, which can be used in forecasting income of information and telecommunication systems and networks affected by viruses. Investigations are carried out in the cases when incomes from transitions between network states are deterministic functions dependent on states, or they are random variables with given mean values. In the last case it is assumed that all network systems operate in a high load mode. An example is given.

  18. Corporate social marketing: message design to recruit program participants.

    Black, David R; Blue, Carolyn L; Coster, Daniel C; Chrysler, Lisa M

    2002-01-01

    To identify variables for a corporate social marketing (SM) health message based on the 4 Ps of SM in order to recruit future participants to an existing national, commercial, self-administered weight-loss program. A systematically evaluated, author-developed, 310-response survey was administered to a random sample of 270 respondents. A previously established research plan was used to empirically identify the audience segments and the "marketing mix" appropriate for the total sample and each segment. Tangible product, pertaining to the unique program features, should be emphasized rather than positive core product and outcome expectation related to use of the program.

  19. Message Oriented Communication For Ipv6 Enabled Pervasive Devices

    Tomasz Szydlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of electronic devices in our environment is equipped with radio interfaces used for exposing and using their functionality by other devices and applications. Wireless communication in this class of devices is exposed to a number of situations that may occur including limited energy resources, equipment failures, nodes mobility and loss of communication between nodes. It causes that commonly used standards and protocols for sharing services are not practical and do not take into account the occurrence of these problems. The paper presents the concept of communication that relies on the exchange of messages between wireless pervasive devices available in the environment.

  20. S-AMP: Approximate Message Passing for General Matrix Ensembles

    Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.

    2014-01-01

    the approximate message-passing (AMP) algorithm to general matrix ensembles with a well-defined large system size limit. The generalization is based on the S-transform (in free probability) of the spectrum of the measurement matrix. Furthermore, we show that the optimality of S-AMP follows directly from its......We propose a novel iterative estimation algorithm for linear observation models called S-AMP. The fixed points of S-AMP are the stationary points of the exact Gibbs free energy under a set of (first- and second-) moment consistency constraints in the large system limit. S-AMP extends...