Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Steinhardt, Joseph; Shapiro, Michael A
Narrative messages are increasingly popular in health and risk campaigns, yet gain/loss framing effects have never been tested with such messages. Three experiments examined framing in narrative messages. Experiment 1 found that only the character's decision, not framing, influenced judgments about characters in a narrative derived from a prospect theory context. Experiment 2 found that a framing effect that occurred when presented in a decision format did not occur when the same situation was presented as a narrative. Using a different story/decision context, Experiment 3 found no significant difference in preference for surgery over radiation therapy in a narrative presentation compared to a non-narrative presentation. The results suggest that health and risk campaigns cannot assume that framing effects will be the same in narrative messages and non-narrative messages. Potential reasons for these differences and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Frank, Lauren B; Murphy, Sheila T; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Moran, Meghan B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Increasingly, health communication practitioners are exploring the use of narrative storytelling to convey health information. For this study, a narrative film was produced to provide information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer prevention. The storyline centered on Lupita, a young woman recently diagnosed with HPV who informs her family about HPV and the availability of the HPV vaccine for her younger sister. The objective was to examine the roles of identification with characters and narrative involvement (made up of three dimensions: involvement, perceived relevance, and immersion) on perceived response efficacy, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility to HPV and behavior (discussing the HPV vaccine with a health care provider). A random sample of 450 European American, Mexican American, and African American women between the ages of 25 and 45 years, living in the Los Angeles area, was surveyed by phone before, 2 weeks after, and 6 months after viewing the film. The more relevant women found the narrative to their own lives at 2 weeks, the higher they perceived the severity of the virus and the perceived response efficacy of the vaccine to be. Also at 2 weeks, identifying with characters was positively associated with perceived susceptibility to HPV but negatively associated with perceived severity. At 6 months, identification with specific characters was significantly associated with perceived threat and behavior. These findings suggest that different aspects of narrative health messages should be manipulated depending on the specific beliefs and behaviors being targeted. Implications for narrative message design are discussed.
Kong, Grace; Ells, Daniel M; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra
Smoking cessation interventions delivered via text messaging on mobile phones may enhance motivations to quit smoking. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the text messaging interventions' theoretical contents, frequency and duration, treatment outcome, and sample characteristics such as age and motivation to quit, to better inform the future development of this mode of intervention. Studies were included if text messaging was primarily used to deliver smoking cessation intervention and published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. All articles were coded by two independent raters to determine eligibility and to extract data. Twenty-two studies described 15 text messaging interventions. About half of the interventions recruited adults (ages 30-40) and the other half targeted young adults (ages 18-29). Fourteen interventions sent text messages during the quit phase, 10 had a preparation phase and eight had a maintenance phase. The number of text messages and the duration of the intervention varied. All used motivational messages grounded in social cognitive behavioral theories, 11 used behavioral change techniques, and 14 used individually tailored messages. Eleven interventions also offered other smoking cessation tools. Three interventions yielded smoking cessation outcomes greater than the control condition. The proliferation of text messaging in recent years suggests that text messaging interventions may have the potential to improve smoking cessation rates. Detailed summary of the interventions suggests areas for future research and clinical application. More rigorous studies are needed to identify components of the interventions that can enhance their acceptability, feasibility and efficacy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Muylaert, Camila Junqueira; Sarubbi, Vicente; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim
Objetives This methodological study explain and emphasize the extent and fertility of the narrative interview in qualitative research. Methods To describe the narrative method within the qualitative research. Results The qualitative research method is characterized by addressing issues related to the singularities of the field and individuals investigated, being the narrative interviews a powerful method for use by researchers who aggregate it. They allow the deepening of research, the combination of life stories with socio-historical contexts, making the understanding of the senses that produce changes in the beliefs and values that motivate and justify the actions of possible informants. Conclusion The use of narrative is an advantageous investigative resource in qualitative research, in which the narrative is a traditional form of communication whose purpose is to serve content from which the subjective experiences can be transmitted.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the successful strategy formulation process of a new purchasing department at an international engineering group. Design/methodology/approach: The strategy formulation was co-created by the department manager and employees at a storytelling...... workshop, facilitated with interview technique from narrative therapy, and later authorized by the business area director. The organizational intervention preceded the scholarly inquiry. Findings: Employees’ retrospective storytelling about working at the company enabled them to formulate a joint mission...... statement using words and expressions from their own stories. Prospective storytelling enabled them to formulate a joint medium- and long-term vision and a corresponding action plan. This paper proposes interview technique from narrative therapy as a new practice-oriented strategic management tool and calls...
Wirtz, John G; Kulpavaropas, Supathida
To test the effect of narrative messages and gain- and loss-framed messages on persuasive outcomes with a sample of Hispanic adults. A 2 (message type: narrative, non-narrative) × 2 (message frame: gain-framed, loss-framed) between subjects posttest only. Data were collected at 2 outdoor festivals in West Texas. Participants were a convenience sample of 72 Hispanic adults (mean age, 40.6 years). Main outcome measures were message engagement, message relevance, attitude toward message, healthy eating intention, and physical activity intention. Data analysis included analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance. There was no significant difference between narrative and non-narrative messages. Gain-framed messages were rated more positively, whereas loss-framed messages were considered more engaging and also produced higher intentions to eat healthy and to become physically active. The interaction between message type and message framing was not significant. Loss-framed messages produced the unanticipated effect of higher message engagement and higher intention. This finding suggests that messages emphasizing losses associated with unhealthy eating and lack of physical activity may be more effective when targeting Hispanic adults than messages emphasizing potential gains. The lack of difference between narrative and non-narrative messages suggests there is no disadvantage to using narratives, but also no advantage. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hennelly, Marie Oliva; Sly, Jamilia R; Villagra, Cristina; Jandorf, Lina
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a preventable yet leading cause of cancer mortality among Latinos in the USA. Cultural targeting and narrative messaging are two strategies to increase the low screening colonoscopy rates among Latinos. This study identifies key messages for educational interventions aiming to increase screening colonoscopy used among Latinos and proposes a model to understand the relationship between factors involved in colonoscopy decision-making. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 Latino participants primarily of Puerto Rican descent on the topics of CRC knowledge, barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy use, and the use of narrative in colorectal health messaging. Knowledge about colorectal anatomy and the anesthesia component of colonoscopy procedure is low. Fear of procedure-related pain and fear of treatment-related burden following a cancer diagnosis are significant barriers to colonoscopy. Fear of disease-related suffering and death following a cancer diagnosis and fear of regret are strong facilitators and can be augmented by cancer narratives. Storytelling is commonly used in Latino culture and is an acceptable method to educate the Latino community about CRC screening via colonoscopy. Machismo is a unique barrier to colonoscopy for Latino men via homophobia and reluctance to seek healthcare. A preliminary model to understand factors in colonoscopy decision-making among Latinos is presented. Counseling practices and educational interventions that use culturally targeted narrative health messaging to mediate fears and increase colonoscopy knowledge may increase screening colonoscopy use among Latinos.
Volkman, Julie E.; Parrott, Roxanne L.
This study examined the use of different narratives expressing positive or negative emotions, and varying the narrator's perspective on the arousal of discrete emotions, dominant cognitions, perceived evidence quality, and perceived message effectiveness related to osteoporosis behavioral intentions. Formative research led to the creation of…
Dillard, Amanda J; Hisler, Garrett
First-person narratives are becoming a popular means to communicate health risk information. Although studies show they can increase risk perception and motivate health behaviours compared to statistical messages, more research on the conditions in which they are particularly likely to have effects is needed. In this study, we tested a moderator related to how information is processed. Specifically, we hypothesised that thinking in terms of emotions and personal experiences - known as experiential information processing - would increase people's responsiveness to a narrative. Female college students (N = 138) who reported indoor tanning were randomly assigned to read a first-person narrative message or a statistical message about the risks of skin cancer. Prior to reading the message, the women received instructions that would activate either experiential or rational information processing. Participants then reported their risk perceptions of skin cancer, worry about skin cancer and behaviour intentions related to skin cancer. Analyses showed that message type and information processing interacted to influence risk perceptions and worry. Consistent with hypotheses, participants reported the highest risk perception and worry when they used an experiential information system prior to reading the narrative message. There were no effects on behaviour intentions. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Cates, Joan R; Francis, Diane B; Ramirez, Catalina; Brown, Jane D; Schoenbach, Victor J; Fortune, Thierry; Powell Hammond, Wizdom; Adimora, Adaora A
In the United States, heterosexual transmission of HIV infection is dramatically higher among Blacks than among Whites. Overlapping (concurrent) sexual partnerships promote HIV transmission. The authors describe their process for developing a radio campaign (Escape the Web) to raise awareness among 18-34-year-old Black adults of the effect of concurrency on HIV transmission in the rural South. Radio is a powerful channel for the delivery of narrative-style health messages. Through six focus groups (n = 51) and 42 intercept interviews, the authors explored attitudes toward concurrency and solicited feedback on sample messages. Men were advised to (a) end concurrent partnerships and not to begin new ones; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. The narrative portrayed risky behaviors that trigger initiation of casual partnerships. Women were advised to (a) end partnerships in which they are not their partner's only partner; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. Messages for all advised better modeling for children.
This study adds to the knowledge on smoking behavior among college students. Preliminary evidence indicates that text message-based motivational interviewing and smoking cessation self-efficacy may help guide successful smoking behavior interventions for college students.
Full Text Available BackgroundThe human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination percentage among age-eligible girls in Japan is only in the single digits. This signals the need for effective vaccine communication tactics. This study aimed to examine the influence of statistical data and narrative HPV vaccination recommendation massages on recipients’ vaccination intentions.MethodsThis randomized controlled study covered 1,432 mothers who had daughters aged 12–16 years. It compared message persuasiveness among four conditions: statistical messages only; narrative messages of a patient who experienced cervical cancer, in addition to statistical messages; narrative messages of a mother whose daughter experienced cervical cancer, in addition to statistical messages; and a control. Vaccination intentions to have one’s daughter(s receive the HPV vaccine before and after reading intervention materials were assessed. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of variance with Tukey’s test or Games–Howell post hoc test, and analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction.ResultsVaccination intentions after intervention in the three intervention conditions were higher than the control condition (p < 0.001. A mother’s narrative messages in addition to statistical messages increased HPV vaccination intention the most of all tested intervention conditions. A significant difference in the estimated means of intention with the covariate adjustment for baseline value (i.e., intention before intervention was found between a mother’s narrative messages in addition to statistical messages and statistical messages only (p = 0.040.DiscussionMothers’ narrative messages may be persuasive when targeting mothers for promoting HPV vaccination. This may be because mothers can easily relate to and identify with communications from other mothers. However, for effective HPV vaccine communication, further studies are needed to understand more about persuasive
The purpose of this study is to assess issues that arise in the context of epistemological claims in narrative educational research by means of narrative analysis and epistemological evaluation. The research questions which guided the study were: 1) To what extent is epistemology considered by narrative educational researchers?; 2) What issues do…
Full Text Available Is “online de-radicalization” possible? Given the two growing phenomena of “online radicalization” and “behavioral/ideological/organizational de-radicalization,” this article outlines a broad strategy for countering the narratives of violent extremists. It argues that an effective counter-narrative should be built on three pillars. The first is an effective comprehensive message that dismantles and counter-argues against every dimension of the extremist narrative, namely the theological, political, historical, instrumental and socio-psychological dimensions. The second pillar is the messengers. The article argues that for the first time in the history of Jihadism a “critical mass” of former militants, who rebelled not only against the current behaviour of their former colleagues but also against the ideology supporting it, has come into existence. This “critical mass” can constitute the core of credible messengers, especially the few de-radicalized individuals and groups that still maintain influence and respect among vulnerable communities. The third pillar is the dissemination and attraction strategy of the counter-narratives(s which focuses on the role of the media. The author of the article outlines a broad framework, which is a part of a UN-sponsored, comprehensive research project on countering the extremists narrative.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many physicians find sickness certification tasks problematic. There is some knowledge about situations that are experienced as problematic, whereas less is understood about how physicians respond to the problems they face. One way to acquire such knowledge is to consider "reflection-in-action", aspects of which are expressed in the physician's interpretation of the patient's story. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the meaning content of case reports about problematic sickness certification. Specifically, we looked for possible messages to the colleagues intended to read the reports. Methods A narrative approach was used to analyse reports about problematic sickness certification cases that had been written by GPs and occupational health service physicians as part of a sickness insurance course. The analysis included elements from both thematic and structural analysis. Nineteen case reports were used in the actual analysis and 25 in the validation of the results. Main narrative qualities and structural features of the written case reports were explored. Results Five types of messages were identified in the case reports, here classified as "a call for help", "a call for understanding", "hidden worries", "in my opinion", and "appearing neutral". In the reports, the physicians tried to achieve neutrality in their writing, and the patients' stories tended to be interpreted within a traditional biomedical framework. In some cases there was an open request for help, in others it was not obvious that the physician had any problems. Overall, the messages were about having problems as such, rather than the specific features of the problems. Conclusions The case reports clearly demonstrated different ways of writing about problems that arise during sickness certification, from being neutral and not mentioning the problems to being emotionally involved and asking for help. The general character of the messages suggests
Kannisto, Kati Anneli; Koivunen, Marita Hannele; Välimäki, Maritta Anneli
Mobile text messages are a widely recognized communication method in societies, as the global penetration of the technology approaches 100% worldwide. Systematic knowledge is still lacking on how the mobile telephone text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been used in health care services. This study aims to review the literature on the use of mobile phone text message reminders in health care. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies on mobile telephone text message reminders. The data sources used were PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, Proquest Databases/ PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and hand searching since 2003. Studies reporting the use of SMS intended to remind patients in health services were included. Given the heterogeneity in the studies, descriptive characteristics, purpose of the study, response rates, description of the intervention, dose and timing, instruments, outcome measures, and outcome data from the studies were synthesized using a narrative approach. From 911 initial citations, 60 studies were included in the review. The studies reported a variety of use for SMS. Mobile telephone text message reminders were used as the only intervention in 73% (44/60) of the studies, and in 27% (16/60) of the remaining studies, SMS was connected to another comprehensive health intervention system. SMS reminders were sent to different patient groups: patients with HIV/AIDS (15%, 9/60) and diabetes (13%, 8/60) being the most common groups. The response rates of the studies varied from 22-100%. Typically, the text message reminders were sent daily. The time before the specific intervention to be rendered varied from 10 minutes (eg, medication taken) to 2 weeks (eg, scheduled appointment). A wide range of different evaluation methods and outcomes were used to assess the impact of SMS varying from existing databases (eg, attendance rate based on medical records), questionnaires, and physiological measures. About three quarters of the
Full Text Available In using the solicited diaries to access the everyday ways in which self-identified lesbians and gay men are made aware of their sexuality, this paper considers the role of solicited diaries combined with diary interviews. Furthermore it draws on empirical evidence to argue that a diary interview provides a richer, deeper and contextual understanding of the documented experiences. The paper reflects on the participants' experiences of keeping the solicited diary, the narratives produced through the solicited diaries and heterosexism as one the main themes to emerge from the solicited diaries and diary interview analysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002160
Voorwinden, Jan S; Buitenhuis, Anne H; Birnie, Erwin; Lucassen, Anneke M; Verkerk, Marian A; van Langen, Irene M; Plantinga, Mirjam; Ranchor, Adelita V
Next-generation sequencing enabled us to create a population-based expanded carrier screening (ECS) test that simultaneously tests for 50 serious autosomal recessive diseases. Before offering this test universally, we wanted to know what factors are related to intended participation and how the general public can be informed about the test without being influenced in their intention to participate. We studied this by measuring to what extent 'message framing' and 'narrative information' can influence people's intended participation. Data were collected by means of an online survey of 504 potential users, and the factors examined were based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and on previous research on intended participation in preconception carrier screening. Message framing was manipulated by explaining the risk of couple carriership in different ways, while narrative information was provided to only half of the respondents. The factors most positively related to intended participation were perceiving benefits of the screening, having a positive attitude towards the screening, having no religion, having an actual child wish and experiencing the choice to participate as easy. Perceived benefits and a positive attitude were most influential factors by far. Message framing and narrative information had no significant effect on intended participation, reinforcing that message framing and narrative information can help to inform the general public about ECS without influencing their intended participation. Future research should study if the importance of perceived benefits and a positive attitude can be replicated when other factors are included and when actual participation is measured instead of intended participation.
Oshman, Lauren D; Combs, Gene N
Motivational interviewing is a useful skill to address the common problem of patient ambivalence regarding behavior change by uncovering and strengthening a person's own motivation and commitment to change. The Family Medicine Milestones underline the need for clear teaching and monitoring of skills in communication and behavior change in Family Medicine postgraduate training settings. This article reports the integration of a motivational interviewing curriculum into an existing longitudinal narrative therapy-based curriculum on patient-centered communication. Observed structured clinical examination for six participants indicate that intern physicians are able to demonstrate moderate motivational interviewing skill after a brief 2-h workshop. Participant self-evaluations for 16 participants suggest a brief 2-h curriculum was helpful at increasing importance of learning motivational interviewing by participants, and that participants desire further training opportunities. A brief motivational interviewing curriculum can be integrated into existing communication training in a Family Medicine residency training program. © The Author(s) 2016.
Malone, Mary; Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah; Ezhova, Ivanka; Maben, Jill
This paper draws on a narrative review of the literature, commissioned to support the Health Visitor Implementation Plan, and aimed at identifying messages about the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by health visitors to work within the current system of health care provision. The scoping study and narrative review used three complementary approaches: a broad search, a structured search, and a seminal paper search to identify empirical papers from the health visitor literature for review. The key inclusion criteria were messages of relevance for practice. 378 papers were reviewed. These included empirical papers from the United Kingdom (UK) from 2004 to February 2012, older research identified in the seminal paper search and international literature from 2000 to January 2016. The review papers were read by members of the multidisciplinary research team which included health visitor academics, social scientists, and a clinical psychologist managed the international literature. Thematic content analysis was used to identify main messages. These were tabulated and shared between researchers in order to compare emergent findings and to confirm dominant themes. The analysis identified an 'orientation to practice' based on salutogenesis (health creation), human valuing (person-centred care), and viewing the person in situation (human ecology) as the aspirational core of health visitors' work. This was realised through home visiting, needs assessment, and relationship formation at different levels of service provision. A wide range of knowledge, skills, and abilities were required, including knowledge of health as a process and skills in engagement, building trust, and making professional judgments. These are currently difficult to impart within a 45week health visitor programme and are facilitated through ad hoc post-registration education and training. The international literature reported both similarities and differences between the working practices of health
Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Pearson, Erin; Andersen, Kathryn; Hossain, Altaf; Footman, Katharine; Biswas, Kamal Kanti; Nuremowla, Sadid; Reiss, Kate
Abortions are restricted in Bangladesh, but menstrual regulation is an approved alternative, defined as a procedure of regulating the menstrual cycle when menstruation is absent for a short duration. Use of contraception after menstrual regulation can reduce subsequent unintended pregnancy, but in Bangladesh, the contraceptive method mix is dominated by short-term methods, which have higher discontinuation and failure rates. Mobile phones are a channel via which menstrual regulation clients could be offered contraceptive support after leaving the clinic. This study aimed to support the development of a mobile phone intervention to support postmenstrual regulation family planning use in Bangladesh. It explored what family planning information women want to receive after having a menstrual regulation procedure, whether they would like to receive this information via their mobile phone, and if so, what their preferences are for the way in which it is delivered. We conducted participatory interviews with 24 menstrual regulation clients in Dhaka and Sylhet divisions in Bangladesh. Women were recruited from facilities in urban and peri-urban areas, which included public sector clinics supported by Ipas, an international nongovernmental organization (NGO), and NGO clinics run by Marie Stopes. Main themes covered in the interviews were factors affecting the use of contraception, what information and support women want after their menstrual regulation procedure, how respondents would prefer to receive information about contraception, and other key issues for mobile health (mHealth) interventions, such as language and privacy. As part of the in-depth interviews, women were shown and played 6 different messages about contraception on the research assistant's phone, which they were given to operate, and were then asked to give feedback. Women were open to both receiving messages about family planning methods on their mobile phones and talking to a counselor about family
Occa, Aurora; Suggs, L Suzanne
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Mortality from breast cancer can be reduced if the cancer is detected early enough. It is important to find effective communication that encourages early detection of breast cancer. This study aimed to measure differences between narrative and didactic communication on breast cancer awareness, knowledge of appropriate diagnostic exams, attitude toward breast self-exam, and intention to screen for breast cancer through a breast self-exam. It further aimed to test whether any differences in outcomes were associated with the format used to deliver the communication: video or infographic. The effects of the communication strategies were tested using an experimental design with a control group and four experimental groups: narrative video, didactic video, narrative infographic, or didactic infographic. A total of 194 Italian-speaking women ages 18-30 years completed questionnaires before and after exposure. Positive increases were found for all outcome variables after exposure to any communication strategy tested. The didactic message delivered in video format had the most positive effect on awareness and knowledge, whereas the narrative video message had the most positive effect on attitude and intention. For both message types, videos had a more positive influence than infographics when communicating breast cancer information for this audience. This was the first study of message effects of breast cancer communication with Italian-speaking young women. Further research is warranted to understand how to maximize communication strategies so that they are the most effective in influencing behaviors and if these results are consistent with other linguistic populations.
Carbone, Elena T; Campbell, Marci K; Honess-Morreale, Lauren
The effectiveness of dietary surveys and educational messages is dependent in part on how well the target audience's information processing needs and abilities are addressed. Use of pilot testing is helpful; however, problems with wording and language are often not revealed. Cognitive interview techniques offer 1 approach to assist dietitians in understanding how audiences process information. With this method, respondents are led through a survey or message and asked to paraphrase items; discuss thoughts, feelings, and ideas that come to mind; and suggest alternative wording. As part of a US Department of Agriculture-funded nutrition education project, 23 cognitive interviews were conducted among technical community college students in North Carolina. Interview findings informed the development of tailored computer messages and survey questions. Better understanding of respondents' cognitive processes significantly improved the language and approach used in this intervention. Interview data indicated 4 problem areas: vague or ineffective instructions, confusing questions and response options, variable interpretation of terms, and misinterpretation of dietary recommendations. Interviews also provided insight into the meaning of diet-related stages of change. These findings concur with previous research suggesting that cognitive interview techniques are a valuable tool in the formative evaluation and development of nutrition surveys and materials.
Sontag, Jennah M; Barnes, Spencer R
Visual framing can improve health-message effectiveness. Narrative structure provides a template needed for determining how to frame visuals to maximise message effectiveness. Participants (N = 190) were assigned to a message condition determined by segments (establisher, initial, peak), graphic (static, animated) and cancer (lung, melanoma). ANOVAs revealed that melanoma was more believable than lung cancer with static graphics at the establisher and peak; narratives were more believable with animated graphics at the peak segment; melanoma elicited greater positive attitudes; graphics in the peak influenced greatest intentions. Animated graphics visually framed to emphasise information at the establisher and peak segments suggest maximum effectiveness.
Michelle L Patterson PhD, RPsych
Full Text Available Underlying the daily lives of people with experiences of homelessness and mental illness is a complex interplay of individual and structural factors that perpetuate cycles of inequity. The introduction of novel methodological combinations within qualitative research has the potential to advance knowledge regarding the experience of health equity by such individuals and to clarify the relationship between these experiences and broader structural inequities. To explore the lived experience of inequity, we present a thematic analysis of narrative interviews in conjunction with timelines from 31 adults experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Use of these methods together enabled a novel and expanded appreciation for the varied ways in which differential access to the social determinants of health influences the trajectories and experiences of inequity for people who are homeless and mentally ill. The further utility of these methods for better understanding the experience of inequity is explored and implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness of text messaging-based programs to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people. Results: Two published studies on text message-based programs for the reduction of problem drinking and two studies on programs for enhancing smoking cessation were identified. A US-American pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of a text messaging-based assessment and brief intervention among young adults identified during their emergency department visit with hazardous drinking. It demonstrated the feasibility of the text messaging-based program to collect drinking data in young adults after emergency department discharge. A Swiss pre–post study tested the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored web- and text messaging (SMS-based program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. It provided evidence for the appropriateness of the intervention and initial evidence for its efficacy to reduce problem drinking. One of the two studies addressing smoking cessation was a US-American pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited via online advertisements and received text messages tailored according to their quitting stage. The intervention significantly affected self-reported quitting rates at 4 weeks but not at 3 months after the quit date. Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Switzerland, smoking students were proactively recruited within vocational
Full Text Available This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1 anonymity, 2 endless narrative, and 3 socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based multiplayer environments. More specifically, they explore how the three factors (i.e., anonymity; endless narrative; socialization relate to the prolonged and extended use within these virtual communities and highlight the multifaceted uses of traditional chat services, social media, and the convergence of media existing within these chat communities.
Saint Arnault, Denise M
Gender-based violence (GBV), characterized by the abduction or rape of women and girls to humiliate, intimidate, and traumatize them and their communities, is a profoundly disturbing tactic in international conflict. Long after armed conflict has ended, survivors continue to experience physical injuries, psychological trauma, and social and cultural stigma. Guilt, shame, and continued interpersonal violence can become a normalized part of daily life, significantly challenging the road to healing and recovery. Research about self-disclosure and narrative after GBV has shown that help seeking rates are shockingly low, with estimates ranging from 4-27%. From a feminist and a humanistic perspective, studying trauma history and related help seeking is delicate work that must use interview processes that ensure the survivor can tell her story without revictimization, while also aiming to restore personal mastery, empowerment, and self-understanding. Based on theories about benefits and challenges of the narrative after GBV and trauma, we propose that the Clinical Ethnographic Narrative Interview (CENI) allows researchers and practitioners a safe container to examine the complex interplay between suffering, culture, and help seeking. Using this interview, the interviewer and the participant work as partners to define, compare, and contrast the socio-cultural barriers and facilitators of help seeking. This paper explains the narrative theory and the challenges and benefits of the narrative approach after trauma. Then we provide support for the use of the CENI for an understanding of the help seeking process and facilitating a health-promoting narrative interview for survivors. We then address implications for research, practice, and policy.
The paper explores how computer-mediated communication offers space for academics to think and make sense of their experiences in the qualitative research encounter. It draws on a research study that used email interviewing to generate online narratives to understand academic lives and identities through research encounters in virtual space. The…
Tan, Eloise; Lefebvre, Haidee Smith
Through a qualitative approach of narrative inquiry, this paper examines how Quebec's distinct society identity interacted with objectives of a Multicultural Education course in Montreal. The authors, one of whom was a teaching assistant in the course and the other a student in the course, interviewed seven students and the professor. The…
Tan, Ziying; Liu, Xingyun; Liu, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Qijin; Zhu, Tingshao
While Web-based interventions can be efficacious, engaging a target population's attention remains challenging. We argue that strategies to draw such a population's attention should be tailored to meet its needs. Increasing user engagement in online suicide intervention development requires feedback from this group to prevent people who have suicide ideation from seeking treatment. The goal of this study was to solicit feedback on the acceptability of the content of messaging from social media users with suicide ideation. To overcome the common concern of lack of engagement in online interventions and to ensure effective learning from the message, this research employs a customized design of both content and length of the message. In study 1, 17 participants suffering from suicide ideation were recruited. The first (n=8) group conversed with a professional suicide intervention doctor about its attitudes and suggestions for a direct message intervention. To ensure the reliability and consistency of the result, an identical interview was conducted for the second group (n=9). Based on the collected data, questionnaires about this intervention were formed. Study 2 recruited 4222 microblog users with suicide ideation via the Internet. The results of the group interviews in study 1 yielded little difference regarding the interview results; this difference may relate to the 2 groups' varied perceptions of direct message design. However, most participants reported that they would be most drawn to an intervention where they knew that the account was reliable. Out of 4222 microblog users, we received responses from 725 with completed questionnaires; 78.62% (570/725) participants were not opposed to online suicide intervention and they valued the link for extra suicide intervention information as long as the account appeared to be trustworthy. Their attitudes toward the intervention and the account were similar to those from study 1, and 3 important elements were found
Over the last fifty years there has been much discussion about the value of narrative in the production of historical knowledge whereby it is generally assumed that “narrative” is a given and that the only thing at issue is its epistemological value. This article critically examines this
Davis, Rachel E; Dal Cin, Sonya; Cole, Suzanne M; Reyes, Ligia I; McKenney-Shubert, Shannon J; Fleischer, Nancy L; Densen, Lynna Chung; Peterson, Karen E
Additional research is needed to guide the design of narratives for use in practice-oriented, naturalistic settings to maximize health behavior change, particularly among populations affected by health disparities. This mixed-methods study explored the influence of cultural tailoring and emotional arousal on identification and message recall in narratives promoting childhood obesity prevention among 40 Mexican American mothers. Participants were also asked about narrative exposure, narrative preferences, and beliefs about the purpose of a story. Participants were randomly assigned to listen to two stories: (a) a story tailored on noncultural or cultural variables, and (b) a story designed to enhance or minimize emotional arousal. Participants reported high engagement and identification with all stories. Participants generally envisioned protagonists as Latina, despite limited cues, and identified with protagonists in four ways: sharing personal characteristics; having similar thoughts and feelings; engaging in similar actions; and experiencing similar situations. Mothers were most interested in narratives that helped them to improve their lives. Findings from this study yield several hypotheses for consideration in future study, including ways in which story setting and message enactment may moderate message recall.
Sharifi, Mona; Dryden, Eileen M; Horan, Christine M; Price, Sarah; Marshall, Richard; Hacker, Karen; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Taveras, Elsie M
Text messaging (short message service, SMS) is a widely accessible and potentially cost-effective medium for encouraging behavior change. Few studies have examined text messaging interventions to influence child health behaviors or explored parental perceptions of mobile technologies to support behavior change among children. Our aim was to examine parental acceptability and preferences for text messaging to support pediatric obesity-related behavior change. We conducted focus groups and follow-up interviews with parents of overweight and obese children, aged 6-12 years, seen for "well-child" care in eastern Massachusetts. A professional moderator used a semistructured discussion guide and sample text messages to catalyze group discussions. Seven participants then received 3 weeks of text messages before a follow-up one-on-one telephone interview. All focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using a framework analysis approach, we systematically coded and analyzed group and interview data to identify salient and convergent themes. We reached thematic saturation after five focus groups and seven follow-up interviews with a total of 31 parents of diverse race/ethnicity and education levels. Parents were generally enthusiastic about receiving text messages to support healthy behaviors for their children and preferred them to paper or email communication because they are brief and difficult to ignore. Participants anticipated high responsiveness to messaging endorsed by their child's doctor and indicated they would appreciate messages 2-3 times/week or more as long as content remains relevant. Suggestions for maintaining message relevance included providing specific strategies for implementation and personalizing information. Most felt the negative features of text messaging (eg, limited message size) could be overcome by providing links within messages to other media including email or websites. Text messaging is a promising medium for
Full Text Available This paper examines the narration of developmental disability through interviews between participants, researchers, and members of community organizations serving the disabled population, in the context of university-community collaborations. These kinds of collaborations are extremely important for researching vulnerable or hard-to-reach populations, which often face lower levels of physical, mental, and social well-being as a consequence of shame, stigma, or discrimination. Community collaboration can thus be invaluable for reaching members of marginalized populations, who may be difficult to locate or otherwise avoid contact with outsiders, because it provides members of a research team with local knowledge of a population, a means of accessing possible participants, and legitimation for the project. I suggest, however, that although the researcher's externality may initially invite skepticism toward the investigation from participants, it can also benefit them by providing a forum for catharsis. Based on a pilot study I conducted with a community advocacy organization for the disabled, I note that some participants expressed an appreciation for being able to discuss certain emotions and experiences during interviews with an outsider who was not involved as a caseworker. I conclude that the presence of a trusted community advocate and a researcher at an interview affects a participant's narrative by providing a safe space for participants to voice their stories to outsiders.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA, the process of interviewing a deceased’s family or caregiver about signs and symptoms leading up to death, employs tools that ask a series of closed questions and can include an open narrative where respondents give an unprompted account of events preceding death. The extent to which an individual interviewer, who generally does not interpret the data, affects the quality of this data, and therefore the assigned cause of death, is poorly documented. We aimed to examine inter-interviewer reliability of open narrative and closed question data gathered during VA interviews. Methods During the introduction of VA data collection, as part of a larger study in Mchinji district, Malawi, we conducted partner interviews whereby two interviewers independently recorded open narrative and closed questions during the same interview. Closed questions were collected using a smartphone application (mobile-InterVA and open narratives using pen and paper. We used mixed methods of analysis to evaluate the differences between recorded responses to open narratives and closed questions, causes of death assigned, and additional information gathered by open narrative. Results Eighteen partner interviews were conducted, with complete data for 11 pairs. Comparing closed questions between interviewers, the median number of differences was 1 (IQR: 0.5–3.5 of an average 65 answered; mean inter-interviewer concordance was 92 % (IQR: 92–99 %. Discrepancies in open narratives were summarized in five categories: demographics, history and care-seeking, diagnoses and symptoms, treatment and cultural. Most discrepancies were seen in the reporting of diagnoses and symptoms (e.g., malaria diagnosis; only one pair demonstrated no clear differences. The average number of clinical symptoms reported was 9 in open narratives and 20 in the closed questions. Open narratives contained additional information on health seeking and social issues
Association du personnel
New column in ECHO The editorial team would like to give the âﾜpeople at CERNâ the chance to have their say. Through regular interviews, it wishes to highlight the particularities of those who help CERN remain a centre of excellence.
Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend
Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....
North, Carol S; Wohlford, Sarah E; Dean, Denis J; Black, Melissa; Balfour, Margaret E; Petrovich, James C; Downs, Dana L; Pollio, David E
Tracking the movements of homeless populations presents methodological difficulties, but understanding their movements in space and time is needed to inform optimal placement of services. This pilot study developed, tested, and refined methods to apply global positioning systems (GPS) technology paired with individual narratives to chronicle the movements of homeless populations. Detail of methods development and difficulties encountered and addressed, and geospatial findings are provided. A pilot sample of 29 adults was recruited from a low-demand homeless shelter in the downtown area of Fort Worth, Texas. Pre- and post-deployment interviews provided participant characteristics and planned and retrospectively-reported travels. Only one of the first eight deployments returned with sufficient usable data. Ultimately 19 participants returned the GPS device with >20 h of usable data. Protocol adjustments addressing methodological difficulties achieved 81 % of subsequent participants returning with sufficient usable data. This study established methods and demonstrated feasibility for tracking homeless population travels.
Murphy, Sheila T; Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Moran, Meghan B; Zhao, Nan; Amezola de Herrera, Paula; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes A
We compared the relative efficacy of a fictional narrative film to a more traditional nonnarrative film in conveying the same health information. We used a random digit dial procedure to survey the cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, living in Los Angeles, California, from 2011 to 2012. Participants (n = 704) were randomly assigned to view either a narrative or nonnarrative film containing the same information about how cervical cancer could be prevented or detected, and they were re-contacted 2 weeks and 6 months later. At 2 weeks, both films produced a significant increase in cervical cancer-related knowledge and attitudes, but these effects were significantly higher for the narrative film. At 6 months, viewers of both films retained greater than baseline knowledge and more positive attitudes toward Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, but women who saw the narrative were significantly more likely to have had or scheduled a Pap test. The narrative was particularly effective for Mexican American women, eliminating cervical cancer screening disparities found at baseline. Narratives might prove to be a useful tool for reducing health disparities.
Interactive weekly mobile phone text messaging plus motivational interviewing in promotion of breastfeeding among women living with HIV in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Zunza, Moleen; Cotton, Mark F; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Lester, Richard; Thabane, Lehana
South Africa recently phased out access to free formula milk in the public sector in support of breastfeeding for women living with HIV. Few women living with HIV in South Africa choose breastfeeding and among those who do, many stop breastfeeding early. We sought to explore the feasibility of using mobile phone text messaging coupled with motivational interviewing to enhance adherence to breastfeeding practices. A randomized, parallel group, single-center pilot trial. Electronic sequence generation and random allocation will be done centrally. Women of low socioeconomic status, from Cape Town, South Africa will be randomly assigned within 24 h of giving birth at a primary healthcare clinic to a structured weekly text message plus motivational interviewing and usual standard of care, using a permutation of different block sizes. Criteria for feasibility success will include: five participants recruited per week (over 12 weeks), about 75% of all eligible participants consent for study participation, complete evaluation of outcomes in at least 70% of all recruited participants, breastfeeding adherence rates of at least 70% in the intervention group, six months after delivery. Participants will be evaluated soon after giving birth and post-delivery at weeks 2, 6, 10, and 24. Primary analysis will follow the "intention-to-treat" principle. Sub-group analysis will be used to assess sub-group effects. This pilot trial will evaluate the feasibility of conducting a larger trial on communication and support approaches to improve adherence to breastfeeding by HIV-infected women. Text messaging and motivational interviewing are simple interventions which may allow participants to access personalized adherence advice and support. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02949713 . Registered on 26 October 2016; Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201611001855404 . Registered on 8 November 2016.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of diagnostic assessment on improving students’ proficiency in narrating past events, an Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI Level 2 task. It found that students who were given a personalized learning plan subsequent to the diagnostic assessment interview significantly improved their proficiency in basic sentence structures than those in a control group. They used a significantly larger number of cohesive devices as compared to the control group and exhibited significantly increased accuracy in using cohesive devices than a control group. The students in the treatment group worked on the recommended activities based on the data gathered during the diagnostic assessment interview and the pre-interview questionnaires, i.e., the E & L, MBTI, and Barsch. The students in the control group spent the same amount of time reading narrations, doing comprehension exercise,s and following standard teacher feedback for improvement. Although both groups showed increases in accurate use of cohesive devices and proficiency in basic sentence structures, the treatment students showed significantly greater gains than the control students.
Tsuchiya, Tomoko; Kosugi, Motoko; Senda, Yasuko; Takada, Kaori; Iwatsuki, Akihito; Tamagawa, Hiromi
In this paper, we focus on the kind of information the nuclear industry should provide for the general public to understand and trust in the plan of plutonium utilization for mixed-oxide fuel in light water reactors, i.e., Pu thermal utilization. We conducted an interview survey for 30 people who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area to analyze what they know and how they feel about Pu thermal utilization, and to compare three information materials based on their subjective evaluation of the degree of understanding, trust and so on. The content analysis of interviewees' comments regarding Pu thermal utilization shows that they have vague but correct knowledge, that is, 'Pu thermal utilization is to recycle nuclear fuel or nuclear waste.' However, people do not have background information concerning the necessity of Pu utilization, such as the resource limitation of uranium. According to the comparative analysis of the three materials, a material that presents the necessity and usefulness of Pu thermal utilization using figures and graphs was evaluated most understandable, informative, trustful, and persuasive. The material including information of risk was evaluated more informative, but the evaluation of trust indicated a divided opinion. People who feel anxiety about nuclear power generation evaluated the material including risk messages more trustful than other materials. Others evaluated it less trustful because the risk management of Pu thermal utilization and the process to solve remaining problems, such as HLW disposal, are uncertain. (author)
Key Ingredients-Target Groups, Methods and Messages, and Evaluation-of Local-Level, Public Interventions to Counter Stigma and Discrimination: A Lived Experience Informed Selective Narrative Literature Review.
Ashton, Laura J; Gordon, Sarah E; Reeves, Racheal A
A proliferation of recent literature provides substantial direction as to the key ingredients-target groups, messages and methods, and evaluation-of local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination. This paper provides a selective narrative review of that literature from the perspective or standpoint of anti-stigma experts with lived experience of mental distress, the key findings of which have been synthesised and presented in diagrammatic overviews (infographics). These are intended to guide providers in planning, delivering and evaluating lived experience-directed local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination in accord with current best practice.
Burgess, Diana J; Bokhour, Barbara G; Cunningham, Brooke A; Do, Tam; Gordon, Howard S; Jones, Dina M; Pope, Charlene; Saha, Somnath; Gollust, Sarah E
We used qualitative methods (semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers) to explore: 1) the role of narratives as a vehicle for raising awareness and engaging providers about the issue of healthcare disparities and 2) the extent to which different ways of framing issues of race within narratives might lead to message acceptance for providers' whose preexisting beliefs about causal attributions might predispose them to resist communication about racial healthcare disparities. Individual interviews were conducted with 53 providers who had completed a prior survey assessing beliefs about disparities. Participants were stratified by the degree to which they believed providers contributed to healthcare inequality: low provider attribution (LPA) versus high provider attribution (HPA). Each participant read and discussed two differently framed narratives about race in healthcare. All participants accepted the "Provider Success" narratives, in which interpersonal barriers involving a patient of color were successfully resolved by the provider narrator, through patient-centered communication. By contrast, "Persistent Racism" narratives, in which problems faced by the patient of color were more explicitly linked to racism and remained unresolved, were very polarizing, eliciting acceptance from HPA participants and resistance from LPA participants. This study provides a foundation for and raises questions about how to develop effective narrative communication strategies to engage providers in efforts to reduce healthcare disparities.
Full Text Available The article presents the different types of narratives in marketing communications. Presented essence of thesignr in the narrative, the power of myth, power of archetype and consistency of monomith in marketing. It is discussed on the advertising message perceived through the prism of commercial semiotics. The strength of the narrative is presented in the context of storytelling. The paper also presents a case study of marketing communications.
Goddu, Anna P.; Raffel, Katie E.; Peek, Monica E.
Objective To understand if narratives can be effective tools for diabetes empowerment, from the perspective of African-American participants in a program that improved diabetes self-efficacy and self-management. Methods In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with program graduates. Participants were asked to comment on the program's film, storytelling, and role-play, and whether those narratives had contributed to their diabetes behavior change. An iterative process of coding, analyzing, and summarizing transcripts was completed using the framework approach. Results African-American adults (n = 36) with diabetes reported that narratives positively influenced the diabetes behavior change they had experienced by improving their attitudes/beliefs while increasing their knowledge/skills. The social proliferation of narrative – discussing stories, rehearsing their messages with role-play, and building social support through storytelling – was reported as especially influential. Conclusion Utilizing narratives in group settings may facilitate health behavior change, particularly in minority communities with traditions of storytelling. Theoretical models explaining narrative's effect on behavior change should consider the social context of narratives. Practice implications Narratives may be promising tools to promote diabetes empowerment. Interventions using narratives may be more effective if they include group time to discuss and rehearse the stories presented, and if they foster an environment conducive to social support among participants. PMID:25986500
Goddu, Anna P; Raffel, Katie E; Peek, Monica E
To understand if narratives can be effective tools for diabetes empowerment, from the perspective of African-American participants in a program that improved diabetes self-efficacy and self-management. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with program graduates. Participants were asked to comment on the program's film, storytelling, and role-play, and whether those narratives had contributed to their diabetes behavior change. An iterative process of coding, analyzing, and summarizing transcripts was completed using the framework approach. African-American adults (n=36) with diabetes reported that narratives positively influenced the diabetes behavior change they had experienced by improving their attitudes/beliefs while increasing their knowledge/skills. The social proliferation of narrative - discussing stories, rehearsing their messages with role-play, and building social support through storytelling - was reported as especially influential. Utilizing narratives in group settings may facilitate health behavior change, particularly in minority communities with traditions of storytelling. Theoretical models explaining narrative's effect on behavior change should consider the social context of narratives. Narratives may be promising tools to promote diabetes empowerment. Interventions using narratives may be more effective if they include group time to discuss and rehearse the stories presented, and if they foster an environment conducive to social support among participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This Research Paper examines the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Unit’s (PMU messaging on the organisation’s website and social media platforms through early January 2017 to develop a more nuanced understanding of the PMU’s outlook, both present and future. After providing an overview of the PMU’s media presence online, the paper discusses how the organisation promotes its core narrative: that it is a cross-confessional and patriotic force for the defence of all Iraqis against a brutal and evil IS. The paper then addresses the PMU’s use of messaging to refute the sectarian portrayal of the organisation in some quarters before turning to the way the PMU approaches regional and international states in its media. Finally, the paper summarises the PMU’s messaging strategy and discusses how this strategy implies a less threatening future for the organisation than is often anticipated.
Amadasi, Sara; Holliday, Adrian
In an interview with a postgraduate student about her intercultural experience of recently arriving for study abroad, it was found that the two researchers and the student were engaged in a mutual exploration of cultural identity. The interview events became conversational and took the form of small culture formation on the go in which each…
Julie eDe Ganck
Full Text Available Most discussions of the social and interpersonal styles in individuals with strong psychopathic traits focus on their dangerousness or their affective and interpersonal deficiencies. This study has a different focus, and starts from the idea that such focus on the threat emanating from individuals with a psychopathic style might blind us from the logic inherent to their way of relating with the world. By means of a qualitative analysis (thematic analysis of narratives from a Lacanian talking therapy, this study examines how 15 youngsters with strong psychopathic traits make sense of interpersonal events and relations. The main recurring theme across these narratives was that others in general are fundamentally distrustful antagonists that they have to protect themselves from. Especially the father figure, with whom identification seems to take place, is seen as a violent actor. Consequently, these youngsters develop multiple strategies of dealing with the threat they experience in relation to (significant others. These relationship patterns also emerged within the therapeutic relationship, resulting in frequent testing of the therapist’s trustworthiness. The results of this study, discussed in terms of Lacanian theory, might help therapists to develop treatment approaches that better fit with the interpersonal orientation of individuals with strong psychopathic traits.
kapitlet omhandler Narrative psykologiske teorier i et personlighedspsykologisk og socio-kulturelt perspektiv.......kapitlet omhandler Narrative psykologiske teorier i et personlighedspsykologisk og socio-kulturelt perspektiv....
MacArtney, John; Malmström, Marlene; Overgaard Nielsen, Trine; Evans, Julie; Bernhardson, Britt-Marie; Hajdarevic, Senada; Chapple, Alison; Eriksson, Lars E; Locock, Louise; Rasmussen, Birgit; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Ziebland, Sue
To illuminate patterns observed in International Cancer Benchmarking Programme studies by extending understanding of the various influences on presentation and referral with cancer symptoms. Cross-country comparison of Denmark, England and Sweden with qualitative analysis of in-depth interview accounts of the prediagnostic process in lung or bowel cancer. 155 women and men, aged between 35 and 86 years old, diagnosed with lung or bowel cancer in 6 months before interview. Participants recruited through primary and secondary care, social media and word of mouth. Interviews collected by social scientists or nurse researchers during 2015, mainly in participants' homes. Participants reported difficulties in interpreting diffuse bodily sensations and symptoms and deciding when to consult. There were examples of swift referrals by primary care professionals in all three countries. In all countries, participants described difficulty deciding if and when to consult, highlighting concerns about access to general practitioner appointments and overstretched primary care services, although this appears less prominent in the Swedish data. It was not unusual for there to be more than one consultation before referral and we noted two distinct patterns of repeated consultation: (1) situations where the participant left the primary care consultation with a plan of action about what should happen next; (2) participants were unclear about under which conditions to return to the doctors. This second pattern sometimes extended over many weeks during which patients described uncertainty, and sometimes frustration, about if and when they should return and whether there were any other feasible investigations. The latter pattern appeared more evident in the interviews in England and Denmark than Sweden. We suggest that if clear action plans, as part of safety netting, were routinely used in primary care consultations then uncertainty, false reassurance and the inefficiency and distress
I denne power point gennem grundtrækkene i den narrative vending og der kommes med eksempler på narrative undervisningsformer.......I denne power point gennem grundtrækkene i den narrative vending og der kommes med eksempler på narrative undervisningsformer....
Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Shapiro, Michael A.; Porticella, Norman
Informed by theory and research on attributions and narrative persuasion, we compared the effectiveness of narrative and nonnarrative messages in changing attributions of responsibility for causes and solutions related to obesity in the United States. We randomly assigned 500 adults to view one of three messages (narrative, evidence, and a hybrid…
Geertz, Armin W.
Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...
Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan
Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)
Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Nissim, Geffen; Goldberg, Miriam
In this article, we present the use of illustrated metaphorical cards as a technique to enrich the qualitative narrative interview. We examine the advantages of incorporating a projective tool to assist in constructing and understanding personal narratives of people living with severe mental illness. We interviewed 25 participants-staff and members of a clubhouse in Israel (an international community model of rehabilitation in mental health)-and sought to understand their stories focused on personal and organizational values. The findings revealed that, in most cases, the cards contributed to data collection by enhancing the interviewees' ability for expression and by facilitating richer, more comprehensive stories and descriptions. This in turn enhanced the researcher's ability to understand the messages and stories presented. The research conclusions discuss the cards' potential contribution to improving data collection and analysis. The cards became an additional channel for expressing participants' experiences, emotions, and unique voice. © The Author(s) 2015.
Narrative coaching is representative of the new wave – or third generation – of coaching practice . The theory and practice of narrative coaching takes into account the social and cultural conditions of late modern society, and must be seen as intertwined with them. Some initial conceptualizations...... of narrative coaching were developed by David Drake (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) in the USA and Australia, by Ho Law in the UK (Law, 2007a + b; Law & Stelter, 2009) and by Reinhard Stelter (2007, 2009, 2012, in preparation; Stelter & Law, 2010) in Denmark. In the following chapter the aim is to present coaching...... as a narrative-collaborative practice, an approach that is based on phenomenology, social constructionism and narrative theory. Seeing narrative coaching as a collaborative practice also leads to reflecting on the relationship between coach and coachee(s) in a new way, where both parts contribute to the dialogue...
Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...
This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...
Driscoll, Mary C. [St. Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY(United States)
The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.
Dette pilotstudies ambition er at undersøge, hvordan og hvorfor narrative elementer lejlighedsvist aktiveres af aktører i deres kontakt med bibliotekarer i folkebiblioteker. Ved hjælp af en kulturanalytisk tilgang studeres forskellige aktørers narrative udvidelser af referenceinterviewet. Teoretisk....... Pilotstudiet bekræfter de 2 indledende antagelser: 1) at nogle aktører anvender narrative udvidelser, fordi de vælger at betone den mellemmenneskelige relation mellem aktør og bibliotekar, som om det var enhver anden social relation og derved ignorerer andre, mere repræsentative dele af bibliotekarernes...... funktioner. Og 2) at nogle aktører anvender narrative udvidelser i bestræbelserne på at legitimere egne sociale positioner og identitetsdannelse gennem kritisk refleksion over bibliotekarernes og folkebibliotekets institutionelle position og magt. Gennem den narrative udvidelse formår disse aktører...
Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J
We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.
Conroy, Sherrill A; Dobson, Stephen
Moods are one way of existentially reading the authenticity of people and are entwined within any narrative. Attunement between narrative and its mood is crucial for understanding the implicit message of the narrator. Sometimes, a master narrative is interrupted by counternarratives, so that narrative recognition becomes problematic. People can disguise their existential state when narrating, but the mood discloses it nonetheless. The authors explore the relationship between mood and narrative, and how the two are connected with how a person acts authentically or inauthentically. They provide selected empirical examples of narratives from medical students to support their argument. The educational relevance of their discussion comprises the final section. Educators in any educational program must first reflect on, then make explicit the manner in which narrative and mood are used to communicate knowledge.
Full Text Available Narrative journalism is a method to craft stories worth reading about real people. In this article, we explore the ability of that communicative power to produce insights complementary to those obtainable through traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods. With examples from a study of journalistic narrative as patient involvement in professional rehabilitation, interview data transcribed as stories are analyzed for qualities of heterogeneity, sensibility, transparency, and reflexivity. Building on sociological theories of thinking with stories, writing as inquiry, and public journalism as ethnography, we suggest that narrative journalism as a common practice might unfold dimensions of subjective otherness of the self. Aspiring to unite writing in both transparently confrontational and empathetically dialogic ways, the narrative journalistic method holds a potential to expose dynamics of power within the interview.
Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.
Kristiansen, Claus Krogholm
The dissertation deals with narrative as a cognitive structure - as a way of handling experience in the modern world. The question is: What is man when he is not created in god's image. Some recent scandinavian novels are analysed as examples.......The dissertation deals with narrative as a cognitive structure - as a way of handling experience in the modern world. The question is: What is man when he is not created in god's image. Some recent scandinavian novels are analysed as examples....
Nan, Xiaoli; Futerfas, Michelle; Ma, Zexin
In the context of public service advertisements promoting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, the current research examines 1) the relative persuasiveness of narrative vs. non-narrative messages and 2) the influence of narrative perspective (first- vs. third-person) and modality (text-based vs. audio-based) on message effectiveness. Results of a controlled experiment (N = 121) suggested that both a non-narrative message and a first-person narrative message led to greater perceived risk of getting HPV than a third-person narrative message. There was no difference in risk perception between the non-narrative and first-person narrative conditions. These findings were confined to the text-based condition, however. When the messages were audio-based, no differential message effects were detected. The analysis also provided partial evidence for an indirect effect of narrative perspective on intentions to vaccinate against HPV through HPV risk perception. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.
Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012
Wangberg, Silje C; Arsand, Eirik; Andersson, Niklas
Living with diabetes makes great educational demands on a family. We have tested the feasibility of using the mobile phone short message service (SMS) for reaching people with diabetes information. We also assessed user satisfaction and perceived pros and cons of the medium through interviews. Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes received messages for 11 weeks. The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages. Overall, the SMS seems to hold promise as means of delivering diabetes information.
Full Text Available The research work done by the author investigates a phenomenological field—the subjective experience of chronic illness and disability—by means of a specific research instrument, the autobiographical narrative interview. It focuses on the concept of narrative identity and its empirical substrate in the scientifically generated texts. Narrative identity is regarded as a situated, pragmatic, autoepistemic and interactive activity drawing on culturally transmitted narrative conventions which is performed within the research context. We have been working with a systematic analytic approach which covers interactive and contextual aspects of the interview situation as well as rhetoric and positioning strategies in the act of telling. Other research questions concern the concept of "narrative coping" and the comparison of partner's narratives on problems of illness and disability, especially on scrutinizing aspects of identity and alterity (self and other in the texts. This work can be understood as combining aspects of the research domains of narratology, identity and coping on the background of a qualitative methodology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002189
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... for life story research, it can also be used for ther types of studies where interviews are made....... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...
Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie
on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...... learning experience during which radical career decisions are taken, and how support structures may work to the detriment of such learning and of the principles behind flexicurity. The article points to a reconceptualisation of transitions as important learning opportunities during which (more) adequate...
Stepwise strategy to improve Cervical Cancer Screening Adherence (SCAN-CC): automated text messages, phone calls and face-to-face interviews: protocol of a population-based randomised controlled trial.
Firmino-Machado, João; Mendes, Romeu; Moreira, Amélia; Lunet, Nuno
Screening is highly effective for cervical cancer prevention and control. Population-based screening programmes are widely implemented in high-income countries, although adherence is often low. In Portugal, just over half of the women adhere to cervical cancer screening, contributing for greater mortality rates than in other European countries. The most effective adherence raising strategies are based on patient reminders, small/mass media and face-to-face educational programmes, but sequential interventions targeting the general population have seldom been evaluated. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a stepwise approach, with increasing complexity and cost, to improve adherence to organised cervical cancer screening: step 1a-customised text message invitation; step 1b-customised automated phone call invitation; step 2-secretary phone call; step 3-family health professional phone call and face-to-face appointment. A population-based randomised controlled trial will be implemented in Portuguese urban and rural areas. Women eligible for cervical cancer screening will be randomised (1:1) to intervention and control. In the intervention group, women will be invited for screening through text messages, automated phone calls, manual phone calls and health professional appointments, to be applied sequentially to participants remaining non-adherent after each step. Control will be the standard of care (written letter). The primary outcome is the proportion of women adherent to screening after step 1 or sequences of steps from 1 to 3. The secondary outcomes are: proportion of women screened after each step (1a, 2 and 3); proportion of text messages/phone calls delivered; proportion of women previously screened in a private health institution who change to organised screening. The intervention and control groups will be compared based on intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Northern Health
Bo, Inger Glavind
I kapitlet gennemgås en socialkonstruktivistisk forståelse af narrativer. I kapitlet vil jeg gennemgå centrale teoretiske pointer, der samlet set er grundlæggende for en social konstruktivistisk forståelse af narrativer for herved at udfolde forståelsen af den narrative tilgang og desuden...... tydeliggøre, hvordan tilgangen er forbundet med en særlig forståelse af identitetsskabelse. Der er tale om pointer der almindeligvis forbindes med ”små fortællinger” i form af længere identitetsfortællinger og narrative interviews. Kapitlet gennemgår således centrale inspirationskilder og teoretiske pointer...
Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...
examples of successful refugee resettlement and national self-assertion. Within the master narrative of Partition migration history, however, the experiences of forced movement and resettlement suffered by the ‘Untouchables' are obscured. Popular accounts of violence, forced movement and suffering...
is presented to give a concrete example of this narrative, community psychological oriented intervention, a process which helps people to develop a sense of personal or cultural identity and an understanding of their doing as being in correspondence with their values and intentions. The overarching focus...
Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani
This research examines the influence of evidence type (statistical, narrative, or hybrid) and narrative type (first-person or third-person) on risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV) and behavioral intention to get the HPV vaccine. In total, 174 college students who had not received the HPV vaccine participated in a controlled experiment. Results show that the hybrid message containing both statistical and narrative descriptions of HPV resulted in greater perceived risk of getting HPV than either of the messages containing just one type of evidence--statistical or narrative. Moreover, the first-person narrative message led to greater risk perception about HPV than the third-person narrative message. Both evidence type and narrative type had an indirect effect on intention to get the HPV vaccine free of cost through HPV risk perception. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.
Miller, James; Reynolds, Judith; Noble, P. C.; Altschuler, Lee; Schauber, Holli
Four short articles provide teaching tips for the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom, including the use of Moos, a video jigsaw, practicing oral language skills with interviews and student-read dictations, an ask the expert activity which builds learner confidence in speaking in front of groups of people. (Author/VWL)
Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca
High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…
universal dimensions of human life and cultural differences in a more and more mediatized global media culture. How do individuals and groups imagine each other in this new, global media culture, in what Appadurai (1996) has called a new post-national political world with an emerging diasporic public sphere......Cosmopolitan Narratives: Documentary Perspectives on Afghanistan Cosmopolitanism is a concept discussed in relation to globalization in contemporary societies by sociologists, anthropologists and media scholars (Beck 2006, Delanty 2006, Appadurai 1996). The concept indicates the dialectic between...... close others in our everyday life. But the media play an increasingly strong and important role in developing a cosmopolitan imaginary through narratives that bring us closer to the various distant, global others. Through migration those earlier distant others are also more and more mixed in our daily...
Dina Al Raffie
Full Text Available Since the advent of the Global War on Terror, the world has witnessed the continuation of terrorist activity under the banner of Salafi Jihad. With military action proving insufficient to defeat the propagators of the ideology, attention has turned to the ideology itself. Understanding the narratives that constitute this ideology and the systems in place that help propagate it is crucial to defeating it. Analysis brings to light elements that arguably constitute a Jihadist master narrative as well as support structures that help perpetuate key underlying messages of this master narrative. Successful counter-narratives should focus on rolling back and containing Jihadist narratives whilst simultaneously highlighting the values and attitudes of democratic, free societies
Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.
thought. Furthermore, it is argued that a central role in the structuring of this mental text is played by an overwhelming amount of brackets. The article suggests a categorisation of the different types of parenthetic remarks in the novel according to their function in the textual, would-be narrative...... construct, and concludes that Makanin's use of brackets in Andegraund, the most extensive use in his oeuvre so far, is crucial to the extreme processuality of the novel's text and its paradoxical, solipsistic addressivity. Udgivelsesdato: October...
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...
Ddo. Luis Fernando Morales Morante - firstname.lastname@example.org
Full Text Available Abstract: The delete in sound with respect to the image (overlapping is an expressive resource of the audiovisual editing that is frequently used by directors to introduce a new or relevant action into the story being told. Nevertheless, there are no empirical studies that state this effect as a consequence of the overlapping. In this article, we carry out a qualitative study of 235 overlappings from sequences of films, news and TV commercials, retrieved in the Internet. As a result, we note a use of the overlapping as a coherent semantic structure defining this sort of messages, and a casual relation between variation of intensity of sound and emotional responses such as surprise. This conclusion can be very useful for the development of a method of analysis and the improvement of the audiovisual discourses efficacy based upon emotional stimuli; likewise, this can be very handful for the design of efficient postproduction systems of sound and video.El retraso del sonido respecto de la imagen (overlapping constituye un recurso expresivo del montaje audiovisual utilizado frecuentemente por los realizadores para remarcar el ingreso de una acción nueva o relevante en el desarrollo de las historias. Sin embargo, no existen estudios empíricos que avalen el efecto directamente asociado a este procedimiento en los discursos. En el presente artículo se efectúa un estudio cualitativo mediante el cual se analiza una muestra de 235 overlappings de secuencias de películas, noticias y anuncios de publicidad, registrados de vídeos de Internet. Se advierte un tratamiento fílmico propio del overlapping, la existencia de una estructura semántica coherente que define este tipo de mensajes y una eventual relación entre los cambios de la intensidad del sonido con efectos emocionales como la sorpresa. Los resultados obtenidos pueden ser útiles para desarrollar un método de análisis y mejora de la efectividad de los discursos audiovisuales basados en la
Bond, Jennifer Lauren
Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...
Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien
Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.
Aleksić Slađana M.
Full Text Available A story is one of the forms of human communication, and one of the oldest ways of understanding the world and exchanging knowledge. The story is told through words, images and movement, and therefore the phenomenon of narration cannot be limited to verbal expression only. One can narrate about real or imaginary events in order to convey a message, provide knowledge or entertainment, and also to create an art form as well as achieve aesthetic communication. The process by means of which the inner world is built within a literary work is certainly the story or narrative. Modern theory of narration enumerates a number of forms of narration indifferent media: in folklore and art, oral or written linguistic narrative form, in pantomime, picture, vitrage, and film. This paper discusses various contemporary narratological ideas.
a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A
Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.
Anmeldelse af Anne Mangen: New Narrative Pleasures? A Cognitive-Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Reading Digital Narrative Fictions.......Anmeldelse af Anne Mangen: New Narrative Pleasures? A Cognitive-Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Reading Digital Narrative Fictions....
Vanheule, Stijn; Hauser, Stuart T
The transcripts of semistructured clinical interviews with forty psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were subjected to narrative analysis in an effort to map the logic of their explanations as they spontaneously talked about helplessness experiences, and to determine how helplessness is embedded in broader story lines. Three types of narrative composition were discerned, and are discussed by means of excerpts from the interviews. In a first and predominant type of narrative, a disturbing confrontation with another is pivotal: the other's intentions are obscure; this frightens the narrator, who does not know what to do. Helplessness arises as a direct result of not knowing how to manage the "unbearable riddle" of the other's intentions. In the second, more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is embedded in an account of emptiness and boredom. The protagonist relates enduring experiences of emptiness due to loss and the suffering consequent on it. In the third, also more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is framed in a context of failure: the protagonist adheres to strict standards, feels he or she has fallen short, and concludes that he or she is a failure. Only the first type of narrative is significantly related to the psychiatric diagnoses of mood disorder and major depression.
Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan
As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...
Armine Kotin Mortimer
Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.
Advertising as a communication statement includes all statement functions as highlighted by Roman Jacobson, from expressive, to impressive, cognitive, and ending with the metalinguistic and the poetic one. These last two functions of marketing statements are characteristic of modern advertising, striving to cover its external persuasiveness. The persuasive nature of advertising causes its constant evolution, change and adaptation to the times, places or culture within which it operates. Further, advertising is constantly looking for still fresh and innovative means of expression. It also amends the existing system of rules for the valid standards. Using the values that are highly appreciated, such as beauty, goodness, and sublimity through aptly selected narrative techniques tends to an etherisation of the message and elimination of overt persuasion. Persuasion identified with the marketing message with informative and manipulative overtones turns into a coded persuasion, which is the basis for erecting the narrative superstructure in the form of storytelling elements. In the wake of recent changes to generate new trends in designing marketing messages, advertising can be reduced to signification not just appearances but whole stories. Narration in the advertising messages is by no means a modern invention. This type of communication is derived from Ferdinand de Saussure’s theory of signs. Jung’s theory of archetypes, Campbell’s model of monomyth, and Barthes’ concept of the symbol and the meaning together with his theory of the marketing message imperative to be based on a narrative, to concoct a story, because only a story has the potential imprint in memory, all can be inscribed into de Saussure’s system. Stories in advertising messages combat the indifference of the recipient of these messages. To correctly decipher the content encrypted in the image, the symbol or reference to a myth, the consumer must engage intellectually with the substance of the
Fernandes Davies, Vanessa; Mafra, Rafaella; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Thomas; Lu, Amy Shirong
This article presents the results of interviews conducted with children regarding their cognitive and affective responses toward a narrative and a non-narrative cartoon. The findings will be used to further explore the role of a narrative in motivating continued active videogame play. Twenty children (8-11 years old of mixed gender) watched two cartoons (narrative and non-narrative) and were subsequently interviewed. A thematic matrix was used to analyze the interviews. The narrative cartoon (n = 11) was only slightly preferred compared with the non-narrative one (n = 9), with little difference among the participants. The theme categories identified during the analyses were plot, characters, and suggestions. The fight scenes were mentioned by the children as a likeable aspect of the narrative cartoon. In the non-narrative cartoon, the vast majority (n = 17) liked the information about physical activity that was provided. The children enjoyed the appearance and personalities of the characters in both cartoons. A discrepancy in the data about the fight scenes (narrative cartoon) and characters (both cartoons) was found among the female participants (i.e., some girls did not like the fight and thought the characters were too aggressive). However, most of the children wanted to see more action in the story, an increase in the number of fight scenes (narrative cartoon), or more information about exercise and examples of exercises they could do (non-narrative cartoon). They also suggested adding a game to the non-narrative cartoon, including more characters, and improving the animation in both cartoons. The children preferred the narrative cartoon because of the story and the fight. Some gender differences were found, which further studies should investigate.
S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)
textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added
Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier
The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit.
Recent work on the relation between narrative and selfhood has emphasized embodiment as an indispensable foundation for selfhood. This has occasioned an interesting debate on the relation between embodiment and narrative. In this paper, I attempt to mediate the range of conflicting intuitions......) strictly is or is not; rather, we need to see narrative as an attribute admitting of degrees. I suggest that the relation between narrative and embodiment should be seen along these lines, proposing three levels of the narrativity of embodied experiencing: 1) the unnarratable, 2) the narratable and 3...
Bibi van Ginkel
Full Text Available “Who is in control of the narrative?” is the mantra that now echoes in the hallways of the EU’s headquarters in Brussels. Spurred in part by large-scale jihadist propaganda, approximately 20,000 people from 50 countries have joined the fight in Iraq and Syria. So far, authorities in their countries of origin have not been able to address the jihadist radicalisation messages transmitted via the internet and social media. Many new initiatives were recently announced, however, including the establishment of a European counter-narrative centre in Brussels. Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the role of the internet and social media in processes of radicalisation. It offers an outline of the various aspects of the jihadist narrative, in order better to understand what message needs to be countered. The counter-actions against this cyber jihad can take different forms. Parallel to the way in which advertisement campaigns are tailored to sell products to a certain target group, strategic communication should take into account how a number of recurring elements play a role in the counter-messaging. The understanding of who the target group is, what jihadist narrative is used and how that message can be countered, who the credible messenger should be, and what medium can best be used to deliver the message are all relevant questions that can only be answered in a context-specific manner. The Research Paper concludes with several recommendations on how the recently announced new European counter-narrative centre can effectively contribute to the already diverse landscape of counter-narrative initiatives.
Describes "impersonal narration," an approach that defends the concept of the cinematic narrator as a logical and pragmatic necessity. Compares this approach with existing theories of the cinematic narrator, addressing disagreements in the field of film narrative theory. (MM)
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Morrison, Caitlin; Griffin, Jonathan; Anderson, Nick; Edwards, Kelly; Green, Jeff; Waldren, Cleary; Reiter, William
Synergies between technology and health care in the United States are accelerating, increasing opportunities to leverage these technologies to improve patient care. This study was a collaboration between an academic study team, a rural primary care clinic, and a local nonprofit informatics company developing tools to improve patient care through population management. Our team created a text messaging management tool, then developed methods for and tested the feasibility of bidirectional text messaging to remind eligible patients about the need for lipid testing. We measured patient response to the text messages, then interviewed 8 patients to explore their text messaging experience. Of the 129 patients the clinic was able to contact by phone, 29.4% had no cell phone or text-messaging capabilities. An additional 20% refused to participate. Two thirds of the 28 patients who participated in the text messaging intervention (67.9%) responded to at least 1 of the up to 3 messages. Seven of 8 interviewed patients had a positive text-messaging experience. Bidirectional text messaging is a feasible and largely acceptable form of communication for test reminders that has the potential to reach large numbers of patients in clinical care. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien
This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large
Eva Laass: Broken Taboos, Subjective Truths. Forms and Functions of Unreliable Narration in Contemporary American Cinema. A Contribution to Film NarratologyVolker Ferenz: Don’t believe his lies. The unreliable narrator in contemporary American cinema
Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas
Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE
The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…
Finney, Mark David
This dissertation focuses on the place of narrative in the transformational encounter that can take place between hearers of sermons and God. Chapter 1 surveys the history and development of contemporary scholarship related to narrative preaching. It argues that most homileticians consider narrative either as a way of structuring sermons, or as a…
Elson, David K.
This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…
Eborall, Helen C; Virdee, Satnam K; Patel, Naina; Redwood, Sabi; Greenfield, Sheila M; Stone, Margaret A
To explore the impact of Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DESMOND) Foundation education, particularly from interviewees' narratives regarding recall of good and bad news messages and behaviour changes. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample (n=19) of people who had attended education sessions as part of a randomised controlled trial in two UK sites with ethnically diverse populations. Data collection and analysis were informed by the constant comparative approach and facilitated through charting. Findings were similar in people from different ethnic backgrounds. Exploration of levels of recall of the sessions suggested that this was variable and sometimes very limited, but that interviewees had all assimilated some relevant learning. Key themes emerged relating to the way in which interviewees recalled and had been influenced by positive (good news) and negative (bad news) messages within the education sessions, including biomedical explanations. Both types of message appeared to have an important role in terms of motivation to change behaviour, but a notable observation was that none of the interviewees recalled receiving bad news messages when diagnosed. Our findings have highlighted the importance of providing and combining both negative and positive messages within education designed to promote self-management behaviour change. © The Author(s) 2015.
Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd
SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.
Buckley, Catherine; McCormack, Brendan; Ryan, Assumpta
To report on the development of a framework of narrative practice, in residential care settings for older people. Residential care settings for older people provide care for people who are no longer able to live in their own home. To date, the impact and structure of nursing practice on care provision in these settings has proved difficult to conceptualise within a specific nursing theory framework. A hermeneutic approach incorporating narrative methods was used. Forty-six narrative interviews with older people in residential care were secondary-analysed for key themes through a three-stage process: by the first author, four focus groups of 12 clinical nurse managers and two independent experts. Themes were also derived from a focus group of eight residents who explored person-centredness and narrative. Finally, the combined findings were used to derive a single set of themes. The secondary data analysis process led to the development of a framework of narrative practice for the care of older people in residential settings. The framework is influenced by narrative enquiry, person-centred practice and practice development. It has four pillars, prerequisites, care processes, care environment and narrative aspects of care. To operationalise the framework of narrative practice, three narrative elements, narrative knowing, narrative being and narrative doing, need to be considered. Working with the foundational pillars and the narrative elements would enable staff to 'work in a storied way' and provide person-centred outcomes and a narrative informed philosophy of care for older adults in residential care. This framework provides nurses with a template that confirms the identity of the older person taking account of their biography. The framework outlines an approach that provides staff with a template on how to provide person-centred care in a narrative way. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sanders, James H., III
Krystle Merrow, a recent graduate of the Ohio State University, is a victim of the declining economy and is currently searching for opportunities in the photographic field. The photographic essay at the heart of this interview establishes a range of autobiographical narratives and coming out stories of LGBT youth in central Ohio. The interview…
Vyacheslav V. Volchik
Full Text Available This article addresses a range of questions associated with the occurrence of a new field of study – narrative economics, which is considered in the context of modern institutionalism. Pioneering works of R. Shiller, G. Akerlof and D. Snower spotlighted the importance of analyzing narratives and narrative influence when studying economic processes. In this paper, a qualitative study of narratives is seen through the prism of an answer to the question: «How do prescribed narratives influence institutions and change them? ». Narratives have much in common with institutions since very often, explicitly or implicitly, they contain value judgements about social interactions or normative aspects shaping behavioral patterns. The identification of dominating narratives enables us to understand better how institutions influence economic (social action. Repeated interactions among social actors are structured through understanding and learning the rules. Understanding of social rules comes from the language – we articulate and perceive the rules drawing on common narratives. Narratives and institutions are helpful when actors gain knowledge about various forms of social communication. Digital technologies, mass media and social networking sites facilitate the spread of narratives, values and beliefs; this process is characterized by increasing returns. Studying narratives and institutions is crucial for modern economic theory because it helps to improve qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing empirical evidence and enables researchers to understand complex economic processes.
Petty, Julia; Jarvis, Joy; Thomas, Rebecca
Educational research uses narrative enquiry to gain and interpret people's experiences. Narrative analysis is used to organise and make sense of acquired narrative. 'Core story creation' is a way of managing raw data obtained from narrative interviews to construct stories for learning. To explain how core story creation can be used to construct stories from raw narratives obtained by interviewing parents about their neonatal experiences and then use these stories to educate learners. Core story creation involves reconfiguration of raw narratives. Reconfiguration includes listening to and rereading transcribed narratives, identifying elements of 'emplotment' and reordering these to form a constructed story. Thematic analysis is then performed on the story to draw out learning themes informed by the participants. Core story creation using emplotment is a strategy of narrative reconfiguration that produces stories which can be used to develop resources relating to person-centred education about the patient experience. Stories constructed from raw narratives in the context of constructivism can provide a medium or an 'end product' for use in learning resource development. This can then contribute to educating students or health professionals about patients' experiences. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Full Text Available The art of narrative stems from the art of rhetoric and modes of persuasion and in this meaning is understood not just as a form of entertainment but also as a tool of communication. Any narrative communicates and conveys a message. Narrative is an important aspect of culture and as a ubiquitous component of human communication is conveyed by different works of art (literature, music, painting, sculpture, and illustrates events, emotions, phenomena and occurrences. Narrative as a form of communication involves its participants, a teller and a receiver of the message. The relation and the distance between the participants of the narrative communication process may have a different configuration and presents different effect of closeness and distance in narrative. In this meaning narrative is not just the art of telling stories, but it serves various functions, it communicates information, expresses emotions and personal events, transmits morals and cultural knowledge, provides entertainment and also helps in many ways to depict thoughts and feelings, along with disclosing the beauty of language. Narrative knowledge and narrative perception of social and cultural processes, is one of the most natural ways for a human being to acquire and organize their knowledge about the world. The ability to create narratives leads to a better understanding of the surrounding reality, and significantly influences the interpretation of social and cultural relationships.
Chalkley, A B
For those engaged in family planning or other demographic work of an active kind, serious errors can be made and much money and skill wasted unless there is a clear idea of available means of communication. Literacy and media-diffusion figures offer vague parameters, especially in Asia, and the role of spoken communication -- considered key in "illiterate" societies -- is even more difficult to assess. For mass media, the starting point is "diffusion rates" representing numbers of TV sets owned or newspapers sold per 1000 population and so on -- measures of quantity. This article surveys the population growth rates, urban-rural distribution, educational levels, literacy rates, numbers of newspapers bought, radios and TVs owned (per 1000 population) for 12 Asian countries, and discusses their meaning in terms of media use. Chief among the points made are that print media still have an enormous role to play in the developing countries -- newspaper diffusion rates are quite high, even in countries with low urban population (especially India). The quality of electronic media (too often considered the natural "wave of the future" everywhere) varies but is generally not high. Where they are fully developed their role is vital -- but it might be noted that it is the message makers themselves who are most vital. Choosing the right medium and the proper message for it is essential.
Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R
Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.
Full Text Available In this article, I look back in an art/research experiment of convening an exhibition of women artists and inviting them to a round-table discussion in the context of a sociological conference. The artists who took part in this event had been previously interviewed for a feminist research project, entitled "In the Fold Between Life and Art, a Genealogy of Women Artists". The conference exhibition gave the artists the opportunity to appear to an academic audience and present their work while the round-table discussion created a forum for a narrative event where all women were invited to recount stories of becoming an artist. In looking at this event I want to explore questions around the possibilities and limitations of narratives in microsociological inquiries. In following trails of ARENDT's theorisation of stories, I explore connections and tensions between social, political and cultural entanglements in narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501193
Cell phones are the most common communication device on the planet, and Short Message Service (SMS) is the chief channel for companies to offer services, accept requests, report news, and download binary files over cell phones. This guide describes the protocols and best practices (things that ensure you won't get sued or lose your right to offer a service) you need to know to make SMS messaging part of an organizational service. Issues such as character sets, differences among vendors, common practices in Europe and North America, and API choices are covered.
T. H. Sinky
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify cultural models of breast cancer held by Saudi women and to explore how these may influence early detection and treatment-seeking behaviors. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with breast cancer survivors (n=20 from two Western cities in Saudi Arabia. Respondents were recruited through social networking, using purposive, snowball sampling. Illness narratives elicited during interviews were transcribed, coded and then analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results suggest that fatalism, perceived threats to traditional role fulfillment, and a preference for traditional therapies commonly mark the breast cancer experiences of Saudi women, influencing their early detection and treatment-seeking behaviors. A more nuanced understanding of emic viewpoints could help to improve public health messaging and intervention strategies in Saudi Arabia.
The author describes the design and implementation of one experiential learning assignment used in a principles of macroeconomics course. The learning exercise provides an active role for students and results in a relational experience that provides traditional undergraduate students with a frame of reference with which to interpret the impact of…
J. Woudenberg; L. Bobbink; E. Geurts; M. Pelzer; H. Degen-Nijeboer
This book is about narrative methods and narrative research. The word narrativity derives from the Latin word narrare, which means ‘to tell’. Narratives are present everywhere. They come in the form of fairy tales, drama, drawings, art, history, biography, myths and legends. Narratives can be found
Colon, Nathaniel J.
This study explored memorable messages that former football student-athletes recalled regarding academics and athletics. Respondents were asked via interviews and a survey questionnaire to recall memorable messages and to describe the source, context, and importance of the message. Student-athletes were asked what memorable messages were evoked…
Ioannou, Maria; Canter, David; Youngs, Donna
A neglected area of research within criminality has been that of the experience of the offence for the offender. The present study investigates the emotions and narrative roles that are experienced by an offender while committing a broad range of crimes and proposes a model of criminal narrative experience (CNE). Hypotheses were derived from the circumplex of emotions, Frye, narrative theory, and its link with investigative psychology. The analysis was based on 120 cases. Convicted for a variety of crimes, incarcerated criminals were interviewed and the data were subjected to smallest space analysis (SSA). Four themes of CNE were identified: Elated Hero, Calm Professional, Distressed Revenger, and Depressed Victim in line with the recent theoretical framework posited for narrative offence roles. The theoretical implications for understanding crime on the basis of the CNE as well as practical implications are discussed.
Haun, Jolie N; Lind, Jason D; Shimada, Stephanie L; Martin, Tracey L; Gosline, Robert M; Antinori, Nicole; Stewart, Max; Simon, Steven R
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs has implemented an electronic asynchronous "Secure Messaging" tool within a Web-based patient portal (ie, My HealtheVet) to support patient-provider communication. This electronic resource promotes continuous and coordinated patient-centered care, but to date little research has evaluated patients' experiences and preferences for using Secure Messaging. The objectives of this mixed-methods study were to (1) characterize veterans' experiences using Secure Messaging in the My HealtheVet portal over a 3-month period, including system usability, (2) identify barriers to and facilitators of use, and (3) describe strategies to support veterans' use of Secure Messaging. We recruited 33 veterans who had access to and had previously used the portal's Secure Messaging tool. We used a combination of in-depth interviews, face-to-face user-testing, review of transmitted secure messages between veterans and staff, and telephone interviews three months following initial contact. We assessed participants' computer and health literacy during initial and follow-up interviews. We used a content-analysis approach to identify dominant themes in the qualitative data. We compared inferences from each of the data sources (interviews, user-testing, and message review) to identify convergent and divergent data trends. The majority of veterans (27/33, 82%) reported being satisfied with Secure Messaging at initial interview; satisfaction ratings increased to 97% (31/32, 1 missing) during follow-up interviews. Veterans noted Secure Messaging to be useful for communicating with their primary care team to manage health care needs (eg, health-related questions, test requests and results, medication refills and questions, managing appointments). Four domains emerged from interviews: (1) perceived benefits of using Secure Messaging, (2) barriers to using Secure Messaging, (3) facilitators for using Secure Messaging, and (4) suggestions for improving
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out of sequential images? This piece helps fill the gap by presenting a theory of Narrative Grammar. We describe the basic narrative categories and their relationship to a canonical narrative arc, followed by a discussion of complex structures that extend beyond the canonical schema. This demands that the canonical arc be reconsidered as a generative schema whereby any narrative category can be expanded into a node in a tree structure. Narrative "pacing" is interpreted as a reflection of various patterns of this embedding: conjunction, left-branching trees, center-embedded constituencies, and others. Following this, diagnostic methods are proposed for testing narrative categories and constituency. Finally, we outline the applicability of this theory beyond sequential images, such as to film and verbal discourse, and compare this theory with previous approaches to narrative and discourse. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Musacchio Adorisio, Anna Linda
This article focuses on organizational remembering in banking. To provide an alternative to the repository image of memory in organization, organizational remembering is conceptualized as narrative, where narrative represents a way to organize the selection and interpretation of the past....... The narrative perspective deals with both the experiential and contextual nature of remembering by addressing concerns raised by critiques of organizational memory studies, namely, the subjective experience of remembering and the social and historical context in which remembering takes place. Antenarrative...... the narrative perspective reveals ruptures and ambiguities that characterize organizational remembering that would remain hidden in the organizational memory studies approach....
Baron, Naomi S.
Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.
Ejzman, S.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.
The 'Microprocessorized Message Multiplexer' is an elementary development tool used to create and debug the software of a target microprocessor (User Module: UM). It connects together four devices: a terminal, a cassette recorder, the target microprocessor and a host computer where macro and editor for the M 6800 microprocessor are resident [fr
Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.
In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…
Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.
CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Electronic Commerce - Secure Messaging. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0008-0017 ...
Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa
This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements.
The implementation of valid and comprehensible guidelines for message development potentially enhances the effects of advertising messages and improves the possibility of measuring such effects. Moreover, such guidelines also have potential implications for the managerial communication processes...... (client-agency and intra-agency) involved in the development of advertising messages. The purpose of the study described in this paper is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the common aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age......-test with the target group (n=500), as well as interviews with the involved advertising agency and client2 staff....
Hanson, Julie; McAllister, Margaret
Nursing students are not always well prepared for the kind of adverse events they may experience in the workplace and yet it seems apparent that future students could benefit from learning about such experiences so that they can be avoided, or their impact minimised. This research aimed to identify nursing students' experiences of adversity, collaborate with students to discern important lessons for future students in their experiences, and make recommendations for other educators on how to use these adversity stories as lessons. Seven Australian nursing students were interviewed using critical incident technique consisting of 7 questions. This paper focuses on the responses to the questions: "Does this story's message have a place in the curriculum?" and "How would you teach this lesson?" Data were analysed using critical discourse analysis. Four recurring discourses emerged including: power relationships are a two-way street; learn from mistakes to prevent mistakes; begin cultural consciousness-raising in first year, first semester; and become critically self-aware. Narratives derived from original stories of adversity may be a valuable source of learning about the realities of the workplace but to benefit fully, educators need to assist students to notice and analyse embedded messages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alber, Julia M.; Glanz, Karen
Public health messages can be used to increase awareness about colorectal cancer screenings. Free or inexpensive images for creating health messages are readily available, yet little is known about how a pictured individual's engagement in the behavior of interest affects message outcomes. Participants (N = 360), aged 50 to 75 years, completed an…
Wojcieszak, M.; Kim, N.
We propose a model of how messages about groups one personally dislikes affect individual attitudes. We build upon theories of message persuasion and out-group acceptance to account for evidence type (numerical vs. narrative), facilitating conditions (encouraging empathy vs. objectivity), and the
Scully, Maree; Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah; Dixon, Helen; Wakefield, Melanie; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff
Evidence-based policies encouraging healthy behaviours are often strongly opposed by well-funded industry groups. As public support is crucial for policy change, public health advocates need to be equipped with strategies to offset the impact of anti-policy messages. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of theory-based public health advocacy messages in generating public support for sugary drink/alcohol policies (increased taxes; sport sponsorship bans) and improving resistance to subsequent anti-policy messages typical of the sugary drink/alcohol industry. We conducted a two-wave randomised online experiment assigning Australian adults to one of four health policies (sugary drink tax; sugary drink industry sports sponsorship ban; alcohol tax; alcohol industry sports sponsorship ban). Within each health policy, we randomised participants to one of five message conditions: (i) non-advocacy based message about the size and seriousness of the relevant health issue (control); (ii) standard pro-policy arguments alone; (iii) standard pro-policy arguments combined with an inoculation message (forewarning and directly refuting anti-policy arguments from the opposition); (iv) standard pro-policy arguments combined with a narrative message (a short, personal story about an individual's experience of the health issue); or (v) standard pro-policy arguments combined with a composite inoculation and narrative message. At time 1, we exposed participants (n = 6000) to their randomly assigned message. Around two weeks later, we re-contacted participants (n = 3285) and exposed them to an anti-policy message described as being from a representative of the sugary drink/alcohol industry. Generalised linear models tested for differences between conditions in policy support and anti-industry beliefs at both time points. Only the standard argument plus narrative message increased policy support relative to control at time 1. The standard argument plus narrative
There is a strong tradition in psychology and philosophy, claiming that the self is a narrative construction. The paper examines this idea and concludes that the narrative self is not a viable theoretical construct, but that we should opt for an adjacent idea of a historical self. The aim is to e...
Poulsen, Jens Aage
Analyse af narrative strukturer i nordiske læremidler om historie- og nordiske læreres forståelse og brug af læremidlerne i undervisningen......Analyse af narrative strukturer i nordiske læremidler om historie- og nordiske læreres forståelse og brug af læremidlerne i undervisningen...
Aerts, Walter; Clubb, C.; Imam, S.
Narrative accounting disclosures are an integral part of the corporate financial reporting package. They are deemed to provide a view of the company “through the eyes of management”. The narratives represent management's construal of corporate events and are largely discretionary. Research in
Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe
According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…
Raises issues involved in the study and teaching of narrative, with reference to both literature and film. Considers the function of realism in narrative fiction and the teaching of theory and practice of those writers and filmmakers who have challenged the realist text by alternative strategies. (JMF)
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out…
In Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity, 16 internationally renowned scholars reflect on the nature and history of peoplehood and discuss how narratives inform national identities, public culture and academic historiography. The book is a timely contribution to the ongoing debate on belonging...
Tamura, Eileen H.
While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
I argue for a broad education in narratives as a way to address several problems found in moral psychology and social cognition. First, an education in narratives will address a common problem of narrowness or lack of diversity, shared by virtue ethics and the simulation theory of social cognition. Secondly, it also solves the "starting…
Lind, Jason D; Shimada, Stephanie L; Martin, Tracey L; Gosline, Robert M; Antinori, Nicole; Stewart, Max; Simon, Steven R
Background The United States Department of Veterans Affairs has implemented an electronic asynchronous “Secure Messaging” tool within a Web-based patient portal (ie, My HealtheVet) to support patient-provider communication. This electronic resource promotes continuous and coordinated patient-centered care, but to date little research has evaluated patients’ experiences and preferences for using Secure Messaging. Objective The objectives of this mixed-methods study were to (1) characterize veterans’ experiences using Secure Messaging in the My HealtheVet portal over a 3-month period, including system usability, (2) identify barriers to and facilitators of use, and (3) describe strategies to support veterans’ use of Secure Messaging. Methods We recruited 33 veterans who had access to and had previously used the portal’s Secure Messaging tool. We used a combination of in-depth interviews, face-to-face user-testing, review of transmitted secure messages between veterans and staff, and telephone interviews three months following initial contact. We assessed participants’ computer and health literacy during initial and follow-up interviews. We used a content-analysis approach to identify dominant themes in the qualitative data. We compared inferences from each of the data sources (interviews, user-testing, and message review) to identify convergent and divergent data trends. Results The majority of veterans (27/33, 82%) reported being satisfied with Secure Messaging at initial interview; satisfaction ratings increased to 97% (31/32, 1 missing) during follow-up interviews. Veterans noted Secure Messaging to be useful for communicating with their primary care team to manage health care needs (eg, health-related questions, test requests and results, medication refills and questions, managing appointments). Four domains emerged from interviews: (1) perceived benefits of using Secure Messaging, (2) barriers to using Secure Messaging, (3) facilitators for using
Ahn, Ho-Young; Wu, Lei; Kelly, Stephanie; Haley, Eric
The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students deal with conflicting health messages in advertising regarding binge drinking and wine promotion. Phenomenological in-depth long interviews were conducted beyond the point of redundancy (N = 16). The results of this study indicated that students' meaning making regarding the conflicting messages relied greatly upon how consistent either message was with their prior beliefs about alcohol. Additionally, not all students perceived the messages to be contradictory; these students saw the messages as being constructed for different purposes and as such incomparable. Overall, students who perceived conflict responded to the topic with apathy fueled by advertising skepticism. Employing qualitative methodology to understand how college students respond to conflicting messages will assist health promotion practitioners develop more effective alcohol abuse prevention messages and provide suggestions for researchers for studying this phenomenon from other perspectives in the future. Implications are further discussed within.
Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian
Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of narrative and non-narrative risk communication about sunbed use on ease of imagination and feelings of cancer risk. A total of 233 female sunbed users in the general Dutch population were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a narrative message (i.e., personal testimonial), a non-narrative cognitive message (i.e., factual risk information using cognitive-laden words), or a non-narrative affective message (i.e., factual risk information using affective-laden words). Ease of imagination and feelings of risk were assessed directly after the risk information was given (T1). Three weeks after the baseline session, feelings of risk were measured again (T2). The results revealed that sunbed users who were exposed to narrative risk information could better imagine themselves developing skin cancer and reported higher feelings of skin cancer risk at T1. Moreover, ease of imagination mediated the effects of message type on feelings of risk at T1 and T2. The findings provide support for the effects of narrative risk communication in influencing feelings of cancer risk through ease of imagination. Cancer prevention programmes may therefore benefit from including narrative risk information. Future research is important to investigate other mechanisms of narrative information and their most effective content and format. What is already known on this subject? Evidence is growing for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours. Narratives have increasingly been considered as an effective format for persuasive risk messages and studies have shown narrative risk communication to be effective in influencing cognitive risk beliefs. What does this study add? Increasing understanding of how feelings of cancer
Blustein, David L.; Kozan, Saliha; Connors-Kellgren, Alice
In this study, we conducted a narrative analysis of interviews with unemployed and underemployed adults to better understand their experiences and to learn how they are coping with job loss. Seven men and six women from diverse backgrounds who were receiving career exploration and job search services were interviewed at a one-stop career center in…
de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Car, Josip; Atun, Rifat
a third. Primary outcomes of interest were health outcomes as a result of the intervention and capacity to self-manage long-term conditions. We also considered patients' and providers' evaluation of the intervention, perceptions of safety, health service utilisation and costs, and potential harms or adverse effects. The included studies were heterogeneous in type of condition addressed, intervention characteristics and outcome measures. Therefore, a meta-analysis to derive an overall effect size for the main outcome categories was not considered justified and findings are presented narratively. We included four randomised controlled trials involving 182 participants.For the primary outcome of health outcomes, including physiological measures, there is moderate quality evidence from two studies involving people with diabetes showing no statistical difference from text messaging interventions compared with usual care or email reminders for glycaemic control (HbA1c), the frequency of diabetic complications, or body weight. There is moderate quality evidence from one study of hypertensive patients that the mean blood pressure and the proportion of patients who achieved blood pressure control were not significantly different in the intervention and control groups, and that there was no statistically significant difference in mean body weight between the groups. There is moderate quality evidence from one study that asthma patients receiving a text messaging intervention experienced greater improvements on peak expiratory flow variability (mean difference (MD) -11.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) -19.56 to -2.68) and the pooled symptom score comprising four items (cough, night symptoms, sleep quality, and maximum tolerated activity) (MD -0.36, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.17) compared with the control group. However, the study found no significant differences between the groups in impact on forced vital capacity or forced expiratory flow in 1 second.For the primary outcome of
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...
on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely......Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...
Herron, Mark A.
. The use of narratives of and by presidents in the White House can be seen as an essential part of the ceremonial role of the presidency. This use of narratives in epideictic speech has increased with modern day interests in the domestic life of the president, and the use of visual mass media......The dissertation Narrator-in-Chief: The Narrative Rhetoric of Barack Obama seeks to show how the concept of “narrative” can be used in rhetorical criticism of presidential speeches, particularly when considering the speeches and the biographical text, Dreams from My Father (1995), of Barack Obama...... as a communication platform for the president. While this has been described as a negative development (Stuckey, 1991; Salmon, 2010) this dissertation argues that narrative rhetoric should not be seen only as a negative part of political rhetoric, but also as a possibly vital way to educate the audience on issues...
Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.
With this issue’s message, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone opens a new series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, wrote a message in Tuesday’s edition of Fermilab TodayPerspectivesNothing is more important for our worldwide particle physics community than successfully turning on the LHC later this year. The promise for great discoveries is huge, and many of the plans for our future depend on LHC results. Those of us planning national programmes in anticipation of data from the LHC face formidable challenges to develop future facilities that are complementary to the LHC, whatever the physics discoveries may be. At Fermilab, this has led us to move forcefully with a programme at the intensity frontier, where experiments with neutrinos and rare decays open a complementary window into nature. Our ultimate goal for a unified picture of nat...
Víctor Hugo Masías
Full Text Available In this article I analyze the narrative structure of the discourse of individuals who have converted to the Pentecostal Methodist Church of Chile. I use Grounded Theory to analyze 11 conversion narratives, which were collected through a narrative-biographical interview, and with support from the graphical tool called Story-Line. The results identify two types of conversion narrative structure. The first one is understood as a personal salvation narrative, the second one is described as a spiritual renewal narrative. This allowed the construction of a conceptual model illustrating the way in which the conversion narrative of the convert is structured. The discussion is centered on comparing the findings of this study with other similar investigations; debating the similarities and differences found in conversion narratives and their differing philosophies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001210
The Regional History Project at UC Santa Cruz has rich collections of interviews with generations of narrators, ranging across the administration, faculty, and staff. In the early years of the campus, founding director Elizabeth Spedding Calciano conducted two rounds of interviews focused on the student experience at what was then the newest campus of the University of California. Those interviews, conducted in 1967 and 1969 as the campus was still adding a new college every year, give a wind...
Keoleian, Victoria; Polcin, Douglas; Galloway, Gantt P.
Individuals seeking treatment for addiction often experience barriers due to cost, lack of local treatment resources, or either school or work schedule conflicts. Text messaging-based addiction treatment is inexpensive and has the potential to be widely accessible in real time. We conducted a comprehensive literature review identifying 11 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating text messaging-based interventions for tobacco smoking, 4 studies for reducing alcohol consumption, 1 pilot study in former methamphetamine (MA) users, and 1 study based on qualitative interviews with cannabis users. Abstinence outcome results in RCTs of smokers willing to make a quit attempt have been positive overall in the short term and as far out as at 6 and 12 months. Studies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption have been promising. More data are needed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of this approach for other substance use problems. PMID:25950596
Graaf, A.M.; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.
Several models of narrative persuasion posit that a reader's phenomenological experience of a narrative plays a mediating role in the persuasive effects of the narrative. Because the narrative reading experience is multi-dimensional, this experiment investigates which dimensions of this experience -
Graaf, A. de; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.
Several models of narrative persuasion posit that a reader's phenomenological experience of a narrative plays a mediating role in the persuasive effects of the narrative. Because the narrative reading experience is multi-dimensional, this experiment investigates which dimensions of this experience –
Ironside, Pamela M
This article describes how teachers enable Narrative Pedagogy in their courses by explicating the Concernful Practice Inviting: Waiting and Letting Be. Narrative Pedagogy, a research-based, phenomenological approach to teaching and learning, extends conventional pedagogies and offers nursing faculty an alternative way of transforming their schools and courses. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, interview data collected over a 10-year period were analyzed by coding practical examples of teachers' efforts to enact Narrative Pedagogy. When Narrative Pedagogy is enacted, teachers and students focus on thinking and learning together about nursing phenomena and seek new understandings about how they may provide care in the myriad situations they encounter. Although the Concernful Practices co-occur, explicating inviting experiences can assist new teachers, and those seeking to extend their pedagogical literacy, by providing new understandings of how Narrative Pedagogy can be enacted.
Full Text Available Chronic illness models are normally used to explain and predict the experience of living with a long-term condition. The aim of this study was to present the findings of narrative interviews with stroke survivors and their family carers to understand their experiences of stroke. We interviewed five people with stroke and three family carers from the United Kingdom. We used thematic analysis to generate themes from their narrative accounts and then linked them to broader theoretical perspectives while influenced by the concept of reinterpretation of life. The narrative accounts of participants are mainly structured based on how their changed bodies poststroke changed their identities and roles and consequently their relationships with others. In this study, we underline the need for using methods like narrative to explain strategies that people use to make sense of their experiences of living with a long-term condition such as stroke.
Nasr, Nasrin; Mawson, Susan; Wright, Peter; Parker, Jack; Mountain, Gail
Chronic illness models are normally used to explain and predict the experience of living with a long-term condition. The aim of this study was to present the findings of narrative interviews with stroke survivors and their family carers to understand their experiences of stroke. We interviewed five people with stroke and three family carers from the United Kingdom. We used thematic analysis to generate themes from their narrative accounts and then linked them to broader theoretical perspectives while influenced by the concept of reinterpretation of life. The narrative accounts of participants are mainly structured based on how their changed bodies poststroke changed their identities and roles and consequently their relationships with others. In this study, we underline the need for using methods like narrative to explain strategies that people use to make sense of their experiences of living with a long-term condition such as stroke. PMID:28462337
is profoundly saturated by an alienness regarding the person’s own affects and responses. However, the balance of familiarity and alienness is not static, but can be cultivated through e.g. psychotherapy. Following this line of thought, I present the idea that narrativising experiences can play an important...... role in processes of appropriating such embodied self-alienness. Importantly, the notion of narrative used is that of a scalar conception of narrativity as a variable quality of experience that comes in degrees. From this perspective, narrative appropriation is a process of gradually attributing...
Shaffer, Victoria A; Owens, Justin; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J
Previous research has examined the impact of patient narratives on treatment choices, but to our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of narratives on information search. Further, no research has considered the relative impact of their format (text vs video) on health care decisions in a single study. Our goal was to examine the impact of video and text-based narratives on information search in a Web-based patient decision aid for early stage breast cancer. Fifty-six women were asked to imagine that they had been diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and needed to choose between two surgical treatments (lumpectomy with radiation or mastectomy). Participants were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of a Web decision aid. Two versions of the decision aid included videos of interviews with patients and physicians or videos of interviews with physicians only. To distinguish between the effect of narratives and the effect of videos, we created two text versions of the Web decision aid by replacing the patient and physician interviews with text transcripts of the videos. Participants could freely browse the Web decision aid until they developed a treatment preference. We recorded participants' eye movements using the Tobii 1750 eye-tracking system equipped with Tobii Studio software. A priori, we defined 24 areas of interest (AOIs) in the Web decision aid. These AOIs were either separate pages of the Web decision aid or sections within a single page covering different content. We used multilevel modeling to examine the effect of narrative presence, narrative format, and their interaction on information search. There was a significant main effect of condition, P=.02; participants viewing decision aids with patient narratives spent more time searching for information than participants viewing the decision aids without narratives. The main effect of format was not significant, P=.10. However, there was a significant condition by format interaction on
Meyer, John C.
This paper calls for the inclusion of narrative, thematic, and metaphor analysis as organizational assessment or communication audit methods and discusses some practical means of integrating these symbolic interpretational devices. The paper begins by defining the notion of symbol as the message content important to the organizational member. It…
Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe
Narrative medicine strives toward a humanized form of medicine in which empathy and the ability to listen are developed with the same emphasis as scientific rigor. We hypothesize that the adoption of narrative medicine in dentistry would be an excellent method to cultivate the philosophy behind the emerging clinical concept of patient-centered dentistry. Reading literary works, reflective writing, and creative writing would sensitize practitioners to the daily lives of people, human uniqueness, and alterity. Narrative dentistry could lead to more empathic and self-aware practices, and improve dental professionals' observational abilities by making them more perceptive and more attentive to image, metaphor, and meaning. The introduction of narrative dentistry would enrich the clinical clerkship of dentists by bringing the often-missing humanities to the dental professional, academic, and scientific environment. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The dissertation, consisting of an introductory essay and four independent articles, provides phenomenological investigations into the relation between embodied selfhood and narrative. More precisely, it investigates this relation in regards to three specifying questions: (1) What is the relation...
This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)
Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler.......Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler....
The purpose of research interviews is to obtain information from different respondents in order to answer a research question. The two main types of research interviews are standardized survey interviews and open interviews. The information obtained should meet scientific requirements. These
Hansen, Mette Sanne; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
for decision makers to systematically test several different outputs of possible solutions in order to prepare for future consequences. The CSA can be a way to evaluate risks and address possible unforeseen problems in a more methodical way than either guessing or forecasting. This paper contributes...... to the decision making in operations and production management by providing new insights into modelling and simulation based on the combined narrative and numerical simulation approach as a tool for strategy making. The research question asks, “How can the CSA be applied in a practical context to support strategy...... making?” The paper uses a case study where interviews and observations were carried out in a Danish corporation. The CSA is a new way to address decision making and has both practical value and further expands the use of strategic simulation as a management tool....
Domigan, Juliane; Glassman, Tavis J.; Miller, Jeff; Hug, Heather; Diehr, Aaron J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to assess a health communication campaign designed to reduce distracted driving among college students within the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing central interviewing techniques, participants were asked qualitative and quantitative items soliciting feedback concerning the efficacy of the messages.…
This paper reports on preliminary qualitative research preceding a randomised ... Results: The caregivers interviewed were all mothers of MHSU who took .... combination: (1) pragmatic reasons; (2) the need to compare ..... treatment partner should contact the participants i.e. through ... notes to verbal face to face messages.
"Teen drama" television programs use sexual scripts that provide a framework for narrating virginity loss (Gagnon & Simon, 1973). Drawing on the work of Carpenter (2005), this study identifies the following sexual scripts in virginity-loss narratives: (a) the abstinence script, which places a high value on virginity and emphasizes delaying virginity loss; (b) the urgency script, which defines virginity as a stigma and virginity loss as necessary to maintain social status and affirm gendered identity; and (c) the management script, which suggests teenagers' sexual behavior is inevitable and focuses on managing the physical, social, and emotional risks associated with virginity loss. Reliance on different scripts resulted in varied meanings of virginity, characteristics of the storylines, consequences of virginity loss, and implications for sexually healthy messages. The narratives included positive components, such as contraception use and portrayals of consensual sex, but also contained problematic elements, such as a lack of female desire and underrepresentation of racial, ethnic, and sexual minority characters. This article suggests that an analysis of the sexual scripts used in virginity-loss narratives provides insight into both the messages about virginity provided to teenagers as well as the social construction of the multiple meanings of virginity.
Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin
During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.
Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul
Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...
Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131
Ryan, Kath; Bissell, Paul; Morecroft, Charles
Part 2 of this paper aims to provide a methodological framework for the study of medication narratives, including a semi-structured interview guide and suggested method of analysis, in an attempt to aid the development of narrative scholarship within pharmacy practice research. Examples of medication narratives are provided to illustrate their diversity and usefulness. The framework is derived from the work of other researchers and adapted for our specific purpose. It comes from social psychology, narrative psychology, narrative anthropology, sociology and critical theory and fits within the social constructionist paradigm. The suggested methods of analysis could broadly be described as narrative analysis and discourse analysis. Examples of medication narratives are chosen from a variety of sources and brief interpretations are presented by way of illustration. Narrative analysis, a neglected area of research in pharmacy practice, has the potential to provide new understanding about how people relate to their medicines, how pharmacists are engaged in producing narratives and the importance of narrative in the education of students. IMPACT OF THE ARTICLE: This article aims to have the following impact on pharmacy practice research: Innovative approach to researching and conceptualising the use of medicines. Introduction of a new theoretical perspective and methodology. Incorporation of social science research methods into pharmacy practice research. Development of narrative scholarship within pharmacy.
Papathomas, Anthony; Smith, Brett; Lavallee, David
Families are considered important in the management and treatment of eating disorders. Yet, rarely has research focused on family experiences of living with an eating disorder. Addressing this gap, this study explores the experiences of an elite 21-year-old triathlete with an eating disorder in conjunction with the experiences of her parents. Family members attended interviews individually on three separate occasions over the course of a year. In line with the narrative approach adopted, whereby stories are considered the primary means to construct experience, interviews encouraged storytelling through an open-ended, participant-led structure. Narrative analysis involved repeated readings of the transcripts, sensitising towards issues of narrative content (key themes) and structure (overarching plot). Family difficulties arose when personal experiences strayed from culturally dominant narrative forms and when family members held contrasting narrative preferences. Suggestions are forwarded as to how an appreciation of eating disorder illness narratives might inform treatment and support. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wang, Qi; Bui, Van-Kim; Song, Qingfang
This study examined the effect of narrative organisation at encoding on long-term episodic memory in a sample of five- to seven-year-old children (N = 113). At an initial interview, children were asked to narrate a story from a picture book. Six months later, they were interviewed again and asked to recall the story and answer a series of direct questions about the story. Children who initially encoded more information in narrative and produced more complete, complex, cohesive and coherent narratives remembered the story in greater detail and accuracy following the six-month interval, independent of age and verbal skills. The relation between narrative organisation and memory was consistent across culture and gender. These findings provide new insight into the critical role of narrative in episodic memory.
Beecher, Constance C.; Hayungs, Lori
Want to send a message that 99% of your audience will read? Many Extension professionals are familiar with using social media tools to enhance Extension programming. Extension professionals may be less familiar with the use of mobile phone text-based marketing tools. The purpose of this article is to introduce SMS (short message system) marketing…
Full Text Available In the article on the basis of analyzing theoretical sources and practical experience some scientists’ works are disclosed, which deal with using and designing digital narratives in future Ukrainian language and literature teachers’ training, to develop a personality’s information and digital competence. It is reported that the themes, which are focused on postgraduate students’ acquainting with digital technologies of studying linguistic subjects at university, in specialized classes in secondary school, and a new type of educational institutions, should be introduced into language and methodological training. The author emphasizes on the relevance and importance of using digital narratives for democratization and humanization, the inspiration of the educational process. Narratives (stories in literary works, letters, confessions, biographies, diaries, comments, portrait sketches, pedagogical aphorisms, scripts, summaries of lessons with notes in the margins and others, biographical and pedagogical narratives provide information about the events, situations, taking into account individual reflexed experience of outstanding teachers. If students have an opportunity to develop skills of making narratives, they will gradually get communicative competences and feeling of confidence in their own ability that are necessary in the life. The works by M. Leshchenko and L. Tymchuk that are devoted to studying biography narratives are overviewed. The author suggests her own works of studying biography narratives of outstanding personalities (O. Zakharenko, I. Ziaziun, N. Voloshyna, L. Matsko and others. Digital narrative is characterized as a dynamic means of sending information messages in which a word, an image and sound are expressed in a joint digital code; as multimedia project that combines text, a picture, audio and video files in a short video clip. It is spoken in detail that digital narratives that are used or made together with students
Endo, T.; Kasahara, H.; Nakagawa, T.
In CCITT, Message Handling Systems (MHS) have been studied from the viewpoint of communications protocol standardization. In addition to MHS services, Message Processing (MP) services, such as image processing, filing and retrieving services, will come into increasing demand in office automation field. These messaging services, including MHS services, can be thought of as Intelligent Messaging (IM) services. IM services include many basic services, optional user facilities and service parameters. Accordingly, it is necessary to deal with these parameters and MP procedures in as systematic and user-friendly a manner as possible. As one step towards realizing a user-friendly IM services interface, the characteristics of IM service parameters are studied and a Visualized Message Interface (VMI) which resembles a conventional letter exchange format is presented. The concept of VMI formation is discussed using the generic document structure concept as well as a Screen Interface and Protocol Interface conversion package
van Krieken, Kobie; Sanders, José
Although narrative journalism has a long history in the Netherlands, it is in recent years being promoted as a ‘new’ genre. This study examines the motives underlying this promotional tactic. To that end, we analyze how narrative journalism is framed in (1) public expressions of the initiatives aimed at professionalization of the genre and (2) interviews with journalists and lecturers in journalism programs. Results indicate that in public discourse on narrative journalism, the genre is frame...
Eerola, Petteri; Mykkänen, Johanna
In this article, we seek to extend understanding of the role of gender in early fatherhood by examining narratives of paternal masculinities, that is, the social and cultural constructions of gendered practices and conventions produced by men on their roles as male parents. The data comprised interviews with 44 Finnish first-time fathers (aged 20-42 years) living in a heterosexual relationship. The narrative of the “decent father,” was identified as the dominant narrative of paternal masculin...
This article draws on interviews with 60 children and young people to explore how they construct narrative accounts of post-divorce family life. Rather than seeking to describe children's experiences as if their accounts are simple factual recollections, the focus of the article is on how young people position themselves in their narratives and the ways in which they construct their past experiences. It is argued that these narratives are multi-layered, often revealing ambivalence and contrad...
Habermas, Tilmann; Döll-Hentschker, Susanne
We ask which are the clinically relevant qualities of narratives in psychotherapy and how they can be measured. On the background of psychoanalytic assumptions and narrative theory, we propose to measure formal narrative processes which stay close to the linguistic surface, because these escape conscious control. We propose five aspects of narratives to be especially sensitive to distortions and therefore prone to change in successful therapies: (1) The actual chronological, stepwise narrating of events, (2) the intentional structuring of events, or emplotment, (3) the immediate evaluation, (4) the reflected interpretation of events, and finally (5) the consistency and completeness of the narrative. For each aspect we discuss ways to measure them. Finally the aspects are illustrated with excerpts from a series of diagnostic interviews. Implications for the analysis of the co-narrative role of the therapist are suggested.
Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie
This study explores the cultured understanding of mental health and mental illnesses among members of Generation Y in China through a narrative approach. Five prominent narratives are identified through the analysis of stories about mental illnesses collected through semistructured interviews with college students. These five narratives feature the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, the fragile victim, the antisocial recluse, and the homosexual. These narratives are gendered, in that women are the primary protagonists in the narrative about the fragile victim, while men are featured prominently in the narratives about the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, and the antisocial recluse. Our study demonstrates that these narratives are based on, and will further reinforce, highly cultural-specific stereotypes and biases about mental illnesses in China. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.
Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip
, characteristics of target populations, interventions and controls, and results data were extracted by two review authors and confirmed by a third author. Primary outcomes of interest were health status and health behaviour outcomes. We also considered patients' and providers' evaluation of the intervention, perceptions of safety, health service utilisation and costs, and potential harms or adverse effects. Because the included studies were heterogeneous in type of condition addressed, intervention characteristics and outcome measures, we did not consider that it was justified to conduct a meta-analysis to derive an overall effect size for the main outcome categories; instead, we present findings narratively. We included four randomised controlled trials involving 1933 participants.For the primary outcome category of health, there was moderate quality evidence from one study that women who received prenatal support via mobile phone messages had significantly higher satisfaction than those who did not receive the messages, both in the antenatal period (mean difference (MD) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.72) and perinatal period (MD 1.19, 95% CI 0.37 to 2.01). Their confidence level was also higher (MD 1.12, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.73) and anxiety level was lower (MD -2.15, 95% CI -3.42 to -0.88) than in the control group in the antenatal period. In this study, no further differences were observed between groups in the perinatal period. There was low quality evidence that the mobile phone messaging intervention did not affect pregnancy outcomes (gestational age at birth, infant birth weight, preterm delivery and route of delivery).For the primary outcome category of health behaviour, there was moderate quality evidence from one study that mobile phone message reminders to take vitamin C for preventive reasons resulted in higher adherence (risk ratio (RR) 1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.74). There was high quality evidence from another study that participants receiving mobile phone
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270......Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270...
This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...
Full Text Available In the early 1980s, Ray Pahl, a sociologist at the University of Kent, and PhD student Claire Wallace conducted interviews examining young people’s experiences of growing up, work, and unemployment on the Isle of Sheppey; these interviews are now deposited at the University of Essex, and this article examines how historians and others might reuse them to interrogate other subjects. The article examines one working-class young woman’s ideas about gender and sexuality in the early 1980s, using the Listening Guide method developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan to probe the individual subjectivity and emotion, as well as the cultural discourses at play in this interview. The interviewee was a young woman who was involved in a culture of casual sex with men “on the ships,” and the article focuses on how she saw the exchanges of money, drink, and gifts between them and herself, and how she avoided seeing her actions as “prostitution.” The analysis shows how in a particular locality in the early 1980s, a particular subculture could allow some young women to sidestep the dominant codes governing young, working-class women’s sexuality and go “on the ships” without seeing this as marking them as “prostitutes”’ or any related category. Thus, the article troubles the ontology of “prostitution” as a category. It also suggests how we can use a single individual’s narrative to offer a broader account of cultures or subcultures, by starting with the individual and examining how one subjectivity navigated and interacted with broader cultural discourses. Finally, this article also offers suggestions about some of the methodological and ethical issues with reusing archived sociological data but argues that it holds rich possibilities.
maila dinia husni rahim
Full Text Available As adults, we often believe that children are only interested with games and children’s ‘stuff’. However research has shown that children do indeed show a greater interest in the world around them, including about politics, elections, and democracy. If we need to teach children about democracy, what are the best methods of teaching democracy to young children? Narrative is considered as an effective medium to convey messages to children and discuss hard subjects. This paper is a theoretical exploration that looks at the narrative approach to teaching and learning about democracy with young children. The researchers has used a literature review to look at why narratives should be used, what narratives should be used and how to use narratives.
Quintero Johnson, Jessie M; Harrison, Kristen; Quick, Brian L
A growing body of evidence suggests that entertainment-education (EE) is a promising health communication strategy. The purpose of this study was to identify some of the factors that facilitate and hinder audience involvement with EE messages. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors introduce a construct they call experiential involvement, which describes the experience of being cognitively and emotionally involved with EE messages and is a product of transportation into an EE text and identification with EE characters. Using an experimental design, the authors also investigated how reports of experiential involvement and health information recall varied depending on the degree to which the educational content was well integrated with the narrative content in EE messages. Findings indicated that integration significantly influenced health information recall. Results indicated that experiential involvement and the perception that the health topic in EE messages was personally relevant predicted participants' systematic processing of the information in EE messages. Contrary to expectation, personal relevance did not predict experiential involvement, and systematic message processing was negatively related to health information recall. Implications for the construction of EE messages and the study of the EE strategy are discussed.
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society......This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society...
Christiansen, Ask Vest
Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping.......Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping....
British painter Francis Bacon (1909-1992) was known for the eloquence with which he talked about his art. He was easy to talk to, and was interviewed countless times by numerous critics. However, when studying Bacon's paintings one soon comes across the published interviews with art critic and curator David Sylvester (1924-2001), who interviewed him as many as 18 times between 1962 and 1986. Art historian Sandra Kisters argues that Sylvester's interviews with Bacon are carefully constructed a...
Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard
relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....
Coulter, Cathy A.
The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…
Popova, Yanna B
This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
Yanna B. Popova
Full Text Available This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
This paper investigates how the narratives Special Educational Needs Co-ordinators (SENCOs) tell can be framed as social, discursive practices and performances of identity by analysing accounts offered in focus groups and life history interviews. I explore how the narratives deployed demonstrate an engagement with a rhetoric about who works in…
Narrative inquiry has a long tradition in qualitative educational research, although it remains a relatively untapped method of investigation in English curriculum and pedagogy studies. This paper presents one experimental narrative approach through the use of song lyrics as a musical method for storying interview data. Working with non-linear and…
This case study examines the narrative form of communication as used by educational leaders and their constituencies for quality school improvement. The school portfolio was used as an alternative accreditation process in one public school of over 800 students. This narrative approach used observation, interviews, and document analysis to validate…
Narratives may be easy to come by, but not everything is worth narrating. What merits a narrative? Here, I follow the lead of narratologists and literary theorists, and focus on one particular proposal concerning the elements of a story that make it narrative-worthy. These elements correspond to features of the natural world addressed by the historical sciences, where narratives figure so prominently. What matters is contingency. Narratives are especially good for representing contingency and accounting for contingent outcomes. This will be squared with a common view that narratives leave no room for chance. On the contrary, I will argue, tracing one path through a maze of alternative possibilities, and alluding to those possibilities along the way, is what a narrative does particularly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
In this paper we will present and discuss an example of an interview characterized by the researcher moving back and forth between two positions. On the one hand the formal position of being an interviewer/researcher using her prepared interview guide as a tool and on the other hand bringing...... in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...... and the interviewee might seduce each other to develop a conversation in which intersections between supervision/coaching and interviewing merge. The example clearly demonstrates how subjectivity influences the knowledge that is being produced in an interview situation, which should be recognized and reflected upon...
Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L.; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H. Yanna; Zhang, Chan
As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS), longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded), variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation), and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data—fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information—than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey. PMID:26060991
Schober, Michael F; Conrad, Frederick G; Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H Yanna; Zhang, Chan
As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS), longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded), variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation), and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data-fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information-than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey.
Michael F Schober
Full Text Available As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS, longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded, variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation, and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data-fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information-than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey.
Calleja, Gordon; Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) 2009 Conference
This paper explores the contentious notion of experiential narrative and proposes the first step in a narrative framework for game environment. It argues for a shift in emphasis from story-telling, the dominant mode of narrative in literature and cinema, to story generation. To this effect the paper forwards a perspective on experiential narrative that is grounded in the specific qualities of the game. This avoids the over-generalization that tends to accompany discussions of experiential nar...
Full Text Available The present study provides a brief overview of the ‘narrative turn’ in counselling and adopts a narrative perspective and analysis to explore Greek mothers’ experiences, and meaning making of involvement in their children’s learning. Data were collected via ten narrative interviews (life-history/biographical narrative. Participants portrayed a variety of conceptions and practices regarding children’s learning and parental participation. Mothers’ stories depicted parental engagement as a complex, multifaceted, flexible and multivoiced construct which can take various forms and is open to change. The findings can inform and enrich counselling practice and prevention efforts including parenting training programmes, family community programmes and home-school link initiatives. Of particular interest for counsellors and therapists are stories of functional and dysfunctional parental involvement practices, school expectations and cultural scripts, the working mother, identity and the process of change.
Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people
Marsh, Heather A; Malik, Fauzia; Shapiro, Eve; Omer, Saad B; Frew, Paula M
We explored the attitudes, opinions, and concerns of African American women regarding influenza vaccination during pregnancy. As influenza immunization coverage rates remain suboptimal in the United States among this population, we elicited message framing strategies for multicomponent interventions aimed at decreasing future incident cases of maternal and neonatal influenza. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 21) were conducted with pregnant African American women at urban OB/GYN clinics who had not received an influenza vaccine. Interviews were transcribed, subjected to intercoder reliability assessment, and content analyzed to identify common thematic factors related to acceptance of the influenza vaccine and health communication message preferences. Four major themes were identified. These were communication approaches, normal vaccine behavior, pregnancy vaccination, and positive versus negative framing. Two strong themes emerged: positively-framed messages were preferred over negatively-framed messages and those emphasizing the health of the infant. Additionally, previous immunization, message source, and vaccine misperceptions also played important roles in decision-making. The majority of women indicated that positively framed messages focusing on the infant's health would encourage them to receive an influenza vaccine. Messages emphasizing immunization benefits such as protection against preterm birth and low birth weight outcomes have potential to overcome widespread negative community perceptions and cultural beliefs. Additionally, messages transmitted via interpersonal networks and social media strongly influence motivation to obtain vaccination during pregnancy. The findings of this study will assist in developing tailored messages that change pregnant African American women's influenza vaccination decision-making to achieve improved coverage.
Full Text Available The vast literature on discourse analysis includes many studies which investigate different types of texts and attempts to identify the properties that characterize them. The present study proposes an analysis of the narrative aspect in decoration discourse with the aim of revealing the textual features and organization that are uniquely utilized by this type of discourse and to clarify facets of similarities and differences from traditional narratives. The study explores the utilization of the problem-solution pattern and the goal-achievement pattern to communicate the intended message. Language with its pragmatic aspects plays an essential role in the construction and interpretation of such narratives. The database includes a variety of narratives extracted from different decoration and household magazines. Sharing experiences through narratives serves a broader function of establishing certain norms and standards to be followed by the majority of the population. By abiding to these norms, individuals strive to be affiliated to a particular social standard; the one intended by authors and publishers of these magazines.
Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike
Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available This paper explored the value of learner’s stories for ESL (English as a Second Language teachers’ teaching and research through a narrative inquiry of the lived English learning experience of a first generation Canadian immigrant. It first reviewed the concept of narrative and the significance of launching narrative inquiry. Then, it presented an interview conducted with the Canadian immigrant as a model of narrative inquiry. Themes of the narrative interview were found to resonate with theoretical issues of SLE (Second Language Education, ESL and SLA (Second Language Acquisition. Considering the themes and the entire interviewing process, this paper closed with a discussion of the benefits of narrative inquiry for ESL teachers’ teaching and research.
In this paper, I analyze the illness stories narrated by a mother and her 13-year-old son as part of an ethnographic study of child chronic pain sufferers and their families. In examining some of the moral, relational and communicative challenges of giving an account of one's pain, I focus on what is left out of some accounts of illness and suffering and explore some possible reasons for these elisions. Drawing on recent work by Judith Butler (Giving an Account of Oneself, 2005), I investigate how the pragmatic context of interviews can introduce a form of symbolic violence to narrative accounts. Specifically, I use the term "genre of complaint" to highlight how anthropological research interviews in biomedical settings invoke certain typified forms of suffering that call for the rectification of perceived injustices. Interview narratives articulated in the genre of complaint privilege specific types of pain and suffering and cast others into the background. Giving an account of one's pain is thus a strategic and selective process, creating interruptions and silences as much as moments of clarity. Therefore, I argue that medical anthropologists ought to attend more closely to the institutional structures and relations that shape the production of illness narratives in interview encounters.
Ali Ali Ziaaddini Dashtkhaki
The Saffarzadeh poetic narrative which is inspired from Iran political and social information in Pahlavi period, often have messages which invite the audience to morality, commitment, human and religious values and propose thoroughly in the form of promising literature since 1368.
This talk will focus on cognitive processes between conscious and subconscious awareness in order to present a slightly different definition of narrative. Rather than simply accepting that narrative is a conscious selection of stories subject to bias, I will argue that biases are the primary structure of narrative and that their success is explained in painfully simple terms.
design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate...... a distinktion between creating, writing and reading. Keywords: personas, scenarios, user-centered design, HCI...
Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne
Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Special Relativity – An Exoteric Narrative ! S R Madhu Rao. Classroom Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 61-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/01/0061-0066 ...
Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Geise, Aaron C; Roberts, Brent W; Robins, Richard W
The present research investigated the longitudinal relations between personality traits and narratives. Specifically, the authors examined how individual differences in 170 college students' narratives of personality change (a) were predicted by personality traits at the beginning of college, (b) related to actual changes and perceived changes in personality traits during college, and (c) related to changes in emotional health during college. Individual differences in narratives of personality trait change told in the 4th year of college fell into 2 dimensions: affective processing, characterized by positive emotions, and exploratory processing, characterized by meaning making and causal processing. Conscientious, open, and extraverted freshmen told exploratory stories of change as seniors. Emotionally healthy freshmen told stories of change that were high in positive affect. Both positive affective and exploratory stories corresponded to change in emotional stability and conscientiousness during college above and beyond the effects of perceived changes in these traits. In addition, both positive affective and exploratory narratives corresponded to increases in emotional health during college independent of the effects of changes in personality traits. These findings improve our understanding of how individuals conceptualize their changing identity over time.
(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...
Hansen, Per Krogh
to the position of A. Nünning. In the final section, a four-category taxonomy for the different textual strategies that establishes unreliable narration is suggested. The headlines for the taxonomy are intranarrational unreliability, internarrational unreliability, intertextual unreliability, and extratextual...
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited BATTLE OF NARRATIVES...from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2012 Author: Lars Ruth Approved by: Prof. Sean F. Everton Thesis Advisor Dr. Hy...are more important than are others. For example, for some, social security and taxes are very important while gun control and LGBT are not. For
Alba Lucy Guerrero
Full Text Available Narrative is a system of understanding that we use to construct and express meaning in our daily lives. The stories we narrate are not justresources for the development and presentation of the individual self; they allow us to see how identity is constructed within social and culturalworlds (Bruner, 1990. Schools and communities play a powerful role in shaping students identities; the ways in which stories are told and theidentities they create are influenced by the environment in which they take place. In this paper, by using excerpts from a conversation I hadwith a High School student in an urban school in Bogotá, I will discuss how narrative analysis can be used to understand the way studentsconstruct their identities within their schools and communities. First, I will present the theoretical contexts linking narrative with self-construction.Next, I will discuss the methodological implications in the process of collecting and representing experiences highlighting the possibilities ofnarrative to make visible the construction of identities. Then pieces of a narrative told in a research interview will be analyzed illustrating differentapproaches of narrative analysis. The paper will conclude with a section that outlines the implications of using narrative in educational research.
Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.
on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...
Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn
There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...
Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....
An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW), and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…
Drawing on narrative inquiry, the present study aims to investigate the trajectory of identity formation of EFL university teachers. Two types of data are collected. One type comes from life histories of Hyland (2014), Nunan (2011) and Widdowson (2009), and the other type comes from semi-structured interviews with three excellent university…
Black, Timothy G.
Research was conducted on the experience of change for participants in a group-based psychotherapy approach called Therapeutic Enactment (TE), which involves the enactment of embodied narratives of participants' past experiences. This study asked the question, "What is your story of change in TE?" The author conducted in-depth interviews with five…
Bagley, Sylvia S.
This study focuses on data collected at "Progressive Secondary School" in Southern California, a high school which uses narrative evaluations and other forms of alternative summative assessment on a school wide basis. Through a survey and personal interviews, students were asked to describe what they liked most and least about the use of…
Full Text Available In this interview Mary-Laure Ryan faces some problems that arise from her definition of «transmedia narrative». Can every semiotic system tell stories? How can we elaborate a definition of «narrative» which accounts both for cognitive and semantic aspects? How can we dispense with the syntactic level if we need a definition of «narrativity» that suits every semiotic system? Answering these questions, Ryan deals with other proposals developed around the same theoretical problems, and points out a thought-provoking argument against Meir Sternberg’s functionalist definition of narrative.
Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J
The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...
Drukteinis, Albert M
Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
What are the links between narrative theories and computing? Narrative works are countless in the digital world: narrative hypertext and hypermedia, interactive fiction, video games, blogs, location-based narrative, etc. They not only form new analytical objects for narrative theories, but also may extend existing narrative theories. One specific type of digital narratives, AI-based Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN), plays a special role in this landscape because it makes use of narrative t...
elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the
Full Text Available This study is a syntactic analysis of text messages in English language used by University of Zimbabwe students. The study specifically focuses on sentences where there are omissions of pronouns, auxiliary verbs and where contractions occur. The study also analyzes the impact of sociolinguistic variables on the sentence structure of English language in text messages. The fifty respondents’ forwarded two messages each from their sent items on their cell phones to the researcher and to understand the factors triggering the syntactic structures the researcher carried out unstructured interviews. The data collected showed that cell phone texting has indeed been affected by the socio-economic factors and these factors trigger omissions of important elements of English language sentence structure such as ,pronouns, auxiliary verbs and contraction of phrases.
Hayles, N Katherine; Pulizzi, James J
Although there has long been a division in studies of consciousness between a focus on neuronal processes or conversely an emphasis on the ruminations of a conscious self, the long-standing split between mechanism and meaning within the brain was mirrored by a split without, between information as a technical term and the meanings that messages are commonly thought to convey. How to heal this breach has posed formidable problems to researchers. Working through the history of cybernetics, one of the historical sites where Claude Shannon's information theory quickly became received doctrine, we argue that the cybernetic program as it developed through second-order cybernetics and autopoietic theory remains incomplete. In this article, we return to fundamental questions about pattern and noise, context and meaning, to forge connections between consciousness, narrative and media. The thrust of our project is to reintroduce context and narrative as crucial factors in the processes of meaning-making. The project proceeds along two fronts: advancing a theoretical framework within which context plays its property central role; and demonstrating the importance of context by analyzing two fictions, Stanislaw Lem's "His Master's Voice" and Joseph McElroy's "Plus," in which context has been deformed by being wrenched away from normal human environments, with radical consequences for processes of meaning-making.
Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed "aversion" to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to the damage illness does to identity and life-trajectory. Underlying these alleged benefits are two key presuppositions: that it is the whole of one's life that is narratively unified, and that one's identity is inextricably bound up with narrative. By letting go of these assumptions, illness narrative advocates can respond to the challenges of narrative aversions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Byrd, Marquita L.; Robinson, Andrea
The interview is a special case of interpersonal communication. It is a communication event with a serious and predetermined purpose with the basic mode of communication being the asking and answering of questions. People are engaged in interviews throughout their lives from the employment setting to the counseling setting. This annotated…
Hass, Michael R.
Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…
Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Freytag, Per Vagn; Nielsen, Suna Løwe
the transformation that neutral research methods go through, we consider an often-used method in business research, which researchers often become familiar with or have opinions about, which is the personal interview. The illustration of how the personal interview can be influenced by three different paradigms lays...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration.......Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration....
Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron
Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…
Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny
Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…
Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)
Blix, Bodil Hansen; Hamran, Torunn; Normann, Hans Ketil
The point of departure for this article is narrative gerontology's conceptualization of life as storied and the assumption that identity development and meaning making do not cease at any age, but rather continue throughout life. We suggest that if identity construction is considered to be a lifelong project, narrative gerontology would benefit from applying analytical perspectives focused on the situated activity of narration. In this article, we apply a three-level positioning analysis to segments of interviews with two elderly Sami women concerning missed opportunities or roads not taken and, more specifically, to narrations about missed opportunities for education. We argue that such narrations should not necessarily be considered expressions of regret or processes of reconciliation but rather as pivotal in here-and-now identity constructions. Narrations about missed opportunities demonstrate that what narrators choose to insert into their life stories is chosen for a purpose and for an audience in a specific interpersonal and discursive context. We suggest that narrative gerontology would benefit from a broader focus on the diversity of sites of engagement in which older adults perform identity constructions. This shift implies moving beyond traditional studies of older adults' life stories and biographical narratives as related in the context of qualitative research interviews (of which the present study of Sami older adults' life stories is indeed an example). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Robert; Appel, Lora; Morra, Dante; Lo, Vivian; Kitto, Simon; Quan, Sherman
Hospitals today are experiencing major changes in their clinical communication workflows as conventional numeric paging and face-to-face verbal conversations are being replaced by computer mediated communication systems. In this paper, we highlight the importance of understanding this transition and discuss some of the impacts that may emerge when verbal clinical conversations are replaced by short text messages. In-depth interviews (n=108) and non-participatory observation sessions (n=260h) were conducted on the General Internal Medicine wards at five academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Canada. From our analysis of the qualitative data, we identified two major themes. De-contextualization of complex issues led to an increase in misinterpretation and an increase in back and forth messaging for clarification. Depersonalization of communication was due to less verbal conversations and face-to-face interactions and led to a negative impact on work relationships. Text-based communication in hospital settings led to the oversimplification of messages and the depersonalization of communication. It is important to recognize and understand these unintended consequences of new technology to avoid the negative impacts to patient care and work relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
in qualitative interviews. I first presented the paper on a conference on life history research at Karlstad University in November 2010. My main purpose was to establish whether a paper discussing the use of time line interviews should be placed in the context of a life history research. The valuable comments......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...
Haase, Niels; Betsch, Cornelia; Renkewitz, Frank
Immunization rates are below the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy established by the World Health Organization. One reason for this are anti-vaccination activists, who use the Internet to disseminate their agenda, frequently by publishing narrative reports about alleged vaccine adverse events. In health communication, the use of narrative information has been shown to be effectively persuasive. Furthermore, persuasion research indicates that the credibility of an information source may serve as a cue to discount or augment the communicated message. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of source credibility on the biasing effect of narrative information regarding the perception of vaccination risks. 265 participants were provided with statistical information (20%) regarding the occurrence of vaccine adverse events after vaccination against a fictitious disease. This was followed by 20 personalized narratives from an online forum on vaccination experiences. The authors varied the relative frequency of narratives reporting vaccine adverse events (35% vs. 85%), narrative source credibility (anti-vaccination website vs. neutral health forum), and the credibility of the statistical information (reliable data vs. unreliable data vs. control) in a between-subjects design. Results showed a stable narrative bias on risk perception that was not affected by credibility cues. However, narratives from an anti-vaccination website generally led to lower perceptions of vaccination risks.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the expressions used to refer to the experience of immersive in narrative games. The starting point is a review of the meanings associated with the suspension of disbelief in literature, cinema and television, challenging the myth of the naïve audience that cannot distinguish between representation and reality. Two characteristics of interactive media narratives – the possibility of agency and the disparities between hardware and software interfaces – reveal the active nature of the audience’s involvement with media representations. It is proposed that, in the case of games, this ability, which allows for simultaneous actions in the world of games and in the real world, is better described as a performance of belief.
Dillard, Amanda J.; Main, Jackie L.
Research suggests that testimonials, or first-person narratives, influence health behavior and health-related decision making, but few studies have examined conceptual factors that may be responsible for these effects. In the current study, older adults who were due for colorectal cancer screening read a message about screening that included a…
Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma
Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228
This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...
Conn, P Jeffrey
Dr Conn is the Lee E Limbird Professor of Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University and Director of the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD). Dr Conn received a PhD in Pharmacology from Vanderbilt in 1986 and pursued postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He served as a professor of Pharmacology at Emory University from 1988 to 2000, before moving to Merck and Co. (PA, USA) as head of the Department of Neuroscience. Dr Conn moved to Vanderbilt University in 2003 where he is the founding director of the VCNDD, with a primary mission of facilitating translation of recent advances in basic science to novel therapeutics. The VCNDD consists of approximately 100 full-time scientists and has advanced novel molecules from four major programs as development candidates for clinical testing with industry partners. Dr Conn has served in editorial positions with multiple international journals and has served the scientific advisory boards of multiple foundations and companies. He has received numerous awards based on the impact of his basic and translational research. Dr Conn's current research is focused on development of novel treatment strategies for schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and other serious brain disorders. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.
Full Text Available This paper characterizes different types of policy narratives that influence the trans-local motion of urban policies and elaborates on their relations. The paper first introduces conceptual and methodological recommendations from policy narrative literature to debates on policy mobility. In an empirical section, it then analyzes narratives that support policies on temporary use of vacant lands and buildings in the German cities of Berlin and Stuttgart. Based on semi-structured interviews with experts and document reviews, the paper finds different, partly competing narratives on temporary use in both case study cities. It identifies their typical elements, categorising them by form and content. Referential narratives are understood as connecters between different cities and influencers of policy mobility. Finally, the paper shows how narratives work with association as well as imagination and thus emphasize the non-factual, yet inherent aspects of relational policy making.
De Silveira, Cybèle; Habermas, Tilmann
Adolescence is a passage from dependence to adult responsibility. Alongside identity development, social-cognitive development, and the ability to construct a life story, adolescents become increasingly aware of both their potential responsibility in an expanded sphere of life and of complex, contextual influences on their lives. This was partially tested in a cross-sectional study, both in terms of linguistic means and content expressed in life narratives. Indicators were defined for narrative agency, grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points, and tested for age differences in relative frequencies in 102 life narratives from age groups of 8, 12, 16, and 20 years, balanced for gender. Narrative grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points increased throughout adolescence. The relative frequency of narrative agency, in contrast, remained constant across age groups. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent development of narrative identity.
Full Text Available Narrative is one of many qualitative methodologies that can be brought to bear in collecting and analysing data and reporting results, though it is not as frequently used as say in case studies. This article provides a window into its use, from the perspective of a researcher who has used it consistently over the past decade to examine early career researcher experience – doctoral students, and those who have completed their degrees and are advancing their careers. This experience has contributed to a robust understanding of the potential of narrative, as well as its limitations. This paper first lays out the broad landscape of narrative research and then makes transparent the thinking, processes and procedures involved in the ten-year narrative study including the potential for creativity that narrative invites. The goal is to engage other researchers to consider exploring the use of narrative – if it aligns with their epistemological stance.
Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara
Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.
Petersen, Kit Stender
In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it become...... the children’s ways of responding to my questions and re-negotiated the positions of interviewer and interviewee.......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...
Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN
Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.
Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura
Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.
Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo
Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.
Hansen, Per Krogh
Per Krogh Hansen brings attention to one of the most discussed narratological concepts in recent years, the ‘unreliable narrator’. In the article »The Dynamics of Unreliable Narration«, Hansen is considering to what extent the question of authorial control or intention is relevant when analysing...... and interpreting unreliable narrators. In the first part of the article, he questions this claimed essentiality of an authorial agent from three different angles: One concerning the border between diegetic and extradiegetic issues. Another with specific focus on unreliable simultaneous narration (first person......, present tense). And a third with attention paid to the role of unreliable narrators in factual narratives. In the article, he proposes a model for describing the different dynamic roles the authorial agent, as well as the empirical reader, plays in different forms of unreliable narration. Here, terms like...
Full Text Available This thematic issue addresses how strategic narratives affect international order. Strategic narratives are conceived of as stories with a political purpose or narratives used by political actors to affect the behavior of others. The articles in this issue address two significant areas important to the study of international relations: how strategic narratives support or undermine alliances, and how they affect norm formation and contestation. Within a post-Cold War world and in the midst of a changing media environment, strategic narratives affect how the world and its complex issues are understood. This special issue speaks to the difficulties associated with creating creative and committed international cooperation by noting how strategic narratives are working to shape the Post-Cold War international context.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...
Full Text Available An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC, the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW, and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
Hoonakker, Peter L T; Carayon, Pascale; Cartmill, Randi S
Secure messaging is a relatively new addition to health information technology (IT). Several studies have examined the impact of secure messaging on (clinical) outcomes but very few studies have examined the impact on workflow in primary care clinics. In this study we examined the impact of secure messaging on workflow of clinicians, staff and patients. We used a multiple case study design with multiple data collections methods (observation, interviews and survey). Results show that secure messaging has the potential to improve communication and information flow and the organization of work in primary care clinics, partly due to the possibility of asynchronous communication. However, secure messaging can also have a negative effect on communication and increase workload, especially if patients send messages that are not appropriate for the secure messaging medium (for example, messages that are too long, complex, ambiguous, or inappropriate). Results show that clinicians are ambivalent about secure messaging. Secure messaging can add to their workload, especially if there is high message volume, and currently they are not compensated for these activities. Staff is -especially compared to clinicians- relatively positive about secure messaging and patients are overall very satisfied with secure messaging. Finally, clinicians, staff and patients think that secure messaging can have a positive effect on quality of care and patient safety. Secure messaging is a tool that has the potential to improve communication and information flow. However, the potential of secure messaging to improve workflow is dependent on the way it is implemented and used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth
Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.
Full Text Available This issue of Designs for Learning features an interview with professor Staffan Selander, who has contributed in important ways to the shaping of the field we talk about as “designs for learning”. In the interview that follows we hope to give some further insights regarding interests, influences and experiences that have formed a background to the development of his theoretical approach to issues concerning education and learning.
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
S. R. S. Varadhan is the recipient of the 2007 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. On May 21, 2007, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Varadhan was interviewed by Martin Raussen of Aalborg University and Christian Skau of the Norwegian University of Science...... and Technology. This interview originally appeared in the September 2007 issue of the European Mathematical Society Newsletter....
Full Text Available This research focuses on the study of Sherlock Holmes character that has been a famous detective icon in the world, where this character then become the main theme interpreted by the museum. The method employed by the museum to “narrate” that particular character is very significant to determine the objective and background for the museum as the exhibition organizer. Narration holds a crucial role to “guide” the understanding of the audiences to a character, or sometimes can make “confusion” to the audience when differentiate whether the character is fiction or non-fiction. By comparing the narration on the permanent displays of Museum of Sherlock Holmes to temporary exhibition display in Museum of London with Sherlock Holmes theme, it can be seen the significance of the relation between narration and interpretation of a character that also determine the message of that museum. Keywords: Narration, interpretation, Sherlock Holmes, museum, exhibition
Full Text Available Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony. The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.
Luís Fernando Morales Morante
Full Text Available This article offers a reflection about the validity of basic concepts that define the grammar and structure of audiovisual discourses and its functionality in current communication processes dominated by digital convergence and interactivity. Also, the article offers a theoretical proposal for measuring the load of messages and its expressive-narrative communicative behavior, that is based on semantic coherence (the element that matches the communicative intention of the sender and receiver's attention.
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Shapiro, Michael A; Kim, Hye Kyung; Bartolo, Danielle; Porticella, Norman
Narrative messages have the potential to convey causal attribution information about complex social issues. This study examined attributions about obesity, an issue characterized by interrelated biological, behavioral, and environmental causes. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three narratives emphasizing societal causes and solutions for obesity or an unrelated story that served as the control condition. The three narratives varied in the extent to which the character in the story acknowledged personal responsibility (high, moderate, and none) for controlling her weight. Stories that featured no acknowledgment and moderate acknowledgment of personal responsibility, while emphasizing environmental causes and solutions, were successful at increasing societal cause attributions about obesity and, among conservatives, increasing support for obesity-related policies relative to the control group. The extent to which respondents were able to make connections between individual and environmental causes of obesity (complex integration) mediated the relationship between the moderate acknowledgment condition and societal cause attributions. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this work for narrative persuasion theory and health communication campaigns.
Mordhorst, Mads; Schwarzkopf, Stefan
’ of the 1970s. It then compares the different conceptualisations of narrative analysis that have emerged in historical research and in management and organisational studies. Finally, this introduction points out various ways in which business history can become enriched if its practitioners become more aware......This article, and the special issue that it introduces, encourages business historians to reflect on the narrative nature of the work they produce. The articles provides an overview of how and why narratives came to occupy such a prominent status during the linguistic and narrative ‘turns...
Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.
We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs
Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Moynihan, Ray; Paulsen, Elizabeth J
Only a small number of previous efforts to describe the experiences of organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), undertake health technology assessments (HTAs), or directly support the use of research evidence in developing health policy (i.e., government support units, or GSUs) have relied on interviews and then only with HTA agencies. Interviews offer the potential for capturing experiences in great depth, particularly the experiences of organizations that may be under-represented in surveys. We purposively sampled organizations from among those who completed a questionnaire in the first phase of our three-phase study, developed and piloted a semi-structured interview guide, and conducted the interviews by telephone, audio-taped them, and took notes simultaneously. Binary or categorical responses to more structured questions were counted when possible. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative description of the themes. We interviewed the director (or his or her nominee) in 25 organizations, of which 12 were GSUs. Using rigorous methods that are systematic and transparent (sometimes shortened to 'being evidence-based') was the most commonly cited strength among all organizations. GSUs more consistently described their close links with policymakers as a strength, whereas organizations producing CPGs, HTAs, or both had conflicting viewpoints about such close links. With few exceptions, all types of organizations tended to focus largely on weaknesses in implementation, rather than strengths. The advice offered to those trying to establish similar organizations include: 1) collaborate with other organizations; 2) establish strong links with policymakers and stakeholders; 3) be independent and manage conflicts of interest; 4) build capacity; 5) use good methods and be transparent; 6) start small and
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students' comprehension during Physical Education lesson: narration versus animation with concurrent narration, during teaching shot put event. Thirty primary school children (boys and girls volunteered to participate in this study. In experiment students listened (narration and viewed (animation with narration the presentation of two shot putting styles. A problem-solving and a retention test were used to evaluate students' comprehension. Results showed that students' comprehension was better when shot putting styles were presented through a mixed model (animation and narration group than a single (narration. The animation with concurrent narration group performed better than the narration group, in problem-solving (M = 4.91, SD = 1.36 and in retention test (M = 5.98, SD = 1.28 t(28 = 1.89 p<0.01. An instructional implication is that pictures with words is more effective way of teaching when they occur continuingly in time, than only words during Physical Education lesson.
This article is a tribute to Michael White, co-founder of narrative therapy, who passed away on 5 April 2008. Michael White and David Epston founded a substantial and ground-breaking psychological movement based on narrative therapy. Michael touched with dignity and changed for the better the lives of thousands.
Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene
This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Broaddus, Michelle R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semistructured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those found to be used in face-to-face communication.
Lu, Amy Shirong
Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants' intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative.
Pischke, Claudia R; Galarce, Ezequiel M; Nagler, Eve; Aghi, Mira; Sorensen, Glorian; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Viswanath, K
In India, tobacco kills 900,000 people every year though the burden of tobacco is faced disproportionately in poorer states such as Bihar. Teachers may be a particularly influential group in setting norms around tobacco use in the Indian context. However, tobacco use among teachers remains high and perceptions of tobacco-related health risks are unexplored. To qualitatively explore perceptions about tobacco use among teachers in Bihar and to examine how risk information may be communicated through a variety of message formats, 12 messages on tobacco health risks varying in formats were tested in focus groups with teachers from Bihar. Participants stated that teachers were already aware of tobacco-related health risks. To further increase awareness of these risks, the inclusion of evidence-based facts in messages was recommended. Communicating risk information using negative emotions had a great appeal to teachers and was deemed most effective for increasing risk perception. Messages using narratives of teachers' personal accounts of quitting tobacco were deemed effective for increasing knowledge about the benefits of quitting. To conclude, messages using evidence-based information, possibly with negative emotions, testimonials with role models and those messages emphasizing self-efficacy in the format of narratives appear to appeal to teachers in Bihar.
Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn Rose; Chesser, Amy K; Paschal, Angelia M; Hart, Traci A; Williams, Katherine S; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna
Adherence to childhood immunization schedules is a function of various factors. Given the increased use of technology as a strategy to increase immunization coverage, it is important to investigate how parents perceive different forms of communication, including traditional means and text-message reminders. To examine current forms of communication about immunization information, parents' satisfaction levels with these communication modes, perceived barriers and benefits to using text messaging, and the ideal content of text messages for immunization reminders. Structured interviews were developed and approved by two Institutional Review Boards. A convenience sample of 50 parents was recruited from two local pediatric clinics. The study included a demographics questionnaire, the shortened form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA), questions regarding benefits and barriers of text communication from immunization providers, and preferred content for immunization reminders. Content analyses were performed on responses to barriers, benefits, and preferred content (all Cohen's kappas > 0.70). Respondents were mostly female (45/50, 90%), white non-Hispanic (31/50, 62%), between 20-41 years (mean = 29, SD 5), with one or two children (range 1-9). Nearly all (48/50, 96%) had an S-TOFHLA score in the "adequate" range. All parents (50/50, 100%) engaged in face-to-face contact with their child's physician at appointments, 74% (37/50) had contact via telephone, and none of the parents (0/50, 0%) used email or text messages. Most parents were satisfied with the face-to-face (48/50, 96%) and telephone (28/50, 75%) communication. Forty-nine of the 50 participants (98%) were interested in receiving immunization reminders by text message, and all parents (50/50, 100%) were willing to receive general appointment reminders by text message. Parents made 200 comments regarding text-message reminders. Benefits accounted for 63.5% of comments (127/200). The
Alex P. Schmid
Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Dr. Alex Schmid dissects the nature of Al Qaeda’s propaganda strategy by looking how it incorporates in its ideological narrative Islam’s sacred texts and traditions and how it manages to link these to widespread contemporary grievances in the Muslim world. Al Qaeda’s survival is tied to the credibility of its narrative “story” rather than the physical survival of its leadership. The Research Paper discusses mainly American and British efforts to challenge the integrative (hence: “single” narrative of Al Qaeda. Current counter-narratives often fall short of reaching objectives due to a lack of credibility – a result of the gap between official Western declaratory policies and actual policies on the ground. Efforts to sell “hearts and minds” products often floundered on policies that lack legitimacy or stood in stark contrast to professed values like adherence to human rights standards, thereby creating perceptions of double standards and hypocrisy. While Al Qaeda’s policies exhibit similar, and in some areas even greater, discrepancies between what is being said and what is being done, these have not been fully exploited. Following the discussion of governmental efforts to counter Al Qaeda’s narrative, findings and suggestions from academia, think tanks, religious scholars and others trying to counter Al Qaeda’s narrative are presented. While it is generally true that counter-narrative work is still in its infancy, the survey of various proposals and programs makes clear that important building blocks for a more creative effort of countering the ideological attraction of Al Qaeda exist. One of the problems with counter-narratives is their defensive and reactive nature and their focus on packaging messages. This paper emphasises the importance of crafting and spreading an alternative narrative. While counter-narratives have to aim at discrediting the exclusive narrative of Al Qaeda
Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef
interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...
van Velthoven, M H M M T; Brusamento, S; Majeed, A; Car, J
The objective of this mixed method systematic review was to assess the scope, effectiveness, acceptability and feasibility of the use of mobile phone messaging for HIV infection prevention, treatment and care. We comprehensively searched the peer-reviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed study quality of included studies (any research design) focusing on mobile phone messaging interventions for HIV care. We present a narrative overview of the results. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: three randomized controlled trials, 11 interventional studies using other study designs and seven qualitative or cross-sectional studies. We also found six on-going trials and 21 projects. Five of the on-going trials and all the above mentioned projects took place in low or middle-income countries. Mobile phone messaging was researched for HIV prevention, appointment reminders, HIV testing reminders, medication adherence and for communication between health workers. Of the three randomized controlled trials assessing the use of short message service (SMS) to improve medication adherence, two showed positive results. Other interventional studies did not provide significant results. In conclusion, despite an extensive search we found limited evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone messaging for HIV care. There is a need to adequately document outcomes and constraints of programs using mobile phone messaging to support HIV care to assess the impact and to focus on best practice.
Full Text Available One feature of Julien Green's 1936 novel Minuit is its examination ofthe problematical relationship between narrative discourse and its receiver. In the text, various characters act as narrators who order and assign a temporal structure to real or fictive events and rely on a narratee's receptivity to discover the meaning intended. In view of the attention accorded in the text to the process of story-telling, one may conclude that Green intended his work to interrogate the nature of its own narrativity. In addition, Green's character, the enigmatic Edme, is a mystic by reason of language, evoking through speech in himself and in others a glimpse of ineffable "truths." In him is resolved the apparently insoluble conflict between religious seeker and narrator-esthete, thus legitimizing the work of the novelist Green, "a mystic who never ceased to repress the language of the poet." What remains to be answered is whether Edme emerges as a simple illusionist-charlatan or whether he is given the role of a narrator who can speak a metaphysical language. The argument of this essay is that rehabilitating what for Green is the epistemological function of narrative does not depend on designating as real or unreal the world to which narrative alludes, but on establishing a pact between the receiver and sender of a message whose truth is irrelevant.
The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson
We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....
Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…
Wall, Miranda Wakeman
The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…
Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.
The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)
There is large geographic variation in the public's views about climate change in the United States. Research now shows that climate messages can influence public beliefs about the scientific consensus on climate change, particularly in the places that are initially more skeptical.
Campbell, T A; Wright, J C; Huston, A C
An experiment was designed to assess the effects of formal production features and content difficulty on children's processing of televised messages about nutrition. Messages with identical content (the same script and visual shot sequence) were made in two forms: child program forms (animated film, second-person address, and character voice narration with sprightly music) and adult program forms (live photography, third-person address, and adult male narration with sedate background music). For each form, messages were made at three levels of content difficulty. Easier versions were longer, more redundant, and used simpler language; difficult versions presented information more quickly with less redundancy and more abstract language. Regardless of form or difficulty level, each set of bits presented the same basic information. Kindergarten children (N = 120) were assigned to view three different bits of the same form type and difficulty embedded in a miniprogram. Visual attention to child forms was significantly greater than to adult forms; free and cued recall scores were also higher for child than for adult forms. Although all recall and recognition scores were best for easy versions and worst for difficult versions, attention showed only minor variation as a function of content difficulty. Results are interpreted to indicate that formal production features, independently of content, influence the effort and level of processing that children use to understand televised educational messages.
This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…
Bavelas, J B; Coates, L; Johnson, T
A collaborative theory of narrative story-telling was tested in two experiments that examined what listeners do and their effect on the narrator. In 63 unacquainted dyads (81 women and 45 men), a narrator told his or her own close-call story. The listeners made 2 different kinds of listener responses: Generic responses included nodding and vocalizations such as "mhm." Specific responses, such as wincing or exclaiming, were tightly connected to (and served to illustrate) what the narrator was saying at the moment. In experimental conditions that distracted listeners from the narrative content, listeners made fewer responses, especially specific ones, and the narrators also told their stories significantly less well, particularly at what should have been the dramatic ending. Thus, listeners were co-narrators both through their own specific responses, which helped illustrate the story, and in their apparent effect on the narrator's performance. The results demonstrate the importance of moment-by-moment collaboration in face-to-face dialogue.
Reese, Elaine; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie; Wang, Qi; McAnally, Helena
Adolescents' intergenerational narratives--the stories they tell about their mothers' and fathers' early experiences--are an important component of their identities (Fivush & Merrill, 2016; Merrill & Fivush, 2016). This study explored adolescents' intergenerational narratives across cultures. Adolescents aged 12 to 21 from 3 cultural…
Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.
Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune; Arief, Mohammed
In this article we explore some of the methodological problems related to characterizing cognitive aspects of involvement with interactive narratives using well known EEG/ERP techniques. To exemplify this, we construct an experimental EEG-ERP set-up with an interactive narrative that considers th...
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Dreisbach, Caitlin
This study attempts to advance theorizing about health policy advocacy with combinations of narrative focus and a statistical map in an attempt to increase state legislators' support for policies to address the issue of obesity by reducing food deserts. Specifically, we examine state legislators' responses to variations in narrative focus (individual vs. community) about causes and solutions for food deserts in U.S. communities, and a statistical map (presence vs. absence) depicting the prevalence of food deserts across the United States. Using a Web-based randomized experiment (N=496), we show that narrative focus and the statistical map interact to produce different patterns of cognitive response and support for policies to reduce the prevalence of food deserts. The presence of a statistical map showing the prevalence of food deserts in the United States appeared to matter only when combined with an individual narrative, offsetting the fact that the individual narrative in isolation produced fewer thoughts consistent with the story's persuasive goal and more counterarguments in opposition to environmental causes and solutions for obesity than other message conditions. The image did not have an impact when combined with a story describing a community at large. Cognitive responses fully mediated message effects on intended persuasive outcomes. We conclude by discussing the study's contributions to communication theory and practice.
Jeppesen, Jørgen; Rahbek, Jes; Gredal, Ole
. Objective: To explore how narrative journalistic stories can communicate experiences of daily living with ALS and compensate the progressive loss of the ability to speak. Methods: Twenty-four interviews at home with six people diagnosed with ALS were transformed into narrative journalistic stories. A formal...
Tackney, Charles T.; Chappell, Stacie; Sato, Toyoko
data and founder interviews. The individuals interviewed were identified through preliminary inquiry and from archival data. As a complement of and extension to this inclusive founding narrative, we conducted a content and discourse analysis of the 15 years of MSR Best Papers and Carolyn Dexter Best...
ten Hoor Gill A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.
Vakoch, Douglas A.
As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.
Price, Sheri L; McGillis Hall, Linda; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Pierce, Bridget
This article describes findings from one stage of a longitudinal study of the professional socialization experiences of Millennial nurses as they prepared for graduation and transition to practice. This study employed an interpretive narrative methodology guided by Polkinghorne's theory of narrative identity. Analysis of face-to-face interviews and journal entries by Millennial nursing students uncovered the formal professional socialization experiences over four years of nursing education. Participants include six Millennial nursing student participants (born after 1980) interviewed approximately one-month aftergraduation. These six participants are a voluntary subset of twelve who were interviewed prior to beginning their nursing studies, the analysis of which is captured in Price et al. (2013a) and Price et al. (2013b). Narrative analysis of the post-graduation interviews resulted in three main themes: 'Real Nursing: Making a Difference', 'The Good Nurse: Defined by Practice' and 'Creating Career Life Balance'. Graduate nurses strive to provide excellent nursing care as they transition into the workforce and identify a need for ongoing peer and professional supports to assist their ongoing professional socialization. Ongoing formal socialization and professional development is required to support the transition and retention of new nurse graduates in the workplace and the profession. Millenial generation nurses seek opportunities for career mapping, goal setting and formal mentorship by role models and peers to actualize their professional aspirations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica
This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…
Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis
Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…
Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine
Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…
von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey
This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...
Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…
This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…
Jones, Karyn Dayle
In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…
van der Tuin, I.; Dolphijn, R.
This book is the first monograph on the theme of “new materialism,” an emerging trend in 21st century thought that has already left its mark in such fields as philosophy, cultural theory, feminism, science studies, and the arts. The first part of the book contains elaborate interviews with some of
This interview with Milton Friedman addresses his economic policies and how they might improve American public education. Highlights include teachers' unions and their negative impact on education, private schools and tax relief, the Edison Project, privatization of educational services, special needs students, California's Educational Freedom…
Beatrice de Graaf
Full Text Available Governments produce both deliberate and involuntary (and less conscious narratives when countering terrorism. The thesis of this article is that such unintended messages can be much more powerful and consequential than is realized; in fact, they can completely contradict the intended official 'counter-narrative'. To substantiate this hypothesis, the author looks at the experience of the German Federal Republic in the 1970s and beyond when state and society were confronted with the Red Army Faction (RAF and similar left-wing "revolutionaries" like those of the 2nd of June Movement or the Red Zora.
Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W.
In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women's emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular…
Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi
Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.
Peacock, Nadine R; Altfeld, Susan; Rosenthal, Allison L; Garland, Caitlin E; Massino, Jill M; Smith, Sherri L; Rowe, Hillary L; Wagener, Sarah E
The 1994 Back to Sleep public education campaign resulted in dramatic reductions in sleep-related infant deaths, but comparable progress in recent years has been elusive. We conducted qualitative analyses of recent safe sleep campaigns from 13 U.S. cities. Goals were to (a) determine whether the campaigns reflect the full range of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2011 safe sleep recommendations, (b) describe tone and framing of the messages (e.g., use of fear appeals), (c) describe targeting/tailoring of messages to priority populations, and (d) ascertain whether the campaigns have been evaluated for reach and/or effectiveness. Methods included computer-assisted analyses of campaign materials and key informant interviews. All campaigns included "ABC" (Alone, Back, Crib) messaging; many ignored other AAP recommendations such as breastfeeding, room-sharing, immunizations, and avoiding smoke exposure. Campaigns frequently targeted priority populations such as African Americans. Fear appeals were used in three quarters of the campaigns, and 60% of the fear-based campaigns used guilt/blame messaging. We did not find published evaluation data for any of the campaigns. More attention is needed in public education campaigns to the full range of AAP recommendations, and evaluations are needed to determine the impact of these interventions on knowledge, behavior, and health outcomes.
Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pattengale, Nicholas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carvey, Bradley John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
In cybersecurity forensics and incident response, the story of what has happened is the most important artifact yet the one least supported by tools and techniques. Existing tools focus on gathering and manipulating low-level data to allow an analyst to investigate exactly what happened on a host system or a network. Higher-level analysis is usually left to whatever ad hoc tools and techniques an individual may have developed. We discuss visual representations of narrative in the context of cybersecurity incidents with an eye toward multi-scale illustration of actions and actors. We envision that this representation could smoothly encompass individual packets on a wire at the lowest level and nation-state-level actors at the highest. We present progress to date, discuss the impact of technical risk on this project and highlight opportunities for future work.
Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee
Health message sponsorship at community sport and arts events is an established component of a health promotion settings approach. Recent increases in commercial sponsorship of sport and community events has swelled competition for consumer attention and potentially reduced the impact of health message sponsorship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate awareness, understandings and behavioural intentions of health messages promoted at sponsored community sport and arts events. Interview and self-administered surveys were completed by 2259 adults attending one of 29 sport and arts events held in Western Australia between 2008 and 2013. The surveys measured participant awareness of the health message promoted at the event, as well as comprehension, acceptance and behavioural intention as a result of exposure to health messages. Awareness of the sponsored health message was 58% across all sponsored events, with high levels of comprehension (74%) and acceptance (92%) among those aware of the health message. Forming behavioural intentions was significantly related to the type of sponsored message promoted at the event, being female and over 40 years of age. Messages about sun protection and promoting mental health were the most likely to result in behavioural intention. Health message sponsorship, at least within a comprehensive sponsorship program, appears to remain an effective health promotion strategy for generating awareness and behavioural intention among people attending sport and arts events. Remaining relevant within a modern sponsorship environment appears closely aligned to selecting health messages that promote behavioural action relevant to the sponsored event that are also supported by broader health promotion campaigns.
Jou, Judy; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E
This study explored the use of strategic messaging by proponents of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation to influence public opinion and shape the policy process, emphasizing the experiences in El Monte and Richmond, California, with SSB tax proposals in 2012. We conducted 18 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders about the use and perceived effectiveness of messages supporting and opposing SSB taxation, knowledge sharing among advocates, message dissemination, and lessons learned from their messaging experiences. The protax messages most frequently mentioned by respondents were reinvesting tax revenue into health-related programs and linking SSB consumption to health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. The most frequently mentioned antitax messages addressed negative economic effects on businesses and government restriction of personal choice. Factors contributing to perceived messaging success included clearly defining "sugar-sweetened beverage" and earmarking funds for obesity prevention, incorporating cultural sensitivity into messaging, and providing education about the health effects of SSB consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has faced significant challenges in gaining political and public support. Future campaigns can benefit from insights gained through the experiences of stakeholders involved in previous policy debates.
Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez
Full Text Available The present study has the intention of establishing the identification that a group of depressed male subjects does with the narrative prototype of depression compared to a group of depressed female subjects. The sample was made of 65 depressive subjects and 65non depressive subjects for every group according to the genderwith ages between 16 and 40 years. The participants were derived from different centers of psychological attention of the city of Bucaramanga. An additional inclusion criterion was not applied except reading comprehension, which facilitates them the handling of the applied psychological instruments. The study followed a transverse correlational design. The procedure included the application ofthe SCID structured interview, the Hamilton test and the narrative prototype of depression of Gonçalves. The Ji squared statistic wasapplied to confirm the hypotheses of identification with the narrative prototype of depression in the depressive subjects and the opposite in those not depressed in every group according to the gender by means of a study of cases and controls. The findings demonstrate that the male and female group of depressed subjects, in comparison, identify with the narrative prototype of depression, while those not depressed don’t. It is concluded that both, depressed males and females of the study identify with the narrative prototype of depression unless in top grades in the second group.
Charguéraud , Arthur
International audience; Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise ...
Recognizing clinical medicine as a narrative undertaking fortified by learnable skills in understanding stories has helped doctors and teachers to face otherwise vexing problems in medical practice and education in the areas of professionalism, medical interviewing, reflective practice, patient-centered care, and self-awareness. The emerging practices of narrative medicine give clinicians fresh methods with which to make contact with patients and to come to understand their points of view. This essay provides a brief review of narrative theory regarding the structure of stories, suggesting that clinical texts contain and can reveal information in excess of their plots. Through close reading of the form and content of two clinical texts—an excerpt from a medical chart and a portion of an audio-taped interview with a medical student—and a reflection on a short section of a modernist novel, the author suggests ways to expand conventional medical routines of recognizing the meanings of patients' situations. The contributions of close reading and reflective writing to clinical practice may occur by increasing the capacities to perceive and then to represent the perceived, thereby making available to a writer that which otherwise might remain out of awareness. A clinical case is given to exemplify the consequences in practices of adopting the methods of narrative medicine. A metaphor of the activated cellular membrane is proposed as a figure for the effective clinician/patient contact. PMID:22373630
Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele; Thiele, Ulrike; Breuning, Martina; Haug, Stephanie
To understand doctors' impacts on the emotional coping of patients, their stories about encounters with doctors are used. These accounts reflect meaning-making processes and biographically contextualized experiences. We investigate how patients characterize their doctors by voicing them in their stories, thus assigning them functions in their coping process. 394 narrated scenes with reported speech of doctors were extracted from interviews with 26 patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 with chronic pain. Constructed speech acts were investigated by means of positioning and narrative analysis, and assigned into thematic categories by a bottom-up coding procedure. Patients use narratives as coping strategies when confronted with illness and their encounters with doctors by constructing them in a supportive and face-saving way. In correspondence with the variance of illness conditions, differing moral problems in dealing with doctors arise. Different evaluative stances towards the same events within interviews show that positionings are not fixed, but vary according to contexts and purposes. Our narrative approach deepens the standardized and predominantly cognitive statements of questionnaires in research on doctor-patient relations by individualized emotional and biographical aspects of patients' perspective. Doctors should be trained to become aware of their impact in patients' coping processes.
... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...
Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan
University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...
Vries, de B.; Somers, L.J.A.M.
A process model is described for exchanging information in the building industry. In this model participants send and receive messages. On receipt of a message an activity is executed if all required information is available. Otherwise a message will be sent to another participant to obtain the
Full Text Available The first part of the interview deals with the education of Herwig Wolfram in Wien and Los Angeles (one year and the relationship with the scholars who influenced him more (H. von Fichtenau, G.B. Ladner, the identification of the study of kingship and the choice of combining constantly the historical with the philological method. The interview then turns to the encounter with R. Wenskus and the theory of the ethnogenesis and the impact of this encounter on the studies of Wolfram and ultimately on the “Viennese” scholars. Another part is devoted to the book on the Goths and to the developments of the "Wien school" in relation to the study of early medieval peoples of Europe and to participation in international debate, very vibrant, on the subject. Also taken into consideration the themes of kingship, the local history, the "auxiliary disciplines" and historiographical communication and finally how research in organized and evaluated in Austria.
Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.
, an amount of control was required over the nature of those experiences. With these requirements, a hybrid study was designed by deconstructing the conceptualization of "the experiment" and utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods. The resulting study involved the following: a within......-subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods. Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......, and afterwards when they were asked to recall and compare these situations in open-ended questionnaires and interviews structured using Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology. Having completed the study using this mixed method(ology) approach, I discuss the effectiveness of this approach, and where the approach...
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character...... of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process....
Neville, Stephen; Kushner, Bernie; Adams, Jeffery
Explore the coming out narratives in a group of older gay men. A narrative gerontological approach was employed to explore the coming out narratives of older gay men. Semi-structured digitally recorded individual interviews were undertaken with 12 gay men aged between 65 and 81 years who lived in the community. Data were analysed using a narrative data analytic process. Three collective narratives related to the coming out of older gay men were identified: 'early gay experiences', 'trying not to be gay' and 'acceptance'. Older gay men come from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. However, they all grew up in an era where same-sex attraction was a criminal offence. The path to accepting being a gay man was individualised and stressful for these participants. Consequently health and social service providers need to support the ongoing development of resilience and provide a person-centred approach to care that promotes wellbeing. © 2015 AJA Inc.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Smith, Carolyn; Mazurczyk, Jill; Thomas, Destini; Ramirez, Patricia; McNealy, Kim; Thomas, Jade; Martsolf, Donna S
Narrative therapy, an approach based on the reauthoring of life narratives, may be a useful psychotherapeutic strategy for youth who have experienced dating violence. A cornerstone of narrative therapy is the concept of unique outcomes, which are moments that stand in contrast to a client's otherwise problem-saturated narratives. The purpose of this study was to identify and categorize unique outcomes embedded in narratives about adolescent dating violence. Text units representing unique outcomes were extracted from transcripts of interviews with 88 young adults who had experienced dating violence and were categorized using standard content analytic techniques. Six categories of unique outcome stories were identified: facing-facts stories, standing-up-for-myself stories, cutting-it-off stories, cutting-'em-loose stories, getting-back-on-track stories, and changing-it-up stories. This typology of unique outcomes can inform clinicians who work with clients who have a history of adolescent dating violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Krayer, Anne; Seddon, Diane; Robinson, Catherine A; Gwilym, Hefin
The impact of child sexual abuse on the adult self is not yet clearly understood. We explored adult perspectives through the use of narrative interviews (N = 30). Three key themes or views of self were identified in all narratives to varying degrees: the worthless self, the self as unknown, and the potential/developing self. Ambivalence and tension were present in all narratives. Individuals were challenged to integrate the sexual abuse experience in a constructive way and develop a more coherent perception of the self. The narrative method highlighted the dynamic nature of peoples' experiences at the same time recognizing that the narratives themselves are in progress. Reactions to disclosure, social support, and interpersonal connections are crucial at every turn.
Perrier, Marie-Josée; Smith, Brett M; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
Few individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) engage in the recommended amount of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Yet little is known about how, and why, active individuals engage in specific types of LTPA. This study explored how a unique narrative environment and disability narratives motivated individuals with SCI to engage in LTPA. Fourteen individuals with SCI from a physical activity program participated in approximately hour-long interviews. Interviews were then subjected to a narrative analysis. Individuals who used a restitution narrative (n = 6) were motivated to engage in functional LTPA because of the desire to maintain the body and restore the past self. The individual who used the chaos narrative (n = 1) preferred solitary LTPA as exposure to others with SCI was a constant reminder of the lost, pre-injury self. Individuals who used a quest narrative (n = 7) explored LTPA options that fit with their interests; these individuals were open to new types of LTPA, such as sport and outdoor recreation. The plot of three disability narratives can all motivate the pursuit of LTPA; however, not all types of LTPA are seen as equal. LTPA interventions can be enhanced through the lessons learned from this unique type of environment. Despite individuals' views about their disability, they can still be motivated to engage in routine LTPA. Different theoretical determinants, such as health or social benefits, hold different relevance for LTPA among individuals with differing disability narratives. The environment provided by practitioners can therefore elicit some stories of SCI while stifling others. Open narrative environment will attract individuals to listen and maintain involvement in LTPA.
Human Resources Division
The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...
Nasr, Nasrin; Mawson, Susan; Wright, Peter; Parker, Jack; Mountain, Gail
Chronic illness models are normally used to explain and predict the experience of living with a long-term condition. The aim of this study was to present the findings of narrative interviews with stroke survivors and their family carers to understand their experiences of stroke. We interviewed five people with stroke and three family carers from the United Kingdom. We used thematic analysis to generate themes from their narrative accounts and then linked them to broader theoretical perspectives while influenced by the concept of reinterpretation of life. The narrative accounts of participants are mainly structured based on how their changed bodies poststroke changed their identities and roles and consequently their relationships with others. In this study, we underline the need for using methods like narrative to explain strategies that people use to make sense of their experiences of living with a long-term condition such as stroke.
Adikusuma, Wirawan; Qiyaam, Nurul
Poor adherence and a lack of understanding of medication instructions for oral antidiabetic use are key factors that inhibit the control of glycemic levels. The aforementioned situation needs intervention to improve medication adherence and the therapy. This study was conducted with a quasi-experimental design with prospective data collection. The subjects of this study were 50 outpatients with type 2 diabetes melitus (T2DM) who had received oral antidiabetic medicine therapy at least six months prior to adherence measurement. The patients were classified into two groups-the control group and the intervention group. The intervention group received Short Message Service (SMS) messages of diabetes education, while the control group did not. Data collection was conducted by doing interviews and administering the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) questionnaire. The results showed the increase in adherence in the intervention group as 1.15 ± 1.04 and that in the control group as 0.72 ± 0.90. These results indicated that there were significant differences in MMAS score between the control and intervention groups ( p < 0.05). The decrease in fasting blood glucose and glucose measured 2 h postprandially was greater in the intervention group than that in the control group. It was concluded that the provision of education through SMS had a positive effect on medication adherence and glycemic levels.
Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger
-planned subgroup analyses based on the type of message (screening, prevention, and treatment). The primary outcome was behaviour. We did not assess any adverse outcomes. We included 35 studies involving 16,342 participants (all health consumers) and reporting 51 comparisons.In the context of attribute framing, participants in one included study understood the message better when it was framed negatively than when it was framed positively (1 study; SMD -0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.94 to -0.22); moderate effect size; low quality evidence). Although positively-framed messages may have led to more positive perception of effectiveness than negatively-framed messages (2 studies; SMD 0.36 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.85); small effect size; low quality evidence), there was little or no difference in persuasiveness (11 studies; SMD 0.07 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.37); low quality evidence) and behavior (1 study; SMD 0.09 (95% CI -0.14 to 0.31); moderate quality evidence).In the context of goal framing, loss messages led to a more positive perception of effectiveness compared to gain messages for screening messages (5 studies; SMD -0.30 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10); small effect size; moderate quality evidence) and may have been more persuasive for treatment messages (3 studies; SMD -0.50 (95% CI -1.04 to 0.04); moderate effect size; very low quality evidence). There was little or no difference in behavior (16 studies; SMD -0.06 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.03); low quality evidence). No study assessed the effect on understanding. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, the available low to moderate quality evidence suggests that both attribute and goal framing may have little if any consistent effect on health consumers' behaviour. The unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Future research needs to investigate these conditions.
In this article I apply the concept of positioning to the analysis of 15 initial psychiatric interviews. I argue that through their questions the psychiatrists-in-training impose positions requiring the patients to gaze at themselves and their actual problems from particular perspectives. I point to three such positions: (a) the position of the observing assessor, from which it is expected that the patients will make a detached assessment of themselves or their problems, (b) the position of the informing witness, which requires the patients only to verify the information about themselves, and (c) the marginal one, the position of the experiencing narrator, from which talk about experiences and problems is expected. I explore the roots and consequences of the positions, with particular attention toward objectivization of the patients' experiences in the dominant witness and assessor positions. I conclude with a discussion about the medical model in psychiatry.
Full Text Available This article describes the methodology and the outcomes of an empirical study of conflict narratives. The narratological analysis deployed narratological categories in the structuralist tradition based on Genette and was conducted with the help of the text annotation tool CATMA. The analysis aimed at covering as many narratological phenomena as possible by establishing 14 fields of narratological phenomena that were annotated in a corpus of 39 factual narratives about situations at the workplace with and without conflicts. The evaluation of approximately 28,000 annotations brought to light a series of interrelations between narratological phenomena and the presence or absence of conflicts in the narratives. Additionally, this approach led to the identification of some oversights of narrative theory by detecting hitherto unnoticed interrelations among narratological concepts.
ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; K?hninger, Constanze; K?lgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Sch?tt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo
Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence th...
Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual
Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad
Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...
Kozlowski, L T; Goldberg, M E; Sweeney, C T; Palmer, R F; Pillitteri, J L; Yost, B A; White, E L; Stine, M M
The purpose of this study was to examine in a systematic, controlled fashion the reactions of smokers to scientifically correct information about the risks of smoking Light cigarettes (about 6-15 mg tar by the FTC method). Random-digit dialing, computer-assisted telephone interviews were used to locate daily smokers of Light cigarettes. In an experimental design, smokers were randomly assigned to listen (n = 293) or not (n = 275) to a persuasive simulated radio message on the risks of Light cigarettes; 108 of those who did not listen to the message in the first part of the interview were played the message in the second part, to evaluate some repeated-measures effects. Those who heard the message were more likely to report that one Light cigarette could give a smoker the same amount of tar as one Regular cigarette and that Light cigarettes were more dangerous: 55% said the message made them think more about quitting and 46% said the message increased the amount they wanted to quit; 42% said that after hearing the message they thought Light cigarettes were more dangerous. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the message acted to increase intention to quit smoking by increasing the desire to quit smoking. Seventy-three per cent of the smokers agreed that it was important to play such messages widely on the radio; 77% agreed that there should be a warning on packs that vent blocking increases tar; 61% agreed that the location of filter vents should be marked. The majority of smokers of Light cigarettes seem to value being informed that Light cigarettes are as dangerous for them as Regular cigarettes, and this information increases their intentions to quit smoking.
In this interview conducted by educator Arnold Dodge, education historian Diane Ravitch discusses what's wrong with the agenda of the "corporate reform movement." She notes that a current obsession with testing and a persistent blaming of teachers is subverting learning for students. The emphasis on competition, entrepreneurship, and…
Avdi, Evrinomy; Georgaca, Eugenie
This paper is a review of studies which utilise the notion of narrative to analyse psychotherapy. Its purpose is to systematically present this diverse field of research, to highlight common themes and divergences between different strands and to further the development and integration of narrative research in psychotherapy. The paper reviews studies which employ an applied textual analysis of narratives produced in the context of psychotherapy. Criteria for inclusion of studies are, firstly, the analysis of therapeutic and therapy-related texts and, secondly, the adoption of a narrative psychological perspective. The studies were examined on the basis of the notion of narrative they employ and the aspects of client narratives they focus on, and were grouped accordingly in the review. The majority of the studies reviewed assume a constructivist approach to narrative, adopt a representational view of language, focus primarily on client micro-narratives and relate to cognitive-constructivist and process-experiential psychotherapeutic approaches. A smaller group of studies assume a social constructionist approach to narrative and a functional view of language, focus on micro-narratives, highlight the interactional and wider social aspects of narrative and relate to postmodern trends in psychotherapy. The range of conceptualisations of narrative in the studies reviewed, from a representational psychological view to a constructionist social view, reflects tensions within narrative psychology itself. Moreover, two trends can be discerned in the field reviewed, narrative analysis of therapy, which draws from narrative theory and utilises the analytic approaches of narrative research to study psychotherapy, and analyses of narrative in therapy, which study client narratives using non-narrative qualitative methods. Finally, the paper highlights the need for integration of this diverse field of research and urges for the development of narrative studies of psychotherapy
As the interest in graphic medicine grows, health communicators have started engaging readers with compelling visual and textual accounts of health and illness, including via comic books. One context where comics have shown promise is cancer communication. This brief report presents an early example of graphic medicine developed by the American Cancer Society. "Ladies … Wouldn't It Be Better to Know?" is a comic book produced in the 1960s to provide the public with lay information about the Pap test for cervical cancer prevention and detection. An analysis of a key narrative attribute, plot development, illustrates the central role that perceived barriers played in this midcentury public health message, a component that remains a consideration of cancer communication design today. This case study of an early graphic narrative identifies promising cancer message features that can be used to address and refute barriers to cervical cancer screening and connects contemporary research with historical efforts in public health communication.
Douglas, K; Carless, D
Despite its potential to illuminate psychological processes within socio-cultural contexts, examples of narrative research are rare in sport psychology. In this study, we employed an analysis of narrative to explore two women's stories of living in, and withdrawing from, professional tournament golf gathered through life history interviews conducted over 6 years. Our findings suggest that immersion in elite sport culture shaped these women's identities around performance values of single-mind...
Collard, Sarah; Marlow, C.
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.Research has presented the benefits of and barriers to exercise for people with epilepsy through quantitative means. However, individual experiences through qualitative investigations have been absent. This research will present the narratives of people with epilepsy exercising over time and, as a result, develop further understanding of the psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy. Four interviews were conducted over the course of one year (one every three to four ...
Full Text Available Counter-terrorist practitioners and policy makers appear to be very interested in narrative. They often describe the worldview of violent Islamist groups and movements as the ‘jihadi narrative’, while their efforts to confront terrorist propaganda are usually labelled as ‘counter-narrative’ or ‘alternative narrative’. However, while the counter-narrative approach has gained widespread acceptance in governments, think-tanks and civil society organisations, it is built on very shaky theoretical and empirical foundations. Some valuable theoretical contributions to the study of violent extremist narrative have been made by psychologists in particular, but there is one discipline which is conspicuous by its absence from the field: literary studies. This paper makes a case for the value of studying violent extremist narratives as narratives in the literary sense. By employing the tools and techniques of literary criticism, violent extremist communication can be revealed as not only potentially persuasive, but also creative and aesthetically appealing: terrorists inspire their followers, they don’t merely persuade them. Understanding the creative sources of this inspiration is vital if counter-narrative is to succeed in presenting an alternative to the propaganda of violent extremist groups.
This article analysed the different narratives implied in Philemon by utilising the narrative therapeutic approach, as developed by Epston and White (1990). A dominant narrative (the harsh treatment of slaves in the early Christian environment) and a challenging narrative (a more humane conduct of slaves) were clearly ...
Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith
Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.
Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka
A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.
Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl
Twitter is a popular micro-blogging service on theWeb, where people can enter short messages, which then become visible to some other users of the service. While the topics of these messages varies, there are a lot of messages where the users express their opinions about some companies or their products. These messages are a rich source of information for companies for sentiment analysis or opinion mining. There is however a great obstacle for analyzing the messages directly: as the company n...
Burleigh, Scott C.
This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A
This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.
Full Text Available This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718 to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.
van Krieken, Kobie; Sanders, José
Although narrative journalism has a long history in the Netherlands, it is in recent years being promoted as a 'new' genre. This study examines the motives underlying this promotional tactic. To that end, we analyze how narrative journalism is framed in (1) public expressions of the initiatives aimed at professionalization of the genre and (2) interviews with journalists and lecturers in journalism programs. Results indicate that in public discourse on narrative journalism, the genre is framed as moving , essential , and as high quality journalism . These frames indicate that the current promotion of narrative journalism as 'new' can be seen as a strategy that journalists apply to withstand the pressures they are facing in the competition with new media. These frames are deepened in the interviews with lecturers and practitioners, who frame narrative journalism as a dangerous game , a paradigm shift , and as the Holy Grail . These frames indicate that narrative journalism is regarded as the highest achievable goal for journalists, but that its practice comes with dangers and risks: it tempts journalists to abandon the traditional principles of objectivity and factuality, which can ultimately cause journalism to lose its credibility and authority. We discuss these findings in terms of boundary work and reflect on implications for narrative journalism's societal function.
Doll, Jessica L.
Structured interviews are widely used in the employment process; however, students often have little experience asking and responding to structured interview questions. In a format similar to "speed dating," this exercise actively engages students in the interview process. Students pair off to gain experience as an interviewer by asking…
Mittereder, Felicitas; Durow, Jen; West, Brady T.; Kreuter, Frauke; Conrad, Frederick G.
Standardized interviewing (SI) and conversational interviewing are two approaches to collect survey data that differ in how interviewers address respondent confusion. This article examines interviewer-respondent interactions that occur during these two techniques, focusing on requests for and provisions of clarification. The data derive from an…
Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko
Risk Communication Study Team (hereafter called RC team) has designed messages for risk communication based on the analysis of the local residents' opinions which were expressed in several questionnaire surveys. The messages are described in a side format (Power Point format) every single content. This report provides basic guidelines for making messages that are used for risk communication, and does not include concrete messages which RC team designed. The RC team has already published the report entitled 'Information materials for risk communication' (JNC TN8450 2003-008) separately, and it gives the concrete messages. This report shows general cautions and checklists in designing messages, comments on the messages from outside risk communication experts, and opinions from local residents. (author)
In an interview, the manager of the IEA market and energy security Directorate comments the results of the Rio+20 summit, the possible evolutions of oil price in a context of world energy demand under tension and of geopolitical risks, the trends on the world gas market as they have been published by the IEA, how to solve the gas competition issue in Europe, the future of the oil refining activity in Europe as it looses competitiveness, and the indexing of gas price on oil price
Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.
Faz Chowdhury is the Chief Executive Officer of Nemaura Pharma (Loughborough, UK), a pharmaceutical drug-delivery company developing patented formulation technologies alongside transdermal systems. Having originally trained as a pharmaceutical scientist, Dr Chowdhury received his PhD in Nanomedicine from the University of Oxford (Oxford, UK). With recognized expertise in the pharmaceutical industry and the holder of more than 15 patents on drug-delivery systems, Dr Chowdhury discussed the challenges faced in microneedle-based drug delivery, an area widely expected to revolutionize the transdermal field over the coming years. Interview conducted by James Potticary, Commissioning Editor.
Jul 1, 2017 ... conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia‟s .... protection without being subject to human competition and exploitation. ..... guard was retrenched as part of the SAP process leaving the reserve ...
Price-Lackey, P; Cashman, J
Two life history interviews were conducted to discover how one women, Jenny, experienced a traumatic head injury, rehabilitation, and recovery. Narrative analysis of the transcribed interviews revealed a rich story of how Jenny had fashioned her identity and character through childhood occupations, including studying classical literature and music, and of how she drew upon resources developed in childhood to engineer her recovery. It also illustrated how Jenny used a recursive process of narrative construction and engagement in self-devised graduated occupations, including studying, playing music, writing, computer graphics, and theater production, to create a new identity and develop capacities to process complex information and exercise creativity. Jenny's story illustrates the usefulness of gaining a perspective on patients as occupational beings through the gathering of life histories focused on occupation, the importance of collaborative patient-therapist goal setting, and the necessity for considering both the doing (practic) and the meaning (narrative) aspects of occupation. Her story supports many scholars' arguments that the therapeutic relationship, and thus occupational therapy practice, may be enhanced through the use of life history interviewing in occupational therapy evaluation and treatment.
to explore midwifery leaders' narratives of identity, within the context of one region of England. a qualitative study using narrative identity theory. Data were collected using in-depth, loosely structured narrative interviews. the study was undertaken in the Midlands region of England, in the context of a midwifery-specific leadership development programme. Participants were located in local NHS organisations and higher education institutions. the interviewees were midwives currently in one of a variety of formal leadership roles, who had recently completed a midwifery leadership development programme. Nine leaders were interviewed for the study. two central themes emerged: 'I am still a midwife' showed interviewees' continued self-identification according to their professional identity, despite the majority no longer holding a clinical role; 'Between a rock and a hard place' showed the challenges of maintaining a professionally-based identity narrative in the face of group and organisational discourses. among the midwifery leaders interviewed, narratives centred on a continued midwife self-identification. However, participants faced a number of challenges in maintaining this narrative, within the context of wider professional group and organisational discourses. midwifery leaders require the support of their professional group and organisational structures if they are to maintain a positive self- and social-identity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...
Krenzen, Anette Elisabeth
Rapporten er en del af kandidatspeciale, der empirisk undersøger børns narrative kompetencer i skolestarten på Egumsvejens skole i Fredericia samt tilknyttede børneinstitutioner.......Rapporten er en del af kandidatspeciale, der empirisk undersøger børns narrative kompetencer i skolestarten på Egumsvejens skole i Fredericia samt tilknyttede børneinstitutioner....
mechanisms associated with storytelling .2 This is in contrast to the actual use of narrative terminology used in U.S. military lexicon, which connotes a...A spoken or written account of connected events, a Story; (2) The narrated part of literary work, as distinct from dialogue; and (3) the practice or...difficult task as emotional scenes of violence and destruction move quickly from mobile phones to the news media.5 Although application of the story form
De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.
J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....
Hillman, Alexandra; Jones, Ian Rees; Quinn, Catherine; M Nelis, Sharon; Clare, Linda
The concept of 'narrative economies' has recently been proposed as a set of exchange relationships that, through biography and story-telling, facilitate access to resources and act as a source of value. We utilise this concept to inform our analysis of 18 qualitative interviews with five people with dementia and four informal carers. Our participants are members of a pre-existing group of dementia advocates, representing the voices of those living with the condition. There are a growing number of people in the early stages of dementia - like our participants - being called upon to account for their experience, as a means of developing a politicised 'collective illness identity'. These interviews present an opportunity to study a group of people who are actively involved in speaking as, and for, people with dementia. Four themes emerged from the data: becoming a voice of or for people with dementia; biographical reinforcement; responsibilisation; and resistance. These themes illustrate the ways in which people with dementia participate in their own identity construction and, as representatives of those living with dementia, they also illustrate the ways in which illness narratives produce material and symbolic value. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.
Das, E.; Kerkhof, P.; Kuiper, J.
This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a
Full Text Available The first section of this interview addresses the political and cultural milieu that shaped Karol Modzelewski’s education (in Poland and Italy, too, the relations with both his mentor Aleksander Gieysztor and the historians of the previous generation, the condition of education in Poland especially in the ’60s, his political involvement, the selection of his research interests and the development the latter underwent. Then the interview examines Modzelewski’s relations with scholars belonging to other historiographical schools, with particular attention to the issue of ethnogenesis, the methodology concerning the structure of sources to reconstruct the history of the Barbarian world in the first millennium, the matter of the “Barbaric collectivism”, the reception of his study L’Europa dei barbari (‘The Europe of the Barbarians’, 2004, and finally how research is organized and evaluated in Poland. Quotable as Intervista a Karol Modzelewski, a cura di Paola Guglielmotti e Gian Maria Varanini, "Reti Medievali - Rivista", 11, 1 (2010, p. 509-579, url: .
For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...
Full Text Available African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are needed. The purpose of this study was to collect formative research from parents of 8–10-year old African American girls about perceptions, expectations, and content for a text messaging based program. Mothers (n = 30 participated in surveys and interviews to inform message development and content. A professional expert panel (n = 10 reviewed draft text messages via a survey. All the mothers reported owning a cellphone with an unlimited texting plan, and they used their cellphones for texting (90.0% and accessing the Internet (100.0%. The majority were interested in receiving text messages about healthy eating and physical activity (86.7%. Interviews confirmed survey findings. One hundred and seven text messages promoting an obesity-preventive home environment were developed. The expert panel and parents reported positive reactions to draft text messages. This research provides evidence that mobile health (mHealth interventions appeal to parents of African American girls and they have ready access to the technology with which to support this approach.
Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret
We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the "Making Choices©" Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the "think aloud" interview technique to assess the clarity, usefulness, and design of each page of the DA. Participants identified three main messages: 1) patients have multiple options based on stress tests and they should be discussed with a physician, 2) take care of yourself, 3) the stress test is the gold standard for determining the severity of your heart disease. Revisions corrected the inaccurate assumption of item number three. Cognitive interviews proved critical for engaging patients in the development process and highlighted the necessity of clear message development and use of design principles that make decision materials easy to read and easy to use. Cognitive interviews appear to contribute critical information from the patient perspective to the overall systematic development process for designing decision aids.
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John
Testing narrative engagement theory, this study examines student engagement and teachers’ spontaneous narratives told in a narrative-based drug prevention curriculum. The study describes the extent to which teachers share their own narratives in a narrative-based curriculum, identifies dominant narrative elements, forms and functions, and assesses the relationships among teacher narratives, overall lesson narrative quality, and student engagement. One hundred videotaped lessons of the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum were coded and the results supported the claim that increased narrative quality of a prevention lesson would be associated with increased student engagement. The quality of narrativity, however, varied widely. Implications of these results for narrative-based prevention interventions and narrative pedagogy are discussed. PMID:26690668
Lieffers, Jessica R L; Haresign, Helen; Mehling, Christine; Arocha, Jose F; Hanning, Rhona M
To conduct a qualitative evaluation of adjunct supports (brief motivational messaging regarding goals delivered by email/website, contact centre dietitian assistance) offered by EatRight Ontario (ERO) for users of a website-based nutrition/activity goal setting/tracking feature (eaTracker "My Goals"). One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with My Goals users in Ontario (n = 18) and Alberta (n = 5) recruited via the eaTracker website and ERO contact centre dietitians (n = 5). Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Participants had mixed experiences and perspectives with ERO motivational messaging. Messages targeted towards specific goals (e.g., tips, recipes) were generally well-liked, and generic messages (e.g., eaTracker login reminders) were less useful. No interviewed users had contacted ERO dietitians regarding goals, and dietitians reported encountering few callers asking for assistance while using My Goals. Limited user knowledge was one explanation for this finding. Participants provided suggestions to enhance these supports. Electronic motivational messaging and contact centre dietitian assistance have the potential to support achievement of goals set with website-based features. When considering using electronic messaging, researchers and practitioners should consider message content and delivery tailoring. Marketing that focuses on how contact centre dietitians can assist website users with their goals is needed when services are used in naturalistic settings.
Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.
Ironside, Pamela M
This paper reports a hermeneutic study undertaken to explicate students' experiences in educational courses in which teachers enact Narrative Pedagogy. International interest in developing and implementing discipline-specific pedagogies is becoming commonplace as teachers respond to the challenges of preparing students for contemporary practice. Lifeworld Pedagogy, developed in Scandinavia, and Narrative Pedagogy, developed in the United States of America, Canada and New Zealand, are two approaches developed from nursing research for nursing education that provide teachers with research-based alternatives to conventional pedagogy. Further research is needed, however, that addresses how new pedagogies are experienced in schools of nursing. Teachers and students from 22 schools of nursing in the United States of America were interviewed over a 4-year period between 2002 and 2005. Using interpretive phenomenology as the philosophical background and Heideggerian hermeneutics as the method, accounts from 52 participants were analysed by a research team. The theme Learning and Practising Interpretive Thinking reveals how reform is occurring in schools of nursing that use Narrative Pedagogy. It documents how Narrative Pedagogy helps students challenge their assumptions and think through and interpret situations they encounter from multiple perspectives. Findings suggest that by focusing teachers' and students' attention on thinking and interpreting as communal experiences, interpretive pedagogies such as Narrative Pedagogy engage teachers and students in pooling their wisdom, challenging their preconceptions, envisioning new possibilities for providing care and engaging with others to ensure patient-centred care and safety. By documenting students' experiences in courses in which Narrative Pedagogy is used, this study provides teachers with research-based evidence to guide their pedagogical decisions. It extends international efforts to develop discipline
Musoke, Pamela; Gakumo, C Ann; Abuogi, Lisa L; Akama, Eliud; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Helova, Anna; Nalwa, Wafula Z; Onono, Mariciannah; Spangler, Sydney A; Wanga, Iris; Turan, Janet M
Key challenges in providing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) to pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) in sub-Saharan Africa include achieving long-term adherence and retention in care. One intervention that may help address these challenges is mobile text messaging. We evaluated the acceptability of a text messaging intervention to support women's ART adherence and retention in care in rural western Kenya. Forty in-depth interviews with 20 pregnant/postpartum women infected with HIV, their male partners, and four focus groups with 30 health care providers were conducted during September-November 2014. Data were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed the following themes: (a) overall acceptability of the text messaging intervention; (b) proposed content of text messages; (c) format, timing, and language of text messages; and (d) potential challenges of the text messaging intervention. Findings were used to refine a text messaging intervention being evaluated at Kenyan study sites rolling out Option B+. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Falzon, Charlène; Radel, Rémi; Cantor, Ambre; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne
Research in health communication has shown that narratives contribute more positively to changing health behaviors than informational messages. The main purposes of this study were to examine and to compare the effects of two messages promoting physical activity, one narrative and the other informational, on the perceptions and behavioral intentions of cancer patients. A total of 158 women with breast cancer, undergoing chemotherapy and sedentary, were assigned to read the testimony of a breast cancer survivor who had been physically active during and after treatment (TE group), a content-equivalent message composed of expert recommendations about physical activity in breast cancer patients (RE group), or no message (control group). Source trust was higher in TE group than RE group (p Exercise self-efficacy and exercise intention were higher in TE group than RE and control groups (p exercise benefits (p exercise risks (p exercise self-efficacy, and beliefs about exercise benefits and risks mediated the relationship between the message and exercise intention. The results suggest that narratives may be more effective in improving perceived physical abilities and involvement in physical activity, whereas informational messages seem to be more appropriate to convey the benefits and the absence of risks related to physical activity.
This study has explored the related teaching of "narrative creation" and "narrative reading". For this study, I hypothesized as follows. There is "the method of narrative" in "narrative creation" and "narrative reading" as a common element. By this related teaching that used "the method of narrative" as a common element, children’s ability of "narrative creation" and "narrative reading" will increase. As a result of this study, the following conclusions were obtained. Children surely make use...
Job, Jennifer R; Spark, Lauren C; Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Reeves, Marina M
Extending contact with participants after the end of an initial weight loss intervention has been shown to lead to maintained weight loss and related behavioral change. Mobile phone text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers a low-cost and efficacious method to deliver extended contact. In this rapidly developing area, formative work is required to understand user perspectives of text message technology. An extended contact intervention delivered by text messages following an initial telephone-delivered weight loss intervention in breast cancer survivors provided this opportunity. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore women's perceptions of participation in an extended contact intervention using text messaging to support long-term weight loss, physical activity, and dietary behavioral change. Following the end of an initial 6-month randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (versus usual care), participants received a 6-month extended contact intervention via tailored text messages. Participant perceptions of the different types of text messages, the content, tailoring, timing, and frequency of the text messages, and the length of the intervention were assessed through semistructured interviews conducted after the extended contact intervention. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with key themes identified. Participants (n=27) were a mean age of 56.0 years (SD 7.8) and mean body mass index of 30.4 kg/m2 (SD 4.2) and were at a mean of 16.1 months (SD 3.1) postdiagnosis at study baseline. Participants perceived the text messages to be useful behavioral prompts and felt the messages kept them accountable to their behavioral change goals. The individual tailoring of the text message content and schedules was a key to the acceptability of the messages; however, some women preferred the support and real-time discussion via telephone calls (during the initial intervention) compared with the text
Cons, Lionel; Paladin, Massimo
Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures will support the growth of the WLCG messaging service.
Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M
Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically.
Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem
Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.
Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III
The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems
Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.
Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.
In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.
Buckley, Kelsey; Karr, Samantha; Nisly, Sarah A; Kelley, Kristi
To evaluate the impact of student pharmacist participation in a mock interview session on confidence level and preparation regarding residency interview skills. The study setting was a mock interview session, held in conjunction with student programming at the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Annual Meeting. Prior to the mock interview session, final year student pharmacists seeking residency program placement were asked to complete a pre-session survey assessing confidence level for residency interviews. Each student pharmacist participated in up to three mock interviews. A post-session survey evaluating confidence level was then administered to consenting participants. Following the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Pharmacy Resident Matching Program (RMP), a post-match electronic survey was sent to study participants to determine their perception of the influence of the mock interview session on achieving successful interactions during residency interviews. A total of 59 student pharmacists participated in the mock interview session and completed the pre-session survey. Participants completing the post-session survey (88%, n = 52) unanimously reported an enhanced confidence in interviewing skills following the session. Thirty responders reported a program match rate of 83%. Approximately 97% (n = 29) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the questions asked during the mock interview session were reflective of questions asked during residency interviews. Lessons learned from this mock interview session can be applied to PGY1 residency mock interview sessions held locally, regionally, and nationally. Students participating in the ACCP Mock Interview Session recognized the importance of the interview component in obtaining a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kevin F. Steinmetz
Full Text Available As the Internet begins to encapsulate more people within online communities, it is important that the social researcher have well-rounded ethnographic methodologies for observing these phenomena. This article seeks to contribute to methodology by detailing and providing insights into three specific facets of virtual ethnography that need attention: space and time, identity and authenticity, and ethics. Because the Internet is a globalized and instantaneous medium where space and time collapse, identity becomes more playful, and ethics become more tenuous; understanding these aspects is crucial to the study of online social groups. A second focus of this article is to apply these notions to the study of online message boards—a frequently used medium for online communication that is frequently overlooked by methodologists.
Dempsey, Laura; Dowling, Maura; Larkin, Philip; Murphy, Kathy
In this paper we focus on important considerations when planning and conducting qualitative interviews on sensitive topics. Drawing on experiences of conducting interviews with dementia caregivers, a framework of essential elements in qualitative interviewing was developed to emphasize study participants' needs while also providing guidance for researchers. Starting with a definition of sensitive research, the framework includes preparing for interviews, interacting with gatekeepers of vulnerable groups, planning for interview timing, and location, building relationships and conducting therapeutic interactions, protecting ethically vulnerable participants, and planning for disengagement. This framework has the potential to improve the effectiveness of sensitive interviewing with vulnerable groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Angus, Lynne E; Boritz, Tali; Bryntwick, Emily; Carpenter, Naomi; Macaulay, Christianne; Khattra, Jasmine
Recent studies suggest that it is not simply the expression of emotion or emotional arousal in session that is important, but rather it is the reflective processing of emergent, adaptive emotions, arising in the context of personal storytelling and/or Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) interventions, that is associated with change. To enhance narrative-emotion integration specifically in EFT, Angus and Greenberg originally identified a set of eight clinically derived narrative-emotion integration markers were originally identified for the implementation of process-guiding therapeutic responses. Further evaluation and testing by the Angus Narrative-Emotion Marker Lab resulted in the identification of 10 empirically validated Narrative-Emotion Process (N-EP) markers that are included in the Narrative-Emotion Process Coding System Version 2.0 (NEPCS 2.0). Based on empirical research findings, individual markers are clustered into Problem (e.g., stuckness in repetitive story patterns, over-controlled or dysregulated emotion, lack of reflectivity), Transition (e.g., reflective, access to adaptive emotions and new emotional plotlines, heightened narrative and emotion integration), and Change (e.g., new story outcomes and self-narrative discovery, and co-construction and re-conceptualization) subgroups. To date, research using the NEPCS 2.0 has investigated the proportion and pattern of narrative-emotion markers in Emotion-Focused, Client-Centered, and Cognitive Therapy for Major Depression, Motivational Interviewing plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and EFT for Complex Trauma. Results have consistently identified significantly higher proportions of N-EP Transition and Change markers, and productive shifts, in mid- and late phase sessions, for clients who achieved recovery by treatment termination. Recovery is consistently associated with client storytelling that is emotionally engaged, reflective, and evidencing new story outcomes and self-narrative
Social media sites, such as message boards and blogs, provide innovative data sources for researchers as these sites feature people sharing advice and discussing issues in a public arena. Research has found the online context can encourage people to reveal more information than do such traditional methods as interviews or focus groups. However,…
Freiberg, Kevin L.; Hellweg, Susan A.
To explore the specific types of power that emerge in the communication messages chief executive officers (CEOs) use when interacting with others--particularly superiors, peers, and subordinates--15 CEOs were asked to respond to three hypothetical situations. During 60-minute tape-recorded interviews, they were asked what they would say to…
Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Hart, Traci; Chesser, Amy; Williams, Katherine S.; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Wittler, Robert R.
This study engaged parents to develop concise, informative, and comprehensible text messages for an immunization reminder system using Human Factors techniques. Fifty parents completed a structured interview including demographics, technology questions, willingness to receive texts from their child's doctor, and health literacy. Each participant…
Manners, Ian James; Murray, Philomena
the construction and application of an analytical framework drawing on different theoretical perspectives. This framework is then applied to six European integration narratives to demonstrate the value of a narrative approach. The article concludes that narrative analysis provides a means of understanding both EU......, the Nobel Prize and the search for a ‘new narrative for Europe’ demonstrate that the processes of European integration are always narrated as sense-making activities – stories people tell to make sense of their reality. This article argues in favour of a narrative approach to European integration through...
Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter. Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...
Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.
Honkasilta, Juho; Vehkakoski, Tanja; Vehmas, Simo
This interview study addresses the gap in earlier research by focussing on the narratives of 13 ADHDdiagnosed Finnish students regarding teacher reactive classroom management strategies. The data are analysed through narrative analysis. Five different narrative types are identified, in which teacher behaviour is evaluated as (1) disproportionate, (2) traumatising, (3) neglectful, (4) unfair and (5) understanding. The dominant storyline e common to the first four types e constructe...
Torrissen, Wenche; Stickley, Theo
To identify the potential relationship between participation in theatre and mental health recovery. To give voice to the stories told by participants of Teater Vildenvei, a theatre company that has been part of the rehabilitation programme for mental health service users in Oslo since 1995. Twelve narrative interviews were conducted among participants of Teater Vildenvei, and the data were subject to a narrative analysis process following the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur and the specific methods of thematic, event and relational analysis as identified by Riessman. The narratives are considered in the theoretical light of the mental health recovery framework as identified by Leamy et al. Each participant had experienced a transformation in identity; the sense of belonging within the group was perceived as highly important to their mental health; engagement with the theatre company gives people something meaningful to do, a sense of hope and individuals feel empowered. This narrative inquiry gave opportunity for participants to elaborate on their stories of their engagement with Teater Vildenvei. It is through the richness of the data that the depth of the significance of meaning that people ascribe to their stories demonstrates the potential power of participatory theatre for mental health recovery. Because of its effects, people make life-changing and life-saving claims.
Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei
Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.
Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875
Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C
Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.
Conlan, Owen; Staikopoulos, Athanasios; Hampson, Cormac; Lawless, Séamus; O'keeffe, Ian
This article describes the narrative approach to personalisation. This novel approach to the generation of personalised adaptive hypermedia experiences employs runtime reconciliation between a personalisation strategy and a number of contextual models (e.g. user and domain). The approach also advocates the late binding of suitable content and services to the generated personalised pathway resulting in an interactive composition that comprises services as well as content. This article provides a detailed definition of the narrative approach to personalisation and showcases the approach through the examination of two use-cases: the personalised digital educational games developed by the ELEKTRA and 80Days projects; and the personalised learning activities realised as part of the AMAS project. These use-cases highlight the general applicability of the narrative approach and how it has been applied to create a diverse range of real-world systems.
Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce activity systems as a methodological tool in narrative inquiry to gain a holistic understanding of socially shared experiences from an examination of documents. The research question was how can qualitative researchers use activity systems as a tool for engaging in narrative inquiry of socially shared experiences to uncover new meanings by constructing a story? In this article, we share a sample analysis of our experience relying on documents and media as a form of narrative to begin to understand the socially shared human activity associated with net neutrality and its potential impact on U.S. residents. We end this article with reflections of lessons learned from our activity systems guided story construction process.
Williams, Marion L.
Interviewers: Keethler, Greg; Sheldon, Robert S.. Interview location(s): Headquarters Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico and United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Interviewed on 12 April 1983 by Jack Goody and Alan Macfarlane and filmed and edited by Sarah Harrison. Made on old and low quality equipment. An interview of the historian and naturalist David Elliston Allen
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse
Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe, individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies.
Narrative pedagogy is an approach to midwifery education which can promote strategies for teaching and learning which effectively prepare graduates for the complex nature of midwifery practice. Knowledge and skills are fundamental to midwifery practice, but knowing about how to use them is the art of practice. Teaching and learning midwifery skills and competencies is straight forward in comparison to teaching and learning about the art of midwifery, yet both are essential for safe practice. Narrative pedagogy may be one way that enhances undergraduate midwifery students' learning about the art of practice.
Hannon, Michael Damon
This exploratory qualitative dissertation analyzed the narratives of six African-American fathers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Contributors were identified via snowball sampling and data were collected using in-depth interviewing and analyzed using analysis of narratives. Findings are presented via individual case…
Weger, Harry, Jr.; Castle, Gina R.; Emmett, Melissa C.
Perhaps no communication skill is identified as regularly as active listening in training programs across a variety of disciplines and activities. Yet little empirical research has examined specific elements of active listening responses in terms of their effectiveness in achieving desired interpersonal outcomes. This study reports an experiment…
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... This paper argues that the Setswana storytelling session is a highly participatory event. The paper ... Keywords: performance, storytelling, narrator, audience, narrative, Setswana ...
Deconstruction of conservative cinematic narratives on women's identity: an urging ... of regular but infamous dictates of culture and gender themes in film narratives. ... film criticism, women filmmakers, manipulation, Stereotype, deconstruction ...
Azmitia, Margarita; Ittel, Angela; Radmacher, Kimberley
Gender and self-esteem provide lenses through which early and late adolescents construct their narratives of ideal and actual friendships. These narratives provide a unique window into the dynamics of adolescents' friendships during school transitions.
Lammers, J.; Proulx, T.
Two experiments show that writing chronological autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism, defined as an ideology of resistance to social change. When writing chronological autobiographical narratives, we hypothesized that people would re-experience the events of their life in a
Ranney, Megan L; Choo, Esther K; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Spirito, Anthony; Thorsen, Margaret; Mello, Michael J; Morrow, Kathleen
To elucidate key elements surrounding acceptability/feasibility, language, and structure of a text message-based preventive intervention for high-risk adolescent females. We recruited high-risk 13- to 17-year-old females screening positive for past-year peer violence and depressive symptoms, during emergency department visits for any chief complaint. Participants completed semistructured interviews exploring preferences around text message preventive interventions. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. A coding structure was iteratively developed using thematic and content analysis. Each transcript was double coded. NVivo 10 was used to facilitate analysis. Saturation was reached after 20 interviews (mean age 15.4; 55% white; 40% Hispanic; 85% with cell phone access). (1) Acceptability/feasibility themes: A text-message intervention was felt to support and enhance existing coping strategies. Participants had a few concerns about privacy and cost. Peer endorsement may increase uptake. (2) Language themes: Messages should be simple and positive. Tone should be conversational but not slang filled. (3) Structural themes: Messages may be automated but must be individually tailored on a daily basis. Both predetermined (automatic) and as-needed messages are requested. Dose and timing of content should be varied according to participants' needs. Multimedia may be helpful but is not necessary. High-risk adolescent females seeking emergency department care are enthusiastic about a text message-based preventive intervention. Incorporating thematic results on language and structure can inform development of future text messaging interventions for adolescent girls. Concerns about cost and privacy may be able to be addressed through the process of recruitment and introduction to the intervention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chretien, Katherine C; Swenson, Rebecca; Yoon, Bona; Julian, Ricklie; Keenan, Jonathan; Croffoot, James; Kheirbek, Raya
Narrative medicine educational interventions may enhance patient-centered care, yet most educational interventions do not involve actual patient-provider interactions, nor do they assess narrative competence, a key skill for its practice. An experiential narrative medicine curriculum for medical students was developed and piloted. The purpose of the study was to develop narrative competence, practice attentive listening, and stimulate reflection. Participants were third-year medicine clerkship students. The curriculum involved 1) an introductory session, 2) a patient storytelling activity, and 3) a group reflection session. For the storytelling activity, students elicited illness narratives in storytelling form from patients, listened attentively, wrote their versions of the story, and then read them back to patients. Five student focus groups were conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 (n = 31; 66%) to explore students' experiences, student-patient dynamics, challenges, and what they learned. Patient interviews (n = 17) on their experience were conducted in January 2013. Thematic analysis of the audiotaped stories of ten patients and corresponding student-written stories helped gauge narrative competence. The curriculum was found to be feasible and acceptable to both patients and students. Some patients and students were profoundly moved. Ongoing focus groups resulted in continual process improvement. Students' stories showed attainment of narrative competence.
Phoenix, Cassandra; Smith, Brett
In Western society, the narrative of decline dominates the aging process. We know very little about the complexities of how people resist this narrative. The purpose of this article is to understand how a group of mature natural bodybuilders resisted the narrative of decline. In-depth life story interviews were conducted with 13 natural bodybuilders aged between 50 and 73 years. Verbatim transcripts were produced and the data analyzed using a structural narrative analysis. A dialogical analysis was also utilized. The participants' experiences did not fit with stereotypical assumptions about decline and deterioration in older age. They all told counterstories to "natural" aging, yet what differed was how the participants' counterstories resisted the narrative of decline and the level of resistance that they provided. We advance knowledge in the fields of aging and narrative inquiry by revealing the multidimensionality of resistance. We demonstrated how participants storied resistance in different ways and the important implications this had for the way aging was understood and acted upon-by themselves and potentially by others. In addition to advancing theoretical knowledge, in this article, we also significantly contribute to understandings of the potential of narrative for changing human lives and behavior across the life course in more positive and nuanced ways.
Pereles, Laurie; Jackson, Roberta; Rosenal, Tom; Nixon, Lara
To determine the value of adding a patient narrative to the clinical assessment of falls in the elderly. Qualitative study of interviews. A fall prevention clinic in Calgary, Alta. Fifteen older adults on a wait list for assessment by the fall clinic and the physiotherapists who assessed them. Participants' stories were audiorecorded and later transcribed and summarized. Stories were collected using open-ended questions, first inviting participants to tell the interviewer about themselves, and then the circumstances of their falls and their reflections on them. In a subsequent visit, transcriptions or summaries were returned to patients for member checking. Narratives were read and analyzed by all 4 investigators using a narrative approach and a close-reading technique. With the patients' additional consent, stories were shared with the fall prevention team for their insights and reactions. Interviews with physiotherapists were audiorecorded and transcribed. The narrative analysis provided new insights into the attitudes about and perceptions of the causes of falls, their effects, and rehabilitation. Close reading exposed presentation of self, locus of control, and underlying social and emotional issues. The addition of patient narratives to clinical assessments offers clinicians an understanding of patients' perspectives, which can be used to better engage patients in rehabilitation. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether different ways of presenting narrative stimuli (i.e., live narrative stimuli versus audio-recorded narrative stimuli) influence children's performances on narrative comprehension and oral-retell quality. Method: Children in kindergarten (n = 54), second grade (n = 74), and fourth…
Su, I-Ru; Chou, Yi-Chun
Most of the research on second language (L2) narratives has focused on whether or how L2 learners carry their L1 narrative styles into L2 narration; few studies have explored whether L2 learners' knowledge of the L2 also in turn affects their L1 narrative performance. The present study attempted to probe the issue of cultural transfer in narrative…
Mages, Wendy K.
This article proposes a cognitive theory of how drama affects two aspects of language development: narrative comprehension and narrative production. It is a theoretical model that explicitly posits the role of the imagination in drama's potential to enhance the development of both narrative comprehension and narrative production. (Contains 2…
Full Text Available This long conversation with Meir Sternberg focuses on some crucial points in narrative theory. Special attention is given, in the first part, to the historical evolution of narrative studies, as well as to the theoretical differences between different paradigms, form Aristotle, through French structuralism, to the present days; in the second part he centers on the explanation of his constructivist ant anti-mimetic model and on the difference with other approaches to narrative studies. Providing two fundamental arguments against what he calls «objectivist approaches», he demonstrates the validity and the theoretical value of some of his most thought-provoking proposals, such as the Proteus Principle and the universals of narrative. Thanks to its explanatory power the interview constitutes a simple introduction to Sternberg’s functional-rhetorical approach and a glimpse at the editorial policy of the journal «Poetics Today».
O'Brien, Mary R; Clark, David
Stories about illness have proven invaluable in helping health professionals understand illness experiences. Such narratives have traditionally been solicited by researchers through interviews and the collection of personal writings, including diaries. These approaches are, however, researcher driven; the impetus for the creation of the story comes from the researcher and not the narrator. In recent years there has been exponential growth in illness narratives created by individuals, of their own volition, and made available for others to read in print or as Internet accounts. We sought to determine whether it was possible to identify such material for use as research data to explore the subject of living with the terminal illness amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease--the contention being that these accounts are narrator driven and therefore focus on issues of greatest importance to the affected person. We encountered and sought to overcome a number of methodological and ethical challenges, which is our focus here.
Samuel, Sophia; Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant
Sri Lankan Tamil refugees are among the largest group of refugees to resettle in Australia in the last decade. The aim of this study is to characterise the narratives of health-seeking among unwell Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Drawing on a qualitative, phenomenological perspective, we conducted in-depth interviews in Tamil and English with 12 participants who identified as being unwell for 6 months or more. Findings revealed three narratives of health-seeking: the search for the 'good life' that was lost or never experienced, seeking help from familiar channels in an unfamiliar context, and the desire for financial and occupational independence. These three narratives are undergirded by the metanarrative of a hope-filled recovery. These narratives of Tamil refugees' lived experience provide new insights into clinical care and health service delivery.
Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which offenders are required to provide very particular accounts of themselves and to self-narrate in confined ways. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in the New South Wales justice system, it explores how the stories that offenders are made to accept and tell about themselves often bear little relationship to their own reflections. It analyses how, despite the expectations of judges and prison authorities, these self-narratives are not products of an offender’s soul-searching concerning his past actions and experience; rather they are products of an official legal narrative being imposed on an offender whose capacity to own and enact such a narrative is already seriously compromised.
Van Leuven, Jim
Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)
Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna
This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…
... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval... comments. Please submit your comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative...
Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno
Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…
Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin
Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission
Boone, Tanya L.
The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…
A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...
Cheney, Marshall K; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is becoming increasingly popular but little is known about the role of the local vapor store in promoting use and influencing customer attitudes and beliefs about vaping. Thirty-three vapor store owners were interviewed about their personal beliefs and attitudes about e-cigarettes and what they told customers about the health impact of using e-cigarettes. Interviews were recorded then transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Vapor store owners used the internet to obtain information about vaping, most often from YouTube and industry sources. Owners often did not have the training to critically evaluate research studies posted on the internet. Owners promoted vaping as a healthier alternative to smoking and often compared it to a medical treatment. Owners considered ingredients in the e-liquid as safe to use if it was safe to eat and discussed other foods vapor ingredients were found in. Owners also discussed the safety of secondhand vapor. Owners described the health impact of nicotine in e-liquid by comparing nicotine to caffeine and promoted the nicotine in e-liquid as coming from vegetables rather than tobacco. Finally, owners talked about vaping as a habit rather than a continued addiction to nicotine. Local store owners are an important source of health information for current and potential e-cigarette users but their messages to customers may be based on incomplete or misinterpreted information. Understanding local store owner messages to customers in addition to internet-based messages is an important area for future public health research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jones, -A C; Toscano, E; Botting, N; Marshall, C-R; Atkinson, J R; Denmark, T; Herman, -R; Morgan, G
Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jacobsen, Frode F
How the general public in Norway conceives being an older adult and the meaning of chronological age has changed over the last few decades. As narratives of aging may be identified in the Norwegian mass media and in the population at large, dominant narratives may also be identified in policy documents, such as government health policy papers. This article explores a narrative analytical framework based on stories, subtexts, and counterstories; it argues that such narratives are characterized as much by what is unsaid as by what is said, and as much by choice of words and word combinations as by explicit messages. Culture strongly influences the conception of a likely future (what will be) and an envisioned future (what ought to be) regarding aging and geriatric care in Norway, as expressed in the public policy papers. The public policy story is discussed as both a story continuously developing, where later health policy papers relate to and comment on earlier documents, and as a story characterized by a measure of cultural incoherence. Some recent government documents dealing with professional geriatric care will serve as material for a narrative analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja
On social media, users can easily share their feelings, thoughts, and experiences with the public, including people who they have no previous interaction with. Such information, though often embedded in a stream of others' news, may influence recipients' perception toward the discloser. We used a special design that enables a quasi-experience of SNS browsing, and examined if browsing other's posts in a news stream can create a feeling of familiarity and (even) closeness toward the discloser. In addition, disclosure messages can vary in the degree of intimacy (from superficial to intimate) and narrativity (from a random blather to a story-like narrative). The roles of disclosure intimacy and narrativity on perceived closeness and social attraction were examined by a 2 × 2 experimental design. By conducting one lab study and another online replication, we consistently found that disclosure frequency, when perceived as appropriate, predicted familiarity and closeness. The effects of disclosure intimacy and narrativity were not stable. Further exploratory analyses showed that the roles of disclosure intimacy on closeness and social attraction were constrained by the perceived appropriateness, and the effects of narrativity on closeness and social attraction were mediated by perceived entertainment value.
Hikikomori, often glossed as "social withdrawal," emerged as a sociomedical condition among Japanese youth at the end of the twentieth century, and it continues to fascinate and concern the public. Explanatory frameworks for hikikomori abound, with different stakeholders attributing it to individual psychopathology, poor parenting, and/or a lack of social support structures. This article takes an interpretive approach to hikikomori by exploring parents' narrative constructions of hikikomori children in support group meetings and in-depth interviews. I argue that some parents were able to find hope in hikikomori by 'emplotting' their children's experiences into a larger narrative about onset, withdrawal, and recovery, which helped them remain invested in the present by maintaining a sense of possibility about the future. Contrary to literature that examines hikikomori as an epidemic of isolated individuals, I demonstrate how parents play a key role in hikikomori through meaning-making activities that have the potential to shape their children's experiences of withdrawal.
Full Text Available In this article, we explore narrative inquiry data we collected with women who attempted to have a natural, drug-free childbirth for the birth of their first child. The data presented come from semi-structured life story interviews with six women who live in a metropolitan city in the mid-southern United States. Using creative analytic practice (CAP, the women's experiences are presented as a composite poem. The (representation of the women's narratives in the poem emphasizes the tensions between what women desired and planned for in contrast to what they actually experienced during pregnancy and birth. The poem illustrates the politics of agency, the ways in which consent is bypassed or assumed in some medical institutions in the United States, and the resilience of the women. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs170290
De Cock, Sylvie; International Conference Fluency & Disfluency across Langages and Language Varieties
The Louvain International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage (LINDSEI) contains informal interviews with intermediate to advanced level learners of English as a foreign language. The interviews follow the same set pattern and are made up of three main tasks: a personal narrative based on a set topic (an experience that taught them a lesson, a country that impressed them, or a film or play they liked/disliked), a free discussion mainly about university life, hobbies, foreign travel or pl...
Bóveda Fontán, Julia; Pérula de Torres, Luis Ángel; Campiñez Navarro, Manuel; Bosch Fontcuberta, Josep M; Barragán Brun, Nieves; Prados Castillejo, Jose Antonio
The motivational interview has been widely used as a clinical method to promote behavioural changes in patients, helping them to resolve their ambivalence to obtain their own motivations. In the present article, a review is made of the main meta-analyses and systematic and narrative reviews on the efficacy of the motivational interview in the primary health care environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the narrative control mechanisms which generate coherence in the elaboration of personal stories presented by professional individuals working under flexible employment conditions. We also examine how these personal stories function to articulate constructions of self in relation to attributes demanded by the conditions associated with patterns of flexible working. A discourse analysis of 32 job interviews with male and female young adult professionals in flexible employment in Chile was undertaken. One of the main aspects of the narratives is a general tendency to present oneself as a successful and enterprising individual. However, the coherence of the image constructed in the account tends to show certain fissures that may refute that constitution. When the narrator realizes the latter, he/she quickly tries to repair the account in order to maintain this coherence. Focusing our attention on this narrative coherence mechanism, and drawing on BAKHTIN's dialogical theory and discursive psychology, we demonstrate how these self narrative constructions involve certain control practices that connect the different forms people use to refer to themselves with the governmental strategies of contemporary societies. Through this analysis we intend to contribute to current discussions of how to empirically deal with the complex relation observed among narrative, identity and social organization. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902292
Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures wil...
Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.
The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require and application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI 'C' and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process
Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene
Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.
Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M
This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders.
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
Nafziger, Jacinta; DeKruyf, Lorraine
This article introduces narrative counseling concepts and techniques for professional school counselors. The authors provide a case study of narrative school counseling with an elementary student struggling with selective mutism. Examples also demonstrate how a narrative approach could be used at elementary, middle, and high school levels within…
In this paper, I give an account of the ways in which narratives and identities change over space and time. I give an account of a mobile and changing human subject, one who does not simply express or represent her- or himself through narrative, but is constructed and reconstructed through narrative. I draw on Paul Ricoeur's concepts of "narrative…
The work of Carol Berkenkotter and others who have expanded the realm of personal narrative studies over the past several decades would not have been possible without the pioneering efforts of those who first brought the study of narrative to nonliterary discourses. By revisiting what personal narratives were to these pioneers-working outward from…
available to him, but it is interrupted by yet another unforeseen event: an earthquake which buries him alive in the sotterraneo where he lives. The story, and with it, the manuscript Tommaso has been composing, ends with the death of the narrator: a triple ending, where writing, narration and narrato coincide. The narrator is ...
Principles of a mobile gps-enabled gis acting as a tourist information system are discussed and exemplified with special focus on the narrative aspects of tourist guidance. Flexible adaptation to user movements is accomplished by providing information about objects that the user passes as well...
This essay reconsiders the importance of performativity to scholarship on life writing by exploring the potential of Eve Sedgwick's concept of the periper-formative utterance for reading queer life narratives. Taking the documentary Tarnation (2003) as an example, I argue that a range of life
The book welcomes proposals for chapter contributions on a wide array of topics related to the narratological notion of counter-narratives. By way of example, the topic has hitherto been treated by disciplines and subjects such as literature studies, organization studies, corporate communication...
Rowlinson, Michael; Casey, Andrea; Hansen, Per H.
Organizations remember through narratives and storytelling. The articles in this Special Issue explore the interface between organization studies, memory studies, and historiography. They focus on the practices for organizational remembering. Taken together, the articles explore the similarities...... and differences between ethnographic and historical methods for studying memory in organizations, which represents a contribution to the historic turn in organization studies....
The conception of the good life in theoretical texts and adult learners' written narratives depicts well-being in terms of aesthetic experiences, values, existential experiences, autonomy, and significant others. Future prospects for adult education as legislative practice, as therapy and as commitment are derived from the discussion. (SK)
Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder
The neoliberal restructuring of the welfare state has changed the conditions for teacher practice. Teachers’ narratives have been collected in the western part of Denmark. They give insight in teacher practice and how teachers’ conditions for working have changed. 3 themes are discussed to illust...
Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn
Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.
Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo
We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...
Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth
Den følgende tekst består af to dele. Begge dele omhandler workshoppen The Making of London Narratives, der var et undervisningsforløb for 52 studerende fra Arkitektskolen Aarhus og School of Architecture and the Visual Arts University of East London. I den første del perspektiveres workshoppens...
The article explores how the Internet and email offer space for participants to think and make sense of their experiences in the qualitative research encounter. It draws on a research study that used email interviewing to generate online narratives to understand academic lives and identities through research encounters in virtual space. The…
This article presents a dialogic qualitative interview design for a narrative study of six international UK university students' motivation for learning English. Based on the work of Mikhail Bakhtin, this design was developed in order to address the limitations of member-checking [Lincoln, Y. S., and E. G. Guba. 1985. "Naturalistic…
Keoleian, Victoria; Stalcup, S. Alex; Polcin, Douglas L.; Brown, Michelle; Galloway, Gantt
Psychosocial treatments for methamphetamine dependence are of limited effectiveness. Thus, a significant need exists for add-on therapy for this substance user disorder. The aim of this study was to develop and test a novel text messaging intervention for use as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral group therapy for methamphetamine users. Text messaging has the potential to support patients in real-time, around the clock. We convened 2 meetings of an expert panel, held 3 focus groups in current and former users, and conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with in-treatment users in order to develop a fully-automated, cognitive behavioral therapy-based text messaging intervention. We then conducted a randomized, crossover pre-test in 5 users seeking treatment. Participants’ ratings of ease of use and functionality of the system were high. During the pre-test we performed real-time assessments via text messaging on daily methamphetamine use, craving levels, and the perceived usefulness of messages; 79% of scheduled assessments were collected. The odds of messages being rated as “very” or “extremely” useful were 6.6 times [95% CI: 2.2, 19.4] higher in the active vs. placebo periods. The intervention is now ready for testing in randomized clinical trials. PMID:24592670
Full Text Available While differences in witness narratives due to different interviewers may have implications for their credibility in court, this study considers how investigative interviews by different parties to the proceedings, as well as the gender and nationality of interviewers, can influence the testimony of witnesses in court who share comparable traumatic experiences. The foundation of the analysis was answers given to judges, prosecutors, civil party lawyers and defence lawyers in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC located in Phnom Penh. Transcribed testimonies of 24 victim witnesses and civil parties which were translated from Khmer into English were analysed using a computer-based text analysis program, the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC. Results showed that when answering questions by females, witnesses used significantly more cognitive process words. When interviewed by international rather than by Cambodian parties to the proceeding witness accounts were composed of significantly more verbal expressions of affective processes and of perceptual processes. Furthermore, witnesses used most cognitive and affective process words during the interview by civil party lawyers and defence lawyers. These results may be due to a prior supportive relationship between civil parties and their lawyers and due to a more interrogative question style by the defence lawyers, who attempt to undermine the credibility of the interviewed witnesses. Data shows that LIWC analysis is an appropriate method to examine witness accounts and, therefore, contributes to a better understanding of the complex relationship between testimony in events under litigation and credibility.
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.
This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613
that these are constructed in adherence with the IR’s formal neutrality as provided by the turn-taking system for the news interview. The paper suggests that debate interview cannot be adequately understood as organised according to one turn-taking system, but rather as organised by the turn-taking system for news......In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...
Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher; Calabrese, Sarah K; Operario, Don; Salovey, Peter; Mayer, Kenneth H
We investigated message comprehension and message framing preferences for communicating about PrEP efficacy with US MSM. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 38) and n = 56 individual interviews with MSM in Providence, RI. Facilitators probed comprehension, credibility, and acceptability of efficacy messages, including percentages, non-numerical paraphrases, efficacy ranges versus point estimates, and success- versus failure-framed messages. Our findings indicated a range of comprehension and operational understandings of efficacy messages. Participants tended to prefer percentage-based and success-framed messages, although preferences varied for communicating about efficacy using a single percentage versus a range. Participants reported uncertainty about how to interpret numerical estimates, and many questioned whether trial results would predict personal effectiveness. These results suggest that providers and researchers implementing PrEP may face challenges in communicating with users about efficacy. Efforts to educate MSM about PrEP should incorporate percentage-based information, and message framing decisions may influence message credibility and overall PrEP acceptability.
Rance, Jake; Gray, Rebecca; Hopwood, Max
There are particular complexities faced by people attempting to tell their stories in the context of social stigma, such as the hostility which often surrounds injecting drug use. In this article, we identify some of the distinct advantages of taking a narrative approach to understanding these complexities by exploring a single case study, across two life-history interviews, with "Jimmy," a young man with a history of social disadvantage, incarceration, and heroin dependence. Drawing on Miranda Fricker's notion of "hermeneutical injustice," we consider the effects of stigmatization on the sociocultural practice of storytelling. We note the way Jimmy appears both constrained and released by his story-how he conforms to but also resists the master narrative of the "drug user." Narrative analysis, we conclude, honors the complex challenges of the accounting work evident in interviews such as Jimmy's, providing a valuable counterpoint to other forms of qualitative inquiry in the addictions field.
Marta Magdalena Boczkowska
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine narratives of the personal religious, spiritual and mystical experiences of adult Poles (N = 74 and their impact on narrative identity. The method for collecting qualitative data about individual understandings and spiritual, religious and mystical experiences was the narrative interview, developed on the basis of the Life Story Interview. During the analysis, the following key topics were identified: awareness of the presence/protection of God, a peak experience, the awareness of oneness with nature and the world, and a sense of closeness/contact with a person who has died. This study provides specific information on the spiritual, religious and mystical experiences of the investigated group of Poles.
Das, Enny; Kerkhof, Peter; Kuiper, Joyce
This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a positive message frame. In addition, building on…
Jørgensen, Clara R; Eskildsen, Nanna B; Thomsen, Thora G
their experiences. RESULTS: Differences were identified between the academic researcher and the peer interviewers in the types of questions they asked and the degree to which personal narrative was used in the interview. Peer interviewers varied significantly in their approach. Research participants were positive......BACKGROUND: A range of benefits have been reported from engaging peer interviewers in qualitative interviews, but little systematic evaluation exists to assess their impact on both process and outcomes of qualitative interviews in health research. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of involving...... patient representatives as peer interviewers in a research project on patient empowerment. DESIGN: 18 interviews were carried out as part of the wider study, seven by the academic researcher alone and eleven jointly with a peer interviewer. The interviews were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively...
Chernick, Lauren Stephanie; Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S
Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were "brief," "professional," and "nonaccusatory." Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive "confidential" care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to maintain "surprise." No participant feared that text
This thesis uses archived oral history interviews to trace the identities of scientists in narratives that capture their lived experiences of science. It draws upon fifty-four life history interviews with both men and women scientists from the British Library's 'An Oral History of British Science' (OHBS) archive. The OHBS was first established in 2009 to address the lack of comprehensive oral history archives devoted to documenting the personal experiences and memories of professionals involv...
Gordon, Lisi J.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Ker, Jean S.; Cleland, Jennifer
This research was part of LJG’s PhD research which was generously funded by NHS Education for Scotland through SMERC. OBJECTIVES: To explore medical trainees' experiences of leadership and followership in the interprofessional healthcare workplace. DESIGN: A qualitative approach using narrative interviewing techniques in 11 group and 19 individual interviews with UK medical trainees. SETTING: Multisite study across four UK health boards. PARTICIPANTS: Through maximum variation sampling, 65...
The author proposes a new model for the assessment of decision-making capacity based on the principles of narrative medicine. The narrative method proposed by the author addresses the hidden power realtionships implicit in the current model of capacity assessment. Sample cases are reviewed using the traditional model in comparison with the narrative model. Narrative medicine provides an effective model for the assessment of decision-making capacity. Deficiencies in the traditional model capacity assessment can be effectively addressed using narrative strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Musacchio Adorisio, Anna Linda
In this paper I will discuss the possibility offered by the “linguistic turn” for narrative research in the realm of financial communication. I will propose three categories by which a narrative interpretive approach can be applied to financial communication: narrative-as-artifacts, narrative......-as-practice and narrative-as-method. Such a constitutive communication approach challenges a mechanistic and functionalist view of communication as a tool to represent social realities in favor of an interpretive view that could remain sensitive to the production and reproduction of meaning by the actors involved....
The use of cell phone text messaging to improve access to continuing ... with 50 of the message recipients, demonstrated that the text messages were well received by ... services, such as the management of HIV-infected children and adults.