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Sample records for mesostigmatid mite genus

  1. Diversity of Phylogenetic Information According to the Locus and the Taxonomic Level: An Example from a Parasitic Mesostigmatid Mite Genus

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    Lise Roy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers for cladistic analyses may perform differently according to the taxonomic group considered and the historical level under investigation. Here we evaluate the phylogenetic potential of five different markers for resolving evolutionary relationships within the ectoparasitic genus Dermanyssus at the species level, and their ability to address questions about the evolution of specialization. COI provided 9–18% divergence between species (up to 9% within species, 16S rRNA 10–16% (up to 4% within species, ITS1 and 2 2–9% (up to 1% within species and Tropomyosin intron n 8–20% (up to 6% within species. EF-1a revealed different non-orthologous copies withinindividuals of Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Tropomyosin intron n was shown containing consistent phylogenetic signal at the specific level within Dermanyssus and represents a promising marker for future prospects in phylogenetics of Acari. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the generalist condition is apomorphic and D. gallinae mightrepresent a complex of hybridized lineages. The split into hirsutus-group and gallinae-group in Dermanyssus does not seem to be appropriate based upon these results and D. longipes appears to be composed of two different entities.

  2. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

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    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  3. Free living astigmatid mites (Astigmatina): new taxa, rearing and use for mesostigmatid (Mesostigmata) predatory mite production

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    Marina Ferraz de Camargo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The cohort Astigmatina is divided in two major groups: Psoroptidia, composed mainly by feather and fur mites, and Non-psoroptidia, a dominant component of the acarofauna in ephemeral habitats. In these environments Astigmatina usually are saprophages or feed on fungi or bacteria. Astigmatina protonymphs undergo a complete reorganization of the body structure leading to the production of heteromorphic deutonymphs, generally specialized for dispersion through phoresy using arthropods and verteb...

  4. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil

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    Rocha C.F.D.; Cunha-Barros M.; Menezes V.A.; Fontes A.F.; Vrcibradic D.; Van Sluys M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hos...

  5. Mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae from Neotropical birds

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    Andre Bochkov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of parasitic mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae are described from Neotropical birds, N. chlorospingus sp. n. from Chlorospingus pileatus (Passeriformes, Emberizidae from Costa Rica, N. mironovi sp. n. from Dacnys cayana (Passeriformes, Thraupidae and N. tangara sp. n. from Tangara cayana (Thraupidae both from Brazil. Neharpyrhynchus trochilinus (Fain is recorded from 3 new hosts of the family Trochilidae (Apodiformes, Panterpe insignis and Eugenes fulgens from Costa Rica, and Amazilia lactea from Brazil. Emended diagnosis of the genus and a key to species are provided; all records of Neharpyrhynchus species are summarized.

  6. Giselia arizonica, a new genus and species of mite (Acaria: Tarsonemidae) associated with bark beetles of the genus Pseudopityophthorus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America

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    Wojciech L. Magowski; Evert E. Lindquist; John C. Moser

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of the mite family Tarsonemidae, subfamily Tarsoneminae, is described and illustrated. Its systematic position among genera of Tarsoneminae and its host association with bark beetles of the genus Pseudopityophthorus Swaine, 1918 in North America are briefly discussed.

  7. Studies on Lasioseius scapulatus, a Mesostigmatid mite predaceous on nematodes

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    Imbriani, I.; Mankau, R.

    1983-01-01

    The life history and feeding habits of Lasioseius scapulatus, an ascid predator and potential biocontrol agent of nematodes, was examined. Reproduction was asexual, and the life cycle was 8-10 days at room temperature. Life history consisted of the egg, protonymph, deutonymph, and adult. Both nymphal stages and the adult captured and consumed nematodes. Two fungal genera and eight genera of nematodes were suitable food sources. Second-stage root-knot nematode juveniles were eaten, but eggs an...

  8. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil.

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    Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-06-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use).

  9. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus in northeastern Brazil

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    Rocha C.F.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts’ bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100% prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets and ecology (especially microhabitat use.

  10. The genus Galumna in Nepalese oribatid mite fauna, with notes on systematic placement of some species (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae

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    Sergey Ermilov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid mite genus Galumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae is recorded for the first time in Nepal. A new species, Galumna tetraporosa sp. n., is described from soil of secondary mixed broadleaved forest. It is most similar morphologically to G. tokyoensis Aoki, 1966 and G. valida Aoki, 1994, however, it differs from both by the absence of interlamellar setae and the presence of two pairs of notogastral porose areas Aa. Galumna granalata Aoki, 1984 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from Nepal. Galumna floridae (Jacot, 1929 and G. hexagona Balogh, 1960 are transferred to the genus Notogalumna; G. mauritii Mahunka, 1978 is transferred to the genus Dimidiogalumna.

  11. New species of water mites of the genus Piona (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pionidae), from Xochimilco's water channel, Mexico

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    Marín-Hernández, Carlos Humberto; Cramer-Hemkes, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Se describe una especie nueva de hidracárido (Hydrachnidia: Pionidae) perteneciente al género Piona, recolectada en canales de la zona lacustre de Xochimilco, México, D. F. Éste es el primer registro de la familia y del género para la ciudad de México.A new water mite species is described, belonging to the genus Piona (Hydrachnidia: Pionidae), collected from a canal at Xochimilco, México City, Mexico.This represents the first family and genus record for México City.

  12. [Mites associated with two species of the genus Odontotaenius (Coleoptera: Passalidae) in Mexico].

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    Barrios-Torres, Pilar Liliana; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A

    2015-09-01

    Mites can establish association with different arthropods as coleopterans tamites scaraoaeicae ana Passalidae. Passalids are distributed in tropical and templates zones, and until now, more than 200 species of mites have been associated to them. One of the relationships between passalids and mites is the phoresy where one small animal (the phoretic) seeks out and attaches to another animal (the host) for transportation. Herein, we studied the mites associated to O. zodiacus and O. striatopunctatus; for this, 80 Odontotaenius with mites were reviewed; passalids were collected in and under decaying logs from six states of Mexico, and were individually kept in vials with 80% ethanol. The specimens were carried to the laboratory and mites removed with fine-pointed forceps under stereo microscope. The mites were stored with 80 % alcohol until some were cleared with lacto-phenol and mounted in Hoyer's solution. We found 1,945 mites belonging to 13 families (Acaridae, Ascidae, Diarthrophallidae, Digamasellidae, Diplogyniidae, Euzerconidae, Heterocheylidae, Histiostomatidae, Klinckowstroemiidae, Laelapidae, Megisthanidae, Trematuridae, and Uropodidae) and 42 species, being the most abundant species Anoelus sp. For O. striatopunctatus (16 specimens) we found 562 mites (95 female female, 34 male male, 197 hypopus, 234 deutonymph, 2 tritonymph) of 11 families and 22 species; the most abundant were Uropodidae (42 %) and Histiostomatidae (26 %). While for 0. zodiacus (64 specimens) were found 1,383 mites (300 female female, 204 male male, 608 hypopus, 139 deutonymphs, 133 tritonymphs) of 10 families and 30 species; the most abundant were: Diartrophallidae, Acaridae, and Histiostomatidae (23 % for the two first and 21 % for third). The high abundance and richness was in O. zodiacus, likewise Margalef (S') and Shanon-Winner (H') indexes were higher in this species (O. zodiacus S' = 4.05, H' = 2.2; O. striatopunctatus S' = 3.34, H' = 1.94), while Equity (EH) was similar to both

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of the oribatid mite genus Eurostocepheus (Acari, Oribatida, Otocepheidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2017), s. 640-652 ISSN 1362-1971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eurostocepheus * generic diagnosis * morphology * otocepheid mites * Tam Dao National Park * systematics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2016

  14. A new genus and species in the mite family Eupodidae (Acari, Eupodoidea) from Crimea.

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    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    A new genus Pseudoeupodes Khaustov, gen. n. and new species Pseudoeupodes porosus sp. n. are described from moss in Crimea. The taxonomy of the Eupodidae and some other families and genera of Eupodoidea is reviewed. The genus Turanopenthalodes Barilo, 1988 is transferred from Penthalodidae to Penthaleidae. The family Cocceupodidae Jesionowska, 2010 and the genus Filieupodes Jesionowska, 2010 are considered as junior synonyms of Eupodidae Koch, 1842 and Cocceupodes Thor, 1934, respectively. A key to genera of the family Eupodidae is provided.

  15. New records of water mites of the genus Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae) from Thailand, Malaysia and Sulawesi (Indonesia), with the description of four new species

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    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2009-01-01

    New records of water mites of the genus Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae) from Thailand, Malaysia and Sulawesi are presented. Four species new to science, Atractides siamis, A. malayensis, A. tahanensis and A. sulawesiensis, are described; a first description of the male is

  16. The first records of mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus (Acariformes: Harpyrhynchidae) from birds in Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Bochkov, A. V.; Cárdenas-Callirgos, J.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 109-114 ISSN 2218-6425 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amazilia * birds * Ectoparasites * mites * Neharpyrhynchus * Thraupis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe/bvrevistas/neohel/v6n1/pdf/a11v06n1.pdf

  17. Review and resolution of some nomenclatural issues regarding the genus Psoroptes (Acari: Psoroptidae), scab-mites of domestic and wild mammals.

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    OConnor, Barry M; Klimov, Pavel B

    2015-07-01

    Some classifications recognize a number of species in the scab-mite genus, Psoroptes, mites that are of considerable importance in livestock production and veterinary medicine. However, modern studies suggest that populations from some host species are not morphologically or genetically distinct, creating taxonomic confusion with older names, which treated mites from different hosts as separate species. We review the taxonomy and nomenclature of the genus and the two oldest binomens, most recently known as Psoroptes ovis and Psoroptes equi. Prior authors have attributed these names to various authorities, with most attributing both names to Hering (Nova Acta Phys-Med Acad Caesar Leopold-Carol Nat Curios 18(2):573-624, 1838). In particular, the priority between these names was recently a point of contention, with P. ovis being treated as junior synonym of P. equi. A review of all relevant nineteenth and twentieth century publications indicates, however, that these binomens should be cited as P. ovis (Viborg in Veterinair-Selskabets Skrifter 2:139-152, 1813) and P. equi (Raspail in Bull gener Theraput Med Chir 7:169-184, 1834), with the former having priority over the latter assuming their conspecificity. We also clarify attribution of the authorship and the type species of the genus Psoroptes.

  18. A new water mite of the genus Torrenticola Piersig, 1896 (Acari, Torrenticolidae from central Spain

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    Valdecasas, A. G.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The water mite Torrenticola eureka n. sp. is described from streams of the Sierra de Guadarrama, in the center of the Iberian Peninsula. This species belongs to the subgenus Megapalpis Halbert, 1944, characterized by a long, curved rostrum and P-II longer than PIV. T. eureka n. sp. can be separated from the other species of the subgenus by the proportions of the palp segments, the size of the palp in relation to body size and the length of the cheliceral claw.El ácaro acuático Torrenticola eureka n. sp. se describe de arroyos de la Sierra de Guadarrama, en el centro de la Península Ibérica. Esta especie pertenece al subgénero Megapalpis Halbert, 1944, caracterizado por un rostro largo y curvado dorsalmente y PII más largo que PIV. T. eureka n. sp. se diferencia de las otras especies del subgénero por la combinación de los siguientes caracteres: proporción de los segmentos del palpo, tamaño del palpo en relación al cuerpo y la longitud de la uña del quelícero, entre otros caracteres.

  19. Camerobiid mites (Acariformes: Raphignathina: Camerobiidae inhabiting epiphytic bromeliads and soil litter of tropical dry forest with analysis of setal homology in the genus Neophyllobius

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    Ricardo Paredes-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the camerobiid mites living on epiphytic bromeliads and the forest floor of a Mexican tropical dry forest was carried out. We found three new species of the genus Neophyllobius, which are described in this paper; the first two, namely N. cibyci sp. nov. and N. tepoztlanensis sp. nov., were both found inhabiting bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. and living on two tree species (Quercus obtusata and Sapium macrocarpum; the third, N. tescalicola sp. nov., was found in soil and litter under Q. obtusata. These three new species can be differentiated from other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters in adult females, mainly those setae on femora and genua I. The idiosoma and leg setal ontogeny of a camerobiid mite is presented for the first time in this paper, illustrating chaetotaxic notations and their relative positions in N. cibyci sp. nov. larva, protonymph and adults (female and male, and establishing setal homologies among instars. Setal homology with other species in the cohort Raphignathina is briefly discussed. Additionally, a compilation and an identification key to all known species of camerobiid mites in Mexico is provided.

  20. A new species of the gamasid mite genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata, Ascidae from Russia with a key to the multidentatus species-group

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    Olga Makarova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new gamasid mite species belonging to the genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 is described from Russia. Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n. is distributed in the plain and mountain tundras from Khibiny Mountains to Chukotka on the north and to West Sayan Mountains on the south. A diagnosis and a key for identification of species comprising the multidentatus species-group (A. multidentatus Evans, 1955; Arctoseius wisniewskii Gwiazdowicz & Kamczyc, 2009; A. sexsetus Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; A. haarlovi Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; and A. koltschaki sp. n. are given.

  1. Revision of the status of some genus-level water mite taxa in the families Pionidae Thor, 1900, Aturidae Thor, 1900, and Nudomideopsidae Smith, 1990 (Acari: Hydrachnidiae).

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    Smith, Ian M; Cook, David R; Gerecke, Reinhard

    2015-02-16

    A number of changes to the status of genus group names in water mites are proposed to foster a more consistent and phylogenetically defensible approach to the ranking of taxa at this level of the classification. The water mite taxa Acercopsis Viets, 1926 (Pionidae: Tiphyinae), Madawaska Habeeb, 1954 (Pionidae: Foreliinae), Brachypodopsis Piersig, 1903, Cubanaxonopsis Orghidan & Gruia, 1981, Hexaxonopsis Viets, 1926, Paraxonopsis Motaş & Tanasachi, 1947, Vicinaxonopsis Cook, 1974, Parabrachypoda Viets, 1929, and Ocybrachypoda Cook, 1974 (Aturidae: Axonopsinae), Ameribrachypoda Smith, 1991 (Aturidae: Aturinae), and Allomideopsis Smith, 1990 (Nudomideopsidae) are elevated in rank from subgenera to full genera to reflect current knowledge of their species diversity, morphological distinctness, relationships and apparent age. In light of the above changes in the subfamily Axonopsinae, the subgenera Kalobrachypoda Viets, 1929 and Navinaxonopsis Cook, 1967 are transferred from the genus Axonopsis to the genus Brachypodopsis, the subgenus Plesiobrachypoda Viets, 1942 is transferred from the genus Axonopsis to the genus Hexaxonopsis, and the species formerly placed in the subgenus Hemibrachypoda Viets, 1937 are transferred from the genus Brachypoda to the genus Parabrachypoda Viets, 1929, and Hemibrachypoda is placed in synonymy with Parabrachypoda. The family group taxa to which all of these genera belong are reviewed to provide context for the proposed changes.

  2. Possibilities of using soil microarthropods, with emphasis on mites (Arachnida, Acari, Mesostigmata, in assessment of successional stages in a reclaimed coal mine dump (Pszów, S Poland

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    MADEJ GRAŻYNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of 2 methods for biomonitoring of the effects of land rehabilitation were compared in Pszów (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, south of Poland. Thirty-one species of mesostigmatid mites were collected from 3 study plots representing different stages of restoration of the mine dump Wrzosy in Pszów and community structure of the mites was analysed. There was a general trend for mesostigmatid species richness, diversity, and density to increase with the development of vegetation. The dominant early successional mesostigmatid species was the phoretic Hypoapis claviger. During this study, 4616 specimens of soil microarthropods were extracted in total. They were classified according to the Biological Soil Quality Index (QBS. We tested the sensitivity and usefulness of this index for monitoring of soil quality and found its good relationship with successional stages in the reclaimed mine dump. Thus the QBS index seems to be an efficient index for monitoring the effects of restoration in mine dumps. It is a simpler, quicker, and cheaper bioindicator method than the earlier method based on community structure analysis of mesostigmatid mites.

  3. New species and new records of mites of the genus Stigmaeus(Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Crimea.

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    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2014-05-06

    Three new species of the genus Stigmaeus Koch, 1836 (Acari: Stigmaeidae) are described from various habitats in Crimea: Stigmaeus kuznetsovi sp. nov. from nests of Microtus socialis (Rodentia: Cricetidae); S. mitrofanovi sp. nov. from galleries of Pityogenes bistridentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the bark of Pinus pallasiana, and S. silvestris sp. nov. from rotten log of Pinus pallasiana. Stigmaeus corticeus Kuznetsov and Wainstein, 1977 and S. maraghehiensis Bagheri and Ueckermann, 2012 are recorded for the first time in Crimea. A key to species of the genus Stigmaeus of Crimea is provided.

  4. [New species of mites of the genus Ptilonyssus (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) isolated from Passeriformes (Aves: Passeriformes) from Russia and neighboring countries].

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    Staniukovich, M K; Butenko, O M

    2003-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Ptilonyssus (Berl. et Troues.) (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) from nasal cavities of the passeriformes from territory of the former USSR are described: P. ammomani sp. n. from Ammomanus deserti (Alaudidae) collected in Turkmenistan; P. spini sp. n. from Spinus spinus (Fringillidae) of Kaliningrad district (Russia); P. ripariae sp. n. from Riparia riparia (Hirundinidae) and P. acanthopneustes sp. n. from Phylloscopus borealis (Sylviidae) collected in Tjumen district (Russia); P. pyrrhulinus sp. n. from Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Fringillidae) and P. anthi sp. n. from Anthus trivialis (Motacillidae) of Rjazan district; P. sylviicola sp. n. from Sylviae communis (Sylviidae) collected in Tatarstan; P. cyanosylviae sp. n. from Cyanosylvia svecica (Turdidae) collected from Novosibirsk district.

  5. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

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    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  6. Ecology, life history and management of tropilaelaps mites

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    Parasitic mites are the major threat of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera. For much of the world, Varroa destructor single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilae...

  7. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

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    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  8. New species of water mites from Oman, with some zoogeographical notes (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

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    Smit, H.; Pešić, V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with a collection of epigean water mites from Oman. One new genus, Omanaxonopsis, and 16 new species are described: Bharatavolzia arabica, Nilotonia bisetosa, N. longiseta, Torrenticola arabica, T. omanensis, Limnesia kochi, Protolimnesia inexspectata, Atractides arabicus, A.

  9. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)

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    Ros, V.I.D.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of

  10. Pyroglyphid mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity in dust from hospital mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    v d Lustgraaf, B; Jorde, W

    1977-12-01

    Dust from mattresses of different composition and age was analysed for mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity. The mites of the genus Demodex were the most abundant (58.2 per cent). Also pyroglyphid mites occurred commonly (36.6 per cent). Pyroglyphid mites were present in small numbers (mean: 1 specimen/0.2 g of dust) in 12 out of the 17 older polyester-foam mattresses. The 11 cotton-horsechair mattresses and the newly used polyester-foam mattresses (three tested) were without them. The dust from the cotton-horsehair mattresses had a significantly higher allergenic activity than from those of polyester-foam. Xerophilic fungi were isolated in three out of 31 mattresses. The species isolated belonged to the genus Aspergillus and Eurotium. E. repens occurred most frequently. Disinfection of mattresses was suggested to have a negative influence on the occurrence of mites and fungi.

  11. Three Species of Ectoparasite Mites (Acari: Pterygosomatidae Infested Geckos in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARUNI SRI PRAWASTI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited data is hitherto available on the diversity and dispersal of parasitic mites of geckos in Indonesia. Here, we collected three species of geckos, namely Cosymbotus platyurus, Hemidactylus frenatus, and H. garnotii throughout Indonesia to study the distribution and diversity of its parasitic mites. We conducted detail morphological analysis of the mites using whole mount polyvinyl lactophenol and scanning electron microscope preparation. Three species of ectoparasite mites from genus Geckobia were identified in a total of 221 individuals out of 448 geckos collected from 25 sites in Indonesia. Two species were G. glebosum and G. bataviensis, and the other one was designated as Geckobia sp 1. Based on our result, the three mites species were spread randomly and live sympatrically. The G. bataviensis mite showed the widest distribution, because it was found in almost all gecko collection sites, hence the most cosmopolitan mites. We also found that C. platyurus gecko had the lowest mite prevalence which might due to the fact that it has the least number of skin folds, an important site for mite protection. This result implies that further research on the relationship of anatomy of gecko skin with chelicera and claw structure of mites is necessary in the future.

  12. STUDY OF ACAROID MITES POLLUTION IN STORED FRUIT-DERIVED CHINESE MEDICINAL MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-fa; Li, He-xia; Xu, Peng-fei; Xu, Hai-feng; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-08-01

    to investigate the species and breeding density of acaroid mites in stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui province. samples of stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials were collected from 30 herb stores and storehouses in 17 Anhui cities, where the breeding acaroids mites were detected. 20 species of acaroids mites were found in 33 samples, belonging to 15 genus, 5 families of the acaridae respectively, among which T. putrescentiae, A. farinae, C. lactis, and C. berlesei are predominant species. stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui areas suffer from serious acaroid mites pollution. Therefore, proactive measures should be taken to control acaroid mites from breeding in an effort to reduce the harm on medicinal materials. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Allergens of mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Siwak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mite allergens belong to the group of inhalant allergens and represent antigenic substances which are particutlarly important in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and skin diseases. The most common diseases associated with chronic exposure to these aeroallergens include: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mite allergens are simple proteins or glycoproteins with different molecular structures and various biochemical functions. The sensitizing capacity of these proteins is connected from their physicochemical properties. Individual allergens perform, among others, the functions of structural proteins, act as enzymes, transport lipids, bind metal ions, and are capable of glycosylation. In addition, mite allergenic proteases degrade proteins of the skin epithelium-resulting in a weakening of its natural protective barrier-and induce the immune response. The proteases also induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, eotaxin, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF. The article presents the tertiary structure of major and mid-range mite allergens and their classification. Based on literature reports concerning the chemical structure of allergenic proteins, it was emphasized that the structural differences between homologous proteins with allergenic pozoproperties relate to the distribution of amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule. IgE binding affinity and the similarities and differences in the amino acid sequence of the allergens were also the basis for determining cross-reactivity of allergenic proteins. The paper shows an example of this phenomenon, describing the existence of common allergens for various mite species.

  14. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries...... American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years...... system for further understanding the history of human movement....

  15. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

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    HM Silva

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  16. Two simple techniques for the safe Sarcoptes collection and individual mite DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soglia, Dominga; Rambozzi, Luisa; Maione, Sandra; Spalenza, Veronica; Sartore, Stefano; Alasaad, Samer; Sacchi, Paola; Rossi, Luca

    2009-10-01

    Availability of mites is a recognized limiting factor of biological and genetic investigations of the genus Sarcoptes. Current methods of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from individual mites also need substantial improvement in efficiency and operator friendliness. We have first developed a technique for efficient and safe extraction of living mites from scabietic skin samples (crusts or deep skin scrapings). Its core device is a large plastic syringe connected with a 1.5-ml Eppendorf tube. The source material is introduced in the syringe and the device in a shoe box with the tip half of the tube emerging. Mites migrate towards a heat source during a minimum of 36 h. Then, the tube is detached and the mites utilized without risks for the operators. A second technique allows operator-friendly manipulation of individual mites for DNA extraction. Fixed mites are isolated by adhesion to a small strip of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) adhesive tape operated with tweezers. Then, mite and strip are plunged in the lyses buffer and the sample twice submitted to thermal shock for disruption of the chitinous exoskeleton. Data show that the tape does not interfere with successive DNA extraction with a commercial kit. The corresponding protocol, that we briefly name "PVC adhesive tape + thermal shock + kit DNA extraction," compares favorably with the available ones.

  17. On the identity of two new species of the genus coleoscirus (acari: cunaxidae) with annotations on the genus from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.H.; Ashfaq, M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult females of two new Cunaxid mites, Coleoscirus raviensis n.sp. and Coleoscirus tobaensis n.sp. were collected during the taxonomic exploration of the mite fauna of the family Cunaxidae from Punjab- Pakistan. The new species were compared with 9 already describes species of the same genus from Pakistan. A Comprehensive key of all the known species of this genus from Pakistan has been prepared to incorporate the new species. A ceremonial description and illustration of main body characteristics, geographical distribution, host range and distinguishing remarks are also given. (author)

  18. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  19. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  20. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Hatano, F; Gettinger, D; Manhães, M L; Bergallo, H G

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  1. Do mites phoretic on elm bark beetles contribute to the transmission of Dutch elm disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Moser; Heino Konrad; Stacy Blomquist; Thomas Kirisits

    2010-01-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) is a destructive vascular wilt disease of elm (Ulmus) trees caused by the introduced Ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. In Europe, this DED pathogen is transmitted by elm bark beetles in the genus Scolytus. These insects carry phoretic mites to new, suitable habitats. The aim of this...

  2. Genus vesiculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae contains a numbers of viruses that have been taxonomically classified using a combination of serological relatedness, host range, genome organization, pathobiology and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. There are 11 viruses assigned to the gen...

  3. The association of Tarsonemus mites (Acari: Heterostigmata) with different apple developmental stages and apple core rot diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Van der Walt, Lené; Spotts, Robert A.; Smit, Francois J.; Jensen, Tamaryn; McLeod, Adéle

    2011-01-01

    Information on the role of mites in the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876 in the epidemiology of apple core rots (wet and dry) is limited. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effect of different apple developmental stages (buds, blossoms, 4-cm diameter fruit, mature fruit and mummies) on the relative abundance of Tasonemus mites, (2) determine if there is a tendency of Tarsonemus mites to be associated with wet core rot (WCR) and dry core rot (DCR) apples, and (3) evalua...

  4. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  5. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  6. Macrodinychus mites as parasitoids of invasive ants: an overlooked parasitic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, Jean-Paul; Klompen, Hans; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela

    2016-07-21

    Mites are frequent ant symbionts, yet the exact nature of their interactions with their hosts is poorly known. Generally, myrmecophilous mites show adaptations for dispersal through phoresis, but species that lack such an adaptation may have evolved unusual specialized relationships with their hosts. The immature stages of Macrodinychus multispinosus develop as ectoparasitoids of pupae of the invasive ant Paratrechina longicornis. Feeding stages show regressed locomotor appendages. These mites complete their development on a single host, sucking all of its body content and therefore killing it. Locally high proportions of parasitized host pupae suggest that M. multispinosus could serve as a biological control agent. This is the ninth species of Macrodinychus reported as ant parasite, and the third known as parasitoid of invasive ants, confirming a unique habit in the evolution of mite feeding strategies and suggesting that the entire genus might be parasitic on ants. Several mites' characteristics, such as their protective morphology, possible viviparity, lack of a specialized stage for phoretic dispersal, and low host specificity, combined with both the general low aggressiveness of invasive P. longicornis towards other ants and its possible susceptibility to generalist ectoparasites would account for the host shift in native macrodinychid mites.

  7. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  8. Catalogue of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NiedbaŁa, Wojciech; Liu, Dong

    2018-03-11

    As important representatives of Oribatida (Acari), ptyctimous mites comprise more than 1400 described species in 40 genera and subgenera, with nearly cosmopolitan distribution except for the Arctic and Antarctic Regions. They are capable of folding the aspidosoma under the opisthosoma to protect their appendages, and are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Our purpose was to provide a detailed catalogue of all known ptyctimous mite species in the world with information of distribution, taxonomic issues and some remarks. Data of known juvenile  instars of ptyctimous mites which were not included in Norton Ermilov (2014) were added. We hope that our catalogue with bibliography will be helpful in taxonomic and ecological studies.        The catalogue presents taxonomic information and geographic distribution of 1431 known species of the world belonging to 42 genera and eight families (not including data of genus and species inquirenda, nomina nuda and species without author name). Among them, 261 species are listed as synonyms, 43 species inquirenda, nine homonyms, 17 new synonyms, one new subgenus Mahuntritia subgenus nov. and three new names are included in the catalogue.

  9. Detection, Prevalence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Demodex spp and further Skin Prostigmata Mites (Acari, Arachnida) in Wild and Domestic Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.

  10. Detection, Prevalence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Demodex spp and further Skin Prostigmata Mites (Acari, Arachnida in Wild and Domestic Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sastre

    Full Text Available This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13% and bats (17%. The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris, we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1 cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2 seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius. All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.

  11. Ácaros predadores (Acari em plantas nativas e cultivadas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Predators mites (Acari in native and cultivated plants of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in twenty counties of the following regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul: Plain, Central Depression, Plateau and Coast Plain to find out the diversity of mite predators in these places. Forty-six vegetable species were sampled, thirty species of miles of the families Anystidae, Ascidae, Cheyletidae, Cunaxidae, Phyloseiidae and Stigmaeidae were mel. The Phytoseiidae were the mite that presented the greatest diversity, being present in the majority of the sample plants. Most of the Phytoseiidae that were met belong to five species of the Euseius Wainstein, 1962 genus, the second genus of this family was Iphiseiodes DeLeon, 1966, with just one species. The Stigmaeidae come up as second family in number but fewer than Phytoseiidae. In this family, the most common mite belong to the Agistemus Sumers, 1960 genus. The biggest of the mites species (13 species, was met in Morus spp. (Moraceae and Tabebuia spp. (Bignoniaceae; Phaseolus vulgaris (Papilionaceae; only one species of the mite was met in Campomanesia spp. (Myrtaceae, Phaseolus vulgaris (Papilionaceae and Rosa spp. (Rosaceae. In Alamanda spp.(Apocinaceae, Ficus spp. (Moraceae, Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae and Solanum spp. (Solanaceae were met mites predators. A dichotomic key is presented to separate the families, genus and species of the mites.

  12. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. Chemical, physical and combined methods of reducing mite allergen levels are intended to reduce asthma symptoms in people who are sensitive to house dust mites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite...... antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites......), the standardised mean difference was 0.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10). There were no statistically significant differences either in number of patients improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardised mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0...

  13. Learned predation risk management by spider mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHackl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation is a prime selective force shaping prey behavior. Investment in anti-predator behavior is traded-off against time and energy for other fitness-enhancing activities such as foraging or reproduction. To optimize this benefit/cost trade-off, prey should be able to innately and/or by experience modulate their behavior to the level of predation risk. Here, we assessed learned predation risk management in the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. We exposed spider mites coming from benign (naïve or high immediate predation risk (experienced environments to latent and/or no risk and assessed their site choice, activity and oviposition. Benign environments were characterized by the absence of any predator cues, high immediate risk environments by killed spider mites, physical presence of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and associated chemosensory traces left on the surface, and latent risk environments by only predator traces. In the no-choice experiment both naïve and experienced spider mites laid their first egg later on leaves with than without predator traces. Irrespective of predator traces presence/absence, experienced mites laid their first egg earlier than naïve ones did. Naïve spider mites were more active, indicating higher restlessness, and laid fewer eggs on leaves with predator traces, whereas experienced mites were less active and laid similar numbers of eggs on leaves with and without predator traces. In the choice experiment both naïve and experienced spider mites preferentially resided and oviposited on leaves without predator traces but experienced mites were less active than naïve ones. Overall, our study suggests that spider mites experienced with high predation risk behave bolder under latent risk than naïve spider mites. Since predator traces alone do not indicate immediate risk, we argue that the attenuated anti-predator response of experienced spider mites represents adaptive learned

  14. New records and some interesting findings of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida from Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murvanidze

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Six species of oribatid mites are found first time for Georgian fauna: Eobrachychthonius latior (Berlese, 1910, Graptoppia paraanalis Subias & Rodrigues, 1985, Mongaillardia grandjeani Calugar & Vasiliu 1984, Tritegeus bisulcatus Grandjean 1953, Podoribates longipes (Berlese, 1887, Chamobates birulai Kuiczinsky, 1092 and Oribatula (Zygoribatula skrjabini (Bulanova-Zachvatkina 1967. M. grandjeani is new finding for Caucasus area. New locations for some rare oribatid species are also registered. Remarks on the replacement of genus Berndamerus to family Ctenobelbidae Grandjean, 1965 are given.

  15. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  16. Antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, R; Ando, T; Miyahara, A; Kimura, H; Ito, G; Uesato, N; Ino, Y; Iwaki, M

    1994-12-01

    We have examined the antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that there was a very weak antigenic cross-reactivity between these different suborder of mites but that this cross-reactivity was not attributed to D. farinaes major allergen's, Der fI and Der fII. These results suggest that P. persimilis might scarcely provoke allergic symptoms in patients sensitized to house dust mites.

  17. Is it time to retire the genus Rymovirus from the family Potyviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Colin W

    2017-07-01

    In the most recent Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (9 th Report, 2011) (King et al., Virus Taxonomy, Elsevier, New York, 2011) the family Potyviridae is described as comprising seven genera - Potyvirus, Ipomovirus, Macluravirus, Rymovirus, Tritimovirus, Brambyvirus and Bymovirus - despite previous suggestions questioning the validity of the taxonomic status of the genus Rymovirus. Since then the ICTV website records that an eighth genus Poacevirus has been approved for the Potyviridae family. The creation of the genus Rymovirus at the 1990 Potyvirus Taxonomy Workshop in Braunschweig, Germany was based on two things: (i) the incorrect assumption that the genomes of all mite-transmitted members of the Potyviridae would have strong sequence similarity to that of wheat streak mosaic virus, the only mite-transmitted member of this genus for which sequence data were available at that time, and (ii) that the genus should be named Rymovirus (based on a virus for which there was no sequence information) rather than a name based on wheat streak mosaic virus (e.g., "Whestremovirus") because ryegrass mosaic virus (RGMV) was the first mite-transmitted virus to be described and thus should take precedence. When sequence data for RGMV became available in 1995, these data showed that RGMV was very different from wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and should not be assigned to the same genus. WSMV was subsequently re-assigned to a new genus, Tritimovirus, while the genus Rymovirus was retained. In this author's opinion, this retention is not justified, and the removal of Rymovirus as a distinct genus in the family Potyviridae is recommended. There may be merit when assigning it to the genus Potyvirus in sequestering these viruses in a rymovirus subgroup, as is done with other potyviruses, to reflect their different mode of transmission.

  18. A new species of the genus Neogalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang, Wenqin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of oribatid mites of the family Galumnidae, Neogalumna longiporosa sp. nov., is described from dark loamy soil collected under moss in North Eastern China. It is the first identified member of the genus Neogalumna recorded for China. An identification key to the known species of Neogalumna is also given.

  19. The management of house dust mite allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Schober, G.; Kniest, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    A safe and practical home sanitation procedure for the removal of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and their allergens is described. The severity of mite infestation was assessed with the use of the Acarex test, which measures the concentration of guanine in house dust, and all

  20. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search...

  1. Domatia reduce larval cannibalism in predatory mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.M.; Eshuis, B.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    1. Acarodomatia are small structures on the underside of leaves of many plant species, which are mainly inhabited by carnivorous and fungivorous mites. 2. Domatia are thought to protect these mites against adverse environmental conditions and against predation. They are considered as an indirect

  2. Birefringent Crystals and Abdominal Discoloration in the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie

    1997-03-01

    In response to grower complaints of poor performance of Phytoseiulus persimilis, mites from 14 commercial insectaries and research colonies were examined for pathogens. Some were found to have abdominal discolorations, manifested initially as two white stripes along the dorsal sides of the body within the Malpighian tubules. Advanced signs appeared as a large, centrally located, white spot or U-shaped discoloration in the distal opisthosoma within the rectum/anal atrium. White material often accumulated and hardened within the anus and formed a rectal plug that inhibited further excretion. Most affected mites were lethargic. Adults and immatures with abdominal discoloration contained numerous densely packed, birefringent, dumbbell-shaped entities. Though occasionally observed in the colon, they occurred most frequently within the Malpighian tubules and/or rectum and anal atrium. Dumbbells measured 2-4 &mgr;m long and contained prominent concentric rings. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, the entities lacked cellular organelles. Asymptomatic mites contained few or no such entities. Dumbbell-shaped inclusions were observed in P. persimilis from all sources examined. High levels of potassium, low levels of phosphorous and sulfur, and traces of chlorine were detected by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Guanine and uric acid, known nitrogenous wastes of arachnids, do not contain these elements. The chemical composition and structure indicate that the dumbbells are crystals. Both asymptomatic mites and those specimens exhibiting abdominal discoloration were examined for pathogens using light and transmission electron microscopy. Microsporidia, virus-like particles, and a rickettsia (genus Wolbachia) were observed in some mites but showed no correlation with white abdominal discoloration or associated crystal formation. Neither were pathogens always detected in symptomatic mites. Although birefringent crystals may be naturally occurring excretory

  3. Contribution to the Uropodina mites of Peru (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan

    2017-02-27

    Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.

  4. A synthetic review of notoedres species mites and mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E.; Serieys, L.E.; Stephenson, N.; Riley, S.; Foley, C.; Jennings, M.; Wengert, G.; Vickers, W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa L.; Moriarty, J.; Clifford, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.

  5. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    /carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...... cages contain perches, nest boxes and dust bathing areas. This improves the welfare of the hens but also provides more hiding places for the PRM and may thus lead to increased ectoparasite problems. The approach taken against the PRM is to develop new control methods based on a combination of mite...

  6. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  7. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  8. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.

  9. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Xu

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  10. Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air Warming Affects Soil Collembola and Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4°C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210

  11. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites.Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites.Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa.Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.

  12. Heterochromatin and molecular characterization of DsmarMITE transposable element in the beetle Dichotomius schiffleri (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Crislaine; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Moura, Rita Cássia

    2014-12-01

    Cytogenetic studies of the Neotropical beetle genus Dichotomius (Scarabaeinae, Coleoptera) have shown dynamism for centromeric constitutive heterochromatin sequences. In the present work we studied the chromosomes and isolated repetitive sequences of Dichotomius schiffleri aiming to contribute to the understanding of coleopteran genome/chromosomal organization. Dichotomius schiffleri presented a conserved karyotype and heterochromatin distribution in comparison to other species of the genus with 2n = 18, biarmed chromosomes, and pericentromeric C-positive blocks. Similarly to heterochromatin distributional patterns, the highly and moderately repetitive DNA fraction (C 0 t-1 DNA) was detected in pericentromeric areas, contrasting with the euchromatic mapping of an isolated TE (named DsmarMITE). After structural analyses, the DsmarMITE was classified as a non-autonomous element of the type miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) with terminal inverted repeats similar to Mariner elements of insects from different orders. The euchromatic distribution for DsmarMITE indicates that it does not play a part in the dynamics of constitutive heterochromatin sequences.

  13. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  14. Minimal barcode distance between two water mite species from Madeira Island: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Horreo, Jose Luis; Valdecasas, Antonio G

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we compare morphological and molecular data in their ability to distinguish between species of water mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Hydrachnidia). We have focused on the two species of the genus Lebertia inhabiting the island of Madeira. While traditional morphological traits were initially sufficient to distinguish between these two species, the molecular data were more dependable on the kind of analysis carried out. Single arbitrary genetic distance (e.g. a K2P distance below 2%) may lead to the conclusion that the specimens under study belong to the same species. Analysing the same specimens with the coalescent model has proved the evolutionary independence of both Lebertia clades in Madeira. Furthermore, multi-rate Poisson Tree Process analysis confirmed both lineages as independent species. Our results agree with previous studies warning of the dangers of rigid species delimitation based on arbitrary molecular distances. In addition, the importance of different molecular data approaches for correct species delimitation in water mites is highlighted.

  15. Temperature preference and respiration of acaridid mites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubert, J.; Pekár, S.; Nesvorná, M.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 6 (2010), s. 2249-2257 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : mites * temperature * acclimation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2010

  16. A previously unidentified Chorioptes species infesting outer ear canals of moose (Alces alces: characterization of the mite and the pathology of infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Roland

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decade, Chorioptes mites occupying the outer ear canals have been a common finding at routine necropsies of moose (Alces alces in Sweden, but neither the taxonomy of the mites nor lesions from the infestation have been investigated. In this study, the mites are characterized by morphological and molecular techniques, and the histopathology of the skin of the outer ear canal is described. Methods External auditory meatuses from 53 necropsied moose were examined for the presence of Chorioptes, and samples from outer ear canals were taken for histopathological and microbiological examination. A proportion of the mites from each moose was identified to species. The DNA was extracted from mites from three moose, and their ITS-2 sequences were determined; these sequences were compared phylogenetically to sequences from other Chorioptes taxa. Results Chorioptes mites were found in 43 (81% of the 53 moose. The mites had morphological and genetic characteristics distinct from those of C. texanus and C. bovis, the two species generally accepted within the genus. Morphology also did not argue for a diagnosis as C. crewei, C. mydaus or C. panda. On histopathology, lesions were characterized by a hyperplastic perivascular to interstitial dermatitis with epidermal hyperkeratosis and crust formation. Dermal inflammatory infiltrates were composed of mixed T- and B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, whereas eosinophils were notably uncommon. Staphylococcus aureus was grown from the infested epidermis of five of 14 examined moose. Conclusion Chorioptes mite infestation was frequently detected in the outer ear canals of moose in Sweden. The mites were evidently pathogenic, being associated with inflammatory lesions of the external auditory meatus. Our studies indicate infestations with a previously undescribed Chorioptes species.

  17. Mites as selective fungal carriers in stored grain habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance.

  18. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  20. Life cycle and reproduction of house-dust mites: environmental factors influencing mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B J

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the life cycle of house-dust mites, as well as environmental factors influencing mite populations, can be exploited in mite control. The most important limiting factor for house-dust-mite populations is air humidity. House-dust mites osmoregulate through the cuticle and therefore require a high ambient air humidity to prevent excessive water loss. In addition, the supracoxal glands actively take up ambient water vapour, and the protonynph stage of the life cycle is resistant to desiccation. Larger house-dust-mite populations are found when the absolute indoor air humidity is above 7 g/kg (45% relative humidity at 20 degrees C). Consequently, ventilation by air-conditioning systems is being developed as a means of control. A number of other aspects of the domestic environment are also being manipulated in an integrated approach to render the habitat less suitable for mites. The potential exists for developing models for house-dust mite populations, environmental characteristics, and the effects of various approaches to control.

  1. Hygienic Activity Toward Varroa Mites in Capped Brood is not Dependent on Mite Reproductive Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    - The varroa resistance of bees selectively bred for high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is characterized by a reduction of (1) the mite infestation rate (Harris 2007 J. Apic. Res. / Bee World 46: 134-139) and (2) the percentage of fertile mites (Harris and Harbo 1999 J. Econ. Entomol. 92:...

  2. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  3. Characterization of a new high copy Stowaway family MITE, BRAMI-1 in Brassica genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are expected to play important roles in evolution of genes and genome in plants, especially in the highly duplicated plant genomes. Various MITE families and their roles in plants have been characterized. However, there have been fewer studies of MITE families and their potential roles in evolution of the recently triplicated Brassica genome. Results We identified a new MITE family, BRAMI-1, belonging to the Stowaway super-family in the Brassica genome. In silico mapping revealed that 697 members are dispersed throughout the euchromatic regions of the B. rapa pseudo-chromosomes. Among them, 548 members (78.6%) are located in gene-rich regions, less than 3 kb from genes. In addition, we identified 516 and 15 members in the 470 Mb and 15 Mb genomic shotgun sequences currently available for B. oleracea and B. napus, respectively. The resulting estimated copy numbers for the entire genomes were 1440, 1464 and 2490 in B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus, respectively. Concurrently, only 70 members of the related Arabidopsis ATTIRTA-1 MITE family were identified in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BRAMI-1 elements proliferated in the Brassica genus after divergence from the Arabidopsis lineage. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP) was inspected for 50 BRAMI-1 members, revealing high levels of insertion polymorphism between and within species of Brassica that clarify BRAMI-1 activation periods up to the present. Comparative analysis of the 71 genes harbouring the BRAMI-1 elements with their non-insertion paralogs (NIPs) showed that the BRAMI-1 insertions mainly reside in non-coding sequences and that the expression levels of genes with the elements differ from those of their NIPs. Conclusion A Stowaway family MITE, named as BRAMI-1, was gradually amplified and remained present in over than 1400 copies in each of three Brassica species. Overall, 78% of the members were identified in

  4. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  5. Autofluorescence microscopy for paired-matched morphological and molecular identification of individual chigger mites (Acari: Trombiculidae, the vectors of scrub typhus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawadee Kumlert

    Full Text Available Conventional gold standard characterization of chigger mites involves chemical preparation procedures (i.e. specimen clearing for visualization of morphological features, which however contributes to destruction of the arthropod host DNA and any endosymbiont or pathogen DNA harbored within the specimen.In this study, a novel work flow based on autofluorescence microscopy was developed to enable identification of trombiculid mites to the species level on the basis of morphological traits without any special preparation, while preserving the mite DNA for subsequent genotyping. A panel of 16 specifically selected fluorescence microscopy images of mite features from available identification keys served for complete chigger morphological identification to the species level, and was paired with corresponding genotype data. We evaluated and validated this method for paired chigger morphological and genotypic ID using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (coi in 113 chigger specimens representing 12 species and 7 genera (Leptotrombidium, Ascoschoengastia, Gahrliepia, Walchia, Blankaartia, Schoengastia and Schoutedenichia from the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR to the species level (complete characterization, and 153 chiggers from 5 genera (Leptotrombidium, Ascoschoengastia, Helenicula, Schoengastiella and Walchia from Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR to the genus level. A phylogenetic tree constructed from 77 coi gene sequences (approximately 640 bp length, n = 52 new coi sequences and n = 25 downloaded from GenBank, demonstrated clear grouping of assigned morphotypes at the genus levels, although evidence of both genetic polymorphism and morphological plasticity was found.With this new methodology, we provided the largest collection of characterized coi gene sequences for trombiculid mites to date, and almost doubled the number of available characterized coi gene sequences with a single study. The ability to provide paired

  6. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  7. [Investigation of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ning; Zhan, Xiao-dong; Sun, En-tao; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-12-01

    To study the species and density of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits. The samples from the dried fruit stores and warehouses were collected, and the mites breeding in them were separated, then the slides with mites were prepared and observed by a light microscope for species identification and counting. The indexes such as the breeding density, species richness index, diversity index and evenness index were calculated. Totally 12 species of Acaroid mites belonging to 6 families and 10 genera were obtained from the total 49 samples. The dominant mite species were Carpoglyphus lactis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and Caloglyphus berlesei. The breeding densities of mites in longans, filberts and plum candies were 79.78, 48.91, 35.73 mites/g, respectively, which were higher than those in other dry fruits. The seasonal variation experiment of mites found that the average breeding density of acaroid mites was higher in July and October, the richness index and diversity index reached the highest value in July, and the evenness index was higher in January and April. The observation of the growth and decline of Acaroid mites under the artificial condition found the number of Caloglyphus berlesei declined sharply and Tyrophagus putrescentiae first increased and then decreased. The pollution of Acaroid mites is serious in the stored dried fruits, for which the positive prevention and control measures to the mite breeding should be taken to reduce the harm.

  8. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  9. Infection of army ant pupae by two new parasitoid mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brückner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of parasites and parasitoids exploit ant societies. Among them are the Mesostigmata mites, a particularly common and diverse group of ant-associated arthropods. While parasitism is ubiquitous in Mesostigmata, parasitoidism has only been described in the genus Macrodinychus. Yet information about the basic biology of most Macrodinychus species is lacking. Out of 24 formally described species, information about basic life-history traits is only available for three species. Here we formally describe two new Macrodinychus species, i.e. Macrodinychus hilpertae and Macrodinychus derbyensis. In both species, immature stages developed as ecto-parasitoids on ant pupae of the South-East Asian army ant Leptogenys distinguenda. By piercing the developing ant with their chelicera, the mites apparently suck ant hemolymph, ultimately killing host individuals. We compare infection rates among all studied Macrodinychus species and discuss possible host countermeasures against parasitoidism. The cryptic lifestyle of living inside ant nests has certainly hampered the scientific discovery of Macrodinychus mites and we expect that many more macrodinychid species await scientific discovery and description.

  10. Infection of army ant pupae by two new parasitoid mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Klompen, Hans; Bruce, Andrew Iain; Hashim, Rosli; von Beeren, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    A great variety of parasites and parasitoids exploit ant societies. Among them are the Mesostigmata mites, a particularly common and diverse group of ant-associated arthropods. While parasitism is ubiquitous in Mesostigmata, parasitoidism has only been described in the genus Macrodinychus . Yet information about the basic biology of most Macrodinychus species is lacking. Out of 24 formally described species, information about basic life-history traits is only available for three species. Here we formally describe two new Macrodinychus species, i.e. Macrodinychus hilpertae and Macrodinychus derbyensis . In both species, immature stages developed as ecto-parasitoids on ant pupae of the South-East Asian army ant Leptogenys distinguenda . By piercing the developing ant with their chelicera, the mites apparently suck ant hemolymph, ultimately killing host individuals. We compare infection rates among all studied Macrodinychus species and discuss possible host countermeasures against parasitoidism. The cryptic lifestyle of living inside ant nests has certainly hampered the scientific discovery of Macrodinychus mites and we expect that many more macrodinychid species await scientific discovery and description.

  11. The genus Baijiania (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Baijiania, originally thought to be indigenous in China and Borneo, appears to be restricted to Borneo. The only species is Baijiania borneensis, with two varieties, the type variety and var. paludicola Duyfjes, var. nov.

  12. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  13. Anti-mite measurements in mite-sensitive adult asthma. A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, M L; St Leger, A S; Neale, E

    1976-02-14

    A cross-over controlled trial has been conducted among 32 adult patients with mite-sensitive asthma. The bedclothes and pillows of each subject were laundered and vacuum-cleaned and a plastic cover applied to the mattress for six weeks in an attempt to reduce exposure to mites. No improvement in daily peak-flow reading or drug usage was found in comparison with a control period.

  14. Evaluation of predatory mites and Acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E

    2006-08-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite 50 WP (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). In greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of P. persimilis, N. californicus, and an untreated control were evaluated. Both species of predatory mites significantly reduced twospotted spider mite numbers below those found in the control during the first 3 wk of evaluation. However, during week 4, twospotted spider mite numbers on the plants treated with P. persimilis increased and did not differ significantly from the control. Field studies used releases of P. persimilis and N. californicus, applications of Acramite, and untreated control plots. Both N. californicus and P. persimilis significantly reduced populations of twospotted spider mite below numbers recorded in the control plots. During the 2003-2004 field season P. persimilis took longer than N. californicus to bring the twospotted spider mite population under control (< 10 mites per leaflet). Acramite was effective in reducing twospotted spider mite populations below 10 mites per leaflet during the 2003-2004 field season but not during the 2004-2005 field season, possibly because of a late application. These findings indicate that N. californicus releases and properly timed Acramite applications are promising options for twospotted spider mite control in strawberries for growers in north Florida and other areas of the southeast.

  15. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  16. Pyroglyphid mites as a source of work-related allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 μg g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 μg g(-1) and 10 μg g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 μg g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance.

  17. The ascomycete genus Sordaria

    OpenAIRE

    Guarro, J.; Arx, von, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sordaria is restricted to coprophilous, soil-, or seed-borne Pyrenomycetes with aseptate, elongate ascospores with a gelatinous, amorphous sheath. The genus is redescribed and a key to fourteen accepted species is given. A checklist of all taxa described as Sordaria is added.

  18. Genus I. Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  19. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A.

  20. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Resch

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (HDM allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated.To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level.Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects. IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98 and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments.Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients.Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy.

  1. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis c...

  2. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  3. Long conduction time POs experiments on MITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, H.N.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Rochau, G.E.; Zagar, D.M.; Simpson, W.W.; Zuchowski, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    MITE is a power flow test bed that has been modified to conduct experiments in high power plasma opening switch (POS) technology and apply this technology to Inertial Confinement Fusion. The goal of the experiment is to develop a plasma opening switch that conducts megampere currents for 300 ns, then opens in 5--10 ns. MITE/POS is an advanced power flow experiment that uses a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) as the inductive energy store and as a means to shape the output pulse. This experiment demonstrates that a simplified, lower-cost facility can be built by eliminating water pulse-forming lines and water-switching. Another advantage of this approach is that high energy efficiency at peak power can be achieved. The disadvantage is that a new technology, the triggered POS, must be implemented. The triggered POS is necessary for synchronization of multiple modules with a long conduction-time POS. The MITE facility has been modified to drive a 250 nH, 16.6 Ohm MITL at 0.9 MA to accommodate this power flow experiment. A MITL inductive energy storage of 101 kJ is available for POS switching to a matched load. Experiments have been conducted using segmented flashboards and magnetic-field controlled plasma sources. These experiments will lead to the development of the triggered POS. The initial experiments with plasma conduction times of 120 ns to 800 ns are discussed

  4. Syringophilopsis davidi sp. nov. (Prostigmata, Syringophilidae) a new quill mite species parasitizing Calandrella brachydactyla (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Laniecka, Izabella

    2012-12-01

    A new quill mite species Syringophilopsis davidi sp. nov. (Prostigmata, Syringophilidae) parasitizing Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla (Leisler) (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) in Egypt is described. This new species is distinguishable from S. tyranni Bochkov and Galloway by 10-13 chambers of the peritremal lateral branches, setae se located slightly anterior to c1, and by setae ag2 about twice longer than the genital setae. This is the first record of this genus from the hosts of the family Alaudidae and in the Arab Republic of Egypt.

  5. Clinical benefits of treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet in house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Rehm, D

    2017-10-01

    Treatment with SQ (standardised quality) house dust mite sublingual tablet for 1 year resulted in a decreased probability of having an allergic rhinitis (AR) exacerbation day (from 11% [placebo] to 5% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]) and an increased probability of having a mild AR day (from 16% [placebo] to 34% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]). © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  6. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  7. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  8. Acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukall, Rüdiger; Schumann, Peter; Schütte, Conny; Gols, Rieta; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain CSCT, was isolated from diseased, surface-sterilized specimens of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain was a new member of the family Micrococcaceae. Nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as Renibacterium salmoninarum (94.0%), Arthrobacter globiformis (94.8%) and Arthrobacter russicus (94.6%). Although the predominant fatty acids (anteiso C15:0), cell-wall sugars (galactose, glucose) and polar lipids (diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol) are in accordance with those of members of the genus Arthrobacter, strain CSCT can be distinguished from members of the genus Arthrobacter by biochemical tests, the absence of a rod-coccus life cycle and the occurrence of the partially saturated menaquinone MK-10(H2) as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C content is 57.7 mol%. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic differences from other species of the Micrococcaceae, a novel genus and species are proposed, Acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is CSCT (=DSM 14247T=CCUG 49701T).

  9. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  10. A taxonomic review of the genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M

    2013-10-30

    The genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 is reviewed from the Indian subcontinent. Three species with one additional subspecies are present, namely Antodynerus flavescens flavescens (Fabricius, 1775), A. f. karachiensis Giordani Soika, 1970, A. limbatus (de Saussure, 1852), and A. punctatipennis (de Saussure, 1853). The parasitic association of strepsipteran insects and the symbiotic association of mites are reported for the first time in the genus Antodynerus. The distribution of A. f. flavescens (Fabricius) and A. limbatus (de Saussure) in the Indian states is augmented. The latter species is newly recorded from China (Tibet). A key to species of the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  11. Size of predatory mites and refuge entrance determine success of biological control of the coconut mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F.R.; de Moraes, G.J.; Lesna, I.; Sato, Y.; Vasquez, C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Predators face the challenge of accessing prey that live in sheltered habitats. The coconut mite Aceriaguerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) lives hidden beneath the perianth, which is appressed to the coconut fruit surface, where they feed on the meristematic tissue. Its natural enemy, the

  12. Bee Mite ID - an online resource on identification of mites associated with bees of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitic mites are known to be a factor in recent declines in bee pollinator populations. In particular, Varroa destructor, an introduced parasite and disease vector, has decimated colonies of the western honey bee, one of the most important agricultural pollinators in the world. Further, global tr...

  13. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  14. House dust mites in the city of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M; Costa-Manso, E; Baggio, D; Croce, J

    2000-01-01

    Since mites are the most common house dust allergens, knowledge about the species most prevalent in a region is important for diagnostic and specific immunotherapy purposes. In order to establish the prevalence of house dust mites in different city districts, 100 house dust samples were collected from different parts of Lima. Lima is a city of tropical climate located along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. The relative air humidity is 80-90% and the various districts studied are located at altitudes ranging from 37-355 meters. The mite Blomia tropicalis was the organism most frequently detected, being present in 59% of the house dust samples. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus occupied second place (15.9%), followed by Chortoglyphus arcuatus and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. These four mites, taken together, represented more than 90% of the mites detected. No specimen of the species Dermatophagoides farinae was detected. We conclude that B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus are the most common house dust mites in Lima. Considering the high prevalence of B. tropicalis in Lima and the fact that its cross-reactivity with antigens of the mites of the family Pyroglyphidae is minimal, we conclude that sensitization to this mite should be investigated separately in allergic patients living in Lima.

  15. Mite Biodiversity Under the Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, more than 55,000 mite species have been described and only a few of them have been studied. Some mites are adapted to live deep in soil, others in fresh or sea water, some are on plants, algae, fungi or animals, and others are able to survive in both extreme cold and hot temperatures. The...

  16. The Tropilaelaps mites threat: Observations of their reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropilaelaps spp. are more successful parasitic mites of Apis mellifera than Varroa destructor in Asia (Burgett et al., Bee World 64:25-28). We sought explanations to this success by assessing their fecundity on European bees in three short experiments using the mite transfer technique: 1) fecundity...

  17. IPM potentials of microbial pathogens and diseases of mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, L.P.S.; Ciancio, A.; Mukerji, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of diseases in mites, caused by infectious microorganisms. Many pathogens play an important role in the regulation of natural populations of mite populations and are for this reason subject of research on the feasibility to develop such pathogens to biological control agents.

  18. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  19. Spider mite control and resistance management: does a genome help?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, T.; Dermauw, W.; Grbic, M.; Tirry, L.; Feyereisen, R.

    2012-01-01

    The complete genome of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, has been reported. This is the first sequenced genome of a highly polyphagous and resistant agricultural pest. The question as to what the genome offers the community working on spider mite control is addressed.

  20. Suppression of Plant Defenses by Herbivorous Mites Is Not Associated with Adaptation to Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica T. Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Some herbivores suppress plant defenses, which may be viewed as a result of the coevolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores. However, this ability is usually studied in a one-herbivore-one-plant system, which hampers comparative studies that could corroborate this hypothesis. Here, we extend this paradigm and ask whether the herbivorous spider-mite Tetranychus evansi, which suppresses the jasmonic-acid pathway in tomato plants, is also able to suppress defenses in other host plants at different phylogenetic distances from tomatoes. We test this using different plants from the Solanales order, namely tomato, jimsonweed, tobacco, and morning glory (three Solanaceae and one Convolvulaceae, and bean plants (Fabales. First, we compare the performance of T. evansi to that of the other two most-commonly found species of the same genus, T. urticae and T. ludeni, on several plants. We found that the performance of T. evansi is higher than that of the other species only on tomato plants. We then showed, by measuring trypsin inhibitor activity and life history traits of conspecific mites on either clean or pre-infested plants, that T. evansi can suppress plant defenses on all plants except tobacco. This study suggests that the suppression of plant defenses may occur on host plants other than those to which herbivores are adapted.

  1. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E

    2002-03-01

    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.

  2. Mites (acari) infesting commensal rats in Suez Canal zone, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.

  3. Clinical evaluation of a double-blind dust mite avoidance trial with mite-allergic rhinitic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniest, F.M.; Young, E.; Praag, van M.C.G.; Vos, H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Koers, W.J.; Maat-Bleeker, de F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Inheritance and allergen exposure are key factors in the development and the course of atopic allergy, expressed as conjunctivitis, rhinitis, asthma or dermatitis. This study concerns the clinical significance of mite and mite-allergen avoidance measures based on intensive cleaning with acaricide

  4. Mechanisms and patient compliance of dust-mite avoidance regimens in dwellings of mite-allergic rhinitic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniest, F.M.; Wolfs, B.G.; Vos, H.; Ducheine, B.O.I.; Schayk-Bakker, M.J.; de Lange, P.J.P.; Vos, E.M.P.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the mechanisms, the environmental changes and patient compliance with regard to conventional and new dust and mite avoidance measures to prevent allergic symptoms caused by mite allergens, taking into account both allergen contamination and the developmental success of pyroglyphid

  5. The genus Vitex: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditio...

  6. Molecular characterization of a new monopartite dsRNA mycovirus from mycorrhizal Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) and its detection in soil oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrzik, Karel, E-mail: petrzik@umbr.cas.cz [Department of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Sarkisova, Tatiana [Department of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Starý, Josef [Institute of Soil Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Sádkách 7, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Koloniuk, Igor [Department of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-02-15

    A novel dsRNA virus was identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) and sequenced. This virus, named Thelephora terrestris virus 1 (TtV1), contains two reading frames in different frames but with the possibility that ORF2 could be translated as a fusion polyprotein after ribosomal -1 frameshifting. Picornavirus 2A-like motif, nudix hydrolase, phytoreovirus S7, and RdRp domains were found in a unique arrangement on the polyprotein. A new genus named Phlegivirus and containing TtV1, PgLV1, RfV1 and LeV is therefore proposed. Twenty species of oribatid mites were identified in soil material in the vicinity of T. terrestris. TtV1 was detected in large amounts in Steganacarus (Tropacarus) carinatus (C.L. Koch, 1841) and in much smaller amounts in Nothrus silvestris (Nicolet). This is the first description of mycovirus presence in oribatid mites. - Highlights: • A novel dsRNA virus was identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora terrestris. • A new virus genus Phlegivirus is proposed. • The mycovirus was firstly detected in oribatid mites.

  7. Molecular characterization of a new monopartite dsRNA mycovirus from mycorrhizal Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) and its detection in soil oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzik, Karel; Sarkisova, Tatiana; Starý, Josef; Koloniuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A novel dsRNA virus was identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) and sequenced. This virus, named Thelephora terrestris virus 1 (TtV1), contains two reading frames in different frames but with the possibility that ORF2 could be translated as a fusion polyprotein after ribosomal -1 frameshifting. Picornavirus 2A-like motif, nudix hydrolase, phytoreovirus S7, and RdRp domains were found in a unique arrangement on the polyprotein. A new genus named Phlegivirus and containing TtV1, PgLV1, RfV1 and LeV is therefore proposed. Twenty species of oribatid mites were identified in soil material in the vicinity of T. terrestris. TtV1 was detected in large amounts in Steganacarus (Tropacarus) carinatus (C.L. Koch, 1841) and in much smaller amounts in Nothrus silvestris (Nicolet). This is the first description of mycovirus presence in oribatid mites. - Highlights: • A novel dsRNA virus was identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora terrestris. • A new virus genus Phlegivirus is proposed. • The mycovirus was firstly detected in oribatid mites.

  8. Cleaner mites: sanitary mutualism in the miniature ecosystem of neotropical bee nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biani, Natalia B; Mueller, Ulrich G; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-01

    Cleaning symbioses represent classic models of mutualism, and some bee mites are thought to perform cleaning services for their hosts in exchange for suitable environments for reproduction and dispersal. These mutual benefits, however, have not been rigorously demonstrated. We tested the sanitary role of bee mites by correlating mite loads with fungal contamination in natural nests of Megalopta genalis and Megalopta ecuadoria and by experimentally manipulating mite loads in artificial cells with developing brood. Field observations revealed significant correlations between the presence of mites and the absence of fungi inside the brood cells, as well as between the absence of mites and increased bee mortality. Likewise, experimental brood cells with mites have fewer fungal colonies than do cells without mites. Field observations and experimental manipulations, therefore, provide clear evidence of the sanitary effect of mites in nests of Megalopta bees. This bee-mite association constitutes one of the few examples of terrestrial cleaning mutualisms.

  9. Global associations between birds and vane-dwelling feather mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doña, Jorge; Proctor, Heather; Mironov, Sergey; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Understanding host-symbiont networks is a major question in evolutionary ecology. Birds host a great diversity of endo- and ectosymbiotic organisms, with feather mites (Arachnida: Acariformes: Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea) being among the most diverse of avian symbionts. A global approach to the ecology and evolution of bird-feather-mite associations has been hampered because of the absence of a centralized data repository. Here we present the most extensive data set of associations between feather mites and birds. Data include 12 036 records of 1887 feather mite species located on the flight feathers of 2234 bird species from 147 countries. Feather mites typically located inside quills, on the skin, or on downy body feathers are not included. Data were extracted from 493 published sources dating from 1882 to 2015. Data exploration shows that although most continents and bird families are represented, most bird species remain unexplored for feather mites. Nevertheless, this is the most comprehensive data set available for enabling global macroecological analyses of feather mites and their hosts, such as ecological network analyses. This metadata file outlines the structure of these data and provides primary references for all records used. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L.M. Steidle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897, the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies.

  11. Phoretic mites identified on andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae of Caldas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López-Orozco

    Full Text Available Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei,A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii,Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis. Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month, a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius andTropicoseius spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite speciesP. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformisand the first record of P. guy as phoretic host forProctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  12. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  13. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved

  14. A new species of the genus Epidamaeus (Acari, Oribatida, Damaeidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Xie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid mite genus Epidamaeus Bulanova-Zachvatkina, 1957 from China is reviewed, and a list and key to all known species from China are provided. A new species, Epidamaeus conjungenus, sp. n. is identified, and its morphological descriptions and illustrations are also given. The distinct characteristics of E. conjungenus sp. n. is the coterminous ridge connected to the base of the notogastral setae. Pseudanal setae undulating attenuate, the proximal half with obvious, thorn-like barbs, the distal half smooth.

  15. Detection methods for irradiated mites and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the study on the following tests for separation of irradiated pests from untreated ones are reported: (a) test for identification of irradiated mites (Acaridae) based on lack of fecundity of treated females; (b) test for identification of irradiated beetles based on their locomotor activity; (c) test for identification of irradiated pests based on electron spin resonance (ESR) signal derived from treated insects; (d) test for identification of irradiated pests based on changes in the midgut induced by gamma radiation; and (e) test for identification of irradiated pests based on the alterations in total proteins of treated adults. Of these detection methods, only the test based on the pathological changes induced by irradiation in the insect midgut may identify consistently either irradiated larvae or adults. This test is simple and convenient when a rapid processing technique for dehydrating and embedding the midgut is used. (author)

  16. Un mundo sin límites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba, Joaquín Mª

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo XVI, las nuevas ediciones del Atlas de Ptolomeo publicadas en Roma o Venecia solían incluir un mapamundi modificado sin cesara a medida que descubridores y navegantes alcanzaban nuevos y antes desconocidos horizontes. La temprana circunnavegación de Magallanes y Elcano (1519-1522 confirmaba con su esferidad, que el mundo no tenía límites. Durante aquel siglo magnífico, la literatura española de viajes al Oriente Próximo islámico tenía que ser menos señalada. La casi perenne guerra contra el Imperio Otomano, señor de una buena parte de las costas mediterráneas, y sobre todo la empresa de América y los viajes de exploración y conquista que aquella demandaba, …

  17. Variation in nesting behavior of eight species of spider mites, Stigmaeopsis having sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yutaka; Zhang, Yan-Xuan; Mori, Kotaro; Ito, Katsura; Sato, Yukie; Chittenden, Anthony R.; Lin, Jian-Zhen; Chae, Younghae; Sakagami, Takane; Sahara, Ken

    2016-10-01

    Nesting behavior is considered to be an important element of social living in animals. The spider mites belonging to the genus Stigmaeopsis spend their lives within nests produced from silk threads. Several of these species show cooperative sociality, while the others are subsocial. In order to identify the origins of this social behavior, comparisons of nest sizes, nesting behaviors (making nests continuously or separately), and their associated traits (fecal deposition patterns) were made for eight cogeneric Stigmaeopsis species showing various levels of social development. All of these species inhabit bamboo plants (Poaceae). We initially addressed the proximate factor of nest size variation. The variation in nest size of the eight species corresponded well with the variation in dorsal seta sc1 length, suggesting that nest size variation among species may have a genetic basis. The time spent within a nest (nest duration) increased with nest size on the respective host plants. Nest arrangement patterns varied among species showing different sized nests: Large nest builders continuously extended their nests, while middle and small nest-building species built new separate nests, which resulted in different social interaction times among species, and is thought to be closely related to social development. Fecal deposition behaviors also varied among Stigmaeopsis species, suggesting diversity in anti-predatory adaptations. Finally, we discuss how the variation in sociality observed within this genus is likely the result of nest size variation that initially evolved as anti-predator strategies.

  18. Phenomenon of Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Phytoseiulus persimilis mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutáková, G

    1994-01-01

    An unknown microorganism occurring in a predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was described by the author in 1977 as a new species Rickettsiella phytoseiuli. Some new results on the relation between this agent and its hosts are presented in this paper.

  19. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... treatment and then the selected 5th instar larva were transferred to fundamental colonies with 10 to 12 ... Key words: Varroa mite, hygienic behavior (uncapping and .... into a container containing hot water and detergent.

  20. Genetic background of resistance to gall mite in Ribes species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Mazeikiene

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to gall mite is an important genetic trait of Ribes. P and Ce genes, responsible for gall mite resistance, were established in Ribes species and interspecific hybrids using molecular markers. Resistance in R. americanum is determined by P gene and in R. sanguineum by Ce gene. Both molecular markers were absent in R. dikuscha genome. Molecular markers related to P and Ce genes were identified in the genome of R. aureum. Resistance to gall mite in the field conditions in R. nigrum x R. americanum, R. nigrum x R. aureum and R. nigrum x R. sanguineum F3 hybrids fitted an expected Mendelian segregation ratio of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:1, respectively. 75.0% of hybrids with a pyramidal resistance to gall mite carrying markers related to Ce and P genes were obtained in the cross combination R. nigrum x R. aureum and will be included in the future breeding programs.

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of various red spider mite- resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... 3Key Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, P. R. ... Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a DNA ..... spider mite-resistant, bumper, high-quality and disease-.

  2. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aratchige, N.S.; Lesna, I.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract

  3. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, S. N.; Pesenti, T. C.; Cirne, M. P.; Müller, G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25...

  4. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.

  5. Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

  6. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  7. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  8. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  9. The genus Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  10. The genus Vitex: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  11. Oral mite anaphylaxis caused by mite-contaminated okonomiyaki/ pancake-mix in Japan: 8 case reports and a review of 28 reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Masami; Fukutomi, Yuma; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Watai, Kentaro; Mitsui, Chihiro; Tanimoto, Hidenori; Oshikata, Chiyako; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Minoguchi, Kenji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Anaphylaxis after the ingestion of foods contaminated with mites has recently been recognized. Case series and case reports thus far have shown that mite-contaminated wheat flour is the major cause of oral mite anaphylaxis. However, we have found 8 cases of oral mite anaphylaxis which were caused by mite-contaminated okonomiyaki-mix, a savory Japanese style pancake mix, in our hospital. In addition to our 8 cases, the databases of MEDLINE and ICHUSHI were systematically searched for patients with oral mite anaphylaxis in Japan. Thirty-six patients including our 8 cases with oral mite anaphylaxis were identified. Thirty-four out of 36 cases (94%) ingested okonomiyaki or takoyaki, prepared at home using okonomiyaki-mix or takoyaki-mix which was previously opened and stored for months at ambient temperature. Microscopic examination of culprit mixes of 16 cases including our 1 case revealed contamination of mites such as Dermatophagoides farina (Der f) (5 cases), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tyr p) (4 cases), and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) (3 cases). The specific IgE to each mite is generally upregulated in these patients. Especially, the titers of specific IgE to Der p and Der f were more than class 2 in all cases. Mite-contaminated flavored flour is the major cause of oral mite anaphylaxis in Japan.

  12. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  13. Immunotherapy with the storage mite lepidoglyphus destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia-Medina, A; Tapias, J A; Martín, J F; Ventas, P; Fernández, A

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a double-blind clinical trial of immunotherapy on 35 patients sensitized to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld). Before and after 12 months of specific hyposensitization (Abelló Lab., Spain) we performed in vivo (skin tests with Ld, methacholine and challenge tests), and in vitro tests (specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to their major allergen Lep dI). We also monitored the efficacy and safety of the immunotherapy with clinical and analytical controls (symptoms and medication score, detection of immune complexes). After therapy we found a significant decrease in specific skin reactivity, dose of positive challenge tests, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Sputum eosinophilia decreased. Specific IgE to Ld was increased and we also observed an increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and Lep DI. The placebo group showed no changes in these variables. There were no severe secondary reactions after treatment with the extract. Patients-self-evaluation was favourable and their labour absence decreased. No development of circulating immune complexes was associated with this immunotherapy.

  14. Induction of direct and indirect plant responses by jasmonic acid, low spider mite densities, or a combination of jasmonic acid treatment and spider mite infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gols, Rieta; Roosjen, Mara; Dijkman, Herman; Dicke, Marcel

    2003-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and the octadecanoid pathway are involved in both induced direct and induced indirect plant responses. In this study, the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were given a choice between Lima bean plants induced by JA or spider mites and uninduced control plants. Infestation densities resulting in the induction of predator attractants were much lower than thus far assumed, i.e., predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only one or four spider mites per plant. Phytoseiulus persimilis showed a density-dependent response to volatiles from plants that were infested with different numbers of spider mites. Similarly, treating plants with increasing concentrations of JA also led to increased attraction of P. persimilis. Moreover, the duration of spider mite infestation was positively correlated with the proportion of predators that were attracted to mite-infested plants. A pretreatment of the plants with JA followed by a spider mite infestation enhanced the attraction of P. persimilis to plant volatiles compared to attraction to volatiles from plants that were only infested with spider mites and did not receive a pretreatment with JA. The herbivore, T. urticae preferred leaf tissue that previously had been infested with conspecifics to uninfested leaf tissue. In the case of choice tests with JA-induced and control leaf tissue, spider mites slightly preferred control leaf tissue. When spider mites were given a choice between leaf discs induced by JA and leaf discs damaged by spider mite feeding, they preferred the latter. The presence of herbivore induced chemicals and/or spider mite products enhanced settlement of the mites, whereas treatment with JA seemed to impede settlement.

  15. Foliar nectar enhances plant-mite mutualisms: the effect of leaf sugar on the control of powdery mildew by domatia-inhabiting mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Porturas, Laura D; Taylor, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Mite domatia are small structures on the underside of plant leaves that provide homes for predacious or fungivorous mites. In turn, mites inhabiting domatia defend the plant by consuming leaf herbivores and pathogens, which can result in a domatia-mediated, plant-mite defence mutualism. Several recent studies have suggested that plants receive enhanced benefits when they provide a foliar food source, such as sugars secreted from extrafloral nectaries, to mite mutualists alongside mite domatia. However, the effect of foliar sugar on reducing leaf pathogen load via domatia-inhabiting mites has not been directly investigated. To fill this gap, the links between foliar sugar addition, domatia-inhabiting mite abundance, and pathogen load were experimentally evaluated in wild grape. Furthermore, because the proposed combined benefits of providing food and housing have been hypothesized to select for the evolutionary correlation of extrafloral nectaries and domatia across plant lineages, a literature survey aimed at determining the overlap of mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries across plant groups was also conducted. It was found that leaves with artificial addition of foliar sugar had 58-80 % more mites than leaves without foliar sugar addition, and that higher mite abundances translated to reduced powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) loads on leaves. It was found that mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries occur non-randomly in the same clades across Eudicots. Genera with both traits are reported to highlight candidate lineages for future studies. Together, the results demonstrate that foliar sugar can indeed enhance the efficacy of domatia-mediated plant-mite mutualisms, and suggest that this synergism has the potential to influence the co-distribution of foliar nectar and mite domatia across plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Mineiro, Jeferson L.C. [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo/APTA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economico

    2009-07-01

    In great populations mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae can cause damages in stored products. The work had as objective to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 to control the mites of the specie T. putrescentiae. The mites were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 Gy, in a source of Cobalt-60 type Gammacell-220, with a dose rate of 0.718 kGy/hour. Each treatment consisted of four repetitions containing 10 mites each, in a total of approximately 40 mites for treatment. The evaluations were daily, being counted the number of mites died, put eggs and emerged larvae. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that the dose sterilizing for the mites of this specie was of 300 Gy. Already the dose of 600 Gy induced the total mortality of the mites after 11 days of the irradiation process. (author)

  17. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTIVE GROWTH GROUPS (SPGG: INNOVATION ON PAPAYA MITE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marycruz Abato-Zárate

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Grower’s previous experience and their ability to communicate technical information to other growers, allows greater adoption of technologies. Thus, appropriation of technologies of mite management and sampling was evaluated, based on the “Simultaneous Productive Growth Groups (SPGG” technology transfer model. A preliminary diagnosis was made, evaluating the technology transfer achieved by six leading growers showing up continuously to seven meetings carried out from March to July 2010, and also by 19 growers showing up on a more irregular basis. All growers were from the municipality of Cotaxtla and belonged to the Papaya-Product-System of Veracruz, Mexico. Participation, attitude and efficacy of training were evaluated with a survey. Forty-two percent of growers considered the papaya ring spot virus as the main problem and 48 % revealed spider mites as the second one; 96 % used pesticides on spider mites. Participation of the SPGG basic group was 71 %, who agreed on sampling, recording data in sampling forms and using selective acaricides. Seventy percent were able to recognize spider mites from predatory mites and 83 % recognized selective acaricides. Growers considered that sampling can help reduce control costs. The SPGG model allowed building collective knowledge and better decision making by the working group.

  18. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  19. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, M.; Wadman, W.J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a

  20. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, I.; Wolfs, P.; Faraji, F.; Roy, L.; Komdeur, J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify

  1. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify

  2. Prey preference of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri. 1. Response to volatile kairomones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Y-tube olfactometer, a study has been made of the response of females of the predatory miteTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) to volatile kairomones of three prey species: the European red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae

  3. Prevailing indoor climate classification to predict house-dust mite abundance in Dutch homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, G.; Verstappen, I.; Snijders, M.C.L.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1995-01-01

    In Europe 10-15 % of the human population is sensitized to allergens of house dust mites (Pyroglyphidae). Population development of house dust mites is primarily influenced by water activity (aw) of the mite habitat. The availability of H20 (water-activity and relative humidity) in the niches of

  4. Phylogeny of the Genus Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Patrick M.; DeSalle, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Understanding phylogenetic relationships among taxa is key to designing and implementing comparative analyses. The genus Drosophila, which contains over 1600 species, is one of the most important model systems in the biological sciences. For over a century, one species in this group, Drosophila melanogaster, has been key to studies of animal development and genetics, genome organization and evolution, and human disease. As whole-genome sequencing becomes more cost-effective, there is increasing interest in other members of this morphologically, ecologically, and behaviorally diverse genus. Phylogenetic relationships within Drosophila are complicated, and the goal of this paper is to provide a review of the recent taxonomic changes and phylogenetic relationships in this genus to aid in further comparative studies. PMID:29716983

  5. A survey of mites on farm animals in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaj, M M; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A

    1992-10-01

    In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and Psoroptes, and on goats were Sarcoptes and Demodex. Infested horses carrier Psoroptes or Chorioptes, and one donkey carried Sarcoptes. Otodectes was common on dogs, but Sarcoptes was rare and no Demodex were seen. Rabbits often had psoroptic ear mange or sarcoptic body mange. Dermanyssus gallinae and Ornithonyssus bursa were seen on chickens, but no mites were found on pigeons, ducks or turkeys.

  6. Dermatitis due to Mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes Mites in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as incremental doses, external application of amitraz and supportive treatments with topical antimicrobial shampoo. After completion of forty-two days of therapy, dogs were recovered from the dermatitis.

  7. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-10-26

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  8. mites y control constitucional en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Balbuena Cisneros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los límites a la reforma constitucional es un tema siempre vigente en el derecho constitucional, ello es así por las posibles arbitrariedades que pueden cometer los órganos detentadores del poder mediante las modificaciones a la constitución. En México, hoy en día este tema cobra particular relevancia por el profundo proceso de reforma que se vive, y por la controvertida posición que la corte mexicana ha adoptado en relación con los límites a la reforma. El presente artículo trata de dar una visión general de los límites al poder de reforma y, en particular, de la posición que la suprema corte de justicia de la nación ha adoptado respecto a los mismos.

  9. Psammochthoniidae n. fam., a paedomorphic family of oribatid mites (Oribatida: Enarthronota) from sandy soil in Thailand, Brazil and the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangarworn, Marut; Norton, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of enarthronote oribatid mite, Psammochthonius kethleyi n.g., n. sp., is described and illustrated based on adult and immature specimens collected from coastal sandy soil in Thailand (Phangnga), Brazil (SAo Paulo) and the U.S.A. (Mississippi). Analysis shows that it is a member of Hypochthonioidea, but not of any named family, so the monobasic family Psammochthoniidae n. fain. is proposed. Traits that are unique among hypochthonioid mites include an adult body length under 250 microm, a functionally trichoid body form (postpedal flexing), strong lateral displacement of setae in row e, which insert on a unique form of transverse scissure, subcapitular stenarthry, leg IV vestiges and a possible precocious genital swelling in the larva, apparent absence of an anal segment, and a highly regressed leg setation. The latter two, and some other traits that were previously unknown in Hypochthonioidea, suggest that Psammochthoniidae represents the first clearly paedomorphic lineage in this diverse superfamily. Like all other known hypochthonioid mites, P. kethleyi appears to be thelytokous.

  10. Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae, a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hastriter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter & Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males, the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed.

  11. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  12. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (Pair-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  13. Genetic and morphological variation of bee-parasitic Tropilaelaps mites (Acari: Laelapidae): new and re-defined species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Denis L; Morgan, Mathew J

    2007-01-01

    Mites in the genus Tropilaelaps are parasites of social honeybees. Two species, Tropilaelaps clareae and T. koenigerum, have been recorded and their primary hosts are presumed to be the giant honeybees of Asia, Apis dorsata and A. laboriosa. The most common species, T. clareae, is also an economically important pest of the introduced Western honeybee (A. mellifera) throughout Asia and is considered an emerging threat to world apiculture. In the studies reported here, genetic (mtDNA CO-I and nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene sequence) and morphological variation and host associations were examined among Tropilaelaps isolates collected from A. dorsata, A. laboriosa and A. mellifera throughout Asia and neighbouring regions. The results clearly indicate that the genus contains at least four species. Tropilaelaps clareae, previously assumed to be ubiquitous in Asia, was found to be two species, and it is here redefined as encompassing haplotypes (mites with distinct mtDNA gene sequences) that parasitise native A. dorsata breviligula and introduced A. mellifera in the Philippines and also native A. d. binghami on Sulawesi Island in Indonesia. Tropilaelaps mercedesae n. sp., which until now has been mistaken for T. clareae, encompasses haplotypes that, together with haplotypes of T. koenigerum, parasitise native A. d. dorsata in mainland Asia and Indonesia (except Sulawesi Island). It also parasitises introduced A. mellifera in these and surrounding regions and, with another new species, T. thaii n. sp., also parasitises A. laboriosa in mountainous Himalayan regions. Methods are described for identifying each species. These studies help to clarify the emerging threat of Tropilaelaps to world apiculture and will necessitate a revision of quarantine protocols for countries that import and export honeybees.

  14. Designing and modeling of complex DNA vaccine based on tropomyosin protein of Boophilus genus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mohamamd Mahdi; Gupta, Shishir K; Ghorban, Khodayar; Nabian, Sedigheh; Sazmand, Alireza; Taheri, Mohammad; Esfandyari, Sahar; Taheri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Boophilus tick is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that transfers some pathogens, reducing production and thus leading to economical losses in the cattle industry. Tropomyosin (TPM) protein is a salivary protein, has actin regulator activity, and plays an important role in immune reactions against parasites. In the current study, besides developing a safe, effective, and broad spectrum protective measure against Boophilus genus tick based on TPM protein, we attempted to minimize possible problems occurring in the design of polytopic vaccines. Briefly, the steps that were followed in the present study were as follows: retrieving sequences and finding the mutational/conservative regions, selecting consensus and high immunogenic epitopes of B and CD4(+) T cells by different approaches, three-dimensional structure (3D structure) prediction and representation of epitopes and highly variable/conserve regions, designing vaccinal construct by fusion of B and T cell epitopes by special patterns and improving immunogenicity, evaluation of the constructs' primary structure and posttranslational modification, calculation of hydrophobic regions, reverse translation, codon optimization, open reading frame checking, insertion of start/end codon, Kozak sequence, and finally constructing the DNA vaccine. Variation plot showed some shared epitopes among the ticks' and mites' species that some might be effective only in some species. Finally, by following the steps mentioned above, two constructs for B and T cells were achieved. Checking constructs revealed their reliability and efficacy for in vitro production and utilization. Successful in silico modeling is an essential step of designing vigorous vaccines. We developed a novel protective and therapeutic vaccine against Boophilus genus (based on TPM protein). At the next step, constructed DNA vaccine would be produced in vitro and administrated to cattle, and its potency to induction of immune response and protection against Boophilus

  15. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Mlynarek

    Full Text Available Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs", or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity. Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  16. Bordasia Krapov., new Malvaceae genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordasia bicornis Krapov. new genus and species is described from northwestern ParaguayanChaco. It is related to Sida from which it differs by the mericarp with two apical horns, by theleaves dimorphic and coriaceous and by the fannel-shaped calyx

  17. The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedijn, K.B.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br. is shown to be a Basidiomycete. Wiesnerina Höhn. and Dimorphocystis Corner are regarded synonymous. The type species A. thwaitesii Berk. & Br. is redescribed with D. capitatus Corner as synonym. The following new combinations are proposed: A. horrida (Höhn.) Boedijn,

  18. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  19. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Cabrera

    Full Text Available A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  20. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  1. Ecological Factors Determining Abundance of Parasitic Mites on Aedes spp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Eko Firmansyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ability to infestation and abundance of parasitic mites in Aedes spp. larvae cannot be separated from the influence of various factors. Ecological factors have been suggested to play a role determine the presence of parasitic mites that under certain conditions become a key factor in determining the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae. The aim of this study to determine the ecological factors affect the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae in Bogor Regency. Capturing of Aedes spp. larvae was performed directly on the habitats found in indoor and outdoor. Capturing mites in the body of Aedes spp. larvae was performed using insect forceps. Ecological factors measured were dissolved oxygen (DO, pH, temperature, and total dissolved solid (TDS. The influence of ecological factors was analyzed using regression and correlation analysis. The result of mite identification has been obtained three species of mites that are Halacarus sp., Histiostoma sp., and Hydrozetes sp. The result indicated that total dissolved solid (TDS and temperature was the factors that determined the abundance of mites. The factors of pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO did not determine the abundance of parasitic mites of Aedes spp. larvae. The research result can be further developed as a new alternative to Dengue Hemorraghic Fever control and provide information on parasitic mites that infest Aedes spp. larvae. In addition, this results become an early step in controlling of Aedes spp. strategy platform by the parasitic mites.

  2. Nasal mites (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae in Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes on the southern Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study aimed to report on occurrences of nasal mites in Sternidae on the southern coast of Brazil. Of the 106 birds analyzed, 8.5% (9 birds were parasitized by nasal mites. This report provides the first record in the Neotropical region for two mite species, Sternostoma boydi and Larinyssus orbicularis parasitizing Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris. No nasal mites were found in Sterna trudeaui or Thalasseus maximus. One host individual (T. acuflavidus was parasitized by two species of nasal mites, S. boydi and L. orbicularis.

  3. Rank Two Affine Manifolds in Genus 3

    OpenAIRE

    Aulicino, David; Nguyen, Duc-Manh

    2016-01-01

    We complete the classification of rank two affine manifolds in the moduli space of translation surfaces in genus three. Combined with a recent result of Mirzakhani and Wright, this completes the classification of higher rank affine manifolds in genus three.

  4. Control of house-dust mites with home disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, G.; Wetter, G.; Bischoff, E.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Kniest, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical disinfectants and biocidal preparations used in households were tested in the laboratory for their ability to kill the house-dust miteDermatophagoides farinae. Batches of ten specimens were soaked in aqueous solutions or suspensions containing 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0% (by volume)

  5. Fungi and mites on humid indoor walls : a laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Siebers, Rob; Cunningham, M.; Fitzharris, P.

    2000-01-01

    The potential allergen source formed by mites and fungi developing on walls has been studied in a semi-natural model. Gypsum and wooden pieces, representing indoor walls, were artificially soiled with one of two different organic compounds, a yeast/vegetable mixture (Mannite) or a red currant juice

  6. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  7. Stability evaluation of house dust mite vaccines for sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA GAVROVIĆ-JANKULOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM allergen extracts can effectively alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The efficacy of the immunotherapeutic treatment is highly dependent on the quality of house dust mite vaccines. This study was performed to assess the stability of house dust mite allergen vaccines prepared for sublingual immunotherapy. Lyophilized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt mite bodies were the starting material for the production of sublingual vaccines in four therapeutic concentrations. The stability of the extract for vaccine production, which was stored below 4 °C for one month, showed consistence in the protein profile in SDS PAGE. ELISA-inhibition showed that the potencies of Dpt vaccines during a 12 month period were to 65–80 % preserved at all analyzed therapeutic concentrations. This study showed that glycerinated Dpt vaccines stored at 4 °C preserved their IgE-binding potential during a 12 month period, implying their suitability for sublingual immunotherapeutic treatment of HDM allergy.

  8. Sampling plans for pest mites on physic nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2014-08-01

    The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31.

  9. Six new species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2016), s. 485-496 ISSN 0044-586X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphthiracaroidea * Madagascar * morphology * new species * ptyctimous mites * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016

  10. Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan S Thoemmes

    Full Text Available Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled.

  11. Predatory mites avoid ovipositing near counter-attacking prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraji, F.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Attacking prey is not without risk; predators may endure counterattackby the prey. Here, we study the oviposition behaviour of a predatory mite(Iphiseius degenerans) in relation to its prey, thewesternflower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). This thrips iscapable of killing the eggs of the

  12. High mite burdens in an island population of Cape Wagtails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mite infection of birds captured on the island was explored graphically against the morphometrics of individuals using cubic splines. Formal statistics were then applied using generalised linear mixed models, with observation and unique ring number as random effects within a two-level hierarchical mixed binomial model, ...

  13. Isolation of oxalotrophic bacteria associated with Varroa destructor mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaloni, M; Pascual, D W

    2015-11-01

    Bacteria associated with varroa mites were cultivated and genotyped by 16S RNA. Under our experimental conditions, the cultivable bacteria were few in number, and most of them proved to be fastidious to grow. Cultivation with seven different media under O2 /CO2 conditions and selection for colony morphology yielded a panel of species belonging to 13 different genera grouped in two different phyla, proteobacteria and actinobacteria. This study identified one species of actinobacteria that is a known commensal of the honey bee. Some isolates are oxalotrophic, a finding that may carry ramifications into the use of oxalic acid to control the number of phoretic mites in the managed colonies of honey bees. Oxalic acid, legally or brevi manu, is widely used to control phoretic Varroa destructor mites, a major drive of current honey bees' colony losses. Unsubstantiated by sanctioned research are rumours that in certain instances oxalic acid is losing efficacy, forcing beekeepers to increase the frequency of treatments. This investigation fathoms the hypothesis that V. destructor associates with bacteria capable of degrading oxalic acid. The data show that indeed oxalotrophy, a rare trait among bacteria, is common in bacteria that we isolated from V. destructor mites. This finding may have ramifications in the use of oxalic acid as a control agent. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  15. The mites associated with Ips typographus in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Moser; Hubertus H. Eidmann; Jan R. Regnander

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four species of mites were found associated with Ips typographus (Linnaeus) collected from pherommone traps in Sweden, bringing to 38 the total recorded for this scolytid. Because three of the species are parasites, it may be possible to use them in biological control of I. typographus. Couplets from an earlier key to these...

  16. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three days later, the number of female Varroa in the capped cells were counted as attraction criteria for each treatment separately. ... The negative correlation between 2 major resistance traits (hygienic behavior and attraction traits) in the breeding stock deems that selection for resistance against Varroa mite and improved ...

  17. Hidden in the mangrove forest: the cryptic intertidal mite Carinozetes mangrovi sp. nov. (Acari, Oribatida, Selenoribatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingstl, Tobias; Lienhard, Andrea; Jagersbacher-Baumann, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The small archipelago of Bermuda is a geologically young landmass in the Western Atlantic Ocean and recently turned out to be inhabited by a number of intertidal oribatid mites. One newly described species, Carinozetes bermudensis, showed an unusual vast range of habitats like sandy beaches, rocky substrate and mangroves. In the present study, 13 Bermudian populations of C. bermudensis were analysed to verify species integrity of specimens from different microhabitats. A morphometric analysis of 17 continuous variables as well as a molecular genetic investigation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I revealed the existence of a new species Carinozetes mangrovi sp. nov., inhabiting exclusively intertidal algae growing on mangrove roots. Although both species are morphologically nearly identical, the configuration of the genus-specific ventral carinae represents a clear diagnostic character. The high genetic divergence of approximately 12 % of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequence between C. bermudensis and C. mangrovi sp. nov. suggests that these two species diverged before the emergence of the Bermuda islands. Accordingly, both of them are older than the geologically young archipelago of Bermuda.

  18. The role of onion-associated fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to onion seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Tal; Gal, Shira; Inbar, Moshe; Lebiush-Mordechai, Sara; Tsror, Leah; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In Israel Rhizoglyphus robini is considered to be a pest in its own right, even though the mite is usually found in association with fungal pathogens. Plant protection recommendations are therefore to treat germinating onions seedlings, clearly a crucial phase in crop production, when mites are discovered. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to germinating onion seedlings. Accordingly we (1) evaluated the effect of the mite on onion seedling germination and survival without fungi, (2) compared the attraction of the mite to species and isolates of various fungi, (3) assessed the effect of a relatively non-pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum on mite fecundity, and (4) determined the effects of the mite and of F. oxysporum separately and together, on onion seedling germination and sprout development. A significant reduction of seedling survival was recorded only in the 1,000 mites/pot treatment, after 4 weeks. Mites were attracted to 6 out of 7 collected fungi isolates. Mite fecundity on onion sprouts infested with F. oxysporum was higher than on non-infested sprouts. Survival of seedlings was affected by mites, fungi, and their combination. Sprouts on Petri dishes after 5 days were significantly longer in the control and mite treatments than both fungi treatments. During the 5-day experiment more mites were always found on the fungi-infected sprouts than on the non-infected sprouts. Future research using suppressive soils to suppress soil pathogens and subsequent mite damage is proposed.

  19. A review of the genus Erycibe Roxb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1953-01-01

    In this paper I intend to give a review of the genus Erycibe Roxb. in. which all the names published in the genus will be accounted for. The representatives from Malaysia have been dealt with more extensively in the revision of the genus in Flora Malesiana, Ser. I, Vol. 4, 4th instalment, 1953, pp.

  20. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  1. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. The SQ House Dust Mite SLIT-Tablet Is Well Tolerated in Patients with House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emminger, Waltraud; Hernández, María Dolores; Cardona, Victòria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SQ house dust mite (HDM) SLIT-tablet (ALK, Denmark) addresses the underlying cause of HDM respiratory allergic disease, and a clinical effect has been demonstrated for both HDM allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Here, we present pooled safety data from an adult population with...

  4. New approach for the study of mite reproduction: The first transcriptome analysis of a mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ana R; Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M S; Scholl, Elizabeth; Opperman, Charles; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many species of mites and ticks are of agricultural and medical importance. Much can be learned from the study of transcriptomes of acarines which can generate DNA-sequence information of potential target genes for the control of acarine pests. High throughput transcriptome sequencing can also yield sequences of genes critical during physiological processes poorly understood in acarines, i.e., the regulation of female reproduction in mites. The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was selected to conduct a transcriptome analysis using 454 pyrosequencing. The objective of this project was to obtain DNA-sequence information of expressed genes from P. persimilis with special interest in sequences corresponding to vitellogenin (Vg) and the vitellogenin receptor (VgR). These genes are critical to the understanding of vitellogenesis, and they will facilitate the study of the regulation of mite female reproduction. A total of 12,556 contiguous sequences (contigs) were assembled with an average size of 935bp. From these sequences, the putative translated peptides of 11 contigs were similar in amino acid sequences to other arthropod Vgs, while 6 were similar to VgRs. We selected some of these sequences to conduct stage-specific expression studies to further determine their function. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Denegación y límite: Acerca de los llamados trastornos límites

    OpenAIRE

    Pereña, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    El estudio de los trastornos del límite revela que la neurosis y la psicosis sólo cubren un reducido campo de la psicopatología. Studies regarding disorders of borderline point out that neurosis and psychosis only cover a small field within psychopathology.

  6. Scavenging in the genus Natrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ayres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scavenging is reported as an unusual behaviour of snakes. However, it is likely more common than is supposed. Here I report the use of dead newts as prey source by water snakes of the genus Natrix at a dam in north-western Spain. Juveniles and adults viperine snakes (Natrix maura, and also an adult grass snake (Natrix natrix were found feeding on newt carcasses.

  7. CYANOBACTERIA OF THE GENUS PROCHLOROTHRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vasilievich Pinevich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Green cyanobacteria are distinguished from blue-green ones by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light harvesting antenna. Three genera of green cyanobacteria, namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus and Prochloron, are unicellular and of marine habitat; Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its outstanding role in prime productivity. The fourth genus, Prochlorothrix, is represented by filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the rest of green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix is paradoxically rare: it has been isolated from two European locations only. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance with Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful enrichment of Prochlorothrix, the preferred strategy of search for this cyanobacterium is based on PCR with natural DNA and specific primers. This approach already demonstrates a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix: marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultivated strains, and only one of them (PCC 9006 is claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria, indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review, the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described, and the evolutionary scenario of green cyanobacteria, especially taking into account their role in the origin of simple chloroplast is given.

  8. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  9. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  10. An updated review on the Oenothera genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sumitra; Kaur, Rupinder; Sharma, Surendra Kr

    2012-07-01

    Oenothera genus (Onagraceae) has been used as a folk remedy since ancient times for the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, neuralgia, skin diseases, and hepatic and kidney diseases. Different chemical constituents like lipids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenes have been isolated from this genus. The various notable pharmacological activities reported from the genus are antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidaemic, thrombolytic and antidiarrhoeal. The present paper is to summarize the worldwide reported biological activities and phytoconstituents associated with this genus for about 50 years and highlight the medicinally important species belonging to this genus so that these species can be further explored and used as therapeutic agents for various diseases.

  11. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  12. Effect of reagins and allergen extracts on radioallergosorbent assays for mite allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, E.R.; Vandenberg, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reproducibility of the radioallergosorbent (RAST) inhibition and direct binding assays with mite allergen were investigated in the presence of heterogeneous extracts and non-mite sensitive atopic sera. Both contain components similar to potential contaminants which would occur in the assay of mite allergen and dust allergen extracts. The standardized inhibition and direct binding assays employed had a day to day (n = 4) coefficient of variation [(s.d. x 100)/mean] of 15% and 24% respectively. The inhibition assay for mite allergen was reproducible in the presence of protein concentrations of added plant, fungal, arthropod and animal extracts in excess of the protein concentrations that occur under the operational mite assay conditions. The mite inhibition assay was also reproducible in the presence of non-mite allergen extracts, with and without additional sera containing IgE specific for the non0mite allergens. The binding of a constant quantity of mite allergen to the activated solid phase in the direct binding assay was reproducible in the presence of added bovine serum albumin, and of a fungal or arthropod extract, representing the heterogeneous components of an allergen extract at the concentrations of total protein known to occur in the direct binding assay of mite extracts. (author)

  13. Protocols for the delivery of small molecules to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented. However, to identify biological and evolutionary roles of T. urticae genes and proteins, it is necessary to develop methods for the efficient manipulation of mite gene function or protein activity. Here, we describe protocols developed for the delivery of small molecules into spider mites. Starting with mite maintenance and the preparation of the experimental mite populations of developmentally synchronized larvae and adults, we describe 3 methods for delivery of small molecules including artificial diet, leaf coating, and soaking. The presented results define critical steps in these methods and demonstrate that they can successfully deliver tracer dyes into mites. Described protocols provide guidelines for high-throughput setups for delivery of experimental compounds that could be used in reverse genetics platforms to modulate gene expression or protein activity, or for screens focused on discovery of new molecules for mite control. In addition, described protocols could be adapted for other Tetranychidae and related species of economic importance such as Varroa, dust and poultry mites.

  14. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers.

  15. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  16. Evaluation of dry-adapted strains of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus for spider mite control on cucumber, strawberry and pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palevsky, E; Walzer, A; Gal, S; Schausberger, P

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate spider mite control efficacy of two dry-adapted strains of Neoseiulus californicus. Performance of these strains were compared to a commercial strain of Phytoseiulus persimilis on whole cucumber, pepper and strawberry plants infested with Tetranychus urticae at 50 +/- 5% RH. Under these dry conditions predators' performance was very different on each host plant. On cucumber, spider mite suppression was not attained by any of the three predators, plants 'burnt out' within 4 weeks of spider mite infestation. On strawberry, all predators satisfactorily suppressed spider mites yet they differed in short term efficacy and persistence. Phytoseiulus persimilis suppressed the spider mites more rapidly than did the BOKU and SI N. californicus strains. Both N. californicus strains persisted longer than did P. persimilis. The BOKU strain was superior to SI in population density reached, efficacy in spider mite suppression and persistence. On pepper, in the first 2 weeks of the experiment the BOKU strain was similar to P. persimilis and more efficacious in spider mite suppression than strain SI. Four weeks into the experiment the efficacy of P. persimilis dropped dramatically and was inferior to the SI and BOKU strains. Overall, mean predator density was highest on plants harbouring the BOKU strain, lowest on plants with P. persimilis and intermediate on plants with the SI strain. Implications for biocontrol of spider mites using phytoseiid species under dry conditions are discussed.

  17. The influence of household pets on the composition and quantity of allergenic mite fauna within Irish homes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D; Dix, E; Liddy, S; Gormally, M; Byrne, M

    2016-03-01

    Allergenic mites are responsible for inducing hypersensitive reactions in genetically predisposed people worldwide. Mites in dust from 30 Irish homes with pets (dogs, n = 23; cats, n = 7) were compared with those in 30 homes without pets. House dust mites constituted 78% of all mites recorded, with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) representing 57-72% of mites in furniture and mattresses in both home types compared with only 22% of mites in pet beds. Although storage mites accounted for just 13% of all mites recorded, they represented 46% of mites recorded in pet beds. Median levels of the dust mite allergen Der p 1 (µg/g) in dust samples from mattresses in homes without pets were significantly greater than in mattresses from homes with pets, reflecting the greater densities of D. pteronyssinus found in the former home category. Mite species richness was greater in homes with pets (17 species) than in homes without pets (13 species). This suggests that although the presence of pets can result in a wider variety of epidemiologically important mite species within households, increased competition among mite species may result in a more balanced mite fauna in the home, inhibiting the dominance of any one species and hence lowering allergen-associated risks. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Evolutionary Aspects of Acaricide-Resistance Development in Spider Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro (Mh. Osakabe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the development of acaricide resistance in spider mites is a long-standing issue in agricultural fields, recent problems with acaricide resistance may be characterized by the development of complex- and/or multiresistance to acaricides in distinct classes. Such complexity of resistance is not likely to be a single mechanism. Pesticide resistance involves the microevolution of arthropod pests, and population genetics underlies the evolution. In this review, we address the genetic mechanisms of acaricide resistance evolution. We discuss genetic diversity and linkage of resistance genes, relationships between mite habitat and dispersal, and the effect of dispersal on population genetic structure and the dynamics of resistance genes. Finally, we attempt to present a comprehensive view of acaricide resistance evolution and suggest risks under globalization as well as possible approaches to managing acaricide resistance evolution or emergence.

  19. Concepto de límite funcional : aprendizaje y memoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortega del Rincón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo forma parte de un proyecto de investigación sobre el concepto de límite funcional en el que se viene trabajando desde hace varios años. En este caso, se contrasta si la noción de límite ligada a la definición métrica perdura en la memoria de los alumnos más que la definición como aproximación óptima dada por Blázquez y Ortega en 2002. Se trata de un estudio empírico realizado con alumnos de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina, que en cursos anteriores habían estudiado ambas conceptualizaciones.

  20. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Thorkil E.

    2010-01-01

    there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented......Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present...... no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy....

  1. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  2. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  3. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Andersen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungal genus Stemphylium (Anamophic Pleospora) is often found on various crops, and especially the common animal feed plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is often infected by this plant pathogen. With this in mind it is important to consider what consequences such a contamination can...... have, e.g. production of mycotoxins. (Firsvad et al. (2009)) A clade of Stemphylium spp. i.e. S. herbarum, S. alfalfae, S. sedicola, S. tomatonis and S. vesicariumare troublesome to distinguish as they share both morphological and molecular characteristics. This study has focused on using chemotaxonomy...

  4. Dehydration Stress Contributes to the Enhancement of Plant Defense Response and Mite Performance on Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Santamaria

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses. To obtain insights on the combined effect of drought and mite stresses on the defensive response of this cereal, we have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of barley plants subjected to dehydration (water-deficit treatment, spider mite attack, or to the combined dehydration-spider mite stress. The expression patterns of mite-induced responsive genes included many jasmonic acid responsive genes and were quickly induced. In contrast, genes related to dehydration tolerance were later up-regulated. Besides, a higher up-regulation of mite-induced defenses was showed by the combined dehydration and mite treatment than by the individual mite stress. On the other hand, the performance of the mite in dehydration stressed and well-watered plants was tested. Despite the stronger defensive response in plants that suffer dehydration and mite stresses, the spider mite demonstrates a better performance under dehydration condition than in well-watered plants. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a combination of stresses and emphasize the difficulties to predict their consequences on crop production.

  5. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics ...

  6. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, HM; Hernandes, FA; Pichorim, M

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fiftee...

  7. Dehydration Stress Contributes to the Enhancement of Plant Defense Response and Mite Performance on Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M. E.; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses. To obtain insights on the combined effect of drought and mite stresses on the defensive response of this cereal, we have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of barley plants subjected to dehydration (water-deficit) treatment, spider mite attack, or to the combined dehydration-spider mite stress. The expression patterns of mite-induced responsive genes included many jasmonic acid responsive genes and were quickly induced. In contrast, genes related to dehydration tolerance were later up-regulated. Besides, a higher up-regulation of mite-induced defenses was showed by the combined dehydration and mite treatment than by the individual mite stress. On the other hand, the performance of the mite in dehydration stressed and well-watered plants was tested. Despite the stronger defensive response in plants that suffer dehydration and mite stresses, the spider mite demonstrates a better performance under dehydration condition than in well-watered plants. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a combination of stresses and emphasize the difficulties to predict their consequences on crop production. PMID:29681917

  8. Survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2000-08-01

    Parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. Observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. Natural levels of infestation of barn swallow Hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest owners (a secondary sexual character) and affected by time of reproduction by the host. A mite inoculation experiment, in which 50 adult mites were introduced into nests during the laying period of the host, was used to test for differential survival and reproduction of mites as a function of host resistance. The relationship between survival and reproduction of parasites, male tail length and host resistance was investigated. There was a negative relationship between mite numbers per nest after fledging of nestlings and male tail length. This relationship was mainly caused by a reduction in the number of mites in the first and second nymph stage with increasing tail length of male hosts, implying a reduction in rate of reproduction of mites. The proportion of mites that had recently fed was inversely related to tail length of male hosts. The proportion of nymph stages was positively related to the proportion of mites that had recently had a blood meal. Parasite resistance of barn swallows to the tropical fowl mite thus appeared to act through increased mortality rate of adult and nymph stages of mites, and through reduced reproductive rates of mites on resistant hosts. This is the first study demonstating a direct relationship between fitness components of a parasite and the expression of a secondary sexual character of a host.

  9. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.

  10. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

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    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  11. Tetranychus urticae mites do not mount an induced immune response against bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Matos, Gonçalo; Wybouw, Nicky; Martins, Nelson E; Zélé, Flore; Riga, Maria; Leitão, Alexandre B; Vontas, John; Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Magalhães, Sara; Sucena, Élio

    2017-06-14

    The genome of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae , a herbivore, is missing important elements of the canonical Drosophila immune pathways necessary to fight bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether spider mites can mount an immune response and survive bacterial infection. In other chelicerates, bacterial infection elicits a response mediated by immune effectors leading to the survival of infected organisms. In T. urticae , infection by either Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium did not elicit a response as assessed through genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. In line with this, spider mites died within days even upon injection with low doses of bacteria that are non-pathogenic to Drosophila Moreover, bacterial populations grew exponentially inside the infected spider mites. By contrast, Sancassania berlesei , a litter-dwelling mite, controlled bacterial proliferation and resisted infections with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria lethal to T. urticae This differential mortality between mite species was absent when mites were infected with heat-killed bacteria. Also, we found that spider mites harbour in their gut 1000-fold less bacteria than S. berlesei We show that T. urticae has lost the capacity to mount an induced immune response against bacteria, in contrast to other mites and chelicerates but similarly to the phloem feeding aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Hence, our results reinforce the putative evolutionary link between ecological conditions regarding exposure to bacteria and the architecture of the immune response. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

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    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  13. Geostatistics as a tool to study mite dispersion in physic nut plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, J F; Picanço, M C; Sarmento, R A; Pereira, R M; Pedro-Neto, M; Galdino, T V S; de Sousa Saraiva, A; Erasmo, E A L

    2015-08-01

    Spatial distribution studies in pest management identify the locations where pest attacks on crops are most severe, enabling us to understand and predict the movement of such pests. Studies on the spatial distribution of two mite species, however, are rather scarce. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are the major pests affecting physic nut plantations (Jatropha curcas). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the spatial distributions of P. latus and T. bastosi in the physic nut plantations. Mite densities were monitored over 2 years in two different plantations. Sample locations were georeferenced. The experimental data were analyzed using geostatistical analyses. The total mite density was found to be higher when only one species was present (T. bastosi). When both the mite species were found in the same plantation, their peak densities occurred at different times. These mites, however, exhibited uniform spatial distribution when found at extreme densities (low or high). However, the mites showed an aggregated distribution in intermediate densities. Mite spatial distribution models were isotropic. Mite colonization commenced at the periphery of the areas under study, whereas the high-density patches extended until they reached 30 m in diameter. This has not been reported for J. curcas plants before.

  14. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

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    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  15. Feather and nest mites of two common resident birds in two ecologically different Egyptian governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Mazyad, S A; Younis, M S

    1999-08-01

    The study of the role played by birds in the distribution of various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections is increasingly from year to year, taking into consideration the flying ability of birds and their migration for food and vital processes. Two of the common Egyptian resident birds, house sparrow (Passer d. niloticus) and laughing dove (Streptopelia s. aegyptiaca) were chosen to study their mite fauna. The overall mite index was 4.74 on the house sparrow and 7.22 on the laughing dove. As to mites, a total of 31 species belonging to 23 genera, 17 families and 3 suborders were collected. The common mites on both types of birds were 22 species. Three species only on house sparrow, and six species only on laughing dove. The house sparrow served host for 25 mite species and the laughing dove served host for 28 mite species. The infestation rates of mites on house sparrow ranged between 1.11% to 23.33% and 0.21% to 34.54% in Sharkia and Qalyobia governorates respectively. For laughing dove, the mite infestation rates ranged between 0.82% to 50% and 3.45% to 55.17% for both governorates respectively. Some of the collected mites have medical and/or veterinary importance. The whole results were discussed.

  16. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Sleptsov, Alexey; Stern, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures

  17. The genus Retiboletus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nian-Kai; Liang, Zhi-Qun; Wu, Gang; Li, Yan-Chun; Yang, Zhu L; Liang, Zhi-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Retiboletus (Boletaceae, Boletales) in China are investigated based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions and sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (tef1a). Six lineages are recovered among the collections studied. Five of these are documented and presented in the present paper, including three new species and two new combinations. The remaining species is not described due to the paucity of material. The specimens from China identified as "R. ornatipes" or "R. retipes" are in fact R. sinensis or R. kauffmanii, those labeled "R. griseus" are either R. fuscus or R. pseudogriseus A key to all known taxa of the genus is provided. Phylogenetic relationships of taxa within Retiboletus are partially resolved. A preliminary biogeographical analysis shows that allied species of Retiboletus between eastern Asia and North/Central America are common but there are no Retiboletus species common to both continents. Species of Retiboletus in Japan and southern China are conspecific or closely related. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. 2+1 gravity for genus >1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.E.; Regge, T.

    1991-01-01

    We analysed the algebra of observables for the simple case of a genus 1 initial data surface Σ 2 for 2+1 De Sitter gravity. Here we extend the analysis to higher genus. We construct for genus 2 the group of automorphisms H of the homotopy group π 1 induced by the mapping class group. The group H induces a group D of canonical transformations on the algebra of observables which is related to the braid group for 6 threads. (orig.)

  19. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.

    Speciation
    It is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity o...

  20. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  1. Immunoinformatics and Similarity Analysis of House Dust Mite Tropomyosin

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    Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are house dust mites (HDM that they cause severe asthma and allergic symptoms. Tropomyosin protein plays an important role in mentioned immune and allergic reactions to HDMs. Here, tropomyosin protein from Dermatophagoides spp. was comprehensively screened in silico for its allergenicity, antigenicity and similarity/conservation.Materials and Methods: The amino acid sequences of D. farinae tropomyosin, D. pteronyssinus and other mites were retrieved. We included alignments and evaluated conserved/ variable regions along sequences, constructed their phylogenetic tree and estimated overall mean distances. Then, followed by with prediction of linear B-cell epitope based on different approaches, and besides in-silico evaluation of IgE epitopes allergenicity (by SVMc, IgE epitope, ARPs BLAST, MAST and hybrid method. Finally, comparative analysis of results by different approaches was made.Results: Alignment results revealed near complete identity between D. farina and D. pteronyssinus members, and also there was close similarity among Dermatophagoides spp. Most of the variations among mites' tropomyosin were approximately located at amino acids 23 to 80, 108 to 120, 142 to 153 and 220 to 230. Topology of tree showed close relationships among mites in tropomyosin protein sequence, although their sequences in D. farina, D. pteronyssinus and Psoroptes ovis are more similar to each other and clustered. Dermanyssus gallinae (AC: Q2WBI0 has less relationship to other mites, being located in a separate branch. Hydrophilicity and flexibility plots revealed that many parts of this protein have potential to be hydrophilic and flexible. Surface accessibility represented 7 different epitopes. Beta-turns in this protein are with high probability in the middle part and its two terminals. Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method analysis represented 11 immunogenic epitopes between amino acids 7-16. From

  2. The acaricidal speed of kill of orally administered fluralaner against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) on laying hens and its impact on mite reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauneis, Maria D; Zoller, Hartmut; Williams, Heike; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2017-12-02

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is a growing threat to chickens in poultry farms. This nocturnal hematophagous ectoparasite has a rapid rate of proliferation with a negative impact on the birds' health, welfare and productivity resulting in severe economic consequences for poultry farmers. A study was performed with fluralaner, a novel systemic ectoparasiticide, to evaluate its effect on mite vitality and reproduction after oral administration to laying hens. Sixteen healthy hens were randomly allocated to two study groups (n = 8). One group was orally treated with fluralaner by gavage at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight twice 7 days apart. The negative control group received no treatment. Hens in each group were repeatedly infested with approximately 200 unfed adult D. gallinae at 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22 and 26 days after the initial administration. After infestation and feeding for 2.5 h, 25 engorged mites per hen were collected and incubated in tubes. Mites were assessed for vitality (dead/live) at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after each infestation. Tubes containing eggs and/or living mites were incubated another 8 days for assessment of mite reproductive capacity. Fluralaner demonstrated a fast speed of kill in mites within 4 h post-infestation for 12 days after treatment initiation. An efficacy (mite mortality) of 98.7-100% was achieved. At 15 days after treatment initiation, 100% efficacy was achieved within 24 h post-infestation, and no mite oviposition occurred during this period. Nineteen days after treatment initiation, the mites' ability to generate nymphs was reduced by 90.8%, which decreased to < 24.1% at later infestations. Fluralaner administered orally to hens twice, 7 days apart, provides efficacy against experimental poultry red mite infestation for at least 2 weeks. The demonstrated rapid speed of kill results in substantial depletion of the mites' oviposition and suggests that fluralaner can be an effective tool in the control

  3. HOUSE DUST MITE CONTAMINATION IN HOTELS AND INNS IN BANDAR ABBAS, SOUTH OF IRAN

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    M. Soleimani, J. Rafinejad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been shown to be strongly associated with allergic respiratory diseases such as, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the world. The climatic conditions of Bandar-Abbas, which is located in a coastal area and has a humid subtropical climate, provide a suitable place to proliferate mites. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination rate and analyze the house dust mite fauna in hotels and inns in Bandar-Abbas that had not been investigated previously. In this study 6 hotels and 6 inns were selected randomly in six areas of Bandar-Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each place with a vacuum cleaner. One square meter of carpets and mattresses were vacuumed for a period of 1 min. Then the samples were cleared in lactic acid and then mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium for study and identification. A total of 2644 mites were collected and identified. The major mite family was Pyroglyphidae (98%. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent and most numerous species recorded, occurring in 91% of samples examined and forming 88% of the Pyroglyphidae and 86% of the total mite populations. The family Cheyletidae was less commonly found with Cheyletus malaccensis (2%. Most of the mites were isolated from the carpets (57.5%, and a smaller number from mattresses (42.5%. Mites were present in 96% of the dust samples. Results revealed that all inns and 83% of hotels were contaminated by more than one species of mite and 34% of them had a population of more than 100 mites /g dust. This rate of contamination can be a major risk factor in asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases

  4. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

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    Melissa A.Y. Oddie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH: adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning

  5. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddie, Melissa A Y; Dahle, Bjørn; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera , are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor , that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera , is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH): adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor , we suggest learning more from nature, i.e., identifying the obviously

  6. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Cheyletus eruditus (taurrus): an effective candidate for the biological control of the snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01).

  8. The effect of antibiotics on associated bacterial community of stored product mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopecky

    Full Text Available Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata. The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria.Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mg g(-1 of diet for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor.The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mg g(-1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet.

  9. Influence of Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) infestation levels and management practices on insecticide sensitivity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and eff...

  10. House dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for treating eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankervis, Helen; Pynn, Emma V; Boyle, Robert J; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; Hewson, Deanne M; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2015-01-19

    Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that tends to involve skin creases, such as the folds of the elbows or knees; it is an intensely itchy skin condition, which can relapse and remit over time. As many as a third of people with eczema who have a positive test for allergy to house dust mite have reported worsening of eczema or respiratory symptoms when exposed to dust. To assess the effects of all house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema. We searched the following databases up to 14 August 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the GREAT database. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant studies. We handsearched abstracts from international eczema and allergy meetings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any of the house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema, which included participants of any age diagnosed by a clinician with eczema as defined by the World Allergy Organization. We included all non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that sought to reduce or avoid exposure to house dust mite and their allergenic faeces. The comparators were any active treatment, no treatment, placebo, or standard care only. Two authors independently checked the titles and abstracts identified, and there were no disagreements. We contacted authors of included studies for additional information. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane methodology. We included seven studies of 324 adults and children with eczema. Overall, the included studies had a high risk of bias. Four of the seven trials tested interventions with multiple components, and three tested a single intervention. Two of the seven trials included only children, four included children and adults, and one

  11. THE GENUS TEIJSMANNIODENDRON KOORDERS (VERBENACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The present notes on Teijsmanniodendron are based on a study of the spec- imens from Herbarium Bogoriense and the Herbarium of the Singapore Botanic Garden. 2. The taxonomic value of the principal characters and their variation are discussed. Each of the species recognized is annotated. 3. A delimitation and subdivision of the genus in two sections,  Plurifoliolatae Kosterm.  and 'Unifoliolatae Kosterm  is proposed. 4. A key to the 12 species and 1 variety distinguished, is included. 5. One new species is provisionally described (but not named, and one new variety, Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum var. auriculatum Kosterm, is published. 6. The following new combinations are made: Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum B. Clarke Kosterm,, T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm. T. holophyllum (Bak. Kos- term, T.novoguineense (Kan. & Hatus. Kosterm., T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., T. smilacifolium (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., and T. subspieatum (Hallier f. Kosterm. 7. The genus Xerocarpa H. 3. Lam (non Spach is rejected; its only species, X. avicenniaefoliola H. J. Lam, is referred to Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr. Bakh. In addition, the following reductions are made: Teijsmanniodendron mono- phyllum Kurata = T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm.; Vitex bankae H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh., V. bogoriensis H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh.; V. koordersii H. J. Lam t= T. pteropodum (Miq. Bakh.; V. tetragona Hallier f. = T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm.; V. venosa H. J. Lam = T. coriaceum (C. B. Clarke Kosterm. Possible identity of T. longifolium (Merr. Merr. and T. bogoriense is suggested: the identity of T. simplicifolium Merr. and T. smilacifolium (H. H-, W. Pears. Kosterm. is indicated as probable. 8. Vitex subspicata Hallier f. and V. holophylla Bak. included by Lam in vitex hollrungii Warb. are reinstated as distinct species of Teijsmanniodendron.

  12. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  13. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  14. Phylogeny of the Peckia-genus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Peckia is the most species-rich necrophagous genus among the Neotropical sarcophagids, encompassing 67 species distributed in 5 subgenera. Recent phylogenetic studies have challenged the monophyly of this genus with regard to species of the genera Peckiamyia, Titanogrypa, and Villegasia, and the ...

  15. Guanine as a hygienic index for allergological relevant mite infestation in mattress dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Since guanine is not only an essential constituent of vital nucleic acids, but also the main end product of nitrogenous waste excretion in arachnids, it is a potential candidate for a hygienic index for mite activity in house dust. The public health significance of these mites is based on their

  16. The Tropilaelaps mites threat: An examination of the injuries inflicted on Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropilaelaps spp. are the most serious parasites of Apis mellifera in Asia. However, much of their biology and ecology are largely unexplored (de Guzman et al., 2017 J. Econ. Entomol. 1-14). Like varroa mites, tropilaelaps mites puncture through the integuments of their bee hosts to feed on hemolymp...

  17. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, M.; de Bruijn, P.J.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis is a predatory mite that in absence of vision relies on the detection of herbivore-induced plant odors to locate its prey, the two-spotted spider-mite Tetranychus urticae. This herbivorous prey is feeding on leaves of a wide variety of plant species in different families. The

  18. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Thorkil E

    2010-05-01

    Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented in accordance with known physical laws. The occasional finding of higher concentrations is the result of synchronized populations of the mites developing outdoors and being passively transported into our homes by wind and dust. The hypothesis explains why we find mites in our homes but nonetheless have no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy.

  19. Social environment affects the life history tactic of a phoretic mite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Müller, Josef K

    2009-01-01

    Phoretic animals use their hosts for travelling to habitat patches suitable for reproduction. Some species, such as the mite Poecilochirus carabi, are phoretic as juveniles and cannot leave their habitat once they reach adulthood. Previous work has shown that mites exercise choice over the habitat...... influence of the social environment on a phoretic's habitat choice and life history....

  20. Characterization of a group of MITEs with unusual features from two coral genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs, which are common in eukaryotic genomes, are small non-coding elements that transpose by utilizing transposases encoded by autonomous transposons. Recent genome-wide analyses and cross-mobilization assays have greatly improved our knowledge on MITE proliferation, however, specific mechanisms for the origin and evolution of MITEs are still unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A group of coral MITEs called CMITE were identified from two corals, Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata. CMITEs conform to many common characteristics of MITEs, but also present several unusual features. The most unusual feature of CMITEs is conservation of the internal region, which is more conserved between MITE families than the TIRs. The origin of this internal region remains unknown, although we found one CMITE family that seems to be derived from a piggyBac-like transposon in A. millepora. CMITEs can form tandem arrays, suggesting an unconventional way for MITEs to increase copy numbers. We also describe a case in which a novel transposable element was created by a CMITE insertion event. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of MITEs from coral genomes. Proliferation of CMITEs seems to be related to the transposition machinery of piggyBac-like autonomous transposons. The highly conserved internal region of CMITEs suggests a potential role for this region in their successful transposition. However, the origin of these unusual features in CMITEs remains unclear, and thus represents an intriguing topic for future investigations.

  1. Characterization of a group of MITEs with unusual features from two coral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Meyer, Eli; Matz, Mikhail V

    2010-05-18

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), which are common in eukaryotic genomes, are small non-coding elements that transpose by utilizing transposases encoded by autonomous transposons. Recent genome-wide analyses and cross-mobilization assays have greatly improved our knowledge on MITE proliferation, however, specific mechanisms for the origin and evolution of MITEs are still unclear. A group of coral MITEs called CMITE were identified from two corals, Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata. CMITEs conform to many common characteristics of MITEs, but also present several unusual features. The most unusual feature of CMITEs is conservation of the internal region, which is more conserved between MITE families than the TIRs. The origin of this internal region remains unknown, although we found one CMITE family that seems to be derived from a piggyBac-like transposon in A. millepora. CMITEs can form tandem arrays, suggesting an unconventional way for MITEs to increase copy numbers. We also describe a case in which a novel transposable element was created by a CMITE insertion event. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of MITEs from coral genomes. Proliferation of CMITEs seems to be related to the transposition machinery of piggyBac-like autonomous transposons. The highly conserved internal region of CMITEs suggests a potential role for this region in their successful transposition. However, the origin of these unusual features in CMITEs remains unclear, and thus represents an intriguing topic for future investigations.

  2. Association between HLA genes and dust mite sensitivity in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Lima Caniatti, Marcela Caleffi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Guilherme, Ana Lúcia Falavigna; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2017-02-01

    Type I hypersensitivity, also known as IgE-mediated allergy, is a complex, multifactorial condition whose onset and severity are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Mite allergens stimulate the production of humoral response (IgE), especially in children, which is closely involved in atopic asthma and rhinitis. This study aimed to investigate the association between HLA class I (-A, -B, and -C), and HLA class II (-DRB1) genes in individuals sensitive to dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, or Blomia tropicalis) and mite-insensitive controls. 396 participants were grouped as mite-sensitive and mite-insensitive according to immediate hypersensitivity as determined by skin-prick tests, and to HLA genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO). After chi-square heterogeneity testing no significant differences were observed in HLA-A, B, and C genes, except for the HLA-DRB1 locus, which, showed a negative association for DRB1∗04, between mite-sensitive and mite-insensitive individuals. In high resolution, DRB1∗04:11 allele was significantly different from all other results (P=0.0042, OR=0.26, and 95%CI=0.09-0.70). The analysis stratified by etiologic agent confirmed these associations. Our results suggest a possible association between HLA-DRB1 genes and hypersensitivity to dust mites. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like

  4. Active optical sensor assessment of spider mite damage on greenhouse beans and cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern United States and causes yield reduction, and deprivation in fiber fitness. A greenhouse colony of the spider mite was used to infest cotton and pinto beans at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, r...

  5. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  6. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  7. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other

  8. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf

  9. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  10. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in western Oregon vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from previous studies to provide growers and IPM consultants with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor for rust mites in vineyards. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from collected plant parts (sh...

  11. Tomato whole genome transcriptional response to Tetranychus urticae identifies divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, C.; Zhurov, V.; Navarro, M.; Martinez, M.; Cazaux, M.; Auger, P.; Migeon, A.; Santamaria, M.E.; Wybouw, N.; Diaz, I.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Navajas, M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite

  12. Phoretic mites and their hyperphoretic fungi associated with flying Ips typographus japonicus Niijima (Col., Scolytidae) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Moser; T.J. Perry; K. Furuta

    1997-01-01

    Flying Ips typographus japonicus from Hokkaido (Japan) carried 12 species of phoretic mites, three of which were not previously recorded in Europe. The mite biologies were diverse, including specialists feeding on microorganisms, beetle eggs, and nematodes which were common under beetle elytra. Hyperphoretic on these mites were seven distinct species of fungal spores...

  13. Interactions between natural enemies: Effect of a predatory mite on transmission of the fungus Neozygites floridana in two-spotted spider mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandem, Nina; Berdinesen, Ronny; Pell, Judith K; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-02-01

    Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20-40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Constructing and detecting a cDNA library for mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Cheng, Juan; Yang, YuanJun; Li, Chen; Lu, ZhaoHui

    2015-10-01

    RNA extraction and construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) library for mites have been quite challenging due to difficulties in acquiring tiny living mites and breaking their hard chitin. The present study is to explore a better method to construct cDNA library for mites that will lay the foundation on transcriptome and molecular pathogenesis research. We selected Psoroptes cuniculi as an experimental subject and took the following steps to construct and verify cDNA library. First, we combined liquid nitrogen grinding with TRIzol for total RNA extraction. Then, switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique was used to construct full-length cDNA library. To evaluate the quality of cDNA library, the library titer and recombination rate were calculated. The reliability of cDNA library was detected by sequencing and analyzing positive clones and genes amplified by specific primers. The results showed that the RNA concentration was 836 ng/μl and the absorbance ratio at 260/280 nm was 1.82. The library titer was 5.31 × 10(5) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/ml and the recombination rate was 98.21%, indicating that the library was of good quality. In the 33 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of P. cuniculi, two clones of 1656 and 1658 bp were almost identical with only three variable sites detected, which had an identity of 99.63% with that of Psoroptes ovis, indicating that the cDNA library was reliable. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that the 553-bp Pso c II gene sequences of P. cuniculi had an identity of 98.56% with those of P. ovis, confirming that the cDNA library was not only reliable but also feasible.

  15. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  16. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  17. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  18. [Role of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in the transmission of avian influenza A virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, D; Heffels-Redmann, U; Köhler, K; Lierz, M; Kaleta, E F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus [D.] gallinae) in the horizontal transmission of avian influenza A virus (AIV) to chickens. This mite is the most common ectoparasite in poultry worldwide, and may play a role in the spread of infectious agents including AIV. Currently, the control of mites is difficult due to frequently developed resistance to many acaricides, their nocturnality and their ability to survive hidden without feeding for months. D. gallinae were collected in a commercial layer farm and housed in self-made fibreboard boxes. SPF chickens were intravenously infected with AIV strain A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9). The viraemia in chickens was monitored and at an appropriate time point about 1000 mites were allowed to suck on the AIV infected chickens. Re-isolation of the virus from blood-filled mites was tried daily for 14 days using chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and embryonated chicken eggs. Subsequently, the virus containing mites were placed into boxes that contained naïve SPF chickens to enable virus transmission from mites to chickens. Possible transmission to the chickens was examined using clinical signs, serology, gross lesions, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Chickens developed a dose-dependent viraemia one day after infection, therefore this day was chosen for the bloodmeal of the mites. AIV was detected in mites after bloodsucking on AIV-infected chickens over a 10-day period. Naïve SPF chickens were infected during bloodsucking of AIV carrying mites. AIV isolates in mites and in chickens were undistinguishable from the original AIV inoculum by RT-PCR. D. gallinae ingested AIV during bloodmeals on AIV infected chickens and are able to transmit AIV to SPF chickens. Therefore, mites serve as mechanical vector of AIV and may play a major role in the circulation of AIV within a facility or area although the life span of infectious virus in the mite is limited. The proven

  19. Short form of Demodex species mite in the dog: occurrence and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, C J

    1999-02-01

    A form of Demodex species mite shorter in length than Demodex canis was found in six consecutive cases of canine demodicosis. The mean length of the parasite was 122.6 microns (SD 12.0 microns, 39 mites counted), significantly shorter than either male or female forms of D canis (P < 0.0001). The proportion of short to long mites in each case varied from 0.5 to 22 per 100. In young dogs, skin signs associated with the presence of mites were first noted after about seven months, while in the oldest subject the disease became apparent at 10 years of age. This form of mite has now been found in four countries over three continents, the findings suggesting that it is not uncommon and is acquired in puppyhood, although it may be carried unnoticed for many years.

  20. Intercropping With Fruit Trees Increases Population Abundance and Alters Species Composition of Spider Mites on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqiang; Pan, Hongsheng; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Yanhui

    2018-05-05

    With the recent increase in planting of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang, the intercropping of fruit trees and cotton has been widely adopted. From 2014 to 2016, a large-scale study was conducted in Aksu, an important agricultural area in southern Xinjiang, to compare the abundance and species composition of spider mites in cotton fields under jujube-cotton, apple-cotton, and cotton monocrop systems. The abundance of spider mites in cotton fields under both intercropping systems was generally higher than in the cotton monocrop. The species composition of spider mites also differed greatly between cotton intercropped with apple or jujube compared to the cotton monocrop. The relative proportion of Tetranychus truncates Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) in the species complex generally increased while that of another spider mite, Tetranychus dunhuangensis Wang (Acari: Tetranychidae), decreased under fruit tree-cotton systems. More attention should be paid to the monitoring and management of spider mites, especially T. truncates in this important region of China.

  1. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Peck

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  2. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation. PMID:27942015

  3. MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Paniagua, John; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George; Todosow, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A new ultra compact nuclear engine concept, MITEE (MIniature R_eactor E_nginE_), is described, and its performance evaluated for various solar system exploration missions. The MITEE concept is based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with modifications that enable a smaller, lighter nuclear engine. A range of MITEE Engine designs is described. Representative design parameters for the baseline MITEE reactor are: 75MW(th) power level, 1000 second Isp, 100 kilogram mass, 10 MW/Liter fuel element power density, 39 cm core diameter/height. Total engine mass, including turbo pump assembly, nozzles, controls, and contingency, is estimated to be 200 kilograms. Using the MITEE engine, ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions are enabled. A range of such missions has been analyzed using the MULIMP code, and are described.

  4. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, David T; Smith, Michael L; Seeley, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  5. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysa...

  6. Mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E

    2004-12-01

    Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens.

  7. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for spider mites (Acarina: tetranychidae) in horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Banasik-Solgala, K.

    1999-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.), and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are closely related species of tetranychid mites (Acarina, Tetranychidae) that respond to gamma irradiation in a similar way. Eggs of both species exposed to gamma radiation early in embryonic development were considerably more susceptible to irradiation than older eggs. The tolerance of eggs to gamma radiation increased in 3-4-day-old eggs, when eye-spots were formed. Nymphs were more resistant to gamma radiation than eggs and larvae. Deteriorative effects of irradiation treatment were reflected in the immatures by their mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A positive relationship between dosage and the percent egg mortality or the mortality of subsequent stages was usually found when the immature stages were irradiated. The sex ratio of adults developed from irradiated eggs, larvae, and nymphs was affected by the irradiation treatment; the ratio was usually skewed towards males. Irradiation of females resulted in increased mortality, lowered fecundity, reduced egg viability, and sex ratio distortion in their progeny. Two-day-old females of the carmine spider mite and the two-spotted spider mite irradiated with 200 or 300 Gy lived as long as the controls. Mortality occurred after 3 weeks. The number of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites was considerably lower than in the control, and it decreased as the absorbed dose increased. The higher the dose of gamma radiation applied to adults of the spider mites (the parental generation, P), the higher the mortality of the F1 mites during their embryonic development. Viability of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites mated with irradiated males was significantly reduced. Young females treated with a dose of 0.2 kGy produced 40-50% nonviable eggs, while control mites produced only 6.0-6.6% nonviable eggs. A dose of 0.3 kGy caused high mortality of eggs; 88% and 97% nonviable

  8. Negative evidence of Wolbachia in the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enigl, M; Zchori-Fein, E; Schausberger, P

    2005-01-01

    The cytoplasmically inherited bacterium Wolbachia is widespread in arthropod species and has been repeatedly detected in the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Our original goal was to assess the prevalence of Wolbachia infection in P. persimilis and the potential fitness consequences for this host. To accomplish that goal, seven P. persimilis strains were obtained from Europe, Africa and the USA and reared on the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae as prey. After preliminary results showed that the T. urticae used was infected with Wolbachia, the minimum starvation time of the predators to prevent false positive results from undigested prey was determined. We tested DNA samples by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) after starving the predators or feeding them Wolbachia-free T. urticae for various periods. Those experiments showed that Wolbachia could not be detected after 16 h at 25 degrees C and 48 h at 20 degrees C. To verify the results of the PCR analyses, we furthermore conducted crossing experiments with antibiotic-treated and untreated individuals. No indications of Wolbachia effects were recorded. Additionally, we screened live eggs of four of the seven strains reared in our laboratory and alcohol samples of 10 other P. persimilis strains for the occurrence of Wolbachia by PCR, none of which tested positive. Synthesis of our study and previous reports suggests that infection of P. persimilis with Wolbachia is extremely rare and of minor importance. We discuss the significance of our findings for future studies on the presence of Wolbachia in predaceous arthropods.

  9. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Moro C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.

  10. The sejugal furrow in camel spiders and acariform mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae are one of the arachnid groups characterised by a prosomal dorsal shield composed of three distinct elements: the pro-, meso- and metapeltidium. These are associated respectively with prosomal appendages one to four, five, and six. What is less well known, although noted in the historical literature, is that the coxae of the 4th and 5th prosomal segments (i.e. walking legs 2 and 3 of camel spiders are also separated ventrally by a distinct membranous region, which is absent between the coxae of the other legs. We suggest that this essentially ventral division of the prosoma specifically between coxae 2 and 3 is homologous with the so-called sejugal furrow (the sejugal interval sensu van der Hammen. This division constitutes a fundamental part of the body plan in acariform mites (Arachnida: Acariformes. If homologous, this sejugal furrow could represent a further potential synapomorphy for (Solifugae + Acariformes; a relationship with increasing morphological and molecular support. Alternatively, outgroup comparison with sea spiders (Pycnogonida and certain early Palaeozoic fossils could imply that the sejugal furrow defines an older tagma, derived from a more basal grade of organisation. In this scenario the (still divided prosoma of acariform mites and camel spiders would be plesiomorphic. This interpretation challenges the textbook arachnid character of a peltidium (or ‘carapace’ covering an undivided prosoma.

  11. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  12. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites ( Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species ( T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition.

  14. The effect of sub-floor heating on house-dust-mite populations on floors and in furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Rob

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that dehydrating conditions for house dust mites can be created by simply raising the temperature, causing loss of body water and eventually death. Thus, it can be expected that conditions for dust mites are less favourable on floors supplied with sub-floor heating. This was examined in a study of 16 houses with sub-floor heating and 21 without. The pattern of changes in air humidity and temperature on the floors was investigated and compared to known data of the tolerance of dust mites. Also the resident mite populations were compared. Floors with sub-floor heating had, on average, fewer mites, but the difference with unheated floors was small. It was remarkable that mite numbers were also lower in upholstered furniture. Another important observation was that some houses with sub-floor heating had high mite numbers, indicating that this type of heating is compatible with a thriving mite population. Temperature and humidity conditions of heated floors may allow mites not only to survive, but also to remain active in winter. A moderate increase in temperature, a moderate decrease in (absolute) air humidity, or a combination of both, will suffice to keep the humidity all winter below the Critical Equilibrium Humidity, the level of air humidity that is critical for mite growth and reproduction, hence for allergen production. However, it is argued that measures to suppress allergen production by house dust mites are likely to be far more effective if taken in summer rather than in winter.

  15. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response.

  16. Whiteflies interfere with indirect plant defense against spider mites in Lima bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zheng, Si-Jun; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Boland, Wilhelm; David, Anja; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack are able to initiate indirect defense by synthesizing and releasing complex blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. However, little is known about how plants respond to infestation by multiple herbivores, particularly if these belong to different feeding guilds. Here, we report the interference by a phloem-feeding insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with indirect plant defenses induced by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants. Additional whitefly infestation of spider-mite infested plants resulted in a reduced attraction of predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) compared to attraction to plants infested by spider mites only. This interference is shown to result from the reduction in (E)-β-ocimene emission from plants infested by both spider mites and whiteflies. When using exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application to mimic B. tabaci infestation, we observed similar results in behavioral and chemical analyses. Phytohormone and gene-expression analyses revealed that B. tabaci infestation, as well as SA application, inhibited spider mite-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production and reduced the expression of two JA-regulated genes, one of which encodes for the P. lunatus enzyme β-ocimene synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of (E)-β-ocimene. Remarkably, B. tabaci infestation concurrently inhibited SA production induced by spider mites. We therefore conclude that in dual-infested Lima bean plants the suppression of the JA signaling pathway by whitefly feeding is not due to enhanced SA levels. PMID:19965373

  17. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.

  18. House dust mites on skin, clothes, and bedding of atopic dermatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitsky, Valery; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Babai, Ilan; Dalal, Ilan; Cohen, Rifka; Tanay, Amir

    2008-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic condition in children, often associated with a positive skin reaction to house dust mite allergens. To determine the presence of house dust mites on the skin, clothes, and bedding of patients with atopic dermatitis. Nineteen patients with atopic dermatitis were examined during a 2-year period. Samples from affected and healthy skin surfaces were obtained with adhesive tape, and dust samples from bedding and clothes were collected with a vacuum cleaner at the start of the study and 3-6 weeks later, and examined for the presence of house dust mites. The findings were compared with those of 21 healthy controls. The most common mite species on skin were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, which were found in nine patients and three controls. The patient group showed a significantly larger percentage of samples with mites than did the control group (34.9% and 7.9%, respectively) (P bedding of patients, or between patients and controls with regard to the number of mites on the clothes and bedding. Patients with atopic dermatitis showed a higher prevalence of mites on their skin than did healthy individuals, which could be involved in allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation.

  19. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  20. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    , sections and genus of Aspergillus. The work uncovers a large genomic diversity across all studied groups of species. The genomic diversity was especially evident on the section level, where the proteins shared by all species only represents ⇠55% of the proteome. This number decreases even further, to 38......, sections Nigri, Usti and Cavericolus, clade Tubingensis, and species A. niger. It lastly uses these results to predict genetic traits that take part in fungal speciation. Within a few years the Aspergillus whole-genus sequencing project will have published all currently-accepted Aspergillus genomes......Aspergillus is a highly important genus of saprotrophic filamentous fungi. It is a very diverse genus that is inextricably intertwined with human a↵airs on a daily basis, holding species relevant to plant and human pathology, enzyme and bulk chemistry production, food and beverage biotechnology...

  1. Infinite genus surfaces and irrational polygonal billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Ferrán

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the natural invariant surface associated with the billiard game on an irrational polygonal table is homeomorphic to the Loch Ness monster, that is, the only orientable infinite genus topological real surface with exactly one end.

  2. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  3. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L. M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R. D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P. W.

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  4. Generalized regular genus for manifolds with boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cristofori

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of the regular genus, a combinatorial invariant of PL manifolds ([10], which is proved to be strictly related, in dimension three, to generalized Heegaard splittings defined in [12].

  5. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [es

  6. Phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

    2012-09-01

    To confirm phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequences, mtDNA 16S partial sequences of ten isolates of three Demodex species from China were amplified, recombined, and sequenced and then analyzed with two Demodex folliculorum isolates from Spain. Lastly, genetic distance was computed, and phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. MEGA 4.0 analysis showed high sequence identity among 16S rDNA partial sequences of three Demodex species, which were 95.85 % in D. folliculorum, 98.53 % in Demodex canis, and 99.71 % in Demodex brevis. The divergence, genetic distance, and transition/transversions of the three Demodex species reached interspecies level, whereas there was no significant difference of the divergence (1.1 %), genetic distance (0.011), and transition/transversions (3/1) of the two geographic D. folliculorum isolates (Spain and China). Phylogenetic trees reveal that the three Demodex species formed three separate branches of one clade, where D. folliculorum and D. canis gathered first, and then gathered with D. brevis. The two Spain and five China D. folliculorum isolates did not form sister clades. In conclusion, 16S mtDNA are suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis in low taxa (genus or species), but not for intraspecies determination of Demodex. The differentiation among the three Demodex species has reached interspecies level.

  7. Growth analysis of cotton crops infested with spider mites. I. Light interception and radiation-use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadras, V.O.; Wilson, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) are important pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The effects of mites on cotton photosynthesis have been investigated at the leaf and cytological level but not at the canopy level. Our objective was to quantify the effects of timing and intensity of infestation by mites on cotton radiation-use efficiency (RUE). Leaf area, light interception, RUE, canopy temperature, and leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) were assessed during two growing seasons in crops artificially infested with mites between 59 and 127 d after sowing. Normal and okra-leaf cultivars were compared. A mite index (MI = natural log of the area under the curve of mite number vs thermal time) was used to quantify the cumulative effects of mites on RUE, LNC, and canopy temperature. Crop growth reduction due to mites was greater in early- than in late-infested crops Growth reduction was primarily due to reductions in RUE, but in the more severe treatments accelerated leaf senescence and, hence. reduced light interception also contributed to reductions in crop growth. At a given date, infested okra-leaf crops usually had greater RUE than their normal-leaf counterparts. Both plant types, however. responded similarly to a given level of mite infestation. The ability of the okra-leaf cultivar to maintain greater RUE levels can be attributed. therefore, to its relative inhospitality for the development of mite colonies rather than to an intrinsically greater capacity to maintain photosynthesis under mite damage. Canopy temperature, LNC, and RUE showed a similar, biphasic pattern of response to Ml. In the first phase, response variables were almost unaffected by mites. In the second phase, there was a marked decline in RUE and LNC and a marked increase in canopy temperature with increasing MI. These results suggest (i) some degree of compensatory photosynthesis at low to moderate levels of mite infestation, and (ii) reductions in RUE of mite

  8. Ectoparasitic chigger mites on large oriental vole (Eothenomys miletus) across southwest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Song, Wen-Yu; Hou, Peng; Zou, Yun-Ji; Fan, Rong

    2016-02-01

    An investigation of chigger mites on the large oriental vole, Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), was conducted between 2001 and 2013 at 39 localities across southwest China, and 2463 individuals of the vole hosts were captured and examined, which is a big host sample size. From the body surface of E. miletus, 49,850 individuals of chigger mites were collected, and they were identified as comprising 175 species, 13 genera, and 3 subfamilies in 2 families (Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae). The 175 species of chigger mites from such a single rodent species (E. miletus) within a certain region (southwest China) extremely exceeded all the species of chigger mites previously recorded from multiple species of hosts in a wide region or a whole country in some other countries, and this suggests that E. miletus has a great potential to harbor abundant species of chigger mites on its body surface. Of 175 mite species, Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most dominant species, which has been proved as one of the main vectors of scrub typhus and the potential vector of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China. The patchiness index (m*/m) was used to measure the spatial patterns of the dominant chigger mite species, and all the three dominant mite species (L. scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, and Helenicula simena) showed aggregated distributions among the different host individuals. The coefficient of association (V) was adopted to measure the interspecies interaction between the dominant mite species and a slightly positive association existed between L. scutellare and L. sinicum (V = 0.28, P size over a wide realm of geographical regions is needed in the field investigation in order to obtain a true picture of species diversity and species composition.

  9. Chemical and cultural control of Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites in honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery S Pettis

    Full Text Available At least two parasitic mites have moved from Asian species of honeybees to infest Apis mellifera. Of these two, Varroa destructor is more widespread globally while Tropilaelaps mercedesae has remained largely in Asia. Tropilaelaps mites are most problematic when A. mellifera is managed outside its native range in contact with Asian species of Apis. In areas where this occurs, beekeepers of A. mellifera treat aggressively for Tropilaelaps and Varroa is either outcompeted or is controlled as a result of the aggressive treatment regime used against Tropilaelaps. Many mite control products used worldwide may in fact control both mites but environmental conditions differ globally and thus a control product that works well in one area may be less or ineffective in other areas. This is especially true of volatile compounds. In the current research we tested several commercial products known to control Varroa and powdered sulfur for efficacy against Tropilaelaps. Additionally, we tested the cultural control method of making a hive division to reduce Tropilaelaps growth in both the parent and offspring colony. Making a split or nucleus colony significantly reduced mite population in both the parent and nucleus colony when compared to un-manipulated control colonies. The formic acid product, Mite-Away Quick Strips®, was the only commercial product that significantly reduced mite population 8 weeks after initiation of treatment without side effects. Sulfur also reduced mite populations but both sulfur and Hopguard® significantly impacted colony growth by reducing adult bee populations. Apivar® (amitraz strips had no effect on mite or adult bee populations under the conditions tested.

  10. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other.

  11. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabert, Miroslawa; Proctor, Heather; Dabert, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    With nearly 6000 named species, water mites (Hydrachnidiae) represent the largest group of arachnids to have invaded and extensively diversified in freshwater habitats. Water mites together with three other lineages (the terrestrial Erythraiae and Trombidiae, and aquatic Stygothrombiae), make up the hyporder Parasitengonina, which is characterized by having parasitic larvae and predatory nymphs and adults. Relationships between the Hydrachnidiae and other members of the Parasitengonina are unclear, as are relationships among the major lineages of water mites. Monophyly of water mites has been asserted, with the possible exception of the morphologically distinctive Hydrovolzioidea. Here we infer the phylogeny of water mites using multiple molecular markers and including representatives of all superfamilies of Hydrachnidiae and of almost all other Parasitengonina. Our results support a monophyletic Parasitengonina including Trombidiae, Stygothrombiae, and Hydrachnidiae. A monophyletic Hydrachnidiae, including Hydrovolzioidea, is strongly supported. Terrestrial Parasitengonina do not form a monophyletic sister group to water mites. Stygothrombiae is close to water mites but is not nested within this clade. Water mites appear to be derived from ancestors close to Stygothrombiae or the erythraoid group Calyptostomatoidea; however, this relationship is not clear because of extremely short branches in this part of the parasitengonine tree. We recovered with strong support all commonly accepted water mite superfamilies except for Hydryphantoidea, which is clearly paraphyletic. Our data support the previously proposed clades Protohydrachnidia (Hydrovolzioidea and Eylaoidea), Euhydrachnidia (all remaining superfamilies), and the euhydrachnid subclade Neohydrachnidia (Lebertioidea, Hydrachnoidea, Hygrobatoidea, and Arrenuroidea). We found that larval leg structure and locomotory behavior are strongly congruent with the molecular phylogeny. Other morphological and behavioral

  12. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  13. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de; Moraes, Gilberto J. de

    2007-01-01

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  14. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: tatianemarie@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@esalq.usp.br

    2007-09-15

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  15. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  16. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Laubenfels, de, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana per se. One new subgenus and 17 new sections are described, and 94 species are enumerated, of which 11 species and 1 variety are described as new, and 3 varieties have been raised to specific rank....

  17. A New Stubby Species of Demodectic Mite (Acari: Demodicidae) From the Domestic Dog (Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tatsushi; Ohmi, Aki; Kiwaki, Akihito; Ike, Kazunori; Nagata, Katsuyuki

    2018-02-28

    A new species of Demodex was detected in the earwax of a dog with otitis externa in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, in July 2010. The opisthosoma length of the mite was slightly shorter than 1/2 of its body length, which was different from the other species in domestic dogs, D. canis and D. injai, but was similar to the form of mites termed "short-bodied species", including D. cornei. However, the stubby external form was morphologically different from those of "short-bodied species", excluding a case without a species description reported from Greece. Among known species, the mite was similar to D. equi and D. acutipes.

  18. The hair follicle mites (Demodex spp.). Could they be vectors of pathogenic microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Ophir, J; Avigad, J; Lengy, J; Krakowski, A

    1988-01-01

    The hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis are the most common permanent ectoparasites of Man. Ordinarily they are harmless to their human host and appear to be of no medical significance. We present, however, an unusual finding regarding this mite, namely, that in a potassium hydroxide mount of a skin scraping from a mycotic plaque we found numerous Demodex mites containing inside them spores of Microsporum canis. This could mean that the putatively inoffensive Demodex has the potential to ingest various microorganisms that are found in its niche and transport them to other areas of the skin or possibly to other individuals.

  19. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  20. Parasitism of wild Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) by the air-sac mite Sternostoma tracheacolum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidemann, S C; McOrist, S; Woinarski, J C; Freeland, W J

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two percent of 26 wild caught Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) were infected with Sternostoma tracheacolum, a parasitic rhinonyssid mite. The intensity of infection was higher in adult finches than juveniles, and higher in juvenile females than juvenile males. Histopathological investigation of wild Gouldian Finches revealed bronchopneumonia and air sacculitis associated with mite infection. Although this mite may not have contributed to the decline of Gouldian finch populations in the wild during the past 20 yr, it may be suppressing the return of the finch to its former status.

  1. Comparative morphological analysis of apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nal., a new pest in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vidović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nalepa, 1926 (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea, has been recently found in Serbia as a new pest of apple. The history of its research, the results of a morphological analysis and degree of infestation are presented. A comparison of the main morphological features of mites from different populations of remote geographical origin has shown that the apple blister mite from Serbia is most similar to another European population (Bulgarian [or Austrian?] while it differs from E. mali originating from the USA and New Zealand. The percentage of infestation varied from 1.6% to 87.6%, with an average of 22.4%.

  2. Design and development of the MITEE-B bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ∼1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  3. Discovery of fungus-mite mutualism in a unique niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets, F; Wingfield, M J; Crous, P W; Dreyer, L L

    2007-01-01

    The floral heads (infructescences) of South African Protea L. represent a most unusual niche for fungi of the economically important genus Ophiostoma Syd. and P. Syd. emend. Z.W. de Beer et al. Current consensus holds that most members of Ophiostoma are vectored by tree-infesting bark beetles.

  4. Sensitization to 10 mites in a tropic area. Der p and Der f are important risk factor for sensitization to other mites from Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, Chortoglyphidae, and Glyciphagidae families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much is known about the frequency of sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, although less is known about sensitization to other species and their possible interactions. Objective: In patients with allergic manifestations, to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to 10 species of mites in a tropical area and their possible interactions. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Sensitization was evaluated by skin tests. A generalized linear Poisson regression model with robust variance was used. Based on the sensitization probability reasons and social networking analysis, explorations of relationship for 10 mites were performed. Results: 147 patients were included. The highest sensitization was found to mites' family Pyroglyphidae (> 70 % and less frequently was the Glycyphagidae family (< 50 %. Sensitization to any mites significantly increased the likelihood of sensitization to others. Sensitization to Der f or Der p increased, more than 20 times the likelihood of sensitization to other mites of the Pyroglyphidae family and more than 10 times to mites from other families. Sensitization to mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae family also increased the risk of sensitization to other mites but less than 5 times. Conclusion: Sensitization to mites is frequent in tropical area. Pyroglyphidae sensitization is the main risk factor for polysensitization with other mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae. These results must be considered at diagnosis and treatment of allergy diseases.

  5. Whole genome amplification of Chelex-extracted DNA from a single mite: a method for studying genetics of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakandla, Bhanu; Park, Yoonseong; Margolies, David

    2006-01-01

    We developed and optimized a method using Chelex DNA extraction followed by whole genome amplification (WGA) to overcome problems conducting molecular genetic studies due to the limited amount of DNA obtainable from individual small organisms such as predatory mites. The DNA from a single mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henrot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), isolated in Chelex suspension was subjected to WGA. More than 1000-fold amplification of the DNA was achieved using as little as 0.03 ng genomic DNA template. The DNA obtained by the WGA was used for polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing. From WGA DNA, nuclear DNA intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 and a mitochondrial DNA 12S marker were tested in three different geographical populations of the predatory mite: California, the Netherlands, and Sicily. We found a total of four different alleles of the 12S in the Sicilian population, but no polymorphism was identified in the ITS marker. The combination of Chelex DNA extraction and WGA is thus shown to be a simple and robust technique for examining molecular markers for multiple loci by using individual mites. We conclude that the methods, Chelex extraction of DNA followed by WGA, provide a large quantity of DNA template that can be used for multiple PCR reactions useful for genetic studies requiring the genotypes of individual mites.

  6. Protective effect of the DNA vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergens on allergic inflammation in the murine model of house dust mite allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jaechun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.

  7. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated.

  8. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance.

  9. Tropilaelaps mite: an emerging threat to European honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Ramsey, Samuel; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Phokasem, Patcharin

    2018-04-01

    The risk of transmission of honey bee parasites has increased substantially as a result of trade globalization and technical developments in transportation efficacy. Great concern over honey bee decline has accelerated research on newly emerging bee pests and parasites. These organisms are likely to emerge from Asia as it is the only region where all 10 honey bee species co-occur. Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite, is a classic example of a pest that has shifted from A. cerana, a cavity nesting Asian honey bee to A. mellifera, the European honey bee. In this review, we will describe the potential risks to global apiculture of the global expansion of Tropilaelaps mercedesae, originally a parasite of the open-air nesting Asian giant honey bee, compared to the impact of V. destructor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ventilation in homes infested by house-dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, J; Wickman, M; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, S L

    1995-02-01

    Thirty single-family homes with either high (> or = 2000 ng/g) or low (< or = 1000 ng/g) house-dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in mattress dust were examined for ventilation, thermal climate, and air quality (formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). Elevated concentrations of HDM allergen in mattress and floor dust were associated with the difference in absolute humidity between indoor and outdoor air, as well as with low air-change rates of the home, particularly the bedroom. No correlation was found between concentration of TVOC or formaldehyde in bedroom air and HDM allergen concentration. In regions with a cold winter climate, the air-change rate of the home and the infiltration of outdoor air into the bedroom appear to be important for the infestation of HDM.

  11. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author)

  12. Predation-related odours reduce oviposition in a herbivorous mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, Yasuyuki; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji

    2010-01-01

    When adult females of the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, were exposed to the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, they laid fewer eggs than females that had not been exposed to P. persimilis when transferred onto a new leaf patch. However, when T. urticae females were exposed to either products of P. persimilis or artificially damaged conspecific eggs on a leaf patch, the number of T. urticae eggs on a new leaf patch did not differ significantly from the control. The reduced oviposition was neither due to the feeding activity on the leaf patch with P. persimilis nor to that on the new leaf patch. There was also no significant difference between the number of T. urticae eggs produced on a new leaf patch following exposure to the odours of a neighbouring leaf patch where there had previously been either P. persimilis or T. urticae adults. However, female T. urticae that had been exposed to odours from neighbouring leaf patches on which both T. urticae and P. persimilis had been placed produced significantly fewer eggs on a new leaf patch than those that had not been exposed to such odours. Neither odours from neighbouring intact leaf patches on which T. urticae eggs were preyed on by P. persimilis, nor odours from a neighbouring Parafilm patch on which T. urticae was preyed on by P. persimilis affected the oviposition of T. urticae. These data suggest that the presence of T. urticae, P. persimilis and a leaf patch are needed for the emission of odours to reduce oviposition in T. urticae.

  13. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  14. [Dynamics of infection of Fringilla coelebs chaffinch nestlings with feather mites (Acari: Analgoidea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S V; Malyshev, L L

    2002-01-01

    A process of infecting the chaffinch nestlings Fringilla coelebs with three analgoid feather mites, Analges passerinus L., 1758, Monojoubertia microphylla (Robin, 1877), and Pteronyssoides striatus (Robin, 1977), commonly occurred on this bird species was investigated. 15 nests contained totally 65 nestlings, from 2 to 6 individuals in a brood, have been examined from the day of hatching till 11th day. Observations were held in the neighbourhood of the bird banding station "Rybachy" (Russia, Kaliningrad Province) in June of 1982. Number of mites on alive nestlings taken temporarily from their nest was counted by means of binocular lens under the magnification x12.5 and x25. The nestlings receive the mites from the chaffinch female during the night time, when the female sits together with the young birds and heats them. In the condition of this prolonged direct contact the mites migrate from the female onto the nestlings. As it was shown in our study of seasonal dynamics of mites on the chaffinch (Mironov, 2000), the chaffinch female only gives its mites to young generation and looses about three quarter of its mite micropopulation during the nesting period (June), hile in the chaffinch males the number of mites continues to increase during all summer. The infections with three feather mite species happen in the second part of the nestling's stay in the nest. The starting time of this process, its intensity, and sex and age structure of mite micropopulations on the nestlings just before their leaving the nest are different in the mite species examined. These peculiarities of feather mite species are determined by the biology of examined species, and first of all by their morphological characteristic and specialisation to different microhabitats, i.e. certain structural zones of plumage. Pteronyssoides striatus (Pteronyssidae) is rather typical mite specialised to feathers with vanes. In adult birds with completely developed plumage this species occupies the ventral

  15. Complete sequence analysis of 18S rDNA based on genomic DNA extraction from individual Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang

    2012-05-01

    The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ≥ 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral anaphylaxis by ingestion of mite contaminated food in Panama City, 2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M Barrera

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The pancakes were the most incriminated food in the cases of OMA in our study. Suidasia pontifica and Blomia tropicalis seem to be the mites species of greater relevance related with this syndrome in our country.

  17. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  18. Active optical sensor assessment of spider mite damage on greenhouse beans and cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel E; Latheef, Mohamed A

    2018-02-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern USA and causes yield reduction and deprivation in fiber fitness. Cotton and pinto beans grown in the greenhouse were infested with spider mites at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, respectively. Spider mite damage on cotton and bean canopies expressed as normalized difference vegetation index indicative of changes in plant health was measured for 27 consecutive days. Plant health decreased incrementally for cotton until day 21 when complete destruction occurred. Thereafter, regrowth reversed decline in plant health. On spider mite treated beans, plant vigor plateaued until day 11 when plant health declined incrementally. Results indicate that pinto beans were better suited as a host plant than cotton for rearing T. urticae in the laboratory.

  19. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  20. Factors Influencing Mesostigmata Mites (Acari, Parasitiformes In The Alkaline Fen Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesostigmata mite fauna was investigated in soil of one alkaline fen at Apšuciems in the Maritime Lowland in Latvia in 2009. Thirty sample plots were selected in the following way: half of them were located in Brown Bog Rush, Schoenus ferrugineus and half — in Saw-Sedge, Cladium mariscus prevailing habitat. Soil samples were collected using a soil borer. Vegetation cover was described in accordance with Braun-Blanquet classes. Mites were extracted using modified Berlese funnels. In total, more than 28 species were recorded, of them Prozercon kochi and Pergamasus vagabundus were dominant species. Mean density of Mesostigmata mites ranged from 520 to 2140 ind./m2. Mite abundance and distribution between habitats depended on vegetation cover of the vascular plants, while moss cover and soil pH had no significant influence.

  1. Migration effects on population dynamics of the honeybee-mite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybees are amazing and highly beneficial insect species that play important roles in undisturbed and agricultural ecosystems. Unfortunately, honeybees are increasingly threatened by numerous factors, most notably the parasitic Varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman). A recent field s...

  2. Mite (Acari) fauna of some cultivated plants from Kahramanmaraş ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... and fruit trees, the common weed Ipomoea indica (Burman) Merrill ... Mites were removed from the ... 2004). This species was also recorded from the bark of ..... the family Tetranychidae, damaging fruit trees in Central Anatolia.

  3. Phoretic mites of three bark beetles (Pityokteines spp.) on silver fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan Pernek; Boris Hrasovec; Dinka Matosevic; Ivan Pilas; Thomas Kirisits; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    The species composition and abundance of phoretic mites of the bark beetles Pityokteines curvidens P. spinidens, and P. vorontzowi on Silver fir (Abies alba) were investigated in 2003 at two locations (Trakoscan and Litoric) in Croatia. Stem sections and...

  4. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  5. Voluntary Falling in Spider Mites in Response to Different Ecological Conditions at Landing Points

    OpenAIRE

    Ohzora, Yousuke; Yano, Shuichi

    2011-01-01

    We examined voluntary-falling behaviour by adult females of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of its major predators Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted using a setup in which mites could only move onto one of two landing points by falling. Significantly more T. urticae females fell onto available food leaves compared to non-food or heavily infested leaves, whereas significantly fewer females fell...

  6. Regular dorsal dimples and damaged mites of Varroa destructor in some Iranian honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Ardestani, Masoud M.; Ebadi, Rahim; Tahmasbi, Gholamhossein

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of damaged Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) found on the bottom board of hives of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) has been used as an indicator of the degree of tolerance or resistance of honey bee colonies against mites. However, it is not clear that this measure is adequate. These injuries should be separated from regular dorsal dimples that have a developmental origin. To investigate damage to Varroa mites and regular dor...

  7. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Ziyaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the con­tamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient's residential home with atopic dermatitis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test. Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer -20 ˚C were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software.Results: Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35% in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30% bedrooms' carpet, 3 cases (15% living room's carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. Only mites were found (5% in living room's carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farinae. (98% vs 83%.Conclusion: Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In posi­tive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom’s carpet more than negative prick test patient's sheets and carpets.

  8. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Oddie, Melissa AY; Dahle, Bjørn Steinar; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control....

  9. Viral epidemiology of the adult Apis Mellifera infested by the Varroa destructor mite

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Sara; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has become one of the major worldwide threats for apiculture. Varroa destructor attacks the honey bee Apis mellifera weakening its host by sucking hemolymph. However, the damage to bee colonies is not strictly related to the parasitic action of the mite but it derives, above all, from its action as vector increasing the transmission of many viral diseases such as acute paralysis (ABPV) and deformed wing viruses (DWV), that are considered among the main...

  10. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  11. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  12. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  13. Beyond insects: current status, achievements and future perspectives of RNAi in mite pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jinzhi; Shen, Guangmao; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy; He, Lin; Wang, Jinjun

    2018-05-11

    Mites comprise a group of key agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. They cause harm through feeding on the plant and transferring dangerous pathogens, and the rapid evolution of pesticide resistance in mites highlights the need for novel control methods. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) shows a great potential for insect pest control. Here, we review the literature associated with RNAi in mite pests. We discuss different target genes and RNAi efficiency in various mite species, a promising Varroa control program through RNAi, the synergy of RNAi with plant defense mechanisms and microorganisms, and the current understandings of systemic movement of dsRNA. Based on this, we can conclude that there is a clear potential for an RNAi-based mite control application but further research on several aspects is needed, including: (i) the factors influencing the RNAi efficiency, (ii) the mechanism of environmental RNAi and cross-kingdom dsRNA trafficking, (iii) the mechanism of possible systemic and parental RNAi, and (iv) non-target effects, specifically in predatory mites, should be considered during the RNAi target selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of Apis mellifera workers by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor using host cuticular hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piccolo, F; Nazzi, F; Della Vedova, G; Milani, N

    2010-05-01

    The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most important threat for apiculture in most bee-keeping areas of the world. The mite is carried to the bee brood cell, where it reproduces, by a nurse bee; therefore the selection of the bee stage by the parasite could influence its reproductive success. This study investigates the role of the cuticular hydrocarbons of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera) in host-selection by the mite. Preliminary laboratory bioassays confirmed the preference of the varroa mite for nurse bees over pollen foragers. GC-MS analysis of nurse and pollen bees revealed differences in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the two stages; in particular, it appeared that pollen bees have more (Z)-8-heptadecene than nurse bees. Laboratory experiments showed that treatment of nurse bees with 100 ng of the pure compound makes them repellent to the varroa mite. These results suggest that the mite can exploit the differences in the cuticular composition of its host for a refined selection that allows it to reach a brood cell and start reproduction. The biological activity of the alkene encourages further investigations for the development of novel control techniques based on this compound.

  15. A review on the factors affecting mite growth in stored grain commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D A

    2012-03-01

    A thorough review of the literature has identified the key factors and interactions that affect the growth of mite pests on stored grain commodities. Although many factors influence mite growth, the change and combinations of the physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity and/or moisture content) during the storage period are likely to have the greatest impact, with biological factors (e.g. predators and commodity) playing an important role. There is limited information on the effects of climate change, light, species interactions, local density dependant factors, spread of mycotoxins and action thresholds for mites. A greater understanding of these factors may identify alternative control techniques. The ability to predict mite population dynamics over a range of environmental conditions, both physical and biological, is essential in providing an early warning of mite infestations, advising when appropriate control measures are required and for evaluating control measures. This information may provide a useful aid in predicting and preventing mite population development as part of a risk based decision support system.

  16. Sensitization of children in the Stockholm area to house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Eriksson, M; Rylander, E; Schwartz, B

    1988-09-01

    Atopic sensitization of children in the Stockholm area to house dust mites (HDM) was investigated in a case-control study. Sixty children with and 60 without positive skin prick tests for HDM were matched for age and sex. HDM-sensitized children had previously more often lived in other areas known to be mite infested than the control children. Sensitization to mites was related to dampness in the homes, but no significant relationship was found to the type of residence, frequent visits to a summer house in the archipelago or parental smoking. Dust samples from mattresses of the children with the strongest positive reactions to mites in skin prick tests and the respective controls were subjected to an enzyme immunoassay, to measure the content of the major allergens of the Dermatophagoides (D.) species D. pterinyssinus, D. farinae and D. microceras. Mattress dust samples from the beds of HDM-sensitized children contained significantly higher HDM antigen concentrations than those from the beds of controls. Private houses contained significantly more HDM antigens than flats and 10 of 11 homes in which a dampness problem was recognized contained mite antigens. It is postulated that mite infestation is increasing in the area, energy-saving measures creating improved conditions for HDM survival.

  17. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  18. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  19. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  20. Novel bacterial pathogen Acaricomes phytoseiuli causes severe disease symptoms and histopathological changes in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Gols, Rieta; Kleespies, Regina G; Poitevin, Olivier; Dicke, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    were not observed in control predators that were exposed to sterile water. The present data prove that A. phytoseiuli can infect the predatory mite P. persimilis and induce the NR-syndrome and characteristic histopathological changes in adult female P. persimilis. This is the first record of a bacterial pathogen in a phytoseiid mite and the first description of pathogenic effects of a bacterial species in the genus Acaricomes.

  1. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens....... Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...... of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted...

  2. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21-0.47+0.43 on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36-0.17+0.46.

  3. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  4. Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Victório

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.

  5. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    establishing the genus Punctelia, did not re-combine P. ulophylla, nor include it in the accompanying key. She probably considered it as a synonym of P. subrudecta. In a study on European Punctelia species with lecanoric acid, van Herk & Aptroot (2000) accepted the taxon and made the combination Punctelia...... name at species level, proposed the combination Punctelia jeckeri, and lectotypified the name. As a preparatory work to a forthcoming revision of the Danish lichen checklist (Søchting & Alstrup 2007) it was decided to examine the Danish material of the genus Punctelia....

  6. Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Ongus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of viruses. Since the mites were first observed in Java, Indonesia in 1904, they have been reported in most regions of the world except Australia and the equatorial regions of Africa. V. destructor severely...

  7. Draft genome of the honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps mercedesae, is shaped by the parasitic life history

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiaofeng; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Xia, Dong; Makepeace, Benjamin L.; Darby, Alistair C.; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The number of managed honey bee colonies has considerably decreased in many developed countries in recent years and ectoparasitic mites are considered as major threats to honey bee colonies and health. However, their general biology remains poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of Tropilaelaps mercedesae, the prevalent ectoparasitic mite infesting honey bees in Asia, and predicted 15?190 protein-coding genes that were well supported by the mite transcriptomes and proteomic data....

  8. Long term dynamics of dermanyssus gallinae in relation to mite control measures in aviary systems for layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfors, H; Höglund, J

    2000-12-01

    1. The dynamics of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in aviary systems for layers were studied in an empirical study in Sweden between 1994 and 1997. Fluctuations were monitored with mite traps at monthly intervals during 3 laying cycles at each of 2 commercial poultry farms. 2. When mites were first detected in the system it then took about 5 months for the populations to reach equilibrium levels around which they fluctuated. Within flocks when the population growth was unaffected by temporary control activities, it was demonstrated that the mite populations were significantly denser in summer than in winter. 3. Current control methods had limited effects as mite populations were only temporarily suppressed. One exception was the control achieved with permethrin impregnated plastic strips, which reduced the population at equilibrium level to approximately 22%, compared with the previous flock. 4. The distribution of mites was patchy horizontally, along the aviary system, at low burden wlhereas it became more evenly dispersed at equilibrium. 5. Significant differences in vertical mite distributions that correlated with the hybrids used and their rearing conditions were also observed. In flocks with brown hens, mites gathered at the lower tiers, whereas they were found at the highest tiers in association with white hens. As the hens are attacked mainly at night-time the most likely explanation is that the mites adjust their behavioural pattern to the birds' roosting behaviour.

  9. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  10. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakolis, I; Heinrich, J; Zock, J P; Norbäck, D; Svanes, C; Chen, C M; Accordini, S; Verlato, G; Olivieri, M; Jarvis, D

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. THE GENUS TRIGONOSPORA (THELYPTERIDACEAE IN MALESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Holttum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the genus is discussed, and the Malesian species distinguished and described. Two new combinations are effected, Trigono-spora calcarata (Bl. Holtt. and T. koorderSiiH (Chr. Holtt.; the latter is here recognized for the first time as closely related to T. calcarata,.

  12. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  13. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    PRICE, H. JAMES; DILLON, SALLY L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; ROONEY, WILLIAM L.; ROSS, LARRY; JOHNSTON, J. SPENCER

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  14. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR

    2002-01-01

    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  15. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group.Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus.Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  16. A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthew, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    A revision of the genus in its entire range of distribution is presented. Out of more than 50 published specific names, 9 species (with 13 subspecies or varieties) are recognized, in addition to 4 new species and one new subspecies. The two subgenera Pentamastixia and Tetramastixia of Wangerin

  17. Chloothamnus, a neglected genus of Bambusaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1936-01-01

    Chloothamnus BUSE ap. MIQUEL, Pl. Jungh. 1854, 386 — Oreiostachys GAMBLE ap. KOORDERS, Verh. Kon. Ak. Wet. 16, 1908, 657.. Hab.: Malay Archipelago. 1. C. chilianthus BUSE, l.c., type species of the genus — Schizostachyum chilianthum (BUSE) KURZ, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 39, ii, 1870, 88 — non Melocanna

  18. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  19. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  20. A revision of the genus Phacellaria (Santalaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    On several occasions the author received specimens for determination under the name of Loranthaceae, which in reality appeared to be Phacellarias, usually parasitic on Loranthaceae. When trying to name these Phacellarias, he preceived how difficult it was to survey the literature of the genus.

  1. Conspectus of the genus Amyema Tieghem (Loranthaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, Bryan A.

    1992-01-01

    The Australasian/Malesian genus Amyema is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the species of the Malesian region, as a precursor to a treatment of Loranthaceae for Flora Malesiana. Amyema comprises 92 species, and is distributed from the southeast Asian mainland (Malaya, Thailand) throughout

  2. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Cylindrocladiella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Shivas, R.G.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Cylindrocladiella was established to accommodate Cylindrocladium-like fungi that have small, cylindrical conidia and aseptate stipe extensions. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and to a lesser extent on DNA sequence comparisons of the internal

  3. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (β-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-α), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  4. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (ß-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-a), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  5. Records of the genus Coccygidium Saussure (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccygidium arabica sp. nov., (Hym., Braconidae, Agathidinae) is described from Saudi Arabia. Morphological diagnostic characters of the new species were figured and compared with those of the related species Coccygidium angostura. The genus Coccygidium Saussure is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia.

  6. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  7. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  8. Thermoregulation of the subterranean rodent genus Bathyergus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermoregulation of the largest subterranean rodent, genus Bathyergus, comprising two species, B. suillus and B. janetta,occurring in mesic and semiarid habitats respectively, was investigated and compared with that of other subterranean rodents. Both species display low resting metabolic rates and low body ...

  9. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) The genus Psycharium Herrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Psycharium is revised for the first time. Until now, only a drawing of the female type species was known. The male and female of the type species, P. pellucens Herrich-Schaffer, and four new species, montanum, kammanassiense, bamardi and natalense,are comprehensively described. A key to the species of ...

  10. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough,.

  11. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melodinus is an important genus comprising of approximately 53 species of medicinal plants (Apocynaceae). Some species have been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of meningitis in children, rheumatic heart diseases, and diuresis, as well as a decongestive against migraine and sinusitis. This paper is a ...

  12. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  13. A study in the genus Vulpia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1937-01-01

    In conclusion, we propose the following nomenclatural alterations. For a good classification, the genus Vulpia is to be accepted as a member of the Festuceae. Various names of Vulpia are fixed according to our present rules of nomenclature, viz. V. bromoides (L.) GRAY, V. membranacea (L.) LINK, V.

  14. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...

  15. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other...

  16. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars

  17. Studies on the Genus Orbitolina (Foraminiferida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofker, J.

    1963-01-01

    The genus Orbitolina is described in detail and is shown to be represented by one species only: Orbitolina lenticularis (Blumenbach). This species can be subdivided into form-groups, based on the characteristics of the megalospheric embryonic apparatus. The evolution of the species is orthogenetic.

  18. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I,

  19. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  20. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  1. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

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    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  2. The Genus Diporochaeta (Oligochaeta Megascolecidae) in Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamieson, B.G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Perionychella is reassigned to Diporochaeta as a junior synonym. 9 new species are added to the 8 previously known Queensland species of Diporochaeta, all of which are redescribed, bringing the generic total for Australia to 77 named species. Distribution of the genus is disjunct, the Queensland

  3. On the genus Galidia and its species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1879-01-01

    In the year 1839 Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire ¹) described and figured three species of his new genus Galidia, viz: elegans, concolor and olivacea, all natives of Madagascar. It seems that Galidia olivacea has not been captured by the travellers who visited Madagascar after Bernier and Goudot: the only

  4. Skin mites in mice (Mus musculus): high prevalence of Myobia sp. (Acari, Arachnida) in Robertsonian mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Calvete, Oriol; Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Medarde, Nuria; Casellas, Joaquim; Altet, Laura; Sánchez, Armand; Francino, Olga; Ventura, Jacint

    2018-05-04

    Myobia sp. and Demodex sp. are two skin mites that infest mice, particularly immunodeficient or transgenic lab mice. In the present study, wild house mice from five localities from the Barcelona Roberstonian system were analysed in order to detect skin mites and compare their prevalence between standard (2n = 40) and Robertsonian mice (2n > 40). We found and identified skin mites through real-time qPCR by comparing sequences from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and the nuclear 18S rRNA genes since no sequences are available so far using the mitochondrial gene. Fourteen positive samples were identified as Myobia musculi except for a deletion of 296 bp out to 465 bp sequenced, and one sample was identified as Demodex canis. Sampling one body site, the mite prevalence in standard and Robertsonian mice was 0 and 26%, respectively. The malfunction of the immune system elicits an overgrowth of skin mites and consequently leads to diseases such as canine demodicosis in dogs or rosacea in humans. In immunosuppressed mice, the probability of developing demodicosis is higher than in healthy mice. Since six murine toll-like receptors (TLRs) are located in four chromosomes affected by Robertsonian fusions, we cannot dismiss that differences in mite prevalence could be the consequence of the interruption of TLR function. Although ecological and/or morphological factors cannot be disregarded to explain differences in mite prevalence, the detection of translocation breakpoints in TLR genes or the analysis of TLR gene expression are needed to elucidate how Robertsonian fusions affect the immune system in mice.

  5. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J A; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2010-11-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis is a predatory mite that in absence of vision relies on the detection of herbivore-induced plant odors to locate its prey, the two-spotted spider-mite Tetranychus urticae. This herbivorous prey is feeding on leaves of a wide variety of plant species in different families. The predatory mites respond to numerous structurally different compounds. However, typical spider-mite induced plant compounds do not attract more predatory mites than plant compounds not associated with prey. Because the mites are sensitive to many compounds, components of odor mixtures may affect each other's perception. Although the response to pure compounds has been well documented, little is known how interactions among compounds affect the response to odor mixtures. We assessed the relation between the mites' responses elicited by simple mixtures of two compounds and by the single components of these mixtures. The preference for the mixture was compared to predictions under three conceptual models, each based on one of the following assumptions: (1) the responses elicited by each of the individual components can be added to each other; (2) they can be averaged; or (3) one response overshadows the other. The observed response differed significantly from the response predicted under the additive response, average response, and overshadowing response model in 52, 36, and 32% of the experimental tests, respectively. Moreover, the behavioral responses elicited by individual compounds and their binary mixtures were determined as a function of the odor concentration. The relative contribution of each component to the behavioral response elicited by the mixture varied with the odor concentration, even though the ratio of both compounds in the mixture was kept constant. Our experiments revealed that compounds that elicited no response had an effect on the response elicited by binary mixtures that they were part of. The results are not consistent with the hypothesis that P

  6. Viral epidemiology of the adult Apis Mellifera infested by the Varroa destructor mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Sara; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-05-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has become one of the major worldwide threats for apiculture. Varroa destructor attacks the honey bee Apis mellifera weakening its host by sucking hemolymph. However, the damage to bee colonies is not strictly related to the parasitic action of the mite but it derives, above all, from its action as vector increasing the transmission of many viral diseases such as acute paralysis (ABPV) and deformed wing viruses (DWV), that are considered among the main causes of CCD (Colony Collapse Disorder). In this work we discuss an [Formula: see text] model that describes how the presence of the mite affects the epidemiology of these viruses on adult bees. The acronym [Formula: see text] means that the disease affects both populations. In fact it accounts for the bee and mite populations, that are each divided among the S (susceptible) and I (infected) states. We characterize the system behavior, establishing that ultimately either only healthy bees survive, or the disease becomes endemic and mites are wiped out. Another dangerous alternative is the Varroa invasion scenario with the extinction of healthy bees. The final possible configuration is the coexistence equilibrium in which honey bees share their infected hive with mites. The analysis is in line with some observed facts in natural honey bee colonies. Namely, these diseases are endemic. Further, if the mite population is present, necessarily the viral infection occurs. The findings of this study indicate that a low horizontal transmission rate of the virus among honey bees in beehives will help in protecting bee colonies from Varroa infestation and viral epidemics.

  7. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Andre R.; Arthur, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  8. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  9. Using an in vitro system for maintaining Varroa destructor mites on Apis mellifera hosts: Studies of mite longevity and feeding behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa destructor mites (Vd) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is a likely causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Much research has produced an arsenal of control agents against Vd, which have become resistant to many chemical...

  10. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  11. Vitamin A deficiency modifies response of predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Groeneveld, A.

    1986-01-01

    volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline betta-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the

  12. The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) follows extracts of trails left by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh

    2010-10-01

    As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.

  13. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seiter

    Full Text Available Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance.

  14. Comparative efficacy of house dust mite extermination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, G; Kniest, F M; Kort, H S; De Saint Georges Gridelet, D M; Van Bronswijk, J E

    1992-06-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of nine marketed products, i.e. Acardust, Acarosan (foam and powder), Actelic 50, Artilin 3A (spirit and water base), liquid nitrogen, Paragerm AK, and Tymasil, and of intensive vacuum-cleaning have been compared on four different test surfaces: mattress, tufted carpet, gypsum board and rough wooden board, all covered with artificial house dust. They were inoculated with the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus or the house-dust fungus Aspergillus repens for evaluation of the fungistatic claims of some products. The acaricidal activity of Tymasil did not surpass that of vacuuming; its fungistatic effect was not apparent. The other products showed complete to almost complete eradication on at least one of the substrates tested. Taking into account the results of acaricidal efficacy as well as the data on safety and practicality acquired earlier, Acarosan powder was considered first choice for carpet treatment. Acarosan and liquid nitrogen, were found to be effective in the treatment of mattress, pillow, upholstered furniture and heavy curtains. On wooden surfaces Acarosan was found to be both effective and safe, while Acardust, Actelic 50, Artilin 3A (both fungistatic as well as acaricidal), liquid nitrogen and Paragerm also passed the efficiency test.

  15. Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Lepp, Natalia; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

  16. Lack of Association Between Dust Mite Sensitivity and Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan Ian; Hanifin, Jon M; Law, Sandra; White, Kevin; Storrs, Frances J

    2016-01-01

    Dust mites (DMs) play a role in type I respiratory allergy. Studies relating to DM irritant versus immune reactions are somewhat conflicting in atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic use of patch testing to DM in patients with AD and other dermatitides. We performed a prospective study of 323 adults recruited in a patch testing clinic. Patch testing antigens were DM extract (0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 20% in petrolatum; Chemotechnique) and/or 200 index of reactivity in petrolatum (Stallergenes). Patches were placed and read at 48 hours with delayed readings after 72 to 168 hours. There was no association of DM positivity with AD, asthma, hay fever, or demographic factors. There was no association of DM positivity with the clinical diagnosis or phenotype. The number of positive (+, ++, and +++) and doubtful reactions to Chemotechnique DM extract increased with higher concentrations. Positive reactions to DM had a morphological appearance characterized by numerous discrete erythematous papules and, rarely, papulovesicles. Positive reactions to Stallergenes DM 200 IR were infrequent and all weak reactions, similar to DM 0.01%. Patch testing to DM does not seem to have clinical use for determining the etiology of dermatitis.

  17. EL TRASTORNO LÍMITE DE LA PERSONALIDAD: CONTROVERSIAS ACTUALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente E. Caballo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de personalidad representan hoy día una de las áreas de mayor desafío para la psicología científica. Aunque los principales sistemas de clasificación de la psicopatología (DSM-IV y CIE-10 les dedican un considerable espacio, son, quizás, unos de los grupos de síndromes más desconocidos a todos los niveles: epidemiología, etiología, evaluación, tratamiento, etc. En el breve trabajo que aquí presentamos intentamos describir brevemente diversos aspectos de uno de los trastornos de personalidad más representativos actualmente: el trastorno límite de la personalidad (TLP. A pesar de que este síndrome comparte con el resto de los trastornos de personalidad una escasez de conocimiento, es, probablemente, uno de los más investigados y sobre el que se han desarrollado una variedad de terapias cognitivo-conductuales. A lo largo de este trabajo planteamos también algunas de las controversias actuales más candentes y resaltamos la necesidad de una mayor y más sistematizada investigación sobre el TLP.

  18. Oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis (Acari: Parasitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Tomasz; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Sławomir

    2013-07-01

    We observed the oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis Berlese (Acari: Parasitidae) using continuous video-monitoring. Oviposition consisted of six sequential phases. The first phase (I) involved inspection of the substrate. In the second phase (II) there were rhythmic movements of the first pair of legs and slight reciprocating movements of the body. The third (III) was a resting phase. In the fourth phase (IV) the gnathosoma was lowered and the body was raised. In the next phase (V) there were two sub-phases. During the first (Va), the female held the egg below the gnathosoma. In the second sub-phase (Vb), the gnathosoma moved up holding the egg, which was then placed on the substrate. The last phase (VI) involved intense 'cleaning' movements of the chelicerae and palps. During Va a protective external eggshell structure is gradually formed, involving a phase where the egg shell is sticky. After moving the egg to the substrate, the female freed her palps and chelicerae from the sticky egg shell and cleaned her gnathosomal appendages. Phases II-V took on average 207 ± 69 s.

  19. mites de la tecnología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El desarrollo tecnológico presenta una dimensión social y cultural que trasciende su faceta económica, de modo que debería estar limitado, controlado y dirigido de alguna manera. Al reflexionar aquí sobre las bases teóricas de la política tecnológica, el primer punto de apoyo es la diferencia conceptual entre ciencia y tecnología. A este respecto, la tecnología, en mayor medida que la ciencia, está siempre bajo el influjo de valores sociales, y es preciso pensar los procedimientos de decisión que permitan a los ciudadanos participar en la valoración y control del cambio tecnológico. Para tratar estos límites de la tecnología, conviene resaltar que el progreso tecnológico debería basarse en la verdad científica objetiva acerca de las propiedades fácticas y las capacidades de los instrumentos así como en los valores éticos humanísticos que conciernen a los objetivos deseables y a las funciones de los instrumentos. De esta forma, la tecnología debería ser capaz de satisfacer su importante promesa de aumentar la libertad humana positiva.

  20. Levels of house dust mite allergen in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.

  1. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  2. The phyletic status of the genus Planaria (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.; Gourbault, Nicole

    1978-01-01

    The amphiatlantic distribution of the genus Planaria is incompatible with our current hypothesis of the historical biogeography of freshwater planarians. New anatomical studies suggest the possibility that the genus is not strictly monophyletic; new karyological data are strongly corroborative of

  3. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  4. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  5. Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first

  6. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  7. Litomosoides yutajensis n. sp., first record of this filarial genus in a mormoopid bat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero R.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five bats were trapped in Yutaje (Amazonas, Venezuela and examined for Litomosoides (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae. Of the nine recovered bat species, only Pteronotus parnelli was infected; it is a cave-dwelling species belonging to a family, Mormoopidae, which has not previously been included in the host range of the genus. The new species, L. yutajensis n. sp., has two median cephalic bosses covered with rugosities and differs from the 15 recognized species and subspecies from bats in several characters. Alike L. molossi Esslinger, 1973, L. chandleri Esslinger, 1973 and L. chitwoodi Bain, Guerrero, Rodriguez 2003 , the new species has cuticular lateral bosses on the body. Eight of 10 P. parnelli were microfilaraemic, but only three had adult worms, showing that microfilariae survive longer than adults, which could lengthen the period of transmission. No infective larvae were detected in the following macronyssid mites: 58 Ornithonyssus bacoti, Ornithonyssinae, experimentally fed on microfilaraemic bats and dissected 15 days later, and a few Radfordiella sp., Macronyssinae, recovered from P. parnelli.

  8. Marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from Taiwan, Korea and India, with the first description of the male of Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Chan, B.K.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    he hitherto unknown male of the marine water mite Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) is described and recorded from Taiwan for the first time. Another marine water mite, Litarachna denhami (Lohmann, 1909...

  9. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  10. Mite fauna and fungal flora in house dust from homes of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A; Takaoka, M; Ichinoe, M; Kabasawa, Y; Ouchi, T

    1979-12-01

    Mite fauna and fungal flora in the house dust from homes of asthmatic children with positive and negative skin test to house dust allergen and non-asthmatic controls were examined. There was no conspicuous difference in mite species distribution among the three groups. Pyroglyphid mites dominate the mite fauna in house dust more than half of which being Dermatophagoides: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. There was no statistically significant difference in numbers between the two species and either species could dominate depending on the conditions of the individual houses. The average number of acarina in 0.5 g of fine dust did not differ statistically among the three groups; however, mite number per square meter floor differed between patients with positive skin test and negative skin test. The results suggest that house-cleaning might influence the possible sensitization of children. The genetic distribution of mould fungi in house dust was largely similar to that of airborne fungi. The average number of fungal colonies detected in 0.5 g of dust did not differ statistically among the three groups. Wallemia with its minute spores may cause sensitization but has so far been insufficiently investigated.

  11. The role of methyl salicylate in prey searching behavior of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Jetske G; Dicke, Marcel

    2004-02-01

    Many carnivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. These plant volatiles are blends of up to hundreds of compounds. It is often unknown which compounds in such a complex volatile blend represent the signal to the foraging carnivore. We studied the role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) as part of the volatile blend in the foraging behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis by using a Y-tube olfactometer. MeSA is one of the compounds released by lima bean, infested with Tetranychus urticae--a prey species of the predatory mite. MeSA attracted satiated predatory mites in a dose-dependent way with optimum attraction at a dose of 0.2 microg. Predatory mites did not discriminate between a prey-induced lima bean volatile blend (that contains MeSA) and a prey-induced volatile blend to which an extra amount of synthetic MeSA had been added. However, they preferred a MeSA-containing volatile blend (induced by T. urticae) to an otherwise similar but MeSA-free blend (induced by jasmonic acid). Adding synthetic MeSA to the MeSA-free blend significantly increased the mites' choice for this odor, suggesting an important role for MeSA. This study is a new step toward unraveling the role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in the foraging behavior of predatory arthropods.

  12. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  13. A lost world disease: Copra itch outbreak caused by Tyrophagus longior mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakit Sarathep

    Full Text Available An outbreak investigation of copra itch revealed a cluster of six suspected cases with skin dermatitis, with 11–32 years of age, belonging to a single family, between June and July 2016 in Phang Nga province, Southern Thailand. Epidemiologic investigation of these suspected cases revealed five probable cases developing multiple discrete erythematous papules with intense pruritus on the body rather than the extremities and one confirmed case whose skin was infested with domestic mite, Tyrophagus longior (Gervais (Ascari: Ascaridae. This mite was also found in unused coir mattresses outside their bedrooms. Household infestation with T. longior mites rendered these family members to become more susceptible to expose indoor biting of T. longior adult mites that were adapted well to the domestic environments with poor hygienic conditions. Human exposure to mite bites was more likely to be a direct contact than an indirect contact. Findings from this copra itch outbreak investigation provided understanding of natural disease of copra itch and factors that favored the outbreak, and could guide diagnosis for physicians, surveillance and response for surveillance and rapid response teams (SRRTs, and prevention and control for entomologists and public health personnel. Keywords: Copra itch, Tyrophagus longior, Erythematous papules, Domestic environments

  14. Control of Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor on Honeybees by Aromatic Oils and Plant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Nazer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of several volatile plant oils, plant materials and fluvalinate (Apistan® strips on the control of the mite Varroa destructor on honeybee (Apis mellifera L. colonies was studied. The volatile oils were: clove, lavender, peppermint, sage, and thyme. The plant materials were: cumin fruits, eucalyptus leaves, and worm wood flowers. For each tested material, three treatment periods were carried out. Each period lasted for 24 days followed by eight days no-treatment. Within each treatment period, an average of three to six treatments were applied. Dead mites were counted one hour before and after each treatment. An increase in dead mites was recorded for the three treatment periods. It indicated that worm wood flowers, peppermint oil and clove oil treatments gave the best results in the control of Varroa mites but not significantly different than the control. The overall increase in the dead mites was 3.92, 3.62 and 3.34 fold, respectively.

  15. Species diversity of phytoseiid mites on different ecosystems in Sari district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Omidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mites of the Phytoseiidae family have been extensively studied as biological control agents of different mites and insect pests. Some species also feed on nematodes, fungal spores, pollen and exudates from plants and insects. About 2,300 phytoseiid species belonging to 90 genera have been described in this family (Chant and McMurtry 2007. Considerable efforts have been made in recent years to the collection and identification of the predaceous phytoseiid mites in Iran (Rahmani et al. 2010. Despite some studies on phytoseiid mites in Iran, our knowledge remains limited about their fauna and diversity in Mazandaran province. The data of these studies showed that until recently, only 75 species were reported from Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate the species diversity of Phytoseiidae and access to effective predatory mites for biological control of injurious mite pests in Sari, the center of Mazandaran province (Southern coast of the Caspian Sea, 35 ° 47'-36 ° 35' N, 50 ° 34'-54 ° 10' E Materials and methods Samples were taken from 80 plant species belonging to 46 plant families including forest trees, orchards and farm crops representing three types of ecosystems from September 2011 to October 2012. Harvested samples of each plant were separately collected in plastic bags and labeled with region and date of collection. The bags were transported to the laboratory on the same day and stored in a refrigerator at about 4°C for up to a week, until the materials washed for mite extraction. Samples were composed of leaves, stems and shoots of different ages and the number of leaves per sample varied between plant species. In order to assimilate the samples, a volume nearly equal mass of each sample were put in a two-liter water container. The mites were floated on water by adding 1.5 liters of tap water and a few droplets of detergent. The plant leaves and shoots were shaken for several times until the mites fall from

  16. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume...

  17. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joergen Ellegard; Penner, Robert C.; Reidys, Christian

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  18. A Comprehensive review on the genus Plumbago with focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The genus Plumbago distributed in warm tropical regions throughout the world is the largest genus in Plumbaginaceae. Medicinal plants are characteristic to the genus Plumbago and are cultivated and utilized worldwide. Plumbago auriculata Lam. is common in South Africa and is often cultivated for its ...

  19. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  20. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from

  1. Electron microscopic study of developmental stages of Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Gamasoidea:Phytoseiidae) mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutáková, G

    1988-01-01

    Rickettsiella phytoseiuli was found in great amounts in all tissues except of the nervous system of adult Phytoseiulus persimilis mites. Six morphologically different stages (dense, intermediate, bacterial, giant, crystal-forming and small dark particles) of R. phytoseiuli were detected. No rickettsiae were seen in the larvae and in phase 1 and 2 nymphae of these mites.

  2. The crystal structure of recombinant proDer p 1, a major house dust mite proteolytic allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre; Thorsted, Peter B; Ipsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Allergy to house dust mite is among the most prevalent allergic diseases worldwide. Most house dust mite allergic patients react to Der p 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which is a cysteine protease. To avoid heterogeneity in the sample used for crystallization, a modified recombinant...

  3. House dust mite allergen reduction and allergy at 4 yr : Follow up of the PIAMA-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corver, K; Kerkhof, M; Brussee, JE; Brunekreef, B; van Strien, RT; Vos, AP; Smit, HA; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; de Jongste, JC

    Exposure to high allergen levels in early life is a risk factor for the development of allergy. We previously reported limited effects of mite allergen impermeable mattress covers in the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy (PIAMA) cohort at the age of 1 and 2 yr. We now present the

  4. Immunogene and viral transcript dynamics during parasitic Varroa destructor mite infection of developing honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Ryan D; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-05-15

    The ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite is a major contributor to the ongoing honey bee health crisis. Varroa interacts with honey bee viruses, exacerbating their pathogenicity. In addition to vectoring viruses, immunosuppression of the developing honey bee hosts by Varroa has been proposed to explain the synergy between viruses and mites. However, the evidence for honey bee immune suppression by V. destructor is contentious. We systematically studied the quantitative effects of experimentally introduced V. destructor mites on immune gene expression at five specific time points during the development of the honey bee hosts. Mites reproduced normally and were associated with increased titers of deformed wing virus in the developing bees. Our data on different immune genes show little evidence for immunosuppression of honey bees by V. destructor. Experimental wounding of developing bees increases relative immune gene expression and deformed wing virus titers. Combined, these results suggest that mite feeding activity itself and not immunosuppression may contribute to the synergy between viruses and mites. However, our results also suggest that increased expression of honey bee immune genes decreases mite reproductive success, which may be explored to enhance mite control strategies. Finally, our expression data for multiple immune genes across developmental time and different experimental treatments indicates co-regulation of several of these genes and thus improves our understanding of the understudied honey bee immune system. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  6. [Investigation on Cheyletoidea mites breeding in culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and morphologic observation of Eucheyletia reticulate Cunliffe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Tao; Wei, Guo; Shao-Sheng, Wang; Chao-Pin, Li

    2016-01-27

    To investigate the species of Cheyletoidea mites breeding in the culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and to observe the morphology of Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe. The soil samples from an E. sinensis farm in northern Anhui were collected. The mites in the soil samples were separated directly under a microscope and the glass specimens were made to observe the morphological feature of the mites under a light microscope, then the mites species were identified and classified based on the morphological characteristics. In the culture soil of E. sinensis , totally 7 kinds of Cheyletoidea mites were isolated, namely Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe, Cheyletus eruditus Schrank, Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans, Cheyletus troussarti Oudemans, Cheyletus aveisor Rohdendorz, Acaropsis sollers Rohdendorz and Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum Shaw. They belonged to genera Eucheyletia , Cheletomorpha , Acaropsis and Cheyletus of Cheyletidae Leach family. The Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe was firstly found in the culture environment of E. sinensis , and its gnathosoma was large, the pedipalpal femurs were expanding and there were two strips of comb hair and two smooth bristles on the pedipalpal tarsus, and the back of the body was covered with two pieces of tergum, which were decorated with reticular pattern. The body and foot setae were fan-shape. There are various of Cheyletoidea mites found in the breeding environment of E. sinensis . These mites are important species for pest control in the culture environments of E. sinensis . Related measures should be taken to prevent the excessive growth of Cheyletoidea mites, so as to avoid the adverse effects on the quality and quantity of E. sinensis .

  7. Challenges in devising economic spray thresholds for a major pest of Australian canola, the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Aston L; Hoffmann, Ary A; Umina, Paul A

    2015-10-01

    A key component for spray decision-making in IPM programmes is the establishment of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs). We aimed to establish an EIL for the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) on canola. Complex interactions between mite numbers, feeding damage and plant recovery were found, highlighting the challenges in linking H. destructor numbers to yield. A guide of 10 mites plant(-1) was established at the first-true-leaf stage; however, simple relationships were not evident at other crop development stages, making it difficult to establish reliable EILs based on mite number. Yield was, however, strongly associated with plant damage and plant densities, reflecting the impact of mite feeding damage and indicating a plant-based alternative for establishing thresholds for H. destructor. Drawing on data from multiple field trials, we show that plant densities below 30-40 plants m(-2) could be used as a proxy for mite damage when reliable estimates of mite densities are not possible. This plant-based threshold provides a practical tool that avoids the difficulties of accurately estimating mite densities. The approach may be applicable to other situations where production conditions are unpredictable and interactions between pests and plant hosts are complex. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  9. Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of

  10. High Humidity in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Brood Nest Limits Reproduction of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, B.; Velthuis, H.H.W.

    1997-01-01

    Factors influencing reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni have become a central theme of honey bee pathology. In large parts of the world the mite has made it impossible for colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera to survive if no measures of treatment are applied [1].

  11. Top layer enhances biological ontrol of thrips in ornamentals :"Predatory mites survive better on rich soil cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, van K.; Grosman, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    An organic top layer over the soil or substrate can enhance the biological control of thrips in roses and alstroemerias. The top layer contains food for prey mites, which in turn serve as food for predatory mites. In this way the predators survive longer. Thus, as the thrips population increases, an

  12. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzo, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Hanna, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus

  13. The response of Phytoseiulus persimilis to spider mite-induced volatiles from gerbera: influence of starvation and experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krips, O.E.; Willems, P.E.I.; Gols, R.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    1999-01-01

    When leaves of the ornamental crop Gerbera jamesonii are damaged by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, they produce many volatile compounds in large quantities. Undamaged gerbera leaves produce only a few volatiles in very small quantities. In the headspace of spider mite-damaged gerbera leaves

  14. A holomorphic anomaly in the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) in two dimensions that flow to non-compact (2,2) superconformal field theories in the infra-red, a prototype of which is the SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) (cigar) coset. We compute the elliptic genus of the GLSMs as a path-integral on the torus using supersymmetric localization. We find that the result is a Jacobi-like form that is non-holomorphic in the modular parameter τ of the torus, with mock modular behavior. This agrees with a previously-computed expression in the cigar coset. We show that the lack of holomorphicity of the elliptic genus arises from the contributions of a compact boson carrying momentum and winding excitations. This boson has an axionic shift symmetry and plays the role of a compensator field that is needed to cancel the chiral anomaly in the rest of the theory.

  15. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Serrato-Diaz, L M; Cheewangkoon, R; French-Monar, R D; Decock, C; Crous, P W

    2014-06-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) and morphological comparisons, the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocephalotrichum was re-evaluated. As a result five species are newly described, namely G. humicola (Taiwan, soil), G. mexicanum (rambutan fruit from Mexico), G. nephelii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala), G. queenslandicum (Australia, endophytic isolations) and G. simmonsii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala). Although species of Gliocephalotrichum are generally not regarded as important plant pathogens, their ability to cause post-harvest fruit rot could have an impact on fruit export and storage.

  16. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  17. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Russian and unselected honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) stock as related to numbers of foragers with mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa mites are an external parasite of honey bees and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. RHB and other mite resistant stock limit Varroa population growth...

  18. Population growth rate of dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Keifer) (Acariformes: Eriophyidae) on agriculturally important plants and implications on taxonomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bulb mite (DBM), Aceria tulipae, is an economically important mite with a worldwide distribution and a broad host range. As a generalist, it is the most important eriophyoid mite attacking bulbous plants such as garlic, onion, and tulip. To date, DBM has been recorded on host plants belonging to...

  19. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary causes and proximate (mechanistic correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life, whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our

  20. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  1. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24–33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  2. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro da Rosa Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < 0.05 total and effective reproduction of Varroa than colonies producing royal jelly. There was a negative correlation between levels of invasion and infestation with minimum external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The variables month and season influenced the development of the mite, but rates were low and within the range normally found in Brazil for Africanized honeybee colonies, which confirm the greater resistance of these honeybees to Varroa destructor than European honeybees.

  3. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; Wadman, Wytse J; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a peripheral olfactory system that consists of just five putative olfactory sensilla that reside in a dorsal field at the tip of their first pair of legs. The receptor cells innervate a glomerular olfactory lobe just ventral of the first pedal ganglion. We have made a 3D reconstruction of the caudal half of the olfactory lobe in adult females. The glomerular organization as well as the glomerular innervation appears conserved across different individuals. The adult females have, by approximation, a 1:1 ratio of olfactory receptor cells to olfactory glomeruli.

  4. Trophic Interactions between Generalist Predators and the Two Spotted Spide Mite, Tetranychus urticae in, Strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer

    The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a major cause of pest damage worldwide. Its host range includes among many the strawberry crop, a high value crop in Denmark as well as in many other temperate and subtropical regions. Chemical control of T. urticae...... occurrence and diversity of predatory insects and predatory mites in Danish strawberry fields and surrounding vegetation is lacking, as is the knowledge of the potential of generalist insect predators to control T. urticae. The overall objective of this PhD thesis was to investigate the trophic interactions...... between natural enemies, in particular generalist predators and the two spotted spider mite, T. urticae, in strawberry. This was done by investigating interactions of T. urticae and its natural enemies as influenced by cropping practice and the surrounding vegetation (Manuscript I) as well as more...

  5. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  6. Infestation and distribution of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies of africanized bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moretto

    Full Text Available Whereas in several parts of the world varroa is the major pest affecting apiculture, in others the parasite is unknown to many beekeepers because its damage to bees is minor. The impact of the mite Varroa destructor is related to the climatic conditions and the races of Apis mellifera bees in each region where the pest exists. In the present study, the current level of infestation by the mite was assessed to determine the evolution of the pest in Africanized bee colonies in Southern Brazil. This level of infestation was considered low: approximately two mites per one hundred adult bees. This result is similar to that obtained for the same apiary almost five years ago and for others distributed in various regions of Brazil. In the present study, we also estimated the total varroa population and its distribution among brood and adults in each bee colony.

  7. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Gwénaëlle Bontonou; Claude Wicker-Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular...

  8. The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King's American Dispensatory, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  9. Wild translation surfaces and infinite genus

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The Gauss-Bonnet formula for classical translation surfaces relates the cone angle of the singularities (geometry) to the genus of the surface (topology). When considering more general translation surfaces, we observe so-called wild singularities for which the notion of cone angle is not applicable any more. In this article, we study whether there still exist relations between the geometry and the topology for translation surfaces with wild singularities. By considering short saddle connectio...

  10. The pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2017-07-01

    The pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species is presented; some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  13. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

  14. Analysis of basophil activation by flow cytometry in pediatric house dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Miguel; Villota, Julian; Moneo, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Detection of allergen-induced basophil activation by flow cytometry has been shown to be a useful tool for allergy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of this technique for the diagnosis of pediatric house dust mite allergy. Quantification of total and specific IgE and basophil activation test were performed to evaluate mite allergic (n = 24), atopic (n = 23), and non-allergic children (n = 9). Allergen-induced basophil activation was detected as a CD63-upregulation. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal cut-off value of activated basophils discriminating mite allergic and non-allergic children. ROC curve analysis yielded a threshold value of 18% activated basophils when mite-sensitized and atopic children were studied [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97-1.01, p 43 kU/l) values for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen. They also showed positive prick (wheal diameter >1.0 cm) and basophil activation (>87%) tests and high specific IgE (>100 kU/l) with shrimp allergen. Shrimp sensitization was demonstrated by high levels of Pen a 1-specific IgE (>100 kU/l). Cross-reactivity between mite and shrimp was confirmed by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA-CAP) inhibition study in these two cases. This study demonstrated that the analysis of allergen-induced CD63 upregulation by flow cytometry is a reliable tool for diagnosis of mite allergy in pediatric patients, with sensitivity similar to routine diagnostic tests and a higher specificity. Furthermore, this method can provide additional information in case of disagreement between in vivo and in vitro test results.

  15. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-01-01

    commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses....... In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH...

  16. mites de esbeltez en soportes de hormigón armado

    OpenAIRE

    Río, O.; Morán, F.

    1987-01-01

    Se presenta una propuesta racional de límites de esbeltez para soportes de hormigón armado, que tiene en cuenta los principales parámetros conocidos en el dimensionamiento: el esfuerzo axil, la excentricidad relativa y la relación de excentricidades en los extremos del soporte. En función de estos parámetros se define la esbeltez límite equivalente X^, que permite calibrar la importancia de los efectos de segundo orden.

  17. Fundamento y límites de la potestad sancionadora administrativa en materia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Soto,Jorge

    2013-01-01

    El ejercicio de la potestad sancionadora de la Administración del Estado en el ámbito ambiental es manifestación de la importancia que la protección del medio ambiente ha adquirido en la sociedad y de la asunción de la misma como función pública. El ejercicio de este poder se encuentra limitado tanto por los principios generales aplicables, pero además se somete a límites específicos al ámbito ambiental. Dichos límites pueden ser categorizados en tres clases: orgánicos, procedimentales y sust...

  18. Small-cell comb does not control Varroa mites in colonies of honeybees of European origin

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley , Thomas; Griffin , Sean

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We tested the idea that Varroa destructor can be controlled in colonies of the European subspecies of Apis mellifera by providing them with combs built of small cells, in which immature mites might have difficulty developing for lack of space. We established seven pairs of equal-size colonies that started out equally infested with mites. In each pair, one hive contained only standard-cell (5.4 mm) comb, and the other contained only small-cell (4.8 mm) comb. We measured...

  19. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  20. Maternal house dust mite exposure during pregnancy enhances severity of house dust mite-induced asthma in murine offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Phoebe K; Yamani, Amnah; Chougnet, Claire A; Lewkowich, Ian P

    2017-11-01

    Atopic status of the mother and maternal exposure to environmental factors are associated with increased asthma risk. Moreover, animal models demonstrate that exposure to allergens in strongly sensitized mothers influences offspring asthma development, suggesting that in utero exposures can influence offspring asthma. However, it is unclear whether maternal exposure to common human allergens such as house dust mite (HDM), in the absence of additional adjuvants, influences offspring asthma development. We sought to determine whether maternal HDM exposure influences asthma development in offspring. Pregnant female mice were exposed to PBS or HDM during pregnancy. Using offspring of PBS- or HDM-exposed mothers, the magnitude of HDM or Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) extract-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, immunoglobulin production, T H 2-associated cytokine synthesis, and pulmonary dendritic cell activity was assessed. Compared with offspring of PBS-exposed mothers, offspring of HDM-exposed mothers demonstrate increased AHR, airway inflammation, T H 2 cytokine production, and immunoglobulin levels and a modest decrease in the phagocytic capacity of pulmonary macrophage populations following HDM exposure. Increased sensitivity to AF-induced airway disease was not observed. Offspring of HDM-exposed B-cell-deficient mothers also demonstrated increased HDM-induced AHR, suggesting that transfer of maternal immunoglobulins is not required. Our data demonstrate that maternal exposure to HDM during pregnancy increases asthma sensitivity in offspring in an HDM-specific manner, suggesting that vertical transmission of maternal immune responses may be involved. These findings have important implications for regulation of asthma risk, and suggest that exposure to HDM in the developed world may have underappreciated influences on the overall prevalence of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  1. From repulsion to attraction: species- and spatial context-dependent threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ferrari, M. Celeste; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may depend on the predator species and the spatial context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two spatial contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant.

  2. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  3. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  4. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-06-18

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females.

  5. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax speci...

  6. The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollman Philip

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic material of the genus Bryoerythrophyllum P. C. Chen was studied from all specimens present in KRAM. Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw. P. C. Chen var. antarcticum L. I. Savicz & Smirnova is treated as a distinct species: B. antarcticum (L. I. Savicz & Smirnova P. Sollman, stat. nov. Three species are now known in the Antarctic region: B. antarcticum, B. recurvirostrum and B. rubrum (Jur. ex Geh. P. C. Chen. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum is reported for the first time from the Antarctic. It is a bipolar species. A key to the taxa is given. These species are described and briefly discussed, with notes on illustrations, reproduction, habitat, world range, distribution and elevation in Antarctica.

  7. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codesido, Santiago [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gu, Jie [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University,Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 75005 Paris (France); Mariño, Marcos [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-17

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub 6} orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  8. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  9. CHECKLIST OF THE ERIOPHYOID MITE FAUNA OF MONTENEGRO (ACARI: PROSTIGMATA: ERIOPHYOIDEA

    OpenAIRE

    Jočić, Ivona; Petanović, Radmila

    2012-01-01

    Accounts are given of the eriophyoid fauna of Montenegro. Based on the literature records, a total of 156 mite species are listed from 130 host species of 42 plant families. The families Phytoptidae, Eriophidae and Diptilomiopidae are represented by 6, 138 and 12 species, respectively. Fifteen new species for science have been described from this area.

  10. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3889, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-57 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Cameroon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  11. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2014), s. 320-327 ISSN 0164-7954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * ptyctimous mites * taxonomy * descriptions * tritonymph Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2014

  12. ``Sleeping with the enemy''—predator-induced diapause in a mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Annemarie; Veenendaal, René L.; Bruin, Jan; Egas, Martijn; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2008-12-01

    Diapause in arthropods is a physiological state of dormancy that is generally thought to promote survival during harsh seasons and dispersal, but it may also serve to avoid predation in space and time. Here, we show that predation-related odours induce diapause in female adult spider mites. We argue that this response allows them to move into an area where they are free of enemies, yet forced to survive without food. Spider mites are specialised leaf feeders, but—in late summer—they experience severe predation on leaves. Hence, they face a dilemma: to stay on the leaf and risk being eaten or to move away from the leaf and risk death from starvation and thirst. Female two-spotted spider mites solve this dilemma by dramatically changing their physiology when exposed to predation-associated cues. This allows them to disperse away from leaves and to survive in winter refuges in the bark of trees or in the soil. We conclude that the mere presence of predation-associated cues causes some herbivorous mites to seek refuge, thereby retarding the growth rate of the population as a whole: a trait-mediated indirect effect that may have consequences for the stability of predator prey systems and for ecosystem structure.

  13. Leaf domatia do not affect population dynamics of the predatory mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.M.; Pallini, A.; Oliveira, C.L.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of plants of several families possess small cavities or tufts of hair where leaf veins bifurcate. These so-called acarodomatia are usually inhabited by predatory and fungivorous mites, which utilize domatia as shelter against adverse conditions or against other predators and cannibals. Plants

  14. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  15. Prevalence of Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus species of mites in poultry farms of Vikarabad area of Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa Murthy, G S; Panda, Rasmita

    2016-12-01

    The common blood feeder mites of poultry are from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus . Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production or sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on workers. They also cause anaemia in birds and play a vector role for several human and animal diseases. Five poultry farm buildings of Vikarabad area of Rangareddy district were visited. Samples were collected from a variety of sites, including beneath feed troughs, inside cage fittings and fastening clips, under egg conveyer belts and under manure belts. Heavily mite infested feathers were plucked from three to five individual birds and kept in closed plastic covers. Samples were processed and mounted permanently by using DPX and species differentiation was done. Besides this litter materials and soil samples from the farm were also collected. Massive mixed infestations of Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus mites were found. The morphological characters provided here can be considered as a practical tool for species differentiation and as these blood feeder mites were most prevalent and important pests of poultry, public health aspects of these parasites should be considered.

  16. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4103, č. 6 (2016), s. 587-599 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * ptyctimous mites * new species * morphology * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  17. Demodex injai: a new species of hair follicle mite (Acari: Demodecidae) from the domestic dog (Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Clifford E; Hillier, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Demondex injai sp. nov. is described from the hair follicles of a domestic dog in Columbus, OH in October 1996. The mites occupy follicles from the orifice down to and into the sebaceous glands. The individual host may harbor both this new species and D. canis. A comparison of these two species is provided for identification purposes.

  18. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four aqueous plant extracts (APEs) of Acorus calamus (L), Xanthium strumarium (L), Polygonum hydropiper (L) and Clerodendron infortunatum (Gaertn) were evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/v) concentrations against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner). Also, the ...

  19. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis adjusts patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanas, V; Enigl, M; Walzer, A; Schausberger, P

    2006-01-01

    Integration of optimal foraging and optimal oviposition theories suggests that predator females should adjust patch leaving to own and progeny prey needs to maximize current and future reproductive success. We tested this hypothesis in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and its patchily distributed prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. In three separate experiments we assessed (1) the minimum number of prey needed to complete juvenile development, (2) the minimum number of prey needed to produce an egg, and (3) the ratio between eggs laid and spider mites left when a gravid P. persimilis female leaves a patch. Experiments (1) and (2) were the pre-requirements to assess the fitness costs associated with staying or leaving a prey patch. Immature P. persimilis needed at least 7 and on average 14+/-3.6 (SD) T. urticae eggs to reach adulthood. Gravid females needed at least 5 and on average 8.5+/-3.1 (SD) T. urticae eggs to produce an egg. Most females left the initial patch before spider mite extinction, leaving prey for progeny to develop to adulthood. Females placed in a low density patch left 5.6+/-6.1 (SD) eggs per egg laid, whereas those placed in a high density patch left 15.8+/-13.7 (SD) eggs per egg laid. The three experiments in concert suggest that gravid P. persimilis females are able to balance the trade off between optimal foraging and optimal oviposition and adjust patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

  20. Innate responses of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to a herbivore-induced plant volatile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznajder, B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2011-01-01

    The responses of the predatory mite P. persimilis to herbivore-induced plant volatiles are at least partly genetically determined. Thus, there is potential for the evolution of this behaviour by natural selection. We tested whether distinct predator genotypes with contrasting responses to a specific