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Sample records for mesopelagic shrimp sergestes

  1. Global diversity and phylogeny of pelagic shrimps of the former genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with definition of eight new genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jørgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

    2014-01-01

    , Phorcosergia, Prehensilosergia, Robustosergia, Scintillosergia, Challengerosergia, and Lucensosergia) and seven genera of the former genus Sergestes (Sergestes, Deosergestes, Eusergestes, Allosergestes, Parasergestes, Neosergestes, and a new genus Cornutosergestes). An identification key is presented for all...... genera of the family Sergestidae. The phylogeny of Sergestidae is mainly based on three categories of characters related to: (1) general decapod morphology, (2) male copulatory organs, and (3) photophores. Only simultaneous use of all three character types resulted in a resolved tree with minimal...

  2. Distribution of decapod larvae in the surface layer of an isolated equatorial oceanic archipelago: the cases of benthic Grapsus grapsus (Brachyura: Grapsidae) and pelagic Sergestes edwardsi (Dendrobranchiata: Sergestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Manoela Costa; Koettker, Andréa Green; Freire, Andrea Santarosa

    2013-03-01

    Two different decapod larval assemblages inhabit the marine environment of Saint Paul's Rocks, differentiating the inlet from the surrounding oceanic waters. Larvae of the crab Grapsus grapsus and of the holopelagic shrimp Sergestes edwardsi are abundant in superficial waters of the archipelago and have previously been shown to be good indicators of the inlet and adjacent oceanic waters, respectively. We investigated the horizontal, diel and temporal distribution of these species at Saint Paul's Rocks. Horizontal surface hauls were conducted from 2003 to 2005, in the inlet and at four increasing distances from the archipelago, in the morning and at night, using a 200-μm mesh net. Larvae of G. grapsus were identified in samples from all expeditions and abundance was found significantly higher at night in the inlet site. Only larvae in the first zoeal stage were found in samples, highlighting the importance of the area for this species reproduction. On the contrary, the distribution of larvae of S. edwardsi was typical of a holopelagic species, which are permanent residents of the water column and spawn in oceanic areas, indicating that the islands are of little influence to them.

  3. Global biogeochemical provinces of the mesopelagic zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Guidi, Lionel; Beaugrand, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Following the biogeographical approach implemented by Longhurst for the epipelagic layer, we propose here to identify a biogeochemical 3-D partition for the mesopelagic layer. The resulting partition characterizes the main deep environmental biotopes and their vertical boundaries on a global...... scale, which can be used as a geographical and ecological framework for conservation biology, ecosystem-based management and for the design of oceanographic investigations. Location: The global ocean. Methods: Based on the most comprehensive environmental climatology available to date, which is both...... of the mesopelagic layer. Results: First, we show via numerical interpretation that the vertical division of the pelagic zone varies and, hence, is not constant throughout the global ocean. Indeed, a latitudinal gradient is found between the epipelagic-mesopelagic and mesopelagic-bathypelagic vertical limits. Second...

  4. Genetic and morphological differentiation in the Sakura shrimp (Sergia lucens) between Japanese and Taiwanese populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imai, H.; Hanamura, Y.; Cheng, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    The Sakura shrimp Sergia lucens is a remarkable meso-pelagic crustacean species, which is harvested for human consumption in restricted geographical areas of Taiwan and Japan in the northwestern Pacific. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region was conducted to

  5. Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean.

    KAUST Repository

    Irigoien, Xabier; Klevjer, T A; Rø stad, Anders; Martinez, U; Boyra, G; Acuñ a, J L; Bode, A; Echevarria, F; Gonzalez-Gordillo, J I; Hernandez-Leon, S; Agusti, S; Aksnes, D L; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2014-01-01

    With a current estimate of ~1,000 million tons, mesopelagic fishes likely dominate the world total fishes biomass. However, recent acoustic observations show that mesopelagic fishes biomass could be significantly larger than the current estimate

  6. Changing weather causes behavioral responses in the lower mesopelagic

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, S

    2017-05-10

    Mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers at a 700 m deep location in the Red Sea ascended 70 to 80 m during a passing rain storm that reduced light levels at the surface by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The changes in vertical distribution were observed down to the deepest part of the water column and were interpreted as a response to sudden dark weather. However, light measurements suggest that the mesopelagic targets (fish) did not fully compensate for the reduction in ambient light, and the calculated light levels in the scattering layers were similar to 1 order of magnitude lower during the passage of the storm. The results show that fluctuating weather conditions may affect pelagic ecosystems even towards the lower parts of the mesopelagic zone.

  7. Larvas de Sergestes arcticus Kroyer, 1855, Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 y Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793, entre el seno Reloncaví y Boca del Guafo, sur de Chile Larvae of Sergestes arcticus Kroyer, 1855, Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837, and Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793 between Seno Reloncaví and Boca del Guafo, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mujica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución de los estados de desarrollo de las larvas de Sergestes arcticus, Neotrypaea uncinata y Munida gregaria, capturadas entre el seno Reloncaví y la Boca del Guafo, durante noviembre de 2004. Se distinguieron tres zonas oceanógraficas, de acuerdo a los antecedentes relacionados con el grado de participación de aguas continentales y oceánicas. La distribución de las larvas de estas especies y sus estados de desarrollo, permitieron establecer diferencias significativas entre ellas respecto de las características oceanógraficas, lo que estaría relacionado con los lugares de desove y habitat de las poblaciones desovantes en el área de estudio.The distribution of developmental stages of Sergestes arcticus, Neotrypaea uncinata and Munida gregaria larvae caught between Seno Reloncaví and Boca del Guafo in November 2004 was analyzed. Three oceanographic zones were distinguished according to records showing the degree of participation of continental and oceanic waters. Significant differences were determined between larval distribution and development stages for these species with respect to oceanographic characteristics; said differences might be related to the spawning sites and the habitat of the spawning stock in the study area.

  8. Changing weather causes behavioral responses in the lower mesopelagic

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, S; Rø stad, Anders; Aksnes, DL

    2017-01-01

    Mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers at a 700 m deep location in the Red Sea ascended 70 to 80 m during a passing rain storm that reduced light levels at the surface by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The changes in vertical distribution were

  9. A review on mesopelagic fishes belonging to family Myctophidae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Catul, V.; Gauns, M.; Karuppasamy, P.K.

    Jr (1991) Life histories of three species of lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae) from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. II- Age and growth patterns. Mar Biol 111:21-27 Gjөsæter J (1984) Mesopelagic fish, a large potential resource in the Arabian Sea. Deep...

  10. A global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tracey T.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Dunn, Daniel C.; Halpin, Patrick N.; Rogers, Alex D.; Guinotte, John; Bograd, Steven J.; Angel, Martin V.; Perez, Jose Angel A.; Wishner, Karen; Haedrich, Richard L.; Lindsay, Dhugal J.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Vereshchaka, Alexander; Piatkowski, Uwe; Morato, Telmo; Błachowiak-Samołyk, Katarzyna; Robison, Bruce H.; Gjerde, Kristina M.; Pierrot-Bults, Annelies; Bernal, Patricio; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Heino, Mikko

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone to reflect the regional scales over which the ocean interior varies in terms of biodiversity and function. An integrated approach was necessary, as global gaps in information and variable sampling methods preclude strictly statistical approaches. A panel combining expertise in oceanography, geospatial mapping, and deep-sea biology convened to collate expert opinion on the distributional patterns of pelagic fauna relative to environmental proxies (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen at mesopelagic depths). An iterative Delphi Method integrating additional biological and physical data was used to classify biogeographic ecoregions and to identify the location of ecoregion boundaries or inter-regions gradients. We define 33 global mesopelagic ecoregions. Of these, 20 are oceanic while 13 are 'distant neritic.' While each is driven by a complex of controlling factors, the putative primary driver of each ecoregion was identified. While work remains to be done to produce a comprehensive and robust mesopelagic biogeography (i.e., reflecting temporal variation), we believe that the classification set forth in this study will prove to be a useful and timely input to policy planning and management for conservation of deep-pelagic marine resources. In particular, it gives an indication of the spatial scale at which faunal communities are expected to be broadly similar in composition, and hence can inform application of ecosystem-based management approaches, marine spatial planning and the distribution and spacing of networks of representative protected areas.

  11. Frequency of Microplastics in Mesopelagic Fishes from the Northwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina M. Wieczorek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics are a ubiquitous pollutant in our seas today and are known to have detrimental effects on a variety of organisms. Over the past decade numerous studies have documented microplastic ingestion by marine species with more recent investigations focussing on the secondary impacts of microplastic ingestion on ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have examined microplastic ingestion by mesopelagic fish which are one of the most abundant pelagic groups in our oceans and through their vertical migrations are known to contribute significantly to the rapid transport of carbon and nutrients to the deep sea. Therefore, any ingestion of microplastics by mesopelagic fish may adversely affect this cycling and may aid in transport of microplastics from surface waters to the deep-sea benthos. In this study microplastics were extracted from mesopelagic fish under forensic conditions and analysed for polymer type utilising micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (micro-FTIR analysis. Fish specimens were collected from depth (300–600 m in a warm-core eddy located in the Northwest Atlantic, 1,200 km due east of Newfoundland during April and May 2015. In total, 233 fish gut contents from seven different species of mesopelagic fish were examined. An alkaline dissolution of organic materials from extracted stomach contents was performed and the solution filtered over a 0.7 μm borosilicate filter. Filters were examined for microplastics and a subsample originating from 35 fish was further analysed for polymer type through micro-FTIR analysis. Seventy-three percent of all fish contained plastics in their gut contents with Gonostoma denudatum having the highest ingestion rate (100% followed by Serrivomer beanii (93% and Lampanyctus macdonaldi (75%. Overall, we found a much higher occurrence of microplastic fragments, mainly polyethylene fibres, in the gut contents of mesopelagic fish than previously reported. Stomach fullness, species and

  12. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  13. δ(13)C and δ(15)N in deep-living fishes and shrimps after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Rizzo, Ester; Torres, Joseph J; Ross, Steve W; Romero, Isabel; Watson, Kathleen; Goddard, Ethan; Hollander, David

    2015-05-15

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drill-rig produced a surface oil layer, dispersed micro-droplets throughout the water column, and sub-surface plumes. We measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in mesopelagic fishes and shrimps in the vicinity of DWH collected prior to, six weeks after, and one year after the oil spill (2007, 2010 and 2011). In 2010, the year of the oil spill, a small but significant depletion of δ(13)C was found in two mesopelagic fishes (Gonostoma elongatum and Chauliodus sloani) and one shrimp (Systellaspis debilis); a significant δ(15)N enrichment was identified in the same shrimp and in three fish species (G. elongatum, Ceratoscopelus warmingii, and Lepidophanes guentheri). The δ(15)N change did not suggest a change of trophic level, but did indicate a change in diet. The data suggest that carbon from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was incorporated into the mesopelagic food web of the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Large scale patterns in vertical distribution and behaviour of mesopelagic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor Aleksander

    2016-01-27

    Recent studies suggest that previous estimates of mesopelagic biomasses are severely biased, with the new, higher estimates underlining the need to unveil behaviourally mediated coupling between shallow and deep ocean habitats. We analysed vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers (SLs) recorded at 38 kHz across oceanographic regimes encountered during the circumglobal Malaspina expedition. Mesopelagic SLs were observed in all areas covered, but vertical distributions and DVM patterns varied markedly. The distribution of mesopelagic backscatter was deepest in the southern Indian Ocean (weighted mean daytime depth: WMD 590 m) and shallowest at the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern Pacific (WMD 350 m). DVM was evident in all areas covered, on average ~50% of mesopelagic backscatter made daily excursions from mesopelagic depths to shallow waters. There were marked differences in migrating proportions between the regions, ranging from ~20% in the Indian Ocean to ~90% in the Eastern Pacific. Overall the data suggest strong spatial gradients in mesopelagic DVM patterns, with implied ecological and biogeochemical consequences. Our results suggest that parts of this spatial variability can be explained by horizontal patterns in physical-chemical properties of water masses, such as oxygen, temperature and turbidity.

  15. Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, S C

    2000-01-01

    Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or l...

  16. Efficient trawl avoidance by mesopelagic fishes causes large underestimation of their biomass

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Staby, A; Aksnes, Dag L.

    2012-01-01

    Mesopelagic fishes occur in all the world’s oceans, but their abundance and consequently their ecological significance remains uncertain. The current global estimate based on net sampling prior to 1980 suggests a global abundance of one gigatonne

  17. Efficient trawl avoidance by mesopelagic fishes causes large underestimation of their biomass

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-06-07

    Mesopelagic fishes occur in all the world’s oceans, but their abundance and consequently their ecological significance remains uncertain. The current global estimate based on net sampling prior to 1980 suggests a global abundance of one gigatonne (109 t) wet weight. Here we report novel evidence of efficient avoidance of such sampling by the most common myctophid fish in the Northern Atlantic, i.e. Benthosema glaciale. We reason that similar avoidance of nets may explain consistently higher acoustic abundance estimates of mesopelagic fish from different parts of the world’s oceans. It appears that mesopelagic fish abundance may be underestimated by one order of magnitude, suggesting that the role of mesopelagic fish in the oceans might need to be revised.

  18. Large scale patterns in vertical distribution and behaviour of mesopelagic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor Aleksander; Irigoien, Xabier; Rø stad, Anders; Fraile-Nuez, E.; Bení tez-Barrios, V. M.; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that previous estimates of mesopelagic biomasses are severely biased, with the new, higher estimates underlining the need to unveil behaviourally mediated coupling between shallow and deep ocean habitats. We analysed vertical

  19. Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean.

    KAUST Repository

    Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    With a current estimate of ~1,000 million tons, mesopelagic fishes likely dominate the world total fishes biomass. However, recent acoustic observations show that mesopelagic fishes biomass could be significantly larger than the current estimate. Here we combine modelling and a sensitivity analysis of the acoustic observations from the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition to show that the previous estimate needs to be revised to at least one order of magnitude higher. We show that there is a close relationship between the open ocean fishes biomass and primary production, and that the energy transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to mesopelagic fishes in the open ocean is higher than what is typically assumed. Our results indicate that the role of mesopelagic fishes in oceanic ecosystems and global ocean biogeochemical cycles needs to be revised as they may be respiring ~10% of the primary production in deep waters.

  20. Ocean Depths: The Mesopelagic and Implications for Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Breyer, Sean

    2017-01-09

    The mesopelagic or 'twilight zone' of the oceans occurs too deep for photosynthesis, but is a major part of the world's carbon cycle. Depth boundaries for the mesopelagic have now been shown on a global scale using the distribution of pelagic animals detected by compiling echo-soundings from ships around the world, and been used to predict the effect of global warming on regional fish production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The eyes of mesopelagic crustaceans. III. Thysanopoda tricuspidata (Euphausiacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rochow, V B; Walsh, S

    1978-12-14

    The compound eyes of the mesopelagic eupausiid Thysanopoda tricuspidata were investigated by light-, scanning-, and transmission electron microscopy. The eyes are spherical and have a diameter that corresponds to 1/6 of the carapace length. The hexagonal facets have strongly curved outer surfaces. Although there are four crystalline cone cells, only two participate in the formation of the cone, which is 90-120 micrometer long and appears to have a radial gradient of refractive index. The clear zone, separating dioptric structures and retinula, is only 90-120 micrometer wide. In it lie the very large oval nuclei of the seven retinula cells. Directly in front of the 70 micrometer long and 15 micrometer thick rhabdom a lens-like structure of 12 micrometer diameter is developed. This structure, known in only a very few arthropods, seems to be present in all species of Euphausiacea studied to date. It is believed that the rhabdom lens improves near-field vision and absolute light sensitivity. Rod-shaped pigment grains and mitochondria of the tubular type are found in the plasma of retinula cells. The position of the proximal screening pigment as well as the microvillar organization in the rhabdom are indicative of light-adapted material. The orthogonal alignment of rhabdovilli suggests polarization sensitivity. Behind each rabdom there is a cup-shaped homogenous structure of unknown, but possibly optical function. Finally, the structure and the function of the euphysiid eye are reviewed and the functional implications of individual components are discussed.

  2. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  3. Extensive use of mesopelagic waters by a Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Lam, Chi Hin; Braun, Camrin D.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides evidence that mesopelagic habitats might be more commonly used by S. lewini than previously suggested. We identified deep diving behavior throughout the 24-h cycle over the entire 6-month tracking period. In addition to expected nightly vertical habitat use, the shark exhibited frequent mesopelagic excursions during daytime. Deep diving throughout the diel cycle has not been reported before and, while dive functionality remains unconfirmed, our study suggests that mesopelagic excursions may represent foraging events within and below deep scattering layers. Additional research aimed at resolving potential ecological, physiological and behavioral mechanisms underpinning vertical movement patterns of S. lewini will help to determine if the single individual reported here is representative of S. lewini populations in the Red Sea.

  4. Barcoding Atlantic Canada's mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic marine fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Kenchington

    Full Text Available DNA barcode sequences were developed from 557 mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic teleost specimens collected in waters off Atlantic Canada. Confident morphological identifications were available for 366 specimens, of 118 species and 93 genera, which yielded 328 haplotypes. Five of the species were novel to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD. Most of the 118 species conformed to expectations of monophyly and the presence of a "barcode gap", though some known weaknesses in existing taxonomy were confirmed and a deficiency in published keys was revealed. Of the specimens for which no firm morphological identification was available, 156 were successfully identified to species, and a further 11 to genus, using their barcode sequences and a combination of distance- and character-based methods. The remaining 24 specimens were from species for which no reference barcode is yet available or else ones confused by apparent misidentification of publicly available sequences in BOLD. Addition of the new sequences to those previously in BOLD contributed support to recent taxonomic revisions of Chiasmodon and Poromitra, while it also revealed 18 cases of potential cryptic speciation. Most of the latter appear to result from genetic divergence among populations in different ocean basins, while the general lack of strong horizontal environmental gradients within the deep sea has allowed morphology to be conserved. Other examples of divergence appear to distinguish individuals living under the sub-tropical gyre of the North Atlantic from those under that ocean's sub-polar gyre. In contrast, the available sequences for two myctophid species, Benthosema glaciale and Notoscopelus elongatus, showed genetic structuring on finer geographic scales. The observed structure was not consistent with recent suggestions that "resident" populations of myctophids can maintain allopatry despite the mixing of ocean waters. Rather, it indicates that the very rapid speciation

  5. Do top predators cue on sound production by mesopelagic prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Pickering, S.; Checkley, D. M., Jr.; Demer, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Deep-scattering layer (DSL) organisms, comprising a variety of mesopelagic fishes, and squids, siphonophores, crustaceans, and other invertebrates, are preferred prey for numerous large marine predators, e.g. cetaceans, seabirds, and fishes. Some of the DSL species migrate from depth during daylight to feed near the surface at night, transitioning during dusk and dawn. We investigated if any DSL organisms create sound, particularly during the crepuscular periods. Over several nights in summer 2015, underwater sound was recorded in the San Diego Trough using a high-frequency acoustic recording package (HARP, 10 Hz to 100 kHz), suspended from a drifting surface float. Acoustic backscatter from the DSL was monitored nearby using a calibrated multiple-frequency (38, 70, 120, and 200 kHz) split-beam echosounder (Simrad EK60) on a small boat. DSL organisms produced sound, between 300 and 1000 Hz, and the received levels were highest when the animals migrated past the recorder during ascent and descent. The DSL are globally present, so the observed acoustic phenomenon, if also ubiquitous, has wide-reaching implications. Sound travels farther than light or chemicals and thus can be sensed at greater distances by predators, prey, and mates. If sound is a characteristic feature of pelagic ecosystems, it likely plays a role in predator-prey relationships and overall ecosystem dynamics. Our new finding inspires numerous questions such as: Which, how, and why have DSL organisms evolved to create sound, for what do they use it and under what circumstances? Is sound production by DSL organisms truly ubiquitous, or does it depend on the local environment and species composition? How may sound production and perception be adapted to a changing environment? Do predators react to changes in sound? Can sound be used to quantify the composition of mixed-species assemblages, component densities and abundances, and hence be used in stock assessment or predictive modeling?

  6. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  7. Feeding habits of four species of mesopelagic fishes from the Northern Chilean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva A, Eduardo; Ulloa H, Raúl; Bleck Z, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The feeding habits of four species of mesopelagic fishes from northern Chile are described: Triphoturus mexicanus, Diogenichtys atlanticus, Vinciguerria lucetia and Cyclothone acclinidens. Samples were captured in September 1988 between 18 degrees 25' and 19 degrees 09'S in the South West Pacific. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the stomach content showed that the species have a zooplanktophagous opportunistic behavior, mainly predating on Crustaceans, especially on Copepods. The evaluation of the trophic spectrum and diversity of T. mexicanus and C. acclinidens suggests that these are nictoepipelagic species, while D. atlanticus and V. lucetia would be typical mesopelagic.

  8. Distribution and diel vertical movements of mesopelagic scattering layers in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor A.

    2012-06-13

    The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an extreme environment due to low food concentrations, high temperatures and low oxygen waters. Nevertheless, a 38 kHz echosounder identified at least four distinct scattering layers during the daytime, of which the 2 deepest layers resided entirely within the mesopelagic zone. Two of the acoustic layers were found above a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one layer overlapped with the OMZ, and one layer was found below the OMZ. Almost all organisms in the deep layers migrated to the near-surface waters during the night. Backscatter from a 300 kHz lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler indicated a layer of zooplankton within the OMZ. They carried out DVM, yet a portion remained at mesopelagic depths during the night. Our acoustic measurements showed that the bulk of the acoustic backscatter was restricted to waters shallower than 800 m, suggesting that most of the biomass in the Red Sea resides above this depth. 2012 The Author(s).

  9. Distribution and diel vertical movements of mesopelagic scattering layers in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor A.; Torres, Daniel J.; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-01-01

    The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an extreme environment due to low food concentrations, high temperatures and low oxygen waters. Nevertheless, a 38 kHz echosounder identified at least four distinct scattering layers during the daytime, of which the 2 deepest layers resided entirely within the mesopelagic zone. Two of the acoustic layers were found above a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one layer overlapped with the OMZ, and one layer was found below the OMZ. Almost all organisms in the deep layers migrated to the near-surface waters during the night. Backscatter from a 300 kHz lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler indicated a layer of zooplankton within the OMZ. They carried out DVM, yet a portion remained at mesopelagic depths during the night. Our acoustic measurements showed that the bulk of the acoustic backscatter was restricted to waters shallower than 800 m, suggesting that most of the biomass in the Red Sea resides above this depth. 2012 The Author(s).

  10. Retinal properties of the mesopelagic fish Diaphus sp.: vision under dim light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rui Lima Paitio

    2014-06-01

    In this study, retinal wholemounting technique was applied to study characteristics and sensitivity of the myctophid Diaphus sp. retinae. This technique produces topographic maps of photoreceptor and retinal ganglionar cells, showing how these fishes are adapted to the specific light regime of mesopelagic zone.

  11. Observations of the Hawaiian Mesopelagic Boundary Community in Daytime and Nighttime Habitats Using Estimated Backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort CM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community is a slope-associated assemblage of micronekton that undergoes diel migrations along the slopes of the islands, residing at greater depths during the day and moving upslope to forage in shallower water at night. The timing of these migrations may be influenced by environmental factors such as moon phase or ambient light. To investigate the movements of this community, we examined echo intensity data from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs deployed at shallow and deep sites on the southern slope of Oahu, Hawaii. Diel changes in echo intensity (and therefore in estimated backscatter were observed and determined to be caused, at least in part, by the horizontal migration of the mesopelagic boundary community. Generalized additive modeling (GAM was used to assess the impact of environmental factors on the migration timing. Sunset time and lunar illumination were found to be significant factors. Movement speeds of the mesopelagic boundary community were estimated at 1.25–1.99 km h-1 (35–55 cm s-1. The location at which the migrations were observed is the future site of a seawater air conditioning system, which will cause artificial upwelling at our shallow observation site and may cause animal entrainment at the seawater intake near our deep water observation site. This study is the first to observe the diel migration of the mesopelagic boundary community on southern Oahu in both deep and shallow parts of the habitat, and it is also the first to examine migration trends over long time scales, which allows a better assessment of the effects of seasons and lunar illumination on micronekton migrations. Understanding the driving mechanisms of mesopelagic boundary community behavior will increase our ability to assess and manage coastal ecosystems in the face of increasing anthropogenic impacts.

  12. Particulate barium tracing of significant mesopelagic carbon remineralisation in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Nolwenn; Planquette, Hélène; Planchon, Frédéric; Sarthou, Géraldine; Jacquet, Stéphanie; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Gourain, Arthur; Cheize, Marie; Monin, Laurence; André, Luc; Laha, Priya; Terryn, Herman; Dehairs, Frank

    2018-04-01

    The remineralisation of sinking particles by prokaryotic heterotrophic activity is important for controlling oceanic carbon sequestration. Here, we report mesopelagic particulate organic carbon (POC) remineralisation fluxes in the North Atlantic along the GEOTRACES-GA01 section (GEOVIDE cruise; May-June 2014) using the particulate biogenic barium (excess barium; Baxs) proxy. Important mesopelagic (100-1000 m) Baxs differences were observed along the transect depending on the intensity of past blooms, the phytoplankton community structure, and the physical forcing, including downwelling. The subpolar province was characterized by the highest mesopelagic Baxs content (up to 727 pmol L-1), which was attributed to an intense bloom averaging 6 mg chl a m-3 between January and June 2014 and by an intense 1500 m deep convection in the central Labrador Sea during the winter preceding the sampling. This downwelling could have promoted a deepening of the prokaryotic heterotrophic activity, increasing the Baxs content. In comparison, the temperate province, characterized by the lowest Baxs content (391 pmol L-1), was sampled during the bloom period and phytoplankton appear to be dominated by small and calcifying species, such as coccolithophorids. The Baxs content, related to oxygen consumption, was converted into a remineralisation flux using an updated relationship, proposed for the first time in the North Atlantic. The estimated fluxes were of the same order of magnitude as other fluxes obtained using independent methods (moored sediment traps, incubations) in the North Atlantic. Interestingly, in the subpolar and subtropical provinces, mesopelagic POC remineralisation fluxes (up to 13 and 4.6 mmol C m-2 d-1, respectively) were equalling and occasionally even exceeding upper-ocean POC export fluxes, deduced using the 234Th method. These results highlight the important impact of the mesopelagic remineralisation on the biological carbon pump of the studied area with a near

  13. Linking mesopelagic prey abundance and distribution to the foraging behavior of a deep-diving predator, the northern elephant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Daisuke; Mitani, Yoko; Abe, Takuzo; Sasaki, Hiroko; Goetsch, Chandra; Costa, Daniel P.; Miyashita, Kazushi

    2017-06-01

    The Transition Zone in the eastern North Pacific is important foraging habitat for many marine predators. Further, the mesopelagic depths (200-1000 m) host an abundant prey resource known as the deep scattering layer that supports deep diving predators, such as northern elephant seals, beaked whales, and sperm whales. Female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) undertake biannual foraging migrations to this region where they feed on mesopelagic fish and squid; however, in situ measurements of prey distribution and abundance, as well as the subsurface oceanographic features in the mesopelagic Transition Zone are limited. While concurrently tracking female elephant seals during their post-molt migration, we conducted a ship-based oceanographic and hydroacoustic survey and used mesopelagic mid-water trawls to sample the deep scattering layer. We found that the abundance of mesopelagic fish at 400-600 m depth zone was the highest in the 43 °N zone, the primary foraging area of female seals. We identified twenty-nine families of fishes from the mid-water trawls, with energy-rich myctophid fishes dominating by species number, individual number, and wet weight. Biomass of mesopelagic fishes is positively correlated to annual net primary productivity; however, at the temporal and spatial scale of our study, we found no relationship between satellite derived surface primary production and prey density. Instead, we found that the subsurface chlorophyll maximum correlated with the primary elephant seal foraging regions, indicating a stronger linkage between mesopelagic ecosystem dynamics and subsurface features rather than the surface features measured with satellites. Our study not only provides insights on prey distribution in a little-studied deep ocean ecosystem, but shows that northern elephant seals are targeting the dense, species-diverse mesopelagic ecosystem at the gyre-gyre boundary that was previously inferred from their diving behavior.

  14. Radurization of brown shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.; Muenzner, R.

    1976-01-01

    Brown shrimps (Crangon vulgaris) from the North sea coast were blanched on board, and irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma-rays at a minimum dose of 130 krad either before or after peeling. Other samples were irradiated before and after peeling. Control samples remained untreated or were preserved with benzoic acid. Irradiation before peeling did not result in a lasting improvement of keeping quality. However, irradiation of the peeled shrimp meat resulted in a reduction of the total bacterial load by up to 4 orders of magnitude. Shelf life until the initial microbial count was reached was 9 days for chemically treated samples, 18 days for samples irradiated after peeling, and 20 days for samples irradiated before and after peeling. Sensory evaluation and determination of volatile basic nitrogen gave similar results. The obtained diminution of the counts of staphylococci, enterococci and enterobacteriaceae reduces the hygienic hazard. Radurization of shrimp meat proved to be a satisfactory means of preservation. Introduction of the product into the market and best presentation and packaging require further investigations. (orig.) [de

  15. Relationships between otolith size and fish length in some mesopelagic teleosts (Myctophidae, Paralepididae, Phosichthyidae and Stomiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, P; Malara, D; Ammendolia, G; Romeo, T; Andaloro, F

    2015-09-01

    Length-mass relationships and linear regressions are given for otolith size (length and height) and standard length (LS ) of certain mesopelagic fishes (Myctophidae, Paralepididae, Phosichthyidae and Stomiidae) living in the central Mediterranean Sea. The length-mass relationship showed isometric growth in six species, whereas linear regressions of LS and otolith size fit the data well for all species. These equations represent a useful tool for dietary studies on Mediterranean marine predators. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Vertical Distribution of Daily Migrating Mesopelagic Fish in Respect to Nocturnal Lights

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana

    2014-12-01

    The nighttime distribution of vertically migrating mesopelagic fish in relation to nocturnal light was studied during a circumglobal survey, in the Red Sea, and in a fjord at high latitude. The study was based on data derived from ship borne echo sounders (circumglobal and the Red Sea) as well as using upward looking echo sounders mounted on the bottom (Masfjorden, Norway). We also applied a numerical model for analyzing diel vertical migration patterns. The effect of the lunar cycle was the focus in studies at low latitudes, while seasonal changes in nocturnal light climate was in focus at high latitude. Lunar phase significantly affected the distribution of mesopelagic fish at the global scale and in the Red Sea. During nights near full moon, scattering layers of mesopelagic fish distributed deeper than during darker phases of the moon. At high latitude, mesopelagic fish switched its behavior along with seasonal changes in nocturnal lights. In autumn, the population of the studied fish (Maurolicus mueleri) formed separated layers. Juveniles performed normal diel vertical migration followed by midnight sinking, with midnight sinking mainly related to temperature minima and also for avoiding predators. Meanwhile the adults did not migrate vertically, reducing foraging but increasing the adult survival. From late winter to mid-Spring, interrupted ascents behavior was noted in the afternoon. Predator avoidance, satiation, and finding temperature optimum might be the reason behind interrupted ascents. At lighter nights in mid-summer, M. muelleri took on schooling behavior, likely as an anti-predator behavior permitting access to the upper waters in the absence of darkness.

  17. Trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the Gulf of Mexico revealed by gut content and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Ross, Steve W.

    2017-01-01

    Mesopelagic fishes represent an important component of the marine food web due to their global distributions, high abundances and ability to transport organic material throughout a large part of the water column. This study combined stable isotope (SIAs) and gut content analyses (GCAs) to characterize the trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, this study examined whether mesopelagic fishes utilized chemosynthetic energy from cold seeps. Specimens were collected (9–25 August 2007) over three deep (>1,000 m) cold seeps at discrete depths (surface to 1,503 m) over the diurnal cycle. GCA classified 31 species (five families) of mesopelagic fishes into five feeding guilds: piscivores, large crustacean consumers, copepod consumers, generalists and mixed zooplanktivores. However, these guilds were less clearly defined based on stable isotope mixing model (MixSIAR) results, suggesting diets may be more mixed over longer time periods (weeks–months) and across co-occurring species. Copepods were likely important for the majority of mesopelagic fishes, consistent with GCA (this study) and previous literature. MixSIAR results also identified non-crustacean prey items, including salps and pteropods, as potentially important prey items for mesopelagic fishes, including those fishes not analysed in GCA (Sternoptyx spp. and Melamphaidae). Salps and other soft-bodied species are often missed in GCAs. Mesopelagic fishes had δ13C results consistent with particulate organic matter serving as the baseline organic carbon source, fueling up to three trophic levels. Fishes that undergo diel vertical migration were depleted in 15N relative to weak migrators, consistent with depth-specific isotope trends in sources and consumers, and assimilation of 15N-depleted organic matter in surface waters. Linear correlations between fish size and δ15N values suggested ontogenetic changes in fish diets for several species. While there was

  18. Nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-11-01

    Data available in the literature on the nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp are reviewed and the indication is that irradiation of shrimp at doses up to about 3.2 kGy does not significantly affect the levels of its protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash. There are no reports on the effect of irradiation of shrimp above 3.2 kGy on these components. Limited information available indicates that there are some minor changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp as a result of irradiation. Irradiation also causes some changes in the amino acid composition of shrimp; similar changes occur due to canning and hot-air drying. Some of the vitamins in shrimp, such as thiamine, are lost as a result of irradiation but the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. Protein quality of shrimp, based on the growth of rats as well as that of Tetrahymena pyriformis, is not affected by irradiation. No adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found either in short-term or long-term animal feeding tests

  19. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL diet of both small (CL diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of

  20. Trophic Diversity of Plankton in the Epipelagic and Mesopelagic Layers of the Tropical and Equatorial Atlantic Determined with Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bode

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Plankton living in the deep ocean either migrate to the surface to feed or feed in situ on other organisms and detritus. Planktonic communities in the upper 800 m of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic were studied using the natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to identify their food sources and trophic diversity. Seston and zooplankton (>200 µm samples were collected with Niskin bottles and MOCNESS nets, respectively, in the epipelagic (0–200 m, upper mesopelagic (200–500 m, and lower mesopelagic layers (500–800 m at 11 stations. Food sources for plankton in the productive zone influenced by the NW African upwelling and the Canary Current were different from those in the oligotrophic tropical and equatorial zones. In the latter, zooplankton collected during the night in the mesopelagic layers was enriched in heavy nitrogen isotopes relative to day samples, supporting the active migration of organisms from deep layers. Isotopic niches showed also zonal differences in size (largest in the north, mean trophic diversity (largest in the tropical zone, food sources, and the number of trophic levels (largest in the equatorial zone. The observed changes in niche size and overlap (up to 71% between the mesopelagic layers but <50% between the epipelagic and upper mesopelagic layers support the prevalence of in situ feeding at deep layers in tropical and equatorial zooplankton.

  1. Light comfort zones of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers in two contrasting optical environments

    KAUST Repository

    Røstad, Anders

    2016-03-31

    We make a comparison of the mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SLs) in two contrasting optical environments; the clear Red Sea and in murkier coastal waters of Norway (Masfjorden). The depth distributions of the SL in Masfjorden are shallower and narrower than those of the Red Sea. This difference in depth distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that the organisms of the SL distribute according to similar light comfort zones (LCZ) in the two environments. Our study suggest that surface and underwater light measurements ranging more than10 orders of magnitude is required to assess the controlling effects of light on SL structure and dynamics.

  2. Light comfort zones of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers in two contrasting optical environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein; Aksnes, Dag L.

    2016-01-01

    We make a comparison of the mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SLs) in two contrasting optical environments; the clear Red Sea and in murkier coastal waters of Norway (Masfjorden). The depth distributions of the SL in Masfjorden are shallower and narrower than those of the Red Sea. This difference in depth distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that the organisms of the SL distribute according to similar light comfort zones (LCZ) in the two environments. Our study suggest that surface and underwater light measurements ranging more than10 orders of magnitude is required to assess the controlling effects of light on SL structure and dynamics.

  3. Extensive use of mesopelagic waters by a Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2017-09-06

    Background Despite being frequently landed in fish markets along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast, information regarding fundamental biology of the Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) in this region is scarce. Satellite telemetry studies can generate important data on life history, describe critical habitats, and ultimately redefine management strategies for sharks. To better understand the horizontal and vertical habitat use of S. lewini in the Red Sea and to aid with potential future development of zoning and management plans for key habitats, we deployed a pop-up satellite archival transmitting tag to track a single female specimen (240 cm total length) for a tracking period of 182 days. Results The tag was physically recovered after a deployment period of 6 months, thus providing the complete archived dataset of more than one million depth and temperature records. Based on a reconstructed, most probable track, the shark travelled a circular distance of approximately 1000 km from the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea southeastward into Sudanese waters, returning to the tagging location toward the end of the tracking period. Mesopelagic excursions to depths between 650 and 971 m occurred on 174 of the 182 days of the tracking period. Intervals between such excursions were characterized by constant oscillatory diving in the upper 100 m of the water column. Conclusions This study provides evidence that mesopelagic habitats might be more commonly used by S. lewini than previously suggested. We identified deep diving behavior throughout the 24-h cycle over the entire 6-month tracking period. In addition to expected nightly vertical habitat use, the shark exhibited frequent mesopelagic excursions during daytime. Deep diving throughout the diel cycle has not been reported before and, while dive functionality remains unconfirmed, our study suggests that mesopelagic excursions may represent foraging events within and below deep scattering layers. Additional research

  4. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  5. Role of women in Indian shrimp farming

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, A.

    1996-01-01

    Women in India are involved in various facets of shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Penaeus indicus) farming, including pond construction, seed collection, collection of feed materials and preparation of feeds, pond maintenance and post-harvest handling. This study indicates that 40% of laborers involved in shrimp farm construction are women. The various roles of women in shrimp farming are also described.

  6. Carbon cycling and POC turnover in the mesopelagic zone of the ocean: Insights from a simple model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Tang, Kam W.

    2010-08-01

    Carbon budgets of the mesopelagic zone are poorly constrained, highlighting our lack of understanding of the biota that inhabit this environment and their role in the cycling and sequestering of carbon in the deep ocean. A simple food web model of the mesopelagic zone is presented that traces the turnover of particulate organic carbon (POC), supplied as sinking detritus, through to its respiration by the biota via three pathways: colonization and solubilization of detritus by attached bacteria, production of free-living bacteria following losses of solubilization products during particle degradation, and consumption by detritivorous zooplankton. The relative consumption of detritus by attached bacteria was initially specified as 76%, with the remaining 24% by detritivores. Highlighting an asymmetry between consumption and respiration, the resulting predicted share of total respiration due to bacteria was 84.7%, with detritivores accounting for just 6.6% (with 6.5% and 2.2% by bacterivores and higher zooplankton, respectively). Bacteria thus dominated respiration and thereby acted as the principal sink for POC supplied to the mesopelagic zone, whereas zooplankton mainly recycled carbon back to the base of the food web as detritus or dissolved organic carbon rather than respiring it to CO 2. Estimates of respiration are therefore not necessarily a reliable indicator of the relative roles of bacteria and zooplankton in consuming and processing POC in the mesopelagic zone of the ocean. The work highlighted a number of major unknowns, including how little we know in general about the dynamics and metabolic budgets of bacteria and zooplankton that inhabit the mesopelagic zone and, specifically, the degree to which the solubilized products of enzymatic hydrolysis of POC by attached bacteria are lost to the surrounding water, the magnitude and factors responsible for bacterial growth efficiency, the role of microbes in the nutrition of detritivores, and the recycling

  7. Evidence of Diel Vertical Migration of Mesopelagic Sound-Scattering Organisms in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Gjøsæter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While sound scattering layers (SSLs have been described previously from ice-covered waters in the Arctic, the existence of a viable mesopelagic community that also includes mesopelagic fishes in the Arctic has been questioned. In addition, it has been hypothesized that vertical migration would hardly exist in these areas. We wanted to check if deep scattering layers (DSLs was found to the west and north of Svalbard (79°30′N−82°10′N during autumn 2015, and if present; whether organisms in such DSLs undertook vertical migrations. Our null hypothesis was that there would be no evidence of diel vertical migration. Multi-frequency acoustic observations by hull mounted echo sounder (18, 38, and 120 kHz revealed a DSL at depths ~210–510 m in areas with bottom depths exceeding ~600 m. Investigating eight geographical locations that differed with respect to time periods, light cycle and sea ice conditions, we show that the deeper layer of DSL displayed a clear ascending movement during night time and a descending movement during daytime. The high-light weighted mean depth (WMD (343–514 m with respect to backscattered energy was statistically deeper than the low-light WMD (179–437 m for the locations studied. This behavior of the DSL was found to be consistent both when the sun was continuously above the horizon and after it started to set on 1 September, and both in open water and sea ice covered waters. The WMD showed an increasing trend, while the nautical area backscattering strength from the DSL showed a decreasing trend from south to north among the studied locations. Hydrographic observations revealed that the diel migration was found in the lower part of the north-flowing Atlantic Water, and was disconnected from the surface water masses above the Atlantic Water during day and night. The organisms conducting vertical migrations were studied by vertical and oblique hauls with zooplankton nets and pelagic trawls. These data suggest

  8. Absence of suction feeding ichthyosaurs and its implications for triassic mesopelagic paleoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motani

    Full Text Available Mesozoic marine reptiles and modern marine mammals are often considered ecological analogs, but the extent of their similarity is largely unknown. Particularly important is the presence/absence of deep-diving suction feeders among Mesozoic marine reptiles because this would indicate the establishment of mesopelagic cephalopod and fish communities in the Mesozoic. A recent study suggested that diverse suction feeders, resembling the extant beaked whales, evolved among ichthyosaurs in the Triassic. However, this hypothesis has not been tested quantitatively. We examined four osteological features of jawed vertebrates that are closely linked to the mechanism of suction feeding, namely hyoid corpus ossification/calcification, hyobranchial apparatus robustness, mandibular bluntness, and mandibular pressure concentration index. Measurements were taken from 18 species of Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs, including the presumed suction feeders. Statistical comparisons with extant sharks and marine mammals of known diets suggest that ichthyosaurian hyobranchial bones are significantly more slender than in suction-feeding sharks or cetaceans but similar to those of ram-feeding sharks. Most importantly, an ossified hyoid corpus to which hyoid retractor muscles attach is unknown in all but one ichthyosaur, whereas a strong integration of the ossified corpus and cornua of the hyobranchial apparatus has been identified in the literature as an important feature of suction feeders. Also, ichthyosaurian mandibles do not narrow rapidly to allow high suction pressure concentration within the oral cavity, unlike in beaked whales or sperm whales. In conclusion, it is most likely that Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs were 'ram-feeders', without any beaked-whale-like suction feeder among them. When combined with the inferred inability for dim-light vision in relevant Triassic ichthyosaurs, the fossil record of ichthyosaurs does not suggest the

  9. Absence of suction feeding ichthyosaurs and its implications for triassic mesopelagic paleoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Ji, Cheng; Tomita, Taketeru; Kelley, Neil; Maxwell, Erin; Jiang, Da-yong; Sander, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    Mesozoic marine reptiles and modern marine mammals are often considered ecological analogs, but the extent of their similarity is largely unknown. Particularly important is the presence/absence of deep-diving suction feeders among Mesozoic marine reptiles because this would indicate the establishment of mesopelagic cephalopod and fish communities in the Mesozoic. A recent study suggested that diverse suction feeders, resembling the extant beaked whales, evolved among ichthyosaurs in the Triassic. However, this hypothesis has not been tested quantitatively. We examined four osteological features of jawed vertebrates that are closely linked to the mechanism of suction feeding, namely hyoid corpus ossification/calcification, hyobranchial apparatus robustness, mandibular bluntness, and mandibular pressure concentration index. Measurements were taken from 18 species of Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs, including the presumed suction feeders. Statistical comparisons with extant sharks and marine mammals of known diets suggest that ichthyosaurian hyobranchial bones are significantly more slender than in suction-feeding sharks or cetaceans but similar to those of ram-feeding sharks. Most importantly, an ossified hyoid corpus to which hyoid retractor muscles attach is unknown in all but one ichthyosaur, whereas a strong integration of the ossified corpus and cornua of the hyobranchial apparatus has been identified in the literature as an important feature of suction feeders. Also, ichthyosaurian mandibles do not narrow rapidly to allow high suction pressure concentration within the oral cavity, unlike in beaked whales or sperm whales. In conclusion, it is most likely that Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs were 'ram-feeders', without any beaked-whale-like suction feeder among them. When combined with the inferred inability for dim-light vision in relevant Triassic ichthyosaurs, the fossil record of ichthyosaurs does not suggest the establishment of modern

  10. Analyzing the trophic link between the mesopelagic microbial loop and zooplankton from observed depth profiles of bacteria and protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that organic carbon exported to the ocean aphotic layer is significantly consumed by heterotrophic organisms such as bacteria and zooplankton in the mesopelagic layer. However, very little is known for the trophic link between bacteria and zooplankton or the function of the microbial loop in this layer. In the northwestern Mediterranean, recent studies have shown that viruses, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and ciliates distribute down to 2000 m with group-specific depth-dependent decreases, and that bacterial production decreases with depth down to 1000 m. Here we show that such data can be analyzed using a simple steady-state food chain model to quantify the carbon flow from bacteria to zooplankton over the mesopelagic layer. The model indicates that bacterial mortality by viruses is similar to or 1.5 times greater than that by heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and that heterotrophic nanoflagellates transfer little of bacterial production to higher trophic levels.

  11. Niche partitioning of marine group I Crenarchaeota in the euphotic and upper mesopelagic zones of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anyi; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Zao

    2011-11-01

    Marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGI) represents a ubiquitous and numerically predominant microbial population in marine environments. An understanding of the spatial dynamics of MGI and its controlling mechanisms is essential for an understanding of the role of MGI in energy and element cycling in the ocean. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of MGI in the East China Sea (ECS) by analysis of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, and the biotin carboxylase gene accA. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that these genes were higher in abundance in the mesopelagic than in the euphotic zone. In addition, the crenarchaeal amoA gene was positively correlated with the copy number of the MGI 16S rRNA gene, suggesting that most of the MGI in the ECS are nitrifiers. Furthermore, the ratios of crenarchaeal accA to amoA or to MGI 16S rRNA genes increased from the euphotic to the mesopelagic zone, suggesting that the role of MGI in carbon cycling may change from the epipelagic to the mesopelagic zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic profiling of the 16S rRNA genes revealed depth partitioning in MGI community structures. Clone libraries of the crenarchaeal amoA and accA genes showed both "shallow" and "deep" groups, and their relative abundances varied in the water column. Ecotype simulation analysis revealed that MGI in the upper ocean could diverge into special ecotypes associated with depth to adapt to the light gradient across the water column. Overall, our results showed niche partitioning of the MGI population and suggested a shift in their ecological functions between the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the ECS.

  12. Feeding ecology of mesopelagic zooplankton of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.; Chu, F.-L. E.; Bishop, J. K. B.

    2010-10-01

    Mesopelagic zooplankton may meet their nutritional and metabolic requirements in a number of ways including consumption of sinking particles, carnivory, and vertical migration. How these feeding modes change with depth or location, however, is poorly known. We analyzed fatty acid (FA) profiles to characterize zooplankton diet and large particle (>51 μm) composition in the mesopelagic zone (base of euphotic zone -1000 m) at two contrasting time-series sites in the subarctic (station K2) and subtropical (station ALOHA) Pacific Ocean. Total FA concentration was 15.5 times higher in zooplankton tissue at K2, largely due to FA storage by seasonal vertical migrators such as Neocalanus and Eucalanus. FA biomarkers specific to herbivory implied a higher plant-derived food source at mesotrophic K2 than at oligotrophic ALOHA. Zooplankton FA biomarkers specific to dinoflagellates and diatoms indicated that diatoms, and to a lesser extent, dinoflagellates were important food sources at K2. At ALOHA, dinoflagellate FAs were more prominent. Bacteria-specific FA biomarkers in zooplankton tissue were used as an indicator of particle feeding, and peaks were recorded at depths where known particle feeders were present at ALOHA (e.g., ostracods at 100-300 m). In contrast, depth profiles of bacterial FA were relatively constant with depth at K2. Diatom, dinoflagellate, and bacterial biomarkers were found in similar proportions in both zooplankton and particles with depth at both locations, providing additional evidence that mesopelagic zooplankton consume sinking particles. Carnivory indices were higher and increased significantly with depth at ALOHA, and exhibited distinct peaks at K2, representing an increase in dependence on other zooplankton for food in deep waters. Our results indicate that feeding ecology changes with depth as well as by location. These changes in zooplankton feeding ecology from the surface through the mesopelagic zone, and between contrasting environments

  13. Utilization of Black Tiger Shrimp Flesh Waste for Pop Shrimp Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Eko Irianto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the utilization of black  tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon flesh waste in the processing of pop shrimp has been carried out.  So far, shrimp flesh waste is used for the production of shrimp paste, and shrimp cracker.   The objective of this study was to develop a fomula for pop shrimp production using shrimp flesh waste. Experimental design applied in this study was three-variables mixture design, in which variables observed were shrimp flesh waste, surimi and tapioca flour. Pop shrimp obtained was evaluated for sensory properties. The best product processed using a selected formula was analysed chemically and microbiologically, particularly for proxymate composition and total plate count respectively. Selected formula of pop shrimp consisted of 50.91% shrimp flesh waste, 18.18% surimi, 3.64% tapioca flour, 10.91% onion, 2.18% garlic, 0.73% pepper powder, 1.45% sugar, 0.36% monosodium glutamate, 0.73% ginger, 1.45% salt, 4.44% butter mix, 1.38% corn flour (maizena and 3.64% bread crumb. Proxymate composition of the best pop shrimp was 70.52% moisture, 0.73% ash, 0.39% fat, and 7.44% protein, while microbiological load in terms of total plate count was 3.3x103 colonies/g.

  14. Body Size Regression Formulae, Proximate Composition and Energy Density of Eastern Bering Sea Mesopelagic Fish and Squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elizabeth H; Walker, William A; Thomason, James R

    2015-01-01

    The ecological significance of fish and squid of the mesopelagic zone (200 m-1000 m) is evident by their pervasiveness in the diets of a broad spectrum of upper pelagic predators including other fishes and squids, seabirds and marine mammals. As diel vertical migrators, mesopelagic micronekton are recognized as an important trophic link between the deep scattering layer and upper surface waters, yet fundamental aspects of the life history and energetic contribution to the food web for most are undescribed. Here, we present newly derived regression equations for 32 species of mesopelagic fish and squid based on the relationship between body size and the size of hard parts typically used to identify prey species in predator diet studies. We describe the proximate composition and energy density of 31 species collected in the eastern Bering Sea during May 1999 and 2000. Energy values are categorized by body size as a proxy for relative age and can be cross-referenced with the derived regression equations. Data are tabularized to facilitate direct application to predator diet studies and food web models.

  15. Comparative larval growth and mortality of mesopelagic fishes and their predatory impact on zooplankton in the Kuroshio region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Takahashi, Motomitsu

    2018-01-01

    Larvae of mesopelagic fishes usually dominate in oceanic larval fish assemblages, but detailed investigations of their ecology are limited and thus preclude full assessment of the ecosystem structure and dynamics in oceanic waters. Here, we examined the growth and mortality of six taxa of numerically dominant mesopelagic fish larvae and their predatory impact on zooplankton in the Kuroshio region off southern Japan during late winter. The weight-specific growth coefficient (Gw) ranged from 0.077 (Sigmops gracilis) to 0.156 d-1 (Vinciguerria nimbaria), and the instantaneous daily mortality coefficient (M) from 0.067 (S. gracilis) to 0.143 d-1 (Myctophum asperum). The ratio Gw/M, an index of stage-specific survival of the larvae, was from 0.90 (Notoscopelus japonicus) to 1.24 (V. nimbaria), without a significant difference from a value of 1 in all species. Based on the reported relationship between Gw and ingestion rate of the larval fishes, the daily ration of each species was calculated to be 32-57% of body dry weight d-1. Mean and 95% confidence interval of food requirements of the six taxa of larvae was 1.41 ± 0.55 mg C m-2 d-1. Predatory impact of the mesopelagic fish larvae on the production rate of the available prey was estimated to be approximately 3.5-5.2%, implying that the larvae have a low level but consistent effect on zooplankton production in the oligotrophic Kuroshio region.

  16. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    for detection of rhabdovirus of penaeid shrimp in the tissue of infected animals (Nadala et al. 1992). Management of viral diseases Since there is no known treatment for viral diseases, the major strategy for disease management is avoidance. However, in practice... suspected that natural food and artificial feed quality, husbandry practices, water quality and presence of toxic substances from chemical prophylactics are responsible for SHG, but no specific cause has been perpointed so far (Lavilla-Pitogo et al., 2002...

  17. TENDENCIES AND PECULIARITIES OF SHRIMP FEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIUDMYLA V. FIHURSKA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is food sector, which is growing rapidly in the last 25 years with annual growth rate 8,2 . One of the mostperspective branches of aquaculture is shrimp farming. The cost of feeds is up to 80% of the cost of shrimp breeding, so providingthe industry with high-quality feeds is the important goal of the feed industry in all over the world. The theoretical research was devotedto the task of compound shrimp feed production. In order to satisfy shrimp requirements, shrimp feeding systems were shown.Existing shrimp breeding systems are shown as different from the type of reservoirs (static / running water, indoor or outdoor, feedingmethods, and the species of grown shrimp. Features of the nutritional standards for freshwater and saltwater shrimps were analyzed.Nutrient requirements of shrimp have been changed through shrimp life-cycle. The shrimp life-cycle was shown.World leaders-producers of compound mixed feeds for shrimps were shown. The analysis of pellet size and nutritional valueof compound mixed feeds of crude protein content in prestart, starter, grower and finish periods of cultivation and in accordancewith the system of cultivation and feeding shrimp (intensive, extensive, semi-intensive is carried out. The requirements for the contentof main minerals, vitamins and restrictions to the content of crude fiber are given. Traditional ingredients are described. Bindersand preservatives, which are used for shrimp feeds, are shown and subscribed. In raw material the main problem is the need to ensurehigh protein content in the shrimp feed recipes. Because of many factors, fish meal quantity should be reduced in recipes. Becauseof its attractive amino acid content, availability and relatively affordable price, soybean meal and soy concentrates have receivedincreasing attention as substitutes for marine animal meals.The features of technological lines and processes of production of mixed feeds for shrimp are shown.Еhe advantages and

  18. Photon hunting in the twilight zone: visual features of mesopelagic bioluminescent sharks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien M Claes

    Full Text Available The mesopelagic zone is a visual scene continuum in which organisms have developed various strategies to optimize photon capture. Here, we used light microscopy, stereology-assisted retinal topographic mapping, spectrophotometry and microspectrophotometry to investigate the visual ecology of deep-sea bioluminescent sharks [four etmopterid species (Etmopterus lucifer, E. splendidus, E. spinax and Trigonognathus kabeyai and one dalatiid species (Squaliolus aliae]. We highlighted a novel structure, a translucent area present in the upper eye orbit of Etmopteridae, which might be part of a reference system for counterillumination adjustment or acts as a spectral filter for camouflage breaking, as well as several ocular specialisations such as aphakic gaps and semicircular tapeta previously unknown in elasmobranchs. All species showed pure rod hexagonal mosaics with a high topographic diversity. Retinal specialisations, formed by shallow cell density gradients, may aid in prey detection and reflect lifestyle differences; pelagic species display areae centrales while benthopelagic and benthic species display wide and narrow horizontal streaks, respectively. One species (E. lucifer displays two areae within its horizontal streak that likely allows detection of conspecifics' elongated bioluminescent flank markings. Ganglion cell topography reveals less variation with all species showing a temporal area for acute frontal binocular vision. This area is dorsally extended in T. kabeyai, allowing this species to adjust the strike of its peculiar jaws in the ventro-frontal visual field. Etmopterus lucifer showed an additional nasal area matching a high rod density area. Peak spectral sensitivities of the rod visual pigments (λmax fall within the range 484-491 nm, allowing these sharks to detect a high proportion of photons present in their habitat. Comparisons with previously published data reveal ocular differences between bioluminescent and non

  19. Juvenile hake predation on Myctophidae and Sternoptychidae: Quantifying an energy transfer between mesopelagic and neritic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Larissa; Cartes, Joan E.; Velasco, Francisco; Bozzano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal study of the diet and food consumption of juvenile hake has been carried out in the Central Mediterranean Sea (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). Fish were the most important food resource in terms of weight (ca. 70%). Among the fish, Myctophidae and Sternoptychidae, which are usually distributed deeper than juvenile hake, are most important. During summer, Ceratoscopelus maderensis constituted up to 21% of weight of all prey, and Maurolicus muelleri represented almost 10%. During autumn M. muelleri became the most important food resource. The way in which these more deeply distributed prey enter shallower food webs relates to the daily vertical migrations of lanternfish. In upper water column strata at night or near dawn they become prey of the juvenile hake. Considering that trophic energy flows primarily downward, in the direction of the productivity gradient, the observed flow of energy from deep strata into epipelagic layers could be considered an inverse energy transfer. Daily food consumption of juvenile hake ranged between 4.11 and 4.72% of the body wet-weight (BWW). The application of a square-root model allowed calculation of the fraction of this consumption derived by ingestion of the more deeply distributed mesopelagic fish. Between 11.6% and 17.8% of food consumption was sustained by this energy flow. Such information is useful for understanding the interaction between communities distributed in different depth ranges and to reinforce the idea that marine communities are open systems in which migratory movements can dramatically change the assumptions and results of mass-balance models.

  20. Photon hunting in the twilight zone: visual features of mesopelagic bioluminescent sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Julien M; Partridge, Julian C; Hart, Nathan S; Garza-Gisholt, Eduardo; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Mallefet, Jérôme; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-01-01

    The mesopelagic zone is a visual scene continuum in which organisms have developed various strategies to optimize photon capture. Here, we used light microscopy, stereology-assisted retinal topographic mapping, spectrophotometry and microspectrophotometry to investigate the visual ecology of deep-sea bioluminescent sharks [four etmopterid species (Etmopterus lucifer, E. splendidus, E. spinax and Trigonognathus kabeyai) and one dalatiid species (Squaliolus aliae)]. We highlighted a novel structure, a translucent area present in the upper eye orbit of Etmopteridae, which might be part of a reference system for counterillumination adjustment or acts as a spectral filter for camouflage breaking, as well as several ocular specialisations such as aphakic gaps and semicircular tapeta previously unknown in elasmobranchs. All species showed pure rod hexagonal mosaics with a high topographic diversity. Retinal specialisations, formed by shallow cell density gradients, may aid in prey detection and reflect lifestyle differences; pelagic species display areae centrales while benthopelagic and benthic species display wide and narrow horizontal streaks, respectively. One species (E. lucifer) displays two areae within its horizontal streak that likely allows detection of conspecifics' elongated bioluminescent flank markings. Ganglion cell topography reveals less variation with all species showing a temporal area for acute frontal binocular vision. This area is dorsally extended in T. kabeyai, allowing this species to adjust the strike of its peculiar jaws in the ventro-frontal visual field. Etmopterus lucifer showed an additional nasal area matching a high rod density area. Peak spectral sensitivities of the rod visual pigments (λmax) fall within the range 484-491 nm, allowing these sharks to detect a high proportion of photons present in their habitat. Comparisons with previously published data reveal ocular differences between bioluminescent and non-bioluminescent deep

  1. Seasonal dynamics of SAR11 populations in the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the northwestern Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Craig A; Morris, Robert; Parsons, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    , resolving their temporal dynamics can provide important insights to the cycling of organic and inorganic nutrients. This quantitative time-series data revealed distinct annual distribution patterns of SAR11 abundance in the euphotic (0-120) and upper mesopelagic (160-300 m) zones that were reproducibly...... correlated with seasonal mixing and stratification of the water column. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data generated from a decade of samples collected at BATS were combined with the FISH data to model the annual dynamics of SAR11 subclade populations. 16S rRNA gene clone...... the Sargasso Sea surface layer, and revealed new details of their population dynamics....

  2. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  3. Cationic antimicrobial peptides in penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai

    2011-08-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production. To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of an important first-line response of the host defense system. Cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps composed of penaeidins, crustins, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors are comprised of multiple classes or isoforms and possess antibacterial and antifungal activities against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Shrimp AMPs are primarily expressed in circulating hemocytes, which is the main site of the immune response, and hemocytes expressing AMPs probably migrate to infection sites to fight against pathogen invasion. Indeed, most AMPs are produced as early as the nauplii developmental stage to protect shrimp larvae from infections. In this review, we discuss the sequence diversity, expression, gene structure, and antimicrobial activities of cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps. The information available on antimicrobial activities indicates that these shrimp AMPs have potential therapeutic applications in the control of disease problems in aquaculture.

  4. Morphological characterization and topographic analysis of multiple photoreceptor types in the retinae of mesopelagic hatchetfishes with tubular eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Michelle Biagioni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine hatchetfishes, Argyropelecus spp., are one of the 14 genera of mesopelagic teleosts, which possess tubular eyes. The tubular eyes are positioned dorsally on the head and consist of a main retina, which subtends a large dorsal binocular field, and an accessory retina, which subtends the lateral monocular visual field. The topographic distribution of photoreceptors in the retina of Argyropelecus sladeni, A. affinis and A. aculeatus was determined using a random, unbiased and systematic stereological approach, which consistently revealed a region of high density (area centralis in the central region of the main retina (up to a peak of 96,000 receptors per mm2 and a relatively homogeneous density of photoreceptors in the accessory retina (of approximately 20,000 receptors per mm2. The position of the area centralis in the main retina indicates this retinal region subserves greater spatial resolution in the centre of the dorsal binocular visual field. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy also revealed the presence of multiple photoreceptor types (two rod-like and one cone-like based on the size and shape of the inner and outer segments and ultrastructural differences in the ellipsoidal region. The presence of multiple photoreceptor types in these tubular-eyed, mesopelagic hatchetfishes may reflect the need for the visual system to function under different lighting conditions during vertical migratory behavior, especially given their unique dorsally-facing eyes.

  5. The contribution of migratory mesopelagic fishes to neuston fish assemblages across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Salat, Jordi; Chust, Guillem; Có zar, André s; Herná ndez-Leó n, Santiago; Ferná ndez de Puelles, M. Luz; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Surface waters are an attractive foraging ground for small fish in the open ocean. This study aims to determine the importance of vertically migrating species in the neuston of oceanic waters across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans and to ascertain the influence of environmental variables on their distribution patterns. Neustonic fish assemblages were primarily controlled by light. They were dominated by late-larvae and juveniles of Exocoetidae, Hemiramphidae and Scomberesocidae during the day. At night, the vertical migration of mesopelagic species changed the dominance pattern in favour of Myctophidae and Scomberesocidae. The neustonic families' distribution was primarily related to sea surface temperatures, whereas environmental variables at deeper layers were related to mesopelagic migrating families. Canonical correspondence analysis showed a low but statistically significant contribution of several environmental variables to myctophid species composition (10%), with minimum oxygen concentrations ranking first in variance explanation followed by maximum fluorescence, sea surface temperature and 400-m temperature. Spatial autocorrelation also explained 17% of the variance, indicating the influence of other factors such as historical, demographic and dispersal constraints. The low number of myctophid species in the North Pacific Equatorial Countercurrent appears to be related to the low oxygen concentrations observed in this province.

  6. The contribution of migratory mesopelagic fishes to neuston fish assemblages across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Olivar, M. Pilar

    2015-08-27

    Surface waters are an attractive foraging ground for small fish in the open ocean. This study aims to determine the importance of vertically migrating species in the neuston of oceanic waters across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans and to ascertain the influence of environmental variables on their distribution patterns. Neustonic fish assemblages were primarily controlled by light. They were dominated by late-larvae and juveniles of Exocoetidae, Hemiramphidae and Scomberesocidae during the day. At night, the vertical migration of mesopelagic species changed the dominance pattern in favour of Myctophidae and Scomberesocidae. The neustonic families\\' distribution was primarily related to sea surface temperatures, whereas environmental variables at deeper layers were related to mesopelagic migrating families. Canonical correspondence analysis showed a low but statistically significant contribution of several environmental variables to myctophid species composition (10%), with minimum oxygen concentrations ranking first in variance explanation followed by maximum fluorescence, sea surface temperature and 400-m temperature. Spatial autocorrelation also explained 17% of the variance, indicating the influence of other factors such as historical, demographic and dispersal constraints. The low number of myctophid species in the North Pacific Equatorial Countercurrent appears to be related to the low oxygen concentrations observed in this province.

  7. Organic carbon budget for the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre: major role of DOC in mesopelagic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Falcón, Yeray; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Pérez-Hernández, María Dolores; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Mason, Evan; Arístegui, Javier

    2017-08-31

    Transports of suspended particulate (POC susp ) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon are inferred from a box-model covering the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Corresponding net respiration rates (R) are obtained from a net organic carbon budget that is based on the transport estimates, and includes both vertical and lateral fluxes. The overall R in the mesopelagic layer (100-1500 m) is 1.6 ± 0.4 mmol C m -2 d -1 . DOC accounts for up to 53% of R as a result of drawdown of organic carbon within Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) that is entrained into sinking Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) that leads to formation of Mediterranean water (MW) at intermediate depths (~900 m). DOC represents 90% of the respired non-sinking organic carbon. When converted into oxygen units, the computed net respiration rate represents less than half the oxygen utilization rates (OUR) reported for the mesopelagic waters of the subtropical North Atlantic. Mesoscale processes in the area, not quantified with our approach, could account in part for the OUR differences observed between our carbon budget and other published studies from the North Atlantic, although seasonal or interannual variability could also be responsible for the difference in the estimates.

  8. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...

  9. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Gear Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual vessel gear characterization of permit holders shrimp vessel. Data includes net type, TED type, BRD type, etc.

  10. Distinct Siderophores Contribute to Iron Cycling in the Mesopelagic at Station ALOHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randelle M. Bundy

    2018-03-01

    and nutrient regeneration in the mesopelagic.

  11. Mesopelagic Prokaryotes Alter Surface Phytoplankton Production during Simulated Deep Mixing Experiments in Eastern Mediterranean Sea Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Hazan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesopelagic prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria, which are transported together with nutrient-rich intermediate-water to the surface layer by deep convection in the oceans (e.g., winter mixing, upwelling systems, can interact with surface microbial populations. This interaction can potentially affect production rates and biomass of surface microbial populations, and thus play an important role in the marine carbon cycle and oceanic carbon sequestration. The Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS is one of the most oligotrophic and warm systems in the world's oceans, with usually very shallow winter mixing (<200 m and lack of large-size spring algal blooms. In this study, we collected seawater (0–1,500 m in 9 different cruises at the open EMS during both the stratified and the mixed seasons. We show that the EMS is a highly oligotrophic regime, resulting in low autotrophic biomass and primary productivity and relatively high heterotrophic prokaryotic biomass and production. Further, we simulated deep water mixing in on-board microcosms using Levantine surface (LSW, ~0.5 m and intermediate (LIW, ~400 m waters at a 9:1 ratio, respectively and examined the responses of the microbial populations to such a scenario. We hypothesized that the LIW, being nutrient-rich (e.g., N, P and a “hot-spot” for microbial activity (due to the warm conditions that prevail in these depths, may supply the LSW with not only key-limiting nutrients but also with viable and active heterotrophic prokaryotes that can interact with the ambient surface microbial population. Indeed, we show that LIW heterotrophic prokaryotes negatively affected the surface phytoplankton populations, resulting in lower chlorophyll-a levels and primary production rates. This may be due to out-competition of phytoplankton by LIW populations for resources and/or by a phytoplankton cell lysis via viral infection. Our results suggest that phytoplankton in the EMS may not likely form blooms, even after

  12. Prokaryotic responses to ammonium and organic carbon reveal alternative CO2 fixation pathways and importance of alkaline phosphatase in the mesopelagic North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Baltar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To decipher the response of mesopelagic prokaryotic communities to input of nutrients, we tracked changes in prokaryotic abundance, extracellular enzymatic activities, heterotrophic production, dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC fixation, community composition (16S rRNA sequencing and community gene expression (metatranscriptomics in 3 microcosm experiments with water from the mesopelagic North Atlantic. Responses in 3 different treatments amended with thiosulfate, ammonium or organic matter (i.e. pyruvate plus acetate were compared to unamended controls. The strongest stimulation was found in the organic matter enrichments, where all measured rates increased >10-fold. Strikingly, in the organic matter treatment, the dark DIC fixation rates —assumed to be related to autotrophic metabolisms— were equally stimulated as all the other heterotrophic-related parameters. This increase in DIC fixation rates was paralleled by an up-regulation of genes involved in DIC assimilation via anaplerotic pathways. Alkaline phosphatase was the metabolic rate most strongly stimulated and its activity seemed to be related to cross-activation by nonpartner histidine kinases, and/or the activation of genes involved in the regulation of elemental balance during catabolic processes. These findings suggest that episodic events such as strong sedimentation of organic matter into the mesopelagic might trigger rapid increases of originally rare members of the prokaryotic community, enhancing heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon uptake rates, ultimately affecting carbon cycling. Our experiments highlight a number of fairly unstudied microbial processes of potential importance in mesopelagic waters that require future attention.

  13. Competitiveness of Indonesian Shrimp Compare with Thailand Shrimp in Export Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Asmara Wati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the water area accounts for 81 percent of the total area, fishery is a major business in Indonesia. As one of the world's largest shrimp exporting countries, Indonesia also relies on the revenues of shrimp exports in the international markets. This research compared the competitiveness of shrimp export from Indonesia and Thailand to Japan and US. The indicator adopted in this research was the RCA index. In this research collected secondary data from 1989 to 2010 for analysis. Results showed RCA values of Indonesia were higher than 1, which indicates advantaged competitiveness of Indonesia shrimp exports in the liberalized markets. Nevertheless, compared with Thailand, Indonesia remained relatively disadvantaged. To reinforce the Indonesian shrimp export, necessary infrastructure, such as networks shipment or delivery, packaging and transportation, must be improved. Further researches to determine the factors affecting competitiveness of export shrimp in liberalized market, make and analyze for the policy strategy formulation of Indonesia shrimp export in liberalized market are also advised.Keywords: Competitiveness; Indonesian Shrimp Export; RCA.

  14. The dynamic ocean biological pump: Insights from a global compilation of particulate organic carbon, CaCO3, and opal concentration profiles from the mesopelagic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Doney, Scott C.; Bishop, James K. B.

    2011-09-01

    We have compiled a global data set of 62 open ocean profiles of particulate organic carbon (POC), CaCO3, and opal concentrations collected by large volume in situ filtration in the upper 1000 m over the last 30 years. We define concentration-based metrics for the strength (POC concentration at depth) and efficiency (attenuation of POC with depth in the mesopelagic) of the biological pump. We show that the strength and efficiency of the biological pump are dynamic and are characterized by a regime of constant and high transfer efficiency at low to moderate surface POC and a bloom regime where the height of the bloom is characterized by a weak deep biological pump and low transfer efficiency. The variability in POC attenuation length scale manifests in a clear decoupling between the strength of the shallow biological pump (e.g., POC at the export depth) and the strength of the deep biological pump (POC at 500 m). We suggest that the paradigm of diatom-driven export production is driven by a too restrictive perspective on upper mesopelagic dynamics. Indeed, our full mesopelagic analysis suggests that large, blooming diatoms have low transfer efficiency and thus may not export substantially to depth; rather, our analysis suggests that ecosystems characterized by smaller cells and moderately high %CaCO3 have a high mesopelagic transfer efficiency and can have higher POC concentrations in the deep mesopelagic even with relatively low surface or near-surface POC. This has negative implications for the carbon sequestration prospects of deliberate iron fertilization.

  15. The effects of variable front persistence and intensity on mesopelagic fish communities: a comparison of three fronts in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netburn, A. N.; Koslow, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    Although the strong physical gradients at fronts are primarily realized in the epipelagic, the biological impacts of frontal ecosystems can extend into mesopelagic waters. In 2008, Lara-Lopez et al. (2012) observed a significant shift in total biomass and community composition of migrating mesopelagic fishes at a strong persistent front off of the Pt. Conception area of the southern California Current Ecosystem. Through the California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecological Research Program, two additional intensive sampling cruises have been conducted on frontal systems in the general region. In 2011 and 2012, paired day and night midwater Matsuda-Oozeki-Hu trawls were conducted at stations located on either side of the fronts and at the fronts themselves, a suite of concurrent observations of the physical environment measured, and lower trophic levels sampled. Using satellite imagery, we estimate front duration of each of the 2008, 2011, and 2012 fronts, and investigate changes to the relative abundance and community composition across these systems, comparing the resolved patterns in 2011 and 2012 to those published from 2008. Results of this work will help address the questions: (1) What are the timescales required for front presence to impact mesopelagic fish communities? (2) Do different types of frontal systems (e.g., an eddy front vs. a "classic" front) result in different patterns of mesopelagic fish abundance and community composition? These answers will provide insight into the mechanisms of accumulation of fishes at fronts. As many mesopelagic fishes are important forage species for oceanic predators, understanding their response to the high productivity frontal systems is key to understanding ecosystem-wide impacts of fronts.

  16. Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in mozambique. ... This study characterizes the population structure and identifies nursery areas and recruitment seasons of penaeid shrimps in the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Enzyme-assisted peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Tem Thi; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    An enzymatic method to facilitate the peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis) was developed. The protease solutions were used to mature the shrimps to promote shell-loosening prior to peeling. The efficiency of peeling enzyme-treated shrimps was evaluated by a new quantitative measurement......L and 0.25% Exocut-A0 for 20 h resulted in the best peeling of shrimps (100% completely peeled shrimps, 3 mJ/g work and 89% meat yield). Reuse of the enzyme solution was possible due to a 95% retention rate of proteolytic activity after two 20-h cycles of maturation. The studied enzymatic maturation...... of shrimp. This approach would benefit the shrimp processing industry by 1) enhancing peeling efficiency that includes least efforts to remove the shell, high rate of completely peeled shrimps and high meat yield; 2) shortening the duration of maturation but still sufficiently loosening the shell...

  18. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  19. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp-a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  20. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  1. Gamma Irradiation for the Inhibition of Shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) Allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jae-Hun; Lee Ju-Woon

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation technology was conducted to reduce shrimp allergy. The experiment was designated in 3 portions as follows; A, the irradiation of raw shrimp; B the irradiation of shrimp and then cooking; and C, cooking the shrimp and then irradiation. Gamma irradiation was done with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy. A shrimp sarcoplasmic protein solution (SSPS) and a myofibrillar protein solution (SMPS) were prepared from A portion. Cooked shrimp protein solutions were also prepared from B and C portions. The binding abilities of the shrimp allergic patients' IgE and mouse monoclonal Ab 4.9.5 (mAb 4.9.5), produced to the shrimp heat-stable protein, to each sample solution were determined by ELISA. Binding abilities of patients' IgE and mAb 4.9.5 to irradiated shrimp fractions were dose-dependently reduced. The cooking treatment after irradiation was more effective than the irradiation treatment after cooking in the reduction of the binding abilities of IgE and IgG. SDS-PAGE was performed to compare irradiated shrimp proteins with non-irradiated shrimp proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that no bands were changed by gamma irradiation. The results indicated that food irradiation with an adequate dose can be reduce allergenicity of shrimp

  2. Intestinal bacterial signatures of white feces syndrome in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dongwei; Huang, Zhijian; Zeng, Shenzheng; Liu, Jian; Wei, Dongdong; Deng, Xisha; Weng, Shaoping; Yan, Qingyun; He, Jianguo

    2018-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota is closely correlated with the host's health status. Thus, a serious disturbance that disrupts the stability of the intestinal microecosystem could cause host disease. Shrimps are one of the most important products among fishery trading commodities. However, digestive system diseases, such as white feces syndrome (WFS), frequently occur in shrimp culture and have led to enormous economic losses across the world. The WFS occurrences are unclear. Here, we compared intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp. Intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp exhibited less diversity but were more heterogeneous than those of healthy shrimp. The intestinal bacterial communities were significantly different between WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp; compared with healthy shrimp, in WFS shrimp, Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Phascolarctobacterium were overrepresented, whereas Paracoccus and Lactococcus were underrepresented. PICRUSt functional predictions indicated that the relative abundances of genes involved in energy metabolism and genetic information processing were significantly greater in WFS shrimp. Collectively, we found that the composition and predicted functions of the intestinal bacterial community were markedly shifted by WFS. Significant increases in Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Phascolarctobacterium and decreases in Paracoccus and Lactococcus may contribute to WFS in shrimp.

  3. The efficacy testing of irradiated shrimp paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, Kovit; Eamsiri, Jaruratana; Sujjabut, Surusak

    2005-10-01

    Two lots of shrimp paste from commercial source in Samutsakhon were irradiated at a recommended minimum dose of 6 kGy using a J S 8900 cobalt-60 carrier gamma irradiator of Thai Irradiation Center in Patum Thani. Red Perspex dosimeter were used to measure the absorbed dose throughout the product with emphasis on the region of minimum and maximum absorbed dose. This way, it was aimed to compare the dose effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory quality of shrimp paste. The results indicated that the shrimp paste received minimum and maximum absorbed dose of 6.85 and 12.83 kGy with dose uniformity ratio of 1.87 . Throughput rate is 468 kilogram per hour. The microbiological load of shrimp paste was rather high resulting in not compliance with Thai industrial standard 1080-2535. Irradiation at 6.8 kGy reduced total viable bacterial count by one log cycle. Although the irradiated product was organoleptic ally acceptable and could be kept for 16 months at room temperature, mold and Clostridium perfringens were still present in some samples after irradiation and during prolonged storage in amount that exceeds the limitation of Thai industrial standard. Chemical properties such as p H, moisture and sodium chloride content of irradiated shrimp paste were not significantly changed after irradiation

  4. Mesopelagic N2 Fixation Related to Organic Matter Composition in the Solomon and Bismarck Seas (Southwest Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Benavides

    Full Text Available Dinitrogen (N2 fixation was investigated together with organic matter composition in the mesopelagic zone of the Bismarck (Transect 1 and Solomon (Transect 2 Seas (Southwest Pacific. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP and the presence of compounds sharing molecular formulae with saturated fatty acids and sugars, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM compounds containing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P were higher on Transect 1 than on Transect 2, while oxygen concentrations showed an opposite pattern. N2 fixation rates (up to ~1 nmol N L-1 d-1 were higher in Transect 1 than in Transect 2, and correlated positively with TEP, suggesting a dependence of diazotroph activity on organic matter. The scores of the multivariate ordination of DOM molecular formulae and their relative abundance correlated negatively with bacterial abundances and positively with N2 fixation rates, suggesting an active bacterial exploitation of DOM and its use to sustain diazotrophic activity. Sequences of the nifH gene clustered with Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, and included representatives from Clusters I, III and IV. A third of the clone library included sequences close to the potentially anaerobic Cluster III, suggesting that N2 fixation was partially supported by presumably particle-attached diazotrophs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR primer-probe sets were designed for three phylotypes and showed low abundances, with a phylotype within Cluster III at up to 103 nifH gene copies L-1. These results provide new insights into the ecology of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and suggest that organic matter sustains their activity in the mesopelagic ocean.

  5. Balancing options for shrimp farming : a landscape approach to investigate the future of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joffre, O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing options for shrimp farming

    A landscape approach to investigate the future of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta

    Olivier Joffre

    While providing an option for development in coastal areas, shrimp farming is usually associated with high environmental

  6. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans

    2004-06-01

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  7. Improvement in Shrimp Hatchery Procedures for Toxicity Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizah Marsiddi; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Anee Suryani Sued

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity testing of brine shrimp Artemia salina Brine shrimp lethality assay is a screening test to determine half the dose mortality (LC50) for its shrimp given certain herbal extract at a concentration tested. The shrimp child mortality half a dose indicator to determine level of toxicity before further testing done on animal cell culture and animal experiments also on the mouse. The use of new hardware, namely Artemio 1 has increased its shrimp production at a rate that more and faster than the use of the black box hatching previously taken from the method by Solis, 1993. brine shrimp eggs from Artemio mix also easier to use because it contains egg and sea salt have been ready mixed for use in experiments. In conclusion, this method improvements help increase the number of offspring produced shrimp and produce experimental method easier than previous methods. (author)

  8. 75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surrogate values for shrimp larvae, diesel fuel, shrimp waste, and by- products. For further... Korean Import Data Comment 3: Shrimp Larvae Comment 4: Shrimp Feed Comment 5: Electricity Comment 6... Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission...

  9. Is the Dutch shrimp fishery sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, H.C.; Daan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The fishery of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon LINNEAUS 1758) is a widespread human activity in the coastal zone. Yet management of this fishery has never been implemented. The question is raised whether an uncontrolled fishery is sustainable or the conceivable ecological stress results in

  10. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  11. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  12. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  13. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation

  14. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  15. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  16. Mesopelagic fish assemblages across oceanic fronts: A comparison of three frontal systems in the southern California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netburn, Amanda N.; Koslow, J. Anthony

    2018-04-01

    With strong horizontal gradients in physical properties, oceanic frontal regions can lead to disproportionately high biological productivity. We examined cross-frontal changes in mesopelagic fish assemblages at three separate frontal systems in the southern California Current Ecosystem (CCE) as part of the CCE Long Term Ecological Research program: the A-Front sampled in October 2008, the C-Front in June/July 2011, and the E-Front in July/August 2012. We analyzed the differential effects of front-associated regions on density and species composition of adult migratory and non-migratory fishes and larvae, and the larval to adult ratio (as a possible index of a population growth potential) for migratory and non-migratory species. The fronts did not have a strong effect on densities of any subset of the mesopelagic fish assemblage. The species composition of the vertical migratory fishes (and their larvae) was typically altered across fronts, with different assemblages present on either side of each front. The migratory assemblages at the fronts themselves were indistinguishable from those at the more productive side of the frontal system. In contrast, the assemblage composition of the non-migratory fishes was indistinguishable between regions across all three of the fronts. The differences between the Northern and Southern assemblages at the A-Front were primarily based on biogeographic provinces, while the assemblages at the E-Front were largely distinguishable by their oceanic or coastal-upwelling zone associations. These results generally confirm those of previous studies on frontal systems in the California Current Ecosystem and elsewhere. The ratio of larvae to adults, a potential index of population growth potential, was altered across two of the fronts for migratory species, elevated on the colder side of the A-Front and the warmer side of the E-Front. This finding suggests that fronts may be regions of enhanced reproduction. The larvae to adult ratio was

  17. A Bio-economic Model of a Shrimp Hatchery in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Sinh, L.X.; MacAulay, T. Gordon; Brennan, Donna C.

    2003-01-01

    Shrimp culture areas and production of the Mekong Delta cover about 60 percent of the total shrimp areas and production of Vietnam. Especially, the Delta contributes about 80 percent of the total shrimp production for export. Rapid development of the shrimp industry is raising a number of serious problems that need to be solved. Shrimp seed supply (post larvae production) plays an essential role in the shrimp industry and it is one of the most important constraints to the development of the s...

  18. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    . Policy to position shrimp farms behind mangroves can be effective but also requires good institutional capacity and coordination, effective enforcement, incentives, land tenure and participation of all stakeholders for success. Better management practices have been identified which reduce impacts......Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents...

  19. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  20. Market integration of cold and warmwater shrimp in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Ståhl, Lisa; Nielsen, Max

    2017-01-01

    ) holds in three of the five cases. For processed shrimp, the LOP holds in three of four integrated cases, and for retail sales in the UK and Denmark, the LOP fails to hold in the presence of market integration. Unprocessed coldwater shrimp leads the market in northern Europe. Downstream, prices adjust......This study examines market integration between the cold and warmwater shrimp value chain in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, and Norway using cointegration methods. For all countries, market integration exists between cold and warmwater unprocessed shrimp imports, where the law of one price (LOP...

  1. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed.

  2. A review of the chemical aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-09-01

    The literature was reviewed for information on the chemical aspects of irradiated shrimp. Low-dose irradiation can effectively control spoilage and pathogenic organisms and extend the refrigerated shelf life of shrimp. Radiation-induced increases in black discoloration occur in some species during storage, but can be minimized by proper blanching. Some loss of the characteristic pink color occurs at doses above 2.5 kGy, and irradiation off-odors occur above 1.5 kGy. These changes can be minimized by irradiating the shrimp when they are frozen. No significant change in protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash content occurs as a result of low-dose irradiation. Low-dose irradiation does not produce any detectable change in the levels of volatile carbonyl compounds; irradiation at 8 kGy results in a transient increase in the total volatile compounds during subsequent storage in ice, but the increase is higher in the unirradiated shrimp. Radiation-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp are small. Some minor changes in the amino acid composition occur in irradiated shrimp; similar changes occur due to other processes such as canning and drying in hot air. Some vitamins in shrimp such as thiamine are affected by irradiation. But the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. The protein efficiency ratio is not affected by irradiation of shrimp, and no adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found in animal feeding studies

  3. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.; Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoolo...

  4. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  5. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  6. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  7. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  8. adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Adesope

    use of check trays and adjustment of feed accordingly (95.0%), formation of ... Key words: adoption, improved aquaculture, shrimp farmers ... Brackish water shrimp farming is getting more attention because of high profitability ..... water and pond water whereas 52.5% of farmers did not observe the actual acclimatisation.

  9. Shrimp Tropomyosin Retains Antibody Reactivity after Exposure to Acidic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrices, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denatura...

  10. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  11. Controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp: a contribution to its improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation deals with controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp. New knowledge about natural reproductive activity of Penaeus occidentalis in Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, is presented. Since in vitro fertilization of open thelycum shrimp proved unsuccessful, a hypothesis is given to

  12. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  13. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  14. Defensive enrolment in mantis shrimp larvae (Malacostraca: Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon

  15. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  16. Population Structure and Recruitment of Penaeid Shrimps from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larger shrimps located in deeper waters (Brito et al.,. 1998; Abdula ... species, the role of the shallow coastal areas (less than 8-10 m) of the ... and define the recruitment season of penaeid shrimps ... later processing in the laboratory. A 0.5 L ...

  17. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  18. Carriage of vibrio species by shrimps harvested from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp in unprocessed shrimps and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Design: A prospective study of Vibrio spp associated with shrimps harvested from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon. Setting: A laboratory based study at the Department of Life Sciences, University ...

  19. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  20. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, the

  1. Trophic interactions of the pelagic ecosystem over the Reykjanes Ridge as evaluated by fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, H.; Gislason, A.; Falk-Petersen, S.; Hop, H.; Svavarsson, J.

    2008-01-01

    Trophic relationships of the important oceanic crustacean species Calanus finmarchicus, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Sergestes arcticus, as well as the mesopelagic fishes Maurolicus muelleri, Benthosema glaciale and Sebastes mentella, were investigated over the Reykjanes Ridge in June 2003 and in June 2004. Measurements were performed of length, wet weight, dry weight, total lipid, lipid class, fatty acid and fatty alcohol profiles and stable isotopes (δ 13C and δ 15N). High amounts of the Calanus lipid markers, 20:1(n-9) and 22:1(n-11) in these species confirm the importance of Calanus spp. in this ecosystem. Comparisons of fatty acid/alcohol profiles by multivariate analysis revealed two main trophic pathways over the Reykjanes Ridge. In one pathway, Calanus spp. was an important part of the diet for the small mesopelagic fish species M. muelleri and B. glaciale and the shrimp S. arcticus, whereas in the other pathway, the euphausiid M. norvegica was the dominant food for the redfish S. mentella, and Calanus spp. were of less importance. M. muelleri and the smaller B. glaciale feed on C. finmarchicus, whereas the larger B. glaciale and S. arcticus select the larger, deeper-living C. hyperboreus. All investigated species are true pelagic species except for the shrimp S. arcticus, which seems to have a benthic feeding habit as well. The δ 15N levels show that of the species investigated, C. finmarchicus occupies the lowest trophic level (2.0) and the redfish, S. mentella, the highest (4.2). All the species were lipid rich, typical for subarctic pelagic ecosystem. Calanus finmarchicus, S. arcticus and B. glaciale store wax esters as their lipid stores, while M. norvegica, M. muelleri and S. mentella store triacylglycerols.

  2. Diversification Patterns of Lanternfishes Reveal Multiple Rate Shifts in a Critical Mesopelagic Clade Targeted for Human Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, John S S

    2018-03-19

    The mesopelagic (midwater) and deep-sea environments together comprise over 90% of the volume of the world ocean [1] and provide services that are only recently becoming recognized [2]. One of the most significant of these services relates to midwater fish biomass, recently estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than the current worldwide fisheries catch [3, 4]. Calls to exploit midwater fish biomass have increased despite warnings about the unknown recovery potential of such organisms [2] and despite existing data suggesting that deep-sea fishes could be classified as endangered [5]. Here, to provide a null model for the respondability of midwater fishes, I use lanternfishes-which comprise the majority of worldwide midwater fish biomass [6]-to examine the diversification response of a critical midwater clade to oceanic changes over evolutionary timescales, including several extinction and turnover events. Using a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based on seven autosomal protein-coding loci, with over 50% species sampling and three ingroup node calibrations, I show that lanternfishes exhibit a continuously increasing diversification rate, consistent with nonequilibrium speciation dynamics, and three major evolutionary rate shift locations with timing that is similar to those of marine clades in more well-known environments. These results suggest that lanternfish diversification patterns overlapped with major events in the physical partitioning of the ocean volume and that the clade has responded positively to a range of pre-Anthropocene extinction drivers [7]. However, lanternfish respondability to modern extinction drivers-habitat loss and overexploitation-is best addressed with populational and ecological data and remains largely unknown. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Mesopelagic: Odontocete Foraging Ecology and Anti-predator Behavior of Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Bird, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    We explored the behavior of Risso's dolphins foraging in scattering layers off California using an integrated approach comprising echosounders deployed in a deep-diving autonomous underwater vehicle, ship based acoustics, visual observations, direct prey sampling, and animal-borne tags on deep-diving predators. We identified three distinct prey layers: a persistent layer around 425 m, a vertically migrating layer around 300 m, and a layer intermittently present near 50 m, all of which were used by individual tagged animals. Active acoustic measurements demonstrated that Risso's dolphins dove to discrete prey layers throughout the day and night with only slightly higher detection rates at night. Dolphins were detected in all three layers during the day with over half of detections in the middle layer, 20% of detections in the deepest layer, and 10% falling outside the main layers. Dolphins were found less frequently in areas where the shallow, intermittent layer was absent, suggesting that this layer, while containing the smallest prey and the lowest densities of squid, was an important component of their foraging strategy. The deepest layer was targeted equally both during the day and at night. Using acoustic data collected from the AUV, we found layers were made up of distinct, small patches of animals of similar size and taxonomy adjacent to contrasting patches. Squid made up over 70% of the patches in which dolphins were found and more than 95% of those in deep water. Squid targeted by dolphins in deep water were also relatively large, indicating significant benefit from these relatively rare, physically demanding dives. Within these patches, prey formed tighter aggregations when Risso's dolphins were present. Careful integration of a suite of traditional and novel tools is providing insight into the ecology and dynamics of predator and prey in the mesopelagic.

  4. Mesopelagic fishes of the Arabian Sea: distribution, abundance and diet of Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis, and Stomias nebulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mari; Bollens, Stephen M.; Burkhalter, Brenda; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich

    Four species of predatory fishes - Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis and Stomias nebulosus - were collected on two cruises to the Arabian Sea during 1995. We present data on the abundances, horizontal and vertical distributions, and diet of these fishes. We also discuss briefly the importance of the oxygen minimum zone and predation on myctophid fishes to the ecology of these mesopelagic predators. Chauliodus pammelas and C. sloani appear to have only partially overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea, with C. pammelas more common to the north and C. sloani more common to the south. Our data support previous results suggesting that diel vertical migration is the norm for these species, with smaller individuals usually nearer to the surface and larger individuals tending to stay deeper. In contrast to Chauliodus, Stomias affinis and S. nebulosus appear to have largely overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea. However, they may have slightly different vertical distributions, with S. affinis living slightly shallower (especially at night) than S. nebulosus. All four species spend most of their time in the oxygen minimum zone, entering the surface oxygenated waters (100-150 m) only at night (if at all). The diets of C. pammelas, C. sloani, and S. affinis consisted mainly of lanternfishes, Myctophidae, and other fishes. In contrast, S. nebulosus, the smaller of the two Stomias species, ate mostly copepods and other crustaceans. This differential feeding may allow the two Stomias species to co-occur. Three of these four stomiids appear to play an important role in predation on myctophid fish populations in the Arabian Sea.

  5. 78 FR 50383 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Republic of Indonesia: Final Negative Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Packing Co., Inc.; Lafitte Frozen Foods Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing); Ocean Springs... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or... Facilities for LTAR 21. Government Provision of Shrimp Breeding Stock and Seed for LTAR 22. Government Loans...

  6. Influence of Thermal Preparation Method on Mineral Composition of Shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Valentin GORAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study goal was to evaluate the effects of 3 different cooking methods (boiling, roasting, and microwaving on mineral concentrations of shrimps from the Bucharest market. Mineral content in shrimp samples was evaluated by ICP-OES, and relative humidity was assessed by thermogravimetry. Cooking method insignificantly influenced the level of Fe. Ca and K levels were higher in cooked samples compared to raw shrimps, independent of cooking method. Essential (Cu, Se, and Zn, and non-essential and toxic (Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb elements levels were significantly increased in boiled shrimps, compared to raw and the other 2 types of cooked samples. Generally, after cooking the lowest values of essential trace elements concentration was registered in roasted samples. The highest percentage of water loss was found in boiled samples. In general, thermal preparation increased mineral concentrations in cooked samples compared to raw shrimps.

  7. Efficient use of shrimp waste: present and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, Prameela; Challa, Murali Mohan; Jyothi, Hemalatha Kalangi Padma

    2012-01-01

    The production of shrimp waste from shrimp processing industries has undergone a dramatic increase in recent years. Continued production of this biomaterial without corresponding development of utilizing technology has resulted in waste collection, disposal, and pollution problems. Currently used chemical process releases toxic chemicals such as HCl, acetic acid, and NaOH into aquatic ecosystem as byproducts which will spoil the aquatic flora and fauna. Environmental protection regulations have become stricter. Now, there is a need to treat and utilize the waste in most efficient manner. The shrimp waste contains several bioactive compounds such as chitin, pigments, amino acids, and fatty acids. These bioactive compounds have a wide range of applications including medical, therapies, cosmetics, paper, pulp and textile industries, biotechnology, and food applications. This current review article present the utilization of shrimp waste as well as an alternative technology to replace hazardous chemical method that address the future trends in total utilization of shrimp waste for recovery of bioactive compounds.

  8. Study on irradiation preservation of frozen shelled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunquan; Zhu Jiating; Zhao Yongfu; Yu Gang; Zhang Weidong; Jin Yudong; Ji Ping

    2004-01-01

    The effect of irradiaiton preservation of frozen shelled shrimps for export was studied. The microbial indexd, nutritional ingredient, physico-chemical index for irradiation frozen shelled shrimps were detected. The results showed that 3-5 kGy irradiation dose could kill more than 99% of all kinds of microorganisms in frozen shelled shrimps, the content of most amino acids in shelled shrimps increased, after being irradiated by 1-9 kGy dose, the total amino acids had been obvisouly higher than CK, the increased range was 0.33%-24.6%, the content of the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) decreased. Compared with the CK, the content of the heavy metal elements etc had no obvious change, the presrvation duration of irradiated shelled shrimp was twelve months longer than that of CK when storage temperature was under -7 degree C soft frozen, Compared with -18 degree C the effect of irradiation preservation had no obvious change. (authors)

  9. Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  10. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Modeling Transfer of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus During Peeling of Raw Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xingning; Pang, Haiying; Wang, Wen; Fang, Weihuan; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to qualify the transfer of Vibrio parahaemolyticus during the shrimp peeling process via gloves under 3 different scenarios. The 1st 2 scenarios provided quantitative information for the probability distribution of bacterial transfer rates from (i) contaminated shrimp (6 log CFU/g) to non-contaminated gloves (Scenario 1) and (ii) contaminated gloves (6 log CFU/per pair) to non-contaminated shrimp (Scenario 2). In Scenario 3, bacterial transfer from contaminated shrimp to non-contaminated shrimp in the shrimp peeling process via gloves was investigated to develop a predictive model for describing the successive bacterial transfer. The range of bacterial transfer rate (%) in Scenarios 1 and 2 was 7% to 91.95% and 0.04% to 12.87%, respectively, indicating that the bacteria can be transferred from shrimp to gloves much easier than that from gloves to shrimp. A Logistic (1.59, 0.14) and Triangle distribution (-1.61, 0.12, 1.32) could be used to describe the bacterial transfer rate in Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. In Scenario 3, a continuously decay patterning with fluctuations as the peeling progressed has been observed at all inoculation levels of the 1st shrimp (5, 6, and 7 log CFU/g). The bacteria could be transferred easier at 1st few peels, and the decreasing bacterial transfer was found in later phase. Two models (exponential and Weibull) could describe the successive bacterial transfer satisfactorily (pseudo-R 2 > 0.84, RMSE peeling process. The bacterial transfer rate distribution and predictive model derived from this work could be used in risk assessment of V. parahaemolyticus to ensure peeled shrimp safety. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Profitability and technical efficiency of Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus Monodon) culture and White leg shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei) culture in Song Song Cau district, Phu Yen province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Hoai An

    2012-01-01

    The research measure the profitability and technical efficiency of Black tiger shrimp farms and White leg shrimp farms in Song Cau district, Phu Yen province, Vietnam. Cross-sectional data of 62 Black tiger shrimp samples and 88 White leg shrimp samples were used for comparison two production systems. The profitability analysis shows that White leg shrimp farms achieved an average profit per hectare of 78,883,209 VND ($3,944.16), which was approximately 4 times as much as Black tiger shrimp f...

  13. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Y Y Wai

    Full Text Available Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1 has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49 and epitope deletion (MED171. Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.

  14. Novel signature fatty acid profile of the giant manta ray suggests reliance on an uncharacterised mesopelagic food source low in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Katherine B; Guerrero, Michel; Marshall, Andrea D; Richardson, Anthony J; Bennett, Mike B; Couturier, Lydie I E

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA) of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton that was collected during feeding and non-feeding events at two aggregation sites off mainland Ecuador. The FA profiles of M. birostris and surface zooplankton were markedly different apart from similar proportions of arachidonic acid, which suggests daytime surface zooplankton may comprise a small amount of dietary intake for M. birostris. The FA profile of M. birostris muscle was found to be depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and instead comprised high proportions of 18:1ω9 isomers. While 18:1ω9 isomers are not explicitly considered dietary FAs, they are commonly found in high proportions in deep-sea organisms, including elasmobranch species. Overall, the FA profile of M. birostris suggests a diet that is mesopelagic in origin, but many mesopelagic zooplankton species also vertically migrate, staying deep during the day and moving to shallower waters at night. Here, signature FA analysis is unable to resolve the depth at which these putative dietary items were consumed and how availability of this prey may drive distribution and movements of this large filter-feeder.

  15. Novel signature fatty acid profile of the giant manta ray suggests reliance on an uncharacterised mesopelagic food source low in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B Burgess

    Full Text Available Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton that was collected during feeding and non-feeding events at two aggregation sites off mainland Ecuador. The FA profiles of M. birostris and surface zooplankton were markedly different apart from similar proportions of arachidonic acid, which suggests daytime surface zooplankton may comprise a small amount of dietary intake for M. birostris. The FA profile of M. birostris muscle was found to be depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and instead comprised high proportions of 18:1ω9 isomers. While 18:1ω9 isomers are not explicitly considered dietary FAs, they are commonly found in high proportions in deep-sea organisms, including elasmobranch species. Overall, the FA profile of M. birostris suggests a diet that is mesopelagic in origin, but many mesopelagic zooplankton species also vertically migrate, staying deep during the day and moving to shallower waters at night. Here, signature FA analysis is unable to resolve the depth at which these putative dietary items were consumed and how availability of this prey may drive distribution and movements of this large filter-feeder.

  16. Foraging behavior and success of a mesopelagic predator in the northeast Pacific Ocean: insights from a data-rich species, the northern elephant seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W Robinson

    Full Text Available The mesopelagic zone of the northeast Pacific Ocean is an important foraging habitat for many predators, yet few studies have addressed the factors driving basin-scale predator distributions or inter-annual variability in foraging and breeding success. Understanding these processes is critical to reveal how conditions at sea cascade to population-level effects. To begin addressing these challenging questions, we collected diving, tracking, foraging success, and natality data for 297 adult female northern elephant seal migrations from 2004 to 2010. During the longer post-molting migration, individual energy gain rates were significant predictors of pregnancy. At sea, seals focused their foraging effort along a narrow band corresponding to the boundary between the sub-arctic and sub-tropical gyres. In contrast to shallow-diving predators, elephant seals target the gyre-gyre boundary throughout the year rather than follow the southward winter migration of surface features, such as the Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front. We also assessed the impact of added transit costs by studying seals at a colony near the southern extent of the species' range, 1,150 km to the south. A much larger proportion of seals foraged locally, implying plasticity in foraging strategies and possibly prey type. While these findings are derived from a single species, the results may provide insight to the foraging patterns of many other meso-pelagic predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  17. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  18. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon in Intensive Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield affected by addition of this species. Final  affected by white legged shrimp addition. No adding effects were found on the water quality parameters. The results indicate that, at densities tested, white legged shrimp addition to the intensive farming of tiger shrimp polyculture is viable as species increase crop production Key words: Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, growth, survival, polyculture

  19. Analyzing the development of Indonesia shrimp industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to analyze the development of shrimp industry in Indonesia. Porter’s Diamond Theory was used for analysis. The Porter’s Diamond theory is one of framework for industry analysis and business strategy development. The Porter’s Diamond theory has five forces that determine the competitive intensity in an industry, namely (1) the threat of substitute products, (2) the threat of competition, (3) the threat of new entrants, (4) bargaining power of suppliers, and (5) bargaining power of consumers. The development of Indonesian shrimp industry pretty good, explained by Porter Diamond Theory analysis. Analysis of Porter Diamond Theory through four main components namely factor conditions; demand condition; related and supporting industries; and firm strategy, structure and rivalry coupled with a two-component supporting (regulatory the government and the factor of chance). Based on the result of this research show that two-component supporting (regulatory the government and the factor of chance) have positive. Related and supporting industries have negative, firm and structure strategy have negative, rivalry has positive, factor condition have positive (except science and technology resources).

  20. Determination of Contamination Profiles of Human Bacterial Pathogens in Shrimp Obtained from Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanti-Hariyadi, R. [Center for Assessment of Traditional Foods, Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Bogor Agricultural University (Indonesia); Suliantari,; Nuraida, L. [Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (Indonesia); Fardiaz, S. [Inter University for Food and Nutrition, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-01-15

    Shrimp continues to be an important export commodity for Indonesia and contributed significantly to the country’s revenue. However, shrimp exports have been frequently rejected by importing countries due to filth, Salmonella and insanitary conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the profiles of bacterial contamination of ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the area of West, Central and East Java; frozen shrimp and shrimp during industry production of frozen shrimp. The study indicated that both ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area were heavily contaminated. On the average, shrimp obtained from West Java were more contaminated than those obtained from East and Central Java. The total bacterial counts were generally higher in ocean shrimp than those of aquaculture ones. Salmonella was present in two of 32 samples of ocean shrimp and in four of 32 samples of aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area. Vibrio cholerae was not detected in shrimp from West Java, but was found in three out of 16 samples obtained from East and Central Java. V. parahaemolyticus was frequently identified in aquaculture shrimp but absent in fresh ocean shrimp. Studies on shrimp collected from six sampling points during frozen shrimp production revealed that processing will reduce the number of total bacterial, E. coli, and Staphylococal counts. However, the processing did not effectively reduce the incidence of Salmonella or V. parahaemolyticus when the raw material has been contaminated with the pathogens. Sizing and grading as well as arrangement of shrimp before freezing were considered as the critical points where bacteria should be controlled to inhibit growth and cross contamination with bacteria such as Listeria. Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in production of raw shrimp as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point at the line processing are expected to improve the quality of fresh and frozen shrimp. (author)

  1. Greater epitope recognition of shrimp allergens by children than by adults suggests that shrimp sensitization decreases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Rosalía; Sánchez-Garcia, Silvia; Lin, Jing; Fu, Zhiyan; Ibáñez, María Dolores; Carrillo, Teresa; Blanco, Carlos; Goldis, Marina; Bardina, Ludmila; Sastre, Joaquín; Sampson, Hugh A

    2010-06-01

    Shellfish allergy is a long-lasting disorder typically affecting adults. Despite its high prevalence, there is limited information about allergenic shrimp proteins and the epitopes implicated in such allergic reactions. We sought to identify the IgE-binding epitopes of the 4 shrimp allergens and to characterize epitope recognition profiles of children and adults with shrimp allergy. Fifty-three subjects, 34 children and 19 adults, were selected with immediate allergic reactions to shrimp, increased shrimp-specific serum IgE levels, and positive immunoblot binding to shrimp. Study subjects and 7 nonatopic control subjects were tested by means of peptide microarray for IgE binding with synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the sequences of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp tropomyosin, arginine kinase (AK), myosin light chain (MLC), and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SCP). The Wilcoxon test was used to determine significant differences in z scores between patients and control subjects. The median shrimp IgE level was 4-fold higher in children than in adults (47 vs 12.5 kU(A)/L). The frequency of allergen recognition was higher in children (tropomyosin, 81% [94% for children and 61% for adults]; MLC, 57% [70% for children and 31% for adults]; AK, 51% [67% for children and 21% for adults]; and SCP, 45% [59% for children and 21% for adults]), whereas control subjects showed negligible binding. Seven IgE-binding regions were identified in tropomyosin by means of peptide microarray, confirming previously identified shrimp epitopes. In addition, 3 new epitopes were identified in tropomyosin (epitopes 1, 3, and 5b-c), 5 epitopes were identified in MLC, 3 epitopes were identified in SCP, and 7 epitopes were identified in AK. Interestingly, frequency of individual epitope recognition, as well as intensity of IgE binding, was significantly greater in children than in adults for all 4 proteins. Children with shrimp allergy have greater shrimp-specific IgE antibody levels and

  2. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  3. Elimination of Chloramphenicol by Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon and White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAP has been illegally used in many shrimp farms in South East Asia, including Indonesia. We performed an experiment of elimination simulation of CAP in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. After 5 days of depuration process, the concentration of CAP in P. monodon decreased to 94.85% (muscle, 97.98% (cephalothoraxes, and 90.30% (exoskeleton. The elimination half-life of CAP in P monodon was 0.596 day in the muscle, 0.716 day in cephalothorax, and 0.437 day in exoskeleton. On the other hand, concentrations of CAP in L. vannamei decreased to 97.74% (muscle, 90.30% (cephalothoraxes, and 97.63% (exoskeleton. The elimination half-life of CAP in L. vannamei was 0.6624 day (muscle, 0.859 day (cephalothorax, and 0.796 day (exoskeleton. CAP was retained better by P. monodon compared to L. vannamei.

  4. Development of shrimp in small ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Adolfo Ortega Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in small ponds ( 6 m3 in fresh water (2-3‰ and seawater; ponds 3.66 x 1.65 x 1.0 m; availability of fresh water, sea water, aeration and drainage. Two cycles of three months each were made. The postlarvae were acclimated to seawater fresh water in four days. Four hundred postlarvas/m3 were seeded in freshwater pond and 500 in the pool of seawater. First, a culture of Daphnia magna in the freshwater pond, also appeared chyronomid larvae; Artemia cysts were seeded in sea water as a dietary supplement. The shrimp were fed Camaronina (25% protein at libitum, daily; is offered on a tray of food; the temperature ranged between 27 and 30° C, oxygen 4.26 ± 1.43 mg / L , pH between 7 and 8 . Detritus siphoned every third day. Water changes between 10 and 20% are often performed. The feed conversion rate (FCR was 1:1.3 . The shrimp were measured in length and weight to calculate weekly growth by Bertalanffy model. Survival in the first cycle was 95.8 , and 97.9% for the second cycle. In seawater parameters of the population of the first cycle were k = 0.0301, L ∞ = 322.16 and t0 = -0.8852, the second cycle of k = 0.0203, L ∞ = 294.42 and t0 = -5.3771. The biomass of 27 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. Freshwater population parameters of the first cycle were k = 0.0957, L ∞ = 146.98 and t0 = - 0.93; in the second cycle of k = 0.0172 , L ∞ = 367.82 and t0 = - 4.60. The biomass of 26 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. The results indicate a rapid growth during the first 10 weeks. In small ponds can be handled well aseptic conditions without disease problems, good crop was obtained.

  5. When and How to Worry about OA: Greenland Shrimp Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We use a bio-economic model of the Greenland shrimp fishery to study potential ocean acidification (OA) impacts in arctic resources. Predicted changes in pH in Baffin Bay describe an anticipated though uncertain drop. Efforts to understand changes in shrimp quantity/ quality from OA reflect...... significant uncertainty and ambiguity about direction and magnitude. Estimates on change in growth parameters show a small, statistically insignificant drop that creates expectation of only limited direct biological shifts in the bio-economic model. Indirect changes to shrimp populations in Baffin Bay from...... climate change are anticipated due to expected declines in primary production that then result in equivalent reductions in secondary production, but the range could be positive or negative. Thus, the scientific findings on the OA impacts for shrimp are sufficiently ambiguous that our results find...

  6. 2008 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected data on the economic performance of active commercial shrimp harvesters who primarily operated in inshore waters of western Florida,...

  7. Genetic diversity and historical demography of kuruma shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of kuruma shrimp ( Penaeus japonicus ) species complex off China based on ... of 454-bp at 5' end of mitochondrial DNA control region were conducted. ... analyses suggested a late Pleistocene population expansion for both variety I ...

  8. Sustainable shrimp farming in India - Prospects and challenges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Shrimp farming has grown into a multi-crore industry in India. It has vast potential for further expansion. However, this growing industry needs to develop appropriate indigenous technologies in specific areas to make it a sustainable and profitable...

  9. Physicochemical changes in minimal ozone-treated fresh shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh shrimp were evaluated tandem with microbiological efficacy of treatment during iced storage of up to 10 days. Safely discharged from commercially available domestic-type ozone facility, a previously defined minimal ozone treatment ...

  10. Commercially important penaeid shrimp larvae in the estuaries of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Larval stages of the penaeid shrimps, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (Milne - Edwards) and Penaeus merguiensis De Man were mostly distributed at the lower reaches of Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. While larvae of M. dobsoni and M. affinis...

  11. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahdi

    2011-02-25

    Feb 25, 2011 ... improvement of brood stock management will assist shrimp breeders to ... heterozygosity; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; MFA, most ... wild females for the supply of juveniles. ... according to the manufacturer's instruction.

  12. Job satisfaction in the shrimp trawl fisheries of Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bavinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However...

  13. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of comme......Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility...

  14. Price transmission in the trans-atlantic northern shrimp value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Staahl, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    affect northern shrimp fisheries. In this paper, price transmission in the trans-Atlantic northern shrimp value chain is analysed using a Vector Auto Regressive model in Error Correction form. Cointegration, the Law of One Price (LOP) and weak exogeneity are tested. The results reveal linkages from......Recent research has found that markets for farmed shrimp and wild-caught northern shrimp in Europe are integrated, indicating that northern shrimp prices are affected by total supply and demand of shrimp. Thus, the continued growth of global aquaculture production and associated price decline...

  15. North Kalimantan is Free From EMS (Early Mortality Syndrome) in the Shrimps

    OpenAIRE

    Lestiawan, Sab; Jati, Nugroho Sasongko; Wiro, Hermas

    2014-01-01

    The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) or also known worldwide as early mortility syndrome (EMS) is very dangerous for the shrimps industry since it really strikes the shrimps by larvae size. The EMS attacks shrimps at 20 to 30 days of age and at 40 days of age as well. All the shrimps that are being infected will be dead righ away. The EMS has caused the significant economic losses in the shrimps industry due to the mass mortality of the shrimps in Vietnam (in the years of 2010...

  16. Changes in fecal pellet characteristics with depth as indicators of zooplankton repackaging of particles in the mesopelagic zone of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephanie E.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Buesseler, Ken O.

    2008-07-01

    We investigated how fecal pellet characteristics change with depth in order to quantify the extent of particle repackaging by mesopelagic zooplankton in two contrasting open-ocean systems. Material from neutrally buoyant sediment traps deployed in the summer of 2004 and 2005 at 150, 300, and 500 m was analyzed from both a mesotrophic (Japanese time-series station K2) and an oligotrophic (Hawaii Ocean Time series—HOT station ALOHA) environment in the Pacific Ocean as part of the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) project. We quantified changes in the flux, size, shape, and color of particles recognizable as zooplankton fecal pellets to determine how these parameters varied with depth and location. Flux of K2 fecal pellet particulate organic carbon (POC) at 150 and 300 m was four to five times higher than at ALOHA, and at all depths, fecal pellets were two to five times larger at K2, reflective of the disparate zooplankton community structure at the two sites. At K2, the proportion of POC flux that consisted of fecal pellets generally decreased with depth from 20% at 150 m to 5% at 500 m, whereas at ALOHA this proportion increased with depth (and was more variable) from 14% to 35%. This difference in the fecal fraction of POC with increasing depth is hypothesized to be due to differences in the extent of zooplankton-mediated fragmentation (coprohexy) and in zooplankton community structure between the two locations. Both regions provided indications of sinking particle repackaging and zooplankton carnivory in the mesopelagic. At ALOHA, this was reflected in a significant increase in the mean flux of larvacean fecal pellets from 150 to 500 m of 3-46 μg C m -2 d -1, respectively, and at K2 a large peak in larvacean mean pellet flux at 300 m of 3.1 mg C m -2 d -1. Peaks in red pellets produced by carnivores occurred at 300 m at K2, and a variety of other fecal pellet classes showed significant changes in their distribution with depth. There was also

  17. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  18. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE AND COMPETITIVE CLUSTER FOR SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas M. Fauzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampung Vannamei as shrimp cluster is being developed since 2004 by PT CP Prima, tbk Surabaya through Shrimp Culture Health Management transformation technology to several traditional farmers in Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Madura areas. The research objectives aims to identify and mapping of stakeholder, to analyze interaction of stakeholders, to formulate strategy from internal and external environment factors and to set priority on strategy to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster in the Kampung vannamei. Primary data was collected through stakeholders’ discussion forums, questionnaires, and interviews with relevant actors. Observations to the business unit also performed to determine the production and business conditions, particularly in capturing information about the threat and challenges. While the secondary data is used in policy documents national and local area statistics, and relevant literature. Analyses were performed by using the SRI International cluster pyramid, diamond porter’s analysis, SWOT and Matrix TOWS analysis, and analytical hierarchy process. Analyses were performed by the methods discussed in qualitative and descriptive. There are 7 strategies could be implemented to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster. However, it is recommended to implement the strategy base on priority, which the first priority is strategy to improve linkages between businesses in the upstream and downstream industries into multi stakeholders’ platform in shrimp industry.Keywords: Shrimp, Cluster, Competitiveness, Diamond Porter, SWOT Analysis, AHP

  19. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Intensive Farming

    OpenAIRE

    . Tarsim

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield af...

  20. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  1. Relationships between otolith size and fish size in some mesopelagic and bathypelagic species from the Mediterranean Sea (Strait of Messina, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Battaglia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationships and the regressions between otolith size (length and width and fish length of some mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes living in the central Mediterranean Sea were provided. Images and morphological description of otoliths (sagittae from 16 species belonging to the families of Gonostomatidae (1, Microstomatidae (2, Myctophidae (8, Phosichthyidae (2, Sternoptychidae (2 and Stomiidae (1 were given. The length-weight relationship showed an isometric growth in 13 species. No differences between right and left otolith sizes were detected by t-test, so a single linear regression was plotted against standard length (SL for otolith length (OL and otolith width (OW. Data fitted well to the regression model for both OL and OW to SL, for each species (R2 > 0.8. These relationships offer a helpful tool in feeding studies and also provide support to palaeontologists in their research on fish fossils.

  2. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  3. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...

  4. Simulating environmental effects on brown shrimp production in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a commercially important fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Young shrimp settle in estuarine salt marsh...

  5. Economic Data Collection for Gulf of Mexico South Atlantic Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Economic Survey of Federal Gulf and Atlantic Shrimp Permit Holders collects data about operating expenses and costs of owning and maintaining shrimp...

  6. Use of slaughter house waste as a feed for shrimps and prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments with some shrimps and fishes (Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus dobsoni, Sarotherodon mossambicus and Etroplus suratensis) using slaughter house waste as food, showed that the shrimps and arotherodon were able to utilize...

  7. Effect of irradiation on nutrient quality of the frozen shelled shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Liu Bojing

    2004-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on nutrient quality including amino acids, protein, fatty acids, Vitamin A, and Vitamin E in the refrigerated shelled sea shrimp and river shrimp were studied. The results showed that there was no significant change on protein, fatty acids and amino acids of irradiation 2kGy at shrimps compared with the non-irradiated shrimp. Vitamin A, and Vitamin E were decreased with the increasing of dose

  8. Impact of value chain governance on the development of small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. H. Ho; P. Burny

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to identify the tendency of shrimp value chain development and impact of its governance on the small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach - Data from the shrimp farmers surveys in Mekong delta, Vietnam from 2008-2010 with the update information in 2014 were taken to analyse by the value chain analysis method. Findings – Traditional governance type of the shrimp value chain in the early state (before 2004) showed the different levels of coordina...

  9. Impact of value chain governance on the development of small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Thi Minh, Hop; Burny, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to identify the tendency of shrimp value chain development and impact of its governance on the small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach - Data from the shrimp farmers surveys in Mekong delta, Vietnam from 2008-2010 with the update information in 2014 were taken to analyse by the value chain analysis method. Findings – Traditional governance type of the shrimp value chain in the early state (before 2004) showed the different levels of co...

  10. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher levels of investment, has left coastal resources in the Mekong Delta increasingly vulnerable to rapid changes in land and resource use. The shrimp industry, made up of multiple stakeholders and fragmente...

  11. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  12. Analysis of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on Vannamei Shrimp using binary logit model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviana, P. P.; Fithriasari, K.

    2018-04-01

    Mostly Indonesian citizen consume vannamei shrimp as their food. Vannamei shrimp also is one of Indonesian exports comodities mainstay. Vannamei shrimp in the ponds and markets could be contaminated by Salmonella sp bacteria. This bacteria will endanger human health. Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp could be affected by many factors. This study is intended to identify what factors that supposedly influence the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp. The researchers used the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp as response variable. This response variable has two categories: 0 = if testing result indicate that there is no Salmonella sp on vannamei shrimp; 1 = if testing result indicate that there is Salmonella sp on vannamei shrimp. There are four factors that supposedly influence the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp, which are the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on farmer hand swab; the subdistrict of vannamei shrimp ponds; the fish processing unit supplied by; and the pond are in hectare. This four factors used as predictor variables. The analysis used is Binary Logit Model Approach according to the response variable that has two categories. The analysis result indicates that the factors or predictor variables which is significantly affect the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp are the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on farmer hand swab and the subdistrict of vannamei shrimp ponds.

  13. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope of this order. In addition, food... to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based...

  14. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Shrimp Co.; JBS Packing Co., Inc.; Lafitte Frozen Foods Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing... prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...

  15. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope of this order. In addition, food... subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp...

  16. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system,

  17. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher

  18. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  19. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  20. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  1. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National... under the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... and Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application...

  2. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National... under the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application and...

  3. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina

  4. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-893, A-549-822, A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's... certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and... Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final...

  5. 78 FR 50381 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing); Ocean Springs Seafood Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or... Zones 12. Provision of Seed and Fry for LTAR 13. Loans Under the Fund for Food Program 14. Loans Under...

  6. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon THROUGH PROBIOTICS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyaphiani Insan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  7. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  8. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Luz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100 Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Magnetically tunable oil droplet lens of deep-sea shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaka, M.; Hirota, N.; Oba, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the tunable properties of a bio-lens from a deep-sea shrimp were investigated for the first time using magnetic fields. The skin of the shrimp exhibited a brilliantly colored reflection of incident white light. The light reflecting parts and the oil droplets in the shrimp's skin were observed in a glass slide sample cell using a digital microscope that operated in the bore of two superconducting magnets (maximum strengths of 5 and 13 T). In the ventral skin of the shrimp, which contained many oil droplets, some comparatively large oil droplets (50 to 150 μm in diameter) were present. A distinct response to magnetic fields was found in these large oil droplets. Further, the application of the magnetic fields to the sample cell caused a change in the size of the oil droplets. The phenomena observed in this work indicate that the oil droplets of deep sea shrimp can act as lenses in which the optical focusing can be modified via the application of external magnetic fields. The results of this study will make it possible to fabricate bio-inspired soft optical devices in future.

  10. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  11. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  12. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p [es

  13. Ecological generalism facilitates the evolution of sociality in snapping shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Katherine C; Maia, Rafael; Duffy, J Emmett; Hultgren, Kristin M; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Detection of irradiation in cuticles of commercial shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Food has more and more orders for detection of irradiation in shrimps. A method adapted to achieve detection of irradiation in this material is a thermoluminescence measure. However, the procedure is time-consuming - needs several days to receive the result. The aim of presented study was to elaborate the EPR examination of the possible irradiation in this product. As a result od the performed studies it can be concluded, that the EPR measurement of cuticles of shrimps can be adapted as the preliminary, screening test proving the irradiation of shrimp. It has to be stressed, however, that the lack of a specific, hydroxyapatite born EPR signal in the spectrum cannot suggest that sample was not irradiated

  15. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  16. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  17. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  18. Ozone Disinfection of Vibrio vulnificus in Shrimp Pond Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Cahya Julyta Putri, Echa; Wulansarie, Ria; Suryanto, Agus

    2018-03-01

    One variety of shrimp, L.Vanamei, often uses brackish water during the operation in the shrimp pond. Chlorination and ultraviolet are usually used for disinfection of brackish water. However, it is ineffective and forms sediment in the water distribution. It can be a negative impact on the water quality cause a contamination on the shrimp, so the farmers might have loss of profit because Vibrio vulnificus causes infection and dead on the shrimp. It affects the safety of consumers and should be minimized. The purpose of this study is to reduce the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the pond water. The water was put in the storage tanks then pumped to filter out the impurities of the water. Furthermore, the water set the flow rate in 1 LPM, 2 LPM, and 3 LPM. After that, the ozone was injected to the water flow to sterilize the V. vulnificus bacteria. Finally, the water was returned to the original tank. The water from the tank was taken through a valve and analyzed in 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24, 30 minutes. The sample was analyzed immediately using a Total Plate Count method to determine the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the shrimp pond water. The flow rate shows that the longer time of ozone made a lower amount of Vibrio v. bacteria. In 2 LPM water, it shows the optimum results of V. vulnificus. bacteria reduction for 88.1% compared to the flow rate of 1 LPM and 3 LPM with the bacteria reduction of 68,8% and 70.6%. This study shows that the ozone with a flow rate of 2 LPM circulation is the most effective method to help reducing the number of V. vulnificus in brackish water distribution system in the shrimp environment and potentially as a disinfectant.

  19. Effect of irradiation on biochemistry properties of shrimp allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Kefei; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong; Li Shurong; Pan Jiarong

    2007-01-01

    Study on the effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at the dose of 0,3,5,7,10 kGy on shrimp allergen biochemistry properties was conducted. The results indicated that the allergen protein molecule can be broken down to smaller molecules or coagulated to larger molecules by irradiation. The hydrophobicity and turbidity of irradiated allergen increased with the increase of absorbed dose. The results also show that allergen solution is more sensitive to irradiation than allergen in solid state or in the whole shrimp. (authors)

  20. Analysis of the sulphite content in shrimps and prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are redefined in European legislation (EC Regulation No. 1333/2008. Sulphur dioxide (E220 and sulphite (E221- E228 are widely used in food processing as preservatives because they slow down bacterial growth on foods and prevent oxidation or browning developing on shrimp and lobster. Shellfish processors, farmers and fishermen have long used sulfiting agents in a variety of species of warm and coldwater crustaceans as a treatment to prevent prawns and shrimps melanosis (blackspot, which is a natural process that makes the shell black after harvesting caused by Polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. Sulfite-induced hypersensitivity is the most well-established adverse response in humans to this food additive. In the present study the presence of sulfites in different frozen and thawed shrimp and prawn species belonging to Penaeoidea superfamily has been evaluated by the Monier-Williams procedure, in order to carry out a risk assessment and evaluate the levels of consumer exposure to this class of additives from these fish products. In addition to assessing and monitoring the correct use of the additive, according to the limits imposed by the European regulations, the correct consumer information on labels was also evaluated. Analysis were performed on both whole shrimp (shell on and inedible parts (head and peeled shell. Sulphites concentration in frozen samples (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 214±17.43 for head on shell on shrimps; 170.73±14.99 for shell on headless shrimps; 112.90±27.55 for peeled and deveined shrimps. Thawed shrimps were purchased at mass retailers channel and local fish markets and local seafood retailers and purveyors: for these samples, all head on shell on, the sulphites concentration (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 160.05±26.15 and 292.54±146.04, respectively. Non-edible parts showed, in all samples, much higher concentrations.

  1. SHRIMP MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN ECUADOR: SOME RESOURCE POLICY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    During the past 15 years, Ecuador has become the Western Hemisphere's leading producer and exporter of shrimp. Growth has come about largely through mariculture development. About 8,000 metric tons (MT) of shrimp have been captured off the Ecuadorian coast each year since the late 1970s. Meanwhile, pond output has increased several-fold, from less than 5,000 MT in 1979 to over 100,000 MT 12 years later (Table 1). Mariculture has expanded largely at the expense of renewable natural resources. ...

  2. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora...

  3. A quantitative method to measure and evaluate the peelability of shrimps (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Dang, Tem Thi; Orlien, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    A novel, standardized method has been developed in order to provide a quantitative description of shrimp peelability. The peeling process was based on the measure of the strength of the shell-muscle attachment of the shrimp using a texture analyzer, and calculated into the peeling work. The self......-consistent method, insensitive of the shrimp size, was proven valid for assessment of ice maturation of shrimps. The quantitative peeling efficiency (peeling work) and performance (degree of shell removal) showed that the decrease in peeling work correlated with the amount of satisfactory peeled shrimps, indicating...... an effective weakening of the shell-muscle attachment. The developed method provides the industry with a quantitative analysis for measurement of peeling efficiency and peeling performance of shrimps. It may be used for comparing different maturation conditions in relation to optimization of shrimps peeling....

  4. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  6. Juvenile Penaeid Shrimp Density, Spatial Distribution and Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of habitat characteristics (mangrove creek, sandflat, mudflat and seagrass meadow) water salinity, temperature, and depth on the density, spatial distribution and size distribution of juveniles of five commercially important penaied shrimp species (Metapenaus monoceros, M. stebbingi, Fenneropenaeus indicus, ...

  7. Primary carbon sources for juvenile penaeid shrimps in a mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a variety of primary producers (mangroves, epiphytes, phytoplankton and seagrasses), sediments and in five penaeid shrimp species (Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) indicus, P. japonicus, P. semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros and M. stebbingi), collected ...

  8. Absorption and retention of selenium from shrimps in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, S. H.; Sandstrom, B.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the bioavailability of selenium in shrimps, a possible good source of selenium, by measurements of the absorption and retention of selenium and the effects on plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Twelve healthy young subjects (9F...... of the study, after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The selenium intake increased from 39.4 +/- 15.3 mug/d to 127 +/- 5.5 mug/d with the addition of shrimps. The apparent absorption of selenium from shrimps was 83 +/- 4%, Faecal and urinary selenium excretion was 32.5 +/- 17.0 mug/d and 21.2 +/- 9.0 mug/d, re spectively...... and the total retention of selenium was 3.1 +/- 1.1 mg. Plasma selenium concentrations were 95.2 +/- 9.7 mug/L and 101.5 +/- 9.7 mug/L before and after six weeks of shrimp intake, respectively (p...

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  10. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  11. A new alpheid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from South Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyên Van Xuân,

    2001-01-01

    A new alpheid shrimp, Thuylamea camelus gen. nov. & spec. nov., from Dong Hoa, a coastal community of Can Gio district, and northwest of Vung Tau (Cap St. Jacques), Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new genus appears not to be closely related to any of the previously described genera. It

  12. Lunar Cycles, Catchability of Penaeid Shrimps and Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Penaeidae, fishing effort, lunar phases, profitability, spatial closures. ... closures during periods of the lunar cycle with predictably low catch-per- ... each lunar phase and month using two-way ANOVA. ... shrimps, for which the CPUE declined throughout the fishing season ... (Garcia, 1988) and abundance of.

  13. Toward Improved Environmental and Social Management of Indian Shrimp Farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, Indian shrimp aquaculture production tripled from 30,000 tons (1990) to 102,000 tons (1999). This fast development, combined with a lack of adequate planning and regulation, caused a number of environmental problems and social conflicts, including conversion of mangroves, water

  14. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in Malaysia using six microsatellite markers (CSCUPmo1, CSCUPmo2, CSCUPmo3, CSCUPmo4, CSCUPmo6 and CSCUPmo7). The mean numbers of allele, observed heterozygosis, ...

  15. Population structure and expansion of kuruma shrimp ( Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence analyses on the specific intron from the elongation factor-1α gene were conducted to examine the population genetic structure and expansion of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) off Taiwan. Five populations including 119 individuals were separately sampled from the north of East China Sea (ECS), west of ...

  16. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  17. Authenticating the origin of different shrimp products on the Tunisian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAIS

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... methods (with various modifications) and the use of commercial kit such as Chelex ... Authenticity determination of prawn and shrimp species in commercial frozen, pre-cooked products. .... primers have equal length (23 nucleotides), GC content ..... Temperatures in Diffusion-Generated Chemical Gradients.

  18. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  19. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Levels of PAHs in shrimps, Penaeus monodon from Jones Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High concentrations were recorded during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. The investigated samples were classified as minimally contaminated when compared with FDA levels of PAHs in shrimp samples. Distribution patterns showed that PAHs with 3 and 4 rings dominated confirming the pyrogenic ...

  1. Fishing methods for sustainable shrimp fisheries in the Canary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past 20 years, experimental cruises have been conducted around the Canary Islands (North-West Africa) to investigate the biodiversity of the deep-sea ecosystem and to explore new fisheries resources. Although pandalid shrimps were shown to be very abundant in this region, information is lacking regarding ...

  2. Job satisfaction in the shrimp trawl fisheries of Chennai, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members

  3. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de K.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays

  4. Biological activity of Penaeus monodon GILT in shrimp pathogen protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aekkaraj Nualla-ong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT contains a CXXC active site motif that possesses thiol reductase activity by catalyzing the disulfide bond reduction of exogenous antigens. Mutating the active site of human GILT to change the cysteine residues to serine residues eliminates this property. Our previous study reported that Penaeus monodon GILT (PmGILT contained a CXXS active site motif. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity of PmGILT and demonstrated that it displayed identical thiol reductase activity at an acidic pH. In addition, the biological activity of PmGILT against shrimp pathogens, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Gram-negative bacteria, was investigated. The neutralization of WSSV with PmGILT indicated the inhibition of WSSV invasion into shrimp hemocyte cells. Moreover, the relative percentage survival of shrimp injected with PmGILT-treated virus solution was 75%. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of PmGILT was confirmed by the growth inhibition of Vibrio harveyi. These results establish the role of PmGILT in the inhibition of the virulence of two major shrimp pathogens.

  5. Characterization of myosin light chain in shrimp hemocytic phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2010-11-01

    Myosin light chain, a well-known cytoskeleton gene, regulates multiple processes that are involved in material transport, muscle shrink and cell division. However, its function in phagocytosis against invading pathogens in crustacean remains unknown. In this investigation, a myosin light chain gene was obtained from Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The full-length cDNA of this gene was of 766 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 462 bp encoding a polypeptide of 153 amino acids. The myosin light chain protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Subsequently the specific antibody was raised using the purified GST fusion protein. As revealed by immuno-electron microscopy, the myosin light chain protein was only expressed in the dark bands of muscle. In the present study, the myosin light chain gene was up-regulated in the WSSV-resistant shrimp as revealed by real-time PCR and western blot. And the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index using FITC-labeled Vibrio parahemolyticus were remarkably increased in the WSSV-resistant shrimp, suggesting that the myosin light chain protein was essential in hemocytic phagocytosis. On the other hand, RNAi assays indicated that the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index were significantly decreased when the myosin light chain gene was silenced by sequence-specific siRNA. These findings suggested that myosin light chain protein was involved in the regulation of hemocytic phagocytosis of shrimp. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DIAGNOSIS OF SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rangel Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With a technical approach, this diagnosis aims to fill a gap in the overview of the activity, considering its technical aspects that manage the fishing effort of shrimping of Penambuco. From October 2013 to August 2014, the fishing grounds were identified used in this activity, as well as the fishing method, the number of boats and fishermen acting, type of boat and gears used. Analyses were performed with the major communities operating in this fishery (Recife, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Barra de Sirinhaém and São Jose da Coroa Grande. The analyzes of the catch were tested using one-way ANOVA (α 5%. They observed two traditional types: the beach seining and trawing. It was cataloged about 50 vessels in the activity, with approximately 100 fishermen. They are caught mainly three types of shrimp: pink (Farfantepenaeus spp., Seabob (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and white (Lithopenaeus schmitii. Statistical data concentrated in the metropolitan area of Recife and Barra de Sirinhaém. There seems to be a direct relationship rainfall with shrimp production because with increased rainfall, there is a higher volume of landing fishery. Barra de Sirinhaém is the main area used in the State. Keywords: ‘mangote’; trawling fishing; pink shrimp; Farfantepenaeus spp.

  7. Histological characterization of peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata wurdemanni) androgenic gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) is an important endocrine gland for male reproductive function in crustaceans. In the present study, we investigated the histological characteristics of the androgenic gland of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni. The peppermint shrimp matures as male first, then some individuals may become euhermaphrodite after several moltings (transitional phase). Euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp acts as male at intermolts. However, it can be fertilized as a female immediately after molting. Considering the male reproductive function acts in its lifespan except for at larval stages, and female reproductive system starts to develop at transitional phase, we hypothesized that AG activity might be reduced to allow and promote vitellogenesis onset in early transitional phase and the following euhermaphrodite phase. So AG cell structure might be different in three phases in L. wurdemanni. The results showed that AG exists in the male in transitional and euhermaphrodite phases. The gland cell clusters surrounding the ejaculatory ducts locate at the roots of the fifth pereopods. The nucleus diameters are similar in the three phases while the nucleus- to-cell ratio is the lowest in euhermaphrodite phase. Our results indicated that for the individuals that will become euhermaphrodite, the cellular structure of AG changes since transitional phase. Male reproductive function which is still available in euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp should be due to the existence of the gland.

  8. Chitosan from shrimp shell ( Crangon crangon ) and fish scales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chitosan is a naturally available biopolymer. It has been prepared by alkaline N deacetylation process of shrimp (Crangon crangon) chitin and fish (Labeorohita) chitin. The physico-chemical properties such as the degree of deacetylation (DD), solubility, water binding capacity, fat binding capacity and chitosan yield have ...

  9. Authenticating the Origin of Different Shrimp Products on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a polymerase chain reaction using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene to identify commercial food products of wide range of Penaeidae and Pandalidae shrimp species commercialised in the Tunisian market. Phylogenetic analyses ...

  10. Physicochemical Characterization of Biopolymer Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaddin Mengelizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin, which is a naturally abundant mucopolysaccharide, supporting the matter of crustaceans, insects, and fungi. Because of its unique properties, such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, chitosan has a wide range of applications in various fields. The objective of the present work is to extract the polymer chitosan from Persian Gulf shrimp shells. In order to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the extracted chitosan, degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, water and fat binding capacities extraction rate, and apparent viscosity were measured using a variety of techniques including viscometry, weight measurement method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results of the study of the physicochemical properties, molecular weight (6.7×105 Da, degree of deacetylation (57%, ash content as well as yield (0.5% of the prepared chitosan indicated that shrimp processing wastes (shrimp shells are a good source of chitosan. The water binding capacity (521% and fat binding capacity (327% of the prepared chitosan are in good agreement with the other studies. The elemental analysis showed the C, H and N contents of 35.92%, 7.02%, and 8.66%, respectively. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of chitosan was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated the high potential of chitosan as an antibacterial agent. Moreover, the results of the study indicated that shrimp shells are a rich source of chitin as 25.21% of the shell’s dry weight.

  11. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  12. Observation of a Gelatinous Octopod, Haliphron atlanticus, along the Southern West Mariana Ridge: A Unique Cephalopod of Continental Slope and Mesopelagic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The circumglobal deep-sea gelatinous giant octopod, Haliphron atlanticus, reaches 4 m in length and uses both benthic and pelagic habitats in the upper 3000 m of the ocean during different life history stages, but it is rarely observed due to the deep-depths where it typically lives. It has been collected in trawls and observed a few times near continental margins or islands and has been identified in the stomach contents of deep-diving predators such as sperm whales and blue sharks or detected as body fragments after predation events. An individual H. atlanticus (~1 m in total length was video-recorded at 12:21 for about 3 minutes in front of the Shinkai 6500 submersible at 586–599 m (6.5°C, salinity 34.4 along the West Mariana Ridge. It made no escape attempt as the submersible approached and it moved slowly up or down in front of the submersible. It was over the outer seamount-slope (bottom depth ~3208 m ~50 km west of seamounts (≥1529 m summits, but how it fits into the mesopelagic food web along the ridge is unclear. More information is needed to understand the role of H. atlanticus in oceanic food webs and if it typically lives along seamount ridges.

  13. Quantitative prediction of shrimp disease incidence via the profiles of gut eukaryotic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Yu, Weina; Dai, Wenfang; Zhang, Jinjie; Qiu, Qiongfen; Ou, Changrong

    2018-04-01

    One common notion is emerging that gut eukaryotes are commensal or beneficial, rather than detrimental. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have been taken to discern the factors that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes, despite growing interest in the dysbiosis of gut microbiota-disease relationship. Herein, we firstly explored how the gut eukaryotic microbiotas were assembled over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. The gut eukaryotic communities changed markedly as healthy shrimp aged, and converged toward an adult-microbiota configuration. However, the adult-like stability was distorted by disease exacerbation. A null model untangled that the deterministic processes that governed the gut eukaryotic assembly tended to be more important over healthy shrimp development, whereas this trend was inverted as the disease progressed. After ruling out the baseline of gut eukaryotes over shrimp ages, we identified disease-discriminatory taxa (species level afforded the highest accuracy of prediction) that characteristic of shrimp health status. The profiles of these taxa contributed an overall 92.4% accuracy in predicting shrimp health status. Notably, this model can accurately diagnose the onset of shrimp disease. Interspecies interaction analysis depicted how the disease-discriminatory taxa interacted with one another in sustaining shrimp health. Taken together, our findings offer novel insights into the underlying ecological processes that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. Intriguingly, the established model can quantitatively and accurately predict the incidences of shrimp disease.

  14. Starvation stress affects the interplay among shrimp gut microbiota, digestion and immune activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wen-Fang; Zhang, Jin-Jie; Qiu, Qiong-Fen; Chen, Jiong; Yang, Wen; Ni, Sui; Xiong, Jin-Bo

    2018-05-24

    Aquatic animals are frequently suffered from starvation due to restricted food availability or deprivation. It is currently known that gut microbiota assists host in nutrient acquisition. Thus, exploring the gut microbiota responses would improve our understanding on physiological adaptation to starvation. To achieve this, we investigated how the gut microbiota and shrimp digestion and immune activities were affected under starvation stress. The results showed that the measured digestion activities in starved shrimp were significantly lower than in normal cohorts; while the measured immune activities exhibited an opposite trend. A structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that changes in the gut bacterial community were directly related to digestive and immune enzyme activities, which in turn markedly affected shrimp growth traits. Notably, several gut bacterial indicators that characterized the shrimp nutrient status were identified, with more abundant opportunistic pathogens in starved shrimp, although there were no statistical differences in the overall diversity and the structures of gut bacterial communities between starved and normal shrimp. Starved shrimp exhibited less connected and cooperative interspecies interaction as compared with normal cohorts. Additionally, the functional pathways involved in carbohydrate and protein digestion, glycan biosynthesis, lipid and enzyme metabolism remarkably decreased in starved shrimp. These attenuations could increase the susceptibility of starved shrimp to pathogens infection. In summary, this study provides novel insights into the interplay among shrimp digestion, immune activities and gut microbiota in response to starvation stress. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  16. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

    Coastal shrimp aquaculture is one of the major economic activities of the people of developing countries especially in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. Various types of risks are associated in shrimp...... farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for diseases) is the major concern of the shrimp producers of Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. Poor water quality and high stocking...... density usually initiate the rapid growth of virus and bacteria in a shrimp farm which in turn cause the disease and mortality of shrimp. Coastal shrimp farms are very densely located in Bangladesh and other Southeast Asian countries. As a result, the viral and bacterial diseases can be easily spread from...

  17. Accumulation of pesticide residues by shrimp, fish and brine shrimp during pond culture at Ghorabari (District Thatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Wajeeha, F.A.; Ameer, F.; Munshi, A.B.; Nasir, M.

    2012-01-01

    Residual level of persistent organo chlorines (OC) such as sigma-HCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, sigma-DDT (o,p'-DDD, op-DDE, p,p-DDE pp-DDD, pp'-DDT, o,p'-DDT), dieldrin and endrin were measured in a number of water samples from Ambro creek and their accumulation in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and P. penicillatus), fish (Otolithes ruber) and brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) reared in ponds for a period of four months. Samples were extracted with organic solvents, and quantified using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC/ECD). It has been found that results of animal tissue and water are not same however OCs, (mainly sigma DT and beta-HCH 4,4-DDT, Dieldrin + 2,4-DDT, and Methoxychlor were detected in all samples ). Heptachlor exo-epoxide were found in fish and Artemia sp. and absent in all shrimp samples. Heptachlor endo-epoxide was detected only in Artemia sp. and average residual concentration of OCs in Artemia sp. was 0.004-0.09 ppm. Methoxychlor was found in the highest quantity in all the samples whether it was fish, shrimp or Artemia. In fish average residual concentration of all (OCs) in individual sample was 0.03 - 0.180 ppm. (author)

  18. Financial Feasibility of Green-water Shrimp Farming Associated with Mangrove Compared to Extensive Shrimp Culture in the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Tendencia, E.A.; Bunting, S.W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a post-hoc assessment of the introduction of intensive shrimp farming strategies, with and without green-water (GW) technology, in the Mahakam Delta where extensive systems (ES) dominate. The study also assesses the potential of integrated mangrove GW shrimp production (MGW). The

  19. The Diversity of Vibrios Associated with Vibriosis in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from Extensive Shrimp Pond in Kendal District, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjito; Harjuno Condro Haditomo, Alfabetian; Desrina; Djunaedi, Ali; Budi Prayitno, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    Vibriosis out breaks frequently occur in extensive shrimps farming. The study were commenced to find out the clinical signs of white shrimp that was infected by the Vibrio and to identify the bacterial associated with vibriosis in the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Bacterial isolates were gained from hepatopancreas and telson of moribund shrimps that were collected from extensive shrimp ponds of Kendal District, Indonesia and cultured on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose Agar (TCBSA). Isolates were clustered and identified using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). Three representative isolates (SJV 03, SJV 05 and SJV 19) were amplified with PCR using primers for 16S rRNA, and sequence for further identification. The clinical signs of shrimps affected by vibrio were pale hepatopancreas, weak of telson, dark and reddish coloration of smouth, patches of red colour in part of the body on the carapace, periopods, pleuopods, and telson. A total of 19 isolates were obtained and belong to three groups of genus Vibrios. Result of the 16S DNA sequence analysis, the vibrio found in this study related to vibriosis in white shrimps from extensive shrimp ponds of Kendal were closely related to Vibrio harveyi (SJV 03); V. parahaemolyticus (SJV 05) and V. alginolyticus (SJV 19).

  20. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a

  1. A Bioeconomic model of ocean acidification in the Baffin Bay/ Davis Strait Shrimp Fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We examine the case of the shrimp fishery in Baffin Bay/Davis Straight for potential effects of Ocean Acidification (OA), including: 1. the overall productivity of the shrimp fishery, 2. the spatial spread of the shrimp fishery, 3. the quality of the shrimp brought to market, and hence price...... and indirect costs of OA by comparing optimal bio-economic use of the shrimp fishery without ecosystem productivity shifts due to OA and with shifts due to OA. The demand side includes product differentiation to account for price differentials from different quality levels. The supply side includes costs...... or indirectly as the energy requirements of reproduction and growth shift the characteristics of the shrimp throughout the lifecycle....

  2. An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Brøkner Kavli, Sissel Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is an important unit-operation in the production of cooked and peeled shrimps. The present study explores the feasibility of using ohmic heating for cooking of shrimps. The focus is on investigating the effects of different process parameters on heating time and quality of ohmic cooked...... shrimps (Pandalus Borelias). The shrimps were heated to a core temperature of 72 °C in a brine solution using a small batch ohmic heater. Three experiments were performed: 1) a comparative analyses of the temperature development between different sizes of shrimps and thickness (head and tail region...... of the shrimp) over varying salt concentrations (10 kg m−3 to 20 kg m−3) and electric field strengths (1150 V m−1 to 1725 V m−1) with the heating time as the response; 2) a 2 level factorial experiment for screening the impact of processing conditions using electric field strengths of 1250 V m−1 and 1580 V m−1...

  3. Sub-tropical coastal lagoon salinization associated to shrimp ponds effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Mohedano, José-Gilberto; Lima-Rego, Joao; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Canales-Delgadillo, Julio; Sánchez-Flores, Eric-Ivan; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2018-04-01

    Anthropogenic salinization impacts the health of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. In tropical and subtropical areas, shrimp farm aquaculture uses water from adjacent ecosystems to fill the culture ponds, where enhanced evaporation cause salinization of discharged water. In this study, we studied water salinity before and after shrimp farm harvest and implemented a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to assess the impact on a subtropical coastal lagoon that receives water releases from shrimp ponds. The shrimp pond discharge significantly increased the salinity of receiving waters, at least 3 psu over the local variation. In the worst-case salinization scenario, when harvest occurs after a long dry season, salinity could increase by up to 6 psu. The induced salinization due to shrimp pond effluents remained up to 2 tidal cycles after harvest, and could affect biota. The methodology and results of this study can be used to assess the impacts of shrimp aquaculture worldwide.

  4. Effects of Shrimp Meal Fermented with Aspergillus niger On Physical Quality of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research materials were 75 broiler chickens of 1 day old and feeds. The research employed five treatments, namely (P0: feed without addition of fermented shrimp meal, P1: feed with 5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P2: feed with 7.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P3: feed with 10 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P4: feed with 12.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal. Every treatment was repeated 3 times, with 5 chickens respectively. Variables of this research were Water Holding Capacity (WHC, cooking loss and tenderness of broiler meat. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design, if there was a significant effect, it was followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result of this research showed that the use of fermented shrimp meal in broiler feed can improve WHC, degrading cooking loss and improving tenderness of broiler meat.   Keywords : Water holding capacity, cooking loss, tenderness

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on physical and nutritional quality of Penaeus Monodon shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.L.; Jobin, M.; Latreille, B.; Nouchpramool, K.; Gagnon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thailand ''PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical and physical qualities of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the color measurement expressed in terms of lightness (L*) showed a relative stability during storage of processed shrimps. However, based on the value (θ) a more intense red color was observed for the control and the reference. The cooked irradiated and nonirradiated shrimps presented a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) of 22% in firmness during the first week of storage. Thus, irradiation did not impair the firmness of shrimps after treatment or during storage. Also, based on the statistical analysis, the irradiation treatment did not affect the content of amino acids of precooked shrimps. (Author)

  6. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  7. Molecular variations in Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi in shrimp-farming systems upon stress

    OpenAIRE

    Santhyia,Anix Vivek; Mulloorpeedikayil,Rosalind George; Kollanoor,Riji John; Jeyaseelan,Prince M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the genomic variations in the shrimp farm isolates of Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi when the isolates were subjected to environmental stress. Samples of shrimps, water and sediment were collected from Southern Indian coastal shrimp farms. Vibrio isolates were biochemically identified and confirmed using 16S rDNA and gyrB gene specific PCR. The bacterial strains were genotyped by PCR fingerprinting using GTG(5) and IS (Insertion Sequence) primers. Sev...

  8. Resilience and livelihood dynamics of shrimp farmers and fishers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Phung, H.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture and fishery, the two important economic sectors in Vietnam, have been promoted by the government to reduce poverty, provide job opportunities, and to increase exports to support economic development. However, this expansion of fishery and aquaculture has also had negative effects. Hundreds of thousands of hectares of mangrove forest have been replaced by shrimp ponds and, as a result, have brought ecological risks like water pollution, causing shrimp disease outbreaks. The...

  9. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production.

  10. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  11. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-07-09

    A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus.

  12. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on melanosis and spoilage of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Honglei; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Mao, Jinlin; Gao, Haiyan

    2012-08-15

    Shrimp is a very perishable product and postmortem changes occur rapidly. Sulfiting agents were once and are still widely used as a preservative in the shrimp industry. However, the application of sulfite in shrimp may pose a risk to human health. Thus development of a natural preservative as a sulfite alternative to extend the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp is urgently needed. The effects of cinnamaldehyde essential oil (1 and 5 g kg(-1) ) on the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp stored at 4 °C were investigated. As the concentration of cinnamaldehyde increased, residual polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzyme activity decreased. Kinetic analysis showed that cinnamaldehyde was a noncompetitive inhibitor for the oxidation of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) by PPO of Pacific white shrimp. Based on this study, shrimp treated with 5 g kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde possessed the lowest aerobic plate count, total volatile basic nitrogen, and pH values in all treatments after 10 days of storage. According to the results of L*, cinnamaldehyde showed inhibitory activity toward the formation of melanosis. Treatment with cinnamaldehyde could improve the sensory properties and extend the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp to 8 days. Therefore, cinnamaldehyde could be used as a promising natural preservative for inhibiting melanosis and preventing the growth of microbes during the chilled storage of Pacific white shrimp. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Ultrastructural and pathogenesis of Monodon baculovirus in SPF shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei imported to Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahari-Meimandi, S.A.; Afsharnasab, M.; Motallebi Moghanjoghi, A.A.; Azaritakami, G.; Sharifrohani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Viral pathogens are major causes of outbreaks in shrimp farms throughout the world. Monodon baculovirus has been known to be invasive in 85-100% of the shrimp hatcheries, in early or late stages of shrimp. Three-hundred and sixty juvenile of Litopenaeus vannamei with average (±SD) size of 7.99±0.54 g and 3600 post larvae 10-15 were prepared from Shrimp Research Station located in Helleh and 3 hatcheries from Bushehr Province, southern part of Iran, respectively. They were allocated to 9 glass...

  14. Production of ”Tokolan” White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the Cage with Different Rearing Density

    OpenAIRE

    E. Supriyono; E. Purwanto; N.B.P. Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Larva rearing is one of the efforts to increase white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei seed quality.  This study was conducted to determine effect of  rearing density on the quality and productivity of white shrimp larvae in cage system. The tested rearing densities were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ind/m2 and cultured for 28 days.  The result showed that rearing density did not affect survival rate and coefficient of variation of shrimp length. The treatmentonly affected the shrimp larvae growthwhere...

  15. Biokinetics of 237Np in mussels and shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. Bioaccumulation of 237 Np from water was relatively slow in both species, reaching whole body concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature; this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated 237 Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp, molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this transuranic in the marine environment. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the 237 Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination

  16. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  17. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  18. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  19. Chemical and visual communication during mate searching in rock shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Eliecer R; Thiel, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Mate searching in crustaceans depends on different communicational cues, of which chemical and visual cues are most important. Herein we examined the role of chemical and visual communication during mate searching and assessment in the rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus. Adult male rock shrimp experience major ontogenetic changes. The terminal molt stages (named "robustus") are dominant and capable of monopolizing females during the mating process. Previous studies had shown that most females preferably mate with robustus males, but how these dominant males and receptive females find each other is uncertain, and is the question we examined herein. In a Y-maze designed to test for the importance of waterborne chemical cues, we observed that females approached the robustus male significantly more often than the typus male. Robustus males, however, were unable to locate receptive females via chemical signals. Using an experimental set-up that allowed testing for the importance of visual cues, we demonstrated that receptive females do not use visual cues to select robustus males, but robustus males use visual cues to find receptive females. Visual cues used by the robustus males were the tumults created by agitated aggregations of subordinate typus males around the receptive females. These results indicate a strong link between sexual communication and the mating system of rock shrimp in which dominant males monopolize receptive females. We found that females and males use different (sex-specific) communicational cues during mate searching and assessment, and that the sexual communication of rock shrimp is similar to that of the American lobster, where females are first attracted to the dominant males by chemical cues emitted by these males. A brief comparison between these two species shows that female behaviors during sexual communication contribute strongly to the outcome of mate searching and assessment.

  20. Antibacterial marine bacterium deter luminous vibriosis in shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of a marine pigmented bacterium - Alteromonas sp. - isolated from Penaeus monodon Fabricius larva against pathogenic and environmental isolates of Vibrio harveyi was studied. All the isolates were inhibited to varying degrees by Alteromonas sp. in vitro. The antibacterial substance produced by the Alteromonas sp. was soluble in organic solvent and closely bound to the external surface of bacterial cells. The antibacterial Alteromonas sp., when allowed to colonize on shrimp...

  1. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee Yee Nwe; Myint Khine; Nyunt Wynn

    2001-01-01

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  2. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail: tomar@purdue.edu

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 80 °C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26 ± 0.89 GPa at 25 °C that reduces to 7.61 ± 0.65 GPa at 80 °C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38 ± 2.3 GPa at 25 °C to 24.58 ± 1.71 GPa at 80 °C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. - Highlights: • Shrimp species Pandalus platyceros and Rimicaris exoculata exoskeletons are analyzed. • Temperature dependent properties of shrimp exoskeleton are compared. • Mechanical properties are correlated with structure and composition of exoskeleton. • Mechanical properties reduce with increase in temperature. • Presence of biominerals gives better thermal stability to structure.

  3. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 80 °C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26 ± 0.89 GPa at 25 °C that reduces to 7.61 ± 0.65 GPa at 80 °C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38 ± 2.3 GPa at 25 °C to 24.58 ± 1.71 GPa at 80 °C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. - Highlights: • Shrimp species Pandalus platyceros and Rimicaris exoculata exoskeletons are analyzed. • Temperature dependent properties of shrimp exoskeleton are compared. • Mechanical properties are correlated with structure and composition of exoskeleton. • Mechanical properties reduce with increase in temperature. • Presence of biominerals gives better thermal stability to structure

  4. Effects of Microphallus turgidus (Trematoda: Microphallidae) on the predation, behavior, and swimming stamina of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Alyssa K; Pung, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    The effect of the trematode Microphallus turgidus on its second intermediate host, the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was tested. To do so, we measured the susceptibility of infected and uninfected shrimp to predation by the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. Shrimp behavior was compared in the presence and absence of a fish predator, and the swimming stamina and backthrust escape responses of infected and uninfected shrimp were measured. Infected shrimp were more likely to be eaten by a predator than uninfected shrimp, had lower swimming stamina, and spent more time swimming and less time motionless in the presence of a predator. There was no difference between backthrust distances traveled in response to a stimulus by either infected or uninfected shrimp. Thus, M. turgidus may increase the predation of P. pugio in the wild, possibly by affecting the swimming stamina and predator avoidance responses of the shrimp.

  5. 76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product constituting between four and 10...

  6. Shrimp pond wastewater treatment using pyrolyzed chicken feather as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.

  7. Conservation by irradiation of the blanched and cooled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouissi Tarek

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we studied the gamma radiation influence on the initial reduction of contaminated germs and on physicochemical characteristics of shrimps storage and cooled at 21 days. These doses of 1.5; 2.5 and 3. 5 KGy proved insufficient to reduce in a significant way the initial rate of contamination mesophiles,, halophilous and psychrotrophes germs. 3.5 KGy was the most effectiveness. The contamination focal germs miss in the control samples. The toxinfections germs miss completely in all samples. In addition to the pH, the nitrogen basic volatile total and trimethylamine quantity increased during the cooled storage of shrimps. The capacity of water retention decreased indifferently by the doses applied. The irradiation made it possible to lengthen the shelf life of shrimps from 10 and 6 days respectively for 3,5 and 2,5 KGy. Finally, the irradiation doses did not affect neither the loss of weight during cooking neither the variations of pH at the end of dry and wet cooking.(author)

  8. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1, when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  9. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-07

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  10. ANALYSIS OF IMMUNE RESPONSES ON TRANSGENIC TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIUM Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibriosis is one of main diseases of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon infected by pathogenic bioluminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi that can cause mass mortalities in shrimp culture. The bacteria can also trigger the disease white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. An effort to produce shrimp disease-resistant strains has been done through transgenesis technology with antiviral gene transfection. By this technology, it is expected an increase in the immune response of shrimp in a variety of diseasecausing pathogens. This study aimed to determine the immune responses (total haemocytes, haemocyte differentiation, and phenoloxydase activity of transgenic tiger shrimp against pathogenic bacterium V. harveyi. Research using completely randomized design, which consists of two treatments and three replications. Test animals being used were transgenic and non-transgenic shrimp with size, weight 3.93±1.25 g and a total length of 7.59±0.87 cm. Treatments being tested were the injection of bacterium V. harveyi (density of 5x106 cfu/mL of 0.1 mL/individual on transgenic (A and non-transgenic shrimp (B. Immune response parameters such as total haemocytes, haemocyte differentiation, and phenoloxydase activity were observed on day 1, 3, and 6 days after challenging. Data were analyzed using t-test by SPSS software. The results showed that the total haemocyte of transgenic shrimp was not significantly different (P>0.05 from non-transgenic shrimp, but haemocyte differentiation and phenoloxydase activity were significantly different (P<0.05 especially on sixth days after being exposed to the bioluminescent bacteria. The study results implied that transgenic shrimp has a better immune response compared than non-transgenic shrimp.

  11. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 61122 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... scope of this investigation. In addition, food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based product that...

  14. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may..., food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more than 20 percent by weight of... subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp...

  15. 77 FR 55800 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... preliminary margin calculation. Specifically, we: Applied the corrected shrimp price data from the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific 2011 Shrimp Price Study to value raw shrimp; \\5\\ \\5\\ See Decision... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire...

  16. Shipping trial of irradiated frozen shrimp from Thailand to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachasitthisak, Y.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Adulyatham, P.; Williams, J.L.; Stegeman, H.; Farkas, J.

    1988-01-01

    Quality of non-irradiated and irradiated frozen shrimp after shipping trial from Thailand to the Netherlands were investigated. Commercial frozen shell on headless shrimp and pre-cooked and peeled shrimp were irradiated with 0, 2, and 3 kGy at the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), Thailand, and transported by sea to the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT), the Netherlands. It was found that both types of frozen shrimp before shipment are of good quality. Radiation with 3 kGy resulted in 2-3 log cycles reduction of mesophilic and psychrotrophic colony counts and caused no significant change in sensory quality. The irradiated products were found to be free from coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, salmonella, vibrio parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus. There was no increase in bacterial count in irradiated frozen shrimps after two months of transportation. The results of flora analysis show that radiation does not present any hazard resulting from a shift in the microflora. The surviving microflora in both types of irradiated frozen shrimp consisted mainly of Micrococcus spp.. Besides, irradiation with dose of 3 kGy did not affect the sensory quality of the frozen shrimp within duration of transportation. It can be concluded that irradiation improves the bacteriological quality of frozen shrimp for transportation to the Netherlands

  17. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  18. Facilitating shrimp (Pandalus borealis) peeling by power ultrasound and proteolytic enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thi Dang, Tem; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    the ultrasonic process (27.6-μm amplitude, 120 min duration and 0.9-s pulse), while the peelability of shrimp monitored as peeling work, meat yield and proportion of completely peeled shrimp were less dependent on the temperature. Increasing amplitude (0–46 μm) and time (0–45 min) of ultrasound prior...

  19. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more... subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer...

  20. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp... individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in...

  1. The Radioactivity α and β Evaluation in Fish, Lobster and Shrimps from Donan's River Cilacap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Zainul Kamal

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity α and β total evaluation in fish, lobster and shrimps from Donan's river Cilacap have been done The determination of α and β total using α and β spectrometry. The result of experimentation showed that radioactivity α and β in fish, lobster and shrimps. Could not use as shore quality because unprepared of the threshold value. (author)

  2. Comparison live adult Artemia and squid meat on the growth of Penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Royan, J.P.

    An experiment lasting 14 weeks was conducted to compare the efficiency of live adult Artemia with fresh squid meat on growth of penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni. The shrimps were found actively feeding on live Artemia and grew 84% more than those...

  3. The cluster panacea?: Questioning the role of cooperative shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu Ha, Ha; Bush, S.R.; Dijk, van H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of ‘clustering’ as a form of cooperative production to improve the environmental performance of shrimp farmers and facilitating them to upgrade their position in the global value chain. Comparing intensive and extensive shrimp farmer clusters in Ca Mau province, Vietnam,

  4. 76 FR 8338 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... in this review did not make sales in the United States at prices below normal value (``NV'') during... Fifth Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the...

  5. Towards stable access to EU markets for the Beninese shrimp chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adékambi, S.A.; Dabade, D.S.; Kindji, K.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Faure, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sogbossi, B.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the economy of Benin has strongly depended on a single crop, namely cotton. Since 2006, the Beninese government has aimed to diversify exports, in particular focussing on high-value export products such as shrimp. Stable market access for shrimps is, however, hindered by their

  6. Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Rashid, Harun Or; Sangthong, Naruemon; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Rattagool, Pongpen; Ishigaki, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 10 4 to 6 × 10 6 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to 4-5 kGy of gamma-rays, the total aerobic bacteria in frozen shrimps were reduced by approximately 2-3 log cycles. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10 -4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. However peroxide values of non-frozen shrimps were clearly increased even irradiated at 4 kGy. Trimethylamine content was not changed at doses below 10 kGy in both of frozen and non-frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of defrosted shrimps were extended ca. 2 times under non-frozen market conditions.

  7. FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

  8. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggie, Bernadietta; Subiyanto, Arief, Ulfah Mediaty; Djuniadi

    2018-03-01

    Improved shrimp farming affects the groundwater quality conditions. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality conventionally has less accuracy. This paper presents the implementation of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for assessing shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality. The data used is the impact data of shrimp farming in one of the regions in Indonesia from 2006-2016. Criteria used in this study were 8 criteria and divided into 49 sub-criteria. The weighting by AHP performed to determine the importance level of criteria and sub-criteria. Final priority class of shrimp farming impact were obtained from the calculation of criteria's and sub-criteria's weights. The validation was done by comparing priority class of shrimp farming impact and water quality conditions. The result show that 50% of the total area was moderate priority class, 37% was low priority class and 13% was high priority class. From the validation result impact assessment for shrimp farming has been high accuracy to the groundwater quality conditions. This study shows that assessment based on AHP has a higher accuracy to shrimp farming impact and can be used as the basic fisheries planning to deal with impacts that have been generated.

  9. Investigations of a stock assessment in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) Part 2: Biomass model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der T.; Poos, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Conservation and Food quality, Producer organisations of the Dutch shrimp fisheries and NGO’s (Stichting de Noordzee and Waddenvereniging) have underlined the importance of sustainable harvesting of brown shrimp in the North Sea and Wadden Sea. Also they would like the

  10. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  11. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly

  12. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  14. Shrimp-based livelihoods in mangrove silvo-aquaculture farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Nguyen, T.H.; Siahainenia, A.J.; Tran, H.T.P.; Tran, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews the following three types of mangrove-shrimp systems: (i) integrated with canals between platforms planted with mangrove; (ii) associated having larger areas of water and a large mangrove area; and (iii) separated, with a dyke separating ponds from forest. The variations in shrimp

  15. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Major shrimp pathogenic virus in america and their relationship with low salinity environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Godínez Siordia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture is an expanding activity in many countries in which the health status is a determining factor for its success. In this review we present world shrimp viral agents, with emphasis in America reported virus and the influence of water salinity.

  17. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of... thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non- shrimp content of the end product constituting...., Ltd. (``Fish One''), and Seaprodex Minh Hai (collectively ``revocation companies''). Of the revocation...

  18. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  19. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  20. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product constituting... 7: Whether Adverse Facts Available Should Be Applied to Srisubanfarm Comment 8: Whether the Price...

  1. 75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product constituting between four and ten... Liberty Group made third country sales of the foreign like product during the POR at prices below their...

  2. 77 FR 13082 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4... than NV, we compared the export price (EP) to the NV, as described in the ``Export Price'' and ``Normal...

  3. 78 FR 5416 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... market share; underselling and price depression or suppression; lost sales and revenue; reduced shipments... wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  4. 75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ...-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... with the flour; (4) with the non- shrimp content of the end product constituting between four and 10... Department considers, inter alia, such factors as: (1) The timing of the sale; (2) the price and quantity; (3...

  5. 75 FR 11855 - Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... United States at prices below normal value (``NV''). If these preliminary results are adopted in our... shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4...

  6. 77 FR 40848 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of... third country sales of the foreign like product during the POR at prices below their costs of production...

  7. 76 FR 41203 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4... the POR at prices below their costs of production (COP) within the meaning of section 773(b) of the...

  8. Bioeconomic Modeling Of Shrimp Aquaculture Strategies For The Mahakam Delta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunting, S.W.; Bosma, R.H.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Sidik, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bioeconomic modeling was used to evaluate traditional and extensive shrimp production in the Mahakam Delta and impacts of adopting Better Management Practices (BMP) for semi-intensive and integrated mangrove-shrimp culture. Modeling outcomes indicate that traditional production is not financially

  9. Aquaculture innovation system analysis of transition to sustainable intensification in shrimp farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joffre, Olivier M.; Klerkx, Laurens; Khoa, Tran N.D.

    2018-01-01

    The shrimp sector has been one of the fastest growing agri-food systems in the last decades, but its growth has entailed negative social and environmental impacts. Sustainable intensification will require innovation in multiple elements of the shrimp production system and its value chain. We use

  10. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from Indonesian shrimp paste (terasi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, U.; Sumardianto; Agustini, T. W.

    2018-02-01

    Shrimp paste was one of fermented products, popular as a taste enhancer in many dishes. The processing of shrimp paste was natural fermentation, depends on shrimp it self and the presence of salt. The salt inhibits the growth of undesirable microorganism and allows the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to ferment the protein source to lactic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize LAB isolated from Indonesian shrimp paste or "Terasi" with different times of fermentation (30, 60 and 90 days). Vitech analysis showed that there were four strains of the microorganism referred to as lactic acid bacteria (named: LABS1, LABS2, LABS3 and LABS4) with 95% sequence similarity. On the basis of biochemical, four isolates represented Lactobacillus, which the name Lactobacillus plantarum is proposed. L.plantarum was play role in resulting secondary metabolites, which gave umami flavor in shrimp paste.

  11. Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

  12. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  13. Effect of peach gum polysaccharides on quality changes of white shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xing-Cun; Chang, Cheng-Fei; Wu, Sheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) have both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the retardation effect of the PGPs on the quality changes of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage was investigated. Shrimp samples were untreated with different concentrations of the PGPs solution and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions for 10 days. During refrigerated storage, shrimp samples were taken periodically and their total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score were evaluated. Compared to the control, treatment of the PGPs solution effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH changes, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results indicate that treatment of PGPs could be a promising means to preserve white shrimp (P. vannamei). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae

  15. Polyculture of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and Mugil platanus mullet in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Carolina de Oliveira Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the mullet Mugil platanus in earthen ponds (200 m² located in the Laboratory of Continental Aquaculture of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG, in both polyculture and monoculture systems. The study consisted of three replicates, as follows: shrimp monoculture (SM, shrimp and mullet polyculture (PO and mullet monoculture (MM. The stocking density was 10 post-larvae shrimp (PL m−2 and 0.67 mullet m−2. Fish and shrimp were fed commercial shrimp meal (38% crude protein once a day. Initially, the amount of feed to shrimp was 20% of their total biomass which was later reduced to 5%. Mullets were fed at 5% of their stocked biomass. The experiment lasted 79 days during the summer of 2007/2008. At harvest, shrimp in monoculture had weight gain (15.59 g, specific growth rate (8.40% day−1, apparent feed conversion (0.88, survival (91% and production (1.454 kg ha−1 significantly higher than in polyculture (1.039 kg ha−1. Mullets in polyculture had significantly better weight gain (42.72 g and specific growth rate (3.99 % day−1 than those in monoculture (31.04 g and 3.69% day−1, respectively, while the mullet condition factor was significantly smaller in polyculture (1.06 than in monoculture (1.13. The apparent feed conversion of the mullets did not present significant differences between monoculture (2.50 and polyculture (2.40. The physical and chemical water parameters were not significantly different in any of the experiments, except for the transparency, which was higher in earthen ponds with mullet monoculture. Polyculture of shrimp and mullet reared together in earthen ponds negatively affects the shrimp production and favors the production of mullets.

  16. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S deVries

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively. Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days. In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively. We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals.

  17. USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1. Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2, the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A. Control (without carotenoid extract; (B,(C, and (D carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%. Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3% and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C and 73.3% (B. The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

  18. Production and characterization of chitosan obtained from shrimp exoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Leticia P.; Aguiar, Nayara V.; Rodrigues, Willias da L.; Silva, Rafael S. da; Moreira, Carly K.P.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer, biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic. It's derived from the deacetylation of chitin, which constitutes the most part of the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans and fungal cell wall. After cellulose, chitin is more organic compound found in nature. The Chitin was separated from others components of shrimp waste (Macrobrachium amazonicum) by a chemical process that involves three steps: demineralization, deproteination and depigmentation. The chitosan produced was characterized by potentiometric titration, to find the degree of deacetylation (85,32 %), determining the intrinsic viscosity to define its molecular weight (503.223 g/mol), and X-ray diffraction to determine its crystallinity index (58,4 %). (author)

  19. Combined electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying of shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yucai; Huang, Qiang; Bai, Yaxiang

    2013-01-01

    To improve the drying qualities of shrimp, a combination of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying (FD) is examined. The drying rate, the shrinkage, the rehydration ratio, and the sensory properties including the color and trimness of the dried products under different drying methods (including combination drying of EHD and FD, EHD drying and FD drying) are measured. Compared with FD and EHD drying alone, the combined process consumes less drying time, and the product processed by combined drying displays lower shrinkage, higher rehydration rate and better sensory qualities.

  20. Crowding of white shrimp Litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Li-Li; Huang, Chien-Lun; Hsieh, Jen-Fang; Li, Chang-Che

    2015-07-01

    Immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), intergin β (IB), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densities of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 3, 6, and 12 h. All immune parameters including haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and haemolymph protein were negatively related to density and time. The PO activity, SOD activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp reared at 10 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h significantly decreased. The transcript levels of these immune-related proteins were down-regulated in shrimp reared at 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus were significantly lower in shrimp reared at 30 and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. The mortality rates of shrimp reared at 20 and 40 shrimp L(-1) were significantly higher than shrimp reared at 2 shrimp L(-1) over 12-144 h and 12-48 h, respectively. Shrimp reared at high densities (>10 shrimp L(-1)) exhibited decreased resistance against pathogens as evidenced by reductions in immune parameters together with decreased expression levels of immune-related proteins, indicating perturbations of the immune system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SURVEY OF VIRAL DISEASES OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP, Litopenaeus vannamei IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taukhid Taukhid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimp culture is a major contributor to foreign exchange earning in Indonesia. It has significant impact on economic development of fisheries sector, and leads to be one of prime mover to improve social prosperity. However, shrimp industry particularly black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon has been facing unpredictable situation due to disease problem. The main constrain in correlation to the development of shrimp industry is disease outbreak, especially caused by viral agents. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV occurred in 1994, causing mass mortality of black tiger shrimp almost in all of the middle and western part of Indonesia. Due to the disease problem, it is estimated that in year 2000, more than 50% of shrimp pond were idle. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei or “udang vanamei” was introduced to Indonesia at the end of 1999, and released officially in July, 2001. Response of shrimp farmers to the shrimp rapidly accepted and distributed to many provinces in the country. At the end of 2006, distribution of white shrimp culture was encountered in more than 15 provinces. The seeds are mainly produced from hatcheries located in East Java and Lampung. The information of TSV in Indonesia was reported firstly from East Java at the end of 2002, without a clear history. Since then, survey of TSV distribution was conducted intensively in white shrimp production areas. Beside TSV, population of white shrimp coming to Indonesia also susceptible to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV infection. A survey with the aim to know significant viral diseases of white shrimp is needed to set up an alternative strategy to control them. The survey was conducted, firstly in the main production centers of white shrimp; and planned to be continued throughout the country. Samples collection, diagnostic method and data compiled in this study were collected from both

  2. Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-03-01

    Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince.

  3. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of 208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves, 45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight of fish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture of fillet fish more compact, elastic and color of fillet fish white. Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, fillet, shrimp head meal, feed formulated, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  6. Effect of Protein-Based Edible Coating from Red Snapper (Lutjanus sp.) Surimi on Cooked Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostini, I.; Ibrahim, B.; Trilaksani, W.

    2018-02-01

    Surimi can be used as a raw material for making protein based edible coating to protect cooked shrimp color. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers preference level on cooked shrimp which coated by surimi edible coating from red snapper and to know the microscopic visualization of edible coating layer on cooked shrimp. The treatments for surimi edible coating were without and added by sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) extract. Application of surimi edible coating on cooked shrimp was comprised methods (1) boiled then coated and (2) coated then boiled. Edible coating made from surimi with various concentrations which were 2, 6, 10 and 14% of distillated water. The analysis were done using hedonic test and microscopic observation with microscope photographs. Effect of surimi edible coating on cooked shrimp based on the hedonic and colour test results showed that the 14% surimi concentration, added by sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) extract on edible coating was the most preferable by panellist and giving the highest shrimp colour. The edible coating surimi application on cooked shrimp which gave the best result was processed by boiling followed by coating.

  7. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanilada Rungrassamee

    Full Text Available The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium, ii Firmicutes (Fusibacter, and iii Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium. The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  8. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  9. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  10. Lactic acid demineralization of shrimp shell and chitosan synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of lactic acid was compared to hydrochloric acid for shrimp shell demineralization in chitosan synthesis. Five different acid concentrations were considered for the study: 1.5M, 3.0M, 4.5M, 6.0M and 7.5M. After demineralization, the shrimp shell were deproteinized and subsequently deacetylated to produce chitosan using sodium hydroxide solution. The synthesized chitosan samples were characterized using solubility, FTIR, SEM, XRD and viscosity. The SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that chitosan was synthesized with a high degree of deacetylation (83.18±2.11 when lactic acid was used and 84.2±5.00 when HCl was used. The degree of deacetylation and the molecular weight of the chitosan samples were also estimated. ANOVA analysis (at 95% confidence interval indicated that acid type and concentration did not significantly affect the solubility, degree of deacetylation, viscosity and molecular weight of the chitosan within the range considered.

  11. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  13. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  14. Experimental design and estimation of growth rate distributions in size-structured shrimp populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, H T; Davis, Jimena L; Ernstberger, Stacey L; Hu, Shuhua; Artimovich, Elena; Dhar, Arun K

    2009-01-01

    We discuss inverse problem results for problems involving the estimation of probability distributions using aggregate data for growth in populations. We begin with a mathematical model describing variability in the early growth process of size-structured shrimp populations and discuss a computational methodology for the design of experiments to validate the model and estimate the growth-rate distributions in shrimp populations. Parameter-estimation findings using experimental data from experiments so designed for shrimp populations cultivated at Advanced BioNutrition Corporation are presented, illustrating the usefulness of mathematical and statistical modeling in understanding the uncertainty in the growth dynamics of such populations

  15. Pre-feasibility analysis of a project for a rational refrigeration of shrimp at Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura Mondlane, Mario; José Antonio Echeverría.La Habana (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Grupo Combustibles alternativos. UTH José Antonio Echeverría.La Habana (Cuba))" >Rodríguez Ramos, Pedro A.; José Antonio Echeverría.La Habana (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (CETER. UTH José Antonio Echeverría.La Habana (Cuba))" >Ferras Valcárce, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the economic feasibility of a project for increasing shrimp refrigerated installation efficiency in Mozambique. The following contents are presented: determination of the volume of shrimp to be refrigerate from the annual capture in the main fishing industries at Mozambique; determination of the design conditions of the refrigeration rooms in order to find the proper temperature conditions and relative humidity for shrimp conservation; estimation of thermal load of the refrigeration plant based on three chambers of equal volume and with different conservation temperatures. Finally, a pre-feasibility analysis of the project is assessed. (author)

  16. Urea as a Nitrogen Source in a Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Closed Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Supannee SUWANPAKDEE; Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM; Piyapong CHOTIPUNTU; Putth SONGSANGJINDA

    2010-01-01

    Urea [(NH2)2CO] is an organic compound that serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compound by animals. Urea is widely used in aquaculture systems. This study investigated the effects of urea on growth of Penaeus monodon. Shrimp were reared in 500 l fiber tanks. There was no exchange of water throughout the experiment. Shrimp with an average body weight of 10.99 ± 0.19 g were stocked at a density of 32 shrimp/m2 in 20 ppt diluted seawater and fed with 38 % protein d...

  17. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  18. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-06-11

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  19. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Rø stad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  20. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  1. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 3,555 metric tonnes of warm water shrimp were imported into Denmark from December 1994 to July 1995. V. cholerae O1 was not detected in any of the 748 samples analyzed. Non-Ol V. cholerae was found in a single (0.1%) cooked frozen shrimp product and in five (0.7%) raw frozen products......, all originating from shrimp produced in aquaculture. Six isolated strains agglutinated in polyvalent O antisera, but did not agglutinate in Ogawa or Inaba antisera. The six strains were resistant to colistin and sulfisoxazole; three strains also showed resistance to ampicillin. None of the strains...... contained plasmids or genes encoding cholera toxin (CT) or heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), The absence of V. cholerae O1 and the low number of samples containing CT and NAG-ST negative non-Ol strains in imported shrimp suggest that I! cholerae in such products may not constitute a public health problem....

  2. US Antidumping Petitions and Revealed Comparative Advantage of Shrimp Exporting Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); D.K. Nguyen (Dank-Khoa)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe paper explores the trade competitiveness of seven major shrimp exporting countries, namely Vietnam, China, Thailand, Ecuador, India, Indonesia and Mexico, to the USA. Specifically, we investigate whether the United States (US) antidumping petitions impact upon the bilateral

  3. Analysis of production and environmental effects of Nile tilapia and white shrimp culture in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, J.G.; Falconer, L.; Kittiwanich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Two case studies from Southeast Asia are used to analyse production, environmental effects, and economic optimisation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) pond culture. A projection of these data is made for the whole of Thailand. The results are analysed...... on a regional scale based on site selection using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). Farm-scale culture was simulated for (i) tilapia monoculture in Chiang Rai; (ii) shrimp monoculture in Chanthaburi; and (iii) Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) of tilapia and shrimp in Chon Buri. Together...... in ponds. Co-cultivation stimulates nitrogen dissolution (134 kg N cycle− 1), which is greater than in tilapia (96 kg N) or shrimp (52 kg N) monoculture, and doubles the NH4+ discharge to the environment (10.7 kg in tilapia monoculture, 20.5 kg in co-cultivation). However, eutrophication as a result...

  4. The impact of shrimp farming effluent on bacterial communities in mangrove waters, Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, O V; Macrae, A; Menezes, F G R; Gomes, N C M; Vieira, R H S F; Mendonça-Hagler, L C S

    2006-12-01

    The effects of shrimp farm effluents on bacterial communities in mangroves have been infrequently reported. Classic and molecular biology methods were used to survey bacterial communities from four mangroves systems. Water temperature, salinity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria and maximum probable numbers of Vibrio spp. were investigated. Genetic profiles of bacterial communities were also characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eubacterial and Vibrio 16S rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Highest heterotrophic counts were registered in the mangrove not directly polluted by shrimp farming. The Enterobacteriaceae and Chryseomonas luteola dominated the heterotrophic isolates. Vibrio spp. pathogenic to humans and shrimps were identified. Eubacterial genetic profiles suggest a shared community structure independent of mangrove system. Vibrio genetic profiles were mangrove specific. Neither microbial counts nor genetic profiling revealed a significant decrease in species richness associated with shrimp farm effluent. The complex nature of mangrove ecosystems and their microbial communities is discussed.

  5. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; Menon, N.G.

    Results of a preliminary study on the occurrence and distribution of seventeen species of Penaeoid and Sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) of the Indian EEZ of Arabian Sea are presented here based on the IKMT samples collected...

  6. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  7. Production of giant freshwater prawn postlarvae in penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery: An experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Chatterji, A.; Sripada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.

    A pilot scale penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery was established at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India in 1996 with an installed production capacity of 2 million postlarvae (PL 20) as part of the Technology Project in Mission Mode Semi...

  8. Water quality management in shrimp aquaculture ponds using remote water quality logging system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.; Suryavanshi, U.; Ingole, B.S.; Drensgstig, A.; Braaten, B.

    Currently an institutional co-operation project funded by NORAD is evaluating different environmental management strategies for sustainable aquaculture in India. A brief description of a remote water quality logging system installed in shrimp ponds...

  9. Information Seeking Behaviour of Shrimp Farmers and their Perception towards Technology Dissemination through Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand PR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted among the shrimp farmers to ascertain their information seeking behaviour and perception concerning extension service through mobile phones. The findings indicate that the farmer respondents were of the perception that mobile phone-aided extension service is a viable, expedient, prompt, cost-effective and novel approach. Further they expressed that a dedicated mobile app on shrimp farming with dynamic content modules on ‘disease diagnosis, calculations for water quality corrections, feed management, pond risk management and post your query ’would be very useful for farmers and extension workers to update their capacity and sharing of field experiences. Therefore, developing a mobile app on shrimp farming, incorporating the above features would enhance the access to quality information and minimise the information gap among the shrimp farmers.

  10. Trace metal dynamics in marine shrimps from the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Hsu, S-H; Nair, S.M.; Martin, G.D.; Nair, K.K.C.

    Concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the muscle tissue of marine shrimps, Penaeus mondon, Penaeus japonicus, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus mergniensis, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, collected from the continental...

  11. 78 FR 50389 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Administrative Reviews Comment 4 The Determination Not To Investigate Value-Added Tax (VAT) Exemptions B. Company Specific Issues Comment 5 Promarisco's Cross-Ownership, Sales Value, and Purchases of Fresh Shrimp Comment...

  12. Conversion efficiency in the shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius), fed on decomposed mangrove leaves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Ramadhas, V.

    Feeding experiments were carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using mangrove leaves at different stages of decomposition, in combination with rice bran. Maximum conversion efficiency was found in shrimps fed completely decomposed mangrove leaves...

  13. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  14. Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

  15. Cooling, cryporitectant and hypersaline sensitivity of Penaeid shrimp embryos and nauplii larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.; Komen, J.; Huisman, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The sensitivity of embryos of the penaeid shrimp, Trachypenaeus byrdi, to cooling, cryoprotectant exposure (dimethyl sulfoxide : DMSO, sucrose, methanol and glycerol), and hypersaline treatment was assessed in order to gain basic knowledge for cryopreservation procedures. In addition, cooling and

  16. On the epidemiology and evolution of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Thi Minh Dieu,

    2010-01-01

    WSSV causes a devastating disease in shrimp aquaculture that has spread worldwide and probably increased in virulence over time. Understanding WSSV epidemiology and evolution is therefore important for developing novel intervention and management strategies. Both of these goals require finding

  17. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei: perspectives for genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor eCastillo-Juárez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection.

  18. Density and white shrimp growth pattern (penaeus merguiensis) in kampung nipah waters of perbaungan north sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Silaen, Sri; Budi Mulya, Miswar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the density and pattern of growth of white shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis)of the village Nipah waters. The data collection was conducted by sampling using nets and fishing gear “Langge” (a tool) to determine the density of the three observation stations. The result showed that the distribution of white shrimp in the waters of the estuary and surrounding degraded over the past ten years. The highest density at station II is 0.56 and 5/m2 and at least at the third station as much as 0.42 and 6/m2 The correlation between the density of shrimp with depth as well as the fraction of the base substrate showed that only the depth of the waters who has any significant correlation with the density of shrimp, although the closeness of the relationship is small.

  19. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  20. Spawning period and first maturity size of deep water rose shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... index (GSI), ranged throughout the year, reaching its peak two times; first peak occurred in autumn ... The deep water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris .... macroscopic examination of the gonads (development and.

  1. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless the...

  2. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Md Noor Uddin

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars.

  3. 78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Blanchard Seafood, Inc.; Dominick Seafood; Fisherman's Reef Packing Plant; Golden Gulf Coast Pkg. Co., Inc...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana...

  4. 77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4...

  5. Recruitment of shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) in the Barents Sea related to spawning stock and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschan, Michaela; Ingvaldsen, Randi

    2009-10-01

    The shrimp spawn in autumn, and the females carry their eggs as out roe until spring when the larvae hatch. Within a period of 2 months the shrimp larvae settle to the bottom. It has been claimed that the year-class strength probably is determined during the larval phase. Today's assessment and forecast of the shrimp stock productivity and potential fishing yields are weak. This is partly due to poor knowledge on population dynamics from hatching until the shrimp are caught in the fishery at the age of 3 or 4 years. We, therefore, here identify the most important abiotic and biotic factors that affect recruitment in addition to spawning stock biomass. Since 1995, a net attached to the underbelly of the survey trawl used at the annual cruise in the Barents Sea has caught juvenile shrimp. The abundance of settled shrimp larvae varies in time and space. The recruitment to the fishery has been quite stable with the exception of the 1996 year-class, which was observed as 1-year-olds but has not been registered since. The temporal pattern of the three youngest year-classes is studied in relation to abiotic factors such as sea temperature, ice index and North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as biotic factors such as spawning stock biomass and presence of copepods, euphausiids and predating cod. Recruitment indices and factors identified by the Spearmann correlation to be significantly correlated with recruitment were used as input in a principal component analysis (PCA) and a generalized additive model (GAM) was applied. Abundance of 1-year-old shrimp is positively correlated to spawning stock biomass the previous year and to temperature of the previous winter, and negatively correlated with the number of 1-year-old cod. Two-year-old shrimp show significant correlation with temperature, whereas there is a strong negative correlation with euphausiids. Three-year-old shrimp are significantly correlated with the number of 2-year-old shrimp the previous year but negatively

  6. Assimilation and subcellular partitioning of elements by grass shrimp collected along an impact gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebaugh, David R.; Wallace, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure to polluted field conditions can impact metal bioavailability in prey and may influence metal transfer to predators. The present study investigated the assimilation of Cd, Hg and organic carbon by grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, collected along an impact gradient within the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Adult shrimp were collected from five Staten Island, New York study sites, fed 109 Cd- or 203 Hg-labeled amphipods or 14 C-labeled meals and analyzed for assimilation efficiencies (AE). Subsamples of amphipods and shrimp were subjected to subcellular fractionation to isolate metal associated with a compartment presumed to contain trophically available metal (TAM) (metal associated with heat-stable proteins [HSP - e.g., metallothionein-like proteins], heat-denatured proteins [HDP - e.g., enzymes] and organelles [ORG]). TAM- 109 Cd% and TAM- 203 Hg% in radiolabeled amphipods were ∼64% and ∼73%, respectively. Gradients in AE- 109 Cd% (∼54% to ∼75%) and AE- 203 Hg% (∼61% to ∼78%) were observed for grass shrimp, with the highest values exhibited by shrimp collected from sites within the heavily polluted Arthur Kill complex. Population differences in AE- 14 C% were not observed. Assimilated 109 Cd% partitioned to the TAM compartment in grass shrimp varied between ∼67% and ∼75%. 109 Cd bound to HSP in shrimp varied between ∼15% and ∼47%, while 109 Cd associated with metal-sensitive HDP was ∼17% to ∼44%. Percentages of assimilated 109 Cd bound to ORG were constant at ∼10%. Assimilated 203 Hg% associated with TAM in grass shrimp did not exhibit significant variation. Percentages of assimilated 203 Hg bound to HDP (∼47%) and ORG (∼11%) did not vary among populations and partitioning of 203 Hg to HSP was not observed. Using a simplified biokinetic model of metal accumulation from the diet, it is estimated that site-specific variability in Cd AE by shrimp and tissue Cd burdens in field-collected prey (polychaetes Nereis spp

  7. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  8. Quality of antimicrobial products used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Kim Chi; Tran, Minh Phu; Phan, Thi Van

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobials are important to treat diseases in aquaculture and the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of antimicrobial products commonly used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam. A total of 25 antimicrobial products were obtained from 20...... to strengthen diagnostic services, legislation and control of antimicrobial products in shrimp aquaculture and educate farmers on prudent antimicrobial use practices....

  9. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) Crangonid Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp. PREFACE This species profile is one of a series on coastal aquatic organisms, principally fish, of sport , commercial, or...in the spring documented. These shrimp are often the and summer in coastal embayments but are predominant food of the principal sport and abundant...inhibit gonadogenesis and Department of Fish and Game 1987), suggesting castrated male shrimp would take on feminizing that environmental conditions

  10. Genome-wide discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Qian-Yun; Xiong, Yuan-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Mei; Cheng, Xiao; Qi, Qi-En; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Li-Na; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Of late years, a large amount of conserved and species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) have been performed on identification from species which are economically important but lack a full genome sequence. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing and cross-species miRNA microarray were used to detect miRNAs in white shrimp. We identified 239 conserved miRNAs, 14 miRNA* sequences and 20 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis from 7,561,406 high-quality reads representing 325,370 distinct sequences. The all 20 novel miRNAs were species-specific in white shrimp and not homologous in other species. Using the conserved miRNAs from the miRBase database as a query set to search for homologs from shrimp expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 32 conserved computationally predicted miRNAs were discovered in shrimp. In addition, using microarray analysis in the shrimp fed with Panax ginseng polysaccharide complex, 151 conserved miRNAs were identified, 18 of which were significant up-expression, while 49 miRNAs were significant down-expression. In particular, qRT-PCR analysis was also performed for nine miRNAs in three shrimp tissues such as muscle, gill and hepatopancreas. Results showed that these miRNAs expression are tissue specific. Combining results of the three methods, we detected 20 novel and 394 conserved miRNAs. Verification with quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) and Northern blot showed a high confidentiality of data. The study provides the first comprehensive specific miRNA profile of white shrimp, which includes useful information for future investigations into the function of miRNAs in regulation of shrimp development and immunology.

  11. Systematics, phylogeny, and taphonomy of ghost shrimps (Decapoda): a perspective from the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps of Callianassidae and Ctenochelidae are soft-bodied, usually heterochelous decapods representing major bioturbators of muddy and sandy (sub)marine substrates. Ghost shrimps have a robust fossil record spanning from the Early Cretaceous (~ 133 Ma) to the Holocene and their remains are present in most assemblages of Cenozoic decapod crustaceans. Their taxonomic interpretation is in flux, mainly because the generic assignment is hindered by their insufficient preservation and disagreement in the biological classification. Furthermore, numerous taxa are incorrectly classified within the catch-all taxon Callianassa. To show the historical patterns in describing fossil ghost shrimps and to evaluate taphonomic aspects influencing the attribution of ghost shrimp remains to higher level taxa, a database of all fossil species treated at some time as belonging to the group has been compiled: 250 / 274 species are considered valid ghost shrimp taxa herein. More than half of these taxa (160 species, 58.4%) are known only from distal cheliped elements, i.e., dactylus and / or propodus, due to the more calcified cuticle locally. Rarely, ghost shrimps are preserved in situ in burrows or in direct association with them, and several previously unpublished occurrences are reported herein. For generic assignment, fossil material should be compared to living species because many of them have modern relatives. Heterochely, intraspecific variation, ontogenetic changes and sexual dimorphism are all factors that have to be taken into account when working with fossil ghost shrimps. Distal elements are usually more variable than proximal ones. Preliminary results suggest that the ghost shrimp clade emerged not before the Hauterivian (~ 133 Ma). The divergence of Ctenochelidae and Paracalliacinae is estimated to occur within the interval of Hauterivian to Albian (133–100 Ma). Callichirinae and Eucalliacinae likely diverged later during the Late Cretaceous (100–66 Ma

  12. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Soundarapandian; R. Babu

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental) for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. ...

  13. Impact of value chain governance on the development of small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. H. Ho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper is to identify the tendency of shrimp value chain development and impact of its governance on the small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach - Data from the shrimp farmers surveys in Mekong delta, Vietnam from 2008-2010 with the update information in 2014 were taken to analyse by the value chain analysis method. Findings – Traditional governance type of the shrimp value chain in the early state (before 2004 showed the different levels of coordination of farmers with collectors, among collectors, and collectors with processing plants. In this type of governance, trust and linkages are inextricably linked. However, they are not strong. The processing plants determine shrimp prices and quality requirement in the market while many collectors do not seem to be highly responsible for the quality of their products. To avoid this limitation, with the governmental support policy to improve farmers’ income, the processing plants set up a direct buying from farmers under contracts. These contracts led to a new governance type with an expectation of improving farmers' position. However, this model was broken due to several reasons including un-controlled shrimp raw material from small scale and individual farmers. Consequently, processors now tend to establish their own raw material zone to comply shrimp quality assurance, and eject the existence of farmers. This will lead small scale farmers to very difficult problems in finding the market. Poverty and social problems of small scale farmers might appear. The result recommends a greater strengthening and tightening of the value chain. Re-organizing shrimp farmers into legal teams or groups that help farmers to re-participate in the game with others actor in the chain is crucial. Research limitations/implications - The research mainly follows inductive approach in w

  14. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

      Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. A variety of risks are associated in shrimp farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for...... diseases) is the major concern of shrimp producers of developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication...

  15. Northern shrimp ( Pandalus borealis ) recruitment in West Greenland waters : Part I. Distribution of Pandalus shrimp larvae in relation to hydrography and plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Storm, L.; Stenberg, Claus

    2002-01-01

    Plankton samples and oceanographic data were obtained during transect studies across fishing banks over the West Greenland shelf areas in June 1999, May, and July 2000. The hypothesis that larval shrimp are linked to the behaviour of hydrographic fronts was tested by determining whether larval...... shrimp abundance was linked to plankton distributions, species composition and primary productivity. We found six pelagic developmental stages (ZI–ZVI) in two species of Pandalus larvae. P. borealis was the most abundant species in all stages from ZII to ZVI. The smaller P. montagui larvae were slightly....... The two species showed minor differences in larval distribution across banks and between transects, indicating a wide larval dispersal and a relatively short hatching period. We found no relationship between indices of larval shrimp abundance and the T–S characteristics of water masses, chlorophyll...

  16. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly of shrimp Palaemon serratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Perina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp Palaemon serratus is a coastal decapod crustacean with a high commercial value. It is harvested for human consumption. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq 2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of P. serratus. RNA was isolated from muscle of adults individuals and, from a pool of larvae. A total number of 4 cDNA libraries were constructed, using the TruSeq RNA Sample Preparation Kit v2. The raw data in this study was deposited in NCBI SRA database with study accession number of SRP090769. The obtained data were subjected to de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity software, and coding regions were predicted by TransDecoder. We used Blastp and Sma3s to annotate the identified proteins. The transcriptome data could provide some insight into the understanding of genes involved in the larval development and metamorphosis.

  18. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  19. Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

    2012-03-01

    The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first 'epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle.

  20. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  1. Shelf-life extension of Pacific white shrimp using algae extracts during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchang; Yang, Zhongyan; Li, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp is a low-fat, high-protein aquatic product, and is susceptible to spoilage during storage. To establish an effective method for the quality control of Pacific white shrimp, the effects of polyphenols (PP) and polysaccharides (PS) from Porphyra yezoensis on the quality of Pacific white shrimp were assessed during refrigerated storage. Pacific white shrimp samples were treated with 5 g L -1 polyphenols, and 8 g L -1 polysaccharides, then stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 8 days. All samples were subjected to measurement of total viable count (TVC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), K-value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and were also assessed by sensory evaluation. The results showed that PP, PS, and the mixture of polyphenols and polysaccharides (PP+PS) could inhibit the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and K-value, and reduce total viable count (TVC) compared with the control group. PP could also inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of PP and PS by maintaining the overall quality of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage. Moreover, PP+PS could extend the shelf-life of shrimp by 3-4 days compared with the control group. PP+PS could more effectively maintain quality and extend shelf-life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2015-07-01

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  4. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  5. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Reduces Immunoglobulin E Binding to Atlantic White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yin Chung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV, a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa, and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract.

  7. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater.

  8. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer  meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii  and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of  208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves,  45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight offish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture offillet fish more compact,  elastic and color of fillet fish white.

  9. Unruly women and invisible workers: the shrimp traders of Mazatlán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Torres, María L

    2012-01-01

    During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences.

  10. Study of shrimp shell derivatives for treating of low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayeripour, S. [Tonkabon Islamic Azad Univ., Tonkabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of). College of the Environment; Malmasi, S. [North Tehran Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). College of the Environment

    2006-07-01

    Chitin derivatives can be used to treat liquid wastes that include heavy metals of radionuclides. In this study, 4 types of chitin derivatives from shrimp shell waste were investigated for their potential in decontaminating and treating low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLW). The adsorption of caesium (Cs); cobalt (Co); and manganese (Mn) isotopes on chitin derivatives were investigated using a batch and column system with variations in diameter, pH, and length of treatment. Chitin derivatives included shrimp shells; de-mineralized shrimp shells; chitin extracted from shrimp shells; and chitosan extracted from shrimp shell waste. Three types of simulated solutions were prepared to study and compare adsorption performance: (1) a mono cationic solution consisting of stable isotopes; (2) a solution containing 3 stable cations; and (3) a simulated radioactive waste containing Cs-137, Co-60, and Mn-54. Results of the experiments showed that all 4 chitin derivatives were capable of adsorbing the isotopes. Despite its low pH, chitosan showed the highest adsorption efficiency. It was concluded that shrimps shells provided unreliable results under different operating conditions. The demineralized shells were suitable for removing Co from solutions. Row shells were not recommended as a suitable adsorbent for radionuclides removal. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  12. Use of cDNA microarray to isolate differentially expressed genes in White Spot Virus infected shrimp (penaeus stylirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Arun K.; Klimpel, Kurt R.; Bullis, Robert A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the etiologic agent of white spot disease, is currently the most important viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial report, white spot disease has caused losses of catastrophic proportion to shrimp aquaculture globally. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV and developing detection methods, information on the host genes involved in the immune response in shrimp due to WSSV infection is not availabl...

  13. Growth Response of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei) Reared in Low Salinity Medium, Fed Different Protein and Calcium Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kaligis, Erly

    2015-01-01

    The white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been an important commercial shrimp species in Indonesia. This species is tolerance to low salinity therefore, it is important to develop its aquaculture. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of protein and calcium levels in diet on growth performance of the white shrimp post larvae. A factorial experiment at three levels of dietary protein (25, 35, 45%) and three levels of calcium (0, 2, 4%) with three replicates were used in this expe...

  14. Effects of dietary replacement of fishmeal by mealworm meal on muscle quality of farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roseane L; Pinto, Stephanie S; Nóbrega, Renata O; Vieira, Felipe N; Fracalossi, Débora M; Samuels, Richard I; Prudêncio, Elane S; Silva, Carlos P; Amboni, Renata D M C

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the muscle quality of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed on a diet containing different proportions of mealworm meal (MW) (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) as a substitute for fishmeal, which is the normal diet used in shrimp commercial production. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, colour and texture of the shrimps were evaluated. Moisture, protein, and ash content of shrimp muscle were not significantly altered when fishmeal was replaced by MW (p>0.05). However, the replacement resulted in a linear increase in lipid content (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition of the experimental diets directly mirrored the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle. The absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in MW composition resulted in a linear decrease in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids in shrimp muscle with increasing levels of MW in the diet. The n-3/n-6 ratio ranged from 0.50 to 0.67. Colour and firmness were unchanged between the treatments. Although the use of MW as a fishmeal substitute in L. vannamei diets has affected the lipid and fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle, from a human nutritional perspective, the lipid content of the shrimps is considered low and the n-3/n-6 ratio remained within the human dietary requirements. Therefore the use of a mealworm diet for shrimp production is a viable alternative to increasingly expensive fishmeal based diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insights into the gut microbiota of freshwater shrimp and its associations with the surrounding microbiota and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanting; Duan, Cuilan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Chen, Huangen; Ren, Hongqiang; Yin, Ying; Ye, Lin

    2018-04-23

    The gut microbiota of aquatic animals plays a crucial role in host health through nutrient acquisition and outcompetition of pathogens. In this study, based on the high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we examined the bacterial communities in the gut of freshwater shrimp ( Macrobrachium nipponense ) and in their living environments (sediment and pond water) and analyzed the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the shrimp gut bacterial communities. High bacterial heterogeneity was observed in the freshwater shrimp gut samples, and the result indicated that both the surrounding bacterial community and water quality factors (particularly dissolved oxygen and temperature) could affect the shrimp gut bacterial community. Despite the observed heterogeneity, 57 genera, constituting 38~99% of the total genera in each of the 40 shrimp gut samples, were identified as the main bacterial population in the gut of M. nipponense . In addition, a high diversity and abundance of lactic acid bacteria (26 genera), which could play significant roles in the digestion process in shrimp, were observed in the shrimp gut samples. Overall, this study provides insights into the gut bacterial communities of freshwater shrimp and basic information for shrimp farming regarding the application of probiotics and disease prevention.

  16. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  17. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme has antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria: Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; García-Galaz, Alfonso; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2006-03-01

    C-type lysozyme has been described as an antibacterial component of the shrimp innate defence system. We determined quantitatively the antibacterial activity of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme against three Gram negative bacteria: Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, using a turbidimetric assay with live bacteria and differential bacterial viable count after interaction with the protein. In conclusion, the antibacterial activity of recombinant shrimp lysozyme against Vibrio sp. is at least equal to the values against the Gram positive M. luteus and more active against the shrimp pathogens V. alginolyticus and V. parahemolyticus.

  18. Detection of Vibrio spp. in shrimp from aquaculture sites in Iran using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    OpenAIRE

    Faham Khamesipour; Esmat Noshadi; Mitra Moradi; Mehdi Raissy

    2014-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most important fishery products of the coastal provinces in the Persian Gulf in Iran. Vibriosis has been an important cause of production loss due to bacterial disease in shrimp farms in south Iran in recent years. The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp samples from farms in the southern provinces of Iran by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total number of 36 shrimp were caught from south coast of Iran and were stud...

  19. MicroRNA-100 is involved in shrimp immune response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Fei

    2017-02-09

    In this study, we discovered that shrimp miR-100 was up-regulated at 24 h after WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus infection, confirming its participation in the innate immune system of shrimp. The anti-miRNA oligonucleotide (AMO-miR-100) was applied to inhibit the expression of miR-100. After AMO-miR-100 treatment, the shrimp was challenged with WSSV or V. alginolyticus. The knockdown of miR-100 expression decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp from 24 h to 72 h post-infection and enhanced the mortality of V. alginolyticus-infected shrimp significantly. The knockdown of miR-100 affected phenoloxidase (PO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total hemocyte count (THC) after the infection with WSSV or V. alginolyticus, indicating a regulative role of miR-100 in the immune potential of shrimp in the response to WSSV or V. alginolyticus infection. The knockdown of miR-100 induced the apoptosis of shrimp hemocytes, and V. alginolyticus + AMO-miR-100 treatment caused more hemocyte apoptosis than V. alginolyticus treatment. The miR-100 influenced also the morphology of shrimp hemocytes and regulated the phagocytosis of WSSV or V. alginolyticus. Thus, we concluded that miR-100 may promote the anti-Vibrio immune response of shrimp through regulating apoptosis, phagocytosis and PO activity and affects the progression of WSSV infection at a certain level.

  20. The impacts of modern-use pesticides on shrimp aquaculture: An assessment for north eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sharon E; Doan, Hai; Gonzago, Debra; Musson, Dean; Du, Jun; Kookana, Rai; Sellars, Melony J; Kumar, Anu

    2018-02-01

    The use of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides has increased in Australia over the last decade, and as a consequence, increased concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid have been measured in Australian rivers. Previous studies have shown that non-target crustaceans, including commercially important species, can be extremely sensitive to these pesticides. Most shrimp farms in Australia are predominantly located adjacent to estuaries so they can obtain their required saline water, which support multiple land uses upstream (e.g. sugar-cane farming, banana farming, beef cattle and urbanisation). Larval and post-larval shrimp may be most susceptible to the impacts of these pesticides because of their high surface area to volume ratio and rapid growth requirements. However, given the uncertainties in the levels of insecticides in farm intake water and regarding the impacts of insecticide exposure on shrimp larvae, the risks that the increased use of new classes of pesticide pose towards survival of post-larval phase shrimp cannot be adequately predicted. To assess the potential for risk, toxicity in 20day past hatch post-larval Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to modern use insecticides, imidacloprid, bifenthin, and fipronil was measured as decreased survival and feeding inhibition. Post-larval phase shrimp were sensitive to fipronil, bifenthrin, and imidacloprid, in that order, at concentrations that were comparable to those that cause mortality other crustaceans. Bifenthrin and imidacloprid exposure reduced the ability of post-larval shrimp to capture live prey at environmentally realistic concentrations. Concentrations of a broad suite of pesticides were also measured in shrimp farm intake waters. Some pesticides were detected in every sample. Most of the pesticides detected were measured below concentrations that are toxic to post-larval shrimp as used in this study, although pesticides exceed guideline values, suggesting the possibility

  1. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  2. Administration of Phyllanthus niruri to control IMNV (myonecrosis infectious virus infection white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukenda .

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInfectious myonecrosis (IMN disease is a major disease in Indonesia shrimp farming. The disease is caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV. Currently, treatment and drug has not been obtained to control the virus. This research was conducted to determine the effect of Phyllanthus niruri extract in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei against IMNV infection. Healthy shrimp was given P. niruri extract 20 mg/kg of feed for seven days and after that the shrimp was challenged by orally with IMNV infected shrimp tissue. The positive control was given feed without P. niruri extract and challenged with IMNV infected shrimp tissue, while negative control was not challenged with IMNV infected shrimp tissue. IMNV infection gave a significantly different effect on survival rate. In the shrimp P. niruri previously (86.7% gave higher survival rate compared to shrimp without P. niruri (66.67%. Survival rate of negative control was 93.33%. IMNV clinical signs in general was white necrotic areas in striated muscles. Histological examination showed that cell necrosis appeared on the mussel tissues. In conclusion the addition of P. niruri to the commercial feed can give the survival rate of shrimp better when challenged with IMNV.Keywords: IMNV, Phyllanthus niruri, Litopenaeus vannameiABSTRAKPenyakit infectious myonecrosis (IMN merupakan penyakit utama pada budidaya udang di Indonesia. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV. Saat ini, belum diperoleh cara dan obat untuk mengendalikan virus IMNV. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh immunostimulan tepung meniran (Phyllanthus niruri yang diberikan melalui pakan pada udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei yang diinfeksi IMNV. Udang vaname yang sehat diberi pakan yang mengandung meniran dengan dosis 20 mg/kg pakan selama tujuh hari dan kemudian diuji tantang secara oral dengan memberikan jaringan udang yang telah terinfeksi IMNV. Udang kontrol positif dilakukan dengan

  3. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production in Galveston Bay and Gulf of Mexico from 1999-01-01 to 2005-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0161218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains marsh construction cost in relation to shrimp yield per year. This modeling approach provides estimates of total annual shrimp production from...

  4. Uptake and retention of 124Sb in the common mussel, shrimp and shore crab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of radioactive antimony from water and food by mussels, shrimps and shore crabs and the subsequent loss in non-radioactive sea water were studied with 124 Sb. The concentration factors of about 0.6 for mussels and 2.5 for shrimps, reached by direct uptake from sea water, remained considerably below stable-antimony concentration factors reported for these organisms. The loss of 124 Sb after uptake of the radionuclide by mussels during 19 and 32 days respectively, could be described by a loss from two compartments with different rates. The distribution of the radionuclide in the animals did not change during the retention period. Antimony-124 taken up from sea water by shrimps was largely accounted for by adsorption to the exoskeleton, as was shown by the effect of moulting on the time course of subsequent loss in non-radioactive sea water. Antimony-124 applied to freeze-dried mussel flesh that was fed to shrimps was lost according to a single exponential function. The mean biological half-life of 124 Sb elimination was about 10 days. Two components were shown to be present in the retention of 124 Sb in two groups of shore crabs, one of which was fed freeze-dried shrimps spiked with 124 Sb, while the second group received shrimps labelled by uptake of 124 Sb with food. The only significant difference between the two groups was a longer mean biological half-life of the short-lived component in the second group. In shrimps and crabs only a small fraction of 124 Sb taken up with food ends up in the exoskeleton. About 45% of retained activity in crabs was found in the digestive gland. (author)

  5. Shelf-life extension of dried shrimps by irradiation and packaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warunee Varanyanond; Hirata, Takashi; Ishitani, Takasuke

    2000-01-01

    Dried shrimps were air-packaged or N2-packaged in the flexible pouch of oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinylidene chloride coated polypropylene (KOP) and ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). The packages were irradiated with gamma ray from cobalt 60 at 3 and 8 kGy. Non-irradiated dried shrimps were used as a control. The samples were stored at 30 deg C and 70+-5 percent RH for 4 months. Non-enzymatic browning induced the discoloration of dried shrimps, and oxidation of astaxanthin proceeded after irradiation and during storage. The hunter color difference, delta E, of all the samples was increased, especially in the non-irradiated air-packages samples. The decrease in astaxanthin content was found in both air - and N2-packaged samples during storage. The number of microorganisms was reduced by irradiation dose of 3 and 8 kGy from 6.5 to 4.2 and 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The decreased concentration of O2 in the package also reduced the number of microorganisms. The air packaged dried shrimps in the OPP pouch deteriorated during storage. Shrinkage of the pouches and growth of halophilic bacteria on the surface of dried shrimps were found at a sub(w) of 0.75. The discoloration of dried shrimps in the OPP pouch was more significant than that in other pouches. Irradiation at 3 and 8 kGy in combination with packaging in KOP and EVOH pouches containing N2 atmosphere was one of the promising methods for prolonging shelf-life of dried shrimps at room temperature

  6. Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish farmers in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Kim Chi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production is increasing in Vietnam, but is hampered by frequent disease outbreaks and widespread use of various compounds used to treat the fish and shrimp. The objective of this study was to analyse factors influencing farmer use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by a questionnaire and observational survey conducted with 60 whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei and 25 fish farmers in three coastal provinces in Northern Vietnam. Personnel in 22 shops distributing feed and chemicals for aquaculture were interviewed about their advice on sale to the farmers. Results showed that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy and sold for human use. Chinese traders were the main drug suppliers to the shrimp farmers in Quang Ninh and others provinces. Their products were sold with labels and product information written in Chinese only. Farmers appeared to have little awareness and concern about the disease aetiology when applying specific antimicrobials. Up to 50% of the shrimp farmers used up to 20 different disinfectants, e.g. chlorine-based compounds, to disinfect water in storage ponds, often without knowledge of the type of disinfectants and their mode of action. A variety of probiotics, vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts were routinely used by mainly shrimp farmers to enhance shrimp immunity. There is an urgent need to provide aquaculture farmers access to diagnostic and independent disease control advisory services and quality medicated feed, since the current indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and other compounds are inefficient, costly, and hazardous to the aquatic animal and farmer’s health, the environment and food safety.

  7. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areechon, Nontawith; Purivrojkul, Watchariya; Srisapoome, Prapansak; Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  8. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 , 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N, 68%). Phosphate (PO 4 -P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO 3 -N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P≤0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P≤0.05) in BOD 5 , TAN and NO 2 -N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P≤0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

  10. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  11. Production of dried shrimp mixed with turmeric and salt by Spouted Bed technique enter the rectangular chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanthong, P.; Mustafa, Y.; Ngamrungroj, D.

    2017-09-01

    Today, dried shrimp in the market were refused food colour and drying until shrimp are colourful and tasty. Meanwhile, Community groups, women’s health trying to produce food products come from herbs. As an alternative to consumers. The production process is also a traditional way to dry. In order to extend the shelf life longer. Sometimes, potential risks, both in quality and quantity of products. As a result, consumers are enormous. Thus, this research aims to study the possibility to produce shrimp dried mixed with turmeric and salt. Then dried shrimp mixed with turmeric and salt to keep up the quality criteria of the Food and Drug Administration-FDA It can reduce the risk of the consumer and can keep up in a kitchen Thailand. When buying shrimp from the fisherman’s boat Will be made clear, clean impurities and shaking the sand to dry. Prepare a mixture of turmeric and salt. The shrimp were dipped into a beef with stirrer for 3 minutes. And scoop up centrifugal shrimp with dried. Measurement of initial moisture content averaging 78%wb. Then drying technique Spouted enter the rectangular chamber a continuous manner. Until average moisture content to 17%wb. The air temperature in the drying chamber at 180 °C and hot air speed 4.5 m/s, a state heat transfer Mass and moisture within the shrimp. In chamber when drying, the shrimp have moved freely behaviour can spit water out faster does not burn. Shaving legs of shrimp shell fragments lightweight is sorting out the top of drying chamber. Private shrimp were dried out to the front of the quad drying chamber. Power consumption 27.5 MJ/kg, divided into electrical energy 12.3 MJ/kg and thermal energy is 15.2 MJ/kg. The hot air comes from burning LPG gas burner with dual automatic. And can adjustable to room temperature drying characteristics modulation setting.

  12. An update of shrimp and prawn supply chain initiatives in Bangladesh : recommendations for inclusive shrimp supply chain development for the STDF project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, van der W.

    2014-01-01

    The Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) project implemented by FAO in cooperation with the Department of Fisheries and WorldFish is funded by WTO. It will target 1,000 shrimp and prawn farmers in Southwest Bangladesh and focuses on improving their livelihoods and securing their market

  13. Burrow ventilation in the tube-dwelling shrimp callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: thalassinidea). II. The flow in the vicinity of the shrimp and the energetic advantages of a laminar non-pulsating ventilation current.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, Eize; Videler, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    The ventilation flow in the vicinity of the pleopod-pumping thalassinid shrimp Callianassa subterranea in an artificial transparent burrow has been mapped using particle image velocimetry. The flow in the tube in front of the shrimp was unidirectional, laminar and steady, with a parabolic

  14. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis captured in ecosystem mangrove of Bagan Asahan, Tanjungbalai, Asahan, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, A.; Riza, N.; Raza'i, T. S.

    2018-02-01

    White Shrimp Penaeus merguiensis was commonly found in Mangrove Ecosystem of Bagan Asahan Village. The purpose of this research are to determine length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis around ecosystem mangrove waters in Bagan Asahan Village. This research was conducted for 3 month in Maret until Mei 2017 with determination of research station used purposive sampling method. The shrimp samples were taken by shrimp trawl. The result showed that 98 shrimp which consists of 58 males and 40 female. The carapace length of female shrimp between 6,05 - 22,125 mm and total weight ranged from 0,12 - 6,95 g. Male shrimp had carapace length between 7.125 - 18.25 mm and total weigth ranged from 0.14 - 3.82 g. Female and male white shrimp had different growth pattern. Female shrimp had b = 2.984 included in negaive allometric and male shrimps with b = 3.187 included in positive allometric. The value of correlation coefficients was more than 90% for both male and female showed very strong relation between length carapace and body weight. The value of shrimp condition factor ranged from 0.570 - 1.773 and included to flat (thin) body shrimp.

  15. Vaccination with multimeric recombinant VP28 induces high protection against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taengchaiyaphum, Suparat; Nakayama, Hideki; Srisala, Jiraporn; Khiev, Ratny; Aldama-Cano, Diva January; Thitamadee, Siripong; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2017-11-01

    To improve the efficacy of WSSV protection, multimeric (tetrameric) recombinant VP28 (4XrVP28) was produced and tested in comparison with those of monomeric VP28 (1XrVP28). In vitro binding of either 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 to shrimp hemocyte surface was evident as early as 10 min after protein inoculation. Similar results were obtained in vivo when shrimp were injected with recombinant proteins that the proteins bound to the hemocyte surface could be detected since 5 min after injection. Comparison of the WSSV protection efficiencies of 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 were performed by injection the purified 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 (22.5 μg/shrimp) and WSSV inoculum (1000 copies/shrimp) into shrimp. At 10 dpi, while shrimp injected with WSSV inoculum reached 100% mortality, shrimp injected with 1XrVP28 + WSSV or 4XrVP28 + WSSV showed relative percent survival (RPS) of 67% and 81%, respectively. PCR quantification revealed high number of WSSV in the moribund shrimp of WSSV- and 1XrVP28+WSSV-injected group. In contrast, lower number of WSSV copies were found in the survivors both from 1XrVP28+WSSV- or 4XrVP28+WSSV- injected groups. Histopathological analysis demonstrated the WSSV infected lesions found in the moribund from WSSV-infected group and 1XrVP28+WSSV-injected group, but less or none in the survivors. ELISA demonstrated that 4XrVP28 exhibited higher affinity binding to rPmRab7, a WSSV binding protein essential for WSSV entry to the cell than 1XrVP28. Taken together, the protection against WSSV in shrimp could be improved by application of multimeric rVP28. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct Nitrous Oxide Emission from the Aquacultured Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Ines M; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; Stief, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is widely used in aquaculture, where it is reared at high stocking densities, temperatures, and nutrient concentrations. Here we report that adult L. vannamei shrimp emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) at an average rate of 4.3 nmol N2O/individual × h, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously measured N2O emission rates for free-living aquatic invertebrates. Dissection, incubation, and inhibitor experiments with specimens from a shrimp farm in Germany indicated that N2O is mainly produced in the animal's gut by microbial denitrification. Microsensor measurements demonstrated that the gut interior is anoxic and nearly neutral and thus is favorable for denitrification by ingested bacteria. Dinitrogen (N2) and N2O accounted for 64% and 36%, respectively, of the nitrogen gas flux from the gut, suggesting that the gut passage is too fast for complete denitrification to be fully established. Indeed, shifting the rearing water bacterial community, a diet component of shrimp, from oxic to anoxic conditions induced N2O accumulation that outlasted the gut passage time. Shrimp-associated N2O production was estimated to account for 6.5% of total N2O production in the shrimp farm studied here and to contribute to the very high N2O supersaturation measured in the rearing tanks (2,099%). Microbial N2O production directly associated with aquacultured animals should be implemented into life cycle assessments of seafood production. The most widely used shrimp species in global aquaculture, Litopenaeus vannamei, is shown to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) at a particularly high rate. Detailed experiments reveal that N2O is produced in the oxygen-depleted gut of the animal by bacteria that are part of the shrimp diet. Upon ingestion, these bacteria experience a shift from oxic to anoxic conditions and therefore switch their metabolism to the anaerobic denitrification process, which produces N

  17. A cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, for identification of genes relevant to testicular development in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinbunga Sirawut

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon were previously constructed to identify transcripts with important biological functions. In this study, a new version of cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, was constructed from the Peneaus monodon EST libraries of 12 tissues, containing 5,568 non-redundant cDNA clones from 10,536 unique cDNA in the P. monodon EST database. UniShrimpChip was used to study testicular development by comparing gene expression levels of wild brooders from the West and East coasts of Thailand and domesticated brooders with different ages (10-, 14-, 18-month-old. Results The overall gene expression patterns from the microarray experiments revealed distinct transcriptomic patterns between the wild and domesticated groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes from the microarray comparisons were identified, and the expression patterns of eight selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Among these, expression levels of six subunits (CSN2, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 8 of the COP9 signalosome (CSN gene family in wild and different ages of domesticated brooders were examined by RT-qPCR. Among the six subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 were most highly expressed in wild brooders and least expressed in the 18-month-old domesticated group; therefore, their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Conclusions This study is the first report to employ cDNA microarray to study testicular development in the black tiger shrimp. We show that there are obvious differences between the wild and domesticated shrimp at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, our study is the first to investigate the feasibility that the CSN gene family might have involved in reproduction and development of this economically important

  18. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from digestive tract of wild shrimp on growth and survival of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnum, Khanitta; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from digestive tracts of cultivated and wild adult shrimp, including Litopenaeus vannamei, Metapenaeus brevicornis and Penaeus merguiensis were selected based on their antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. LAB strain of MRO3.12 exhibiting highest reduction of V. harveyi was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum MRO3.12 based on the nucleotide sequence of its 16S rDNA, which showed 99% (780/786 bp) homology to L. plantarum strain L5 (GenBank accession number DQ 239698.1). Co-cultivation of V. harveyi and L. plantarum MRO3.12 showed complete reduction of V. harveyi at 24 h under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas L. plantarum increased from 5.29 to 9.47 log CFU ml(-1). After 6-week feeding trial with L. plantarum supplemented diet, white shrimp (L. vannamei) exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05) in relative growth rate (% RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival compared to the control group fed with non-supplemented diet. LAB-fed group showed 98.89% survival, whereas only 68.89% survival was observed in the control group. LAB from the digestive tract of probiotic-fed shrimp showed higher level of 5.0 ± 0.14 log CFU/g than the non-supplemented ones (3.34 ± 0.21 log CFU/g). However, total bacterial and non-fermenting vibrios counts decreased in shrimps fed on L. plantarum. Ten days after infection with V. harveyi (5.3-5.5 log CFU ml(-1)), significant survival (p < 0.05) of 77% was observed in LAB supplemented shrimp, while only 67% survival was observed in the control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenatul Basher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future.

  20. Heavy metals contamination in fish and shrimp from coastal regions of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    in the present study, the heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn) concentration was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in 5 species of fish and 3 species of shrimp commonly taken by locals at the coastal regions of Karachi, Pakistan Concentrations of Cd and Pb studied in tissues of Mushka (Otolithes ruber; 0.120 and 1.018 micro g/ wet weight) and palaemon longirostris shrimp (2.457 and 0.480 micro g/g wet weight) were found near to safe level for human consumption. Mullet, Tarli, Surmai, Dohtar fishes and Blacktiger shrimp were found contaminated by Cd and Pb but still within the limits fit for and human consumption. the distribution of trace metals detected in all fish and shrimp species followed the order of Zn >Pb> Fe>Cu> Cd and Cd> Fe > Zn> Cu>Ph, respectively. Metal concentration exhibited significant species variation and followed the order In fishes as otolithes ruber> Liza vaigiensis>sardinella albella>Scomberomorus guttatus>pomadasys olivaecum and in shrimp as palaemon longirostris>penaeus monodon> penaeus penicillatu. (author)

  1. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  2. Problems related to the foreign exchange earnings of Surinam's shrimp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier, D.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp grounds of Surinam are actually fully exploited by some 136 trawlers of the Florida type, ranging from 100 to 130 GRT. Through export and import levies and fishing licence fees the country was able to obtain a small piece of the foreign currency cake. The Republic of Surinam has been looking for means to increase the benefits from its shrimp business. The alleged huge profits made by foreign vessels inspired the country to invest in a national shrimp fleet and man it with national crew (SUGAM. For reasons explained in the text Sugam has difficultes to operate with a gain. This paper will review Sugam's attempt to earn hard currency. An analysis is made of the foreign exchange earnings of Sugam and is compared with the results of a Korean company. The main conclusions are as follows : shrimp exploitation in a fully exploited Exclusive Economic Zone can only be brought to success by fishermen of proven ability. Each vessel should make trips lasting from 45 to 60 days and be some 280 days at sea per year. Surinam should also reconsider its present policy of shrimp purchasing.

  3. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus from white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Sun, Baozhen; Zhu, Fei

    2018-07-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and exhibits potential antibacterial and anticancer activities. In this study, EGCG was used in pathogen-challenge experiments in shrimp to discover its effect on the innate immune system of an invertebrate. Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus was used as an experimental model and challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Pathogen-challenge experiments showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly delayed and reduced mortality upon WSSV and V. alginolyticus infection, with VP-28 copies of WSSV also reduced. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed the positive influence of EGCG on several innate immune-related genes, including IMD, proPO, QM, myosin, Rho, Rab7, p53, TNF-alpha, MAPK, and NOS, and we observed positive influences on three immune parameters, including total hemocyte count and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, by EGCG treatment. Additionally, results showed that EGCG treatment significantly reduced apoptosis upon V. alginolyticus challenge. These results indicated the positive role of EGCG in the shrimp innate immune system as an enhancer of immune parameters and an inhibitor of apoptosis, thereby delaying and reducing mortality upon pathogen challenge. Our findings provide insight into potential therapeutic or preventive functions associated with EGCG to enhance shrimp immunity and protect shrimp from pathogen infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  6. Transcriptional profiling of immune-related genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Ruth L; Justino, Emily B; Vieira, Felipe N; Jaramillo, Michael L; Rosa, Rafael D; Perazzolo, Luciane M

    2016-11-01

    We have performed here a gene expression analysis to determine the developmental stage at the main genes involved in crustacean immune response begin to be expressed and their changes in mRNA abundance during shrimp development. By using a quantitative PCR-based approach, we have measured the mRNA abundance of 24 immune-related genes from different functional categories in twelve developmental stages ranging from fertilized eggs to larval and postlarval stages and also in juveniles. We showed for the first time that the main genes from the RNAi-based post-transcriptional pathway involved in shrimp antiviral immunity are transcribed in all developmental stages, but exhibit a diverse pattern of gene expression during shrimp ontogenesis. On the other hand, hemocyte-expressed genes mainly involved in antimicrobial defenses appeared to be transcribed in larval stages, indicating that hematopoiesis initiates early in development. Moreover, transcript levels of some genes were early detected in fertilized eggs at 0-4 h post-spawning, suggesting a maternal contribution of immune-related transcripts to shrimp progeny. Altogether, our results provide important clues regarding the ontogenesis of hemocytes as well the establishment of antiviral and antimicrobial defenses in shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE VALUE CHAIN OF EXPORTED WHITELEG SHRIMP: CASE STUDY IN KHANH HOA PROVINCE, VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tram Anh Thi Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on systematic mapping and verification of benefit distribution among stakeholders in the value chain of white-leg shrimp in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. The question is, can reorganization of small farmer groups enhance participation and efficiency of the value chain? Convenient sampling and face-to-face interview method were employed in 2014 and 2015 to solicit information from 100 shrimp producers, 10 middlemen and 3 exporters. Males account for 98 percent of small independent producers. There is an involvement of middlemen (middlemen type #1 and middlemen type # 2 in the chain. The middlemen are the drivers in the chain and engage in risk shifting on producers. The distribution of shrimp materials by middlemen type #1 to the processing plant is based on shrimp size. An alternate design to assist collective bargaining by unified small farm *groups shows in order to attain a sustainable value chain for white-leg shrimp, one should improve vertical integration and coordination among the market participants; and seek government intervention to build the image of Vietnam seafood in international markets.

  8. Production of ”Tokolan” White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the Cage with Different Rearing Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Supriyono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva rearing is one of the efforts to increase white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei seed quality.  This study was conducted to determine effect of  rearing density on the quality and productivity of white shrimp larvae in cage system. The tested rearing densities were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ind/m2 and cultured for 28 days.  The result showed that rearing density did not affect survival rate and coefficient of variation of shrimp length. The treatmentonly affected the shrimp larvae growthwhere 500 ind/m2 rearing density gave the best growth. Keywords: white shrimp, larva, rearing density, net cage   ABSTRAK Penokolan merupakan salah satu usaha untuk meningkatkan kualitas benih udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh padat tebar terhadap kualitas dan produktivitas pemeliharaan larva udang vaname di hapa. Padat tebar yang diuji meliputi 500  ,1000, 1500   dan 2000 ekor/m2 selama 28 hari pemeliharaan.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa padat tebar tidak mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidup dan koefisien keragaman panjang udang, dan hanya mempengaruhi pertumbuhan. Kepadatan 500 ekor/m2 menghasilkan pertumbuhan terbaik. Kata kunci: vaname, larva, kepadatan, hapa

  9. Decoupling the response of an estuarine shrimp to architectural components of habitat structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Crooks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks, where the amount of material in the branched stalk equaled four-times that of the un-branched. The results clearly showed that it was the amount of material, not how it was arranged, that elicited responses from shrimp. Also, although stalks were not purposefully designed to mimic structural elements found in nature, they did resemble biogenic structure such as hydroids, algae, or plants. In order to test shrimp attraction to a different, perhaps more unfamiliar habitat type, we examined responses to plastic “army men.” These structural elements elicited similar attraction of shrimp, and, in general, shrimp response correlated well with the fractal dimension of both stalks and army men. Overall, these results indicate that attraction to physical structure, regardless of its nature, may be an important driver of high abundances often associated with complex habitats.

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.W.; Davis, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, nauplii and adults were exposed to different doses of radiation and maintained at different salinities and temperatures. The LD 50 determination demonstrated that nauplii were thirty to forty times more sensitive than the adults and had a 25-day LD 50 of 450 rads. Radiation and salinity reduced survival of adult female brine shrimp more than the males. The interaction of salinity, 5 and 50 ppt, temperature, 10, 20 and 30 0 C, and radiation, 25 to 100 kilorads, decreased the survival of both male and female brine shrimp, with the males having the greater sensitivity. Brine shrimp nauplii irradiated with doses of 500 and 2,500 rads had accelerated growth and matured earlier than the controls. A test of the effect of crowding on growth showed that volume per individual was important, and a dose of 500 rads accelerated brine shrimp growth in all concentrations, with the greatest increase at 8 ml/nauplius

  11. 77 FR 66434 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 70997 (December 8, 2004) (``PRC Final... Devi Sea Foods Ltd. (``Devi''), rather than data for Nekkanti, as the basis for calculating the raw... Determination: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 42654 (July...

  12. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... orders. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that..., but prior to being frozen; and (5) that is subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing...

  13. 76 FR 23972 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more... frozen; and (5) that is subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after...

  14. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Elizondo-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1 for wastewater bioremediation, and (2 using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE. Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR compared to the other treatments (p  0.05. In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL. Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 improvement of growth and FCR, and enhanced whole shrimp lipid and carotenoid content by 30 and 60%, respectively, compared to control diet. Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  15. Effect of spice-incorporated starch edible film wrapping on shelf life of white shrimps stored at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenatchisundaram, Sivarajan; Chandrasekar, Chandra Mohan; Udayasoorian, Lalitha Priya; Kavindapadi Rajasekaran, Rakhavan; Kesavan, Radha Krishnan; Srinivasan, Babuskin; Muthusamy, Sukumar

    2016-09-01

    White shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) are a major aquaculture product in the world fishery market. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clove- and cinnamon-assimilated starch edible films on the shelf life of white shrimps in terms of maintaining their freshness and other organoleptic properties. Physical, chemical, microbial and sensory qualities of edible film-wrapped white shrimps were studied until they reached their limit of acceptability during storage at different temperatures (10 and 4 °C). Shrimp samples wrapped with spice-assimilated edible films showed lower bacterial counts. Shelf life extension of edible film-wrapped white shrimps was estimated to be 14 and 12 days for storage at 10 and 4 °C respectively. Reduced lipid oxidation and release of nitrogen base compounds were noted for edible film-wrapped shrimp samples. Good consumer acceptance was noted for edible film-wrapped shrimp samples through sensory evaluation. The results of this study show that spice-fused edible films were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations. Reductions in lipid oxidation and total volatile base nitrogen were also achieved through edible film wrapping of shrimps, which increased their consumer acceptance during sensory evaluation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

  17. Polyculture Engineering technology of larasati red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) based for protease enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidjan, I.; Rachmawati, D.

    2018-04-01

    The objective is polyculture technology of red tilapia larasati fish and white shrimp with different combinations density. The material is saline red tilapia larasati 3.29 ± 0.018 g and white shrimp with initial weight 1.39 ± 0.025 g. Seeds are density of red tilapia larasati larvae 5 and 10 larvae / m2 fish. And white shrimp 5 larvae / m2 and 10 larvae / m2. An artificial feed used enzyme dose of 2.25 g / kg. The experimental using complete randomized design 4 treatments and 3 replications that is given seeds 5 larvae / m2 larvae red tilapia larasati and given 5 larvae / m2 white shrimp (A), 5 larvae / m2 red tilapia) and 10 m2 / m2 of white shrimp (B), 10 m2 larvae and 5 m2 white shrimp (C), 10 m2 larvae and 10 m2 white shrimp (D)). The data were growth of absolute weight, survival rate, FCR, and water quality data (temperature, salinity, pH, O2, NO2, NH3). Data were analyzed of variance (F test). The results showed significantly effect (P shrimp (25.25 ± 0.95 g).

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION OF WHITELEG SHRIMP IN TRADITIONAL-PLUS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharijadi Atmomarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of culturing tiger shrimp that is frequently burdened by mass mortality, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is then considered as an alternative commodity in Indonesian brackishwater ponds. To prevent the whiteleg shrimp from diseases, different probiotic bacteria were tested in completely randomized design experiment using nine 250 m2 experimental ponds stocked with 10 PLs of whiteleg shrimp fry/m2. Three treatments were applied, namely A alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-1, RICA-2, RICA-3; B alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-4, RICA-5, RICA-3, and C control (without probiotic bacteria; each with three replications. After 11-week application, the results showed that the best survival rate of whiteleg shrimp was achieved by treatment B 98.83% and the best production was achieved by treatment A (23.52 kg/250 m2. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the three treatments tested for the shrimp survival rate. The whiteleg shrimp production in treatment A and B were signicantly better (P<0.05 than that in treatment C (control. These high shrimp production in treatment A and B were mainly caused by the capability of the applied probiotics in controlling some water quality variables and Vibrio numbers.

  19. 75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... products included in the scope of this investigation, regardless of definitions in the Harmonized Tariff.... Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based product that, when dusted in accordance with the definition of dusting... Thanh Long Thien Ma Seafood Tourism Material and Equipment Company (Matourimex Hochiminh City Branch...

  20. Oral application of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic in Pacific white shrimp(Litopenaeus vannameichallenged with Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics for controlling of luminous vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi is restricted now, because it induces antibiotic-resistant bacteria and leave residue in shrimp’s body. An alternative solution that can be done to treat the disease is by using applications of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic on the survival rate and growth of Pacific white shrimp against V. harveyi infection. Feed as a treatment was supplemented with probiotic 1%, prebiotic 2%, and probiotic 1%+prebiotic 2% (synbiotic. Shrimps feed without supplementation of probiotic and prebiotic was used as a control treatment. The shrimps were maintainedin the aquarium (60×30×35 cm3 with a density of 40 shrimps/40 L and an average weight of 0.4±0.1 g. After 30 days of feeding treatment, the shrimp was challenged by immersion method with V. harveyi solution containing 106 CFU/mL. The results showed that before challenge, synbiotic feed treated shrimp has a growth rate (5.89%, feed conversionrate (1.21, and a high survival rate (80%. After challenge, survival rate (83.33% of shrimp fed diet supplemented with synbiotic was higher than prebiotic (51.67% and positive control (31.67%. Keywords: probiotic, prebiotic, synbiotic, Vibrio harveyi,Pacific white shrimp

  1. Extract from the fermented soybean product Natto inhibits Vibrio biofilm formation and reduces shrimp mortality from Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatip, Pattanan; Nitin Chandra Teja, D; Flegel, Timothy W; Soowannayan, Chumporn

    2018-01-01

    Many bacteria, including Vibrio pathogens of shrimp, need to colonize and/or form biofilms in hosts or the environment to cause disease. Thus, one possible control strategy for shrimp Vibriosis is biofilm inhibition. With this objective, an extract from the Japanese fermented soybean product, Natto was tested with the luminescent shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi (VH) for its ability to inhibit or degrade biofilm and to interfere with cell growth in broth. Natto is a traditional fermentation product of Bacillus subtilis var Natto (BSN1). Using 96 well microtiter plates coated with 0.4% chitosan, we found that biofilm formation by VH was inhibited, while growth in parallel broth cultures was not. When an extract from Natto prepared using BSN1 was mixed with feed for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei before immersion challenge with V. harveyi at 10 6  cfu/ml, survival was significantly higher (p≤0.05) than for control shrimp given feed without these additives. Further work done to test whether d-amino acids were involved in biofilm formation as previously reported for B. subtilis, Staphylococus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa gave negative results. In conclusion, we discovered that Natto extract can inhibit Vibrio biofilm formation and that it or BSN1 alone added to shrimp feed can significantly reduce shrimp mortality in immersion challenges with pathogenic VH. This shows some promise for possible application against Vibriosis in shrimp since Natto is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-González, Regina; Quiroz-Guzmán, Eduardo; Escobedo-Fregoso, Cristina; Magallón-Servín, Paola; Peña-Rodríguez, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1) for wastewater bioremediation, and (2) using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE) resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE). Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE) resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR) compared to the other treatments ( p   0.05). In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL). Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant ( p  shrimp lipid and carotenoid content by 30 and 60%, respectively, compared to control diet. Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  3. On the role of the polychaete Dendronereis spp. i the transmission of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrina, Haryadi

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is by far the most devastating shrimp virus. Control measures have lowered the WSSV incidence to various degrees, but the pathogen remains plaguing shrimp culture worldwide. Continuous exposure may cause WSSV to adapt and infect non-crustacean benthic fauna in

  4. Effect of probiotic culture water on growth, mortality, and feed conversion ratio of Vaname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachruddin, M.; Sholichah, M.; Istiqomah, S.; Supriyanto, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of various dose of probiotics in the culture water to the growth and mortality of Vaname shrimp. This study consist of treatment control and treatment of various dose of probiotics. Control (0 mL/10 L water), P1 (1 mL/10 L water), P2 (2 mL/10 L water), P3 (3 mL/10 L water) and P4 (4 mL/10 L water) treatment, given to the Vaname shrimps with intervals once per week. This probiotic consist of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Nitrobacter sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. Dependent variables in this study are weight of shrimp, length of shrimp, mortality and feed conversion ratio. The results had different of various dose probiotics application in the water showed significance for each treatment on growth and mortality of Vaname shrimp. The best results were shown in treatment P2 (2 mL/10 water) with mean value of Vaname shrimp weight is 7.447 ± 1.193 g/shrimp, the length is 10,390 ± 0,469 cm/shrimp, mortality is 41%, and the value of FCR is 0.91.

  5. 75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content... Duc Co., Ltd.: Price of the Sale and Subsequent U.S. Sales. Rescission of Review In evaluating whether...

  6. 76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content... prices or costs of factors of production in one or more ME countries that are (1) At a comparable level...

  7. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.co [Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Quayson, E.T. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E.A.; Asare, D. [Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Serfor-Armah, Y. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Woode, B.K. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2011-07-15

    The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of the chistosan samples. Viscosity and molecular weight decreased when the samples were given the irradiation dose of 25 kGy. Chitosan samples had low antioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

  8. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, F.C.K.; Quayson, E.T.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E.A.; Asare, D.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Woode, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of the chistosan samples. Viscosity and molecular weight decreased when the samples were given the irradiation dose of 25 kGy. Chitosan samples had low antioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

  9. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2012-10-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval-adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism.

  10. Application of a Surimi-Based Coating to Improve the Quality Attributes of Shrimp during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf Eddin, Abdulhakim; Tahergorabi, Reza

    2017-09-05

    Shrimp is a popular seafood throughout the world. However, shrimp is highly perishable due to biochemical, microbiological, or physical changes during postmortem storage. In this study, the effect of a surimi-based coating with and without montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay on shrimp quality was evaluated during eight days of refrigerator storage. Use of a surimi-based coating resulted in reductions of aerobic plate counts (APC) up to 2 log units. The combined effect of the MMT and coating was observed. Surimi-based coating with MMT resulted in lower APC ( p coating with MMT to the shrimp samples improved sensory quality and delayed lipid oxidation and color deterioration during storage time. In general, better texture was observed when coating was applied either with or without MMT. This study suggests that surimi-based coating may improve the quality of shrimp during refrigerated storage.

  11. Isolation and risk assessment of Geotrichum spp. in the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 from culture ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ochoa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done in order to identify the fungus invading some of the supralittoral ponds used for shrimp aquaculture in the CIBNOR facilities in La Paz, Baja California Sur (BCS, México during the summer season. From the walls and bottoms of the ponds, two strains of Geotrichum spp. were isolated and morphologically identified. Fungal adhesion towards hemocytes and primary cultures of various white shrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei tissues (gill, tegument, and gut was analyzed to determine infectivity. Extracellular protease, lipase, and amylase activity were evaluated as virulence factors. Survival of shrimp post-larvae (PL8 exposed to fungal culture supernatant or to their filaments was also investigated. The results showed that shrimp tegument cells and hemocytes were very susceptible to Geotrichum spp. invasion, and that this fungus provokes great mortality of post-larvae. Hence, Geotrichum spp. could be considered an opportunistic pathogen that might represent a serious health risk to shrimp in culture.

  12. Effects of predation on diel activity and habitat use of the coral-reef shrimp Cinetorhynchus hendersoni (Rhynchocinetidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Nicolas C.; Dudgeon, David; Duprey, Nicolas; Thiel, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Nonlethal effects of predators on prey behaviour are still poorly understood, although they may have cascading effects through food webs. Underwater observations and experiments were conducted on a shallow fringing coral reef in Malaysia to examine whether predation risks affect diel activity, habitat use, and survival of the rhynchocinetid shrimp Cinetorhynchus hendersoni. The study site was within a protected area where predatory fish were abundant. Visual surveys and tethering experiments were conducted in April-May 2010 to compare the abundance of shrimps and predatory fishes and the relative predation intensity on shrimps during day and night. Shrimps were not seen during the day but came out of refuges at night, when the risk of being eaten was reduced. Shrimp preferences for substrata of different complexities and types were examined at night when they could be seen on the reef; complex substrata were preferred, while simple substrata were avoided. Shrimps were abundant on high-complexity columnar-foliate Porites rus, but tended to make little use of branching Acropora spp. Subsequent tethering experiments, conducted during daytime in June 2013, compared the relative mortality of shrimps on simple (sand-rubble, massive Porites spp.) and complex ( P. rus, branching Acropora spp.) substrata under different predation risk scenarios (i.e., different tether lengths and exposure durations). The mortality of shrimps with short tethers (high risk) was high on all substrata while, under low and intermediate predation risks (long tethers), shrimp mortality was reduced on complex corals relative to that on sand-rubble or massive Porites spp. Overall, mortality was lowest on P. rus. Our study indicates that predation risks constrain shrimp activity and habitat choice, forcing them to hide deep inside complex substrata during the day. Such behavioural responses to predation risks and their consequences for the trophic role of invertebrate mesoconsumers warrant further

  13. Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis for protein recovery from shrimp head waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhong; Tan, Caiyun; Zhan, Xiaojian; Li, Huiyi; Zhang, Chaohua

    2014-12-01

    A novel autolysis method using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and gradient temperature was investigated to efficiently recover proteins from the head of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The proteolytic activity of shrimp head subjected to 30W UV irradiation for 20 min was increased by 62%, compared with that of untreated samples. After irradiation, the enzymes remained active across a wide range of temperatures (45-60°C) and pH (7-10). An orthogonal design was used to optimize autolysis condition. After 5h autolysis, protein recovery from the UV-heat treated samples was up to 92.1%. These results indicate the potential of using UV irradiation in combination with gradient temperatures to improve recovery of proteins from shrimp head waste. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  15. Short-term toxicity of polystryrene microplastics on mysid shrimps Neomysis japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Zheng, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Plastic debris especially microplastics (MPs) have become a global concern for the aggravating pollution in the oceans. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) beads and the effects of PS-MPs on the survival of mysid shrimps (Neomysis japonica) were investigated. PS-MPs were identified to have spherical shape, uniform size and stable green fluorescence. The results showed that PS beads had little effects on the mortality of shrimps under a short-term (72 h) exposure with concentrations of 50 μg L-1 and 500 μg L-1. However, PS-MPs had severe short-term toxicity on the survival of mysid shrimps, resulting in 30% mortality especially in a 72 h exposure with the higher concentration of 1000 μg L-1. These findings provide new insights into the toxic effects of MPs on marine invertebrates.

  16. Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Quetel, C. R.; Munoz, R.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted...... by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary producing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, contained arsenic at 13 mu g g(-1) almost exclusively as arsenobetaine (AsB). Arsenic was present in the soft:issues of the mussel at 40 mu g g(-1) and the major...... of arsenic species found in the shrimp and mussel species in the deep-sea is similar to that found in their counterparts from the ocean surface. It is concluded that the autotrophic bacteria of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem and the symbiotic bacteria harboured in the mussel species are responsible...

  17. Process design and economic evaluation of green extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2017-01-01

    (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol (Hex:IPA). The process flowsheets describing these processes were modelled by means of SuperPro Designer...... processes with SF or the methyl ester of SF (ME-SF) was 2.5 and 153 ppm with a production cost of 0.06 and 0.16 $/mg of ASX, respectively. In addition, shrimp feed production was considered as a feasible application of the low concentration ASX obtained by SF extraction. A combination of ASX extracted...... with SF and synthetic ASX yielded a shrimp feed production cost comparable to the current market price. The calculated feed price based on the ASX production cost of the other green processes, ME-SF and SCFE, resulted in a significantly higher production cost....

  18. EFFECT OF DYNAMICAL WATER QUALITY ON SHRIMP CULTURE IN THE INTEGRATED MULTITROPIC AQUACULTURE (IMTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brata Pantjara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies to improve the productivity of shrimp farms are environmentally friendly shrimp farming multitrophic integrated system known as Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture (IMTA. The aims of the study were to observe the water quality dynamic on the integrated multitrophic aquaculture and the effect on the production. This study was used four plots which each of pond had 4,000 m2 in sizing, located in experiment pond, at Research and Development Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, Maros. The main commodities used were tiger and vannamei shrimp. In the A pond was cultivated the tiger shrimp with density 12 ind./m2, in B pond was tiger shrimp with density 8 ind./m2, C pond was vannamei shrimp with density 50 ind./m2, and D pond was vannamei shrimp with density 25 ind./m2. Other commodities were red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Each pond had stocking density 2,400 ind./plot which was divided into 5 hapas having a size of (6 m x 4 m x 1.2 m/each, mangrove oysters (Crassostrea iredalei and Saccostrea cucullata with density 7,500 ind./4,000 m2 and seaweed (Gracilaria verrucosa of 500 kg/4,000 m2. The observation of dynamic water quality in the pond was conducted every day i.e. temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and measured pH, while the total organic matter total (TOM, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate were taken every two weeks. The measurements methods of water quality in laboratory was refered to APHA (2008; and Boyd (1990. During the study, absorption of N and P in seaweed were measured, the obtained plankton was identified and the ratio of carbon and nitrogen during the observation was also calculated. To determine the effect of dominant water quality on production was used the principal component analysis (PCA. The result showed that water quality during the study was suitable for shrimp and red tilapia culture. The dominant water qualities which effected the shrimp production in

  19. The Use of Crude Shrimp Shell Powder for Chitinase Production by Serratia marcescens WF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. Mejía-Saulés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From 102 Serratia marcescens strains screened, 57 strains showed chitinase activity and Serratia marcescens WF showed the highest chitinolytic activity so this strain was selected for further study on the use of crude shrimp waste for chitinase production. The concentration of crude shrimp shell content at 10–70 g/L, incubation temperature of 28–37 °C, pH=6–9, and time 24–96 h on kinetics of chitinase production by S. marcescens WF were evaluated. The maximal chitinase production related to process variables was obtained with the second order polynomial model: dry shrimp shell powder at 6 %, pH=6.5, temperature of 28 °C during fermentation for up to 72 h.

  20. The freshwater grass shrimp Palaemonetes antennarius in the diet of fish in Lake Bracciano (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversetti L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the importance of the freshwater grass shrimp Palaemonetes antennarius as trophic source for the lacustrine fish of the Lake Bracciano (Central Italy analyzing 6120 stomach contents of 10 species. Shrimp was recorded for all size classes of the investigated species with a variation in frequency and abundance depending on seasons. P. antennarius was occasionally preyed by cyprinids, and systematically by small individuals of carnivorous fish. Our findings acquire more importance if we take the shrimps ecological niche into account, as it is potentially acting as detritivorous/generalist and predator of benthic invertebrates as well. This feeding behavior makes P. antennarius an important network ring, being a taxon that ought to receive the same attention recommended for other freshwater decapods as proposed for Austropotamobius pallipes and Potamon fluviatile.

  1. Conformation of phylogenetic relationship of Penaeidae shrimp based on morphometric and molecular investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumaran, P; Vaseeharan, B; Jayakumar, R; Chidambara, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of accurate phylogenetic relationship among Penaeidae shrimp is important for academic and fisheries industry. The Morphometric and Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to make the phylogenetic relationsip among 13 Penaeidae shrimp. For morphometric analysis forty variables and total lengths of shrimp were measured for each species, and removed the effect of size variation. The size normalized values obtained was subjected to UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) cluster analysis. For RAPD analysis, the four primers showed reliable differentiation between species, and used correlation coefficient between the DNA banding patterns of 13 Penaeidae species to construct UPGMA dendrogram. Phylogenetic relationship from morphometric and molecular analysis for Penaeidae species found to be congruent. We concluded that as the results from morphometry investigations concur with molecular one, phylogenetic relationship obtained for the studied Penaeidae are considered to be reliable.

  2. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damkaer, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm -2 sub([DNA]) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm -2 sub([DNA]). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation. (orig.)

  3. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms.

  4. Distribution of hydrothermal Alvinocaridid shrimps: effect of geomorphology and specialization to extreme biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunina, Anastasia A; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three--six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus.

  5. Effect of catechin and its derivatives on inhibition of polyphenoloxidase and melanosis of Pacific white shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Leaw, Thanasak; Benjakul, Soottawat; Simpson, Benjamin K

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of tea catechin (C) and 4 of its derivatives on the Pacific white shrimp PPO inhibition and melanosis during refrigerated storage. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) exhibited the highest inhibition towards PPO, followed by C. Inhibitory activity of all compounds tested was in a dose dependent manner (0.1-2.0 mM). Based on activity staining, EGCG most effectively inhibited PPO. For inhibition kinetic studies, C and epicatechin (EC) showed uncompetitive type, whereas epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and EGCG exhibited mixed type inhibition. When whole shrimps were treated with EGCG solution at various concentrations (0.25-0.75%), those treated with 0.5 or 0.75% EGCG had lower melanosis scores throughout storage for 10 days at 4 °C, compared with the control and the 1.25% sodium metabisulfite treated samples ( P  white shrimp during refrigerated storage.

  6. Microbiota of Vibrio sp. in the hepatopancreas of cultured white pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of vibrios in the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp. Materials and methods. Vibrios from the hepatopancreas of fifteen samples of five specimens each, of apparently healthy Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were isolated, identified and quantified. Results. The vibrio density ranged from 430 to 2,400 MPN g-1 (rs MPN cm-1=-0.114; rs MPN g-1 = 0.211. Thirty isolations were obtained, most of which belonged to the species V. cholerae (n=11 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=7. Conclusions. The outcomes of the present study suggest that, even in the absence of symptoms of vibriosis, the microbiota of the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp may include sucrose positive and negative vibrios.

  7. Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity is dependent on dodecameric structure in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ke-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemocyanin (Hc is a multifunctional protein in both mollusks and arthropods. Phenoloxidase (PO activities are the most important physiological functions for Hcs after conversion. In shrimp, Hc occurs as two oligomer forms, dodecamers and hexamers. Differences in the transport oxygen capacity and agglutination activity between the two oligomers of shrimp Hc have been found. In the present study, we investigated the differences in the Hc-derived PO activity between the dodecameric and hexameric Hc forms of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The two oligomers were separated by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, converted by trypsin cleavage and their PO activities were determined by oxidation of L-DOPA. The dodecamers exhibited PO activity after enzymatic conversion while the hexamers did not exhibit PO activity. This result provides new insight into the structural/functional relationships of Hcs.

  8. Presence and dehydration of ikaite, calcium carbonate hexahydrate, in frozen shrimp shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, A; Andersen, A B; Engelsen, S B; Hansen, H C; Larsen, O; Skibsted, L H

    1999-03-01

    Ikaite, calcium carbonate hexahydrate, has by means of X-ray diffraction analyses of frozen samples been identified as the mineral component of the white spots formed in the shell of frozen shrimp during storage. When the shrimp thaw and the shell material is dried and kept at room temperature, ikaite rapidly transforms into a mixture of anhydrous calcium carbonate forms. X-ray diffraction analyses and Raman spectra of synthetic ikaite as well as the dehydration product confirm the assignments, and the rate constant for dehydration is approximately 7 x 10(-)(4) s(-)(1) at ambient temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that dehydration of synthetic ikaite is an entropy-driven, athermal process and confirms that a single first-order reaction is rate-determining. Ikaite is found to be stable in aqueous solution at temperatures below 5 degrees C and in the shell of frozen shrimps but decomposes on thawing to form anhydrous calcium carbonates.

  9. Molecular cloning of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Cho, Hyun Kook; Park, Eun-Mi; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Han, Hyon Sob; Jang, In-Kwon; Lee, Chang Hoon; Cheong, Jaehun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors play important roles in host defence systems involving blood coagulation and pathogen digestion. We isolated and characterized a cDNA clone for a Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor (KPI) from a hemocyte cDNA library of the oriental white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The KPI gene consists of three exons and two introns. KPI cDNA contains an open reading frame of 396 bp, a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA, and a poly (A) tail. KPI cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 131 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of KPI contains two homologous Kazal domains, each with six conserved cysteine residues. The mRNA of KPI is expressed in the hemocytes of healthy shrimp, and the higher expression of KPI transcript is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), suggesting a potential role for KPI in host defence mechanisms.

  10. EXPRESSION OF ANTIVIRAL GENE ON TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon AT DIFFERENT TISSUE AND BODY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of tiger shrimp defense against invading pathogen on molecular level such antiviral gene expression is limited to be reported. Gene expression is a process which codes information of genes that is converted to the protein as a phenotype. Distribution of PmAV antivirus gene, that has been reported as an important gene on non-specific response immune, is needed to be observed to several organs/tissues and size of tiger shrimp. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of gene antiviral expression at several organ/tissue and size of shrimp. The organs/tissues observed in this study were: gill, hepatopancres, muscle tissue, eyes, heart, stomach, gonad, and intestine. While the size of shrimp consisted of three groups, those are: (A 10-20 g/ind., (B 30-40 g/ind., and (C 60-70 g/ind. Analysis of antiviral gene expression was performed by RNA extraction, followed by the cDNA syntesis, and amplification of gene expression by semi-quantitative PCR. The result of PCR optimation showed the optimal concentration of cDNA and primer was 1 μL and 50 mol, respectively for PCR final volume of 25 μL. Antiviral gene was expressed on the hepatopancreas and stomach in percentage of 50.0% and 16.7%, respectively. While the highest percentage of individual expressing the antiviral gene was observed in the shrimp size of C (66.7%, followed by B (50.0% and A (16.7%. The result of study implied that the hepatopancreas has importantly involed in tiger shrimp defense mechanism on viral infection.

  11. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaini Mohd Zohdi; Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC 50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC 50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC 50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC 50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC 50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  12. Energy metabolism and metabolomics response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to sulfide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Suo, Yantong; Xu, Zhixin; Jia, Yongyi; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Gu, Zhimin

    2017-02-01

    The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC 50 at 96h was used to test the metabolic responses of L. vannamei for 21days. The chronic exposure of shrimp to a higher sulfide concentration of 851μg/L decreased shrimp survival but did not affect weight gain or the hepatopancreas index. The glycogen content in the hepatopancreas and muscle and the activity of hepatopancreas cytochrome C oxidase of the shrimp exposed to all sulfide concentrations were significantly lower, and the serum glucose and lactic acid levels and lactic acid dehydrogenase activity were significantly lower than those in the control. Metabolomics assays showed that shrimp exposed to sulfide had lower amounts of serum pyruvic acid, succinic acid, glycine, alanine, and proline in the 425.5μg/L group and phosphate, succinic acid, beta-alanine, serine, and l-histidine in the 851μg/L group than in the control. Chronic sulfide exposure could disturb protein synthesis in shrimp but enhance gluconeogenesis and substrate absorption for ATP synthesis and tricarboxylic acid cycles to provide extra energy to cope with sulfide stress. Chronic sulfide exposure could adversely affect the health status of L. vannamei, as indicated by the high amounts of serum n-ethylmaleamic acid, pyroglutamic acid, aspartic acid and phenylalanine relative to the control. This study indicates that chronic exposure of shrimp to sulfide can decrease health and lower survival through functional changes in gluconeogenesis, protein synthesis and energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Selection of proteolytic bacteria with ability to inhibit Vibrio harveyi during white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntinanalert, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of bacteria with high proteolytic activity, isolated from water samples of intensive shrimp ponds in southern Thailand, were selected to test for the ability to control the shrimp pathogen Vibrioharveyi. 70 μl of each culture broth were investigated for their ability to inhibit V. harveyi using an agar well diffusion test but only one isolate W3 gave a reasonable sized inhibition zone of 21.62 mm. This zone wassimilar to that of oxolinic acid (2 μg and sulfamethoxazole (25 μg. The W3 isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Shrimp cultivation in aquaria was conducted to investigate the inhibition of V. harveyi bythe isolate W3. The experiment consisted of a treatment of the shrimp culture with an inoculum of the isolate W3 and V. harveyi (biocontrol set, a positive control set (only inoculation of V. harveyi and a negativecontrol set as without inoculation. No mortality was found in the negative control. Shrimp mortality in the biocontrol set (33% was lower than that in the positive control set (40%; however, it showed no significantdifference (p>0.05. The average numbers of V. harveyi over 12 days of the biocontrol set were lower than those in the positive control set by about 1 log cycle although the numbers were not significantly different(p>0.05. The shrimp growth rate at day 32 of cultivation was in order of the biocontrol treatment (10.17% > the negative control treatment (9.44% > the positive control set (9.28%, but no significant difference (p>0.05 was observed among treatments.

  14. Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium in white shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi Boudet, L N; Polizzi, P; Romero, M B; Robles, A; Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common pollutants in the environment and induces a range of tissue changes or damages and organ dysfunction. The histopathological effects of Cd and lipid peroxidation (LPO) on hepatopancreas of the freshwater shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus, were studied. Shrimp were obtained from two lagoons with contrasting environmental quality, De los Padres (LP, impacted site) and Nahuel Rucá (NR, reference site), and were exposed to 3.06 and 12.24µgCdL(-1) for 3, 7, 10 and 15 days. The health status of both populations was also evaluated by histological analysis of control individuals. After exposure, shrimp were transferred to clean water for 28 days to evaluate the recuperation capacity of hepatopancreas. Control shrimp from NR exhibited a normal hepatopancreas structure; unlike control shrimp from LP which showed several alterations. These results were attributed to the different environmental quality of lagoons. The exposure to Cd resulted in several alterations in the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of both populations. The observed alterations included haemocytic and connective infiltrations in the intertubular space, erosioned microvilli, ripple of basal lamina, atrophied epithelium and necrosis, however, the latter was only observed in shrimp from LP. The exposure also caused an increase of LPO levels in both populations. P. argentinus was able to repair the hepatopancreas structure from the damage caused by Cd, evidenced by the histopathological results and LPO levels. Obtained results are indicating that the histological analysis of the hepatopancreas proved to be a highly sensitive method for evaluating water quality, in both environmental and laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution Pattern of Shrimps and Fish Among Avicenniaand RhizophoraMicrohabitats in the Pagbilao Mangroves, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnbäck, P.; Troell, M.; Kautsky, N.; Primavera, J. H.

    1999-02-01

    For sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of fish and invertebrates associated with this system. This study sampled microhabitats (89-258 m 2) inside the mangrove forest at Pagbilao, the Philippines, on two consecutive spring tides using stake nets. Distribution patterns of shrimps and fish were compared among four microhabitats that differed in dominant mangrove species ( Avicennia marina, A. officinalisor Rhizophora apiculata), structural complexity of the root system, and proximity to open water habitat. A 5 to 6-year-old replanted Rhizophoramicrohabitat was also sampled to study faunal recolonization following replantation. The mean (±SE) density of the shrimp community was 1·5±0·2 shrimps m -2, dominated by Palaemonidae, followed by Acetessp., Penaeus merguiensisand Metapenaeus ensis. The highest shrimp density was observed in the replanted Rhizophorahabitat, which also had the highest structural complexity. The mean (±SE) density and biomass of the fish community was 5·1±2·0 fish m -2and 10·4±3·3 g m -2, respectively, dominated by Ambassis kopsi, A. urotaeniaand Atherinomorus balabacensis. The fish community preferred the pneumatophore ( Avicennia) microhabitats to the prop root ( Rhizophora) habitats. Highest fish abundance and biomass were observed in the most inland habitat, which also lacked larger (total length >100 mm) carnivorous fish. The results demonstrate the extensive use of intertidal mangrove forests by vagile fauna, as well as the successful recolonization by shrimps and fish of replanted Rhizophorahabitat. The role of mangroves as predation refuges, based on the distribution pattern of shrimps and fish, is discussed. Sampling strategies in mangrove intertidal habitat are also outlined.

  16. BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

  17. Glycogen and proximate content of white shrimp fed on different carbohydrate level and feeding frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Zainuddin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of penaeid shrimp which can be cultured either in traditional and advanced technology scale. One problem that commonly faced by pond farmer is the high price of feed with high protein content. This research was to identify the optimal level of carbohydrate and feeding frequency on glycogen deposit and chemical composition of white shrimp juvenile. Research used factorial completely randomized design with two factors in triplicates. Treatments were factor A, carbohydrate level in feed respectively A1 (30%, A2 (37%, A3 (44%, A4 (50%, and factor B daily feeding frequency respectively B1 (twice, B2 (four times, and B3 (six times respectively. White shrimp used had an initial average body weight of 0.3 g/shrimp. Feeding level was 10% of shrimp body weight. Results showed that both factors, carbohydrate level in feed, feeding frequency and their interactions were not significantly different on glycogen deposit of white shrimp juvenile. Analysis result on chemical compositions of white shrimp juvenile consisted of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extract, crude fiber, ash, and energy were generally increased after treatments. Keywords: glycogen deposit, feeding frequency, chemical composition, carbohydrate level ABSTRAK Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei merupakan salah satu jenis udang penaeid yang dapat dibudidayakan baik dalam skala teknologi tradisional maupun skala teknologi maju. Salah satu masalah yang dihadapi para petani tambak adalah tingginya harga pakan yang disebabkan karena tingginya kandungan protein pakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efek pemberian pakan dengan kadar karbohidrat dan frekuensi pemberian berbeda terhadap deposit glikogen dan komposisi kimia tubuh juvenil udang vanamei. Penelitian menggunakan desain rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan dua faktor dan setiap faktor diberi masing-masing tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah faktor A, kadar karbohidrat

  18. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic...... that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers...

  19. A statistical evaluation of the design and precision of the shrimp trawl survey off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmer, Ole; Pennington, M.

    2000-01-01

    statistical techniques were used to estimate two indices of shrimp abundance and their precision, and to determine the effective sample sizes for estimates of length-frequency distributions. It is concluded that the surveys produce a fairly precise abundance index, and that given the relatively small...... effective sample size, reducing tow duration to 15 min would increase overall survey precision. An unexpected outcome of the analysis is that the density of shrimp appears to have been fairly stable over the last 11 years. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  1. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Jiau; Liu, Yuan; Sha, Zhongli; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Tin-Yam; Liu, Ruiyu; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2012-11-16

    The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further

  2. [Influence of lecithotrofic feeding on growth and development of larvae of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, R R; Kriakhova, N V

    2011-01-01

    In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected. However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge.

  3. Application of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to improve survival of the black tiger shrimp after Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates an effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as feed supplement to improve immunity of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). LPS was coated to commercial feed pellets and given to the shrimp once or twice a day for 10 days before an exposure with shrimp pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The growth rates, percent weight gains, total hemocyte and granulocyte counts and survival rates of shrimp between the LPS-coated pellet fed groups and a control group where shrimp fed with commercial feed pellets were compared. After 10 days of the feeding trials, growth rates were not significantly different in all groups, suggesting no toxicity from LPS supplement. To determine beneficial effect of LPS diets, each group was subsequently exposed to V. harveyi by immersion method and the survival rates were recorded for seven days after the immersion. Regardless of the dosages of LPS, the shrimp groups fed with LPS-coated pellets showed higher survival rates than the control group. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two LPS dosages groups. In addition to survival under pathogen challenge, we also determine effect of LPS on immune-related genes after 10-day feeding trial. Gene expression analysis in the P. monodon intestines revealed that antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALF3), C-type lectin, and mucine-like peritrophin (mucin-like PM) were expressed significantly higher in a group fed with LPS supplemental diet once or twice a day than in a control group. The transcript levels of C-type lectin and mucin-like PM had increased significantly when LPS was given once a day, while significant induction of ALF3 transcripts was observed when shrimp were fed with LPS twice a day. The up-regulation of the immune gene levels in intestines and higher resistance to V. harveyi of the shrimp fed with LPS provide the evidence for potential application of LPS as an immunostimulant in P. monodon farming. Copyright © 2013

  4. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  5. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  6. Determination of Profiles of Salmonella and Pathogenic Vibrio SPP. in Black Tiger Shrimp for Export by Introduction of Quality Assured Microbiological Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongchinda, N.; Sirimanuyutt, S.; Piromrak, R.; Rachniyom, S. [Fishery Technological Development Institute, Department of Fisheries, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2005-01-15

    Studies were conducted on contamination by Salmonella and pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of aquaculture black tiger shrimp, the water supply (canal water which is supplied as raw pond water before treatment), pond water, feed materials, and fresh and frozen shrimp. Salmonella was detected in samples of the water supply, pond water, feed materials, fresh shrimp at farm, fresh shrimp from wholesale market and frozen shrimp destined for export at levels of 13.95%, 1.53%, 1.14%, 3.17%, 30.4% and 0.21% respectively. V. cholerae non 01 was found in one sample of water from a culture pond of 131 tested (0.8%). V. parahaemolyticus was found in samples of canal water, pond water, fresh black tiger shrimp collected at farms, fresh black tiger shrimp collected at wholesale shrimp markets and frozen black tiger shrimp destined for export at levels of 2.3%, 5.3%, 14.3%, 48 % and 0.2% respectively. The strains identified as V. parahaemolyticus were examined for the presence or absence of the TDH and TRH. The incidence of TDH (KP+) was 2.67% (seven of 262 strains) and of TRH (urease reaction) was 1.15% (three of 262 strains). Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus were found in a high percentage in fresh black tiger shrimp collected from wholesale shrimp markets. These shrimp are used as raw material for domestic consumption and for processing for exported shrimp products. Therefore GMP and/or Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system for shrimp distributors/producers should be applied. (author)

  7. Effects of ergothioneine from mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) on melanosis and lipid oxidation of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirono, Ikuo; Ushio, Hideki; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2010-02-24

    The antimelanosic and antioxidative properties of a hot water extract prepared from the fruiting body of the edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) were evaluated by dietary supplementation in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) for possible aquaculture application. The extract contained ergothioneine (ERT) at a level of 2.05 mg/mL. A commercial standard of l-ergothioneine (l-ERT) and the mushroom extract showed inhibitory activity against mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Feeding of the extract had no adverse effects on the immune systems of the shrimp under the present experimental conditions. Supplementation of the extract in the diet significantly suppressed PPO activities in the hemolymphs of the shrimp. Expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in the hemocyte of the Kuruma shrimp fed with the mushroom extract. Consequently, development of melanosis was significantly suppressed in the supplement fed shrimp during ice storage. Lipid oxidation was also effectively controlled in the supplement fed group throughout the storage period. In vitro experiments showed that l-ERT effectively inhibited the activation of proPO in the hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS). The transcript of the proPO gene in the hemocyte showed lower expression in the l-ERT-treated HLS. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of the mushroom extract in shrimp could be a promising approach to control post mortem development of melanosis and lipid oxidation in shrimp muscles.

  8. Some effects of temperature, chlorine, and copper on the survival and growth of the coon stripe shrimp, Pandalus danae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.I.; Thatcher, T.O.; Apts, C.W.

    1975-03-01

    The CTM (Critical Thermal Maxima) values for coon stripe shrimp increase with an increase in shrimp size. The CTM values for coon strip shrimp increase with an increase in the rate at which the temperature is elevated. Coon stripe shrimp are more resistant to chlorine when acclimated and exposed at 7.5 0 C-10 0 C than (a) when acclimated at 7.5 0 C and exposed at 15 0 C or 20 0 C, or when (b) acclimated and exposed at 15 0 C which is near their optimum short-term growth temperature (16 0 C). The optimal growing temperature for (1 to 7g) coon stripe shrimp for periods up to one month is 16 0 C. Copper at a concentration of 0.04 mg/l effectively retards the growth of (1-2g) coon stripe shrimp at 16 0 C over a one-month period. Chlorine at a concentration of 0.18 mg/l is lethal to (1-2g) coon stripe shrimp at 16 0 C and reduced their growth at 0.08 mg/l over a one-month period. (U.S.)

  9. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: Laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metian, Marc; Hedouin, Laetitia; Eltayeb, Mohamed M.; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Mugnier, Chantal; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at better understanding metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory and field approaches. In the laboratory, the bioaccumulation kinetics of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn have been investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding γ-emitting radiotracers ( 110m Ag, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 51 Cr, and 65 Zn) and highly sensitive nuclear detection techniques. Results showed that hepatopancreas and intestine concentrated the metals to the highest extent among the blue shrimp organs and tissues. Moulting was found to play a non negligible detoxification role for Co, Cr and, to a lesser extent, Zn. Metal retention by L. stylirostris widely varied (from a few days to several months), according to the element and exposure pathway considered (a given metal was usually less strongly retained when ingested with food than when it was taken up from the dissolved phase). In the field study, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn were analysed in shrimp collected from a New Caledonian aquaculture pond. Metal concentrations in the shrimp muscles were generally relatively low and results confirmed the role played by the digestive organs and tissues in the bioaccumulation/storage/detoxification of metals in the Pacific blue shrimp. Preliminary risk considerations indicate that consumption of the shrimp farmed in New Caledonia is not of particular concern for human health.

  10. Pathogenicity Assay of Vibrio harveyi in Tiger Shrimp Larvae Employing Rifampicin-Resistant as A Molecular Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Rifampicin-resistant marker was employed as a reporter to assay pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi  in shrimp larvae.  V. harveyi M. G3 and G7 that difference not schizotyping as shown by Pulsed-Filed Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE used in this study. Spontaneous mutation was conducted to generate V. harveyi resistant to rifampicin. Two groups of shrimp post-larvae (PL5 were immersed for 30 min in 106 CFU/ml of mutants and wild type of V. harveyi, respectively; and then placed in a 2 liter shrimp rearing tank for five days. A control group was immersed in sterile seawater. Growth curve analysis and pathogenicity assay of V. harveyi  showed that each of the V. harveyi mutant exhibited almost identical profiles to that of the wild type parental strain and did not show alteration in their pathogenicity. Sample from dead shrimp larvae showed that the dead shrimp larvae were infected by V. harveyi RfR, indicated that rifampicin-resistant marker effective as a reporter to assay pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi in shrimp larvae. Key words: shrimp larvae, Vibrio harveyi, rifampicin-resistant, molecular marker

  11. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  12. Antioxidant Effect of Orange Peel Extract on Chemical Quality, Sensory Properties, and Black Spots of Farmed White Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Vakili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black spots are a major problem in commercial shrimp species and can have negative effects on shrimps' appearance, quality, shelf life, economic value, and product acceptance by consumers. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of orange peel extract on chemical and sensory qualities as well as black spots on Litopenaeus vannamei species of white farmed shrimp. Methods: Samples included treated shrimps at concentration of 150 g, orange peel extract for 30 minutes, and control shrimps. After storage for 10 days at 1 ± 4 °C, the samples’ chemical and sensory evaluations were performed with an interval of 5 days. Results: pH factors, peroxide value, and total volatile network (TVN of treated samples were significantly lower compared to those of the control samples (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the moisture content. Black spots did not appear in the treated sample until the end of refrigerated storage, but melanosis appeared in control shrimp 5 days after storage. Conclusion: The results showed that because of having antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, orange peel extract improved shrimps' chemical and sensory qualities and reduced their black spots in the refrigerator temperature.

  13. Exposure of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, to antimicrobial compounds affects associated Vibrio bacterial density and development of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, M E; Brooker, J; Chung, K W; Kelly, M; Martinez, J; Moore, J G; Thomas, M

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial compounds are widespread, emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment and may threaten ecosystem and human health. This study characterized effects of antimicrobial compounds common to human and veterinary medicine, aquaculture, and consumer personal care products [erythromycin (ERY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxytetracycline (OTC), and triclosan (TCS)] in the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on grass shrimp mortality and lipid peroxidation activity were measured. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on the bacterial community of the shrimp were then assessed by measuring Vibrio density and testing bacterial isolates for antibiotic resistance. TCS (0.33 mg/L) increased shrimp mortality by 37% and increased lipid peroxidation activity by 63%. A mixture of 0.33 mg/L TCS and 60 mg/L SMX caused a 47% increase in shrimp mortality and an 88% increase in lipid peroxidation activity. Exposure to SMX (30 mg/L or 60 mg/L) alone and to a mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC did not significantly affect shrimp survival or lipid peroxidation activity. Shrimp exposure to 0.33 mg/L TCS increased Vibrio density 350% as compared to the control whereas SMX, the SMX/TCS mixture, and the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC decreased Vibrio density 78-94%. Increased Vibrio antibiotic resistance was observed for all shrimp antimicrobial treatments except for the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC. Approximately 87% of grass shrimp Vibrio isolates displayed resistance to TCS in the control treatment suggesting a high level of TCS resistance in environmental Vibrio populations. The presence of TCS in coastal waters may preferentially increase the resistance and abundance of pathogenic bacteria. These results indicate the need for further study into the potential interactions between antimicrobials, aquatic organisms, and associated bacterial communities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cloning of skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family from adult pleopod muscle and whole larvae of shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Hiroki; Piyapattanakorn, Sanit; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-06-01

    The physiological and biological properties of skeletal muscle in crustacea have not been well understood compared with those of vertebrates. The present study focused on myosin, the major protein in skeletal muscle, from shrimps. In our previous study, two full-length genes encoding myosin heavy chain (MHC), a large subunit of the myosin molecule, were cloned from abdominal fast skeletal muscle of kuruma Marsupenaeus japonicus, black tiger Penaeus monodon and Pacific white Penaeus vannamei shrimps, and named as MHCa and MHCb. In this study, we renamed these as MHC1 and MHC2, respectively, due to the presence of various isoforms newly identified. Partial MHC sequences were identified from pleopod muscle of these shrimps. Two MHCs, named MHC3 and MHC4, were identified from pleopod muscle of kuruma shrimp, whereas two MHCs, named MHC4 and MHC5, were cloned from Pacific white shrimp pleopod. MHC3 was cloned only from black tiger shrimp pleopod. Partial MHC sequences from zoea, mysis, and postlarvae of black tiger and Pacific white shrimps were also determined. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that most MHCs from pleopod muscle and larval MHCs formed clades with MHC1 and MHC2, respectively. These MHCs were considered to be of fast type, since MHC1 and MHC2 are fast-type MHCs according to our previous study. MHC5 obtained from pleopod muscle of Pacific white shrimp in this study was monophyletic with American lobster Homarus americanus S2 slow tonic MHC previously reported, indicating that MHC5 from Pacific white shrimp is of slow type. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Decapoda, Caridea): Insight into the mitochondrial genetic basis of deep-sea hydrothermal vent adaptation in the shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao'e; Hui, Ming; Wang, Minxiao; Sha, Zhongli

    2018-03-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing. The mitogenome of S. leurokolos was 15,903bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. The gene order and orientation were identical to those of sequenced alvinocaridids. It has the longest concatenated sequences of protein-coding genes, tRNAs and shortest pooled rRNAs among the alvinocaridids. The control regions (CRs) of alvinocaridid were significantly longer (penergy metabolism to adapt to the hydrothermal environment. Phylogenetic analysis supported that the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps may have originated from those living in shallow area. Positive selection analysis reveals the evidence of adaptive change in the mitogenome of Alvinocarididae. Thirty potentially important adaptive residues were identified, which were located in atp6, cox1, cox3, cytb and nad1-5. This study explores the mitochondrial genetic basis of hydrothermal vent adaptation in alvinocaridid for the first time, and provides valuable clues regarding the adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Quality in the Processing of Low Salted and Fermented Shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Myung-Gon; Lee Cherl-Ho

    2000-01-01

    Irradiation technology was applied to develop low salted and fermented shrimp that has better sensory quality and a longer shelf-life without any food additives. Different levels of salt (10, 15, and 20%, w/w) were added to the salted and fermented shrimp and the samples were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy with a gamma source (Co-60). Proximate composition, salinity, water activity (a), pH, total bacterial count, and general acceptance were analyzed during fermentation at 15 degrees after irradiation. The proximate analysis, salinity, and a were not affected by gamma irradiation during fermentation. However, pH and total bacteria, as well as sensory evaluation, were changed variously with processing conditions such as sodium chloride concentration and irradiation dose. The combinations of 15% salt concentration with 10 kGy irradiation dose and 20% with 5 kGy or above were effective for shelf-life enhancement of the salted and fermented shrimp by adequate suppression of microorganisms during fermentation at 15 degrees. The results showed that the sensory quality of the sample was maintained up to 10 weeks after fermentation. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation was effective in processing low salted and fermented shrimp and extending their shelf-life without adding any food additives

  17. A review of the use of prebiotic in aquaculture for fish and shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, various means of altering the intestinal bacteria to achieve favorable effects such as better resistance to pathogens, enhancing growth and immune stimulation of the host organism have been investigated in various fish and shrimp. In this respect, probiotics and prebiotics are used in farm animal and for aquaculture, ...

  18. Marine palaemonoid shrimps of the Netherlands Seychelles Expedition 1992-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, C.H.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    An account is given of the palaemonoid shrimps collected during an expedition with R/V Tyro to the Seychelles. A total of 59 species is recorded of which two are new to science: Conchodytes pteriae and Jocaste platysoma. 25 species were not previously recorded from the Seychelles. A checklist of

  19. Molecular evidence for sequential colonization and taxon cycling in freshwater decapod shrimps on a Caribbean island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    Taxon cycling, i.e. sequential phases of expansions and contractions in species’ distributions associated with ecological or morphological shifts, are postulated to characterize dynamic biogeographic histories in various island faunas. The Caribbean freshwater shrimp assemblage is mostly widespread and sympatric throughout the region, although one species (Atyidae:...

  20. Is mealworm or shrimp allergy indicative for food allergy to insects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, H.C.H.P.; Knulst, A.C.; Jong, G. de; Gaspari, M.; Hartog Jager, C.F. den; Houben, G.F.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: The growing world population is a key driver for the exploration of sustainable protein sources to ensure food security. Mealworm and other insects are promising candidates. Previously we found that shrimp allergic patients are at risk for mealworm allergy, and that mealworm can induce a